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Sample records for mushrooms agaricus bisporus

  1. Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts using supplements of some locally available peats and their mixture with some secondary casing materials.

  2. Yield response of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... 1Mugla University, Faculty of Technical Education, Kotekli, 48000, Mugla, Turkey. 2Mugla University, Mushroom ..... Hayes WA, Shandilya TR (1977). Casing soil and compost substrates used in the artifical culture of Agaricus bisporus, the cultivated mushroom. Indian J. Mycol. Plant Pathol. 7: 5-10. Lambert ...

  3. Microbial ecology of the Agaricus bisporus mushroom cropping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Conor F

    2018-02-01

    Agaricus bisporus is the most widely cultivated mushroom species in the world. Cultivation is commenced by inoculating beds of semi-pasteurised composted organic substrate with a pure spawn of A. bisporus. The A. bisporus mycelium subsequently colonises the composted substrate by degrading the organic material to release nutrients. A layer of peat, often called "casing soil", is laid upon the surface of the composted substrate to induce the development of the mushroom crop and maintain compost environmental conditions. Extensive research has been conducted investigating the biochemistry and genetics of A. bisporus throughout the cultivation process; however, little is currently known about the wider microbial ecology that co-inhabits the composted substrate and casing layers. The compost and casing microbial communities are known to play important roles in the mushroom production process. Microbial species present in the compost and casing are known for (1) being an important source of nitrogen for the A. bisporus mycelium, (2) releasing sugar residues through the degradation of the wheat straw in the composted substrate, (3) playing a critical role in inducing development of the A. bisporus fruiting bodies and (4) acting as pathogens by parasitising the mushroom mycelium/crop. Despite a long history of research into the mushroom cropping process, an extensive review of the microbial communities present in the compost and casing has not as of yet been undertaken. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the literature investigating the compost and casing microbial communities throughout cultivation of the A. bisporus mushroom crop.

  4. Extension of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) shelf life by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.

    1994-01-01

    Fresh mushroom sporophores (Agaricus bisporus) were placed in trays and covered with PVC film. Forty-eight of the number of packs were irradiated by a γ-source with a dose of 3 kGy, and the remaining 24 treated as control packs. Both treated and control samples were subsequently stored at 10 ± 2°C and relative humidity of 94 ± 6%. After storage, mushrooms were subjected to quality assessments and taste panel-testing, both raw and when cooked. Irradiated sporophores had an extended shelf-life compared with control samples, with less browning and a delay in cap opening. Desiccation was slowed and stipe elongation reduced so that irradiated mushrooms were still acceptable for consumption 16 days after treatment. Deleterious effects of irradiation at this relatively low level were not observed

  5. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  6. Antioxidative and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Jakovljevic, D.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Partially purified polysaccharides were obtained from four medicinal mushroom species, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Phellinus linteus and Ganoderma lucidum by hot water extraction, followed by ethanol precipitation. The four samples contained varying amounts of both a- and ß-glucans as

  7. The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Champignon) and some environmental and health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as button mushroom, requires the use of substrates for its cultivation, such as chicken and/or horse manure and the application of manufacturing steps, such as storage and composting that produce odours. The odours may cause disturbance to people living near the plant and may be a problem for workers. This article examines some measures that can be taken to reduce the odorous emissions during the production of Agaricus bisporus. The possibility of recovery of some organic matter left from the cultivation is examined. Finally, some occupational hazards for workers are highlighted.

  8. The pathogenic fungi in mushroom cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange.) Imbach.

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Tekiela

    2012-01-01

    The research was conducted in a mushroom growing facility located near Rzeszów, consisting of three production cycles. The number and composition of microorganisms which accompany the mushroom cultivation depended on the healthiness of: the compost, casing and spawn of Agaricus bisporus. The presence of pathogenic fungi in the cultivation halls at the beginning of the production cycle is a serious threat to the cultivation of common mushroom because their rapid development shortens the span o...

  9. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour...

  10. Unraveling the mystery of commercial cultivation of Agaricus bisporus : plant biomass utilization and its effect on mushroom production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus, the white button mushroom, is economically the most important mushroom cultivated worldwide. Growth of A. bisporus needs a substrate produced by the composting of animal manure, wheat straw, gypsum, water and different additives. Therefore lignocellulose which is a complex mixture

  11. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuelle Morin; Annegret Kohler; Adam R. Baker; Marie Foulongne-Oriol; Vincent Lombard; Laszlo G. Nagy; Robin A. Ohm; Aleksandrina Patyshakuliyeva; Annick Brun; Andrea L. Aerts; Andrew M. Bailey; Christophe Billette; Pedro M. Coutinho; Greg Deakin; Harshavardhan Doddapaneni; Dimitrios Floudas; Jane Grimwood; Kristiina Hild& #233; n; Ursula K& #252; es; Kurt M. LaButti; Alla Lapidus; Erika A. Lindquist; Susan M. Lucas; Claude Murat; Robert W. Riley; Asaf A. Salamov; Jeremy Schmutz; Venkataramanan Subrananian; Han A.B. W& #246; sten; Jianping Xu; Daniel C. Eastwood; Gary D. Foster; Anton S.M. Sonnenberg; Daniel Cullen; Ronald P. de Vries; Taina Lundell; David S. Hibbett; Bernard Henrissat; Kerry S. Burton; Richard W. Kerrigan; Michael P. Challen; Igor V. Grigoriev; Francis Martin

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence,and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar...

  12. The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Champignon): micro-organisms and preservability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena; Panata, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms requires the use of substrates that are potentially dangerous from the microbiological point of view, such as chicken and horse manure. Microorganisms can pose risks to consumers and workers, and generate lower profits. Packaging of fresh mushrooms with impermeable films is used to extend their shelf life but creates anaerobic and humidity conditions that could favour the growth of microorganisms such as Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum. This paper examines some alternatives for packaging fresh mushrooms and the resulting potential microbiological hazards.

  13. The pathogenic fungi in mushroom cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange. Imbach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Tekiela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a mushroom growing facility located near Rzeszów, consisting of three production cycles. The number and composition of microorganisms which accompany the mushroom cultivation depended on the healthiness of: the compost, casing and spawn of Agaricus bisporus. The presence of pathogenic fungi in the cultivation halls at the beginning of the production cycle is a serious threat to the cultivation of common mushroom because their rapid development shortens the span of fruiting body harvests.

  14. Evaluation of indigenous potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) on Agaricus bisporus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarenejad, F; Yakhchali, B; Rasooli, I

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms such as Agaricus bisporus, are cultivated for food worldwide. Fruit body initiation in Agaricus bisporus is a phase change from the vegetative to the reproductive stage which depends on the presence of a casing layer with particular physical, chemical and microbiological properties. The phase change is achieved practically by environmental manipulation and the presence of naturally occurring bacteria such as Pseuodomonas putida. In this study, 274 individual bacterial isolates were collected by screening the casing layer of 14 edible mushroom farms. The isolates were analysed with respect to biochemical properties, organic and inorganic phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore and growth in the presence of volatile compound of 1-octen-3-ol. It was found that approximately 97% of the strains were able to grow in the presence of 1-octen-3-ol and 36% were able to solubilize phosphorus. Among the isolates, 23 strains were selected as potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) for inoculation of the casing layer. Field experiments using these strains showed various promoting effects on production of mushroom. Finally, 2 strains (strains Bt4 and Ps7) showing the highest increase in A. bisporus production, were characterized as Pseuodomonas putida by molecular methods and identified as the best suited growth promoting inoculants for application in production farms for increasing the mushroom yield.

  15. Growth performance of commercial temperate mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Hypsizygus sp. under local environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom

    2010-01-01

    To date, the Malaysian mushroom industry focuses on only seven species of mushroom for commercial purpose. To expand and further develop the mushroom industry, new mushroom species should be introduced into our local market. Temperate mushrooms are possible to be cultivated commercially in Malaysia but the optimisation of growth performance for high quality spawn and high mushroom yield need to be studied. In the present study the growth performance of mycelia of Agaricus bisporus and Hypsizygus sp. on culture media and substrates were investigated. Four types of culture media, viz. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Nutrient Agar (NA), Malt Yeast Extract (MYE) and Complete Yeast Media (CYM) were used to determine the suitable culturing media for mycelial growth. The mycelia were inoculated on oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and sawdust substrate and incubated at room temperature and in a low temperature in incubation room (10 - 12 degree Celsius). From the observation, Agaricus bisporus grew better on Malt Yeast Extract (MYE) medium with a growth rate of 0.306 cm/ day. Complete Yeast Media (CYM) was found more suitable for Hypsizygus sp. with a growth rate of 1.049 cm/ day. The linear growth rate of mycelium as measured on the surface of mushroom bag of Agaricus bisporus on EFB incubated at room temperature was 0.4364 cm/ day and cool temperature was 0.055 cm/ day. For Hypsizygus sp. the linear growth rate of the mycelium was 2.11 cm/ day. The linear growth of Hypsizygus sp. on sawdust substrate incubated in cool temperature was 1.4 cm/ day. (author)

  16. Total quality index of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms packed in modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djekic, Ilija; Vunduk, Jovana; Tomašević, Igor; Kozarski, Maja; Petrovic, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Pudja, Predrag; Klaus, Anita

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a total quality index and examine the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms stored for 22 days at 4 °C. Mushrooms were packaged under three MAPs: high nitrogen packaging (HNP), low carbon dioxide packaging (LCP) and low oxygen packaging (LOP). Passive MAP with air inside initially was used as the atmosphere treatment (AIR). This research revealed two phases in quality deterioration of A. bisporus mushrooms. During the first week, most of the quality parameters were not statistically different. Thereafter, odor intensities were stronger for all four types of packaging. Color difference and browning index values showed significantly lower color changes for AIR and LOP compared with HNP and LCP mushrooms. The best total quality index was calculated for LOP, followed by LCP and AIR. The findings of this study are useful with respect to examining two-component MAPs, separating the limiting factors (O 2 and CO 2 ) and evaluating quality deterioration effects and the total quality index of A. bisporus mushrooms. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Selected wild strains of Agaricus bisporus produce high yields of mushrooms at 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pilar; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    To cultivate the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus in warm countries or during summer in temperate countries, while saving energy, is a challenge that could be addressed by using the biological diversity of the species. The objective was to evaluate the yield potential of eight wild strains previously selected in small scale experiments for their ability to produce mature fruiting bodies at 25°C and above. Culture units of 8 kg of compost were used. The yield expressed as weight or number per surface unit and earliness of fruiting were recorded during cultivation in climatic rooms at 17, 25 or 30°C. Only strains of A. bisporus var. burnettii were able to fruit at 30°C. At 25°C they produced the highest yields (27 kg m(-2)) and had best earliness. The yields at 25°C for the strains of A. bisporus var. bisporus ranged from 12 to 16 kg m(-2). The yield ratios 25°C/17°C ranged from 0.8 to 1.2. The variety burnettii originated in the Sonoran Desert in California showed adaptation for quickly producing fruiting bodies at high temperature when humidity conditions were favorable. Strains of the variety bisporus showed interesting potentials for their ability to produce mature fruiting bodies at higher temperature than present cultivars and might be used in breeding programs. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Agaricus bisporus browning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolivet, S.; Arpin, N.; Wichers, H.J.; Pellon, G.

    1998-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus browning is a common and economically detrimental phenomenon, in which melanogenic phenols are enzymically processed into quinones, which evolve eventually to melanins. This review deals with the two fundamental sides of this process, enzyme(s) and phenolic substrates. Mushroom

  19. First report of Syzygites megalocarpus (Mucorales) web mold on the commercial portabella button mushroom Agaricus bisporus in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach mushrooms are cultivated commercially under environmentally controlled conditions in several states within the US. They are the most important crop in Pennsylvania and an important high value crop in many other states. In August 2011 we first observed a mucoraceous m...

  20. Effect of plasma activated water on the postharvest quality of button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingyin; Tian, Ying; Ma, Ruonan; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Jue

    2016-04-15

    Non-thermal plasma is a new approach to improving microbiological safety while maintaining the sensory attributes of the treated foods. Recent research has reported that plasma activated water (PAW) can also efficiently inactivate a wide variety of microorganisms. This study invested the effects of plasma-activated water soaking on the postharvest preservation of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) over seven days of storage at 20°C. Plasma activated water reduced the microbial counts by 1.5 log and 0.5 log for bacteria and fungi during storage, respectively. Furthermore, the corresponding physicochemical and biological properties were assessed between plasma activated water soaking groups and control groups. The results for firmness, respiration rate and relative electrical conductivity suggested that plasma activated water soaking can delay mushroom softening. Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in the color, pH, or antioxidant properties of A. bisporus treated with plasma activated water. Thus, plasma activated water soaking is a promising method for postharvest fresh-keeping of A. bisporus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G reactivity to Agaricus bisporus proteins in mushroom cultivation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Z; Hedayati, M T; Mahdian, S; Mayahi, S

    2015-06-01

    Although molds are regarded as the main fungal allergen sources, evidence indicates that spores of Basidiomycota including Agaricus bisporus ( A. bisporus ) can be also found at high concentrations in the environment and may cause as many respiratory allergies as molds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against A. bisporus via immunoblotting technique in individuals working at mushroom cultivation centers. In this study, 72 workers involved in the cultivation and harvest of button mushrooms were enrolled. For the analysis of serum IgE and IgG, A. bisporus grown in Sabouraud dextrose broth was harvested and ruptured by liquid nitrogen and glass beads. The obtained sample was centrifuged and the supernatant was collected as "crude extract" (CE). CE was separated via Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The separated proteins were transferred to a nitrocellulose filter and the bands responsive to IgE and IgG were identified by anti-human conjugated antibodies. All participants were screened in terms of total IgE level. Among 72 workers, 18 (25%) had a total IgE level higher than 188 IU/mL. In SDS-PAGE, the CE of A. bisporus showed 23 different protein bands with a molecular weight range of 13-80 kDa. The sera of 23.6% and 55.5% of participants showed positive response, with specific IgE and IgG antibodies against A. bisporus in the blot, respectively. The bands with molecular weights of 62 and 68 kDa were the most reactive protein components of A. bisporus to specific IgE antibodies. Moreover, bands with molecular weights of 57 and 62 kDa showed the highest reactivity to IgG, respectively. Also, 62 and 68 kDa components were the most reactive bands with both specific IgG and IgE antibodies. The obtained findings revealed that A. bisporus has different allergens and antigens, which contribute to its potential as an aeroallergen in hypersensitivity

  2. Failure of the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) to induce tumors in the A/J mouse lung tumor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied whether the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) or 4-(carboxy)phenylhydrazine (CP) induce lung adenomas in the A/J mouse lung tumor model. For 26 weeks female mice were fed a semisynthetic diet where 11 or 22% of the diet was replaced by freeze-dried mushrooms. The intake...... of the mushroom diets was equivalent to an intake of agaritine, the major phenylhydrazine derivative occurring in the mushroom, of 92 or 166 mg/kg body weight per day. The intake of CP was 106 mg/kg body weight per day. Neither the;freeze-dried mushroom nor CP induced statistically significant increased numbers...

  3. Efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms cultivation. Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Koc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The economical efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach SYLVAN 737 has been experimented in controlled weather conditions. It was found that the application of a 50 and 150 g•m-2 hydrogel dose is not economically proved due to the lack of harvest significant increase. In the cultivation of this particular variety of mushrooms, the optimal hydrogel dose should not be 100 g•m-2 of subsoil.

  4. Effects of preservation methods on amino acids and 5'-nucleotides of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Huang, Fan; Yang, Hong; Ibrahim, S A; Wang, Yan-Feng; Huang, Wen

    2014-04-15

    In this study, the proximate composition, free amino acids content and 5'-nucleotides in frozen, canned and salted Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) were investigated. We found that the three kinds of A. bisporus products were good sources of protein, with amount varying in the ranges of 16.54-24.35g/100g (dry weight). Freezing, canning and salting process, followed by 6months of storage led to a significant reduction in free amino acids, especially tyrosine, alanine, glutamine and cysteine. There were medium levels of MSG-like amino acids in frozen A. bisporus and canned A. bisporus, and low levels of MSG-like amino acids in salted A. bisporus. The mount of flavor 5'-nucleotides in frozen A. bisporus was higher than that of canned and salted A. bisporus. The present study thus suggests that freezing is beneficial for the preservation of A. bisporus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in packaged fresh mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fandos, E; Olarte, C; Giménez, M; Sanz, S; Simón, A

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Listeria monocytogenes to grow in mushrooms packaged in two different types of PVC films when stored at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C. Mushrooms were packed in two polymeric films (perforated and nonperforated PVC) and stored at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C. The carbon dioxide and oxygen content inside the packages, aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., Listeria monocytogenes, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, anaerobic spores and major sensory factors were determined. The mushrooms packaged in nonperforated film and stored at 4 degrees C had the most desirable quality parameters (texture, development stage and absence of moulds). Listeria monocytogenes was able to grow at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C in inoculated mushrooms packaged in perforated and nonperforated films between 1 and 2 log units during the first 48 h. After 10 d of storage, the populations of L. monocytogenes were higher in mushrooms packaged in nonperforated film and stored at 10 degrees C. MAP followed by storage at 4 degrees C or 10 degrees C extends the shelf life by maintaining an acceptable appearance, but allows the growth and survival of L. monocytogenes. According to this study additional hurdles must be studied in order to prevent the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation dose rate on microbiological and physical quality of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, M.; Lacroix, M.; Charbonneau, R.; Laberge, I.; Gagnon, M.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (2 kGy) and dose rate of irradiation (4.5 and 32.0 kGy/h) on increasing the shelf-life and some quality properties of the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated during storage at 15 deg C and 90% R.H. The retardation of mushroom growth and ageing by reduction of gamma irradiation dose rate (4.5 kGy) was observed by measurements of the cap opening, the stipe increase, the cap diameter, the weight loss and the color of the caps. The color was measured in order to evaluate the lightness with the L value measurement and the color changes were measured in terms of lightness, hue and chroma. The control of fungal and bacterial diseases were also evaluated. The irradiation of mushrooms at both dose rates of irradiation was found to be effective in lowering microorganism counts initially and throughout storage and increased the shelf-life by four days. This study also showed that mushrooms exposed to a lower dose rate (4.5 kGy/h) of irradiation preserve the whiteness and reduce the stripe increase of mushrooms during storage

  7. Shelf life extension of mushrooms (agaricus bisporus) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Kovacs, E.

    1980-01-01

    Fresh mushrooms were irradiated (0, 1.0, 2.5 kGy) and kept for 8 days at 287 K (14 deg C). The stored samples were studied for different quality parameters. It was observed that the growth rate was higher in the pileus than in the stipe portion of mushrooms. Veils started unstretching on the first day, and on the second day all were open in the control samples. An irradiation dose of 2.5 kGy strongly inhibited the veil opening throughout the storage period. Highly significant moisture loss occurred during storage. Irradiation significant reduced the weight loss after 2 days of storage. Highly significantly softening occurred in storage, but irradiation improved this condition. The irradiation dose of 2.5 kGy showed better results than 1.0 kGy. (author)

  8. Pancreas Protective Effect of Button Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (JE Lange) Imbach (Agaricomycetidae) Extract on Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Dia betes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamac, M.; Kanbak, G.; Zeytinoglu, M.; Senturk, H.; Bayramoglu, G.; Dokumacioglu, A.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we describe the effects of hot water extract of the culinary-medicinal button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, on the symptoms of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Sprague Dawley rats. A. bisporus extract at the doses of 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day were

  9. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h ( I-) and 32 kGy/h ( I+). Both I+ and I- showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control ( C). Before day 9, no significant difference ( p>0.05) in L* value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L* value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I-. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I- contained more phenols than I+ and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered ( p⩽0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I+. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I+, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly ( p⩽0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I- than in I+. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I+ was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I+ than in I-.

  10. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-01-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h (I - ) and 32 kGy/h (I + ). Both I + and I - showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control (C). Before day 9, no significant difference (p>0.05) in L * value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L * value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I - . Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I - contained more phenols than I + and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered (p≤0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I + . Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I + , contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly (p≤0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I - than in I + . It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I + was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I + than in I -

  11. Mathematical modelling of temperature effect on growth kinetics of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlak, Fatih; Ozdemir, Murat; Melikoglu, Mehmet

    2018-02-02

    The growth data of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) stored between 4 and 28°C were obtained and fitted to three different primary models, known as the modified Gompertz, logistic and Baranyi models. The goodness of fit of these models was compared by considering the mean squared error (MSE) and the coefficient of determination for nonlinear regression (pseudo-R 2 ). The Baranyi model yielded the lowest MSE and highest pseudo-R 2 values. Therefore, the Baranyi model was selected as the best primary model. Maximum specific growth rate (r max ) and lag phase duration (λ) obtained from the Baranyi model were fitted to secondary models namely, the Ratkowsky and Arrhenius models. High pseudo-R 2 and low MSE values indicated that the Arrhenius model has a high goodness of fit to determine the effect of temperature on r max . Observed number of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushrooms from independent experiments was compared with the predicted number of Pseudomonas spp. with the models used by considering the B f and A f values. The B f and A f values were found to be 0.974 and 1.036, respectively. The correlation between the observed and predicted number of Pseudomonas spp. was high. Mushroom spoilage was simulated as a function of temperature with the models used. The models used for Pseudomonas spp. growth can provide a fast and cost-effective alternative to traditional microbiological techniques to determine the effect of storage temperature on product shelf-life. The models can be used to evaluate the growth behaviour of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushroom, set limits for the quantitative detection of the microbial spoilage and assess product shelf-life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The fungistatic activity of organic selenium and its application to the production of cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savic Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of organic selenium against pathogenic molds and its use as a potential selenium source in the production of enriched mushrooms were examined. The effect of commercial selenized yeast on mycelia growth was examined using a method with mycelia disks and a well diffusion method. For mushroom enrichment, different concentrations of selenium were added to a growth substrate. The results presented in this paper suggest that the most suitable concentration of selenized yeast that inhibits the growth of the mycopathogenic molds is 70-100 mg/kg of selenium. With the addition of this concentration to the substrate, mushroom fruit bodies will uptake a high level of selenium, about 100 μg/g for Pleurotus spp., and 200 μg/g for Agaricus bisporus in dry weight of the mushroom. Thereby a double effect in the cultivation of mushrooms is achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 and br. III46001

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of the common edible mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, Maria E; Irazoqui, Fernando J; Lardone, Ricardo D; Nores, Gustavo A; Curtino, Juan A; Capaldi, Stefano; Perduca, Massimiliano; Monaco, Hugo L

    2004-04-01

    The lectin from the common edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus (ABL) belongs to the group of proteins that have the property of binding the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T-antigen) selectively and with high affinity, but does not show any sequence similarity to the other proteins that share this property. The ABL sequence is instead similar to those of members of the saline-soluble fungal lectins, a protein family with pesticidal properties. The presence of different isoforms has been reported. It has been found that in order to be able to grow diffraction-quality crystals of the lectin, it is essential to separate the isoforms, which was performed by preparative isoelectric focusing. Using standard procedures, it was possible to crystallize the most basic of the forms by either vapour diffusion or equilibrium dialysis, but attempts to grow crystals of the other more acidic forms were unsuccessful. The ABL crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 93.06, b = 98.16, c = 76.38 A, and diffract to a resolution of 2.2 A on a conventional source at room temperature. It is expected that the solution of this structure will yield further valuable information on the differences in the T-antigen-binding folds and will perhaps help to clarify the details of the ligand binding to the protein.

  14. Morphological and Pathogenic Characteristics of the Fungus Cladobotryum dendroides, the Causal Agent of Cobweb Disease of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Potočnik; Emil Rekanović; Svetlana Milijašević; Biljana Todorović; Miloš Stepanović

    2008-01-01

    Twenty isolates were isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from Serbian mushroom farms during 2003-2007. The isolates formed white, cottony, aerial colonies on agar media. With age, conidia and colonies turned yellow and redish. Pathogenicity of these isolates was confirmed by inoculation of harvested basidiomes of A. bisporus and by casing inoculation. Symptoms similar to natural infection were recorded. Based on pathogenicity tests and morphological character...

  15. New Germplasms of the Culinary-Medicinal Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Agaricomycetes): Two Wild Strains from the Tibetan Plateau (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin-Bin; Jiang, Si-Ping; Xu, Ai-Guo; Dorji, Phurbu; Wang, Wen-Jing; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Wei, Tie-Zheng; Zhang, Zu-Tang; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2017-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is one of the most important commercially cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms worldwide. In China, most of the cultivated strains of the fungus were introduced from other countries and cultivated in the eastern provinces. In this study, 2 wild strains of A. bisporus, 2091 and 2094, isolated from fresh specimens collected from the Tibetan Plateau, were domesticated and cultivated alongside a commercial hybrid strain, As2796, in Lhasa, China, for comparison in order to provide new germplasms for cultivation. Basic characteristics, mushroom yield, dry weight, polysaccharide contents, and antioxidant activities of the tested strains were analyzed. Compared with strain As2796, the 2 wild strains displayed good values for mycelial growth, time to fruiting, mushroom yield, dry weight, and polysaccharide contents, and their basidiomata had distinct morphological characteristics (e.g., brown or pale brown caps with some white scales). In addition, the antioxidant activities (reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging effect) of strain 2094 were significantly higher than those of the other 2 strains. Domestication of the 2 wild strains would add more genetic variation into the germplasm of A. bisporus for cultivation, especially in China, and might help to address the problem inherent to the nearly monoculture crop lacking genetic diversity in China.

  16. Cloning of a chitinase gene from Ewingella americana, a pathogen of the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Inglis

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated a gene encoding a chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 from Ewingella americana, a recently described pathogen of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. This gene, designated chiA (EMBL/Genbank/DDBJ accession number X90562, was cloned by expression screening of a plasmid-based E. americana HindIII genomic library in Escherichia coli using remazol brilliant violet-stained carboxymethylated chitin incorporated into selective medium. The chiA gene has a 918-bp ORF, terminated by a TAA codon, with a calculated polypeptide size of 33.2 kDa, likely corresponding to a previously purified and characterised 33-kDa endochitinase from E. americana. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 33% identity with chitinase II from Aeromonas sp. No. 10S-24 and 7.8% identity with a chitinase from Saccharopolyspora erythraeus. Homology to other chitinase sequences was otherwise low. The peptide sequence deduced from chiA lacks a typical N-terminal signal sequence and also lacks the chitin binding and type III fibronectin homology units common to many bacterial chitinases. The possibility that this chitinase is not primarily adapted for the environmental mineralisation of pre-formed chitin, but rather for the breakdown of nascent chitin, is discussed in the context of mushroom disease.O gene que codifica uma quitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 foi isolado de Ewingella americana, recentemente descrita como patógeno do cogumelo Agaricus bisporus. Este gene, denominado chiA (EMBL/Genebank/DDBJ número de acesso X9061, foi clonado e selecionado a partir de livraria genômica construída por digestão do DNA de E. americana com HindIII e ligação em plasmídio de expressão em E. coli, utilizando meio seletivo contendo quitina carboximetilada, corada com "remazol brilliant violet'' para seleção de clones. O gene chiA apresenta uma ORF de 918 bp, código terminador TAA, tendo o tamanho do polipeptídeo sido calculado como 33,2 kDa, o qual corresponde ao tamanho de 33 kDa da endoquitinase

  17. Crystal structure of Agaricus bisporus mushroom tyrosinase: identity of the tetramer subunits and interaction with tropolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaya, Wangsa T; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Weijn, Amrah; Mes, Jurriaan J; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Wichers, Harry J; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2011-06-21

    Tyrosinase catalyzes the conversion of phenolic compounds into their quinone derivatives, which are precursors for the formation of melanin, a ubiquitous pigment in living organisms. Because of its importance for browning reactions in the food industry, the tyrosinase from the mushroom Agaricus bisporus has been investigated in depth. In previous studies the tyrosinase enzyme complex was shown to be a H(2)L(2) tetramer, but no clues were obtained of the identities of the subunits, their mode of association, and the 3D structure of the complex. Here we unravel this tetramer at the molecular level. Its 2.3 Å resolution crystal structure is the first structure of the full fungal tyrosinase complex. The complex comprises two H subunits of ∼392 residues and two L subunits of ∼150 residues. The H subunit originates from the ppo3 gene and has a fold similar to other tyrosinases, but it is ∼100 residues larger. The L subunit appeared to be the product of orf239342 and has a lectin-like fold. The H subunit contains a binuclear copper-binding site in the deoxy-state, in which three histidine residues coordinate each copper ion. The side chains of these histidines have their orientation fixed by hydrogen bonds or, in the case of His85, by a thioether bridge with the side chain of Cys83. The specific tyrosinase inhibitor tropolone forms a pre-Michaelis complex with the enzyme. It binds near the binuclear copper site without directly coordinating the copper ions. The function of the ORF239342 subunits is not known. Carbohydrate binding sites identified in other lectins are not conserved in ORF239342, and the subunits are over 25 Å away from the active site, making a role in activity unlikely. The structures explain how calcium ions stabilize the tetrameric state of the enzyme.

  18. Mass transfer characteristics of bisporus mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) slices during convective hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Davoud; Baraani Dastjerdi, Mojtaba; Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    An accurate understanding of moisture transfer parameters, including moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient, is essential for efficient mass transfer analysis and to design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments. The main objective of the present study was to carry out an experimental and theoretical investigation of mushroom slices drying and determine the mass transfer characteristics of the samples dried under different conditions. The mushroom slices with two thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm were dried at air temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C and air flow rates of 1 and 1.5 m s-1. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the moisture transfer parameters and predict the drying curves. It was observed that the entire drying process took place in the falling drying rate period. The obtained lag factor and Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the samples was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective moisture diffusivity and the moisture transfer coefficient increased with increasing air temperature, air flow rate and samples thickness and varied in the ranges of 6.5175 × 10-10 to 1.6726 × 10-9 m2 s-1 and 2.7715 × 10-7 to 3.5512 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively. The validation of the Dincer and Dost model indicated a good capability of the model to describe the drying curves of the mushroom slices.

  19. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... Agaricus bisporus, is produced from wheat straw, straw- bedded horse .... mycelium (Type Horst U1) per kg then filled into plastic bags as 7 kg wet weight basis. ... a selective substrate environment for mushroom growing.

  20. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... Key words: Agaricus bisporus, wheat straw, waste tea leaves, wheat chaff, pin head formation, compost temperature .... kg then filled into plastic bags as 7 kg wet weight basis. ..... substrate environment for mushroom growing.

  1. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R.; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hilden, Kristiina; Kues, Ursula; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wosten, Han A. B.; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Foster, Gary D.; Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P.; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S.; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S.; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Challen, Michael P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Martin, Francis

    2012-04-27

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the button mushroom forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.

  2. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagy, Laszlo G; Ohm, Robin A; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L; Bailey, Andrew M; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hildén, Kristiina; Kües, Ursula; Labutti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lucas, Susan M; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W; Salamov, Asaf A; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wösten, Han A B; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C; Foster, Gary D; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S; Kerrigan, Richard W; Challen, Michael P; Grigoriev, Igor V; Martin, Francis

    2012-10-23

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.

  3. Crystal Structure of Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Tyrosinase : Identity of the Tetramer Subunits and Interaction with Tropolone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismaya, Wangsa T.; Rozeboom, Henriette J.; Weijn, Amrah; Mes, Jurriaan J.; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Wichers, Harry J.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosinase catalyzes the conversion of phenolic compounds into their quinone derivatives, which are precursors for the formation of melanin, a ubiquitous pigment in living organisms. Because of its importance for browning reactions in the food industry, the tyrosinase from the mushroom Agaricus

  4. Crystal Structure of Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Tyrosinase: Identity of the Tetramer Subunits and Interaction with Tropolone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismaya, W.T.; Rozeboom, H.J.; Weijn, A.; Mes, J.J.; Fusetti, F.; Wichers, H.J.; Dijkstra, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosinase catalyzes the conversion of phenolic compounds into their quinone derivatives, which are precursors for the formation of melanin, a ubiquitous pigment in living organisms. Because of its importance for browning reactions in the food industry, the tyrosinase from the mushroom Agaricus

  5. DETERIORATION AND SOME OF APPLIED PRESERVATION TECHNIQUES FOR COMMON MUSHROOMS (AGARICUS BISPORUS, FOLLOWED BY LENTINUS EDODES, PLEUROTUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Akbarirad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are consider as a nutritional and health beneficial product. Three most cultivated mushrooms worldwide are Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus spp. Mushrooms are highly perishable. They tend to lose quality after harvest, mainly because of their high respiration rate and the fact that they have no barrier to protect them from water loss. Mushrooms’ shelf-life is limited to a few days under normal refrigeration conditions, which is a constraint on the distribution and marketing of fresh product, making extension of mushroom’s shelf life a constant quest. Modified atmosphere packaging provides an affordable packaging system that partly avoids enzymatic browning, fermentation and other biochemical processes by maintaining a controlled gas atmosphere. However, modified atmosphere packaging conditions should be carefully designed. Inappropriate modified atmosphere conditions may be ineffective or even shorten the shelf life of the product due to damage of tissues. Preservation techniques and specially use of MAP, specifically for Agaricus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus, is reviewed.

  6. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R.; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagye, Laszlo G.; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hildén, Kristiina; Kües, Ursula; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wösten, Han A. B.; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Foster, Gary D.; Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P.; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S.; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S.; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Challen, Michael P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the “button mushroom” forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics. PMID:23045686

  7. Effects of Some Beneficial Bacteria in Casing Soil on Growth and Yield of Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çetin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the interaction between some bacteria naturally existing in casing soil and Agaricus bisporus (Sylvan Hauser A15 hypha in laboratory (in vitro and cultivation (in vivo conditions, and to confirm its effects on mushroom yield. Totally 32 bacteria (3 Gram (+ and 29 Fluorescent Pseudomonads was isolated from casing soil and healthy sporophores. As a result of in vitro experiment carried out to determine the effects of bacteria on mycelium growth of A. bisporus, 24 bacterial isolates were found more effective at the rate of 2 to 115% than control treatment. To determine the effects of bacterium, chosen at the end of in vitro experiments, on mushroom yield in cultivation conditions, three experiments were established in March, May and July in 2008. At the end of experiments, bacterial isolates provided 8 – 40 % increase in total yield. Population density and change in population number related to time was observed during growing period, after the inoculation of bacterial isolates into casing soil. According to the results, Pseudomonas fluorescens (T 4/2 and Ş 8, P.putida (Ş 2/1 and Ş 10 and Bacillus mycoides (T 7/2 bacterial isolates were colonized successfully both in casing soil and sporophores.

  8. Relative Numbers of Certain Microbial Groups Present in Compost Used for Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, C.

    1970-01-01

    The relative numbers of microorganisms associated with compost during mushroom production were studied by the dilution plate method. Thermophilic actinomycetes and fungi were isolated with a very high frequency early in the growing season. Although numbers of thermophilic bacteria diminished slowly during the season, the thermophilic fungi and actinomycetes diminished rapidly with the latter disappearing after 6 weeks. Mesophilic fungi other than Agaricus or Trichoderma remained relatively stable throughout the growing period. Agaricus could be isolated between the first and third break. Trichoderma became dominant after the fourth break. The mesophilic bacterial counts diminished during the most productive portion of the mushroom cropping season and then increased to much higher numbers toward the end of the season. PMID:5529631

  9. HPLC detection of soluble carbohydrates involved in mannitol and trehalose metabolism in the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannet, W J; Hermans, J H; van Der Drift, C; Op Den Camp, H J

    2000-02-01

    A convenient and sensitive method was developed to separate and detect various types of carbohydrates (polyols, mono- and disaccharides, and phosphorylated sugars) simultaneously using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The method consists of a chromatographic separation on a CarboPac PA1 anion-exchange analytical column followed by pulsed amperometric detection. In a single run (43 min) 13 carbohydrates were readily resolved. Calibration plots were linear over the ranges of 5-25 microM to 1. 0-1.5 mM. The reliable and fast analysis technique, avoiding derivatization steps and long run times, was used to determine the levels of carbohydrates involved in mannitol and trehalose metabolism in the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Moreover, the method was used to study the trehalose phosphorylase reaction.

  10. Microbial biomass in compost during colonization of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Aurin M.; Heijboer, Amber; Boschker, Henricus T.S.; Bonnet, Barbara; Lugones, Luis G.; Wösten, Han A.B.

    2017-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus mushrooms are commercially produced on a microbe rich compost. Here, fungal and bacterial biomass was quantified in compost with and without colonization by A. bisporus. Chitin content, indicative of total fungal biomass, increased during a 26-day period from 576 to 779 nmol

  11. Morphological and Pathogenic Characteristics of the Fungus Cladobotryum dendroides, the Causal Agent of Cobweb Disease of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty isolates were isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from Serbian mushroom farms during 2003-2007. The isolates formed white, cottony, aerial colonies on agar media. With age, conidia and colonies turned yellow and redish.Pathogenicity of these isolates was confirmed by inoculation of harvested basidiomes of A. bisporus and by casing inoculation. Symptoms similar to natural infection were recorded. Based on pathogenicity tests and morphological characteristics, the isolates were identified as Cladobotryum dendroides (Bulliard : Fries W. Gams & Hoozemans.

  12. Nucleus-specific expression in the multinuclear mushroom-forming fungus Agaricus bisporus reveals different nuclear regulatory programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F; Ohm, Robin A; Vos, Aurin M; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Baars, Johan J P; Wösten, Han A B; Reinders, Marcel J T; Abeel, Thomas

    2018-04-24

    Many fungi are polykaryotic, containing multiple nuclei per cell. In the case of heterokaryons, there are different nuclear types within a single cell. It is unknown what the different nuclear types contribute in terms of mRNA expression levels in fungal heterokaryons. Each cell of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus contains two to 25 nuclei of two nuclear types originating from two parental strains. Using RNA-sequencing data, we assess the differential mRNA contribution of individual nuclear types and its functional impact. We studied differential expression between genes of the two nuclear types, P1 and P2, throughout mushroom development in various tissue types. P1 and P2 produced specific mRNA profiles that changed through mushroom development. Differential regulation occurred at the gene level, rather than at the locus, chromosomal, or nuclear level. P1 dominated mRNA production throughout development, and P2 showed more differentially up-regulated genes in important functional groups. In the vegetative mycelium, P2 up-regulated almost threefold more metabolism genes and carbohydrate active enzymes (cazymes) than P1, suggesting phenotypic differences in growth. We identified widespread transcriptomic variation between the nuclear types of A. bisporus Our method enables studying nucleus-specific expression, which likely influences the phenotype of a fungus in a polykaryotic stage. Our findings have a wider impact to better understand gene regulation in fungi in a heterokaryotic state. This work provides insight into the transcriptomic variation introduced by genomic nuclear separation. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  13. Impact of a native Streptomyces flavovirens from mushroom compost on green mold control and yield of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantrić, Ljiljana; Potočnik, Ivana; Radivojević, Ljiljana; Umiljendić, Jelena Gajić; Rekanović, Emil; Duduk, Bojan; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2018-05-18

    Thirty-five actinobacterial isolates, obtained from button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrates (i.e., compost in different phases of composting, black peat or casing layer) in Serbia in 2014-2016 were tested in vitro against the causal agents of green mold in cultivated mushroom. Out of six most promising isolates, A06 induced 42.4% in vitro growth inhibition of Trichoderma harzianum T54, and 27.6% inhibition of T. aggressivum f. europaeum T77. The novel strain A06 was identified as Streptomyces flavovirens based on macroscopic and cultural characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence and used in mushroom growing room experiments. Actinobacteria had no negative influence on mycelial growth of the cultivated mushroom in compost in situ. Isolate S. flavovirens A06 enhanced mushroom yield significantly, up to 31.5%. The A06 isolate was more efficient in enhancing yield after inoculation with the compost mold T. aggressivum (26.1%), compared to casing mold T. harzianum (8%). Considering disease incidence, actinobacteria significantly prevented green mold in compost caused by T. aggressivum (6.8%). However, fungicide prochloraz-Mn had a more significant role in reducing symptoms of casing mold, T. harzianum, in comparison with actinobacteria (24.2 and 11.8%, respectively). No significant differences between efficacies of S. flavovirens A06 and the fungicide prochloraz-Mn against T. aggressivum were revealed. These results imply that S. flavovirens A06 can be used to increase mushroom yield and contribute to disease control against the aggressive compost green mold disease caused by Trichoderma aggressivum.

  14. The effect of process parameters and microstructural changes on a new convenience food - quick-frozen paste-coated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su-Wen; Chang, Xue-Dong; Liu, Xiu-Feng; Jiang, Wen-Hong; Ma, Xiao-Feng

    2015-03-01

    The technology of quick-freezing paste-coated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was studied and optimized. The best microwave pretreatment condition for 1 cm slices, regarding color protection, was 5.4 W/g, for 55, 55-60 and 60 s for mushrooms with 3, 4 and 5 cm diameter caps respectively. For a batch of paste (668.2-1034.6 g), the process parameters considered were oil content (46.6-63.4 g), water content (381-562.6 g) and flour content (166-334 g) with a constant additional content of 30 g starch, 9 g baking powder, 2.6 g carrageenan, 30 g salt and 3 g pepper. These parameters were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite design. The optimal levels of the major paste components were 300 g flour, 432.5 g water and 50 g oil. The freezing time and sensory acceptability for paste-coated Agaricus bisporus(PCAB) under the optimized conditions were 7.49 min and 6.2 respectively. The freezing curves of PCAB were established at different temperatures and the freezing rates were calculated to find the freezing characteristics. In addition, the cell structure of PCAB, frozen at -75 °C, the lowest freezing temperature, and studied using transmission electron microscopy, was similar in quality to that of fresh Agaricus bisporus. The results suggested that Agaricus bisporus can be quick-frozen with a paste coating to produce an acceptable and nutritious convenience food.

  15. Protective effects of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus against hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized mice as a model of postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Kanaya

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM, Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX mice (a model of postmenopausal women. OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6, were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women.

  16. Serum immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G reactivity to Agaricus bisporus proteins in mushroom cultivation workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khakzad

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The obtained findings revealed that A. bisporus has different allergens and antigens, which contribute to its potential as an aeroallergen in hypersensitivity-related reactions of the lungs.

  17. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A.brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product – natural preservatives in yoghurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojkovic, D.S.; Reis, F.S.; Glamoclija, J.; Ciric, A.; Barros, L.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Sokovic, M.

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic

  18. Agaricus bisporus genome sequence: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Richard W; Challen, Michael P; Burton, Kerry S

    2013-06-01

    The genomes of two isolates of Agaricus bisporus have been sequenced recently. This soil-inhabiting fungus has a wide geographical distribution in nature and it is also cultivated in an industrialized indoor process ($4.7bn annual worldwide value) to produce edible mushrooms. Previously this lignocellulosic fungus has resisted precise econutritional classification, i.e. into white- or brown-rot decomposers. The generation of the genome sequence and transcriptomic analyses has revealed a new classification, 'humicolous', for species adapted to grow in humic-rich, partially decomposed leaf material. The Agaricus biporus genomes contain a collection of polysaccharide and lignin-degrading genes and more interestingly an expanded number of genes (relative to other lignocellulosic fungi) that enhance degradation of lignin derivatives, i.e. heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases. A motif that is hypothesized to be a promoter element in the humicolous adaptation suite is present in a large number of genes specifically up-regulated when the mycelium is grown on humic-rich substrate. The genome sequence of A. bisporus offers a platform to explore fungal biology in carbon-rich soil environments and terrestrial cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Edible mushroom powder (Agaricus bisporus) and flavophospholipol improve performance and blood parameters of broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsi, Sepideh; Seidavi, Alireza; Rahati, Maliheh; G Nieto, José Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Background: flavophospholipol is an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP). The current ban of AGP in some countries is controversial because their benefits on the environment and economy by saving feed and reducing nitrogen excretion have been overlooked. White button mushrooms have important nutritional properties and the industry discards large quantities of waste that could be fed to animals. Objective: to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of five levels of edible mushroom powder (EMP) a...

  20. Effect of Different Packaging Films on Storability of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aminzadeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The button mushroom is rich food full of nutrient but compared with other fruits and vegetables, mushroom has a higher respiration rate and due to the lack of protective layer to prevent water loss, decay occurs quickly. It seems that suitable coating film is the one way for increase the storage life of mushroom. Therefore present research was carried out as split plot design in farme of CRD to find the best coating film in order to increase the storage life. In this research, the treatments were: control (package with Selefon, Poly Ethylene (PE with 40 and 65 micron thickness, Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP with 25, 35 and 40 micron thickness, Cast PolyPropylen (CPP with 25 and 40 micron thickness, Poly Ester (PET with 12 and 24 micron thickness and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC with 30 micron thickness. The samples were estimated after 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days storage at 1°C and 90 % RH in 3 replications. The results showed that the types of plastic coating had significant effects on all measured characteristics as campared to that of control. Highest firmness value, Soluble Solid Content (SSC, titratable acidity, acidity (pH, and lowest weight less and decay were observed in packet mushroom with the coating film: BOPP and CPP and the lowest amounts were observed in the mushroom packed with control, PVC, PET and PE films. The effects of time on all of the measured during the storage period, were significant too.

  1. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts and locally available casing materials Part III: Dry matter, protein, and carbohydrate contents of Agaricus bisporus.

  2. Evaluation of Mycelium Growth Rate and Yield of White Button Mushroom Isolates (Agaricus bisporus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Ahmadi Lahijani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among edible mushrooms, white button mushroom is the most cultivated one around the world. Mono-spores diversity in terms of growth rate, colony type, yield and etc. is used for intra strain genetic improvement. High yielding isolates with filamentous mycelium type are screened and used for spawn production (Farsi and Gordan, 2002. Success in mushroom production largely depends on the quality of spawn produced in sterile conditions (Sanchez, 2010. Farsi and Gordan, (2004 reported that colony shape and mycelium growth type are very important factors in screening isolates in terms of mycelium growth rate and yield. To screen isolates based on their mycelium growth, solid media are among the most suitable ones (Griffin, 1994. In a study conducted to evaluate mycelium growth rate of six Morchella species on different media, PDA and MEA were known as the best ones (Kalmis and Kalyoncu, 2008. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate mycelium growth rate and yield of white button mushroom isolates in solid medium, spawn and compost media. Materials and methods: Eighteen isolates of white button mushroom were compared on PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar, CYM (Complete Yeast Medium, spawn and compost media based on mycelium growth rate, type and class growth and yield at the mushroom research center of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2014. A piece of mycelium of each isolate was placed in the center of each petri dish and was kept in 23±1°C, and the radial growth rate of mycelium was measured as two perpendicular diameters in three consecutive weeks. Mycelium growth rate on spawn and compost media was measured based on the percentage of surface coverage during the 15 consecutive days. Yield of each isolate was measured by daily harvesting of mushrooms during 35 days of experiment. Analysis of variance and means comparison of the variables were carried out using SAS software. Means analysis was performed

  3. Application of Tragacanth gum impregnated with Satureja khuzistanica essential oil as a natural coating for enhancement of postharvest quality and shelf life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, M; Barzegar, M; Sahari, M A; Niakousari, M

    2018-01-01

    The effect of Tragacanth gum (TG) coating incorporated with 100, 500 and 1000ppm Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SEO) on the postharvest quality and shelf life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stored at 4±1°C for 16days was investigated. Weight loss, firmness, browning index (BI), total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial and sensory quality were measured. The results indicated that treatment with TG containing SEO (TGSEO) maintained 92.4% tissue firmness, and reduced microorganism counts, such as yeasts and molds and Pseudomonas, compared to uncoated samples. Furthermore, mushrooms treated with TGSEO coating exhibited up to 57.1% decreased in BI, significantly higher levels of total phenolics (85.6%) and ascorbic acid accumulation (71.8%) than control and its efficiency was better than that TG coating alone. Sensory evaluation demonstrated the capability of TGSEO coating for preserving the quality of mushroom during the storage. The results obtained endorse that application of TGSEO coating might be a simple and effective technique for prolonging their postharvest shelf life of mushroom by up to 16days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant potential properties of mushroom extract (Agaricus bisporus) against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Guizani, Nejib

    2014-09-01

    Aluminum (Al) is an environmental toxin that induces oxidative stress in neuronal cells. Mushroom cultivar extract (MCE) acted as a potent antioxidant agent and protects against cellular oxidative stress in human cultured neuronal cells. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of MCE against Al-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 rats per group), control group, MCE-fed group, Al-administered group and MCE/Al-treated group. Animals were continuously fed ad-libitum their specific diets for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed and the brain tissues were homogenized and examined for biochemical measurements of neurocellular oxidative stress indices [glutathione (GSH), Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), antioxidant enzymes and oxidized dichlorofluorescein (DCF)]. Al-administration caused inhibition of antioxidant enzymes and a significant decrease in GSH and TAC levels, meanwhile it positively increased cellular oxidized DCF level, as well as Al concentration in brain tissues. Feeding animals with MCE had completely offset the Al-induced oxidative stress and significantly restrict the Al accumulation in brain tissues of Al-administered rats. The results obtained suggest that MCE acted as a potent dietary antioxidant and protects against Al-mediated neurotoxicity, by abrogating neuronal oxidative stress.

  5. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from

  6. Uncovering the abilities of Agaricus bisporus to degrade plant biomass throughout its life cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Post, H.; Zhou, M.; Jurak, E.; Heck, A.J.R.; Hilden, K.S.; Kabel, M.A.; Makela, M.R.; Altenaar, M.A.F.; Vries, de R.P.

    2015-01-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest litter and con-tributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in plant biomass.

  7. Fate of lignin and substituted xylan during commercial cultivation of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, Mirjam; Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; de Vries, Ronald; Gruppen, Harry; Baars, Johan; Sonnenberg, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Wheat straw based compost is the substrate for commercial growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, but it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized during commercial cultivation. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major

  8. High molecular weight glucan of the culinary medicinal mushroom Agaricus bisporus is an a-glucan that forms complexes with low molecular weight galactan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smiderle, F.; Sassaki, G.L.; Arkel, van J.; Lacomini, M.; Wichers, H.J.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    An a-glucan was isolated from the culinary medicinal mushroom A. bisporus by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The resulting material showed a single HMW peak excluded from a Sephadex G50 column that could completely be degraded by a-amylase treatment.

  9. Breeding for quality of button mushrooms: genetically dissecting bruising sensitivity and quality-related traits of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, W.

    2014-01-01

    The present-day cultivars of button mushroom are too sensitive to mechanical damage. Consequently, mushrooms for the fresh market are still handpicked, which is a main cost factor for the Dutch mushroom industry. The main objective of this thesis is to use the phenotypic variation and

  10. Increase of vitamin D2 by UV-B exposure during the growth phase of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hanne; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mushrooms are the only non-animal food source of vitamin D. Wild mushrooms have naturally high vitamin D2 content, and cultivated mushrooms produce vitamin D2 from ergosterol when exposed to supplementary UV-B during the post-harvest phase. Objectives: This study investigated...... with exposure to supplementary UV-B just prior to harvest in the range of 0-2,400 mJ cm-2. Mushrooms grew for 2 days with or without repeated UV-B exposure each day. Vitamin D2 and growth rate were determined. Some mushrooms were post-harvest treated by exposure at 200 mJ cm-2 supplementary UV-B or natural...... sunlight, prior to vitamin D2 determination. Results: The content of vitamin D2 was 0.2-164 µg 100 g-1 fresh weight (FW), and there was a linear relationship between UV-dose up to 1,000 mJ cm-2 and vitamin D2 content. The fast growth rate of the mushrooms diluted the vitamin D2 from 24 to 3 µg 100 g-1...

  11. Increase of vitamin D2 by UV-B exposure during the growth phase of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne L. Kristensen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mushrooms are the only non-animal food source of vitamin D. Wild mushrooms have naturally high vitamin D2 content, and cultivated mushrooms produce vitamin D2 from ergosterol when exposed to supplementary UV-B during the post-harvest phase.Objectives: This study investigated the effects of providing supplementary UV-B during the growth phase on vitamin D2 formation and the interactions with growth of mushrooms, as compared to supplementary UV-B during the post-harvest phase or exposure to sunlight for both cultivated and wild mushrooms.Methods: Experiments were carried out with exposure to supplementary UV-B just prior to harvest in the range of 0–2,400 mJ cm−2. Mushrooms grew for 2 days with or without repeated UV-B exposure each day. Vitamin D2 and growth rate were determined. In addition, some mushrooms were post-harvest treated by exposure at 200 mJ cm−2 supplementary UV-B or natural sunlight, prior to vitamin D2 determination.Results: The content of vitamin D2 was 0.2–164 µg 100 g−1 fresh weight, and there was a linear relationship between UV-dose up to 1,000 mJ cm−2 and vitamin D2 content. The fast growth rate of the mushrooms diluted the vitamin D2 from 24 to 3 µg 100 g−1 within 2 days of exposure at 200 mJ cm−2. Following repeated UV-B exposure, vitamin D2 increased to 33 µg vitamin D2 100 g−1. Growth was unaffected by UV-B. Post-harvest exposure to supplementary UV-B resulted in a higher vitamin D2 content of 32 µg 100 g−1 compared to the 24 µg 100 g−1 obtained from exposure to UV-B during the growth phase. In contrast, wild and cultivated mushrooms with and without exposure to sunlight had vitamin D2 content in the range of 0.2–1.5 µg vitamin D2 100 g−1.Conclusions: This study showed that mushrooms with a well-defined content of vitamin D2 can be obtained by exposure to supplementary UV-B just prior to harvest.

  12. Carbohydrate utilization and metabolism is highly differentiated in Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A; Jurak, E.; Kohler, A.; Baker, A.; Battaglia, E.; de Bruijn, W.; Burton, K.S.; Challen, M.P.; Coutinho, P.M.; Eastwood, D.C.; Gruben, B.S.; Makela, M.R.; Martin, F.; Nadal, M.; van den Brink, J.; Wiebenga, A.; Zhou, M.; Henrissat, B.; Kabel, M.; Gruppen, H.; de Vries, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown on compost, in which the available carbon sources consist mainly of plant-derived polysaccharides that are built out of various different constituent monosaccharides. The major constituent monosaccharides of these polysaccharides are glucose,

  13. Carbohydrate utilization and metabolism is highly differentiated in Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Jurak, E.; Kohler, A.; Baker, A.; Battaglia, E.; Bruijn, de W.; Burton, K.S.; Challen, M.P.; Cuotinho, P.M.; Eastwood, D.C.; Gruben, B.S.; Makela, M.R.; Martin, F.; Nadal, M.; Brink, van den J.; Wiebenga, A.; Zhou, M.; Henrissat, B.; Kabel, M.A.; Gruppen, H.; Vries, de R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown on compost, in which the available carbon sources consist mainly of plant-derived polysaccharides that are built out of various different constituent monosaccharides. The major constituent monosaccharides of these polysaccharides are glucose,

  14. Purification of polluted water with spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrate: from agricultural waste to biosorbent of phenanthrene, Cd and Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, C; Alonso-Izquierdo, M; González-Izquierdo, M; Yunta, F; Eymar, E

    2017-07-01

    The present research was aimed to (i) report the recycling of spent A. bisporus substrate (SAS) to remove heavy metals (Cd and Pb) and phenanthrene (Phe) from polluted water and (ii) assess the possibility to use the treated water for irrigation. Batch experiments were carried out to assess, firstly, the effect of interaction time between pollutants with SAS and, secondly, the pH of the polluted water. Then a biofilter was designed by using pressurized glass columns. Chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity and content of Pb, Cd, Phe, nutrients (NPK) and Cl - were determined. Equilibrium for contaminants was quickly reached (1-2 h). The pH of the polluted water was the key factor for pollutants' adsorption. The polluted water's pH was increased after biofilter interaction. Phe was not detected in any fraction. Pb and Cd sorption rates were higher than 99%. The pollutant concentrations were within the permitted range to be used for agriculture purposes. Purified water showed significant concentrations of NPK, indicating its potential use as fertilizer. The SAS shows potential to be used as Phe, Pb and Cd biosorbent and the resulting treated water can be used for irrigation according to pollutant contents and agronomical evaluation.

  15. Biomethane digestate from horse manure, a new waste usable in compost for growing the button mushroom , Agaricus bisporus ?

    OpenAIRE

    Savoie, Jean-Michel; Vedier, R.; Blanc, Frederic; Minvielle, Nathalie; Rousseaut, T.; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is a direct utilization of their ecological role of organic matter degradation in the bioconversion of solid wastes generated from industry and agriculture into edible biomass, which could also be regarded as a functional food or as a source of drugs and pharmaceuticals. Significant changes are expected in the integrated management of wastes streams in the future due to the use of plant biomass for biofuel and energy production and other non-food crops. On the one ...

  16. Fungicide resistance among Cladobotryum spp. – causal agents of cobweb disease of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Helen M.; Gaze, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of fungicide resistance among isolates of the mushroom pathogens Cladobotryum mycophilum and C. dendroides Types I and II was undertaken, with respect to the active ingredients thiabendazole, carbendazim (benzimidazoles) and prochloraz manganese following an epidemic in Britain and Ireland in 1994/95. The majority of isolates (41/57) were strongly resistant to thiabendazole (ED50 > 200 ppm) and were exclusively C. dendroides Type II. All C. mycophilum and C. dendroides Type I isolate...

  17. Evaluation of casing materials made from spent mushroom substrate and coconut fibre pith for use in production of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Pardo-Gonzalez, J. E.

    2008-07-01

    The agronomic performance of different proportions of mixtures of coconut fibre (CF) pith and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was studied for their use as casing material in mushroom cultivation. After chemical and biological characterisation of the casing substrates qualitative and quantitative production parameters were evaluated in a cycle of Agaricus production. An increase in the proportion of SMS reduced the number of carpophores and overall yield; while the first flush was delayed, mushroom size tended to increase and the mushrooms had a higher dry matter content and a better texture, although their colour was worse. Combinations of CF pith and SMS of 4:1 and 3:2 (v/v) gave biological efficiencies of 92.9 and 82.6 kg 100 kg-1 compost, respectively. These values compare well with that obtained from the commercial casings used as a control. The high electrical conductivity of the mixture containing the highest proportion of SMS would limit its use. However, the results indicate the viability of reusing SMS as an ingredient of casing material for mushroom cultivation. This alternative could be considered to partially replace the organic substrates normally used for mushroom cultivation, with the double advantage of decreasing cost and reducing the environmental impact of waste disposal. Additional key words: alternative casing, compost reuse, mushroom cultivation. (Author) 31 refs.

  18. Implications of polluted soil biostimulation and bioaugmentation with spent mushroom substrate (Agaricus bisporus) on the microbial community and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, Carlos; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Pesciaroli, Lorena; Yunta, Felipe; Crognale, Silvia; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    Different applications of spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS), a widespread agro-industrial waste, were investigated with respect to the remediation of a historically polluted soil with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH). In one treatment, the waste was sterilized (SSAS) prior to its application in order to assess its ability to biostimulate, as an organic amendment, the resident soil microbiota and ensuing contaminant degradation. For the other treatments, two bioaugmentation approaches were investigated; the first involved the use of the waste itself and thus implied the application of A. bisporus and the inherent microbiota of the waste. In the second treatment, SAS was sterilized and inoculated again with the fungus to assess its ability to act as a fungal carrier. All these treatments were compared with natural attenuation in terms of their impact on soil heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacteria, fungal growth, biodiversity of soil microbiota and ability to affect PAH bioavailability and ensuing degradation and detoxification. Results clearly showed that historically PAH contaminated soil was not amenable to natural attenuation. Conversely, the addition of sterilized spent A. bisporus substrate to the soil stimulated resident soil bacteria with ensuing high removals of 3-ring PAH. Both augmentation treatments were more effective in removing highly condensed PAH, some of which known to possess a significant carcinogenic activity. Regardless of the mode of application, the present results strongly support the adequacy of SAS for environmental remediation purposes and open the way to an attractive recycling option of this waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The physiology of Agaricus bisporus in semi-commercial compost cultivation appears to be highly conserved among unrelated isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontes, María Victoria Aguilar; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Post, Harm; Jurak, Edita; Hildén, Kristiina; Altelaar, Maarten; Heck, Albert; Kabel, Mirjam A; de Vries, Ronald P; Mäkelä, Miia R

    2017-01-01

    The white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is one of the most widely produced edible fungus with a great economical value. Its commercial cultivation process is often performed on wheat straw and animal manure based compost that mainly contains lignocellulosic material as a source of carbon and

  20. Lignin degradation by Agaricus bisporus accounts for a 30% increase in bioavailable holocellulose during cultivation on compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, Ten R.; Wijngaard, H.; Aries - Kronenburg, N.A.E.; Straatsma, G.; Schaap, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The common mushroom Agaricus bisporus is a non-white rot saphrophytic fungus that can degrade lignin to free and utilize holocellulose embedded in fermented straw as present in compost. A new method is described to estimate the actual amount of bioavailable holocellulose in 3.8 kg compost cultures

  1. Expression of the urease gene of Agaricus bisporus: a tool for studying fruit body formation and post-harvest development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemaker, M.J.M.; Eastwood, D.C.; Drift, van der C.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Burton, K.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Camp, op den H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit body initials of Agaricus bisporus contain high levels of urea, which decrease in the following developmental stages until stage 4 (harvest) when urea levels increase again. At storage, the high urea content may affect the quality of the mushroom, i.e. by the formation of ammonia from urea

  2. The physiology of Agaricus bisporus in semi-commercial compost cultivation appears to be highly conserved among unrelated isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontes, María Victoria Aguilar; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Post, Harm; Jurak, Edita; Hildén, Kristiina; Altelaar, Maarten; Heck, Albert; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Vries, de Ronald P.; Mäkelä, Miia R.

    2018-01-01

    The white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is one of the most widely produced edible fungus with a great economical value. Its commercial cultivation process is often performed on wheat straw and animal manure based compost that mainly contains lignocellulosic material as a source of carbon and

  3. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for final healthy product - natural preservatives in yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S.; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J.L.D.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Soković, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both s...

  4. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three compost formulas; wheat straw based and using different activator materials such as wheat brain, chicken manure, and pigeon manure were used for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. Locally available casing materials such as peat of Bolu, peat of Agacbasi, peat of Caykara, and their mixture (80:20; v:v) with perlite were ...

  5. Temperature profiles of Agaricus bisporus in composting stages and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three compost formulas using different activator materials were prepared for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. A locally available casing material known as peat of Bolu district and its different combinations with perlite were used. Temperature profiles of all mixtures during composting were measured at every composting stages ...

  6. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three compost formulas (formula I, formula II, and formula III) based waste tea leaves and using some activator materials such as wheat bran, chicken manure and pigeon manure were studied for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. Some locally available peats such as peat of Bolu, peat of Agacbasi, peat of Caykara and theirs ...

  7. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the pin head formation time and yield values of Agaricus bisporus on some casing materials. Composts were prepared basically from wheat straw and waste tea leaves by using wheat chaff as activator substance. Temperatures of the compost formulas were measured during ...

  8. Evaluation of the infection process by Lecanicillium fungicola in Agaricus bisporus by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana Nunes, Janaira; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cunha Zied, Diego; Aparecida das Graças Leite, Eloisa; Souza Dias, Eustáquio; Alves, Eduardo

    Lecanicillium fungicola causes dry bubble disease in Agaricus bisporus mushrooms leading to significant economic losses in commercial production. To monitor the infection process of L. fungicola in Brazilian strains of A. bisporus. The interaction between the mycelium of L. fungicola (LF.1) and three strains of A. bisporus (ABI 7, ABI 11/14 and ABI 11/21) was studied. Electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of vegetative growth and basidiocarp infection were evaluated. Micrographs show that the vegetative mycelium of the Brazilian strains of A. bisporus is not infected by the parasite. The images show that the pathogen can interlace the hyphae of A. bisporus without causing damage, which contributes to the presence of L. fungicola during the substrate colonization, allowing their presence during primordial formation of A. bisporus. In the basidiocarp, germ tubes form within 16h of infection with L. fungicola and the beginning of penetration takes place within 18h, both without the formation of specialized structures. Scanning electron microscopy enabled the process of colonization and reproduction to be observed within the formation of phialides, conidiophores and verticils of L. fungicola. The formation of calcium oxalate crystals by the pathogen was also visible using the X-ray microanalysis, both at the hyphae in the Petri plate and at basidiocarp infection site. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Composition and Biological Properties of Agaricus bisporus Fruiting Bodies – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muszyńska Bożena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available White Agaricus bisporus is both the most popular and the most commonly eaten edible mushroom species in the world. It is popular not only because of its taste, but also due to its high level of nutrients: dietary fiber (chitin, essential, semi-essential amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic and linolenic acids, easily digestible proteins, sterols, phenolic and indole compounds, and vitamins − especially provitamin D2 and B1, B2, B6, B7, and C. Fruiting bodies of A. bisporus have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activity. The presence of antioxidant ergothioneine (which also displays the antimutagenic, chemo- and radioprotective activity is also noteworthy. A. bisporus also contains derivatives of benzoquinone, a substance which belongs to the group of antibiotics. Studies of tyrosinase isolated from this species show its very high similarity to human tyrosinase. This points directly to the fact that this species could be a rich source of tyrosinase used for medicinal and cosmetics purposes. A. bisporus is also a rich source of selenium, zinc and other elements such as magnesium, copper, iron, potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, sulfur or manganese. In conclusion, the presence of these compounds and elements with biological activity in fruiting bodies of A. bisporus confirms their nutraceutical and medicinal properties.

  10. High Molecular Weight Glucan of the Culinary Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus bisporus is an α-Glucan that Forms Complexes with Low Molecular Weight Galactan

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    Harry J. Wichers

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An a-glucan was isolated from the culinary medicinal mushroom A. bisporus by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The resulting material showed a single HMW peak excluded from a Sephadex G50 column that could completely be degraded by α-amylase treatment. After heating in 1% SDS a small additional peak of low MW eluted from the G50 column. The monosaccharide composition of the main peak was evaluated by HPLC, and was found to consist of a majority of glucose (97.6%, and a minor proportion of galactose (2.4%. Methylation analysis and degradation by a-amylase indicated the presence of an a-glucan with a main chain consisting of (1®4-linked units, substituted at O-6 by α-D-glucopyranose single-units in the relation 1:8. Mono- (13C-, 1H-NMR and bidimensional [1H (obs.,13C-HSQC] spectroscopy analysis confirmed the a-configuration of the Glcp residues by low frequency resonances of C-1 at d 100.6, 100.2, and 98.8 ppm and H-1 high field ones at d 5.06, 5.11, and 4.74 ppm. The DEPT-13C-NMR allowed assigning the non-substituted and O-substituted –CH2 signals at d 60.3/60.8 and 66.2 ppm, respectively. Other assignments were attributed to C-2, C-3, C-4, C-5 and C-6 of the non-reducing ends at d 71.8; 72.8; 70.0; 71.3 and 60.3/60.8 ppm, respectively. The minor proportion of galactose that was demonstrated was probably derived from a complex between the a-glucan and a low molecular weight galactan.

  11. Application of a Predictive Growth Model of Pseudomonas spp. for Estimating Shelf Life of Fresh Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianming; Chen, Junran; Hu, Yunfeng; Hu, Hanyan; Liu, Guohua; Yan, Ruixiang

    2017-10-01

    For prediction of the shelf life of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the growth curve of the main spoilage microorganisms was studied under isothermal conditions at 2 to 22°C with a modified Gompertz model. The effect of temperature on the growth parameters for the main spoilage microorganisms was quantified and modeled using the square root model. Pseudomonas spp. were the main microorganisms causing A. bisporus decay, and the modified Gompertz model was useful for modelling the growth curve of Pseudomonas spp. All the bias factors values of the model were close to 1. By combining the modified Gompertz model with the square root model, a prediction model to estimate the shelf life of A. bisporus as a function of storage temperature was developed. The model was validated for A. bisporus stored at 6, 12, and 18°C, and adequate agreement was found between the experimental and predicted data.

  12. Scanning Electron Microscope Studies of Interactions between Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing Hyphae and Bacteria in Casing Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Masaphy, Segula; Levanon, D.; Tchelet, R.; Henis, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between the hyphae of Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing and bacteria from the mushroom bed casing layer were examined with a scanning electron microscope. Hyphae growing in the casing layer differed morphologically from compost-grown hyphae. Whereas the compost contained thin single hyphae surrounded by calcium oxalate crystals, the casing layer contained mainly wide hyphae or mycelial strands without crystals. The bacterial population in the hyphal environment consisted of several ...

  13. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt.

  14. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms Produção de quatro linhagens de Agaricus bisporus em três formulações de compostos e análises bromatológicas dos cogumelos produzidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L. Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton and oat (Avena sativa straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test. According to the results, productivity of mushrooms was influenced by strain and/or compost type. It was also verified that crude protein, ash, and crude fiber contents in the mushroom varied with A. bisporus strain and straw used in the formulation of the compost.Três formulações de composto, à base de palhas de Cynodom dactylon (L. Pers. (cultivares Coast-cross e Tyfton e Aveia-Avena sativa, foram testadas no cultivo das linhagens ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03 e ABI-06/04 de A. bisporus. O delineamento experimental foi em esquema fatorial, inteiramente casualizado com 12 tratamentos (4 linhagens de A. bisporus x 3 tipos de composto e 8 repetições. Cada unidade experimental constou de uma caixa com 1212,5 kg de composto fresco úmido. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. De acordo com os resultados obtidos verificou-se que a produção de cogumelos foi influenciada pela linhagem e/ou pelo tipo de composto. Também verificou-se que o teor de proteína bruta, cinzas e fibra bruta de basidiomas variou com a linhagem de A. bisporus e com o tipo de palha utilizada na formulação do composto.

  15. Effect of supplementing crop substrate with defatted pistachio meal on Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Giménez, Arturo; Catalán, Luis; Carrasco, Jaime; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego; Pardo, José

    2016-08-01

    This work assesses the agronomic performance of defatted pistachio meal, after oil extraction, as a nutritional substrate supplement when growing the mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. Materials were applied at different doses at spawning. Along with non-supplemented substrates, commercial nutritional supplements were used as controls. Proximate analysis of mushrooms is also considered. For the cultivation of champignon, defatted pistachio meal has provided larger mushrooms (unitary weight and cap diameter) with firmer texture and greater content in dry weight and protein, without significant alterations in quantitative parameters. For Pleurotus ostreatus, the supplement led to significant yield increase, even providing up to 34.4% of increment compared to non-supplementation with meal, reaching a biological efficiency of 129.9 kg dt(-1) , when applied to the 15 g kg(-1) compost dose. Supplementation has also been conducted to increase dry weight, protein and fibre within carpophores and to decrease the energy value. Defatted pistachio meal has similar or better results compared to the commercial supplements used as reference. Compost supplementation with defatted pistachio meal in A. bisporus concerns mainly the quantitative parameters (size, texture, dry weight and protein). Based on the results obtained, this technique has greater potential of development for P. ostreatus commercial crops, basically due to expected increases in production, with a direct impact on benefits and crop profitability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Changes in non-volatile taste components of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during different stages of freeze drying and freeze drying combined with microwave vacuum drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fei; Shi, Ying; Gao, Xingyang; Wu, Fangning; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Yang, Wenjian; Zhao, Liyan; An, Xinxin; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Fangmei; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-12-15

    Button mushroom slices were dehydrated using freeze drying (FD) or FD combined with microwave vacuum drying (FMVD), and the non-volatile component profiles were studied. The results showed that the level of non-volatile components in button mushroom firstly increased during sublimation of FD/FMVD process and then fell during desorption in FD process and MVD in FMVD process. Compared to FD products, the contents of soluble sugars and polyols in FMVD products were relatively low, whereas the contents of total free amino acids were significantly higher, close to the level of fresh mushroom. However, there was no significant difference in the contents of 5'-nucleotides and organic acids between FD and FMVD products. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values for FD and FMVD products did not differ from fresh, indicating that both drying methods could effectively preserve MSG (monosodium glutamate)-like components in button mushroom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biological control of Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae) in commercial mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) cultivation: a comparison between Hypoaspis miles and Steinernema feltiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jess, Stephen; Schweizer, Heinrich

    2009-11-01

    Mushroom cultivation may be adversely affected by insect pests, including sciarids (Lycoriella spp.), which were previously controlled by application of chemical pesticides. However, owing to food safety and environmental concerns, availability of pesticides for use during mushroom cultivation has diminished. Consequently, it is imperative to investigate alternative control strategies, not reliant on chemical pesticides, which may be used in an integrated pest management system. Application of the predatory mite Hypoaspis miles Berlese to commercial mushroom-growing beds at the beginning of spawn run or just prior to casing (830 mites m(-2)) significantly reduced immature sciarids, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour), in the growing substrate and also adult activity towards the conclusion of cropping. A trend towards lower sciarid emergence from substrates and reduced adult sciarid activity was observed following the application of Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (1.5 x 10(6) nematodes m(-2)) at casing. No significant treatment effects on mushroom yield were observed. However, contamination of the mushroom crop by adult sciarids increased in untreated controls. Application of H. miles required a 12-fold increase in labour when compared with application of S. feltiae. Contingent upon the development of an effective application system, H. miles has potential for the biological control of sciarids in commercial mushroom production. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Fungicide sensitivity of Trichoderma spp. from Agaricus bisporus farms in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanović, Dejana; Potočnik, Ivana; Vukojević, Jelena; Stajić, Mirjana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Todorović, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould disease, induce great losses in Agaricus bisporus farms. Fungicides are widely used to control mushroom diseases although green mould control is encumbered with difficulties. The aims of this study were, therefore, to research in vitro toxicity of several commercial fungicides to Trichoderma isolates originating from Serbian and Bosnia-Herzegovina farms, and to evaluate the effects of pH and light on their growth. The majority of isolates demonstrated optimal growth at pH 5.0, and the rest at pH 6.0. A few isolates also grew well at pH 7. The weakest mycelial growth was noted at pH 8.0-9.0. Generally, light had an inhibitory effect on the growth of tested isolates. The isolates showed the highest susceptibility to chlorothalonil and carbendazim (ED50 less than 1 mg L(-1)), and were less sensitive to iprodione (ED50 ranged 0.84-6.72 mg L(-1)), weakly resistant to thiophanate-methyl (ED50 = 3.75-24.13 mg L(-1)), and resistant to trifloxystrobin (ED50 = 10.25-178.23 mg L(-1)). Considering the toxicity of fungicides to A. bisporus, carbendazim showed the best selective toxicity (0.02), iprodione and chlorothalonil moderate (0.16), and thiophanate-methyl the lowest (1.24), while trifloxystrobin toxicity to A. bisporus was not tested because of its inefficiency against Trichoderma isolates.

  19. Effects of a high O2 dynamic-controlled atmosphere technology on the browning of postharvest white mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) in relation to energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Sun, Han; Kitazawa, Hiroaki; Wang, Xiangyou

    2017-07-01

    Browning is one of the main problems in senescence of mushrooms, and it is also one of the most important attributes accounting for the loss of the quality and reduction in market value. In order to study the relationship between the energy metabolism and the browning of white mushroom under high O 2 dynamic-controlled atmosphere (HO-DCA), mushrooms were stored in 100% O 2 (SCA1), 80% O 2  + 20% CO 2 (SCA2), 100% O 2 for three days and then transferred into the treatment of 80% O 2  + 20% CO 2 (HO-DCA) at 2 ± 1 ℃ and air as control. In this study, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, energy charge level, sensory evaluation, browning of surface and flesh, cell membrane integrity, exogenous ATP, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity and genes encoding PPO of the white mushroom were investigated. These were all closely related to the browning of products. The optimal storage condition of the HO-DCA treatment could delay the browning of pericarp and flesh tissues of the mushrooms, inhibit PPO activity and reduce the relative expression levels of the three genes encoding PPO. Meanwhile, it maintained moderate POD activity, good sensory properties and cell membrane integrity in a certain extent and thus slowed down the senescence of mushrooms. Results indicated that there was a positive correlation between the ATP content and whitening index ( r = 0.901). In addition, HO-DCA maintained a higher ATP level, prolonged the storage time to 28 days and it might be an ideal strategy for preserving the quality of mushroom during storage.

  20. Effect of packaging conditions on the growth of micro-organisms and the quality characteristics of fresh mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) stored at inadequate temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fandos, E; Giménez, M; Olarte, C; Sanz, S; Simón, A

    2000-10-01

    Mushrooms were packed in two polymeric films (perforated and non-perforated PVC) and stored at 17 degrees C and 25 degrees C. The carbon dioxide and oxygen content inside the packages, aerobic mesophiles, Pseudomonas spp., faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, anaerobic spores and major sensory factors (colour, texture, development stage and presence of moulds) were determined. The non-perforated packages had the highest contents of CO2 (6-7%), the lowest contents of O2 (0.013-0.17%) and the most desirable quality parameters (texture, development stage and absence of moulds). Pseudomonas spp. counts were around 1 logarithmic unit lower in mushrooms packaged in non-perforated film as the O2 concentrations were lower than in perforated film. The mushrooms themselves were inoculated with an enterotoxin A-producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus, packaged in overwrapped trays and stored at 17 and 25 degrees C. Staphylococcus aureus did not grow in the samples stored at 17 degrees C. Only slight growth was observed in mushrooms packaged with non-perforated film after 1 day at 25 degrees C. No enterotoxin was detected in any package. Faecal coliform counts were <2 log cfu g(-1). Escherichia coli was not isolated in any of the samples. At 25 degrees C, counts of anaerobic spores of around 2 log cfu g(-1) were detected in those mushrooms packaged in non-perforated film.

  1. The effect of ionizing radiation and storage temperature on the post-harvest growth and some quality properties of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryspina Śmierzchalska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a dose of 2.0 kGy (Co-60 and three ranges of storage temperature (0-4°C, 9-11°C, 18-19°C on increasing the shelf-life and some quality properties of the mushrooms were investigated. The retardation of mushroom growth and ageing by ionizing radiation was estimated by measurements of the cap diameter, stem elongation, cap opening and discoloration of cap surface. The control of fungal and bacterial diseases was also evaluated. The effect of lower doses, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy, was compared at the storage temperature of 10°C. The irradiation of mushrooms soon after harvest and storage at temperatures of 10 and 16°C allowed the retention of quality and increased the shelf-life to 8 days; at 18-19°C to 6 days.

  2. Optimization of the cultivation conditions for mushroom production with European wild strains of Agaricus subrufescens and Brazilian cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llarena-Hernández, Carlos R; Largeteau, Michèle L; Ferrer, Nathalie; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-15

    The almond mushroom Agaricus subrufescens (formerly Agaricus blazei or Agaricus brasiliensis) is cultivated at commercial level in Brazil and some Asian countries on local substrates and casing mixtures. Despite its tropical origin, A. subrufescens might be a seasonal option for mushroom growers in western countries, where some wild strains have been isolated. For this purpose, cultivation conditions were developed starting from the substrate and casing mixture commonly used for commercial production of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus in France. The commercial compost, based on wheat straw and horse manure, used for A. bisporus and the casing mixture (peat and limestone) supplemented with fine sand proved efficient to grow A. subrufescens. Increasing the depth of the casing layer improved significantly the yield and time to fruiting. Daily variations in temperature did not markedly modify the yield. Significantly higher mushroom biomass was obtained with three wild European strains compared with three Brazilian cultivars. The very productive wild strain CA438-A gave mushrooms of size and dry matter content comparable to those of a cultivar. Commercial production of A. subrufescens can be developed in western countries on the wheat straw-based substrate commonly used for A. bisporus in these regions, by a simple modification of the casing mixture and maintaining the incubation temperature throughout the crop, which is expected to save energy during summer. Good yields were obtained cultivating European strains under optimised parameters. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. A Retrospective Study in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: Diabetic Risk Factor Response to Daily Consumption of Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushrooms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mona S; Mehrotra, Anita; Beelman, Robert B; Nadkarni, Girish; Wang, Lingzhi; Cai, Weijing; Goh, Boon Cher; Kalaras, Michael D; Uribarri, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    Adults with metabolic syndrome from different race/ethnicities are often predisposed to developing type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, growing evidence suggests that healthy diets and lifestyle choices can significantly slow or prevent progression to T2D. This poorly understood relationship to healthy dietary patterns and prevention of T2D motivated us to conduct a retrospective analysis to determine the potential impact of a minor dietary lifestyle change (daily mushroom consumption) on known T2D risk factors in racially diverse adults with confirmed features of the metabolic syndrome. Retrospectively, we studied 37 subjects who had participated in a dietary intervention focused on vitamin D bioavailability from white button mushrooms (WBM). All 37 had previously completed a 16-week study where they consumed 100 g of WBM daily and were then followed-up for one month during which no mushrooms were consumed. We analyzed differences in serum risk factors from baseline to 16-week, and from baseline to one-month follow-up. Measurement of serum diabetic risk factors included inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and the antioxidant component naturally rich in mushrooms, ergothioneine. Significant beneficial health effects were observed at 16-week with the doubling of ergothioneine from baseline, increases in the antioxidant marker ORAC (oxygen radical absorption capacity) and anti-inflammatory hormone, adiponectin and significant decreases in serum oxidative stress inducing factors, carboxymethyllysine (CML) and methylglyoxal (MG), but no change in the lipid oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane, leptin or measures of insulin resistance or glucose metabolism. We conclude that WBM contain a variety of compounds with potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant health benefits that can occur with frequent consumption over time in adults predisposed to T2D. Well-controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings and identify the specific mushroom components

  4. Diversity and dynamics of the DNA- and cDNA-derived compost fungal communities throughout the commercial cultivation process for Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, C F; Byrne, H; Irvine, A; Wilson, J

    2017-01-01

    Commercial cultivation of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is performed through the inoculation of a semipasteurized composted material. Pasteurization of the compost material prior to inoculation results in a substrate with a fungal community that becomes dominated by A. bisporus. However, little is known about the composition and activity in the wider fungal community beyond the presence of A. bisporus in compost throughout the mushroom cropping process. In this study, the fungal cropping compost community was characterized by sequencing nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 amplified from extractable DNA and RNA. The fungal community generated from DNA extracts identified a diverse community containing 211 unique species, although only 51 were identified from cDNA. Agaricus bisporus was found to dominate in the DNA-derived fungal community for the duration of the cropping process. However, analysis of cDNA extracts found A. bisporus to dominate only up to the first crop flush, after which activity decreased sharply and a much broader fungal community became active. This study has highlighted the diverse fungal community that is present in mushroom compost during cropping.

  5. Combined effect of kinetin and radiation treatment on the cap opening of Agaricus bisporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.

    1982-01-01

    Cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) with a cap diameter of 3-5 cm were incubated at 20 deg C during the experimental period (30-72 h). The degree of cap opening was determined and the data were evaluated. It was found that kinetin solutions in the 0 to 32 mg kg -1 range stimulated the opening of the mushroom cap. The shorter the time elapsed between picking and treating the mushrooms, the greater was the effect. A kinetin solution with a concentration of 100 mg kg -1 inhibited the opening of the cap. Cap opening in irradiated mushrooms cannot be induced even with kinetin concentrations that stimulate cap opening. Treatment with 0, 2.5 and 10 kGy doses of radiation the stimulating effect on cap opening decreased as a function of the rising dose. The radiation effects in kinetin solutions and various natural cytokinins (zeatin, 2iP and 2iPA) were studied and it was found that cytokinin solutions lost 50-60% of their activity after a radiation dose of only 1 kGy. (author)

  6. Cell water balance of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) during its post-harvest lifetime studied by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, H C; Van As, H

    1999-04-19

    A combination of quantitative water density and T2 MRI and changes therein observed after infiltration with 'invisible' Gd-DTPA solution was used to study cell water balances, cell water potentials and cell integrity. This method was applied to reveal the evolution and mechanism of redistribution of water in harvested mushrooms. Even when mushrooms did not lose water during the storage period, a redistribution of water was observed from stipe to cap and gills. When the storage condition resulted in a net loss of water, the stipe lost more water than the cap. The water density in the gill increased, probably due to development of spores. Deterioration effects (i.e. leakage of cells, decrease in osmotic water potential) were found in the outer stipe. They were not found in the cap, even at prolonged storage at 293 K and R.H.=70%. The changes in osmotic potential were partly accounted for by changes in the mannitol concentration. Changes in membrane permeability were also indicated. Cells in the cap had a constant low membrane (water) permeability. They developed a decreasing osmotic potential (more negative), whereas the osmotic potential in the outer stipe increased, together with the permeability of cells.

  7. Remediation capacity of Cd and Pb ions by mycelia of Imleria badia, Laetiporus sulphureus, and Agaricus bisporus in vitro cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryczyk, Agata; Piotrowska, Joanna; Sito, Magdalena; Sulkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Dobosz, Konrad; Opoka, Włodzimierz; Muszyńska, Bożena

    2017-09-02

    The goal of this study was to evaluate cadmium and lead accumulation ability of in vitro cultures biomass containing selected edible mushroom species derived from the environment (Laetiporus sulphureus, Imleria badia) and those of commercial origin (Agaricus bisporus). Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to evaluate the content of Cd(II) and Pb(II) on the medium supplemented with Cd(II) or Pb(II), each of them at the same concentration of 5·10 -5 M. The highest concentration of Cd(II) ions was determined in the biomass from L. sulphureus in vitro cultures, while the highest concentration of Pb(II) ions was found in the biomass from A. bisporus in vitro cultures. The greatest Cd(II) and Pb(II) accumulation ability in mycelium per dry weight was shown for L. sulphureus. Among the test species, biomass of A. bisporus showed the lowest ability for the bioaccumulation of Cd(II); however, comparable ability for the remediation of Pb(II) was provided by the biomasses from A. bisporus and I. badia in vitro cultures. The results confirm the possibility of using these mushroom species for remediation and indicate the relationship between bioaccumulation of heavy metals and the test species.

  8. Scanning Electron Microscope Studies of Interactions between Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing Hyphae and Bacteria in Casing Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaphy, Segula; Levanon, D.; Tchelet, R.; Henis, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between the hyphae of Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing and bacteria from the mushroom bed casing layer were examined with a scanning electron microscope. Hyphae growing in the casing layer differed morphologically from compost-grown hyphae. Whereas the compost contained thin single hyphae surrounded by calcium oxalate crystals, the casing layer contained mainly wide hyphae or mycelial strands without crystals. The bacterial population in the hyphal environment consisted of several types, some attached to the hyphae with filamentlike structures. This attachment may be important in stimulation of pinhead initiation. Images PMID:16347340

  9. The medicinal Agaricus mushroom cultivated in Brazil: biology, cultivation and non-medicinal valorisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeteau, Michèle L; Llarena-Hernández, Régulo Carlos; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2011-12-01

    Sun mushroom is a cultivated mushroom extensively studied for its medicinal properties for several years and literature abounds on the topic. Besides, agronomical aspects were investigated in Brazil, the country the mushroom comes from, and some studies focus on the biology of the fungus. This review aimed to present an overview of the non-medicinal knowledge on the mushroom. Areas of commercial production and marketing trends are presented. Its specific fragrance, taste, nutritional value and potential use of extracts as food additives are compared to those of the most cultivated fungi and laboratory models. The interest of the mushroom for lignocellulosic enzyme production and source of biomolecules for the control of plant pathogens are shown. Investigation of genetic variability among cultivars is reported. Growing and storage of mycelium, as well as cultivation conditions (substrate and casing generally based on local products; indoor and outdoor cultivation; diseases and disorders) are described and compared to knowledge on Agaricus bisporus.

  10. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction and in vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, De-Liang; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Hai-Zhong; Fan, Chun-Chun; Han, Lei

    2012-08-01

    To optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction parameters of polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and evaluate antioxidant activities of A. bisporus polysaccharides. Polysaccharides from A. bisporus was extracted by using methods of ultrasonic-assisted hot water lixiviation, ethanol precipitation, Sevag's deproteination and ethanol precipitation again. Extraction temperature, extraction time, ratio of water to raw material and ultrasonic power were selected in single-factor tests. Based on the single-factor tests, parameters combination for the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of A. bisporus polysaccharides was optimized by using four-factor-three-level orthogonal test. Antioxidant activities (reductive potential, superoxide anion scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging activity) of A. bisporus polysaccharides were evaluated in vitro. Optimum conditions for the extracting of A. bisporus polysaccharides were extracting temperature 65 degrees C, extracting time 40 min, ratio of water to raw material 30 mL/g and ultrasonic power 170 w. Practicing this optimal condition, extraction yield of polysaccharides from A. bisporus was 5.6 014%. In crude polysaccharides of A. bisporus, carbohydrates content, determined by applying the phenol-sulfuric acid method, was 75.48%. Polysaccharides of A. bisporus could reduce ferric ion, scavenge superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in a dose-dependent manner. Utrasonic-assisted extraction could be used in the extracting of A. bisporus polysaccharides. Polysaccharides of A. bisporus, had direct and potent antioxidant activities, might be developed and utilized as natural antioxidant.

  11. Comparison of characterization and microbial communities in rice straw- and wheat straw-based compost for Agaricus bisporus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Mao, Jiugeng; Zhao, Hejuan; Li, Min; Wei, Qishun; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw (RS) is an important raw material for the preparation of Agaricus bisporus compost in China. In this study, the characterization of composting process from RS and wheat straw (WS) was compared for mushroom production. The results showed that the temperature in RS compost increased rapidly compared with WS compost, and the carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio decreased quickly. The microbial changes during the Phase I and Phase II composting process were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Bacteria were the dominant species during the process of composting and the bacterial community structure dramatically changed during heap composting according to the DGGE results. The bacterial community diversity of RS compost was abundant compared with WS compost at stages 4-5, but no distinct difference was observed after the controlled tunnel Phase II process. The total amount of PLFAs of RS compost, as an indicator of microbial biomass, was higher than that of WS. Clustering by DGGE and principal component analysis of the PLFA compositions revealed that there were differences in both the microbial population and community structure between RS- and WS-based composts. Our data indicated that composting of RS resulted in improved degradation and assimilation of breakdown products by A. bisporus, and suggested that the RS compost was effective for sustaining A. bisporus mushroom growth as well as conventional WS compost.

  12. GC-MS studies of the chemical composition of two inedible mushrooms of the genus Agaricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjosheva Melania

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushrooms in the genus Agaricus have worldwide distribution and include the economically important species A. bisporus. Some Agaricus species are inedible, including A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, which are similar in appearance to certain edible species, yet are known to possess unpleasant odours and induce gastrointestinal problems if consumed. We have studied the chemical composition of these mushrooms using GC-MS. Results Our GC-MS studies on the volatile fractions and butanol extracts resulted in the identification of 44 and 34 compounds for A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, respectively, including fatty acids and their esters, amino acids, and sugar alcohols. The most abundant constituent in the volatiles and butanol were phenol and urea respectively. We also identified the presence of ergosterol and two Δ7-sterols. In addition, 5α,8α-Epidioxi-24(ξ-methylcholesta-6,22-diene-3β-ol was isolated for the first time from both mushrooms. Our study is therefore the first report on the chemical composition of these two species. Conclusion The results obtained contribute to the knowledge of the chemical composition of mushrooms belonging to the Agaricus genus, and provide some explanation for the reported mild toxicity of A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, a phenonomenon that can be explained by a high phenol content, similar to that found in other Xanthodermatei species.

  13. A comparative genomic analysis of the oxidative enzymes potentially involved in lignin degradation by Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshavardhan Doddapaneni; Venkataramanan Subramanian; Bolei Fu; Dan Cullen

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative enzymatic machinery for degradation of organic substrates in Agaricus bisporus (Ab) is at the core of the carbon recycling mechanisms in this fungus. To date, 156 genes have been tentatively identified as part of this oxidative enzymatic machinery, which includes 26 peroxidase encoding genes, nine copper radical oxidase [including three...

  14. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M.; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus’ mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained. PMID:26436656

  15. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: Button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    OpenAIRE

    Potočnik, Ivana; Stepanović, Miloš; Rekanović, Emil; Todorović, Biljana; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.) and shiitake (Lentinus edodes). Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal a...

  16. Effect of electron beam irradiation on post harvest quality of Agaricus bisporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Juanpin; Xing Zengtao; Bai Bing; Song Weiguo

    2011-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on fresh-keeping of Agaricus bisporus was studied after sporecarp samples were irradiated at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 kGy and then stored at 4 degree C for 14d. The contents of water-soluble vitamins, amino acids and sugars were measured. Results showed that the contents of water-soluble sugars, amino acids, and aneurin, lactochrome, nicotinic acid in sporecarp did not significantly change after irradiation. However, asoribic acid was sensitive to irradiation, and the content was significantly reduced 31.1% at the dose of 4.0 kGy. It is concluded that 2 kGy irradiation can effectively prolong the shelf life, and almost no significant effect on the nutrient components of Agaricus bisporus. (authors)

  17. An Exploration into the Bacterial Community under Different Pasteurization Conditions during Substrate Preparation (Composting-Phase II) for Agaricus bisporus Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabricio Rocha; Pecchia, John Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Substrate preparation (i.e., composting) for Agaricus bisporus cultivation is the most critical point of mushroom production. Among many factors involved in the composting process, the microbial ecology of the system is the underlying drive of composting and can be influenced by composting management techniques. Pasteurization temperature at the beginning of phase II, in theory, may influence the bacterial community and subsequently the "selectivity" and nutrition of the final substrate. Therefore, this hypothesis was tested by simulation in bioreactors under different pasteurization conditions (57 °C/6 h, 60 °C/2 h, and 68 °C/2 h), simulating conditions adopted by many producers. Bacterial diversity, based on 16S ribosomal RNA obtained by high-throughput sequencing and classified in operational taxonomic units (OTUs), was greater than previously reported using culture-dependent methods. Alpha diversity estimators show a lower diversity of OTUs under a high-temperature pasteurization condition. Bacillales order shows a relatively higher OTU abundance under a high-pasteurization temperature, which also was related to high ammonia emission measurements. On the other hand, beta diversity analysis showed no significantly changes in the bacterial community structure under different conditions. Agaricus bisporus mycelium growth during a standard spawn run period was significantly slower in the compost pasteurized at high temperature. Since the bacterial community structure was not greatly affected by different pasteurization conditions but by-products left (e.g., ammonia) at the end of compost conditioning varied, further studies need to be conducted to determine the functional role of the microbial communities found during substrate preparation for Agaricus bisporus cultivation.

  18. Multiple viral infections in Agaricus bisporus - Characterisation of 18 unique RNA viruses and 8 ORFans identified by deep sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, Gregory; Dobbs, Edward; Bennett, Julie M.; Jones, Ian M.; Grogan, Helen M.; Burton, Kerry S.

    2017-01-01

    Thirty unique non-host RNAs were sequenced in the cultivated fungus, Agaricus bisporus, comprising 18 viruses each encoding an RdRp domain with an additional 8 ORFans (non-host RNAs with no similarity to known sequences). Two viruses were multipartite with component RNAs showing correlative abundances and common 3′ motifs. The viruses, all positive sense single-stranded, were classified into diverse orders/families. Multiple infections of Agaricus may represent a diverse, dynamic and interact...

  19. Obtaining of high-yield strains of Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach using UV-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnichenko, L.P.; Dudka, Yi.O.; Byis'ko, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of growing new forms of Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach with the changed crop capacity and albumen content under the effect of different doses and sources (lamp and laser) of UV-irradiation, has been studied. The 125 strain of the Ukr. SSR Academy of Siences has been subjected to investigations. The maximum crop capacity (2,11 kg/m 2 higher than the control crop capacity) has been obtained with the density of lamp irradiation energy of 0.6 J/cm 2 . Crop capacity increase for laser irradiation is observed at the energy density of 4.8 J/cm 2

  20. Obtaining of high-yield strains of Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach using UV-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesnichenko, L P; Dudka, Yi O; Byis' ko, N A

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of growing new forms of Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach with the changed crop capacity and albumen content under the effect of different doses and sources (lamp and laser) of UV-irradiation, has been studied. The 125 strain of the Ukr. SSR Academy of Siences has been subjected to investigations. The maximum crop capacity (2,11 kg/m/sup 2/ higher than the control crop capacity) has been obtained with the density of lamp irradiation energy of 0.6 J/cm/sup 2/. Crop capacity increase for laser irradiation is observed at the energy density of 4.8 J/cm/sup 2/.

  1. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... Three compost formulas; wheat straw based and using different activator materials such as .... mycelium (Type Horst U1) per kg then filled into plastic bags as 7 ... a selective substrate environment for mushroom growing.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of Agaricus bisporus strains cultivated in different composts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; Jesus, Joao P.F.; Vieira, Fabricio R.; Viana, Sthefany R.F.; Minhoni, Marli T.A.; Spoto, Marta H.F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of irradiation doses (0, 125, 250 and 500 Gy) on the nutritional quality of A. bisporus mushrooms (strains ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03 and PB-1) cultivated in composts based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) was evaluated. The experimental design was 4 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme (irradiation doses x strains x composts), with 24 treatments, consisting of two repetitions each, totaling 48 experimental units (samples of mushrooms). The samples were irradiated in Cobalt-60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220 kGy, with dose rate of 0.740 kGy h -1 , according to the treatments proposed. Subsequently, the control (unirradiated) and the other treatments were maintained at 4±1°C and 90% RH in a climatic chamber for carrying out the chemical analysis of the mushrooms on the 1st and 14th day of storage. It was found that all A. bisporus strains evaluated were food with excellent nutritional value, because they presented high protein and fiber contents and low ethereal extract content; the chemical characterization of the mushrooms was influenced by the compost type in which they were cultivated; gamma irradiation influenced the chemical composition of mushrooms. (author)

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of Agaricus bisporus strains cultivated in different composts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira, E-mail: mcnandrade@hotmail.com [Universidade do Sagrado Coracao (USC), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Sociais Aplicadas; Jesus, Joao P.F.; Vieira, Fabricio R.; Viana, Sthefany R.F.; Minhoni, Marli T.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Producao Vegetal/Defesa Fitossanitaria, Modulo de Cogumelos; Spoto, Marta H.F. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2014-05-15

    The effect of irradiation doses (0, 125, 250 and 500 Gy) on the nutritional quality of A. bisporus mushrooms (strains ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03 and PB-1) cultivated in composts based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) was evaluated. The experimental design was 4 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme (irradiation doses x strains x composts), with 24 treatments, consisting of two repetitions each, totaling 48 experimental units (samples of mushrooms). The samples were irradiated in Cobalt-60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220 kGy, with dose rate of 0.740 kGy h{sup -1}, according to the treatments proposed. Subsequently, the control (unirradiated) and the other treatments were maintained at 4±1°C and 90% RH in a climatic chamber for carrying out the chemical analysis of the mushrooms on the 1st and 14th day of storage. It was found that all A. bisporus strains evaluated were food with excellent nutritional value, because they presented high protein and fiber contents and low ethereal extract content; the chemical characterization of the mushrooms was influenced by the compost type in which they were cultivated; gamma irradiation influenced the chemical composition of mushrooms. (author)

  4. Functionalization of yogurts with Agaricus bisporus extracts encapsulated in spray-dried maltodextrin crosslinked with citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Cristhian R L; Heleno, Sandrina A; Fernandes, Isabel P M; Barreira, João C M; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Barros, Lillian; Gonçalves, Odinei Hess; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barreiro, Maria Filomena

    2018-04-15

    Mushroom extracts contain bioactive compounds potentially useful to functionalize foodstuffs. Herein, alcoholic extracts of Agaricus bisporus were studied for their bioactivity and viability as functional ingredients in a food product with high water content (yogurt). Extracts were microencapsulated (to improve their stability and hydrophilicity) by spray-drying, using maltodextrin crosslinked with citric acid as encapsulating material. The effect of thermal treatment (after atomization) on crosslinking and bioactivity of microspheres was tested. The incorporation of free and thermally untreated forms resulted in yogurts with higher initial antioxidant activity (EC 50 values: 214 and 272 mg.mL -1 ) that decreased after 7 days (EC 50 values: 248 and 314 mg.mL -1 ). Contrarily, thermally treated microencapsulated extracts showed higher antioxidant activity after the same period (EC 50 values, 0 days: 106 mg.mL -1 ; 7 days: 48.7 mg.mL -1 ), in result of an effective protection provided by microencapsulation with crosslinked maltodextrin and citric acid. Functionalized yogurts showed an overall maintenance of nutritional properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluación del Residuo del Cultivo de Agaricus bisporus como Alimento de Vacas Lecheras en Lactancia Media / Evaluation of the Agaricus bisporus Spent Compost as Feed of Dairy Cows in Mid Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Gómez Urrego

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó el potencial del residuo del cultivo de la seta Agaricus bisporus como materia prima para la alimentación de vacas lecheras en segundo tercio de lactancia. Para esto, se sustituyó 10% del concentrado comercial por el residuo (sin turba y se evaluó su efecto en la producción, el balance nutricional de las vacas y el costo final del concentrado. El diseño experimental fue un cross-over o de intercambio con medidas repetidas en eltiempo. Cada periodo experimental tuvo una duración de 14 días. Se utilizaron dos grupos de animales, uno con 4 vacas Holstein y otro con 4 vacas cruzadas Holstein x BON. En promedio, las vacas tenían 117 ± 18,6 días en leche, 2,6 ± 0,9 partos, 529,5 ± 52,9 kg peso vivo y una producción de leche/día de 15,42 ± 2,6 L. El tratamiento experimental redujo los nutrientes digeribles totales de la dieta total en 2%. No hubo diferencias estadísticas en el balance nutricional de las vacas a causa del tratamiento experimental. Tampoco hubo diferencia estadística en cuanto a la producción de leche (14,4 L y calidad composicional (% de grasa:3,86; % de proteína: 3,5; relación grasa: proteína: 1,11. El análisis de costos mostró que al incluirse en el concentrado un 10% del residuo de A. bisporus (Champiñosa se obtenía una reducción en los costos de alimentación de $403 pesos colombianos/vaca/día. / Abstract. This study evaluated the potential of the growth bed of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus as a feed for mid lactation dairy cows. We replaced 10% of commercial concentrate with the residue (peat removed and assessed its effect on milk production, nutritional balance of the cows and final cost of the concentrate. The experimental design was a cross-over or change-over with repeated measurements. Each experimental period lasted 14 days. Two groups of animals, one with four Holstein cows and one with four crossbred Holstein x BON cows were used. On average, cows had 117

  6. Statistical modelling for precision agriculture: A case study in optimal environmental schedules for Agaricus Bisporus production via variable domain functional regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayi, Efstathios; Kyriakides, George

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the effects of environmental factors over the duration of the growing process on Agaricus Bisporus (button mushroom) yields has been difficult, as common functional data analysis approaches require fixed length functional data. The data available from commercial growers, however, is of variable duration, due to commercial considerations. We employ a recently proposed regression technique termed Variable-Domain Functional Regression in order to be able to accommodate these irregular-length datasets. In this way, we are able to quantify the contribution of covariates such as temperature, humidity and water spraying volumes across the growing process, and for different lengths of growing processes. Our results indicate that optimal oxygen and temperature levels vary across the growing cycle and we propose environmental schedules for these covariates to optimise overall yields. PMID:28961254

  7. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gamma radiation in increasing productivity of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus sajor-caju and enhancing storage life of P. sajor-caju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.K.; Chatterjee, S.R.; Bahukhandi, D.; Sharma, R.; Philips, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma radiation of spawn of Agaricus bisporus and pleurotus sajor-caju at doses of 0.1 to 0.3 kGy and 0.1 to 0.25 kGy respectively, reduced the mycelial spawn run time and exerted a stimulatory effect on the growth of these two mushrooms. Irradiation also increased yield of these mushrooms. In all cases of the former, the highest yield of 2.57g was recorded from spawn irradiated at 0.3 kGy, while with the latter, best yield of 1119 g was recorded from spawn treated with 0.25 kGy. The control (non-irradiated) spawns of A. bisporus and P. sajor-caju gave yields of 2.03 g and 565 g respectively. Thus, a major boost in yields could be achieved using this technology. The shelf life of P. sajor-caju could be extended up to 9 days by 0.5 kGy of radiation, when the treated fruit bodies were held at 15 deg C as against the un-irradiated ones which had a shelf-life of 6 days. This dose neither adversely affected the browning of the fruit bodies at 45 deg C, nor lowered their protein (protein + free amino acids) and carbohydrate contents. Irradiation, however, at all the doses from 0.1 to 0.75 kGy enhanced the rehydration ratio and total free amino acid contents. The rehydration ratio of 0.62 was the maximum, reached with a dose of 0.25 kGy as against the control, which showed a value of 5.0. Dehydration along with gamma radiation treatment could play an important role for long term storage of mushrooms. Weight loss of un-dehydrated fruit bodies also decreased as a result of irradiation. (author)

  9. Diversity Profile and Dynamics of Peptaibols Produced by Green Mould Trichoderma Species in Interactions with Their Hosts Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marik, Tamás; Urbán, Péter; Tyagi, Chetna; Szekeres, András; Leitgeb, Balázs; Vágvölgyi, Máté; Manczinger, László; Druzhinina, Irina S; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kredics, László

    2017-06-01

    Certain Trichoderma species are causing serious losses in mushroom production worldwide. Trichoderma aggressivum and Trichoderma pleuroti are among the major causal agents of the green mould diseases affecting Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus, respectively. The genus Trichoderma is well-known for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites, including peptaibols, which are short, linear peptides containing unusual amino acid residues and being synthesised via non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). The aim of this study was to get more insight into the peptaibol production of T. aggressivum and T. pleuroti. HPLC/MS-based methods revealed the production of peptaibols closely related to hypomurocins B by T. aggressivum, while tripleurins representing a new group of 18-residue peptaibols were identified in T. pleuroti. Putative NRPS genes enabling the biosynthesis of the detected peptaibols could be found in the genomes of both Trichoderma species. In vitro experiments revealed that peptaibols are potential growth inhibitors of mushroom mycelia, and that the host mushrooms may have an influence on the peptaibol profiles of green mould agents. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  10. Agaricus bisporus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter Omenda (Dr.)

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... 1 ml of a 0.3 mM DPPH methanol solution was added to 2.5 ml solution of the extract ... Superoxide radical was generated from auto oxidation of hematoxilin and was ..... biochemical and electrochemical assays. Food Chem.

  11. Agaritine content of 53 Agaricus species collected from nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzova, V.; Hajslova, J.; Peroutka, R.

    2009-01-01

    carcinogen. There was a huge variation in agaritine content between species, but less variation between samples of a species. Whereas the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus commonly contain 200-500 mg agaritine kg-1 fresh weight, no less than 24 of the 53 species contained agaritine levels above 1000 mg...... strain development of Agaricus mushrooms for cultivation. No correlation could be observed between agaritine content and size of the mushroom, week of the year when collected, year of collection, or site of collection. Besides occurring in the genus Agaricus, some species of the genera Leucoagaricus...

  12. Vitamin D-fortified chitosan films from mushroom waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk bases from mushroom waste were treated with UV-B light to rapidly increase vitamin D2 content. Chitin was also recovered from this waste and converted into chitosan by N-deacetylation. FTIR spectra showed that the mushroom chitosan were similar to chitosan fr...

  13. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis QST713: a biocontrol agent that protects Agaricus bisporus crops against the green mould disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandin, Caroline; Le Coq, Dominique; Deschamps, Julien; Védie, Régis; Rousseau, Thierry; Aymerich, Stéphane; Briandet, Romain

    2018-04-24

    Bacillus subtilis QST713 is extensively used as a biological control agent in agricultural fields including in the button mushroom culture, Agaricus bisporus. This last use exploits its inhibitory activity against microbial pathogens such as Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum, the main button mushroom green mould competitor. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium with a genome size of 4 233 757 bp, 4263 predicted genes and an average GC content of 45.9%. Based on phylogenomic analyses, strain QST713 is finally designated as Bacillus velezensis. Genomic analyses revealed two clusters encoding potential new antimicrobials with NRPS and TransATPKS synthetase. B. velezensis QST713 genome also harbours several genes previously described as being involved in surface colonization and biofilm formation. This strain shows a strong ability to form in vitro spatially organized biofilm and to antagonize T. aggressivum. The availability of this genome sequence could bring new elements to understand the interactions with micro or/and macroorganisms in crops. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Synthesis of double-stranded RNA in a virus-enriched fraction from Agaricus bisporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriskantha, A.; Wach, P.; Schlagnhaufer, B.; Romaine, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Partially purified virus preparations from sporophores of Agaricus bisporus affected with LaFrance disease had up to a 15-fold-higher RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity than did comparable preparations from health sporophores. Enzyme activity was dependent upon the presence of Mg 2+ and the four nucleoside triphosphates and was insensitive to actinomycin D, α-amanitin, and rifampin. The 3 H-labeled enzyme reaction products were double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as indicated by CF-11 cellulose column chromatography and by their ionic-strength-dependent sensitivity to hydrolysis by RNase A. The principal dsRNA products had estimated molecular weights of 4.3 /times/ 10 6 and 1.4 /times/ 10 6 . Cs 2 SO 4 equilibrium centrifugation of the virus preparation resolved a single peak of RNA polymerase activity that banded with a 35-nm spherical virus particle containing dsRNAs with molecular weights of 4.3 /times/ 10 6 and 1.4 /times/ 10 6 . The data suggest that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase associated with the 35-nm spherical virus is a replicase which catalyzes the synthesis of the genomic dsRNAs

  15. Characterization of single spore isolates of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach using conventional and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manju; Suman, B C; Gupta, Dharmesh

    2014-10-01

    Strains A-15, S11, S-140, and U3 of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach, were used as parent strains for raising single spore homokaryotic isolates. Out of total 1,642 single spore isolates, only 36 single spore isolates were homokaryons and exhibited slow mycelial growth rate (≤2.0 mm/day) and appressed colony morphology. All these SSIs failed to produce pinheads in Petri plates even after 65 days of incubation, whereas the strandy slow growing SSIs along with parent strains were able to form the fructification in petriplates after 30 days. Out of 24, six ISSR primers, exhibited scorable bands. In the ISSR fingerprints, single spore isolates, homokaryons, lacked amplification products at multiple loci; they grow slowly and all of them had appressed types of colony morphology. The study revealed losses of ISSR polymorphic patterns in non-fertile homokaryotic single spore isolates compared to the parental control or fertile heterokaryotic single spore isolates.

  16. Direct electrochemistry of dopamine on gold-Agaricus bisporus laccase enzyme electrode: characterization and quantitative detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervedani, Reza Karimi; Amini, Akbar

    2012-04-01

    Direct electrochemistry of a new laccase enzyme immobilized on gold and its application as a biosensor for dopamine (DA) are investigated by voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The sensor demonstrated a redox adsorption behavior with E(0') = + 180 mV vs. Ag/AgCl for immobilized Agaricus bisporus laccase (LacAB) enzyme. The MPA platform was assembled on Au with and without utilization of ultrasounds. Excellent results were obtained by using the enzyme electrode fabricated based on MPA assembled with sonication. The LacAB immobilized in this condition showed a large electrocatalytic activity for oxidation of DA. Accordingly, a third-generation (mediator free) biosensor was constructed for DA. The DA concentration could be measured in the linear range of 0.5 to 13.0 and 47.0 to 430.0 μmol L(-1) with correlation coefficients of 0.999 and 0.989, respectively, and a detection limit of 29.0 nmol L(-1). The biosensor was successfully tested for determination of DA in human blood plasma and pharmaceutical samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fresh-keeping of mushroom by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Xu Hongqing; Wang Hong; Cai Jian

    2003-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co γ irradiation on the preservation of Agaricus bisporus were studied. The results showed that after irradiation the mushroom had lower rates of membrane split, opening of pilei, browning, decomposition and lose of fresh weight. The fresh keeping period of mushroom irradiated with 1.2 kGy and stored at 4 degree C was prolonged to 30 days

  18. Accuracy of sampling during mushroom cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments described in this report were performed to increase the accuracy of the analysis of the biological efficiency of Agaricus bisporus strains. Biological efficiency is a measure of the efficiency with which the mushroom strains use dry matter in the compost to produce mushrooms (expressed

  19. AGARICUS BLAZEI MURRILL MUSHROOM COMPOST STUDY ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Rózsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compost for the production of Agaricus blazei Murrill mushrooms, is produced from wheat straw, straw-bedded horse manure, chicken manure and gypsum. The substrate is made in two processes called Phase I (anaerobic and Phase II (aerobic. Phase I includes mixing and moistening of the ingredients and a period of uncontrolled self-heating where temperatures will rise to 80ºC. Phase II starts with a pasteurization period of 8h at 56-60ºC and continues with a conditioning period at 45ºC for up to 7 days until volatile NH3 has been cleared from the process by air. Quality parameters for compost cannot be established directly. Moisture and nitrogen contents and pH can be adjusted at the start of Phase I, but the values will be affected during processing. In this paperwork, we studied the physical properties (water content, electrical conductivity and chemical composition (pH, organic matter, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, ammonia of four recipes of compost: classical, synthetic, mixt and original. During the experience, we recorded every hour the compost and the air temperature and the air relative humidity. The highest yield was obtained on synthetic compost with 42 kg mushrooms on 100 kg of compost.

  20. Identification of Resistance to Wet Bubble Disease and Genetic Diversity in Wild and Cultivated Strains of Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of wet bubble disease (WBD caused by Mycogone perniciosa are increasing across the world and seriously affecting the yield of Agaricus bisporus. However, highly WBD-resistant strains are rare. Here, we tested 28 A. bisporus strains for WBD resistance by inoculating M. perniciosa spore suspension on casing soil, and assessed genetic diversity of these strains using 17 new simple sequence repeat (SSR markers developed in this study. We found that 10 wild strains originating from the Tibetan Plateau in China were highly WBD-resistant strains, and 13 cultivated strains from six countries were highly susceptible strains. A total of 88 alleles were detected in these 28 strains, and the observed number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8. Cluster and genetic structure analysis results revealed the wild resources from China have a relatively high level of genetic diversity and occur at low level of gene flow and introgression with cultivated strains. Moreover, the wild strains from China potentially have the consensus ancestral genotypes different from the cultivated strains and evolved independently. Therefore, the highly WBD-resistant wild strains from China and newly developed SSR markers could be used as novel sources for WBD-resistant breeding and quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping of WBD-resistant gene of A. bisporus.

  1. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON THE STUDDED AGARICUS BLAZEI MURRILL MUSHROOM COMPOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Rózsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Almond mushroom, Agaricus blazei Murrill, is the so-called secondary saprophyte, developing on partially processed substrate, in which microorganisms reduced complex ligno-cellulose compounds. Numerous authors have shown that due to the similar life cycle in the cultivation of almond mushroom technologies developed for white button mushroom may be applied. However, almond mushroom requires high temperature and high humidity as well as access to light to form fruiting bodies. In Brazil, due to the advantageous climatic conditions this species is frequently grown outdoors; however, in other countries - mainly due to its high temperature requirements - such cultivation system is risky and may only be successful during very warm summers. In this study, we analyzed four kind of compost studded by Agaricus blazei Murrill mushroom mycelium. We recorded every hour the air and compost temperature and the air relative humidity. The best studded compost was the classical, followed by synthetic and then by the mixt compost.

  2. Usage of Edible Mushrooms in Various Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Süfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of edible mushrooms which are generally consumed in houses in dried form is based on mainly instant soup and sauce formulations. Recently, the cultivations of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species have become widespread. Utilization of these cultivated mushrooms in recipes would bring added value to related food products. For this purpose, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species farmed in Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Mushroom House were dried and then pulverized. Firstly, a snack was prepared with Agaricus bisporus powder. Agaricus bisporus powder was substituted for wheat flour at the rates of 5 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 % and thus the potential of food product which had relatively lower carbohydrate and fat level and higher fiber content was investigated. In the second part of the study, either 5 %, 10 % of Agaricus bisporus powder or 5 %, 10 % of Pleurotus ostreatus powder were added into traditional Turkish meatball (beef mince, salt which was cooked in conventional oven, so meat flavor could be replaced by herbal flavor coming from mushroom. This property mat obey the purpose that, the created new product will be consumed fondly especially by children. Sensory and physical (colour and texture analysis were performed in both snack and meatball samples and the results were evaluated statistically.

  3. Carbohydrate metabolism in Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach: metabolism of [14C] labelled sugars by sporophores and mycelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, J.B.W.; Nichols, R.

    1977-01-01

    When growing sporophores and vegetative mycelium of Agaricus bisporus had been supplied with [ 14 C] labelled hexoses for varying periods of time, the major compounds labelled in both forms were mannitol, trehalose, glutamate, alanine and an unidentified substance. Mannitol was strongly labelled after application of [ 14 C] fructose but only weakly when [ 14 C] glucose was applied. The relative rates of oxidation by sporophores of labelled mannitol, trehalose, glucose and fructose were assessed by measuring 14 CO 2 production. Glucose and trehalose were the most rapidly oxidized substrates. Glucosephosphatase isomerase (E.C. 5.3.1.9) was extracted from sporohores and assayed. The conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate by the enzyme was competitively inhibited in vitro by 6-phosphogluconate. The control of mannitol synthesis and the functions of mannitol and trehalose are discussed. (author)

  4. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercu, V., E-mail: vbercu@gmail.co [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Negut, C.D., E-mail: dnegut@nipne.r [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Duliu, O.G., E-mail: duliu@b.astral.r [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania)

    2010-12-15

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of {gamma}-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel-Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom-Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle-Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom-Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  5. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercu, V.; Negut, C.D.; Duliu, O.G.

    2010-01-01

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of γ-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel-Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom-Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle-Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom-Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  6. Discoloration and tyrosinase activity in Agaricus bisporus fruit bodies infected with various pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler-Rivas, C.; Arpin, N.; Olivier, J.M.; Wichers, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    The discoloration of A. bisporus after infection by Pseudomonas tolaasii, P. gingeri, P. agarici, P. reactans, Verticillium fungicola and Trichoderma harzianum can be distinguished by chromametric measurements. Infection with P. tolaasii caused a specific colour change, independent of the bacterial

  7. Mushrooms preserved by the combined effect of refrigeration and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech, A.M.; Bauza de Faliti, M.; Bocklet, M.F.

    1990-01-01

    In this work, the combined effect of refrigeration and gamma irradiation on diverse physical parameters to be measured in mushrooms was studied. Mushrooms (Agaricus Campestris), 'bisporus' variety, of closed cap, were used. From the treatments tested, it was concluded that 0.5 KGy is the most suitable dosis to delay elongation, cap opening, stem length and surface moss growth. (Author) [es

  8. Possibility of environmentally-safe casing soil disinfection for control of cobweb disease of button mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Potočnik Ivana; Rekanović Emil; Stepnović Miloš; Milijašević-Marčić Svetlana; Todorović Biljana; Nikolić-Bujanović Ljiljana; Čekerevac Milan

    2014-01-01

    The soil-borne pathogen Cladobotryum dendroides causes cobweb disease of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and its significant yield losses. Casing soil disinfection by toxic formaldehyde is a widespread practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of two environmentally friendly substances, colloidal silver and peracetic acid, against C. dendroides. Their biological efficacy (impact on mushroom yield), effectiveness (disease control) ...

  9. Determination of cesium and selenium in cultivated mushrooms using radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, L.; Bumbalova, A.; Harangozo, M.; Toelgyessy, J.; Tomecek, O.

    2000-01-01

    Cesium and selenium intake of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), with these elements previously added to culture medium, has been examined from the viewpoint of health- and environmental protection. The process of measuring has been carried out by the radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique. Treatments of the elementary substance with Se salt appears to influence the Se content of the mushrooms to a significant extent. Cs intake is of considerable importance, as this element is accumulated by mushrooms. (author)

  10. Identification and Control of Cladobotryum spp., Causal Agents of Cobeweb Disease of Cultivated Mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Potočnik

    2009-01-01

    Cladobotryum spp. are causal agents of cobweb disease, one of the most serious diseases of cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach) in Serbia and worldwide, which affects product quality and yield. The disease symptoms are: cottony fluffy white or yellowish to pink colonies on mushroom casing, rapid colonization of casing surface, covering of host basidiomata by mycelia, and their decay. Prochloraz-Mn has been officially recommended for mushroom cultivation in EU countries. Howe...

  11. The Medicinal Values of Culinary-Medicinal Royal Sun Mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM, a mushroom native to Brazil, is a basidiomycete brown fungus, which is popularly known as “Cogumelo do Sol” in Brazil or “Himematsutake” in Japan, and there has been a prominent increase in the use of ABM for therapeutic and medicinal purposes. ABM is useful against a variety of diseases like cancer, tumor, chronic hepatitis, diabetes, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, and so on. In this review, we demonstrated various pharmacological effects of ABM, so that we can use different effects of ABM against different diseases and provide reference for the study of ABM in the future.

  12. Irradiation of mushrooms (Agaricus campestris L) to extend their shelf-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.

    1990-01-01

    Mushrooms (Agaricus campestris L) were irradiated with 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 kGy, being then stored either at 10 deg C ± 1 deg C or at room temperature (20 deg C ± 2 deg C), with the purpose of determining the most convenient condition to extend their shelf-life. It is concluded that 3.0 kGy and 10 deg C are the most suitable for that, leading to the inhibition of cap opening and stem elongation, less darkening and no evidence of fungal development until 17th day. Subsequentely almost a duplication of their shelf-life was obtained. (Author) [es

  13. How (post-)genomic insights can provide new leads for improvements of mushroom cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Post, H.; Zhou, Miaomiao; Jurak, E.; Heck, A.; Hildén, K.; Kabel, M.A.; Makela, M.R.; Altelaar, Maarten; Vries, De Ronald P.

    2016-01-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on
    decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest
    litter and contributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in

  14. How (post-)genomic insights can provide new leads for improvements of mushroom cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Post, Harm; Zhou, Miaomiao; Jurak, Edita; Heck, Albert; Hildén, Kristiina S.; Kabel, Mirjam; Mäkelä, Miia R.; Altelaar, Maarten; de Vries, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest litter and contributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in plant biomass.

  15. Effects of cellular structure and cell wall components on water holding capacity of mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Boom, Remko M.; Haaren, van Els; Siccama, Joanne; Sman, van der Ruud G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In a sequel of papers we have investigated effects of different physical contributions to the water holding capacity of foods by considering the common white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). In the current paper of our sequel, we consider individual contributions of the cellular phase to

  16. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercu, V.; Negut, C. D.; Duliu, O. G.

    2010-12-01

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of γ-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel— Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom— Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle— Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom— Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  17. Cytotoxic Effect on Human Myeloma Cells and Leukemic Cells by the Agaricus blazei Murill Based Mushroom Extract, Andosan™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon-Magnus Tangen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murill is an edible mushroom of the Basidiomycetes family, which has been found to contain a number of compounds with antitumor properties, such as proteoglycans and ergosterol. In the present investigation, we show that the commercial mushroom product Andosan, which contains 82.4% Agaricus blazei Murill, together with medicinal mushrooms Hericium erinaceus (14.7% and Grifola frondosa (2.9%, has a cytotoxic effect on primary myeloma cells, other myeloma cell lines, and leukemia cell lines in vitro. Although the exact content and hence the mechanisms of action of the Andosan extract are unknown, we have found in this investigation indications of cell cycle arrest when myeloma cell lines are cultivated with Andosan. This may be one of the possible explanations for the cytotoxic effects of Andosan.

  18. Diversity of edible mushrooms in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, K.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Iftikhar, F.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty six edible species of mushrooms are reported from Pakistan including four from Balochistan, three from Sindh, five from Punjab and 44 from NWFP and Azad Kashmir. Some of species being commercially exploited in the world are Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia spp. Coprinus comatus, Flammulina vellutipes, Lentinus edodes, Phellorina inquinans, Pleurotus ostreatus, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Volvariella volvacea. Because of over collection, urbanization and deforestation, some of species are threatened of extinction. (author)

  19. Royal Sun Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricomycetes), Supplement in Training Capacity Improvement Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flávio F; de Oliveira, Guilherme A C; Costa, Hugo C Martins; Regis, Wiliam C B

    2017-01-01

    People seek a greater quality of life and healthy aging that culminates in improved self-esteem and vitality in the performance of daily activities; this is generating a growing number of people enrolled in gyms in search of quick results. However, this training can result in physical and metabolic damage. During physical exercise, under conditions of oxidative stress, changes take place that lead to the onset of fatigue. The Agaricus brasiliensis mushroom is native to Brazil and has therapeutic potential, with widely studied antioxidant and immunomodulatory capabilities. However, little is known about its potential benefits regarding muscular strength. Therefore, this study evaluated the possible effects of supplementation with this mushroom with respect to strength performance before and after a resistance training session. A blinded randomized trial was performed with male volunteers (n = 5) randomly divided into 2 groups (placebo and treatment with A. brasiliensis). Perceptions of muscle soreness and performance were assessed before and after high-intensity resistance training sessions. The study was executed over a 24-day period. Promising results were found related to intrasession rapid strength, most likely a result of antioxidant action and redox balance. The bioactive compounds in A. brasiliensis revealed the potential to improve conditions of muscle fatigue without altering other parameters. Thus, this mushroom has become a target of great expectations in the fields of fitness and athletics.

  20. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of phorid and sciarid flies in mushroom crops

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, María Jesús; Gea, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and S. carpocapsae, to control mushroom flies and to evaluate the effect of these treatments on Agaricus bisporus production. Two mushroom cultivation trials were carried out in controlled conditions, in substrate previously infested with the diptera Megaselia halterata and Lycoriella auripila, with two treatments: 106infective juveniles (IJ) per square meter of S. feltiae and 0.5x106IJ m-2S. feltiae...

  1. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animals and humans show decrements in motor control, cognition, and brain function during normal aging, partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent studies have identified a number of fruits and vegetables, whose phytochemical make-up contains potent antioxidant ...

  2. Genome-wide survey of repetitive DNA elements in the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foulongne-Oriol, M.; Murat, C.; Castanera, R.; Ramírez, L.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive DNA elements are ubiquitous constituents of eukaryotic genomes. The biological roles of these repetitive elements, supposed to impact genome organization and evolution, are not completely elucidated yet. The availability of whole genome sequence offers the opportunity to draw a picture of

  3. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  4. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction to obtain mycosterols from Agaricus bisporus L. by response surface methodology and comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, Sandrina A; Diz, Patrícia; Prieto, M A; Barros, Lillian; Rodrigues, Alírio; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-15

    Ergosterol, a molecule with high commercial value, is the most abundant mycosterol in Agaricus bisporus L. To replace common conventional extraction techniques (e.g. Soxhlet), the present study reports the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for ergosterol. After preliminary tests, the results showed that solvents, time and ultrasound power altered the extraction efficiency. Using response surface methodology, models were developed to investigate the favourable experimental conditions that maximize the extraction efficiency. All statistical criteria demonstrated the validity of the proposed models. Overall, ultrasound-assisted extraction with ethanol at 375 W during 15 min proved to be as efficient as the Soxhlet extraction, yielding 671.5 ± 0.5mg ergosterol/100 g dw. However, with n-hexane extracts with higher purity (mg ergosterol/g extract) were obtained. Finally, it was proposed for the removal of the saponification step, which simplifies the extraction process and makes it more feasible for its industrial transference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Agaricus brasiliensis (sun mushroom) affects the expression of genes related to cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Aline Mayrink; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Souza E Silva, Lorena; Dos Santos, Rinaldo Cardoso; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2017-06-01

    The sun mushroom (Agaricus brasiliensis) is considered a major source of bioactive compounds with potential health benefits. Mushrooms typically act as lipid-lowering agents; however, little is known about the mechanisms of action of A. brasiliensis in biological systems. This study aimed to determine the underlying mechanism involved in the cholesterol-lowering effect of A. brasiliensis through the assessment of fecal and serum lipid profiles in addition to gene expression analysis of specific transcription factors, enzymes, and transporters involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Twenty-four albino Fischer rats approximately 90 days old, with an average weight of 205 g, were divided into four groups of 6 each and fed a standard AIN-93 M diet (C), hypercholesterolemic diet (H), hypercholesterolemic diet +1 % A. brasiliensis (HAb), or hypercholesterolemic diet +0.008 % simvastatin (HS) for 6 weeks. Simvastatin was used as a positive control, as it is a typical drug prescribed for lipid disorders. Subsequently, blood, liver, and feces samples were collected for lipid profile and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction gene expression analyses. Diet supplementation with A. brasiliensis significantly improved serum lipid profiles, comparable to the effect observed for simvastatin. In addition, A. brasiliensis dietary supplementation markedly promoted fecal cholesterol excretion. Increased expression of 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), ATP-binding cassette subfamily G-transporters (ABCG5/G8), and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) was observed following A. brasiliensis administration. Our results suggest that consumption of A. brasiliensis improves the serum lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats by modulating the expression of key genes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism.

  6. An extract of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill can protect against allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetland Geir

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM is an edible Brazilian mushroom that has been used in traditional medicine for a range of diseases. It has been shown to have anti-infection and anti-tumor properties in the mouse, which are due to induction of Th1 responses. On the other hand, IgE-mediated allergy is induced by a Th2 response. Objective Since according to the Th1/Th2 paradigm an increased Th1 response may promote a reduced Th2 response, the aim was to examine whether AbM had anti-allergy effects. Methods A mouse model for allergy was employed, in which the mice were immunized s.c. with the model allergen ovalbumin (OVA. Additionally, the animals were given a mushroom extract, AndoSan™, mainly (82% containing AbM, but also Hericium erinaceum (15% and Grifola frondosa (3%, or PBS p.o. either a day before or 19 days after the immunization. The mice were sacrificed on day 26, and anti-OVA IgE (Th2 response and IgG2a (Th1 response antibodies were examined in serum and Th1, Th2 and Treg cytokines in spleen cells cultures. Results It was found that the AndoSan™ extract both when given either before or after OVA immunization reduced the levels of anti-OVA IgE, but not IgG2a, in the mice. There was a tendency to reduced Th2 relative to Th1 cytokine levels in the AndoSan™ groups. Conclusion This particular AbM extract may both prevent allergy development and be used as a therapeutical substance against established allergy.

  7. The Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill: Review of Literature and Pharmaco-Toxicological Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Firenzuoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM popularly known as ‘Cogumelo do Sol’ in Brazil, or ‘Himematsutake’ in Japan, is a mushroom native to Brazil, and widely cultivated in Japan for its medicinal uses, so it is now considered as one of the most important edible and culinary-medicinal biotechnological species. It was traditionally used to treat many common diseases like atherosclerosis, hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, dermatitis and cancer. In vitro and in vivo ABM has shown immunomodulatory and antimutagenic properties, although the biological pathways and chemical substances involved in its pharmacological activities are still not clear. The polysaccharides phytocomplex is thought to be responsible for its immunostimulant and antitumor properties, probably through an opsonizing biochemical pathway. Clinical studies are positive confirmations, but we are still at the beginning, and there are perplexing concerns especially relative to the content of agaritine. Argantine is a well-known carcinogenic and toxic substance in animals, that must be completely and fully evaluated.

  8. WLIP, a lipodepsipeptide of Pseudomonas 'reactans', as inhibitor of the symptoms of the brown blotch disease of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler Rivas, C.; Arpin, N.; Olivier, J.M.; Wichers, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    A cell-free crude extract containing the white line inducing principle (WLIP), a lipodepsipeptide produced by Pseudomonas 'reactans', could inhibit browning of mushrooms caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii. Mushrooms inoculated with Ps. tolaasii at concentrations of 2.7 x 106 cfu ml-1 or higher showed

  9. Desarrollo del cultivo de Agaricus bisporus en Brasil: suplementación del compost y utilización de híbridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cunha Zied

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La utilización de variedades híbridas de Agaricus bisporus de origen conocido no es una práctica habitual en los cultivos de Brasil. Por otro lado, tampoco se encuentra establecida la práctica de la suplementación, consistente en la adición al compost de sustancias nutritivas al final de la fase II del proceso de compostaje. El objetivo del presente trabajo es el estudio del efecto sobre la producción, en cultivos de champiñón en condiciones controladas, de la aplicación al compost de dos dosis de un suplemento comercial utilizando dos variedades híbridas de champiñón diferentes. Se han llevado a cabo para ello dos ciclos de cultivo. Los rendimientos se ven positivamente afectados como consecuencia de la suplementación, de manera significativa con la variedad del tipo híbrido blanco liso. Esta variedad proporciona mayor número de carpóforos y mayores rendimientos que la del tipo híbrido blanco grueso, aunque los champiñones presentaron menor tamaño. Los parámetros de producción cualitativos no han visto afectados como consecuencia de la suplementación. Esta práctica supone incrementos moderados de la temperatura del compost durante la fase de crecimiento vegetativo. Los resultados obtenidos confirman el interés de la suplementación del compost para aumentar la productividad.

  10. Effect of gamma radiations on some organoleptic qualities of mushroom (Agraricus Bisporus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.

    1985-01-01

    Edible mushrooms were picked at a stretched-veil stage and irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5 kGy. The samples were studied for the organileptic characteristics in function of storage time and irradiation doses. No significant difference of irradiation was observed immediately on the colour, odour, flavour or texture of mushrooms. During storage the colour and texture of irradiated lots were superior as compared to unirradiated samples. Higher doses of irradiation brought about significantly favourable results in these qualities during storage. Odour and flavour did not differ significantly in all the treatments. Irradiated mushrooms were found to be better (hard) in texture when the measurements were made with a texturometer. Ionizing radiation exerted a favourable influence upon the organoleptic properties of picked mushrooms. (author)

  11. Characterization of Species of Cladobotryum which Cause Cobweb Disease in Edible Mushrooms Grown in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Back, Chang-Gi; Lee, Chang-Yun; Seo, Geon-Sik; Jung, Hee-Young

    2012-01-01

    Four Cladobotryum isolates were collected from four different commercially grown mushroom types infected with cobweb disease in Cheongdo-gun and Chilgok-gun of Gyeongbuk Province, Korea in 2010. The isolates were identified as C. mycophilum from Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus eryngii, C. varium from Flammulina velutipes and Hypsizygus marmoreus. The cultural characteristics of the four isolates were investigated using potato dextrose agar (PDA) media under nine different temperatures ranging...

  12. Genetic and Morphological Characterization of Cladobotryum Species Causing Cobweb Disease of Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Gareth J.; Egan, Damian; Morris, Elizabeth; Scott, Carol; Brown, Averil E.

    1999-01-01

    Cladobotryum dendroides (= Dactylium dendroides) has hitherto been regarded as the major causal agent of cobweb disease of the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Nucleotide sequence data for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of four Cladobotryum/Hypomyces species reported to be associated with cobweb disease, however, indicate that the most common pathogen is now C. mycophilum. This cobweb pathogen varies somewhat in conidial septation from published descriptions of C. mycoph...

  13. Composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei na dieta de frangos de corte Spent mushroom substrate of Agaricus blazei in broiler chicks diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Batista Machado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da substituição de um antibiótico por diferentes níveis do composto exaurido do cogumelo (CEC Agaricus blazei sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Foram avaliadas sete dietas, seis com adição de CEC (0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0% e uma com antibiótico (avilamicina 10 ppm. Foram utilizados 588 pintos de 1 dia de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições por dieta (três por sexo e 14 aves por unidade experimental. As aves que não receberam qualquer aditivo na dieta apresentaram os piores resultados de desempenho. Níveis de CEC superiores a 0,4% ocasionaram redução gradual no desempenho. O nível de 0,2% de CEC proporcionou o maior ganho de peso e o de 0,21%, a melhor conversão alimentar e o maior consumo de ração. À exceção do rendimento de peito e do rendimento de gordura abdominal, os aditivos não influenciaram os rendimentos de carcaça e dos cortes. O composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei pode ser utilizado como aditivo alternativo ao antibiótico no nível de 0,2% da dieta, pois não prejudicou o desempenho produtivo e o rendimento de carcaça das aves.The effect of the substitution of an antibiotic by different levels of spent mushroom substrate (SMS of Agaricus blazei on the performance of broiler chicks from 1 to 42 days old was evaluated. Seven diets were evaluated, six with SMS addiction (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0% and one with antibiotic (avilamycin 10 ppm. A total of 588 one day old chicks was allotted to a complete randomized design, with six replications per diet (three per sex and 14 birds per experimental unit. The birds fed diet with any additive showed the worst performance results. Levels of SMS above 0.4% caused gradual reduction in the performance. The level of 0.2% of SMS provided the highest value of weight gain and of 0.21% promoted the best feed conversion and the highest value of feed intake

  14. The first report on mushroom green mould disease in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatvani, Lóránt; Sabolić, Petra; Kocsubé, Sándor; Kredics, László; Czifra, Dorina; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kaliterna, Joško; Ivić, Dario; Đermić, Edyta; Kosalec, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Green mould disease, caused by Trichoderma species, is a severe problem for mushroom growers worldwide, including Croatia. Trichoderma strains were isolated from green mould-affected Agaricus bisporus (button or common mushroom) compost and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) substrate samples collected from Croatian mushroom farms. The causal agents of green mould disease in the oyster mushroom were T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola, similar to other countries. At the same time, the pathogen of A. bisporus was exclusively the species T. harzianum, which is different from earlier findings and indicates that the range of mushroom pathogens is widening. The temperature profiles of the isolates and their hosts overlapped, thus no range was found that would allow optimal growth of the mushrooms without mould contamination. Ferulic acid and certain phenolic compounds, such as thymol showed remarkable fungistatic effect on the Trichoderma isolates, but inhibited the host mushrooms as well. However, commercial fungicides prochloraz and carbendazim were effective agents for pest management. This is the first report on green mould disease of cultivated mushrooms in Croatia.

  15. Mushrooms preserved by the combined effect of refrigeration and gamma irradiation; Champinones conservados por el efecto combinado de refrigeracion e irradiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, A M; Bauza de Faliti, M; Bocklet, M F

    1991-12-31

    In this work, the combined effect of refrigeration and gamma irradiation on diverse physical parameters to be measured in mushrooms was studied. Mushrooms (Agaricus Campestris), `bisporus` variety, of closed cap, were used. From the treatments tested, it was concluded that 0.5 KGy is the most suitable dosis to delay elongation, cap opening, stem length and surface moss growth. (Author). [Espanol] En este trabajo se ha estudiado el efecto combinado de la refrigeracion y la irradiacion gamma sobre los diversos parametros fisicos medibles en el champinon. Se utilizaron hongos del genero Agaricus Campestris, variedad bisporus, de sombrero cerrado. De los tratamientos ensayados, se ha demostrado tener efecto util la dosis de 0,5 KGy ya que se logro retardar crecimiento, apertura del sombrero, largo del pie y desarrollo de mohos en superficie. (Autor).

  16. [What potentialities does the four-spored mushroom "Agaricus bitorquis (Quél.) Sacc." offer to the breeder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, G

    1976-05-01

    A. bitorquis was first taken into cultivation in 1968. It differs from A.bisporus, the only mushroom cultivated previously, in a range of properties. The claims for temperature are about 5° C higher. The fruitbodies (white smooth) are more vigorous than the sporophores of the white, scale-less strains of A.bisporus. Especially valuable characteristics which A. bitorquis brings are virus resistance, resistance to pressure, easy pickability and longer shelflife. The basidia have 4 instead of 2 spores. Consequently monosporecultures are infertile and systematic crossbreeding is a suitable breeding method.Because the hyphae do not form clamp connections, it is not possible to distinguish microscopically monocaryotic and dicaryotic mycelium. As the trials have shown, however, the compatibility of the monospore cultures can be recognized by the manner of mycelium growth on biomalt-agar. Where heterocaryotic mycelium has arisen matted, slow growing mycelium can turn into fluffy, and later on stringy fast-growing mycelium. With enough ventilation condensations of mycelium can be formed. Some combinations of monospore-cultures of different origin showed very significantly higher yields than the parental wild types, whereas other combinations of two monospore cultures were very significantly lower in yield than the parents. The combination of parental wildtypes scarcely differed in yield from the wildtype self. Regarding the course of the yield there were big differences in general.The strains also showed great variability in the shape and colour of the fruitbodies, their distribution on the bed and in other properties, such as the propensity of the mycelium to grow into the casing layer. The results are discussed.

  17. Purification and Characterization of Melanogenic Enzyme Tyrosinase from Button Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Uddin Zaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway for the formation of the pigment melanin in human skin. A key enzyme, tyrosinase, catalyzes the first and only rate-limiting steps in melanogenesis. Since the discovery of its melanogenic properties, tyrosinase has been in prime focus and microbial sources of the enzyme are sought. Agaricus bisporus widely known as the common edible mushroom, it’s taking place in high amounts of proteins, enzyme, carbohydrates, fibers, and low fat contents are frequently cited in the literature in relation to their nutritional value. In the present study tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose; the enzyme was purified, 16.36-fold to give 26.6% yield on total activity in the crude extract and final specific activity of 52.19 U/mg. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed a migrating protein band molecular weight of 95 kDa. The purified tyrosinase was optimized and the results revealed that the optimum values are pH 7.0 and temperature 35°C. The highest activity was reported towards its natural substrate, L-DOPA, with an apparent Km value of 0.933 mM. This indicated that tyrosinase purified from Agaricus bisporus is a potential source for medical applications.

  18. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  19. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda NAGY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the consumption of mushrooms has significantly increased due to the scientific evidence of their ability to help the organism in the combat and prevention of several diseases (Kalac, 2009. Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are consumed as a delicacy for their texture and flavour, but also for their nutritional properties that makes them even more attractable (Heleno S. 2015. In this paper data were collected from several scientific studies with the aim to characterize the chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds of various mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lactarius piperatus. The chemical composition of 5 wild edible studied mushrooms, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total sugars, crude fat, crude protein and energy were determined according to AOAC procedures.

  20. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  1. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Di Piero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas

  2. Abundance and distribution of Microdispus lambi (Acari: Microdispidae) in Spanish mushroom crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, María-Jesús; Gea, Francisco-José; Escudero-Colomar, L Adriana

    2010-04-01

    The myceliophagous mite Microdispus lambi has become a veritable plague since 1996, when it was first observed in Spanish mushroom crops, and is now causing substantial economic losses, particulary in spring and summer. This study looks at seasonal variation of the pest, its distribution on commercial farms and the population development during the crop cycle of the common white mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Over a period of 18 months, 24 consecutive mushroom crop cycles were monitored and a total of 24 spawn and 960 substrate samples were analysed. We found that it is usually the substrates in the growing rooms that are infested, most commonly the compost. In many cases, the pest can be detected when the first 'flush'-i.e., mushroom growth surge, with weekly periodicity-is harvested, although damage does not become evident until the third flush. Mites were detected at the back of the mushroom growing room and, to a lesser extent, near the access door.

  3. Casing layer and effect of primordia induction in the production of Agaricus subrufescens mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Tokuda Martos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus subrufescens growers have faced difficulties in standardizing and maintaining optimal production yield, even when they produce or acquire quality substrate, as cultivation success is also related to the quality of the casing layer and the production environment. The production of A. subrufescens was evaluated using different casing layers and methods for primordia induction. Three experiments were carried out: 1 to evaluate the effect of dolomitic limestone in the casing layer; 2 to evaluate the effect of different combinations of mineral and organic materials used as the casing layer; and 3 to evaluate the effect of temperature in primordia induction with two commercial strains. The results demonstrated that an increase in the limestone concentration in the casing resulted in a superior yield (16.7%. Casing layer combinations using organic substrate + sand (proportion 1:1, volume to volume resulted in a greater yield (19.2%. Temperature did not affect primordia induction.

  4. Preserving and Maintaining Culinary-Medicinal Royal Sun Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricomycetes), in Sterile Distilled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Del-Rlo, L M; Montoya, Sandra; Sepulveda-Arias, J C

    2017-01-01

    Strains of Agaricus brasiliensis require special procedures for conservation. Thus, the objective of this research was to establish conservation and maintenance procedures A. brasiliensis strain PSWC838 from the University of Pennsylvania (ABWC838) and an A. brasiliensis strain from the Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (ABC). The medium in which mycelia grew the quickest for both strains was selected using a multifactorial design with 2 strains, 4 culture media, and incubation for 5 different times; the growth rate (mm/day) was the response variable. Analysis of variance showed that the potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and potato extract did not display a significantly different growth rate, and PDA was selected for safety reasons. We also evaluated the viability of the strains grown on PDA and 0.2% activated carbon after 3 months of storage in sterile distilled water. A factorial design was applied with 2 factors, the strain and incubation for 10 different times. The Tukey post hoc test indicated that ABC showed quicker and more homogeneous growth than ABWC838. Finally, the results showed that pieces of mycelium of ABC and ABWC838 strains inoculated on the PDA medium with 0.2% activated carbon and preserved in sterile distilled water at 18 ± 1°C showed 100% viability after 3 months of storage. Moreover, the results of semiquantitative biochemical tests confirmed that the production of laccases and amylases was preserved in these strains after storage in sterile water, enhancing their ability to degrade substrates containing lignin and starchy waste.

  5. Biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimala, R., E-mail: vimararagu@yahoo.co.in [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Das, Nilanjana [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-08-30

    Sorption capacity of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus platypus), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) were evaluated on biosorption of heavy metals, viz. cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for each metal separately. The desired pH of the aqueous solution was found to be 6.0 for the removal of cadmium (II) and 5.0 for removal of lead (II) for all the mushrooms. The percent removal of both the metals was found to increase with the increase in biosorbent dosage and contact time. The fitness of the biosorption data for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models was investigated. It was found that biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions onto the biomass of the three mushrooms were better suitable to Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. P. platypus showed the highest metal uptake potential for cadmium (q{sub max} 34.96 mg/g) whereas A. bisporus exhibited maximum potential for lead (q{sub max} 33.78 mg/g). Milky mushroom showed the lowest metal uptake capacity for both the metals. The present data confirms that mushrooms may be used as efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution.

  6. Avaliação da coloração de basidiocarpos desidratados de Agaricus blazei segundo escala de Munsell Evaluation of the dehydrated fruiting bodies of the mushroom Agaricus blazei according to Munsell colour scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida da Fonseca Delú

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a coloração final de basidiocarpos desidratados de Agaricus blazei, após serem submetidos a tratamento com ácidos ascórbico e cítrico. Para tanto, utilizaram-se cogumelos A. blazei, cultivados em substrato apropriado e mantidos em estufa. Os cogumelos foram colhidos com o píleo totalmente fechado e após a limpeza em água corrente, os basidiocarpos foram seccionados ao meio no sentido longitudinal, sendo uma metade submetida ao tratamento experimental e a outra metade representando o tratamento controle. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram da imersão das metades dos basidiocarpos em solução de ácido ascórbico comercial nas concentrações de 0, 10, 20 e 30 mg/L durante 0, 2, 5, 10, 15 ou 20 minutos. Para o ácido cítrico foram testadas as mesmas concentrações anteriores, porém nos tempos de imersão de 0, 10 e 15 minutos. Todos os tratamentos consistiram de 3 repetições cada. Não se observou relação entre os tratamentos utilizados com a coloração final dos basidiocarpos, embora a utilização de substâncias ácidas tenha possibilitado a obtenção de basidiocarpos desidratados mais próximos daquela coloração considerada ideal para comercialização.The main aim of this work was to evaluate the final colour of the fructification bodies of the mushroom Agaricus blazei submitted to ascorbic and citric acid treatment. The mushroom Agaricus blazei was cultivated in an appropriated substrate and storage in incubators. The mushroom was harvested containing closed pileus and after cleaning with running tap water, the fruiting bodies were sliced and half of each were submitted to acid treatment and half was the control (water immersion. The experimental treatment consisted of immersing half of each basiodiocarp in different concentrations of the commercial solution of ascorbic acid (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml during 0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. The other parts of fruiting bodies were

  7. Vitamin D2 Stability During the Refrigerated Storage of Ultraviolet B-Treated Cultivated Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Jablonska-Rys, Ewa; Parfieniuk, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation on the synthesis of vitamin D2 and its stability during refrigerated storage was determined in fresh cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lentinus edodes) after harvest. The irradiated mushrooms were stored at 4°C for up to 10 days. The concentrations of vitamin D2 and ergosterol were determined using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The cultivated mushrooms not treated with UVB were devoid of vitamin D2. After UVB irradiation, we obtained mushrooms with a large amount of ergocalciferol. A. bisporus showed the lowest vitamin D2 content (3.55 ± 0.11 μg D2/g dry weight); P. ostreatus contained 58.96 ± 1.15 μg D2/g dry weight, and L. edodes contained 29.46 ± 2.21 μg/g dry weight. During storage at 4°C, the amount of vitamin D2 was gradually decreased in P. ostreatus and L. edodes, whereas in A. bisporus vitamin D2 gradually increased until the sixth day, then decreased. Mushrooms exposed to UVB radiation contain a significant amount of vitamin D2 and are therefore an excellent food source of vitamin D.

  8. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: An application to quantification of mushroom volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Dugo, Paola [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus-Biomedico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Roma (Italy); Mondello, Luigi, E-mail: lmondello@unime.it [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus-Biomedico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Roma (Italy)

    2013-04-03

    Highlights: ► Multiple headspace extraction-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) has been applied to the analysis of Agaricus bisporus. ► Mushroom flavor is characterized by the presence of compounds with a 8-carbon atoms skeleton. ► Formation of 8-carbon compounds involves a unique fungal biochemical pathway. ► The MHS-SPME allowed to determine quantitatively 5 target analytes of A. bisporus for the first time. -- Abstract: Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and flame ionization detection (GC–FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033–0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111–0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3–108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented.

  9. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: An application to quantification of mushroom volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Multiple headspace extraction-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) has been applied to the analysis of Agaricus bisporus. ► Mushroom flavor is characterized by the presence of compounds with a 8-carbon atoms skeleton. ► Formation of 8-carbon compounds involves a unique fungal biochemical pathway. ► The MHS-SPME allowed to determine quantitatively 5 target analytes of A. bisporus for the first time. -- Abstract: Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and flame ionization detection (GC–FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033–0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111–0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3–108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented

  10. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: patricialandim@ig.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; lilian.Pavanelli@terra.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)

  11. Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Products as a Potential Source of Vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernas, Emilia; Jaworska, Grażyna

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of vitamin D deficiency has increased in recent years, mainly in Europe. The consumption of processed mushrooms may play an important role in preventing diseases associated with vitamin D deficiency. We determined the effects of 2 kinds of freezing (blast, cryogenic), canning (mild and strong brine), and drying (air-drying, freeze-drying) on the retention of vitamin D2 and ergosterol in Agaricus bisporus. Fresh and processed A. bisporus mushrooms can be a good dietary source of vitamin D2. After 12 months of storage, canned mushrooms retained the largest amount of vitamin D2 and ergosterol, whereas the smallest amount was retained in dried mushrooms. Cryogenic freezing resulted in higher levels of vitamin D2, whereas ergosterol levels were higher using air-blast freezing. The drying method had a significant effect only on ergosterol levels, which were higher in the case of freeze-drying. Room temperature gave the best results for storing dried mushrooms. In canned mushrooms, the type of brine had an effect only on levels of vitamin D2; retention was higher using the strong brine. Retention of vitamin D2 was higher at cool temperatures, whereas room temperature resulted in higher retention of ergosterol in the canned products.

  12. Blood parameters of sheep with high infection of Haemonchus contortus and treated with “mushroom of the sun” (Agaricus blazei

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    Gabriela Almeida Bastos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood and parasitological parameters of sheep experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and treated with “mushroom of the sun” (Agaricus blazei were assessed. Lambs infected with the nematode were divided into three groups: treated with basidiocarp powder from the fungus, wormed with trichlorfon, and a control group that did not receive anthelmintic. Split-plot design analysis was performed where the treatments were defined as plots and four periods of collection were defined as subplots. Interaction between the treatments and the collection periods for the fecal egg counts per gram of feces (FEC was observed. Treatment with “mushroom of the sun” showed anthelmintic efficacies ranging from 28.6 to 54.2%. Similar performances to weight gain were observed among the groups. A significant interaction between treatments and evaluation periods was observed for erythrocyte counts, hematocrit value, and serum concentrations of albumin and urea. The values of the mean corpuscular volume, erythrocyte distribution width, and leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts, as well as the mean platelet volume, varied among the collection days. The administration of “mushroom of the sun” significantly reduced the FEC, did not influence on the erythrocyte count and hematocrit value, which remained within normal limits. However it increased the serum concentrations of albumin.

  13. Comparison of Different Drying Methods for Recovery of Mushroom DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouxian; Liu, Yu; Xu, Jianping

    2017-06-07

    Several methods have been reported for drying mushroom specimens for population genetic, taxonomic, and phylogenetic studies. However, most methods have not been directly compared for their effectiveness in preserving mushroom DNA. In this study, we compared silica gel drying at ambient temperature and oven drying at seven different temperatures. Two mushroom species representing two types of fruiting bodies were examined: the fleshy button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and the leathery shelf fungus Trametes versicolor. For each species dried with the eight methods, we assessed the mushroom water loss rate, the quality and quantity of extracted DNA, and the effectiveness of using the extracted DNA as a template for PCR amplification of two DNA fragments (ITS and a single copy gene). Dried specimens from all tested methods yielded sufficient DNA for PCR amplification of the two genes in both species. However, differences among the methods for the two species were found in: (i) the time required by different drying methods for the fresh mushroom tissue to reach a stable weight; and (ii) the relative quality and quantity of the extracted genomic DNA. Among these methods, oven drying at 70 °C for 3-4 h seemed the most efficient for preserving field mushroom samples for subsequent molecular work.

  14. Identification and Control of Cladobotryum spp., Causal Agents of Cobeweb Disease of Cultivated Mushroom

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    Ivana Potočnik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cladobotryum spp. are causal agents of cobweb disease, one of the most serious diseases of cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach in Serbia and worldwide, which affects product quality and yield. The disease symptoms are: cottony fluffy white oryellowish to pink colonies on mushroom casing, rapid colonization of casing surface, covering of host basidiomata by mycelia, and their decay. Prochloraz-Mn has been officially recommended for mushroom cultivation in EU countries. However, inefficiency of prochloraz-Mn has been noted at a level of spotting symptoms of cobweb disease. With regard to cases of resistance evolution and a general threat to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on good programmes of hygiene, and inventing and developing alternative methods of disease control.

  15. The Effects of Light Intensity, Casing Layers, and Layering Styles on Royal Sun Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes) Cultivation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanacioglu, Neşe; Boztok, Kaya; Akdeniz, Ramazan Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the effects of light intensity, casing layers, and layering styles on the production of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis in Turkey. The experiments were designed in split-split plots and replicated twice. Three different light intensities-I1, 350 lux; I2, 450 lux; and I3, 750 lux-were used in main plots as environmental factors. A mixture of 4 different casing layers- peat (100%), peat-perlite (75%:25%), peat-clinoptilolite (75%:25%), and peat-perlite-clinoptilolite (60%:20%:20%)-were used at split plots and at split plots. S1, a flat, 3-cm casing layer; S2, a flat, 5-cm casing layer; and S3, casing soil ridges 10 cm wide × 4 cm high, 10 cm apart, were deposited on top of 1-cm overall soil casing layers. At the end of the harvest phase, the total yield was estimated per 100 kg of substrate. Biological efficiency (percentage) was determined from the fresh weight of the mushrooms and the dry weight of the compost at the end of the harvesting period. The highest total yield (7.2 kg/100 kg compost) and biological efficiency (27.63%) were achieved from I2 × peat-perlite-clinoptilolite × S2 treatment. Influence of light intensity, casing layer, layering style, and their interaction in treatments with color values (L*, a*, b*, chroma*, and hue*) also were examined. It has been shown that within color values, chroma* (saturation) values of mushroom caps were affected by light intensity, casing layer, and layering style treatments and light intensity × casing layer treatments and the brightness of mushroom caps tended to increase as light intensity increased.

  16. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  17. Partial purification and characterization of polyphenoloxidase from culinary-medicinal Royal Sun mushroom (the Himematsutake), Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al. (Agaricomycetideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto-Akanuma, Akiko; Akanuma, Satoshi; Motoi, Masuro; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Ohno, Naohito

    2011-01-01

    The Royal Sun mushroom, the Himematsutake culinary-medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis has several polyphenoloxidase activities in a broad sense. Here we report the partial purification of tyrosinase-type polyphenoloxidase (PPO). PPO is purified from A. brasiliensis without browning using a two-phase partitioning with Triton X-114 and ammonium sulfate fractionation. Partially denaturing SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis) staining with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine was performed and the indicated molecular sizes were approximately 70 kDa and 45 kDa. The purified enzyme is in its latent state and can be activated maximally in the presence of 1.6 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). This enzyme catalyzes two distinct reactions, monophenolase and diphenolase activity, and the monophenolase activity showed a lag time typical of polyphenoloxidase. The K(m) value for 4-tert-butylcatechol was quite similar in the presence and absence of SDS, but the apparent V(max) value was increased 2.0-fold by SDS. Mimosine was a typical competitive inhibitor with K(i) values of 138.2 microM and 281.0 microM n the presence and absence of SDS, respectively.

  18. Antimelanogenesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Hazwani Mat; Sim, Kae Shin; Tan, Yee Shin

    2018-01-01

    Five culinary-medicinal mushrooms are commonly available in the Malaysian market: Agaricus bisporus (white and brown), Ganoderma lucidum, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pleurotus floridanus, and P. pulmonarius. These species were selected for use in the current study, the aim of which was to investigate the antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activity of these mushrooms in an attempt to evaluate their potential use in cosmeceuticals. Mushroom fruiting bodies were extracted with hot water, and the extracts were freeze-dried before testing. The antimelanogenesis activity of the extracts was determined by cell viability assay, measurement of intracellular melanin content, and cellular tyrosinase assay with B16F10 melanoma cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of the mushroom extracts was tested by measuring the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin-10 excreted by RAW264.7 macrophages. Brown A. bisporus reduced intracellular melanin content to the largest extent-up to 57.05 ± 3.90%-without a cytotoxic effect on B16F10 melanoma cells. This extract also reduced cellular tyrosinase activity to 17.93 ± 2.65%, performing better than kojic acid, the positive control. In parallel, the extract from brown A. bisporus, at the highest concentration tested, has appreciable anti-inflammatory activity through reductions of NO and TNF-α levels. The other 5 extracts showed moderate antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities. In summary, our findings show that A. bisporus (brown) extract has the potential to be used as an ingredient in whitening skincare products and to sooth the inflammatory response on the skin.

  19. Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these mushrooms have effects similar to the drug LSD . Sometimes Called: shrooms, magic mushrooms How It's Used: ... this topic for: Teens Drugs: What to Know LSD Dealing With Addiction Marijuana Bath Salts Depressants GHB ...

  20. FEATURES OF VENTILATION CONDITIONS BY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN MINING UNDERGROUND WORKINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rendulić

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The trial cultivation of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus in one of the dead faces of the »Krš« pit of the Dalmatian bauxite mines Obrovac proved, that an optimal yield can be attained with the domestic mycelium. The decision has been brought to go on with investments into equipment for new growing-site locations in underground workings of the mine. In order to cultivate high-quality mushrooms, the ventilation of growing sites has been particularly considered. Compressive separate ventilation of growing fields has been applied using the main and the return ventilating pipeline, with the air current regulation according to the growing stage (the paper is published in Croatian.

  1. Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Crude Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Four Common Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Long Sun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Four crude water soluble polysaccharides, CABP, CAAP, CFVP and CLDP, were isolated from common edible mushrooms, including Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia auricula, Flammulina velutipes and Lentinus edodes, and their chemical characteristics and antioxidant properties were determined. Fourier Transform-infrared analysis showed that the four crude polysaccharides were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. The major monosaccharide compositions were D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose for CABP, CAAP and CLDP, while CFVP was found to consist of L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose. The main molecular weight distributions of CABP and the other three polysaccharides were 66.0 × 104 Da, respectively. Antioxidant properties of the four polysaccharides were evaluated in in vitro systems and CABP showed the best antioxidant properties. The studied mushroom species could potentially be used in part of well-balanced diets and as a source of antioxidant compounds.

  2. Shelf-life extension of packed mushroom (Agaricus sp.) by a combination of gamma radiation and low temperature storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, S.; Sharma, Arun; Thomas, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Gamma irradiation to a dose of 2 kGy coupled with storage at 10 degC was found to provide 2-3 fold enhancement in the shelf-life of button mushrooms with reduced energy requirement for storage. The study shows possible commercial application of this technology. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  3. Effect of ionizing radiations on some organoleptic characteristics of edible mushroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.; Vas, K.

    1974-01-01

    Organoleptic characteristics - colour, odour, flavour and texture - of edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) in different stages of ripeness (half-ripe, ripe) were examined as a function of radiation dose, storage time as well as storage temperature, and humidity (3-5 0 C, 70-90% RH; 16 0 C, 65-75% RH). Immediately after irradiation the mushrooms assumed a slight brownish hue which, however, did not change on further storage. The brown discoloration of untreated mushroom progressed in the course of storage. The colour of the irradiated mushroom scarcely changed with storage time, tested on the 6th, 11th or 13th day. Other properties examined (odour, flavour, texture) were not affected by irradiation, either immediately upon treatment or during further storage. Ionizing radiation was found to exert favourable influence upon the organoleptic properties of picked mushrooms, and to delay the deterioration of these properties. Radiation treatment was found to preserve the characteristic mushroom odour and this is considered an advantage in canning. (F.J.)

  4. Determination of Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn by ICP-OES in mushroom samples from Sakarya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Altıntığ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Russula cyanoxantha, Russula delica, Lactarius salmonicolor, Lactarius deliciosus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus spp and Boletus edulis were collected from Sakarya-Turkey respectively. Also canned food in the form of the Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lactarius salmonicolor mushrooms were used for the examination. Trace metal concentrations found in these mushrooms were determined inductively using coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry microwave processes. The results were obtained for (Cr 0.3-26.65, (Cu 17.38-132.75, (Fe 26.3-225.40, (Ni 2.57-39.28, (Pb 11.52-185.20, and (Zn 22.86-126.84 mg/kg. The accuracy of the method was checked by the standard reference material; tea leaves (INCY-TL-1 and tomato leaves (1573a.

  5. Microbial Community Structure of Casing Soil During Mushroom Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Wei-Ming; YAO Huai-Ying; FENG Wei-Lin; JIN Qun-Li; LIU Yue-Yan; LI Nan-Yi; ZHENG Zhong

    2009-01-01

    The culturable bacterial population and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)profile of casing soil were investigated at different mushroom (Agaricus bisporusI cropping stages.The change in soil bacterial PLFAs was always accompanied by a change in the soil culturable bacterial population in the first flush.Comparatively higher culturable bacterial population and bacterial PLFAs were found in the casing soil at the primordia formation stage of the first flush.There was a significant increase in the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs during mushroom growth.Multivariate analysis of PLFA data demonstrated that the mushroom cropping stage could considerably affect the microbial community structure of the casing soil.The bacterial population increased significantly from casing soil application to the primordia formation stage of the first flush.Casing soil application resulted in an increase in the ratio of gram-negative bacterial PLFAs to gram-positive bacterial PLFAs,suggesting that some gram-negative bacteria might play an important role in mushroom sporophore initiation.

  6. Agaricus subrufescens: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisitrassameewong, Komsit; Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Thongklang, Naritsada; Zhao, Ruilin; Callac, Philippe; Moukha, Serge; Férandon, Cyril; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have currently become a hot issue due to their various therapeutic properties. Of these, Agaricus subrufescens, also known as the “almond mushroom”, has long been valued by many societies (i.e., Brazil, China, France, and USA). Since its discovery in 1893, this mushroom has been cultivated throughout the world, especially in Brazil where several strains of A. subrufescens have been developed and used as health food and alternative medicine. This article presents up-to-date information on this mushroom including its taxonomy and health promoting benefits. Medicinal properties of A. subrufescens are emphasized in several studies which are reviewed here. In addition, safety issues concerning the use of this fungus will be discussed. PMID:23961172

  7. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life. PMID:25473510

  8. Possibility of environmentally-safe casing soil disinfection for control of cobwebdisease of button mushroom

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    Ivana Potočnik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil-borne pathogen Cladobotryum dendroides causes cobweb disease of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus and its significant yield losses. Casing soil disinfection by toxic formaldehyde is a widespread practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of two environmentally friendly substances, colloidal silver and peracetic acid, against C. dendroides. Their biological efficacy (impact on mushroom yield, effectiveness (disease control and type of interactions between them and the fungicide prochloraz-manganese were evaluated. Black peat/lime casing soil was applied to a colonized substrate with the white button mushroom strain 737, then inoculated with C. dendroides and treated with the fungicide prochloraz-manganse and two environmentally friendly disinfectants based on peracetic acid and colloidal silver. The effects of fungicides on mushroom productivity were evaluated as biological efficacy and calculated as a ratio of fresh weight of total mushroom yield to the weight of dry substrate. Fungicide effectiveness and synergy factor were calculated by Abbott’s (1925 formula. Tests for synergism between prochloraz-manganese and both other substances were performed using Limpel’s formula. The highest biolgical efficacy, exceeding 92.00, was achieved in treatments with prochlorazmanganese, applied alone or in combination with both other disinfectants. The highest effectiveness of 93.33% was attained in treatments with peracetic acid combined with prochloraz-manganese. Trials against cobweb disease revealed a synergistic reaction between the fungicide and peracetic acid and antagonistic between the fungicide and colloidal silver. Peracetic acid provided better disease control, compared to colloidal silver applied alone or in combination with the fungicide. Based on these findings, peracetic acid should be recomended as an environmentally friendly casing soil disinfectant against cobweb disease of A. bisporus.

  9. First study of hormesis effect on mushroom cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Dourado, Fernanda Aparecida; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2017-10-05

    The use of fungicides is common in mushroom cultivation, but no study was carried out applying reduced doses of fungicides in order to increase yield, taking account the hormesis effect. The aim of this manuscript was to verify the effects of different concentrations of fungicides to stimulate the productivity of different strains of Agaricus bisporus. Two stages were developed, an in vitro study to define the best concentration to be applied in the second experiment an agronomic study, which consisted of the application of the selected fungicides, in their respective concentrations, in an experiment carried out in the mushroom chamber. Clearly, the result of the hormesis effect on mushroom cultivation can be verified. The results obtained in the 1st stage of the study (in vitro) were not always reproduced in the 2nd stage of the study (in vivo). The kresoxim methyl active ingredient may be an important chemical agent, while strain ABI 15/01 may be an extremely important biological agent to increase yield in the study of hormesis effects.

  10. Attraction, Oviposition and Larval Survival of the Fungus Gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, on Fungal Species Isolated from Adults, Larvae, and Mushroom Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Kevin R.; Andreadis, Stefanos S.; Chen, Haibin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L. ingenua, we isolated several species of fungi from adult males and females, third instar larvae, and mushroom compost itself. We then analyzed the attraction of females to these substrates using a static-flow two choice olfactometer, as well as their oviposition tendencies in another type of assay under choice and no-choice conditions. We also assessed the survival of larvae to adulthood when first instar larvae were placed on each of the isolated fungal species. We found that female flies were attracted most to the mycoparasitic green mold, T. aggressivum, to Penicilium citrinum isolated from adult female bodies, and to Scatylidium thermophilium isolated from the mushroom compost. Gravid female flies laid the most eggs on T. aggressivum, Aspergillus flavus isolated from third instar larval frass, Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from adult male bodies, and on P. citrinum. This egg-laying trend remained consistent under no-choice conditions as females aged. First instar larvae developed to adulthood only on S. thermophilium and Chaetomium sp. isolated from mushroom compost, and on P. citrinum. Our results indicate that the volatiles from a suite of different fungal species act in tandem in the natural setting of mushroom compost, with some first attracting gravid female flies and then others causing them to oviposit. The ecological context of these findings is important for creating an optimal strategy for using possible

  11. Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1 using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2 performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score; and (3 selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes, white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, shiitake (Lentinus edodes, and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa, shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus plus the above mushrooms. Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values.

  12. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-11-15

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation. Gamma, electron-beam and UV irradiation have been shown to be potential tools in extending the postharvest shelf-life of fresh mushrooms. Studies evaluating the effects of ionizing radiation are available mainly in cultivated species such as Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. This review comprises a comprehensive study of the effects of irradiation on physico-chemical parameters (weight, colour, texture and pH), chemical compounds including nutrients (proteins, sugars and vitamins) and non-nutrients (phenolics, flavonoids and flavour compounds), and on biochemical parameters such as enzymatic activity of mushrooms for different species and from different regions of the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Photocatalytic, antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised using forest and edible mushroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramulu, Mohana; Sumathi, Shanmugam

    2017-12-01

    Mushroom has been part of the human diet for thousands of years, and in recent times, the amounts consumed have risen greatly, involving a large number of species. Mushrooms used for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. In this study silver nanoparticles were synthesised using an edible mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and forest mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) extract. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterised by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, powder XRD and SEM. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised at room temperature and at 60 °C. FTIR results recognised the presence of bioactive functional groups responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles. From the XRD, it was observed that the nanoparticles are silver with an average size of 10-80 nm. The silver nanoparticles are explored for photocatalytic activity and biological activities such as in vitro antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity and antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus organisms. 98% of textile dye (direct blue 71) degradation was noticed under UV light within 150 min for forest mushroom synthesised silver nanoparticles at room temperature.

  14. Volatile Composition of Some Cultivated and Wild Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csóka, Mariann; Geosel, Andras; Amtmann, Maria; Korany, Kornel

    2017-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the fruiting bodies of 4 culinary-medicinal mushroom species (Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, and Hericium erinaceus) from Hungary were examined to review their aroma composition. Simultaneous distillation/extraction was applied to extract volatile compounds from fungi, and the values were measured with gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. Although the fragrances of fungi are not as characteristic as those of spices, several groups of volatile compounds have been found in mushrooms. The number of identified components ranged between 61 and 100, with a high ratio of 8-carbon volatiles generally occurring in fungi. Beyond common properties, individual attributes have been identified as well: an outstanding ratio of benzene compounds in champignons, numerous N-containing volatiles in boletes, carotenoid degradation products in chanterelles, and esters and fatty acids with a high carbon number in the lion's mane mushroom. The identification of these characteristic fragrance constituents can be very important in differentiating between species and confirming their presence in mushroom products.

  15. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of phorid and sciarid flies in mushroom crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and S. carpocapsae, to control mushroom flies and to evaluate the effect of these treatments on Agaricus bisporus production. Two mushroom cultivation trials were carried out in controlled conditions, in substrate previously infested with the diptera Megaselia halterata and Lycoriella auripila, with two treatments: 106infective juveniles (IJ per square meter of S. feltiae and 0.5x106IJ m-2S. feltiae + 0.5x106IJ m-2S. carpocapsae. Another experiment was carried out using the same treatments to evaluate the possible nematode effect on mushroom yield. The number of adults emerging from the substrate was evaluated for each fly species. No decrease in the population of M. halterata was detected with nematode application, whereas the number of L. auripila was reduced in both treatments, particularly in the individual treatment with S. feltiae. The application of entomopathogenic nematodes has no adverse effect on mushroom production.

  16. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: an application to quantification of mushroom volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-04-03

    Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033-0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111-0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3-108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the antigenotoxic effects of the royal sun mushroom, agaricus brasiliensis (Higher basidiomycetes) in human lymphocytes treated with thymol in the comet assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radaković, Milena; Stevanović, Jevrosima; Soković, Marina; Radović, Dejan; Griensven, Van Leo J.L.D.; Stanimirović, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possible protective activity of Agaricus brasiliensis (=A. blazei sensu Murrill) ethanol extract against thymol-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Before we studied the possible interaction of thymol and A. brasiliensis extract, each

  18. The protective effects of aqueous extracts of wild-growing and fermented Royal Sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al. (higher basidiomycetes), in CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunjing; Han, Chunchao; Zhao, Baosheng; Yu, Haitao

    2012-01-01

    Culinary-medicinal Royal Sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (AbS), has traditionally been used for the prevention of a range of diseases, including cancer, hepatitis, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and dermatitis. The hepatoprotective effect of the fermented mushroom of A. brasiliensis (FMAE) and wild-growing A. brasiliensis (WMAE) were studied in this paper. An in vivo study of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced antioxidant activity in 2-month-old rats was conducted by examining the levels of activities of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and the antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase (CAT). Rats were divided into four groups, each containing six rats. The first group served as a control group. The second group was the CCl4 group. Group I and group II were treated orally with distilled water for 14 days respectively. Group III and Group IV were treated orally by WMAE and FMAE at oral doses of 50 mg/kg-day, respectively. Both WMAE and FMAE could reduce CCl4-induced toxicity, particularly hepatotoxicity, by suppressing ALT and AST activities, and increasing antioxidant enzyme activity. The studies demonstrate that both the fermented and wild-growing A. brasiliensis could protect the liver against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats.

  19. Rapid evaluation technique to differentiate mushroom disease-related moulds by detecting microbial volatile organic compounds using HS-SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radványi, Dalma; Gere, Attila; Jókai, Zsuzsa; Fodor, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyse microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) of mushroom disease-related microorganisms. Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillum fungicola var. fungicola, and Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum species, which are typically harmful in mushroom cultivation, were examined, and Agaricus bisporus (bisporic button mushroom) was also examined as a control. For internal standard, a mixture of alkanes was used; these were introduced as the memory effect of primed septa in the vial seal. Several different marker compounds were found in each sample, which enabled us to distinguish the different moulds and the mushroom mycelium from each other. Monitoring of marker compounds enabled us to investigate the behaviour of moulds. The records of the temporal pattern changes were used to produce partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models that enabled determination of the exact time of contamination (the infection time of the media). Using these evaluation techniques, the presence of mushroom disease-related fungi can be easily detected and monitored via their emitted MVOCs.

  20. Detection of Benzoic Acid by an Amperometric Inhibitor Biosensor Based on Mushroom Tissue Homogenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric benzoic acid-sensing inhibitor biosensor was prepared by immobilizing mushroom (Agaricus bisporus tissue homogenate on a Clark-type oxygen electrode. The effects of the quantity of mushroom tissue homogenate, the quantity of gelatin and the effect of the crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde percent on the biosensor were studied. The optimum concentration of phenol used as substrate was 200 μM. The bioanalytical properties of the proposed biosensor, such as dependence of the biosensor response on the pH value and the temperature, were investigated. The biosensor responded linearly to benzoic acid in a concentration range of 25–100 μM. Standard deviation (s.d. was ±0.49 μM for 7 successive determinations at a concentration of 75 μM. The inhibitor biosensor based on mushroom tissue homogenate was applied for the determination of benzoic acid in fizzy lemonade, some fruits and groundwater samples. Results were compared to those obtained using AOAC method, showing a good agreement.

  1. Characterization of Species of Cladobotryum which Cause Cobweb Disease in Edible Mushrooms Grown in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Chang-Gi; Lee, Chang-Yun; Seo, Geon-Sik; Jung, Hee-Young

    2012-09-01

    Four Cladobotryum isolates were collected from four different commercially grown mushroom types infected with cobweb disease in Cheongdo-gun and Chilgok-gun of Gyeongbuk Province, Korea in 2010. The isolates were identified as C. mycophilum from Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus eryngii, C. varium from Flammulina velutipes and Hypsizygus marmoreus. The cultural characteristics of the four isolates were investigated using potato dextrose agar (PDA) media under nine different temperatures ranging from 5~32℃. Rapid growth of the isolates to colony diameters of 47~82 mm was observed at conditions of 18~22℃. No growth was observed at 32℃. C. mycophilum produced a yellowish red pigment while C. varium produced a cream colored pigment after cultivation for 25 days on PDA. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and partial 28S rDNA from the four isolates confirmed they were C. mycophilum and C. varium. Cross pathogenicity tests revealed that the two isolates of C. mycophilum were highly pathogenic toward three mushroom types, but not toward H. marmoreus. The two isolates of C. varium were less pathogenic than those of C. mycophilum, but were pathogenic toward all mushroom types evaluated.

  2. Use of spent mushroom substrates from Agaricus subrufescens (syn. A. blazei, A. brasiliensis) and Lentinula edodes productions in the enrichment of a soil-based potting media for lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivation: Growth promotion and soil bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, L C C; de Mendonça, M M; Camelini, C M; Soares, C H L

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to assess physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh spent mushroom substrates (SMSs)--without post-crop heat treatment--from Agaricus subrufescens and Lentinula edodes production to optimize the use of these residues in the soil enrichment for lettuce growth promotion and soil remediation. Organic matter and C content of both SMSs were high. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was a good source of N, P and K. On the other hand, L. edodes SMS presented a lower concentration of these nutrients and a high level of immaturity. Both SMSs presented high electric conductivity values (2.5-3.4 mS/cm). Microbiological analysis, based upon enumeration of culturable bacteria (thermophilic and mesophilic) and fungi, and also evolution of CO(2), showed that SMSs played higher microbial diversity than soil control. Laccase activity from A. subrufescens SMS tended to remain constant during a 2-month period, while L. edodes SMS presented low laccase activity throughout the same period. Agaricus subrufescens and L. edodes were able to grow on a PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) media supplemented with different concentrations of atrazine (1-50 microg/ml), degraded the herbicide, attaining rates of 35% and 26%, respectively. On experiments of lettuce growth promotion using a soil-based potting media with different SMS rates, 5% and 10% (dw) rates of A. subrufescens SMS resulted in higher lettuce aerial dry weights than the rates of 25% and 40%, the chemical fertilization (NPK) and the control (soil). At 10% supplementation, lettuce aerial dry weight increased 2.2 and 1.3 times compared to the control and the NPK treatment, respectively. Protein content increased along with SMS rates. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was an excellent supplement for lettuce growth promotion and showed potential for remediation of biocides possibly due to improved microbial diversity and enzymatic activity. Fresh L. edodes SMS was not a good fertilizer, at least under the conditions tested

  3. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phat, Chanvorleak; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2016-02-01

    Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds (5'-nucleotides: AMP, GMP, IMP, UMP, XMP; free amino acids: aspartic, glutamic acid) and subjected to human sensory evaluation and electronic tongue measurements. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content (36.9 ± 1.50 mg/g), while monosodium glutamate-like components (42.4 ± 6.90 mg/g) were highest in Agaricus bisporus. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) ranged from 1.51 ± 0.42 to 3890 ± 833 mg MSG/g dry weight; most mushrooms exhibited a high umami taste. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determinação da concentração de beta-glucano em cogumelo Agaricus blazei Murill por método enzimático Determination of beta-glucan concentration in Agaricus blazei Murill mushroom by enzymatic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong K. Park

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cogumelos comestíveis contêm importantes propriedades funcionais. Em particular, beta-glucanos, homo- e hetero-glucanos com ligações glicosídicas beta(1->3, beta(1->4 e beta(1->6, supostamente responsáveis por algumas propriedades benéficas à saúde humana, como atividade imunomodulatória, antioxidante, antiinflamatória e anticancerígena. Neste trabalho, a quantidade de beta-glucano presente em cogumelo Agaricus blazei Murill, coletados de três diferentes locais, foi analisada utilizando-se método enzimático. As amostras (em base seca foram tratadas com alfa-amilase, protease bacteriana e com glicoamilase fúngica. beta-glucano foi quantificado após hidrólise ácida e determinação da glicose liberada. Foi verificado que amostras de A. blazei Murill cultivadas em estufas apresentaram menor concentração de b-glucano (8,4±0,9 e 7,6±2,8g/100g quando comparado com amostras cultivadas em campo aberto (10,1±2,1g/100g. Observou-se ainda que, mesmo sendo cultivado em condições semelhantes, porém em locais diferentes, as amostras apresentaram diferenças significativas (7,6±2,8 e 8,4±0,9g/100g.Edible mushrooms contains a very interesting functional properties. Among them, the beta-glucans, polysaccharides with beta-1,3; b-1,4 and beta-1,6glucosidic linkages, they are responsible to a series of properties to human health, such as immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and, antitumoral activities. In the present work, the Agaricus blazei Murill beta-glucan concentrations from three locations, were determined through the enzymatic method. Samples were treated with alpha-amylase, bacterial protease and fungal glucoamylase. beta-glucans were quantified after acid hydrolysis and, the glucose determined for spectrophotometric method. It was verified that samples cultivated inside stoves presented smaller beta-glucan concentration (8.4±0.9 and 7.6±2.8g/100g, when compared with samples cultivated in open field (10.1±2.1g/100

  5. Agaricus blazei Murill - immunomodulatory properties and health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biedron R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM, also known as Agaricus brasiliensis L. due to its origin in Brazilian rain forest, is an edible mushroom of the Basidiomycetes family, which also comprises medicinal mushrooms such as Hericium erinaceus and Grifola frondosa. AbM has been used in traditional medicine locally and also recently as a health food worldwide. Since it has been found to possess immunomodulatory properties, its biological and health-related effects, as well as its isolated active ingredients e.g. beta-glucans, have been examined by scientists. Otherinvestigations have been performed with mixed mushroom products, such as AndoSanTM, which contains mostly AbM, but also the two other mushrooms above. AbM-related benefits reviewed here include effects against cancer, infections, inflammation, allergy/ asthma and diabetes. Effects of AndoSanTMand other AbM-based extracts have been compared in a bacterial sepsis model.

  6. Effect of gamma-irradiation on flavor compounds of fresh mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, J.L.; Hwang, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Fresh mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were gamma-irradiated with doses of 1,2, and 5 kGy. The volatile compounds were isolated using a Lickens-Nickerson apparatus and analyzed using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The amount of total volatiles was greatly affected by the doses applied. The amounts of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol were not affected by gamma-irradiation and ranged from 8.94 to 11.79 and from 0.696 to 1.503 micrograms/g, respectively. The amounts of eight-carbon compounds decreased as the doses of gamma-irradiation increased, from 41.73 for the control (0 kGy) to 20.06 (1 kGy), 8.77 (2 kGy), and 4.04 micrograms/g (5 kGy irradiated mushrooms). The major eight-carbon compound was 1-octen-3-ol, and its amount decreased from 30.34 (the control) to 14.18 (1 kGy), 6.22 (2 kGy), and 2.92 micrograms/g (5 kGy)

  7. Structure of a lectin with antitumoral properties in king bolete (Boletus edulis) mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovi, Michele; Carrizo, Maria E; Capaldi, Stefano; Perduca, Massimiliano; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2011-08-01

    A novel lectin has been isolated from the fruiting bodies of the common edible mushroom Boletus edulis (king bolete, penny bun, porcino or cep) by affinity chromatography on a chitin column. We propose for the lectin the name BEL (B. edulis lectin). BEL inhibits selectively the proliferation of several malignant cell lines and binds the neoplastic cell-specific T-antigen disaccharide, Galβ1-3GalNAc. The lectin was structurally characterized: the molecule is a homotetramer and the 142-amino acid sequence of the chains was determined. The protein belongs to the saline-soluble family of mushroom fruiting body-specific lectins. BEL was also crystallized and its three-dimensional structure was determined by X-ray diffraction to 1.15 Å resolution. The structure is similar to that of Agaricus bisporus lectin. Using the appropriate co-crystals, the interactions of BEL with specific mono- and disaccharides were also studied by X-ray diffraction. The six structures of carbohydrate complexes reported here provide details of the interactions of the ligands with the lectin and shed light on the selectivity of the two distinct binding sites present in each protomer.

  8. A phylogenetic reconstruction and emendation of Agaricus section Duploannulatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challen, Michael P; Kerrigan, Richard W; Callac, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Agaricus section Duploannulatae comprises the group of species allied with A. bisporus and A. bitorquis. Disagreement exists in the literature regarding the composition of this group. We used DNA sequence data from the ITS segments of the nuclear ribosomal DNA region, in a sample of European and North American isolates, to identify characters shared by this group, to further delimit species-level taxa within the section, and to develop a phylogenetic hypothesis. Shared polymorphisms that suggest a natural limit for section Duploannulatae were found. ITS1 data were assessed using parsimony, distance and maximum likelihood methods of phylogeny. The section Duploannulatae comprised six robust clades. Five clades corresponded to well characterized species from the temperate Northern Hemisphere (A. bisporus, A. subfloccosus, A. bitorquis, A. vaporarius, A. cupressicola). The sixth clade encompassed an A. devoniensis complex. Species concepts, nomenclature, and relationships are discussed and compared with prior reports.

  9. Phenolic compounds present in medicinal mushroom extracts generate reactive oxygen species in human cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, S.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Hot-water extracts of the higher Basidiomycetes Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach, A. brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., Coprinus comatus (O.F. Mull.) Pers., Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst., and Phellinus linteus (Berk. et Curt.) Teng were made, and the resulting polysaccharide mixtures were

  10. Contents of folates in edible mushrooms commercialised in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil Teor de folatos em cogumelos comestíveis comercializados na cidade de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Prado Zanes Furlani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, folates were evaluated in the main species of mushroom cultivated in Brazil. The species analysed were Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom, Lentinula edodes (shiitake and Pleorotus ostreatus (shimeji. The five main forms of folate found in foods were determined: tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA, 10-methyl folic acid (10MFA, 5-methyl tetrahydrofolic acid (5MTHFA, 10-formyl folic acid (10FFA and 5-formy tetrahydrofolic acid (5FTHFA. The methodology employed used extraction with phosphate buffer, clean up with trichloroacetic acid and separation of the vitamins by high-performance liquid chromatography, with simultaneous ultraviolet and fluorescence detection. The results obtained for total folate were 551 to 1404 µg.100 g -1 for the button mushroom, 606 to 727 µg.100 g -1 for shiitake and 460 to 1325 µg.100 g-1 for shimeji. The data showed that mushrooms could be considered as sources of folates and that their contribution of these vitamins to the diet was meaningful.O teor de folatos nas principais espécies de cogumelos cultivados no Brasil foi avaliado neste trabalho. As espécies analisadas foram Agaricus bisporus (champignon de Paris, Lentinula edodes (shiitake e Pleorotus ostreatus (shimeji. Foram determinadas as cinco principais formas de folatos presentes em alimentos: tetrahidro ácido fólico (THAF, 10-metil ácido fólico (10MAF, 5-metil tetrahidro ácido fólico (5MTHAF, 10-formil ácido fólico (10FAF e 5formil tetrahidro ácido fólico (5FTHAF. A metodologia empregada utilizou extração com tampão fosfato, limpeza com ácido tricloroacético e separação das vitaminas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, com detecção em série por fluorescência e ultravioleta. Os resultados obtidos para o total de folatos foram 551 a 1404 µg.100 g -1 para o champignon de Paris, 606 a 727 µg.100 g -1 para o shiitake e 460 a 1325 µg.100 g -1 para o shimeji. Os dados mostram que os cogumelos podem ser considerados fontes

  11. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in a small-scale mushroom production facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Prema; Murugesan, Latha; Knabel, Stephen J; Verghese, Bindhu; Chikthimmah, Naveen; Laborde, Luke F

    2013-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of significant concern to the agricultural and food processing industry because of its ability to grow and persist in cool and moist environments and its association with listeriosis, a disease with a very high mortality rate. Although there have been no listeriosis outbreaks attributed to fresh mushrooms in the United States, retail surveys and recalls are evidence that L. monocytogenes contamination of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) can occur. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, in a small-scale mushroom production facility on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University in the United States. Of 184 samples taken from five production zones within the facility, 29 (15.8%) samples were positive for Listeria spp. Among the Listeria spp. isolates, L. innocua was most prevalent (10.3%) followed by L. welshimeri (3.3%), L. monocytogenes (1.6%), and L. grayi (0.5%). L. monocytogenes was recovered only from the phase I raw material composting area. Isolates of L. monocytogenes were confirmed and serotyped by multiplex PCR. The epidemiological relatedness of the three L. monocytogenes isolates to those serotypes or lineages frequently encountered in listeriosis infections was determined by multi-virulence-locus sequence typing using six virulence genes, namely, prfA, inlB, inlC, dal, clpP, and lisR. The phylogenetic positions of the three isolates in the dendrogram prepared with data from other isolates of L. monocytogenes showed that all isolates were grouped with serotype 4a, lineage IIIA. To date, this serotype has rarely been reported in foodborne disease outbreaks.

  12. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species Determinação de cádmio em cogumelos da espécie Lentinus edodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.Muitos estudos têm encontrado elementos tóxicos em cogumelos. Sabe-se que algumas espécies de cogumelos comestíveis acumulam elevados níveis de contaminantes inorgânicos, como cádmio, mercúrio e chumbo. Há cerca de duas mil espécies de cogumelos comestíveis, mas apenas 25 espécies são cultivadas e usadas como alimentos. No Brasil, as espécies mais comercializadas e consumidas são Agaricus bisporus, conhecida como Champignon de Paris; Lentinus edodes ou Shitake, e Pleurotus sp, também chamada de Shimeji ou Hiratake. Neste trabalho, o cádmio (Cd foi determinado em amostras de cogumelos da espécie Lentinus edodes cultivadas em diversas cidades do Estado de São Paulo e algumas amostras importadas do Japão e da China. O cádmio foi determinado por espectrometria de absor

  13. Genetic and morphological characterization of Cladobotryum species causing cobweb disease of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, G J; Egan, D; Morris, E; Scott, C; Brown, A E

    1999-02-01

    Cladobotryum dendroides (= Dactylium dendroides) has hitherto been regarded as the major causal agent of cobweb disease of the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Nucleotide sequence data for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of four Cladobotryum/Hypomyces species reported to be associated with cobweb disease, however, indicate that the most common pathogen is now C. mycophilum. This cobweb pathogen varies somewhat in conidial septation from published descriptions of C. mycophilum and lacks the distinctive colony odor. ITS sequencing revealed minor nucleotide variation which split isolates of the pathogen into three subgroups, two comprising isolates that were sensitive to methylbenzimidazole carbamate (MBC) fungicides and one comprising MBC-resistant isolates. The MBC-resistant isolates, which were only obtained from Ireland and Great Britain, clustered together strongly in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR analysis, suggesting that they may be clonal. The MBC-sensitive isolates were more diverse. A RAPD fragment of 800 to 900 bp, containing a microsatellite and found in the MBC-resistant isolates, also indicated their clonal nature; the microsatellites of these isolates contained the same number of GA repeats. Smaller, polymorphic microsatellites, similarly comprising GA repeats, in the MBC-sensitive isolates in general correlated with their geographic origin.

  14. Caracterización química y propiedades bioactivas de hongos silvestres portugeses comestibles

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian Bouçada de

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen different mushroom species (Agaricus arvensis, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricusromagnesii, Agaricus silvaticus, Agaricus silvicola, Cantharellus cibarius, Hypholomafasciculare, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius piperatus, Lepista nuda, Leucopaxillusgiganteus, Lycoperdon molle, Lycoperdon perlatum, Macrolepiota mastoidea,Macrolepiota procera, Ramaria botrytis, Sarcodon imbricatus, Tricholoma acerbum and Tricholoma portentosum) from Northeast of Portugal, one of the European regions with high...

  15. Effect of the rate and dose rate of irradiation on the quality of mushrooms, shrimps and marinated poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Mahrour, A.; Beaulieu, M.; Jobin, M.; Nketsa-Tabiri, J.; Gagnon, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this research programme, three investigations involving irradiation in combination with other preservation treatments are described. The first study evaluated the effect of the gamma irradiation dose rate combined with control storage at 15 deg. C and 90% relative humidity on the biochemical, microbiological and physical quality of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). A 2 kGy dose was necessary to control the pathogenic microorganisms and to decrease the ageing process of mushrooms. The shelf-life of the mushrooms, as assessed by colour, was extended by 4 days at the lower dose rate (4.5 kGy/h) and by only 2 days at the higher dose rate (32 kGy/h). The higher dose rate caused stress to the cells and altered cell permeability. The second study was to verify the efficacy of ionizing radiation ( 60 Co) on frozen shrimps in eliminating or reducing the pathogenic bacteria that may occasionally be present and to increase the cold storage life of thawed shrimps. A dose of 2.5 kGy permitted storage at 4 deg. C for 1 month without affecting the quality of the product. The third study investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial properties of the natural substances added to fresh poultry before irradiation. Irradiation of poultry at 5 kGy was found to be highly effective in eliminating Salmonella and reducing the number of spoilage microorganisms to ensure safety and quality. Moreover, use of marinating techniques had a synergistic effect with irradiation in reducing the microbial load and the oxidation rate of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly C18:2. The essential oils in rosemary and thyme were the most potent anti-microbial agents investigated and prevented the deterioration of stored foods by bacteria. Several phenolic compounds with anti-oxidant activities were also isolated from rosemary. (author)

  16. Agaricus blazei as a Substrate for the Production of β-1,3-Glucanase by Trichoderma harzianum Rifai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular β-1,3-glucanase was produced by Trichoderma harzianum Rifai cultivated in the Agaricus blazei (Agaricus brasiliensis extract as a substrate in submerged fermentation. A 2²-central composite factorial design was developed using the time of culture (x1/day and Agaricus blazei extract concentration (x2/(g/L as variables, and the results were analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM. The results showed that the Agaricus blazei extract concentration was the most important variable in the production of β-1,3-glucanase, and the maximum β-1,3-glucanase activity (0.77 U/mL was obtained in one day of cultivation. The β-glucan present in the cell wall of Agaricus blazei mushroom proved to be a good substrate for inducing the production of specific β-1,3-glucanase by Trichoderma harzianum Rifai.

  17. Agaricus bohusii from Serbia: chemical characterization, antioxidant potential and antifungal preserving properties in cream cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Filipa S.; Stojković, Dejan; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms are widely appreciated all over the world for their nutritional and bioactive properties. They have been considered valuable health foods being a source of many different nutraceuticals, including antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds [1,2]. Agaricus bohusii Bon is an edible and prized mushroom especially common in Serbia and southern Europe. As far as we know, there are no studies about this species. In the present work, a detailed chemical characterization of A. bohusii was ...

  18. Optimization of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii Substrate Using Lignocellulosic Affordable Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    javad janpoor

    2018-03-01

    . eryngii. Materials and Methods: Sawdust was utilized as the main substrate obtained from beech and populous trees (1:1. After being rinsed off in water and supplemented with calcium sulfate (3% and calcium carbonate (3%, the substrate was filled in 20 × 40 cm polyethylene bags weighted to 800 grams. Sterilization was performed at 121 °C under pressure of 1.5 bars for two hours. A cultivated P. eryngii strain was then inoculated in the cooled material at a rate of 3% of dry/fresh substrate. The experiments were conducted based on a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications, measuring mycelial growth (MG, number of fruiting bodies (NFB, mushroom weight, and biological efficiency (BE. AMG was measured in both test tubes and in petri plates in different pH levels (5.5, 7, and 8.5. Data were analyzed by JAMP 4.0, while graphs were drawn by Microsoft Excel 2007 and SigmaPlot 12.0 software. Results and Discussion: The pH of 7 was found to be the best for obtaining maximal MG under all treatments after seven days. The highest amount of MG was obtained with substrate No. 1, while the least was observed in the culture of substrate No. 5. The substrates No. 1 and No. 5 generated the highest and lowest NFBs (p≤0.05. However, there was no significant difference (p≥0.05 in NFB between substrates No. 1 and 3 or between substrates No. 2, 4 and 5. The BE percentages obtained from experimental treatments No. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 64.81, 49.74, 59.22, 28.72, and 19.8, respectively. The comparison of means of different growth characteristics revealed that there was no significant difference between substrates No. 1 and 3 or between substrates No. 4 and 5 (p≥0.05. Conclusion: In this time, only two species (Agaricus bisporus and P. ostreatus are producing in Iran, whereas at least 10 species of edible mushrooms are cultivating in the world. King oyster mushroom has low cost of production and distinguishable characteristics. Therefore, this mushroom can

  19. Utilización de compost agotado de champiñón como capa de coberturas en nuevos ciclos de producción Using spent mushroom substrate as casing layers in new growing cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Pardo-Giménez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento agronómico de seis mezclas de cobertura, elaboradas a partir de sustrato postcultivo del champiñón Agaricus bisporus, en nuevos ciclos de cultivo. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la viabilidad de la reintroducción del sustrato en nuevos ciclos de cultivo, ya sea como material de base único, si se somete a un proceso de lavado para eliminar sales solubles, o bien mezclado con otros materiales de baja conductividad, como es el caso de la turba rubia o la fibra de coco. Se destacan los altos valores de eficiencia biológica registrados, que llegaron hasta los 100 kg kg-1 de compost, similares a los proporcionados por los testigos, y los altos valores relativos observados (con respecto a los testigos en el contenido en materia seca de los carpóforos cosechados con algunas de las nuevas coberturas elaboradas. Esta reutilización del compost constituye una alternativa interesante, con vistas a reemplazar a las tierras y a los sustratos orgánicos utilizados habitualmente como cobertura, con la doble ventaja de disminuir los costos de elaboración y el impacto ambiental.The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic behaviour of six mixtures of casing, prepared from spent mushroom substrate (SMS, in new production cycles of Agaricus bisporus. The results obtained showed the feasibility of reuse of the SMS in new cultivation cycles when used alone by submitting it to a washing process to remove soluble salts, or mixed with other materials of low conductivity, such as Sphagnum peat or coconut fiber pith. The high values of biological efficiency recorded up to 100 kg kg-1 compost, similar to that of the controls, and the same high values observed in the dry matter content of the mushrooms harvested with some of the new casing layers prepared must be highlighted. The suggested use for SMS is an important alternative to consider, in order to replace soils and other organic

  20. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  1. Pro- and antioxidative properties of medicinal mushroom extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, W.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Hot water extracts of 2 groups of medicinal mushrooms have been tested from the genera Agaricus, Antrodia, Auricularia, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Hericium, Grifola, Ganoderma, Lentinus, Phellinus, and Trametes for ROS-generating activity in human cells and for DPPH-TEAC antioxidant activity. Group 1

  2. Antifungalna aktivnost ekstrakta bosiljka na Fusarium spp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levic Jelena

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... the food product, it exerted significant antifungal properties, ... (corn, barley, wheat, oats, rye, rice, etc.), cereal ... isolated from cakes and maintained on Potato Dextrose Agar ...... cultivated button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus.

  3. Assessment of spent mushroom substrate as sorbent of fungicides: influence of sorbent and sorbate properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as a sorbent of fungicides was evaluated for its possible use in regulating pesticide mobility in the environment. The sorption studies involved four different SMS types in terms of nature and treatment and eight fungicides selected as representative compounds from different chemical groups. Nonlinear sorption isotherms were observed for all SMS-fungicide combinations. The highest sorption was obtained by composted SMS from Agaricus bisporus cultivation. A significant negative and positive correlation was obtained between the K(OC) sorption constants and the polarity index values of sorbents and the K(OW) of fungicides, respectively. The statistic revealed that more than 77% of the variability in the K(OW) could be explained considering these properties jointly. The other properties of both the sorbent (total carbon, dissolved organic carbon, or pH) and the sorbate (water solubility) were nonsignificant. The hysteresis values for cyprodinil (log K(OW)= 4) were for all the sorbents much higher (>3) than for other fungicides. This was consistent with the remaining sorption after desorption considered as an indicator of the sorption efficiency of SMS for fungicides. Changes in the absorption bands of fungicides sorbed by SMS observed by FTIR permitted establishing the interaction mechanism of fungicides with SMS. The findings of this work provide evidence for the potential capacity of SMS as a sorbent of fungicides and the low desorption observed especially for some fungicides, although they suggest that more stabilized or humified organic substrates should be produced to enhance their efficiency in environmental applications. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Radiocaesium - 137 in cultivated and woodland mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, S.; Stankovic, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work the results obtained for activity levels of 137 Cs in samples of cultivated mushrooms (Champignons - Agaricus Silvicola Vitt. Peck.) and woodland fruits ( Chantarelle - Cantarelus Cibarius Fr.; Bollets -Boletus Edulis. ex Fr. and Black Trumpets - Cratarelus Conucopioides) are presented. These samples were collected from 1991 to 1996. Biodiversity of the mushrooms regarding their uptake of radionuclides was found. Thus, the maximum value of 137 Cs activity was found in the sample of dry Bollets 375 Bq/kg in 1993. Moreover, the mean activity level of this species was much higher (126 + - 10 Bq/kg) in 1996. than, levels found in any samples taken from the same environment. (author)

  5. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas. - Highlights: • Popular edible mushrooms display large variations in Cd and Pb content. • Low accumulating species are Sparassis crispa, Boletus luridus, or Boletus badius. • High accumulating species are Agaricus ssp., Russula vesca, or Calvatia gigantea. • Cd and Pb content in wild growing edible mushrooms were mostly above EU limits for cultivated mushrooms. • Cd and Pb content in commercial mushrooms cultures were regularly below EU limits for cultivated mushrooms. - Commercial mushroom cultures can be integrated into ‘Edible City’ approaches, but majority of wild growing mushroom samples highly accumulate trace metals

  6. Biological resources and breeding for improvements in the production of the button mushroom in small-scale farming

    OpenAIRE

    Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Gourmet mushrooms may contribute to the development of a new agriculture by addressing the consumer demand and some of the non-nutritional uses of agricultural productions. The value of recycling with gourmet and medicinal mushrooms is clearly understood and wastes can be viewed as positive products, at least in term of providing new economic opportunities and positive environmental consequences. Important cultivated edible and medicinal mushrooms are members of the Agaricus genus. They are s...

  7. Stabilisation of spent mushroom substrate for application as a plant growth-promoting organic amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Fabiana S; Tatti, Enrico; Abram, Florence; Wilson, Jude; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Over three million tonnes of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) are produced in Europe every year as a by-product of the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. The management of SMS has become an increasing challenge for the mushroom production industry, and finding environmentally and economically sustainable solutions for this organic residue is, therefore, highly desirable. Due to its physical properties and nutrient content, SMS has great potential to be employed in agricultural and horticultural sectors, and further contribute to reduce the use of non-renewable resources, such as peat. However, SMS is often regarded as not being stable and/or mature, which hampers its wide use for crop production. Here, we demonstrate the stabilisation of SMS and its subsequent use as organic fertiliser and partial peat replacement in horticulture. The stabilisation was performed in a laboratory-scale composting system, with controlled temperature and aeration. Physical and chemical parameters were monitored during composting and provided information on the progress of the process. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) content was found to be the most reliable parameter to predict SMS stability. In situ oxygen consumption indicated the main composting phases, reflecting major changes in microbial activity. The structure of the bacterial community was also found to be a potential predictor of stability, as the compositional changes followed the composting progress. By contrast, the fungal community did not present clear successional process along the experiment. Maturity and quality of the stabilised SMS were assessed in a horticultural growing trial. When used as the sole fertiliser source, SMS was able to support Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass) growth and significantly improved grass yield with a concentration-dependent response, increasing grass biomass up to 300%, when compared to the untreated control. In summary, the results indicated that the method employed was efficient in

  8. Enzyme-assisted extraction enhancing the umami taste amino acids recovery from several cultivated mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poojary, Mahesha Manjunatha; Orlien, Vibeke; Passamonti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, enzyme-assisted extraction was performed to extract umami taste and total free amino acids (FAAs) from the six different mushrooms including shiitake (Lentinus edodes), oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus), tea tree (Agrocybe aegerita) and, white, brown and portobello champignons (Agaricus...

  9. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Agaricus blazei methanolic extract fractions assessed using gene and chromosomal mutation assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilanda Ferreira Bellini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional food investigations have demonstrated the presence of substances that could be beneficial to human health when consumed. However, the toxic effects of some substances contained in foods have been determined. Reported medicinal and nutritive properties have led to the extensive commercialization of the basidiomycete fungi Agaricus blazei Murrill (sensu Heinemann, also known as Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al., Agaricus subrufescens Peck or the Brazilian medical mushroom (BMM. Different methanolic extract fractions (ME of this mushroom were submitted to the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN clastogenic assay and the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus (HGPRT assay for gene mutation, both using Chinese hamster ovary cells clone K1 (CHO-K1. The results suggest that all the fractions tested possess cytotoxic and mutagenic potential but no clastogenic effects. Further information is needed on the biochemical components of the A. blazei methanol fractions to identify any substances with cytotoxic and/or mutagenicity potential. These findings indicate that A. blazei methanolic extract should not be used due to their genotoxicity and care should be taken in the use of A. blazei by the general population until further biochemical characterization of this fungi is completed.

  10. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratios for Agaricus brasiliensis on the axenic method = Relação carbono/nitrogênio do substrato pelo método de cultivo axênico para Agaricus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienine Luiz Zaghi Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation techniques for Agaricus brasiliensis (composting method and substratum formulations are the same ones used for Agaricus bisporus. Most of the carbon-tonitrogen (C:N ratios reported for A. brasiliensis are similar to those used for A. bisporus on the composting method and there are few studies about the variation of C:N ratios for A. brasilienses on the axenic method. The objective of this study was to verify the mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on different C:N ratios using regional by-products as substrate formulation on the axenic method. Studied C:N ratios of substrate (mixture of soybean and cassava fibers ranged from 11:1 to 248:1, with nitrogen content ranging from 4.25 to 0.20%, respectively. It was concluded that substrate with only soybean fiber generates higher mycelial growth than any formulation with cassava fiber; the highest mycelial growth on substrate is with C:N ratio of 11:1 (N = 4.25%; the intermediate growth is with C:N ratio range from 15:1 to 50:1 (N from 3.31 to 0.98%; and the lowest growth is with C:N ratio of 100:1 or higher (N ≤ 0.50%. As técnicas de cultivo do Agaricus brasiliensis (método de compostagem e formulação de substrato são as mesmas utilizadas para o Agaricus bisporus. A maioria das relações carbono/nitrogênio (C/N relatadas para A. brasiliensis são similares às usadas para A. bisporus no método de compostagem. Há poucos estudos sobre a variação da relação C/N para A. brasilienses para o método axênico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes relações C/N no crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis utilizando subprodutos regionais como substrato pelo método axênico. As relações C/N no substrato (misturas de fibra de soja e de mandioca estudadas variaram de 11 a 248 com consequentes concentrações de nitrogênio de 4,25 a 0,20%, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que os substratos somente com fibra de soja propiciam maior crescimento micelial que

  11. [Hallucinogenic mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingardiene, Dagmara; Vilcinskaite, Jolita; Lazauskas, Robertas

    2005-01-01

    The group of hallucinogenic mushrooms (species of the genera Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Panaeolus, Pluteus, Psilocybe, and Stropharia) is psilocybin-containing mushrooms. These "magic", psychoactive fungi have the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin. Toxicity of these mushrooms is substantial because of the popularity of hallucinogens. Psilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin are similar to lysergic acid diethylamide. These hallucinogens affect the central nervous system rapidly (within 0.5-1 hour after ingestion), producing ataxia, hyperkinesis, and hallucinations. In this review article there are discussed about history of use of hallucinogenic mushrooms and epidemiology; pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, somatic effects and pharmacokinetics of psilocybin, the clinical effects of psilocybin and psilocin, signs and symptoms of ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms, treatment and prognosis.

  12. Biological effects and ISSR analysis of 60Co γ-irradiation on edible mushroom mycelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Weiming; Feng Weilin; Jin Qunli; Fan Lijun; Wu Yongzhi

    2009-01-01

    Mycelia of Agaricus bitorquis, Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus eryngii were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at the dose of 0, 200, 500 and 800 Gy. The results showed that irradiation inhibited their mycelia growth positively. Of the three edible mushroom, Agaricus bitorquis was the most sensitive one to irradiation, its mycelia died at the dose of 800 Gy. Germination rate, growth rate and vigor of all mycelia irradiated with un-lethal doses increased along with the times of transfer of culture. Electrical conductivity (EC) analysis showed that irradiation increased EC of leaching solution of mycelia positively. The EC of leaching solution of mycelia of Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus eryngii irradiated with 500 Gy, Agaricus bitorquis irradiated with 200 Gy, were significantly higher than CK. ISSR analysis revealed that 60 Co γ irradiation effect on DNA variation of Agaricus bitorquis, Flammulina velutipes and pleurotus eryngii mycelia in varying degrees. Number of polymorphic bands changed after irradiation. Flawing bands and increasing bands were observed in amplified bands of 14 selected ISSR primers. The ISSR variation rates of Agaricus bitorquis for 200 Gy and 599 Gy treatments were 33.3% and 50.5%; the ISSR variation rates of Flammulina velutipes for 200 Gy, 500 Gy and 800 Gy treatments were 2.3%, 2.3% and 3.1%, that of Pleurotus eryngii were 8.6%, 13.4% and 20.0%. It is possible to use 60 Co γ irradiation as a mutagen to screen new mushroom varieties. (authors)

  13. Identification of the cadmium binding compounds in Agaricus arvensis hyphae using 109Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackl, G.A.; Kollmer, W.E.; Reidel, G.

    1987-01-01

    Hyphae from the edible mushroom Agaricus arvensis were grown in a liquid medium supplemented with 1 mg cadmium per litre. The heavy metal had no influence on the growth of the fungus at this concentration. Cell extracts were labeled in vitro with radioactive 109 Cd. Cadmium was found in two main fractions having apparent molecular weights of about 500 and 1500 dalton. These fractions were identified by chemical analysis of cadmium as well as by radioactive labeling. The in vitro labeling procedure with radioactive cadmium is a more rapid procedure than analyzing the element in the original sample. (author)

  14. Production flush of Agaricus blazei on Brazilian casing layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Barros Colauto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the biological efficiency and production flushes of Agaricus blazei strains on different casing layers during 90 cultivation days. Four casing layers were used: mixture of subsoil and charcoal (VCS, lime schist (LSC, São Paulo peat (SPP and Santa Catarina peat (SCP; and two genetically distant A. blazei strains. The fungus was grown in composted substratum and, after total colonization, a pasteurized casing layer was added over the substratum, and fructification was induced. Mushrooms were picked up daily when the basidiocarp veil was stretched, but before the lamella were exposed. The biological efficiency (BE was determined by the fresh basidiocarp mass divided by the substratum dry mass, expressed in percentage. The production flushes were also determined over time production. The BE and production flushes during 90 days were affected by the strains as well as by the casing layers. The ABL26 and LSC produced the best BE of 60.4%. Although VCS is the most used casing layer in Brazil, it is inferior to other casing layers, for all strains, throughout cultivation time. The strain, not the casing layer, is responsible for eventual variations of the average mushroom mass. In average, circa 50% of the mushroom production occurs around the first month, 30% in the second month, and 20% in third month. The casing layer water management depends on the casing layer type and the strain. Production flush responds better to water reposition, mainly with ABL26, and better porosity to LSC and SCP casing layers.

  15. Oyster Mushroom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pastoralists have been hopelessly trying to get rid of the bush through ... mushroom cultivation the mentioned problems can be solved yielding nutritious ..... Mean values within the same column with no common superscript letter differ at the 95% confidence level and the .... Encroachment in the Borana Low Land.

  16. Effect of the addition of nitrogen sources to cassava fiber and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios on Agaricus brasiliensis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, T R D; Linde, G A; Colauto, N B

    2007-01-01

    The same substratum formulation to grow Agaricus bisporus has been used to grow Agaricus brasiliensis since its culture started in Brazil. Despite being different species, many of the same rules have been used for composting or axenic cultivation when it comes to nitrogen content and source in the substrate. The aim of this study was to verify the mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis in different ammonium sulfate and (or) urea concentrations added to cassava fiber and different carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratios to increase the efficiency of axenic cultivation. Two nitrogen sources (urea and (or) ammonium sulfate) added to cassava fiber were tested for the in vitro mycelial growth in different C:N ratios (ranging from 2.5:l to 50:l) in the dark at 28 degrees C. The radial mycelial growth was measured after 8 days of growth and recorded photographically at the end of the experiment. Nitrogen from urea enhanced fungal growth better than ammonium sulfate or any mixture of nitrogen. The best C:N ratios for fungal growth were from 10:l to 50:l; C:N ratios below 10:l inhibited fungal growth.

  17. Estudio de la telaraña del champiñón causada por Cladobotryum Mycophilum en cultivos españoles

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Carrasco, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Cladobotryum spp. is a mushroom parasite fungus. Its occurrence in white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach) commercial crops generates the pathology known as cobweb. This name is associated to the white fluffy mycelium that grows over the casing and the infected mushrooms; in the first stage it resembles a spider web that quickly evolves towards a dense mass of sporulation. Another disease symptom is the cap spotting on the mushroom which provokes loss of quality and a signifi...

  18. The Edible Mushroom Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Anna Del; Læssøe, Thomas

    A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats.......A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats....

  19. Structure of Agaricus spp. fucogalactans and their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Dirce L; Carbonero, Elaine R; Gracher, Ana Helena P; Baggio, Cristiane H; Freitas, Cristina S; Marcon, Rodrigo; Santos, Adair R S; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

    2010-08-01

    Fucogalactans from Agaricus brasiliensis (EPF-Ab) and A. bisporus var. hortensis (EPF-Ah) were prepared via by aqueous extraction and a purification procedure. EPF-Ab had M(w) 19.4 x 10(3)g/mol and EPF-Ah M(w) 31.1 x 10(3)g/mol. EPF-Ab had a (1-->6)-linked alpha-D-Galp main-chain partially substituted in O-2 by non-reducing end-units of alpha-L-Fucp. EPF-Ah had a similar main-chain with O-2 substitution, but was partially methylated at HO-3, as well as having 2.5% non-reducing end-units of beta-D-Gal. In mice, EPF-Ab gave 39% antinociceptive inhibition (ID(50)>100mg/kg) and no anti-inflammatory activity. EPF-Ah also gave an inhibition of 39% at ID(50) 0.33 mg/kg and also inhibited by 61% (ID(50) 5.0mg/kg) total cell migration and by 32% peritoneal capillary permeability, which is related to the anti-inflammatory effect. The small differences in chemical structure in these polysaccharides thus modified their biological activities. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Screening of the White Button Mushroom (Agaricusbisporus Homokaryons and Producing New Hybrid Strain by SSR Markers

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    marzieh nourashrafeddin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Edible white button mushroom (Agaricusbisporus is the most common edible mushroom in Iran and the world. The yield of this mushroom is less than the average of yield in the world because of strain degeneration and using strains with low yield. Most of the current hybrids are either identical or very similar to the first hybrids. Ongoing breeding programs are exploiting the variability in Agaricus germplasm to produce new varieties with better traits including higher yield and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the breeding programs is F1 production from parental homokaryons crossing. These homokaryonsis were isolated among germinated basidiospores on the culture media. During the last decades, various molecular markers based on nucleic acid polymorphisms (such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA, Amplified fragment of Length Polymorphism, Inter Simple Sequence Repeat, Simple Sequence Repeat markers have been used to differentiate homokaryons and heterokaryons. Microsatellites consist of short tandem repeat motifs distributed throughout the genome. Microsatellites are usually highly polymorphic due to a high degree of variation in the number of repeats among individuals. Microsatellite markers are multiallelic and co-dominant and thus tend to be more informative than other marker systems. Microsatellite markers have been widely developed in animals and plants and more recently in fungal species. The presence of microsatellites in the genome of A. bisporus was previously reported. Materials and Methods: In this research, 160 germinated basidiospores were collected from commercially cultivated strain A15 and they were grown on compost extract agar (CEA. The mycelial growth rate of these160 isolates was evaluated at 25°C on CEA medium. 18 isolates with slow growing rate were selected from 160 isolates. In the next step, co-dominant SSR markers were used to homokaryons

  1. The effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract supplementation on honey bee colonies

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    JEVROSIMA STEVANOVIC

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy. Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day added to syrup. Each year the colonies were treated once in autumn and twice in spring. The treatments significantly increased colony strength parameters: brood rearing improvement and adult population growth were noticed more often than the increase in honey production and pollen reserves. These positive effects were mainly observed in April. In conclusion, A. brasiliensis extract is safe for the bees and helps maintaining strong colonies, especially in spring.

  2. The effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract supplementation on honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Stanimirovic, Zoran; Simeunovic, Predrag; Lakic, Nada; Radovic, Ivica; Sokovic, Marina; Griensven, Leo J L D VAN

    2018-01-01

    This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day) irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy). Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day) added to syrup. Each year the colonies were treated once in autumn and twice in spring. The treatments significantly increased colony strength parameters: brood rearing improvement and adult population growth were noticed more often than the increase in honey production and pollen reserves. These positive effects were mainly observed in April. In conclusion, A. brasiliensis extract is safe for the bees and helps maintaining strong colonies, especially in spring.

  3. Functional foods from mushroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrooms are defined as “a macro fungus with distinctive fruiting bodies that could be hypogeous or epigeous, large enough to be seen by naked eyes and to be picked by hands.” The Basidiomycetes and some species of Ascomycetes are categorized as mushrooms. Mushrooms constitute 22,000 known species ...

  4. [Mercury content in edible mushrooms in the Wyzyna Wieluńska region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J; Hałaczkiewicz, J

    1999-01-01

    Mercury concentration was determined in the caps and stalks of nine species of edible mushrooms collected at the area of Wieluńska Upland in district of Czestochowa in 1995-96. The mushroom species examined were such as: yellow-cracking bolete Xerocomus subtomentosus, brown birch scaber stalk Leccinum scabrum, slippery Jack Suillus luteus, larch bolete Suillus grevillei, gray knight-cap Tricholoma terreum, parasol mushroom Macrolepiota procera, horse mushroom Agaricus arvensis, fennel funnel cap Clitocybe odora, fairy-ring mushroom Marasmius oreades and tacky green brittle gills Russula aereuginea. The method of mercury measurement was cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) after wet digestion of the samples with concentrated nitric acid in a whole glass system. The parasol mushroom and horse mushroom showed a highest mercury concentrations and contained, respectively, 4500 +/- 1700 and 4400 +/- 2400 ng/g dry wt in caps, and 2800 +/- 1300 and 2800 +/- 2100 ng/g dry wt in stalks. In the case of fennel funnel cap and fairy-ring mushroom the mean total mercury concentrations in caps was above 500 ng/g dry wt, and for other species were between 150 +/- 50 and 500 +/- 230 ng/g dry wt. The stalks of the mushroom species examined in all cases showed lower contamination with mercury than caps. The mean total mercury concentrations noted in caps and stalks of mushrooms examined were usually higher than was reported till now in the same species elsewhere in Poland, while a maximum values found in an individual fruiting bodies are within the range of the concentrations noted in specimens collected from an unpolluted areas.

  5. Essential and toxic element determination in edible mushrooms by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Patricia Landim da Costa

    2008-01-01

    In this study concentrations of As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined in edible mushrooms acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from Mogi das Cruzes, Suzano, Juquitiba and Mirandopolis producers. The analytical technique used for determining these elements in edible mushrooms was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Species of the Agaricus, Lentinus and Pleurotus genera were acquired during the period from November, 2006 to March, 2007. About 150 to 200 mg of freeze-dried mushrooms were irradiated in a neutron flux of 1012 cm -2 s -1 for 8 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor at IPEN-CNEN-SP. In order to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methodology, four reference materials: INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves, NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver, and the material Mushroom from IAEA were analyzed. Results showed some variation in the element concentrations among the different genera. In some samples, arsenic was found but in low concentrations. Arsenic is probably derived from the contamination from pesticides used in the cultivation, in their the substrates where mushrooms uptake their nutrients. Although there are element concentration variations, mushrooms can still be considered a very rich nutritional source, mainly because of their low concentrations of Na, and due to the good source of K, Fe and Zn. (author)

  6. The anti-browning agent sulfite inactivates Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase through covalent modification of the copper-B site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, T.F.M.; Gruppen, H.; Sforza, S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Vincken, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfite salts are widely used as antibrowning agents in food processing. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism by which sulfite prevents enzymatic browning has remained unknown. Here, we show that sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3 ) irreversibly blocks the active site of tyrosinase from the edible

  7. First Collection and Identification of Wild Mushrooms in Western Iraq

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    Mustafa Nadhim Owaid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are found everywhere and affect our lives every day from mushroom to industrially important product, plant helpers, plant pathogens and to human diseases. Therefore, we concentrated our attention on fungi that can be grown in our environment, while maintaining an interest in their performance in nature. About fifteen different species were collected and identified from different villages of Heet district, Anbar province, Iraq. Out of the fifteen, two species, naming Armillaria mellea and Coprinus disseminates were identified as species level and others: Pleurotus spp., Agaricus spp., Calvatia sp., Telephora sp., Fomes sp., Lepiota sp. and Morchella sp. as genus level only. This study was aimed to collect and identify wild mushrooms that grow naturally in different orchards and gardens on 2009-2013 in Heet city. A total of 15 species in 9 genera, 9 families and 5 orders belong to woody and fleshy species were identified for the first time in Anbar province. The collected mushrooms were appearing from November to February of each year.

  8. Mercury in mushrooms and soil from the Wieluńska Upland in south-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Bielawski, Leszek; Kawano, Masabide; Brzostowski, Andrzej; Chudzyński, Krzysztof

    2002-09-01

    Concentrations of mercury were determined in the fruiting bodies of 15 species of higher mushrooms and underlying soil substrate collected from Wieluńska Upland in northern part of Sandomierska Valley in south-central Poland in 1995. A total of 197 samples of caps, 197 stalks, 30 whole fruiting bodies and 227 soil (0-10 cm layer) were analyzed. Mean mercury concentrations in soil substrate corresponding to 15 mushroom species were between 28 +/- 17 and 85 +/- 62 ng/g dry matter (total range between 3.0-190 ng/g). The average cap to stalk concentration quotients of Hg were around 2 (range between 1.1 +/- 1.1 and 2.8 +/- 1.4). However, this quotient in Larch bolete (Suillus grevillei) was 4.4 +/- 6.3. Concentrations of Hg varied depending on the mushroom species. Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) and Horse mushroom (Agaricus arvensis) contained the greatest mean mercury concentrations both in caps (between 4500 +/- 1700 and 4400 +/- 2400 ng/g dry matter) and stalks (between 2800 +/- 1300 and 3000 +/- 2000 ng/g dry matter). Both the Parasol Mushroom and Horse mushroom were characterised also by a greater potential to bioconcentrate mercury from soils as evidenced by great bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which were between 170 +/- 160 and 130 +/- 120 for caps, and 110 +/- 97 and 89 +/- 92 for stalks. Mercury concentrations in caps and stalks of False death cap (Amanita citrina) increased (p Suillus luteus).

  9. The cultural significance of wild mushrooms in San Mateo Huexoyucan, Tlaxcala, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index (CSI). Methods Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. Among the 49 mushroom species collected in the oak forest and open areas, 20 species were mentioned most often and were analyzed in more detail. Ordination and grouping techniques were used to determine the relationship between the cultural significance of the mushroom species, according to a perceived abundance index, frequency of use index, taste score appreciation index, multifunctional food index, knowledge transmission index, and health index. Results The mushrooms with highest CSI values were Agaricus campestris, Ramaria spp., Amanita aff. basii, Russula spp., Ustilago maydis, and Boletus variipes. These species were characterized by their good taste and were considered very nutritional. The species with the lowest cultural significance included Russula mexicana, Lycoperdon perlatum, and Strobylomyces strobilaceus. The ordination and grouping analyses identified four groups of mushrooms by their significance to the people of Huexoyucan. The most important variables that explained the grouping were the taste score appreciation index, health index, the knowledge transmission index, and the frequency of use index. Conclusions A. aff. basii and A. campestris were the most significant wild mushrooms to the people of San Mateo. The diversity of the Russula species and the variety of Amanita and Ramaria species used by these people was outstanding. Environments outside the forest also produced useful resources. The CSI used in Oaxaca was useful for determining the cultural significance of mushrooms in SMH, Tlaxcala. This list of mushrooms can be used in

  10. Radiation damage to mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    This document contains newspaper cuttings and correspondence with various ministries in Hessen on the subject of radiation damage to mushrooms from the Odenwald area. The reader is given, amongst other things, detailed information on radiation damage to different types of mushroom in 1986. (MG) [de

  11. Hepatoprotective Effects of Mushrooms

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    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts.

  12. Analysis of γ-ray irradiated pasteurized agaricus (Agaricus blazei Murill) by ESR in oxygen-free atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeya, Hiromi; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2007-01-01

    Agaricus (Agaricus blazei Murill) is one of a popular crude drug in Japan and East Asia countries. The crude drugs originating from natural raw products are easy to be contaminated by microorganism. Radiation method has been introduced as the sterilization technology for crude drugs. ESR has been used for the detection of radicals in irradiated drugs. Using ESR, we detected radical species in Agaricus before and after the gamma ray pasteurization. The ESR spectrum consists of a broad sextet centered at g=2.0, a singlet at same g-value and a singlet at g=4.0. We found that relaxation times of radicals in Agaricus varied by the presence of oxygen. Upon substitution of air by Ar, i.e., the absent of oxygen in the ESR sample tube, the T 1 value became 10 times larger than the presence of oxygen. Accordingly, the progressive saturation curve indicates more immediate saturation under the Ar than air atmosphere. Radicals, produced by the γ-ray irradiation to Agaricus, are very sensitive to oxygen. We concluded that ESR spectrum of irradiated Agaricus sample in the absence of oxygen is useful for the detection of dose level of γ-ray irradiation. (author)

  13. FUNGI: A REVIEW ON MUSHROOMS

    OpenAIRE

    Abulude, F. Olawale; Ndamitso, M. Muhammed

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews a fungus – mushrooms. In this paper, identification, cultivation, uses, side effects, nutritional and medicinal values, storage, marketing and other uses of mushrooms were discussed. From the review too it was observed that its usefulness surpasses the side effects. These side effects could be eliminated if proper ‘processing’ could be employed. Due to advances in both basic knowledge and practical technology relevant to mushroom farming, mushroom products and mushroom bior...

  14. Are mushrooms radioactive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randa, Z.; Benada, J.; Singert, M.; Horyna, J.

    1988-01-01

    Tabulated is the content of 137 Cs in dry matter of higher mushrooms collected in the years 1986 to 1987. The radioactive level of mushrooms collected in Czechoslovakia such as Boletus badius and B. chrysenteron reached 20 to 50 kBq/kg of dry matter. The individual dose at mean consumption of these mushrooms was estimated at 0.2 to 0.3 mSv/year which amounted to 20 to 30% of the dose from the natural background. (J.B.). 1 tab

  15. Cultivation of Agaricus blazei ss. Heinemann using different soils as source of casing materials Cultivo de Agaricus blazei ss. Heinemann usando diferentes solos como fonte de material para a camada de cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonçalves de Siqueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial productivity of the Agaricus blazei mushroom is closely related to both the quality of the compost and the choice of soil to be used as a casing material. This study aims to evaluate Agaricus blazei's productivity using two compost formulations and three soils. The two compost formulations were (i crushed sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum (L. and Coastcross hay (Cynidon dactylon (L. Pers., and (ii crushed sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum (L. and corn husk (Zea mays L.; they were amended with wheat bran, lime, gypsum, superphosphate and urea. The casing materials were extracted from three soils classed as Rhodic Hapludox, Xanthic Hapludox, and Humic Haplaquox. The Rhodic Hapludox soil material was mixed with fragments of Eucalyptus charcoal in the proportion of 4:1. The compost was prepared during six weeks and thereafter heat treated during 48 h at the end of the composting period. The sugarcane bagasse:coast-hay compost was superior to the sugarcane bagasse: corn husk compost. The Rhodic Hapludox plus charcoal casing material showed to be a better casing material than either the Xanthic Hapludox and Humic Haplaquox soil materials. The choice of the soils where the casing material is taken is an important factor to the success of the Agaricus blazei mushroom cultivation.A produtividade do cogumelo Agaricus blazei depende da qualidade do composto e da terra de cobertura. Avaliou-se a produtividade deste cogumelo utilizando-se duas formulações de composto e materiais retirados de três tipos de solo usados como camada de cobertura. As duas formulações de composto consistiram em (i bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum (L. e capim Coastcross (Cynidon dactylon (L. Pers., e (ii bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum (L. e palha de milho (Zea mays L.. As duas formulações foram suplementadas com farelo de trigo, calcário, gesso, superfosfato simples e uréia. Como camadas de cobertura foram

  16. Cesium fixation in mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1990-01-01

    It has been found that the various mushroom species accumulate Cs-137 in very different quantities. Whereas specimens of the species Xeromus badius always contained high amounts of Cs-137, analyses of specimens of the related species Boletus edulis showed only weak accumulation of the radionuclide. It is assumed that this general difference in accumulation of Cs-137 is due to a difference in the organic constituents of the mushrooms. (orig.) [de

  17. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-01

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000–2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. and Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption. - Highlights: ► The Pb contents were higher in saprophytic fungi in comparison with mycorrhizal

  18. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (cesarea, A. campestris, A. edulis, A. macrosporus, and A. silvaticus. A particularly rich source of selenium could be obtained from selenium-enriched mushrooms that are cultivated on a substrate fortified with selenium (as inorganic salt or selenized-yeast). The Se-enriched Champignon Mushroom could contain up to 30 or 110 microg Se/g dw, while the Varnished Polypore (Ganoderma lucidum) could contain up to 72 microg Se/g dw. An increasingly growing database on chemical forms of selenium of mushrooms indicates that the seleno-compounds identified in carpophore include selenocysteine, selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenite, and several unidentified seleno-compounds; their proportions vary widely. Some aspects of environmental selenium occurrence and human body pharmacokinetics and nutritional needs will also be briefly discussed in this review.

  19. Investigation on Possibility of Transferring OysterMushroom (Pleurotusostreatus Manganese Peroxidase Gene (mnp to the White Button Mushroom (Agaricusbisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Parvandi

    2017-12-01

    , low flexibility and adaptability with environmental conditions changes are some of the problems that the mushroom reformers are faced. Unlike the great efforts made by researchers, conventional breeding techniques to produce the A. bisporus mushroom only have been led to produce a few new races. Therefore, todays some problems associated with traditional methods of breeding of edible mushrooms, including the need to provide races that have desired characteristics, the traditional method performance tests and low chances of success in the transfer of important agronomic characteristics such as functionality and disease resistance. So, they almost have been replaced with new biotechnology methods. Anexample of this method is to manipulateproperties transformation for the particular purpose. Modification of both expression or type of lignin degrading enzyme are possible solutions to deal with this problem, but these are not applicable or are difficult to be done with traditional breeding programs. In recent years, gene transformation mediated with Agrobacterium routinely is used for gene transformation to mushrooms and is proposed as a method for removing limitations of white button mushroom breeding. Materials and Methods: In this research, the oyster mushroom strain Florida was used as the source of manganese peroxidase (mnp gene and white button mushroom strain 737 gill and cap tissue were used as transformation host. Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harbors p133H88-FM plasmid thatcontainsmnp gene of oyster mushroom and also hph gene under control of gpdII promoter of the button white mushroom strain IM008 was used as a transformer. Selection medium containing 30 mg/ml Hygromycin B and was used for selecting transformed explants. To confirm transformation, PCR with specific primers of mnp and hph genes was performed on genomic DNA of selected colonies. Results and Discussion: Results showed the gill tissue explants, with transformation rate 5%, have a better response to

  20. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

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    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  1. Selenium content of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stijve, T

    1977-07-29

    The selenium contents of 83 species of wild mushrooms were determined by oxygen combustion of the sample, followed by conversion of selenite to bromopiazselenol and final estimation by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography. Selenium concentration were found to range from 0.012-20.0 mg/kg dry weight. Selenium content was species-dependent. High concentrations were found in Agaricaceae and in certain Boletaceae of the genus Tubiporus, whereas in Russulaceae, Amanitaceae and Cantharellaceae selenium-rich species were absent or rare. Ascomycetes and all mushrooms growing on wood had a very low selenium content. The highest selenium concentrations (up to 20 ppm) were found in Boletus (Tubiporus) edulis, a most popular edible mushroom. Analyses of various parts of carpophores of B. edulis, Suillus luteus and Amanita muscaria indicate that in all three species the stalk contains less selenium than the fleshy part of the cap. In Boletus and Suillus the highest selenium content was found in the tubes.

  2. Biological efficiency of Agaricus brasiliensis cultivated in compost with nitrogen concentrations Eficiência biológica de Agaricus brasiliensis em composto com concentrações de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix G de Siqueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of compost is one of the most important steps for the cultivation of any species of mushroom. For the Agaricus species, this step is even more complex because it depends on the performance of different microorganisms that act on the substrate, turning it into selective compost that promotes the growth of the fungus to be cultivated. Among the various factors that affect the microbial activity, the initial concentration of nitrogen is considered one of the most important. Due to the lack of conclusive studies about that, the aim of this study was to evaluate the productivity and biological efficiency of Agaricus brasiliensis in compost prepared with different initial concentrations of nitrogen, according to the composting methodology and to the conventional pasteurization techniques (phase I and II. Three initial nitrogen concentrations (w/w (T1= 1.0%; T2= 1.5%; and T3= 2.0% were tested and mycelial growth was determined in terms of mm/day for all treatments. The productivity and biological efficiency were also determined. The most efficient initial concentrations of nitrogen were of 1.0% and 1.5%. This concentration of N in the compost permitted a faster development of the mushroom with higher productivity when compared to the results obtained with the application of 2% of nitrogen.A produção do composto é uma das etapas mais importantes para o cultivo de qualquer espécie de cogumelo. Para as espécies Agaricus, essa etapa é ainda mais complexa, porque depende da atuação de diferentes microrganismos que atuam sobre o substrato, transformando-o em um composto seletivo que favorece o crescimento do fungo a ser cultivado. Dentre os diversos fatores que afetam essa atividade microbiana, a concentração inicial de nitrogênio é considerada uma das mais importantes. Em função da falta de estudos conclusivos a respeito, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a produtividade e eficiência biológica de Agaricus brasiliensis em

  3. Analysis of several heavy metals in wild edible mushrooms from regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Hua; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Qiu, Guan-Zhou

    2009-08-01

    The metal (Cu, Ni, Cd, Hg, As, Pb) contents in wild edible mushrooms collected from three different sites in China were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. A total of 11 species was studied, five being from the urban area and six from rural areas in China. The As content ranged from 0.44 to 1.48 mg/kg. The highest As content was seen in Macrolepiota crustosa from the urban area, and the lowest in Russula virescens from rural areas. A high Ni concentration (1.35 mg/kg) was found in Calvatia craniiformis from the urban area. The lowest Ni level was 0.11 mg/kg, for the species R. virescens and Cantharellus cibarius. The Cu content ranged from 39.0 to 181.5 mg/kg. The highest Cu content was seen in Agaricus silvaticus and the lowest in C. cibarius. The Pb content ranged from 1.9 to 10.8 mg/kg. The highest Pb value was found in C. craniiformis. The Cd content ranged from 0.4 to 91.8 mg/kg. The highest Cd value was found in M. crustosa. The Hg content ranged from 0.28 to 3.92 mg/kg. The highest Hg level was found in Agaricus species. The levels of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, and Hg in the studied mushroom species from urban area can be considered high. The metal-to-metal correlation analysis supported they were the same source of contamination. High automobile traffic was identified as the most likely source of the contamination. Based upon the present safety standards, consumption of those mushrooms that grow in the polluted urban area should be avoided.

  4. The effect of royal sun agaricus, agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., Extract on methyl Methanesulfonate caused genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savic, T.; Patenkovic, A.; Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Andjelkovic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus (Agaricus brasiliensis) hot water extract on methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced mutagenicity/genotoxity in Drosophila melanogaster was studied using a quick and broadly applicable in vivo assay, i.e., the wing somatic mutation and recombination

  5. Genome and physiology of the ascomycete filamentous fungus Xeromyces bisporus, the most xerophilic organism isolated to date

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Su-lin L.; Lantz, Henrik; Pettersson, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    -related genes; among these, certain (not all) steps for glycerol synthesis were upregulated. Xeromyces bisporus increased glycerol production during hypo- and hyper-osmotic stress, and much of its wet weight comprised water and rinsable solutes; leaked solutes may form a protective slime. Xeromyces bisporus......Xeromyces bisporus can grow on sugary substrates down to 0.61, an extremely low water activity. Its genome size is approximately 22 Mb. Gene clusters encoding for secondary metabolites were conspicuously absent; secondary metabolites were not detected experimentally. Thus, in its 'dry' but nutrient...... and other food-borne moulds increased membrane fatty acid saturation as water activity decreased. Such modifications did not appear to be transcriptionally regulated in X. bisporus; however, genes modulating sterols, phospholipids and the cell wall were differentially expressed. Xeromyces bisporus...

  6. Essential and toxic element determination in edible mushrooms by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais e toxicos em cogumelos comestiveis por analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia Landim da Costa

    2008-07-01

    In this study concentrations of As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined in edible mushrooms acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from Mogi das Cruzes, Suzano, Juquitiba and Mirandopolis producers. The analytical technique used for determining these elements in edible mushrooms was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Species of the Agaricus, Lentinus and Pleurotus genera were acquired during the period from November, 2006 to March, 2007. About 150 to 200 mg of freeze-dried mushrooms were irradiated in a neutron flux of 1012 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for 8 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor at IPEN-CNEN-SP. In order to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methodology, four reference materials: INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves, NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver, and the material Mushroom from IAEA were analyzed. Results showed some variation in the element concentrations among the different genera. In some samples, arsenic was found but in low concentrations. Arsenic is probably derived from the contamination from pesticides used in the cultivation, in their the substrates where mushrooms uptake their nutrients. Although there are element concentration variations, mushrooms can still be considered a very rich nutritional source, mainly because of their low concentrations of Na, and due to the good source of K, Fe and Zn. (author)

  7. Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Barros Colauto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis.Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However

  8. Radiation protection effect by the combination of propolis and agaricus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yeunhwa; Yamada, Katsunori; Ukawa, Yuuichi [Suzuka Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    The aims of the radioprotection are a human and the safety keeping of the environment. The leukocyte that much research is to do in the animals, and relations between the lymphocyte and the radiation are being made distinct until now. It paid attention to it in this determination stage, and lymphocyte toward the radiation was observed by using the ICR mice used for the lymphocyte simulation abundantly in this research. And, it was examined about the fetal effect toward the radiation. So, an excuse as a radioprotective agent of the effect on the fetus toward the radiation was examined experimentally by using the propolis and agaricus by this research. Therefore, it is a purpose to obtain information as a medicament of the radioprotection. ICR mice were used for the experiment. The pregnant mice were placed in plastic cages for radiation exposure, and were treated with a single whole-body X -radiation at 1 Gy and 2Gy with a dose rate of 35 cGy/min on 8 days after the conception. 100 mg/kg of propolis and agaricus. The total number of irradiated dams observed in this study was 40, a total of 38 non-irradiated control and sham control dams was also prepared, and 659 non-irradiated live fetuses served as controls. Statistical significant difference was recognized between the lymphocyte of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy group and the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + propolis and agaricus extracts of water solution administrated group toward the lymphocyte and embryonic death of control group and sham control group (p<0.01). But, when it was compared with the lymphocyte and embryonic death rate of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy group and the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + Propolis and agaricus group, the lymphocyte rate of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + Propolis and agaricus group was decrease. And, if propolis and agaricus was administered, the embryo beyond the haploid number that did implantation was found out in the exposure beyond 1.0Gy or 2.0Gy.

  9. Radiation protection effect by the combination of propolis and agaricus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yeunhwa; Yamada, Katsunori; Ukawa, Yuuichi

    2002-01-01

    The aims of the radioprotection are a human and the safety keeping of the environment. The leukocyte that much research is to do in the animals, and relations between the lymphocyte and the radiation are being made distinct until now. It paid attention to it in this determination stage, and lymphocyte toward the radiation was observed by using the ICR mice used for the lymphocyte simulation abundantly in this research. And, it was examined about the fetal effect toward the radiation. So, an excuse as a radioprotective agent of the effect on the fetus toward the radiation was examined experimentally by using the propolis and agaricus by this research. Therefore, it is a purpose to obtain information as a medicament of the radioprotection. ICR mice were used for the experiment. The pregnant mice were placed in plastic cages for radiation exposure, and were treated with a single whole-body X -radiation at 1 Gy and 2Gy with a dose rate of 35 cGy/min on 8 days after the conception. 100 mg/kg of propolis and agaricus. The total number of irradiated dams observed in this study was 40, a total of 38 non-irradiated control and sham control dams was also prepared, and 659 non-irradiated live fetuses served as controls. Statistical significant difference was recognized between the lymphocyte of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy group and the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + propolis and agaricus extracts of water solution administrated group toward the lymphocyte and embryonic death of control group and sham control group (p<0.01). But, when it was compared with the lymphocyte and embryonic death rate of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy group and the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + Propolis and agaricus group, the lymphocyte rate of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + Propolis and agaricus group was decrease. And, if propolis and agaricus was administered, the embryo beyond the haploid number that did implantation was found out in the exposure beyond 1.0Gy or 2.0Gy

  10. Chemical composition and non-volatile components of three wild edible mushrooms collected from northwest Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ibtissem Kacem Jedidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, many people collect wild edible mushrooms as pickers for their own consumption. The present work aims at contributing to the determination of the chemical composition, non volatile components content (soluble sugars, free amino acids and minerals and trace elements of three popular Tunisian wild edible mushrooms species collected from the northwest of Tunisia (Agaricus campestris, Boletus edulis and Cantharellus cibarius.All investigated mushrooms revealed that these species are rich sources of proteins (123.70 – 374.10 g kg-1 dry weight (DW and carbohydrates (403.3 – 722.40 g kg-1 DW, and low content of fat (28.2 – 39.9 g kg-1 DW; the highest energetic contribution was guaranteed by C. cibarius (1542.71 kJ / 100 g. A. compestris (33.14 mg/g DW showed the highest concentration of essential amino acids. The composition in individual sugars was also determined, mannitol and trehalose being the most abundant sugars. C. cibarius revealed the highest concentrations of carbohydrates (722.4 g kg-1 DW and A. compestris the lowest concentration (403.3 g kg-1 DW. Potassium (K and sodium (Na are the most abundant minerals in analyzed samples (A. compestris showed the highest concentrations of K and Na, 49141.44 and 9263.886 µg/g DW respectively.

  11. Mechanisms to Detoxify Selected Organic Contaminants in Higher Plants and Microbes, and Their Potential Use in Landscape Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    growing tissues and reproductive organs. The herbicide 2,4-D and defoliant 2,4,5-T are absorbed by leaves and translocated basipetally and acropetally...into motion by the superior affinity of the xenobiotic for the enzyme compared to its natural substrates. When plants grow in a medium that contains...al. 1992). The tentative mechanism of the phenoloxidase action is based on results obtained for mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase, a typical

  12. Global collection of mushroom pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Korsten, L.

    2013-01-01

    In many places in the world, increasingly less chemical crop protection agents are available for use in mushroom cultivation. As a consequence, mushroom cultivation will loose the ability to use crop protection agents. As a consequence, good hygiene management, early detection and monitoring of

  13. Radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.; Ylipieti, J.

    2010-02-01

    Surveillance of radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms was started in 1986 at STUK. Results of the surveillance programs carried out in Lapland and other parts of Finland are given in this report. More than 2000 samples of edible mushrooms have been analysed during 1986-2008. The 137 Cs detected in the mushrooms mainly originates from the 137 Cs deposition due to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms in the end of 1970s and in the beginning of 1980s varied from some ten to two hundred becquerels per kilogram originating from the nuclear weapon test period. The uneven division of the Chernobyl fallout is seen in the areal variation of 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms, the 137 Cs concentrations being about tenfold in the areas with the highest deposition compared to those where the deposition was lowest. After the Chernobyl accident the maximum values in the 137 Cs concentrations were reached during 1987-88 among most species of mushrooms. The 137 Cs concentrations have decreased slowly, being in 2008 about 40 per cent of the maximum values. The 137 Cs concentrations may be tenfold in the mushroom species with high uptake of cesium (Rozites caperatus, Hygrophorus camarophyllus, Lactarius trivialis) compared to the species with low uptake (Albatrellus ovinus, Leccinum sp.) picked in the same area. The 137 Cs contents in certain species of commercial mushrooms in Finland still exceed the maximum permitted level, 600 Bq/kg, recommended to be respected when placing wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and lake fish on the market (Commission recommendation 2003/274/Euratom). Therefore, the 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms should be measured before placing them on the market in the areas of the highest 137 Cs deposition, except for Albatrellus ovinus, Boletus sp. and Cantharellus cibarius. The 137 Cs concentrations of common commercial mushroom species, Cantharellus tubaeformis and Craterellus

  14. Structure and conformation of α-glucan extracted from Agaricus blazei Murill by high-speed shearing homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anqiang; Deng, Jiaying; Liu, Xiaoqing; He, Pengfei; He, Liang; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Sun, Peilong

    2018-07-01

    Agaricus blazei Murill is an edible and medicinal mushroom favored in many countries, by virtue of both its delicious taste and its potential health benefits such as its purported anticancer activity. A neutral α-glucan (ABM40-1) with a carbohydrate content of 96% was purified from the high-speed shearing homogenization extracts of A. Blazei Murill by ethanol precipitation and column chromatography. Methylation analysis along with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that ABM40-1 was an α-(1→4)-d-glucopyranan with O-6 position occasionally occupied with α-Glcp-(1→or α-Glcp-(1→6)-β-Glcp-(1→side chains. A weight-average molecular weight of 7.34×10 6 Da was determined for ABM40-1 and its chain in solution was revealed as a compact sphere by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a laser light scattering. This spherical conformation was also further confirmed by Congo red test and using atom force microscopy. These results suggest it would be worthwhile to further study the potential bioactivities of ABM40-1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Agaricus blazei Murrill extract on HT-29 human colon cancer cells in SCID mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Fang; Chen, Yung-Liang; Lee, Mei-Hui; Shih, Yung-Luen; Hsu, Yu-Ming; Tang, Ming-Chu; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Tang, Nou-Ying; Yang, Su-Tso; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2011-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) popularly known as 'Cogumelo do Sol' in Brazil, or 'Himematsutake' in Japan, is a mushroom native to Brazil and widely cultivated in Japan for its medicinal uses and is now considered one of the most important edible and culinary-medicinal biotechnological species. This study is the first tumor growth model to evaluate the amelioratory effect of ABM extract using HT-29 human colon cancer cells in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Forty SCID mice were inoculated with HT-29 cells to induce tumor formation and were then divided into four groups. All the four groups (control, low, medium and high concentration treatment) of mice were separately orally administered 0 mg, 1.125 mg, 4.5 mg or 45 mg ABM extract daily. After six weeks of treatment, 8 out of the 40 mice had not survived including one mouse which scored +++ (tumor up to 15 mm diameter) and four mice which scored ++++ (tumor over 15 mm diameter) in the control group and three mice which scored ++++ on the low-dose ABM treatment. After high- or medium-dose treatment, all ten mice in each group survived. The oral administration of ABM does not prevent tumor growth, as shown by increased tumor mass, but compared with the control group, the tumor mass seems to grow more slowly depending on the ABM dose.

  16. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeffer on Glycemia and Cholesterol after Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Betti Mascaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of the Agaricus sylvaticus (sun mushroom on biochemical tests of the plasma and on the morphology of the pancreas in an experimental model of type I diabetes mellitus (DM1 induced by streptozotocin. One gram of dry A. sylvaticus was homogenized and mixed with the chow. Male Wistar rats were allocated as follows: normoglycemic control that received commercial chow; normoglycemic control group that received chow with A. sylvaticus; diabetic group that received commercial chow; and diabetic group that received chow with A. sylvaticus. Weight, food, and water consumption were measured every two days. Blood glucose levels were measured twice a week. After 30 days, the animals were euthanized and blood was collected for the analysis of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT, alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea. The pancreas was processed for microscopic analysis. A. sylvaticus modulated the levels of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea to levels similar to those found in the controls and led to compensatory hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans. A. sylvaticus is potentially beneficial in the control of type 1 diabetes, and it may also prevent pancreas damage.

  17. A natural food ingredient based on ergosterol: optimization of the extraction from Agaricus blazei, evaluation of bioactive properties and incorporation in yogurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Rúbia C G; Barros, Lillian; Fernandes, Ângela; Sokovic, Marina; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, mycosterols have emerged as potential functional ingredients for the development of sterol-enriched food products and dietary supplements. Agaricus blazei is a mushroom rich in bioactive compounds. For commercial purposes, their fruiting bodies must obey rigid morphological criteria. Those not conforming to these criteria are usually discarded, although this does not mean impairment of their content in bioactives. The aim of the present work was to propose the use of commercially discarded A. blazei fruiting bodies for obtaining an extract rich in ergosterol as a fortifier ingredient for yogurts. For extraction, the Soxhlet technology was used and the highest ergosterol yield (around 12%) was achieved in the 5 th cycle, yielding 58.53 ± 1.72 µg of ergosterol per 100 g of mushroom (dry weight). The ergosterol rich extract presented notable antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, besides showing no hepatotoxicity. When added to the yogurts it significantly enhanced their antioxidant properties. Furthermore, it did not significantly alter the nutritional or the individual fatty acid profiles of the final dairy products. Thus, A. blazei fruiting bodies that do not conform to the commercial requirements of the market and are normally discarded could be exploited for obtaining a natural high added-value food additive, following the circular bioeconomy concept.

  18. Contamination of mushrooms with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.

    2013-01-01

    There is 27 years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident and the half-life of 137 Cs is 30 years. The radioactive cloud hit both former Czechoslovakia, but also very distant cities throughout Europe. In this work, author focused on recovery of radiocesium content in mushrooms from various sites in Slovakia, Poland and England. Author evaluated 28 samples of dried mushrooms. 137 Cs was measured by gamma spectrometry (Canberra). Elevated levels have been reported occasionally in mushroom not only in Slovakia but also in distant England. The values obtained are lower than recommended standard (author)

  19. Agaricus section Xanthodermatei: a phylogenetic reconstruction with commentary on taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Richard W; Callac, Philippe; Guinberteau, Jacques; Challen, Michael P; Parra, Luis A

    2005-01-01

    Agaricus section Xanthodermatei comprises a group of species allied to A. xanthodermus and generally characterized by basidiomata having phenolic odors, transiently yellowing discolorations in some parts of the basidiome, Schaeffer's reaction negative, and mild to substantial toxicity. The section has a global distribution, while most included species have distributions restricted to regions of single continents. Using specimens and cultures from Europe, North America, and Hawaii, we analyzed DNA sequences from the ITS1+2 region of the nuclear rDNA to identify and characterize phylogenetically distinct entities and to construct a hypothesis of relationships, both among members of the section and with representative taxa from other sections of the genus. 61 sequences from affiliated taxa, plus 20 from six (or seven) other sections of Agaricus, and one Micropsalliota sequence, were evaluated under distance, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. We recognized 21 discrete entities in Xanthodermatei, including 14 established species and 7 new ones, three of which are described elsewhere. Four species from California, New Mexico, and France deserve further study before they are described. Type studies of American taxa are particularly emphasized, and a lectotype is designated for A. californicus. Section Xanthodermatei formed a single clade in most analyses, indicating that the traditional sectional characters noted above are good unifying characters that appear to have arisen only once within Agaricus. Deep divisions within the sequence-derived structure of the section could be interpreted as subsections in Xanthodermatei; however, various considerations led us to refrain from proposing new supraspecific taxa. The nearest neighbors of section Xanthodermatei are putatively in section Duploannulati.

  20. Identification of the potential of microbial combinations obtained from spent mushroom cultivation substrates for use in textile effluent decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajender; Ahlawat, O P; Rajor, Anita

    2012-12-01

    The study presents variation in microbial population of Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea spent substrates (SMS) along with ligninolytic enzymes activity and textile effluent decolorization potential of microorganisms isolated from these. The effect of temperature, pH, carbon sources and immobilizing agents on effluent decolorization using different combinations of these microorganisms has also been studied. SMS of P. sajor-caju harbored highest population and diversity of bacteria and fungi compared to other SMSs. Schizophyllum commune and Pezizomycotina sp. from P. sajor-caju SMS, exhibited highest activities of laccase (11.8 and 8.32U mL(-1)) and lignin peroxidase (339 and 318 UL(-1)), while Pseudomonas fluorescens of Manganese peroxidase. Highest decolorization was in presence of glucose and sucrose at 30°C, and microbial consortium comprised of the immobilized forms of S. commune and Pezizomycotina sp. on wheat straw and broth cultures of P. fluorescens, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radioactivity levels in mushrooms collected in the area of Karlsruhe during 1987 and 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckert, G.; Diehl, J.F.; Heilgeist, M.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of wild-growing mushrooms collected in the Northern Black Forest and neighbouring Rhine Valley area has been monitored since the Chernobyl reactor accident. Cs-134, Cs-137, Ag-110m and the natural nuclide K-40 were determined by gamma-spectrometry. Pooled data from all species and all locations showed a decrease in the radio-caesium levels from 1986 to 1988, both in mean values and maximum values. Samples of the same species collected at the same location exhibited large differences, although mixed samples rather than individual mushrooms were measured. Accumulation of caesium was observed particularly in Laccaria amethystina, Xerocomus badius, Xerocomus chrysenteron, Cantharellus tubaeformis, Laccaria laccata, and Russula ochroleuca, with maximum values of 3600 (1986), 2000 (1987), and 1200 (1988) Bq/kg of radio-caesium. A large number of species, among them Calocybe gambosa and Coprinus comatus, showed very small accumulations or no caesium. An accumulation of silver was found in Macrolepiota rhacodes and Agaricus arvensis, which contained a maximum of 11 Bq/kg Ag-110m. (orig.) [de

  2. Long-term 137Cs activity monitoring of mushrooms in forest ecosystems of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrkal, J.; Rulik, P.; Fantinova, K.; Burianova, J.; Helebrant, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on results of activity mass concentration analyses performed in various forest mushrooms in the Czech Republic within 1986 and 2011. The estimated effective half-life of 137 Cs and its environmental half-life (i.e. the effective half life minus the effect of physical decay) were found to be 5.6±0.6 and 6.9±0.7 y, respectively. Non-homogeneity in 137 Cs surface contamination over the country's territory and fungus species-based 137 Cs accumulation capacity then account for a span of up to 4 orders of magnitude in activity mass concentrations measured each year after the Chernobyl accident. The highest geometric activity mass concentration (Bq kg -1 of dry weight) means of 137 Cs (obtained from samples between years 2004 and 2011) were measured in Suillaceae (1050 Bq kg -1 ) and Boletus badius (930 Bq kg -1 ), the lowest in Agaricus (1 Bq kg -1 ). The geometric mean of all mushrooms amounted to 230 Bq kg -1 , being 440 Bq kg -1 in Boletales, 150 Bq kg -1 in Russulales and 21 Bq kg -1 in Agaricales. Geometric standard deviation levels were generally high. The highest Cs accumulation capacity was observed in Boletales (namely in Suillaceae), while the lowest in Agaricales, being over 3 orders of magnitude lower than in Suillaceae. (authors)

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of Agaricus blazei Murill extract in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    potential therapy of atherosclerosis disease. Keywords: Anti-inflammatory agent, Agaricus blazei Murill, Proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, IL-10. This is an ..... belong to the β2 integrin family. .... Response through Intestinal Epithelial Cells and.

  4. Natural radionuclides and 137Cs in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de

    2008-01-01

    Artificial and natural radionuclides are commonly found in several compartments of the earth's crust. Some mushroom species have a high capacity to absorb radionuclides and toxic elements from the soil. Diet is considered as one of the main routes of radioactive contamination. Therefore, radioactivity measurements in the environment and in food are extremely important to monitor the radiation levels that human can be exposed to either directly or indirectly. Environmental bio monitoring has demonstrated that diverse organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful when evaluating both the contamination and the quality of the ecosystems. There are actually several radionuclides that can be accumulated in mushrooms, including 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U. There are few studies in the Southern hemisphere countries, on the natural and artificial radioactivity levels in mushrooms. The present study evaluated 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U in commercialized edible mushrooms in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The edible mushroom samples were acquired in different commercial establishments in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, specifically in Municipal Markets. Some samples were acquired directly from producers located in the cities of Mogi das Cruzes, Mirandopolis, Suzano and Juquitiba. About 400g were collected for each edible mushroom species, which included Agaricus sp, Pleurotus sp and Lentinula sp species. All the samples were prepared and stored in polyethylene bottles for approximately 35 days, so that secular equilibrium could be established before counting. The 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U gamma activities were measured by gamma spectrometry. The equipment consisted of a Hyper pure Germanium detector connected to an electronic system. The detector efficiency was obtained from measurements of reference materials: IAEA-300, IAEA-327 and IAEA-375. The results for the specific activities in edible mushrooms samples ranged fi-om 461 to 1535 Bq kg -1

  5. Effectiveness of Training Programme on Mushroom Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Sazzadur; Hossain, Kh. Zulfikar; Ali, Md. Sekender; Afroz, Fauzia

    2017-01-01

    Effectiveness is one of the key parameters to assess success of any programs. However, the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation was not well addressed. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation and to explore the relationships of each of the selected characteristics of the trained mushroom farmers with their effectiveness of training programme. Data were collected from the trained mushroom farmers of s...

  6. Wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal ... On the other hand, if nutrition analysis reveals different nutrition parameters for both types of mushrooms, 43.3% opted for cultivated mushroom, 42.2%, wild; 12.2% both; while 2.2% would eat ... Keywords: Consumption pattern, Lentinus squarrosulus, nutrition, perception, wild mushroom ...

  7. Radioactivity in wild-growing mushrooms of the Calabria region, south of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Belmusto, G.

    2017-01-01

    Wild-growing mushrooms are a complementary foodstuff, widely consumed as a delicacy, in Italy. They are considered excellent bioindicators of environmental pollution and the accumulation of radionuclides can pose a radiological hazard. 137Cs and 40K activity concentrations were measured through HPGe gamma-spectrometry in different mushroom species (Agaricus arvensis, Leccinum quercinum, Boletus aereus, Lactarius deliciosus, Boletus edulis, Macrolepiota konradii, Cantharellus lutescens) collected from four different sampling sites in the Calabria region, south of Italy. Experimental values were found to be in the range from (0.3 ± 0.1) Bq/kg f.m. (fresh mass) to (73.1 ± 4.6) Bq/kg f.m. for 137Cs and from (46.9 ± 10.7) Bq/kg f.m. to (161.3 ± 12.9) Bq/kg f.m. for 40K, respectively. All values were much lower than the specific activity limit set by the international legislation at 600 Bq/kg f.m. for 137Cs and at 1,258 Bq/kg f.m. for 40K, respectively. Experimental activity concentrations allowed us to determine the effective dose due to the ingestion of mushrooms by adult members of the population. It was found in the range from 0.25 to 1.35 μSv/y, much lower than the recommended level for the public (1 mSv/y). Data obtained in this article provide useful information on the environmental risk and can be further used for a radiological mapping of the studied area.

  8. Effect of medicinal mushrooms on blood cells under conditions of diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitak, Taras; Yurkiv, Borys; Wasser, Solomon; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the third most common non-infectious disease leading to early disability and high mortality. Moreover, the number of patients is growing every year. The main symptom of DM is hyperglycemia. Increased levels of blood glucose activate polyol, hexosamine, and protein kinase metabolic pathways cause the intensification of non-enzymatic glycosylation and nitration of macromolecules. This, in turn, leads to the development of oxidative and nitrative stresses and secondary complications, such as different kinds of micro- and macroangiopathies. Metabolic disorders caused by insulin deficiency in diabetes significantly impede the functioning of a homeostasis system, which change the physical, biochemical, morphological, and functional properties of blood cells. As a result, the oxygen-transport function of red blood cells (RBCs), rheological properties of the blood, and functions of immunocompetent cells as well as the process of apoptosis are primarily affected. Modern pharmacotherapy focuses on the search for new preparations that aim to decrease blood glucose levels. Undesirable side effects and adverse reactions caused by synthetic medicines led to the search and investigation of new preparations of natural origin. Medicinal mushrooms play an important role among such new preparations. They are a source of a large number of high- and low-molecular compounds with pronounced biological effects. Our investigations show pronounced hypoglycemic and anti-anemic action of submerged cultivated mycelium powder of medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis (A. brasiliensis) and Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) on streptozotocin-induced DM in rats. Also, we showed that mycelium powders have membrane protective properties as evidenced by the redistribution of RBC populations towards the growth of full functional cell numbers. Normalization of parameters of leukocyte formula and suppression of apoptosis of white blood cells in diabetic rats treated with A

  9. Microbial diversity in a bagasse-based compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasiliensis Diversidade microbiana em composto a base de bagaço de cana preparado para produção de Agaricus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferreira Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Edible mushrooms are renowned for their nutritional and medicinal properties and are thus of considerable commercial importance. Mushroom production depends on the chemical composition of the basic substrates and additional supplements employed in the compost as well as on the method of composting. In order to minimise the cost of mushroom production, considerable interest has been shown in the use of agro-industrial residues in the preparation of alternative compost mixtures. However, the interaction of the natural microbiota present in agricultural residues during the composting process greatly influences the subsequent colonisation by the mushroom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify the microbiota present in a sugar cane bagasse and coast-cross straw compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasilienses. Composting lasted for 14 days, during which time the substrates and additives were mixed every 2 days, and this was followed by a two-step steam pasteurisation (55 - 65ºC; 15 h each step. Bacteria, (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae were the predominant micro-organisms present throughout the composting process with an average population density of 3 x 10(8 CFU/g. Actinomycetes, and especially members of the genus Streptomyces, were well represented with a population density of 2 - 3 x 10(8 CFU/g. The filamentous fungi, however, exhibited much lower population densities and were less diverse than the other micro-organisms, although Aspergillus fumigatus was present during the whole composting process and after pasteurisation.Os cogumelos comestíveis são apreciados pelas suas propriedades nutricionais e medicinais e, por essa razão, possuem alto valor econômico. A produção de cogumelos depende da composição química dos substratos básicos, dos suplementos utilizados e da preparação do composto no qual o fungo será cultivado. Considerando-se que os custos de

  10. The genus Agaricus in the Caribbean. Nine new taxa mostly based on collections from the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis A. ​Parra; Claudio Angelini; Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Gerardo Mata; Christophe Billette; Carlos Rojo; Jie Chen; Philippe. Callac

    2018-01-01

    Field collections of Agaricus were collected in the Dominican Republic from 2009–2016 with the intent to evaluate the diversity in this genus, which was quasi-unknown in this country. In the same period, studies on tropical Agaricus revealed tropical clades that remained unclassified. A new taxonomic system of classification...

  11. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  12. Physiological Basis for the Tolerance of Yeast Zygosaccharomyces bisporus to Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshya Sharma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zygosaccharomyces bisporus is a moderately halotolerant yeast isolated from highly sugary and salty foods. We performed various evident biochemical and in vivo experiments as first of its kind to sketch out the possible overlay of salt tolerance mechanism in this model organism. The growth and survival curve analysis revealed that 1.0 M NaCl concentration (sublethal enacts growth inhibitory effects with prompting immediate delay in cell division cycle; however, yeast cells adopted modified stress physiologically with further stretched stress spans which was accompanied by an upsurge in the level of cellular metabolites such as trehalose (reserve carbohydrate and chiefly glycerol (polyols as major compatible osmolytes, suggesting their role in defense mechanism against osmotic stress. To further elucidate the relation of osmotic stress cell physiology to salinity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyl, and reduced glutathione content were measured in salt-stressed cells demonstrating positive correlation of reactive oxygen species generation in Z. bisporus with an elevated concentration of lipid and protein oxidation, thereby damaging cell membrane and eventually causing cell death. We assessed NaCl exposure sourcing increased intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration, by an electron transfer-based colorimetric cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity assay justifying that cellular total antioxidant capacity which uses all the combined antioxidant activities present within vitamins, proteins, lipids, and glutathione reverses these deleterious stress effects. Henceforth, performance of Z. bisporus MTCC 4801 mounted because of stress regime seems to be multifactorial.

  13. Commercial Scale Production of Mushroom Liquid Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom liquid seed production technology was developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in the late 1990s. Initially, the liquid seeds were used mainly in the solid state fermentation process for converting oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres into ruminant feed. Considering widespread problems encountered by mushroom growers from use of solid seeds, especially in cases of contaminant agents infecting cultivated bags and inconsistencies in yield, we diverted our focus to utilising liquid seeds as alternative inocula for mushroom cultivation. These problems provide us opportunities to look into the issues and address the problems faced by mushroom growers. However, the technology of producing liquid seed at laboratory scale needs to be primed for commercial production. This paper discusses developmental aspects of mushroom liquid seed at commercial scale for the advancement of the country's mushroom industry. (author)

  14. Economic assessment of mushroom project commercialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Meswan Maskom

    2010-01-01

    The market value of mushroom is worth US $45 billion comprising: US $28-30 billion from food, US $9-10 billion from medicinal products and US $3.5-4 billion from wild mushroom. Malaysian import deficit of mushroom over the year 2001-2007 was 40,933 metric ton that worth of RM 187.7 million. The existing local market is lucrative and the potential world market is very large. Having cultivation technology in placed, understanding key value chains of cultivation technology processes, this paper assesses the case study of project economic of mushroom commercialization. (author)

  15. Knowledge and use of edible mushrooms in two municipalities of the Sierra Tarahumara, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñónez-Martínez, Miroslava; Ruan-Soto, Felipe; Aguilar-Moreno, Ivonne Estela; Garza-Ocañas, Fortunato; Lebgue-Keleng, Toutcha; Lavín-Murcio, Pablo Antonio; Enríquez-Anchondo, Irma Delia

    2014-09-17

    The Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua in Northern Mexico is inhabited by indigenous Raramuris, mestizos, and other ethnic groups. The territory consists of canyons and ravines with pine, oak and pine-oak forests in the higher plateaus. A great diversity of potentially edible mushrooms is found in forests of the Municipalities of Bocoyna and Urique. Their residents are the only consumers of wild mushrooms in the Northern Mexico; they have a long tradition of collecting and eating these during the "rainy season." However, despite the wide diversity of edible mushrooms that grow in these areas, residents have a selective preference. This paper aims to record evidence of the knowledge and use of wild potentially edible mushroom species by inhabitants of towns in the Sierra Tarahumara of Chihuahua, Mexico. Using a semi-structured technique, we surveyed 197 habitants from seven locations in Urique, Bocoyna, and the Cusarare area from 2010 to 2012. Known fungi, local nomenclature, species consumed, preparation methods, appreciation of taste, forms of preservation, criteria for differentiating toxic and edible fungi, other uses, economic aspects, and traditional teaching were recorded. To identify the recognized species, photographic stimuli of 22 local edible species and two toxic species were used. The respondents reported preference for five species: Amanita rubescens, Agaricus campestris, Ustilago maydis, Hypomyces lactifluorum, and the Amanita caesarea complex. No apparent differences were found between ethnic groups in terms of preference, although mestizos used other species in Bocoyna (Boletus edulis and B. pinophilus). Some different uses of fungi are recognized by respondents, i.e. home decorations, medicine, as food in breeding rams, etc. The studied population shows a great appreciation towards five species, mainly the A. caesarea complex, and an apparent lack of knowledge of nearly 20 species which are used as food in other areas of Mexico. There are no

  16. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  17. Temperature Control System for Mushroom Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, I. A.; Indah, Nur; Sebayang, D.; Adam, N. H.

    2018-03-01

    The main problem in mushroom cultivation is the handling after the harvest. Drying is one technique to preserve the mushrooms. Traditionally, mushrooms are dried by sunshine which depends on the weather. This affects the quality of the dried mushrooms. Therefore, this paper proposes a system to provide an artificial drying for mushrooms in order to maintain their quality. The objective of the system is to control the mushroom drying process to be faster compared to the natural drying at an accurate and right temperature. A model of the mushroom dryer has been designed, built, and tested. The system comprises a chamber, heater, blower, temperature sensor and electronic control circuit. A microcontroller is used as the controller which is programmed to implement a bang-bang control that regulates the temperature of the chamber. A desired temperature is inputted as a set point of the control system. Temperature of 45 °C is chosen as the operational drying temperature. Several tests have been carried out to examine the performance of the system including drying speed, the effects of ambient conditions, and the effects of mushroom size. The results show that the system can satisfy the objective.

  18. Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Enshasy, Hesham A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2013-12-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been used as food and medicine in different cultures. More recently, many bioactive compounds have been isolated from different types of mushrooms. Among these, immunomodulators have gained much interest based on the increasing growth of the immunotherapy sector. Mushroom immunomodulators are classified under four categories based on their chemical nature as: lectins, terpenoids, proteins, and polysaccharides. These compounds are produced naturally in mushrooms cultivated in greenhouses. For effective industrial production, cultivation is carried out in submerged culture to increase the bioactive compound yield, decrease the production time, and reduce the cost of downstream processing. This review provides a comprehensive overview on mushroom immunomodulators in terms of chemistry, industrial production, and applications in medical and nonmedical sectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mushroom flora and associated insect fauna in Nsukka Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mushroom flora and associated insect pests of mushrooms in Nsukka urban was studied. The abundance of mushrooms from sampled communites is indicaed with the family, Agaricaceae predominating “out of home” environment yielded more mushrooms (4.62) than the homestead environment (3.26). Insect pests ...

  20. Current Overview of Mushroom Production in the World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royse, Daniel J.; Baars, J.J.P.; Tan, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Edible, medicinal, and wild mushrooms are the three major components of the global mushroom industry. World production of cultivated, edible mushrooms has increased more than 30‐fold since 1978. China is the main producer of cultivated, edible mushrooms. Lentinus edodes is now the world's leading

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by mushrooms. A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, J N; Soderberg, M D

    1991-09-01

    The first author is allergic to skin contact with mushrooms of Suillus americanus, S. granulatus, S. grevillei, S. luteus, or S. neoalbidipes. Symptoms develop between one and two days after contact and last for approximately a week, disappearing completely without treatment. Symptoms consist of reddening, swelling, and itching, at the sites of contact with pileus cuticle mucilage of all five species. Pore layer tissues (tested for S. americanus and S. luteus) also produced strong reactions, as did pileus trama (tested for S. luteus). Spores from spore prints (tested for S. americanus and S. luteus) produced no reaction. The reaction can be avoided by wearing gloves when handling allergic species and by washing hands promptly after working with these species. Similar cases, reported from North America, Europe, and Russia, involve Agaricus, Boletus, Lactarius, Paxillus, Ramaria, and Suillus species. Several cases involve allergy to multiple species or genera. Symptom severity varies, presumably with intensity of exposure. In one case, symptoms were renewed following ingestion. Most cases demonstrate delayed allergic contact sensitivity.

  2. Evaluation of adjuvant activity of fractions derived from Agaricus blazei, when in association with the recombinant LiHyp1 protein, to protect against visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Pereira, Nathália Cristina; Régis, Wiliam César Bento; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; de Oliveira, Jamil Silvano; da Silva, Alanna Gomes; Martins, Vivian Tamietti; Duarte, Mariana Costa; de Souza, José Roberto Rodrigues; Lage, Paula Sousa; Schneider, Mônica Santos; Melo, Maria Norma; Soto, Manuel; Soares, Sandra Aguiar; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz

    2015-06-01

    The development of effective prophylactic strategies to prevent leishmaniasis has become a high priority. No less important than the choice of an antigen, the association of an appropriate adjuvant is necessary to achieve a successful vaccination, as the majority of the tested antigens contain limited immunogenic properties, and need to be supplemented with immune response adjuvants in order to boost their immunogenicity. However, few effective adjuvants that can be used against leishmaniasis exist on the market today; therefore, it is possible to speculate that the research aiming to identify new adjuvants could be considered relevant. Recently, Agaricus blazei extracts have proved to be useful in enhancing the immune response to DNA vaccines against some diseases. This was based on the Th1 adjuvant activity of the polysaccharide-rich fractions from this mushroom. In this context, the present study evaluated purified fractions derived from Agaricus blazei as Th1 adjuvants through in vitro assays of their immune stimulation of spleen cells derived from naive BALB/c mice. Two of the tested six fractions (namely F2 and F4) were characterized as polysaccharide-rich fractions, and were able to induce high levels of IFN-γ, and low levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in the spleen cells. The efficacy of adjuvant action against L. infantum was evaluated in BALB/c mice, with these fractions being administered together with a recombinant antigen, LiHyp1, which was previously evaluated as a vaccine candidate, associated with saponin, against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The associations between LiHyp1/F2 and LiHyp1/F4 were able to induce an in vivo Th1 response, which was primed by high levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF, by low levels of IL-4 and IL-10; as well as by a predominance of IgG2a antibodies in the vaccinated animals. After infection, the immune profile was maintained, and the vaccines proved to be effective against L. infantum. The immune stimulatory effects in the

  3. Protein nutrient value of Agaricus bazei murrill mutant J3 induced by 60Co γ-irradiation in different generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhihe; Lin Yong; Xiao Shuxia

    2004-01-01

    Protein nutritional values of Agaricus bazei Murrill mutant J 3 and original strain J 1 were compared by non-biological evaluation methods. The results showed that five protein indexes in the fruitbodies of M 1 and M 6 generations of Agaricus bazei Murrill mutant J 3 were higher than that of original strain J 1 ; four protein indexes in M 4 and M 5 generations were higher than that of original strain J 1 ; and six protein indexes in M 2 and M 3 generations were higher than that of original strain J 1 . It was concluded that the protein nutritional values of Agaricus bazei Murrill mutant J 3 was better than that of original strain J 1 . Except the ratio scores of amino acids had little change in the different generations, the other indexes in strain J 3 Agaricus bazei Murrill showed that the heredity efficiencies of the proteins was rather stable. (authors)

  4. Oil palm empty fruit bunch as media for mushroom cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Wan Badrin Wan Husin; Tajuddin Osman; Tamikazu Kume; Shinpei Matsuhashi

    1998-01-01

    The mushroom strains Pleurotus sajor caju(grey oyster mushroom), Pleurotus flavellatus((pink oyster mushroom), Pleurotus cystidiosus(abalone mushroom) and Auricularia polytricha (black jelly mushroom) grow satisfactorily on the EFB media treated with lime. Based on their Biological Efficiency (BE) or yield, the strain Pleurotus sajor caju was selected for further investigation. The BE of the Pleurotus sajor caju was 73.8 %. The lime treatment, aeration and four weeks incubation period was necessary for fruiting

  5. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistiya; Retno Lantarsih; Titop Dwiwinarno*

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrome...

  6. Performance of mushroom fruiting for large scale commercial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rosol Awang; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom

    2012-01-01

    The paper described the determination of mushroom fruiting yield, which is vital to economics of mushroom production. Consistency in mushroom yields enabling an estimation to be made for revenues and hence profitability could be predicted. It has been reported by many growers, there are a large variation in mushroom yields over different times of production. To assess such claims we have run four batches of mushroom fruiting and the performance fruiting body productions are presented. (author)

  7. Effect of 60Co γ-ray irradiation to Agaricus blazei on the amino acid content of their fruitbodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhihe; Lin Yong; Xiao Shuxia

    2004-01-01

    The amino acid contents of Agaricus blazei fruitbodies produced from strains irradiated with different dosages of 60 Co γ-ray were determined. The results showed that the contents of essential amino acids, essential amino acids for children, methionine amino acids, side chain amino acids, tasty amino acids, sweet amino acids and aromatic amino acids of Agaricus blazei fruitbodies produced from irradiated atrains were all higher than that from the CK

  8. Reducing Shrinkage in Canned and Frozen Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan); Walshe, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    The process involving a preliminary soaking of the mushrooms in water for 20 min followed by a chill storage period followed by a further water soak for 2 hr, and known as the 3S process, gave a considerable reduction in total shrinkage in both brown and white strain canned mushrooms compared with the control samples. Water uptake by the mushrooms in the 3S process was greatest when the soaking water temperature was between 20 and 30°C and had a pH of 8. Citric acid in the blanch water enhanc...

  9. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrometer and nozzle, and education and training bookkeeping, marketing, and processing waste into mushroom compost. The results showed an increase in the production of mushroom seen from the Biological Conversion Efficiency (BCE are in the top 30 percent. Partners also has a business bookkeeping and have Blog to market the mushroom by on-line. Partners also have the skills to process the manure (compost made from the waste of mushroom which can be used to help fertilize their crops.

  10. Ameliorative Effect of Different Concentration of Mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    ameliorative effect of mushroom in the post-experimental stage. Samples of liver and ... except in the liver which showed mild periportal chronic inflammatory cell. However, the .... alcohol for 12 hours and through absolute alcohol to remove ...

  11. Investigations on Mushroom Storage and Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömür Dündar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers on storage and quality properties of mushrooms cultivated in the world and Turkey have been investigated. Mushrooms contain some important minerals and vitamins such as iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, copper and folate, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B, C, D and also they are a good source of carbohydrate and protein. After harvest, to extend the shelf life of mushrooms, some applications such as pre-cooling, storage in appropriate temperature, use of different types of polyethylene packaging, modified atmosphere packaging, nitric oxide and UV light applications were done on mushrooms. The effects of these applications on physical and chemical features such as like weight loss, firmness, cap opening rate, cap diameter, stem diameter, browning, colour, respiration rate, enzymatic reactions, total phenols, total sugars, aminoacid content were investigated.

  12. Flagellate dermatitis following consumption of shiitake mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Voon Loo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Japanese dermatologists were the first to describe the very characteristic flagellate dermatitis following consumption of under-cooked or raw shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes. These similar eruptions were also reported in patients treated with bleomycin, in dermatomyositis and adult onset Still’s disease. We report a case where a 40 year old chinese female developed flagellate dermatitis following ingestion of a bun containing shiitake mushroom.

  13. Mushrooms, trees, and money: value estimates of commercial mushrooms and timber in the pacific northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Susan J; Pilz, David; Weber, Nancy S; Brown, Ed; Rockwell, Victoria A

    2002-07-01

    Wild edible mushrooms are harvested in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, where both trees and mushrooms grow in the same landscape. Although there has been some discussion about the value of trees and mushrooms individually, little information exists about the joint production of, and value for, these two forest products. Through four case studies, the information needed to determine production and value for three wild mushroom species in different forests of the Pacific Northwest is described, and present values for several different forest management scenarios are presented. The values for timber and for mushrooms are site- and species-specific. On the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, timber is highly valued and chanterelles are a low-value product by weight; timber has a soil expectation value (SEV) 12 to 200 times higher than chanterelles. In south-central Oregon, timber and American matsutake mushrooms have the potential to have about the same SEV. In eastern Oregon, timber is worth 20 to 110 times as much as the morels that grow in the forest. Production economics is concerned with choices about how much and what to produce with what resources. The choices are influenced by changes in technical and economic circumstances. Through our description and analysis of the necessary definitions and assumptions to assess value in joint production of timber and wild mushrooms, we found that values are sensitive to assumptions about changes in forest management, yields for mushrooms and trees, and costs.

  14. Potential of Compost with Some Added Supplementary Materials on the Development of Agaricus blazei Murill

    OpenAIRE

    Horm, Visal; Ohga, Shoji; 大賀, 祥治

    2008-01-01

    Potential of compost on the development of Agaricus blazei Murill was evaluated on various compost concentrations with two kinds of supplementary materials. Sugarcane compost as well as cattle compost added with sawdust and rice bran was influential substrates on mycelial growth and fruit body development. The fast spawn running was realized on cattle compost concentrations, but primordial formation and fruit body development took a short period on sugarcane compost concentrations. All cattle...

  15. Effect of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) mycelia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) mycelia on petroleum ... of chains of hydrocarbon in a petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated substrate over time. ... Keywords: Mycoremediation, Mycelia, Contaminated Soil, Oyster Mushroom ...

  16. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation technique using re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... using re-usable substrate containers and comparison of ... oyster mushrooms in combination with other vegetables complements availability of various essential ..... higher than from oyster mushrooms produced from any.

  17. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in t...

  18. Mushroom cultivation in Brazil: challenges and potential for growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,Eustáquio Souza

    2010-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is rapidly expanding in Brazil because Brazilians have discovered the medicinal and culinary value of mushrooms and their economic situation has improved. However, the horticultural technology for cultivating mushrooms under Brazilian conditions is lacking. For many years, the mushroom cultivation technology used in Brazil was adapted from developed countries whose materials and climate were different from those of Brazil. In order to exploit the Brazilian potential for m...

  19. The effect of royal sun agaricus, Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., extract on methyl methanesulfonate caused genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Tatjana; Patenković, Aleksandra; Soković, Marina; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Andjelković, Marko; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2011-01-01

    The effect of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus (Agaricus brasiliensis) hot water extract on methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced mutagenicity/genotoxity in Drosophila melanogaster was studied using a quick and broadly applicable in vivo assay, i.e., the wing somatic mutation and recombination test. We used 2nd instar larvae, trans-heterozygous for the third chromosome recessive markers, i.e., multiple wing hairs (mvh) and flare-3 [flr (3)], and fed them for 24 h with the aqueous extract of A. brasiliensis. For antigenotoxicity studies a 24-h pretreatment with the extract was done, followed by a 48-h treatment of the then 3rd instar larvae with MMS. The frequency of mutations of the wing blade changes (i.e., of the number of wing spots of different sizes) induced in somatic cells was determined as a parameter of genetic changes of the wing imaginal discs. The results showed that A. brasiliensis extract did not cause any genotoxic or mutagenic effects. No antigenotoxic and/or protective effect against the induction of mutations by MMS was observed. Instead, a possible enhanced mitotic recombination frequency by MMS was seen after pretreatment of the larvae with A. brasiliensis extract. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed.

  20. Dung-associated, Potentially Hallucinogenic Mushrooms from Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Wen Wang; Shean-Shong Tzean

    2015-01-01

    To identify potentially hallucinogenic mushrooms, dung-associated mushrooms collected from Qingtiangang, Yangmingshan National Park were subjected to a detailed morphological investigation and phylogentic analysis. The investigation identified four taxa: a recorded species (Panaeolus antillarum); a new combination (Conocybe nitrophila); and two new species (Psilocybe angulospora, Protostropharia ovalispora). Morphological and molecular characteristics of the collected mushrooms were compared ...

  1. Cultivation of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus spp.) on palm oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oyster mushroom is a popular mushroom due to its nutritional, medicinal and potential commercial value. In Malaysia, the fungus is currently cultivated on sawdust and rice husk. In this study, the efficiency of cultivating oyster mushroom was assessed using palm oil mesocarp fibre as a substrate. The experiment consisted ...

  2. A resource efficiency assessment of the industrial mushroom production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Becerra Ramírez, Henry A.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Boom, Remko M.

    2016-01-01

    We compare the exergetic performance of a conventional industrial mushroom production chain with a mushroom production chain where part of the compost waste is recycled and reused as raw material. The critical exergy loss points (CEPs) identified are the cooking-out process of the spent mushroom

  3. Proximate and mineral composition of four edible mushroom species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Key words: Edible mushrooms; food composition. INTRODUCTION. Mushrooms are saprophytes. ... riboflavin, biotin and thiamine (Chang and Buswell,. 1996). Ogundana and Fagade (1981) indicated that ... Four edible mushroom species were analyzed for food composition according to the Association of Official Analytical ...

  4. Symbiosis and synergy: Can mushrooms and timber be managed together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally. Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Recreational and tribal use of mushrooms has been historically important, and during the last two decades, commercial demand for mushrooms has burgeoned. A large nontimber forest product market in the Pacific Northwest is for various species of wild edible mushrooms. Many of these species grow symbiotically with forest trees by forming nutrient exchange structures...

  5. Mineral Composition of Four Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Mallikarjuna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivated mushroom species, namely, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus florida and two wild growing species Lentinus cladopus and Pleurotus djamor were studied for their mineral contents such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Se, Pb, and Cd by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES and also Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, (AAS. Phosphorus was estimated by spectrophotometric method. K, Ca, Na, and P were in higher concentrations ranging from 59.3 mg to 3634 mg, 8.27 mg–174.9 mg, 22.2 mg–327.4 mg, and 100.5 mg–769.9 mg/100 g dry weight respectively in the four mushroom species studied. Fe, Zn, Mg and Se were ranging from 6.27 mg to 35.3 mg, 1.58 mg–9.44 mg, 21.1 mg–40.7 mg and 0.048 mg–0.182 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively, amongst the mushroom species analyzed. However, Ni, Cu, and Mn contents showed relatively lower concentrations, whereas Pb and Cd were below detectable level. The mushrooms were safe for consumption, in accordance with the permissible tolerance limits of the estimated toxic metals. Implications of the mineral contents on mushroom nutritional value are highlighted.

  6. Effect of sun mushroom extract in pork sausage and evaluation of the oxidative and microbiological stability of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Santi Stefanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of lipid oxidation is one of the meat industry’s target and, consequently, the search for natural antioxidants has been increased in last years. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroethanolic extract from sun mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murrill on the oxidative and microbiological stability of pork meat sausage during storage at 4ºC. The extract was added to sausages in 0 %, 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2.0 % (v/w concentrations. There was done the proximate composition, pH, instrumental color (L*, a*, b*, C* e h*, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances and microbiological analyzes. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, in randomized completely design. The results from proximate composition and microbiological analyzes at day 0 were according to the Brazilian legislation. At 1st day of storage, control treatment showed higher (p<0,05 a* value (red than the other treatments, while b* value (yellow has increased (p<0,05 during the storage period in all treatments. At 21st day of storage, TBARS values of sausages with 2.0 % extract addition was lower (0,705±0,01 mg MDA/kg sample (p<0,05 than the control (1,097±0,11mg MDA/kg sample. The extract has not shown effect on the microbiological stability of the sausages. Nevertheless, the hydroethanolic extract from sun mushroom was effective on the oxidative stability of pork meat sausage when added in a 2.0 % concentration, improving its shelf-life up to 21 days of storage at 4 °C, and it is possible the use as a natural antioxidant source.

  7. Antioxidative Effects of Phenolic Compounds of Mushroom Mycelia in Simulated Regions of the Human Colon, In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamanu Emanuel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds in mushrooms are biologically active; however, the in vivo actions of their metabolites are poorly understood. An in vitro system, GIS1, was used to simulate the fermentation action of microbiota in each colon region. We used MycoPo, a natural product obtained from the lyophilized mycelia of different Pleurotus ostreatus species to determine the biological effects in human-colon regions. Controls (Lentinula edodes mycelia; dried basidia of Agaricus brunnescens were chosen to confirm the biological activity of P. ostreatus mycelia in vitro. We measured total antioxidant capacity and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP in simulated colon regions to identify antioxidant compounds, and undertook in vitro gastrointestinal simulation and microbiological analyses. The highest FRAP was found for the ascending colon, and the antioxidant effect was higher when MycoPo was administered. A. brunnescens consumption resulted in low total antioxidant capacity. Polyphenol content was correlated with the antioxidant status and microbial composition of microbiota. Total polyphenolic content was higher after A. brunnescens consumption, and four types of polyphenols were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Major phenolic acids were gentisic acid, homogentisic acid, and small amounts of caffeic acid. The Enterobacteriaceae species populations varied greatly across the three parts of the colon. We noted a significant (p0.85. These data suggest a direct relationship between favorable bacterial strains and availability of bioactive compounds, with specificity for each colon region.

  8. Production of Mushroom Mycelium as a Protein and Fat Source in Submerged Culture in Medium of Vinasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falanghe, H.

    1962-01-01

    Of ten mushroom cultures investigated, only Agaricus campestris, Boletus indecisus, and Tricholoma nudum were capable of growing in submerged culture in medium of vinasse with added salts. Higher fermentative efficiencies were found under these conditions than in medium containing molasses or waste sulfite liquor. A. campestris showed a better capacity to produce protein but, since B. indecisus is capable of developing greater mycelium weight, its fermentative efficiencies are comparable. Both microorganisms could be grown in medium of vinasse with greatly varied amounts, producing higher mycelial weight in media with greater vinasse. The capacity of B. indecisus and A. campestris to utilize the noncarbohydrate fraction in total solids, instead of the total carbohydrates when they are in smaller amount, was observed in medium containing vinasse. B. indecisus and A. campestris were easily separated by filtration from the medium, although T. nudum was difficult to separate by this procedure. In experiments with A. campestris, the adaptative capacity of the organism to vinasse was demonstrated. PMID:13962715

  9. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiung Lee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus, Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo, pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus, green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum, garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus, turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood. Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.

  10. Rating of cesium contamination of wild mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Zapletal, M.; Friedrich, M.; Haider, W.

    1988-08-01

    'Rating' means here a 5-fold scale with the ranges: more than 100 nCi/kg raw weight - 'very high'; 300 - 100; 3 - 30; 1 - 3; less than 1 nCi/kg - 'very low'. A list of some 50 - 60 different kinds of mushrooms are listed and evaluated in this scale, as from 1988 and from a region with a high Chernobyl fallout. As a comparison, contamination values of 12 mushroom sorts from before the Chernobyl accident, coming from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, are also given. 2 figs., 5 tabs. (qui)

  11. Microcontroller based automatic temperature control for oyster mushroom plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, P.; Astuti, T. P.; Herriyance; Sitompul, D.

    2018-03-01

    In the cultivation of Oyster Mushrooms need special treatment because oyster mushrooms are susceptible to disease. Mushroom growth will be inhibited if the temperature and humidity are not well controlled because temperature and inertia can affect mold growth. Oyster mushroom growth usually will be optimal at temperatures around 22-28°C and humidity around 70-90%. This problem is often encountered in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. Therefore it is very important to control the temperature and humidity of the room of oyster mushroom cultivation. In this paper, we developed an automatic temperature monitoring tool in the cultivation of oyster mushroom-based Arduino Uno microcontroller. We have designed a tool that will control the temperature and humidity automatically by Android Smartphone. If the temperature increased more than 28°C in the room of mushroom plants, then this tool will turn on the pump automatically to run water in order to lower the room temperature. And if the room temperature of mushroom plants below of 22°C, then the light will be turned on in order to heat the room. Thus the temperature in the room oyster mushrooms will remain stable so that the growth of oyster mushrooms can grow with good quality.

  12. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with mushroom worker's lung: an update on the clinical significance of the importation of exotic mushroom varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E; Convery, Rory P; Millar, B Cherie; Rao, Juluri R; Elborn, J Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis remains an important industrial disease in mushroom workers. It has a significant morbidity, and early diagnosis and removal from exposure to the antigen are critically important in its management. Recently, several new allergens have been described, particularly those from mushroom species originating in the Far East, which are of clinical significance to workers occupationally exposed to such allergens in cultivation, picking, and packing of commercial mushroom crops. Importing of exotic mushrooms including Shiitake is common in EU countries, and some of the exotic species of mushrooms are cultivated for local markets. This practice may contribute to an increase in clinical cases of mushroom hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This update reviews the recent literature and examines changing trends of mushroom worker's lung, with increased movement of commercial product and labour markets worldwide.

  13. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... percent of the water capacity of the container. (iii) Determine drained weight as specified in § 155.3(a..., packed with a suitable liquid medium which may include water; and may contain one or more safe and... to promote color retention. (4) Labeling requirements. (i) The name of the food is mushrooms. The...

  14. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of

  15. Antimicrobial activities of some selected Nigerian mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were either weakly inhibited or not inhibited at all. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged between 1.25 and 9.00mg/ml for bacteria and between 10.50 and 17.50mg/ml for fungi. These results are discussed in relation to therapeutic value of the studied mushrooms. African Journal of Biomedical Research Vol.

  16. Neuroscience: Intelligence in the Honeybee Mushroom Body

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Sophie; Abbott, Larry F.

    2017-01-01

    Intelligence, in most people’s conception, involves combining pieces of evidence to reach non-obvious conclusions. A recent theoretical study shows that intelligence-like brain functions can emerge from simple neural circuits, in this case the honeybee mushroom body.

  17. Nutrient value protein of mutant J3 of agaricus blazei by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhihe; Lin Yong; Xiao Shuxia

    2003-01-01

    The studies of nutrient value protein of mutant J 3 of Agaricus blazei were carried out. The results showed that mutant J 3 had 9 kinds of essential amino acids, the compositions of essential amino acids is 46.0% of total amino acids. The amino acid score is 94.5, the essential amino acid index is 92.4, biological value is 89.0, the ratio coefficient of amino acids is 72.3, the nutrient value is 32.5. The chemical score is 74.18. These results proved that the protein of mutant J 3 had high nutrient value

  18. Temperature and pH conditions for mycelial growth of Agaricus brasiliensis on axenic cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Colauto, Nelson Barros; Universidade Paranaense; Aizono, Patrícia Midori; Universidade Paranaense; Carvalho, Lis Ribeiro Magalhães de; Universidade Paranaense; Paccola-Meirelles, Luzia Doretto; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Linde, Giani Andrea; Universidade Paranaense

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have been done to determine Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei; A. subrufescens) basic mycelial growth characteristics on axenic cultivation. This study aimed to determine the optimal temperature and initial pH for mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on malt extract agar medium to develop axenic cultivation techniques. Studied initial pH values for mycelial growth were adjusted to 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 5.5, with HCl, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, with NaOH, and again 7.0 and 8.0, with CaCO3....

  19. Agaricus chionodermus Pilát, a species new to Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nikolova Lacheva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Agaricus chionoderma Pilát in Bulgaria. Basidiomata of the species were found on June 2004, September 2010, and September 2011 in the Thracian Lowland floristic region. The article brings closer taxonomic profile, ecological requirements and distribution pattern of the species. Differences from similar species are discussed. It also describes macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the discovered specimens and presents the specification of habitat the fungus concerned. The species are described and illustrated by photographs of macroscopic and microscopic features on the basis of Bulgarian specimens.

  20. Identification of medicinal and poisonous mushroom from Khorramabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyede zahra Hosseini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms grow in a very wide range of ecological conditions, however their growth vary in different conditions. Mushrooms are a valuable source for antibiotics and they are known as drugs in traditional medicine. Identification and characterization of mushrooms is the first step of their exploitations in drug industry. There are many poisonous species of mushrooms, so their identification is essential for better health of societies and also a good indication for physicians in identification of mushroom poisonings and their cure. Material and Method: In this research the samples of mushroom were collected in Khorramabad district during spring and fall of 2008 and 2009. The macroscopic and microscopic characters of collected mushrooms were observed in field and laboratory and these criteria aligned to the species characters in scientific resources. Results: eight mushroom species namely Collybia maculate coprinus atramentarius three species of Boletus (B. luridus, B. felleus and B. satanas two species of Lactarius (L. piperatus and L. vellereus and Hypholoma capnoides were identified . Discussions: Based on the results of biodiversity of mushrooms in khorramabad district found in the present research, it is concluded that there are valuable resources of mushrooms for medicinal purposes in this area.

  1. Effect of an Extract from Saprozoic Nematode-Infested Compost on the Mycelial Growth of Agaricus brunnescens

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, T. D.; Bloom, J. R.; Lukezic, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    Extracts from compost infested with Caenorhabditis elegans suppressed mycelial growth of Agaricus brunnescens. An extract from uninfested compost also inhibited mycelial growth but to a lesser degree. The critical role of compost bacteria and/or other compost micro-organisms is implicated by these results.

  2. Biorremediación de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos mediante aplicación de sustrato post‐cultivo de champiñón (Agaricus bisporus)

    OpenAIRE

    García Delgado, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Tesis doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química Agrícola. Fecha de lectura: 10-07-2015 La presente Tesis Doctoral ha sido financiada por el proyecto: Recuperación de suelos contaminados con plantas autóctonas producidas en sustratos eco‐compatibles y efecto de estos materiales en la biodisponibilidad y biodegrada bilidad de los contaminantes (ECOSUSTRATO II). 2010 – 2014; CTM2009 ‐13140‐C02‐02. Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovac...

  3. Antalya-Korkuteli Yöresinde Üretilen Kültür Mantarlarının (Agaricus bisporus) Beslenme Durumlarının Belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    SÖNMEZ, Sahriye; ÜRAS, Dilek Saadet; DEMİR, Erbil; ÖZEN, Nil; KILIÇ, Ezgi

    2018-01-01

    Kültür mantarcılığı; üretim odalarında sene boyunca üretim yapılabilmesi, diğer tarım kollarındaki gibi ekolojik şartlara bağlılığının olmaması ve uygun koşulların sağlanmasıyla yılda aynı alandan altı defa ürün alınabilmesi nedeniyle çok karlı bir tarımsal faaliyet alanıdır.Türkiye'de mantarcılık faaliyetlerinin yoğun olarak yürütüldüğü Antalya-Korkuteli yöresinde yetiştirilen kültür mantarlarının besin içeriklerinin araştırıldığı bu çalışmada; ilçede faaliyet gösteren 11 farklı işletme...

  4. Cryopreservation at -75 °C of Agaricus subrufescens on wheat grains with sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienine Luiz Zaghi Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Agaricus subrufescens is a basidiomycete which is studied because of its medicinal and gastronomic importance; however, less attention has been paid to its preservation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sucrose addition to substrate and cryotube on the viability of Agaricus subrufescens cryopreserved at -20 °C and at -75 °C for one and two years. Zero, 10% or 20% sucrose was added to potato dextrose agar or wheat grain. The mycelia were cryopreserved in the absence of cryoprotectant or with sucrose solutions at 15%, 30% or 45%. After one or two years at -75 °C or at -20 °C, mycelia were thawed and evaluated about viability, initial time of growth, colony diameter and genomic stability. Cryopreservation at -20 °C is not effective to keep mycelial viability of this fungus. Cryopreservation at -75 °C is effective when sucrose is used in substrates and/or cryotubes. Without sucrose, cryopreservation at -75 °C is effective only when wheat grains are used. Physiological characteristic as mycelial colony diameter is negatively affected when potato dextrose agar is used and unaffected when wheat grain is used after two-year cryopreservation at -75 °C. The fungus genome does not show alteration after two-year cryopreservation at -75 °C.

  5. Concentration of radiocesium in cultivated mushrooms and substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Higasa, Mamoru; Urabe, Ken-ichi; Haraguchi, Masato; Omura, Toshitaka

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K in mushrooms cultivated in Saitama prefecture and those substrates were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. In all mushrooms and substrates, 134 Cs was not detected. Concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms were in the range of 0.012 - 2.1 Bq/kg·fresh, and those in substrates were in the range of 0.080 - 1.8 Bq/kg·dry. Concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms varied widely with mushroom species, and the average concentration of 137 Cs in Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) was over 30 times higher than that in Pleurotus ostreatus (Hiratake). Mushroom-to-substrate concentration ratios of 137 Cs (fresh/dry) were 0.11-0.53. They were higher than the reported transfer factors for common agricultural plants. (author)

  6. Radioisotopes of the U, Th, Pu, Am in the mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanda, D.; Matel, L.

    2001-01-01

    The present work is devoted the estimation of the data about radioactive contamination in different species of mushrooms with the aim to analyzing the influence of soil properties. The radioactive plutonium, uranium, thorium and americium was assayed in the dried mushrooms collected in areas of East and West Slovakia in 1998 -2000, and examined the effectiveness of this mushroom as a possible indicator of radioactive contamination of environment due to nuclear contamination of biosphere. Were determined the mushrooms of canes: Suillus, Leccinum, Baletus, Armillariella, Xerocomus and Craterellus. The mushrooms were dried and prepared by liquid extraction with Aliquat 336. The samples were measured by α-barrier spectrometry. The results of specific activity of plutonium, thorium, uranium and americium in the mushrooms and the layers of forest litter were summarized. (authors)

  7. Household methods to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostiainen, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the {sup 137}Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times.

  8. Household methods to reduce 137Cs contents of mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.

    2005-01-01

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the 137 Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce 137 Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the 137 Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times

  9. Dung-associated, Potentially Hallucinogenic Mushrooms from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Wen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify potentially hallucinogenic mushrooms, dung-associated mushrooms collected from Qingtiangang, Yangmingshan National Park were subjected to a detailed morphological investigation and phylogentic analysis. The investigation identified four taxa: a recorded species (Panaeolus antillarum; a new combination (Conocybe nitrophila; and two new species (Psilocybe angulospora, Protostropharia ovalispora. Morphological and molecular characteristics of the collected mushrooms were compared with allied fungal taxa.

  10. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a

  11. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing

    OpenAIRE

    SHAUKET AHMED PALA; ABDUL HAMID WANI; ROUF HAMZA BODA; BILAL AHMAD WANI

    2014-01-01

    Pala SA, Wani AH, Boda RH, Wani BA. 2014. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 173-185. Mushroom can serve as food, tonic, and as medicine thus make people healthier, fitter and happier. They have a cracking potential for generating great socioeconomic impact in human welfare at local, national and international level. With the help of allied mushroom farming we can easily tackle the problem of food for growing world population; re...

  12. Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Wild Mushrooms in Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chinatu Charity Ndimele; Prince Emeka Ndimele; Kanayo Stephen Chukwuka

    2017-01-01

    Background. Many companies in Nigeria generate industrial effluents, including heavy metals. These metals can be accumulated by biota such as mushrooms, which are then eaten by the populace. Objectives. The present study investigates the metal content of wild mushrooms in order to educate the local population on the safety of their consumption. Methods. Seven different species of wild mushrooms (Cortinarius melliolens, Chlorophyllum brunneum, Pleurotus florida, Volvariella speciosa, Can...

  13. 137Cs content in edible mushrooms of the Transcarpathian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Parlag

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Edible mushrooms (Boletus edulis Bull.: Fr. and Leccinum scabrum (Bull.: Fr. S.F.Gray of Transcarpathian region were analyzed on content of 137Cs. Specific activity of 137Cs in collected mushrooms did not exceed 354 ± 53 Bq/kg (dry substance. Estimation of the contribution into internal exposure dose of population for the condi-tion of 1 kg of mushrooms consumption is carried out.

  14. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon P Wasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  15. Radiocesium uptake mechanisms in wild and culture mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi; Isomura, Kimio; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Shibata, Hisashi.

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of 137 Cs and stable Cs in wild mushrooms, cultivated mushrooms and those substrates were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The average concentration of 137 Cs in 80 wild mushrooms in Japan was 87.5 Bq/kg (wet wt.), and concentration of 137 Cs in mycorrhizal mushrooms was higher than that of saprophytic mushrooms. High concentrations of 137 Cs were found in Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1, saprophytic mushrooms, cultivated in culture substrates containing high 137 Cs. Clear correlations with 5% level of significance were found between wild mushroom-to-substrate ratios (wet/dry) of 137 Cs concentration and those of stable Cs. Cultivated P. ostreatus-to-culture substrate ratios (wet/wet) of 137 Cs concentration were stable in the order of 10 0 when the culture substrate was containing 10 000 Bq/kg (wet wt.) of 137 Cs or 1 000 mg/kg (wet wt.) of stable Cs. The ratios of 137 Cs concentration in cultivated mushrooms were about equal to those in wild mushrooms. Higher concentration of 137 Cs in culture substrate after sampling P. ostreatus was observed at the upper layer where mycelium density was high. (author)

  16. Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  17. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

  18. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.

  19. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikineswary Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  20. The role of Drosophila mushroom body signaling in olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, S E; Le, P T; Davis, R L

    2001-08-17

    The mushroom bodies of the Drosophila brain are important for olfactory learning and memory. To investigate the requirement for mushroom body signaling during the different phases of memory processing, we transiently inactivated neurotransmission through this region of the brain by expressing a temperature-sensitive allele of the shibire dynamin guanosine triphosphatase, which is required for synaptic transmission. Inactivation of mushroom body signaling through alpha/beta neurons during different phases of memory processing revealed a requirement for mushroom body signaling during memory retrieval, but not during acquisition or consolidation.

  1. [The Kombucha mushroom: two different opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamundi, R; Valdivia, M

    1995-01-01

    Positive and negative views of the Kombucha mushroom, a popular remedy in Asia, are expressed. The Kombucha mushroom, used for centuries, is believed to have antibiotic tendencies and to strengthen the immune and metabolic systems. Studies show that the tea, made from fermented fungus, has high levels of B vitamins. Caution should be used during fermentation because exposing the fungus to sunlight may adversely affect the process. The mold in which the fungus grows may contain aspergillus, a fungal infection which may be fatal to HIV-positive persons. The tea is being commercialized as a stimulant of the immune system but is unpopular in the U.S. due to its toxicity risks. Public awareness messages must convey the danger of overstimulating the immune system of HIV-positive patients, whose immune systems are already overstimulated. Furthermore, the process of fermentation may encourage the growth of other organisms which produce medical complications in HIV-positive patients.

  2. Mushrooms as Possible Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav; Dašić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 μg/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 μg/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 μg/mL) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 μg/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases. PMID:24250542

  3. DEHYDRATION OF EDIBLE MUSHROOMS (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Salas de la Torre, N.; Bazán, D.; Osorio, A.; Cornejo, O.; Carrero, E.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have been subjected to thermal, chemical and thermal-chemical treatment. The results show that the chemical treatment produces a more effective enzymatic inactivation compared to the other two treatments. Also, the experimental study of fungi dehydration carried out at 55 ° C reveals that the critical moisture content is 10.4 kg water / kg dry solids, the equilibrium moisture is 0.22 kg water / kg of solid . Los hongos comestibles Pleurotus ostreatus...

  4. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium were selected for all studied species, from soybean cake – most suitable for the mycelial growth of 24 species, to walnut cake − suitable only for 2 species. The utilization of substrates has been evaluated by biological efficiency. The best index of biological efficiency varied from 19.0% to 41.6% depending on the mushroom species. It was established high biological efficiency of mycelia cultivation on substrates: wheat seed cake – Pleurotus djamor, Lyophyllum shimeji, Crinipellis schevczenkovi, Phellinus igniarius, Spongipellis litschaueri; oat seed cake – Ganoderma applanatum and G. lucidum; soybean cake – Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, Trametes versicolor, Morchella esculenta, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, and Agrocybe aegerita; rape seed cake – Auriporia aurea; camelina seed cake – Fomes fomentarius. The cultivation of these species are perspective as a biotechnological process of agricultural wastes converted into mycelia, which could be used in different forms of products with therapeutic action: powder or tablets nutraceuticals or ingredients for functional foods.

  5. The Economic Empowerment of Women in Uganda Through Mushroom Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarahim Mayanja

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on empowering women both in peri-urban and rural areas through mushroom production. It was conducted in Kampala Metropolitan area-Uganda, during October 2016. It focused on estimating profits, conducting benefit-cost analysis/ratio (BCR and return on investment (ROI, finding reasons as to why women involved in the mushroom production and identifying the constraints of mushroom farming from the perspective of women as well as the possible solutions to the constraints. 29 women were interviewed face to face through the use of the questionnaires. The study revealed an average net profit of 3,464.28 US dollars, BCR of 3.84 and ROI of 2.84 per farm in a period of three months. Our study revealed that mushroom production is a profitable enterprise for women. The major reason for women to involve in mushroom was to earn income. However, a range of other reasons was given such as fast maturity of mushrooms, availability of market, healthy benefits of mushrooms, etc. were the most important reasons. The problems faced by women farmers were ranked from the most pressing problem to the least pressing problem in this order; Low market prices per kilogram of mushroom, scarcity of cotton during some seasons, poor quality mushroom spawn supplied to farmers by breeders, inadequate extension, and advisory services were the most observed problems among others. The suggested solutions were organizing farmers into groups or cooperatives in order to negotiate for better markets locally and abroad together with the help of government, researchers to carry out more research on the suitability of other substrates like bagasse other than relying on only cotton, ensuring that mushroom spawn breeders conform to the set standards of quality spawn production and re-equipping local extension workers with knowledge regarding mushroom production among others.

  6. Alterações gastrointestinais em pacientes com câncer colorretal em ensaio clínico com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus Gastrointestinal alterations in patients with colorectal cancer on clinical trial supplemented with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Costa Fortes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Fungos medicinais podem normalizar a função intestinal, aumentar o apetite e reduzir os efeitos adversos do tratamento convencional do câncer. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações gastrointestinais de pacientes com câncer colorretal em fase pós-operatória após suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus. METODOLOGIA: Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, placebo-controlado, realizado no Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal. Amostra constituída de 56 pacientes (24 homens e 32 mulheres, estádios I, II e III, seguindo determinados critérios de inclusão e exclusão, separados em grupos placebo e Agaricus sylvaticus (30mg/kg/dia e acompanhados por um período de seis meses. Para avaliar as alterações gastrointestinais foram utilizados um formulário-padrão e uma anamnese dirigida-padrão. O método de análise dos resultados foi qualitativo e descritivo, utilizando os programas Microsoft Excel 2003 e Epi Info 2004 para Windows, versão 3.3.2. RESULTADOS: Após seis meses de tratamento, observou-se, no grupo Agaricus sylvaticus, aumento do apetite e redução da constipação, diarréia, diarréia alternada com constipação, flatulência, retenção de flatos, pirose, plenitude pós-prandial, náuseas, distensão e dor abdominais, fatos não observados no grupo placebo. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a suplementação dietética com fungos Agaricus sylvaticus é capaz de melhorar as alterações gastrointestinais de pacientes no pós-operatório de câncer colorretal, promovendo melhoria na qualidade de vida desses pacientes.INTRODUCTION: Medicinal fungus may normalize intestinal function, increase appetite and reduce adverse effects caused by conventional cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gastrointestinal alterations of patients with colorectal cancer in post-operative phase after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus. METHODOLOGY: Randomized, double-blind, placebo

  7. More efficient mushroom canning through pinch and exergy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Sman, van der Ruud G.M.; Westerik, Nieke; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Dewi, Belinda P.C.; Boom, Remko M.

    2017-01-01

    Conventional production of canned mushrooms involves multiple processing steps as vacuum hydration, blanching, sterilization, etc. that are intensive in energy and water usage. We analyzed the current mushroom processing technique plus three alternative scenarios via pinch and exergy analysis.

  8. Cultivation experiments on uptake of radionuclides by mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    1994-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, high concentrations of radiocesium in mushrooms were found in Europe. In our previous studies, we found that 137 Cs concentrations in mushrooms were markedly higher than autotrophic plants. In order to study radionuclide uptake by mushrooms, cultivation experiments in flasks were carried out using radiotracers, 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 60 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn. Three mushroom species Hebeloma vinosophyllum, Flammulina velutipes and Coprinus phlyctidosporus were used. In addition, a plant sample, Medicago sativa, was also tested. We found mushrooms tended to accumulate Cs, although there was a large difference between mushroom species. The concentration ratio, which was defined as 'activity of radionuclide in mushroom (Bq/g, wet wt.)' divided by 'activity of radionuclide in medium (Bq/g, wet wt.)', had the highest value of 21 for Cs in H. vinosophyllum. The value was much higher than that in the plant sample. The present findings agreed with previous observations in which Hebeloma species collected in forests contained large amount of 137 Cs. Considerable accumulations were not found for Sr and Co. The concentration ratio of Mn for the mushrooms was about 10, while the ratio of Zn ranged from 15 to 30. The effects of stable elements in the medium on the accumulations were investigated and was found the concentration ratios of Cs, Sr and Co were not influenced highly by coexisting stable elements in the medium. But the concentration ratio of Mn decreased as the amount of coexisting stable elements in the medium was increased. (author)

  9. wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in nigeria abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    of awareness, consumption history, wild or ... 15.6% were students and 11.1% business ... 1.1. N/A. 5. 5.6. NA = Not applicable mushrooms for over 10 years; whereas 13.3% ... Consumption history of wild and cultivated mushrooms in Nigeria.

  10. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAUKET AHMED PALA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Boda RH, Wani BA. 2014. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 173-185. Mushroom can serve as food, tonic, and as medicine thus make people healthier, fitter and happier. They have a cracking potential for generating great socioeconomic impact in human welfare at local, national and international level. With the help of allied mushroom farming we can easily tackle the problem of food for growing world population; reduce environmental pollution by bioconversion of huge organic wastes into mushrooms; recycle huge quantity of organic wastes to mushroom crops, biofertilizers, and biogas; restore damaged environment by mushroom mycelia through mycoforestry, mycoremediation, mycofiltration and mycopesticides in a zero emission fashion. They can be used to degrade radioactive industrial biocide wastes in an eco-friendly fashion. Since mushroom cultivation is an indoor agribusiness, it could have great economic impact by generating employment, income and functional food requirements for rural people especially in developing countries. How far mushroom cultivation can meet the functional food requirements; address the domestic food challenges, rising food prices and crisis vis a vis environmental sustainability will be thrust areas of this communication.

  11. Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

    2002-05-01

    Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw.

  12. Proximate and mineral analysis of some wild edible mushrooms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    israelikk

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... Key words: Edible mushroom, mineral composition, proximate analysis. ... than beef, pork and chicken that contain similar nutrients. .... legumes and meat. In earlier studies, Gruen and Wong. (1982) indicated that edible mushrooms were highly nutritional and compared favourably with meat, egg and milk.

  13. DRYING CHARACTERISTICS OF CAP AND STEM OF MUSHROOM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    mushrooms are not immediately processed. Drying is the most commonly used method of preservation of mushrooms. Dehydrated mush- rooms are used as an important ingredient in several food formulations including instant soups, pasta salads, snack seasonings, stuffing, casseroles, and meat and rice dishes (Tuley,.

  14. analysis of edible mushroom marketing in three villages in central

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    Furthermore, extension agents should monitor beneficiaries of such loans to ensure ... Mushrooms belong to a group of living things ... environment, knowledge of simple and low cost .... =Taxes (naira) ... Inheritance ... Table 7 revealed that Alesi marketers made profit margin of N 60,000.00 per .... Guide to Edible Mushroom.

  15. Indigenous knowledge and utilization of edible mushrooms in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heim and Coprinus disseminatus (Pers.: Fr.) S. F. Gray. Among the local people, names of edible mushrooms are based on the substrates on which they grow, their association with insects, and unrelated taxa are given collective names. Rural people believe mushrooms have medicinal values and can serve as blood tonic, ...

  16. Assessing the potential of mushroom cultivation in improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Faculty of Agriculture, Makerere University, P.O Box ... requires little land space, earns high income, and provides ... mushroom growing is one of the enterprises that would fit .... Children. 2. 3.30. Relative. 3. 5.00. Table 1. Availability of wild mushrooms now and in the past.

  17. Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species: part I. Problem of trace element toxicity in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Rissmann, Iwona; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn accumulation in six edible mushroom species and to assess their risk and benefits to human consumers. Mushrooms (Leccinium aurantiacum, Xerocomus badius, Lactarius deliciosus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and Suillus luteus) were collected from selected regions of Poland during 1990-2010. The highest diversity between studied mushroom species was observed in terms of Cu and Zn accumulation. Significant differences in the accumulation efficiency were found among the six mushroom species examined. The most efficient were Boletus edulis (Cd and Hg), Suillus luteus (Cu and Sr), and Lactarius deliciosus (Pb and Zn). In the case of Co and Ni, the most effective were Xerocomus badius and Leccinium aurantiacum, respectively. The calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of Cd, Cu, Hg, Sr and Zn were > 1 for all species in this study while Co, Ni and Pb usually were bioexcluded (BCF luteus collected in Poland is safe and this finding largely agrees with results from recent studies by other authors.

  18. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  19. 77 FR 66580 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India. The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2011, through January... Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India...

  20. 77 FR 19620 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). In accordance with section 751(a)(2... mushrooms from the PRC.\\1\\ The antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC therefore...

  1. Protein nutrient value evaluation of mutant strain J5 fruitbody Agaricus bazei murrill by 60Co γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Boqi; Huang Tingjun

    2004-01-01

    Protein nutrient value evaluation of mutant strain J 5 fruitbody Agaricus bazei Murrill by 60 Co γ-irradiation was studied. The results showed its total content of amino acids Agaricus bazei murrill was 48.20%; chemical score 58.10; amino acids score 88.60; necessary amino acids index 89.94; biologic value 86.29; nutrient index 29.15. All the index above were higher than that in original strain J 1 , but the ratio score of amino acids of J 5 fruitbody (39.48) was lower than strain J 1 . The results indicated that nutrient value of protein in J 5 was higher than in J 1 . (authors)

  2. Influence of growing conditions on heavy metals content in cultivated mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmitene, L.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of growing terms, microclimate conditions and growing medium on the mushroom harvest and quality. Champignons were grown according to the Polish technology. Pleurotus ostreatus was grown in perforate sacks using chopped wheat straw. Mycelium was sowed in different terms. It was established that the harvest of mushrooms, especially their quality, depends not only on growing conditions, but also on the kind of mushrooms, composte quality, mushroom size (diameter of cap), picking of mushrooms, storage time and other conditions. The technology of mushroom growing will be developed after studying all the factors determining the content of heavy metals and radiation in mushrooms

  3. Morphological and molecular characterization of three Agaricus species from tropical Asia (Pakistan, Thailand) reveals a new group in section Xanthodermatei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongklang, Naritsada; Nawaz, Rizwana; Khalid, Abdul N; Chen, Jie; Hyde, Kevin D; Zhao, Ruilin; Parra, Luis A; Hanif, Muhammad; Moinard, Magalie; Callac, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The genus Agaricus is known for its medicinal and edible species but also includes toxic species that belong to section Xanthodermatei. Previous phylogenetic reconstruction for temperate species, based on sequence data of nuc rRNA gene (rDNA) internal transcribed spacers (ITS), has revealed two major groups in this section and a possible third lineage for A. pseudopratensis. Recent research in Agaricus has shown that classifications need improving with the addition of tropical taxa. In this study we add new tropical collections to section Xanthodermatei. We describe three species from collections made in Pakistan and Thailand and include them in a larger analysis using all available ITS data for section Xanthodermatei. Agaricus bisporiticus sp. nov. and A. fuscopunctatus sp. nov. are introduced based on molecular and morphological studies, whereas A. microvolvatulus is recorded for the first time in Asia. Specimens from Thailand however have a much larger pileus than the type specimens from Congo. In maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) phylogenetic analyses these three species cluster with A. pseudopratensis from the Mediterranean area and A. murinocephalus recently described from Thailand. In Agaricus section Xanthodermatei this new group is monophyletic and receives low bootstrap support whereas the two previously known groups receive strong support. Within the new group, the most closely related species share some traits, but we did not find any unifying morphological character; however the five species of the group share a unique short nucleotide sequence. Two putatively toxic species of section Xanthodermatei are now recognized in Pakistan and six in Thailand. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  4. Further Insights into the Catalytical Properties of Deglycosylated Pyranose Dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris Recombinantly Expressed in Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Yakovleva, Maria E.; Killyeni, Aniko; Seubert, Oliver; Conghaile, Peter O.; MacAodha, Domhnall; Leech, Donal; Gonaus, Christoph; Popescu, Ionel Catalin; Peterbauer, Clemens K.; Kjellstrom, Sven; Gorton, Lo

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on fragmented deglycosylated pyranose dehydrogenase (fdgPDH) from Agaricus meleagris recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris. Fragmented deglycosylated PDH is formed from the deglycosylated enzyme (dgPDH) when it spontaneously loses a C-terminal fragment when stored in a buffer solution at 4 °C. The remaining larger fragment has a molecular weight of ∼46 kDa and exhibits higher volumetric activity for glucose oxidation compared with the deglycosylated and glycosyl...

  5. Mushrooms pollution by radioactivity and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delatouche, L.

    2001-01-01

    Some basic notions of radioactivity are recalled first (definition, origin, measurement units, long- and short-term effects..). Then, the pedology of soils and the properties and toxicity of 3 heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury) are presented to better understand the influence of some factors (genre, age, ecological type, pollution, conservation..) on the contamination of macro-mycetes by radioactivity and heavy metals. The role of chemists is to inform the consumers about these chemical and radioactive pollutions and to give some advices about the picking up (quantities, species and places to avoid) and the cooking of mushrooms. (J.S.)

  6. Effect of Edible Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on Type-2 Diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abu Sayeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD like diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD are on the increase globally and predominantly in the South East Asian Region (SEAR. The increasing NCD and its complications burdened the health cost of Bangladesh. The available literatures suggest that edible mushrooms are effective in controlling metabolic risks like hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia. The study addressed the metabolic effects of edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus in diabetic individuals and to assess the undesirable effects of mushroom. A total of 5000 newly registered diabetic women were screened for eligible participants (urban housewives, age 30 – 50y, BMI 22 – 27, FBG 8 – 12 mmol/l; free from complications or systemic illnesses and agreed to adhere to the study for 360 days. The investigations included weight and height for BMI, waist- and hip-girth for WHR, BP, FBG, 2ABF, T-chol, TG, HDL, LDL, ALT and Creatinine starting from the day 0 (baseline and each subsequent follow-up days: 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 for comparison between placebo and mushroom groups and also within group (baseline vs. follow up days, individually for placebo and mushroom. The daily intake of mushroom was 200g for the mushroom group and an equivalent calorie of vegetables for the placebo group. Overall, 73 diabetic housewives (mushroom / placebo = 43 /30 volunteered. The mean (with SEM values of BMI, WHR, BP, FBG, 2ABF, T-chol, TG, HDL, LDL, ALT and Creatinine of the placebo group were compared with the mushroom group. Compared with the placebo, the mushroom group showed significant reductions of FBG (p<0.001, 2ABF (p<0.001, T-chol (p<0.001, TG (p=0.03 and LDL (p<0.001; whereas, no difference was observed for BMI, SBP, DBP, HDL, Hb, creatinine and ALT. The comparison within groups (baseline vs. follow-up there were significant reduction of these variables in mushroom but not in the

  7. Radiopasteurization of sawdust media used in propagation of mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Sato, Tomotaro

    1975-01-01

    In our country, cultivation of mushrooms such as Pleurotus ostreatus, Kuehneromyces nameko, and Lentinus edodes (Cortinellus shiitake) are expanding, and has reached considerable amounts. These mushrooms are cultivated generally on decaying logs of broad leaf trees. Recently, these mushrooms are also cultivated artificially on the sawdust-media containing rice bran and other nutrient in the room of which temperature is controlled. However, these artificial culture media must be germicidated for 2 or 6 hours at 100 to 120 0 C before inoculation of mushroom spawn. In this study, attempts were made to cultivate Pleurotus ostreatus on the sawdust-media pasteurized by ionizing radiation. Inhibition of mushrooms growth were caused mainly by multiplication of Citrobacter and Fusarium, and these organisms were eliminated by a dose of 0.5 Mrad gamma irradiation. A surprising result was that many of sawdust media subjected to 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Mrad increased mycelial growth rates more than heat treatments, and also mushroom yields were enhanced. The multiplication of remaining microorganisms such as Bacillus and yeasts after irradiation with a dose of 0.5 Mrad or 1.0 Mrad did not inhibit the mycelial growth of mushrooms. (auth.)

  8. Radiocaesium and natural gamma emitters in mushrooms collected in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, Antonio; Guillen, Fco. Javier [Department of Physics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain); Hernandez, Santiago [Department of Techniques, Means and Elements of Construction, Polytechnical School, University de Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain); Moreno, Gabriel; Manjon, Jose Luis [Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Alcala, Alcala de Henares, Madrid 28871 (Spain); Pascual, Rosario [Department of Zootechnics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain)

    2004-01-05

    Mushrooms can accumulate heavy metals in general, including radionuclides found in the nature. However, little attention has been paid to the radioactive content of mushrooms collected in Spain and the dose for the population due to their ingestion. To address this, we analysed the contents of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 7}Be present in different species of mushrooms, according to their genus and nutritional mechanism. We observed that mycorrhizal mushrooms accumulate {sup 137}Cs more than saprophytes, and vice versa for {sup 7}Be. {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra are accumulated to the same degree by the two groups of mushrooms. We estimated the dose due to ingestion of mushrooms in Spain to be 2 {mu}Sv/year, and the contribution of {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra to be generally greater than that of {sup 137}Cs. The contribution of {sup 137}Cs to the dose was calculated by taking into account the results of an experiment carried out under the controlled laboratory conditions, which showed that approximately 98% of {sup 134}Cs was associated with the readily digestible fraction of the mushrooms.

  9. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Linhchi mushrooms as biological monitors for 137Cs pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van, L.; Le Duy, T.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactivity of Linhchi mushrooms (Ganoderma Lucidum) cultivated in laboratory and production conditions has been measured in the Environmental Laboratory of Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat, Vietnam. The results showed that Linhchi mushroom has a high radioactive concentration of 137 Cs, which is about 20 Bq kg -1 fresh weight. In addition, the radioactive contents of substrata before and after cultivation were insignificant. This suggested that Linhchi mushroom should only accumulate the 137 Cs radioisotope from the atmosphere, directly. Therefore, it should be considered as a bio-indicator for environmental monitoring. (author) 13 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. SEARCH OF NEW SYNTHETIC INHIBITORS OF TYROSINASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Shesterenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanin pigmentation of skin plays the most important role in the protection of organism against UV-irradiation, but the excessive accumulation of melanin brings to toxic melanodermia, melasma, lentigo and other skin lesions. Tyrosinase is the key enzyme of skin melanin pigment biosynthesis. In spite of certain progress in investigation of natural and synthetic tyrosinase inhibitors, actuality of such studies is of a high level, because the existing inhibitors are in some cases unstable, expensive, toxic, requires complex methods of synthesis or isolation from natural sources. The aim of the work is screening of new tyrosinase inhibitors, using the enzyme, isolated from Agaricus bisporus. Tyrosinase was isolated from Agaricus bisporus mushrooms by a modified method. It was found, that the introduction of polyethylene glycol 4000 in the extraction process promotes 3-fold reduction of polyphenol content, which leads to increase purity of enzyme with an increase in its activity by 25%. A search for new tyrosinase inhibitors among a wide range of compounds, including derivatives of 3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone, isatin, 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, etc was conducted. The studied substances did not displayed inhibitory effect at concentration of 0,1-0,5 mmol/dm3.

  12. Validation of an electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry method for quantification of total chromium and chromium(VI) in wild mushrooms and underlying soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Estela; Soares, M Elisa; Baptista, Paula; Castro, Marisa; Bastos, M Lourdes

    2007-08-22

    An ETAAS method was validated to quantify total Cr and Cr(VI) in mushrooms and the underlying soils. The method includes a sample pretreatment for total Cr dissolution using a wet acid digestion procedure and a selective alkaline extraction for Cr(VI). The limits of detection were, expressed in microg/L, 0.15 and 0.17 for total Cr and Cr(VI), respectively. The linearity ranges under the optimized conditions were 0.15-25.0 and 0.17-20.0 microg/L for total Cr and Cr(VI), respectively. The limits of quantification were, expressed in microg/g of dry weight, 0.0163 and 0.0085 for total and hexavalent chromium, respectively. The precision of the instrumental method for total Cr and Cr(VI) was lower than 1.6%, and for the analytical method, it was lower than 10%. The accuracy of the method for Cr(VI) quantification was evaluated by the standard additions method, with the recoveries being higher than 90% for all of the added concentrations. For total Cr, certified reference materials (lichen CRM 482 and soil sample NCS ZC73001) were used. An interference study was also carried out in a mushroom simulated matrix, and it was verified that the deviations of the expected values were lower than 4.0% for both total Cr and Cr(VI). The validated method was applied to the evaluation of total Cr and Cr(VI) in 34 wild mushrooms and 34 respective underlying soil samples collected in two different regions of Portugal (Beira Interior and TrAs-os-Montes), with different locations regarded as noncontaminated or contaminated areas. The species were identified by a mycologist and subdivided into 10 genera and 15 species: Amanita (rubescens, muscaria, and ponderosa), Boletus (regius), Lactarius (deliciosus, vellereus, and piperatus), Suillus (granulatus and luteus), Tricholoma (acerbum), Agaricus (sylvicola), Volvariella (gloiocephala), Lecopaxillus (giganteus), Macrolepiota (procera), and Psilocybe (fascicularis). The mean values found for total Cr were 1.14 and 1.11 microg/g of dry weight

  13. Radiocesium concentrations in wild mushrooms and characteristics of cesium accumulation by the edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hisashi; Morita, Yohoji; Kato, Fumio

    2000-01-01

    Mushrooms collected from a sub-alpine forest of Mt. Fuji and some other locations in Japan in 1996 were analyzed for radiocesium. The 137 Cs concentrations in 37 mushrooms varied widely from 1.6 to 783 Bqkg -1 fresh wt. The characteristics of Cs accumulation were analyzed by culturing fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1 (P. ostreatus Y-1). The 137 Cs and stable Cs accumulation expressed as the concentration ratio (CR, 137 Cs or Cs concentration in the dried fruiting body/ 137 Cs or Cs concentration in the fresh medium) were in good agreement, indicating similar migration. The CR of Cs grown on medium containing both 0.1% Cs and 0.1% K, 10.2, showed a decrease of about 30 percent as compared with that containing 0.1% Cs only. These CR values suggested that Cs accumulation by the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus Y-1 is affected by the presence of K similarly to previous observations in the mycelia. The 133 Cs-NMR spectra from the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus Y-1 showed two resonance signals, whereas those from the media after harvesting of fruiting bodies showed only one signal. Just before growth of the fruiting bodies, bunches consisting of many mycelia were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No significant differences in the elemental distribution (Cs, K, P and C) were detected in the mycelium surface by SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. (author)

  14. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and Bioactivity Relevant to Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Abol Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell–cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity.

  15. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... effects related to their disposal (Mshandete et al., 2008). Cultivation of mushroom can .... The holes facilitated drainage, aeration (free diffusion of gases and .... sium, iron, copper, manganese, zinc and cobalt) were determined.

  16. Evaluating the production of Ganoderma mushroom on corn cobs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... Full Length Research Paper. Evaluating the production ... Key words: Ganoderma, corn cobs, substrate, mushrooms, sawdust, basidiocarp. INTRODUCTION .... those which have high lignin and low cellulose. This is because ...

  17. Application of ionizing radiation to preservation of mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smierzchalska, K.; Gubrynowicz, E.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on prolongation of preservation time and quality of mushrooms is discussed. Some numerical data are cited. The influence of ionizing radiation on growth rate and physiological processes is also presented. (A.S.)

  18. Economic feasibility of small scale button mushroom production in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, A.; Hassan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:- Mushroom is widely cultivated as a proteineous vegetable in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Its cultivation requires less space, care, equipment and cost compared to many other crops and livestock. The present study was conducted in 2010 to estimate the profitability of small scale button mushroom production at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. The cost of production methodology was used for this study. The yield and gross return of mushroom was estimated at 155.6 kg ha and Rs.77,800 ha , respectively. The results indicated the fact that mushroom production is very much remunerative to its producers as it can give maximum net return by reducing their cost of production as its cultivation is dependent on the agricultural raw material which is cheaply available. (author)

  19. Induction and evaluation of beneficial mutations in Volvariella volvacea mushroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borromeo, J.D.

    1976-03-01

    The present strains of Volvariella volvacea are difficult to grow, hence the need for developing a wild-type mushroom that can be grown without the stringent cultural requirements. This would be suitable for backyard or small-scale production. A vigorous white mushroom that responds to the controlled conditions in mushroom houses is appropriate for large-scale or commercial production. The percentages success in getting the ''first flushes'' has been no more than 30%. There was a certain amount of difficulty in recognizing mutants based on their morphological features in laboratory culture. The first irradiation series utilizing 200 and 400 kR and using the box-type method of cultivation in growing the mushroom have given us the needed information in planning the next irradiation series

  20. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  1. Food, medicinal and environmental values of mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Alekseenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the literature review describing food, medicinal and ecological properties of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom. It is shown that the mushroom is adequate foodstuff for human beings. It provides with proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and mineral salts. Protein of the oyster mushrooms’ mycothallus contains 18 amino acids, eight of which were essential (isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine, and valine. Therapeutic value of the mushroom is characterised by a content of water-soluble (thiamine B1, riboflavin B2, niacin, B5, PP, pyridoxine B6, biotin B7, ascorbic and pantothenic acid and liposoluble (calciferol, ergosterol, tocopherol vitamins. The considerable gains from the farm wastes use for the mushrooms raising with subsequent application of the substrate in plant cultivation and animal husbandry are stated.

  2. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Spent Mushroom Substrate Extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Spent Mushroom Substrate Extract on Milk and ... Serum antioxidant activity as well as milk and serum immunoglobulin levels were ... total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and mean serum TAC concentration among ...

  3. Cultivation of mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) on banana leaves

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    percentage of the fibre components being degraded. The crude protein ... incubation of the mushroom due probably to the addition of microbial protein. The acid ... a plastic or tent-like construction or bamboo frame stretched with plastic film ...

  4. Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Bratkovich

    1991-01-01

    Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.

  5. Identifying 8-hydroxynaringenin as a suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Te-Sheng; Lin, Meng-Yi; Lin, Hsuan-Jung

    2010-01-01

    A biotransformed metabolite of naringenin was isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus oryzae, fed with naringenin, and identified as 8-hydroxynaringenin based on the mass and (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectral data. The compound showed characteristics of both an irreversible inhibitor and a substrate of mushroom tyrosinase in preincubation and HPLC analysis. These results demonstrate that 8-hydroxynaringenin belongs to a suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase. The partition ratio between the compound's molecules in the formation of product and in the inactivation of the enzyme was determined to be 283 +/- 21. The present study's results, together with our previous findings, which proved that both 8-hydroxydaidzein and 8-hydroxygenistein are suicide substrates of mushroom tyrosinase, show that 7,8,4'-trihydroxyl functional groups on flavonoids' skeletons play important roles in producing suicide substrate properties toward mushroom tyrosinase.

  6. Molecular and Antibacterial Profile of Edible Oyster Mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    2014-09-24

    Sep 24, 2014 ... Phenol/Chloroform DNA extraction protocol and the DNA was ... DNA from oyster mushroom fermentation broth, mycelia or fruiting bodies. .... Sample preparation: The different strains of Pleurotus were obtained in test- tubes.

  7. Uptake and transfer factors of 137Cs by mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, G.

    1991-01-01

    The 137 Cs content of 118 species (668 samples) of higher fungi collected in the period from August 1984 to October 1989 at three different locations in Styria, Austria, was determined by gamma-spectrometry. The Cs-content of most mushrooms has been increasing since September 1986. In order to find out which factors determine the 137 Cs-contamination of mushrooms and the transfer-value soil to mushroom, the concentration of total and plant-available radiocesium in soils as well as the pH-value, the content of humus, clay, silt, sand, exchangeable cations, the composition of the clay minerals, and the particle size distribution of the soils of two different locations were examined. The higher the 137 Cs contamination of the soil, the thicker the layer of humus and the higher the content of humus, the lower the pH-value, and the lower the amount of essential cations, especially of K + , the higher the amount of 137 Cs plant-available will be. Therefore, the contamination of the mushrooms in the coniferous forest of Koralpenblick (1000 m) is higher than in the mixed forest at the Rosenberg around Graz at approx. 500 m height. Of 26 different species of mushrooms measured at both sites, only 61% show the highest TF-values soil to mushrooms also at the Koralpenblick. In the spruce forest at Koralpenblick there are many species of mushrooms with high 137 Cs-contamination which were not found at the Rosenberg. However, the properties of the species to which a mushroom belongs are more important than environmental conditions and soil properties. The transfer values of 40 K stay within narrow bounds, whereas those of 137 Cs differ widely. (orig.)

  8. Comparative study of wild edible mushrooms as sources of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Anna M; Zujko, Małgorzata E; Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore sixteen of the most popular edible species of wild-growing mushrooms as potential sources of antioxidants. Among the mushrooms tested, the highest total polyphenol contents, exceeding 100 mg/100 g fresh mass, were found in five mushrooms: Boletus chrysenteron, B. edulis, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Macrolepiota procera. Antioxidant activity was measured with the FRAP, TEAC, DPPH scavenging ability and ferrous ions chelating ability assays. Results of the study show that wild mushrooms vary according to their antioxidant properties. The highest FRAP potentials, exceeding 1 mmol/100 g, were found in five species ofBoletales: Boletus edulis, B. chrysenteron, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Suillus grevillei. TEAC values were from 1.07 to 4.01 mmol/100 g fresh mass. High TEAC values (>2.3 mmol/100 g) were found in Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, Macrolepiota procera, Boletus chrysenteron, and B. edulis. The DPPH radical scavenging effectiveness of mushroom extracts, expressed as EC50 values, was in range 2.91-13.86 mg/mL. Scavenging ability was the highest for B. edulis and B. chrysenteron. The metal chelating ability of mushroom extracts expressed as ECso values of chelating ability on ferrous ions were from 8.02 mg/mL in Cantharellus cibarius to 12.10 mg/mL in Suillus luteus. Among the mushrooms tested, Boletus chrysenteron and B. edulis were characterized by high scores of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity in the FRAP, TEAC, and DPPH assays. These results place these culinary species of wild-growing mushrooms among products with considerable antioxidant potential.

  9. Activity of 137Cs in mushrooms from Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.; Novakova, J.; Dvorak, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, activity concentrations of radiocesium in mushrooms from various locations in the Slovak Republic during the year 2001 are presented. The highest activity concentration of 137 Cs measured was 966 Bq/kg, for Suillus luteus from Senica. Mushrooms belonging to Boletaceae which grow in Central Europe are not only bio-indicators of the environmental contamination with radiocesium, but might also represent depending on their actual radiocesium contamination - some risk factor if consumed too extensively. (authors)

  10. The use of the ITS region in marketable mushrooms authenticity

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Liliana; Oliveira, Ivo; Baptista, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Edible mushrooms, due to their flavour and nutritional characteristics, are very popular in many dishes. Some species are high valuated and reaching high market values. There are frequent reports of adulteration of these kinds of products due to the presence of fungal species less expensive among others with high-value market. This adulteration occurs especially in products in which the flavour is not prominent and in which the mushrooms are difficult to examine. In this work we utilized the ...

  11. Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

    2010-07-01

    Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically.

  12. USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Poyedinok

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is used in greenhouses to increase productivity and quality of agricultural and ornamental plants. Despite the awareness of the fact that light also plays important role in the life of nonhotosynthetic organisms, such as fungi, its using in their biotechnology cultivation is currently limited. Science has quite a large amount information about the influence of artificial light of different nature on morphogenesis, metabolic processes and productivity of more than 100 species of fungi, many of which are valuable producers of biologically active compounds. Themechanisms of photoreactions of various fungi, which is an integral part of a purposeful photoregulation their activity in biotechnological processes are described. The analysis of the researches and of the experience of their practical application allows predicting potential of using artificial light in mushroom growing industry, as well as in creating highly productive, environmentally clean technologies of targeted synthesis of the final product.

  13. Toxic isolectins from the mushroom Boletus venenatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Masashi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Dohra, Hideo; Morita, Tatsuya; Murata, Takeomi; Usui, Taichi; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Kamei, Masugu; Hirabayashi, Jun; Matsuura, Masanori; Yamada, Mina; Saikawa, Yoko; Hashimoto, Kimiko; Nakata, Masaya; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2010-04-01

    Ingestion of the toxic mushroom Boletus venenatus causes a severe gastrointestinal syndrome, such as nausea, repetitive vomiting, diarrhea, and stomachache. A family of isolectins (B. venenatus lectins, BVLs) was isolated as the toxic principles from the mushroom by successive 80% ammonium sulfate-precipitation, Super Q anion-exchange chromatography, and TSK-gel G3000SW gel filtration. Although BVLs showed a single band on SDS-PAGE, they were further divided into eight isolectins (BVL-1 to -8) by BioAssist Q anion-exchange chromatography. All the isolectins showed lectin activity and had very similar molecular weights as detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. Among them, BVL-1 and -3 were further characterized with their complete amino acid sequences of 99 amino acids determined and found to be identical to each other. In the hemagglutination inhibition assay, both proteins failed to bind to any mono- or oligo-saccharides tested and showed the same sugar-binding specificity to glycoproteins. Among the glycoproteins examined, asialo-fetuin was the strongest inhibitor. The sugar-binding specificity of each isolectin was also analyzed by using frontal affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis, indicating that they recognized N-linked sugar chains, especially Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->4Manbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->4GlcNAc (Type II) residues in N-linked sugar chains. BVLs ingestion resulted in fatal toxicity in mice upon intraperitoneal administration and caused diarrhea upon oral administration in rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antifatigue Functions and Mechanisms of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Geng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is the symptom of tiredness caused by physical and/or psychological stresses. As fatigue is becoming a serious problem in the modern society affecting human health, work efficiency, and quality of life, effective antifatigue remedies other than pharmacological drugs or therapies are highly needed. Mushrooms have been widely used as health foods, because of their various bioactive constituents such as polysaccharides, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. This paper reviews the major findings from previous studies on the antifatigue effects, the active components of mushrooms, and the possible mechanisms. Many studies have demonstrated the antifatigue effects of edible and medicinal mushrooms. These mushrooms probably mitigate human fatigue through effects on the functional systems, including the muscular, cardiovascular, hormone, and immune system. The bioactive constituents that contribute to the antifatigue effects of mushrooms may include polysaccharides, peptides, nucleosides, phenolic compounds, and triterpenoids. Further research is still needed to identify the active ingredients and to investigate their mechanism of action on the antifatigue effects. Since most previous studies have been carried out in animal models, more human trials should be performed to verify the antifatigue function of edible and medicinal mushrooms.

  15. Cobweb, a serious pathology in mushroom crops: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, J.; Navarro, M.J.; Gea, F.

    2017-01-01

    Cobweb is a fungal disease of commercially cultivated mushrooms. Several members of the ascomycete genus Cladobotryum sp. have been reported as causal agents. White button mushroom is the most frequently cited host, but a wide range of cultivated edible mushrooms suffer cobweb. The pathology causes production losses and reduces the crop surface available. The parasite produces a great number of harmful conidia that can be released easily and distributed throughout the mushroom farm to generate secondary points of infection. To prevent initial outbreaks, hygiene is of primary importance within the facilities dedicated to mushroom cultivation, while additional measures must be implemented to control and reduce cobweb if there is an outbreak, including chemical and biological methods. This review summarizes and discusses the knowledge available on the historic occurrence of cobweb and its impact on commercial mushroom crops worldwide. Causal agents, disease ecology, including the primary source of infection and the dispersal of harmful conidia are also reviewed. Finally, control treatments to prevent the disease from breaking out are discussed.

  16. Cobweb, a serious pathology in mushroom crops: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, J.; Navarro, M.J.; Gea, F.

    2017-07-01

    Cobweb is a fungal disease of commercially cultivated mushrooms. Several members of the ascomycete genus Cladobotryum sp. have been reported as causal agents. White button mushroom is the most frequently cited host, but a wide range of cultivated edible mushrooms suffer cobweb. The pathology causes production losses and reduces the crop surface available. The parasite produces a great number of harmful conidia that can be released easily and distributed throughout the mushroom farm to generate secondary points of infection. To prevent initial outbreaks, hygiene is of primary importance within the facilities dedicated to mushroom cultivation, while additional measures must be implemented to control and reduce cobweb if there is an outbreak, including chemical and biological methods. This review summarizes and discusses the knowledge available on the historic occurrence of cobweb and its impact on commercial mushroom crops worldwide. Causal agents, disease ecology, including the primary source of infection and the dispersal of harmful conidia are also reviewed. Finally, control treatments to prevent the disease from breaking out are discussed.

  17. Electrical stimulation in white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, I.; Nurfazira, K. M. P.; Fern, C. Shi; Ain, M. S. Nur

    2017-09-01

    White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) is an edible mushroom that gained popularity due to its nutritional values, low production cost and ease of cultivation. There are several research reported on the mushroom fruiting bodies which were actively developed when applying electrical shock treatment. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of different electrical voltages on the growth and yield of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). Five different electrical voltages had been applied during spawning period which were 6V, 9V, 12V, 15V and mushroom bags without any treatment served as control. Treatment at 6V showed the highest rate for mycelium growth while 15V took the shortest time for fruiting body formation. However, no significant different (P>0.05) among all the treatments was observed for the time taken for the mycelium to fill-up the bag and pinhead emergence. The total fresh weight and percentage of biological efficiency for treatment at 9V showed higher values compared to control. Treatment at 9V also showed the largest pileus diameter and the most firm in the pileus texture. Meanwhile, treatment at 6V showed the highest a* value (redness). In addition, different electrical voltage treatments applied did not show any significant effect on substrate utilization efficiency, colour L* and b* values. In conclusion, among all the electrical treatments applied, 9V could be considered as the best treatment to enhance the yield of white oyster mushroom.

  18. Cobweb, a serious pathology in mushroom crops: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carrasco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cobweb is a fungal disease of commercially cultivated mushrooms. Several members of the ascomycete genus Cladobotryum sp. have been reported as causal agents. White button mushroom is the most frequently cited host, but a wide range of cultivated edible mushrooms suffer cobweb. The pathology causes production losses and reduces the crop surface available. The parasite produces a great number of harmful conidia that can be released easily and distributed throughout the mushroom farm to generate secondary points of infection. To prevent initial outbreaks, hygiene is of primary importance within the facilities dedicated to mushroom cultivation, while additional measures must be implemented to control and reduce cobweb if there is an outbreak, including chemical and biological methods. This review summarizes and discusses the knowledge available on the historic occurrence of cobweb and its impact on commercial mushroom crops worldwide. Causal agents, disease ecology, including the primary source of infection and the dispersal of harmful conidia are also reviewed. Finally, control treatments to prevent the disease from breaking out are discussed.

  19. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities of Wild Boletales Mushrooms from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Sylvie; Arnould, Stéphanie; Vitou, Manon; Boudard, Frédéric; Guzman, Caroline; Poucheret, Patrick; Fons, Françoise; Rapior, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    We selected edible and inedible mushrooms growing in the Mediterranean area of France to screen their biological activity: Caloboletus calopus, Rubroboletus lupinus, R. pulchrotinctus, R. satanas, Gyroporus castaneus, Suillus luteus, and Omphalotus olearius. Mushrooms were sequentially extracted using cyclohexane, chloroform, ethanol, and water. The antiproliferative activity against the HCT116 colon adenocarcinoma cell line and the antioxidant properties (DPPH radical scavenging assay, Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of the Boletales extracts were evaluated and compared. Among the 28 mushroom extracts evaluated, 11 presented antiproliferative activity against HCT116 cells. These activities were not linked to antioxidant capacity. Among the antioxidant extracts, most were aqueous extracts in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, whereas the highest values on the Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH assays were noted for chloroform, ethanol, or aqueous extracts, depending on the mushroom species. Further studies are necessary to identify bioactive compounds and to valorize the mushrooms-for edible species, directly as health foods, or, for inedible mushrooms, as ingredients in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  20. Chernobyl is still haunting us. Radionuclides in Estonian mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Vilde, R.; Martin, L.; Aaspollu, J.; Tekko, S.

    1993-01-01

    The disaster that happened at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in 1986 caused a sharp rise in radioactive pollution over an extensive area in the region of the Baltic Sea. To estimate the distribution and the concentration of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in Estonian ecosystems, samples of mushrooms, mosses, lichens and the upper horizons of soil were gathered from 63 test sites during 1991. We were particularly interested in the amounts of radionuclides in mushrooms because these are used as food by people. Dangerously high radionuclide concentrations were found in mushrooms gathered in North-East Estonia. Heightened concentrations were registered here and there all over the territory of Estonia, especially in mushrooms gathered in Central and South-Western Estonia. The Cs-137 content in mushrooms depends on its content in other components of the ecosystems, first and foremost on the concentrations of radiocaesium in mosses and litter, which, therefore, can be used as indicators in prognostication the radioactive pollution of mushrooms in a certain region. As Cs-137 migrates between various ecosystem components, it is necessary to check the radioactivity of the forest products used for food for still a number of years to come. The Sr-90 level was low in all the ecosystem components examined. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs

  1. Conversion of woody biomass into fermentable sugars by cellulase from Agaricus arvensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeya, Marimuthu; Nguyen, Ngoc-Phuong-Thao; Moon, Hee-Jung; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2010-11-01

    Agaricus arvensis, a newly isolated basidiomycetous fungus, was found to secrete efficient cellulases. The strain produced the highest endoglucanase (EG), cellobiohydrolase (CBH) and beta-glucosidase (BGL) activities of 0.3, 3.2 and 8U/mg-protein, respectively, with rice straw as the carbon source. Saccharification of the woody biomass with A. arvensis cellulase as the enzyme source released a high level of fermentable sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the poplar biomass was optimized using the response surface methodology in order to study the influence of the variables (pH, temperature, cellulases concentration and substrate concentration). The enzyme and substrate concentrations were identified as the limiting factors for the saccharification of poplar wood biomass. A total reducing sugar level of 29g/L (293mg/g-substrate) was obtained at an enzyme concentration of 65FPU/g-substrate after optimization of the hydrolysis parameters. The model validation showed a good agreement between the experimental results and the predicted responses. A. arvensis could be a good candidate for the production of reducing sugars from a cellulosic biomass.

  2. Phase I Clinical Study of the Dietary Supplement, Agaricus blazei Murill, in Cancer Patients in Remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ohno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM, safety is not yet well understood. Cancer survivors took 1.8, 3.6, or 5.4 g ABM granulated powder (Kyowa Wellness Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan per day orally for 6 months. Adverse events were defined by subjective/objective symptoms and laboratory data according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (NCI-CTCAE v3.0. Seventy-eight patients were assessed for safety of ABM (30/24/24 subjects at 1/2/3 packs per day, resp.. Adverse events were observed in 9 patients (12%. Most were digestive in nature such as nausea and diarrhea, and one patient developed a liver dysfunction-related food allergy, drug lymphocyte product. However, none of these adverse events occurred in a dose-dependent manner. This study shows that ABM does not cause problems in most patients within laboratory parameters at the dosages tested over 6 months. This trial supports previous evidence that the ABM product is generally safe, excluding possible allergic reaction.

  3. [Knowledge of students of tourism and recreation Academy of Physical Education on wild mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Parnicki, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Prophylaxis of acute poisoning with mushrooms is justified because of the relatively high risk of death associated with these intoxications. Mushrooming in Poland has a long tradition and knowledge about mushrooms is usually passed on in families. In recent years the mushrooming becomes an organized form of recreation. Graduates of tourism and recreation should have a minimum of reliable knowledge about mushrooms, to ensure the safety of persons entrusted to their care. The knowledge of wild mushrooms among students of tourism and recreation was tested by means of questionnaire. Mushrooms gathered 108 out of 125 respondents. The primary source of knowledge about mushrooms for 84% of the mushrooms pickers were the parents. Up to 70% of respondents considered at least one of irrational methods useful to distinguish edible mushrooms from the poisonous. Thirteen percent of those polled believed that by simple means mushrooms may be deprived of their toxic properties. Knowledge of the only one deadly poisonous mushrooms growing in Poland was 53%. The tourism and recreation students must pass basic knowledge about mushrooms and identify reliable sources of knowledge in this field.

  4. Adebayo et al (13)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    Also, white maize was observed to have the greatest suitability for spawn production out of the ... Apart from serving as a protein food ... Agaricus bisporus in production, inthe world (Chang ... preserved on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) slant at.

  5. The Evaluation of Pediatric Cases with Mushroom Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Hizel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisonings are intoxications with high mortality. Toxic wild mushrooms usually grow up in spring and autmn and the intoxications of these mushrooms occur mostly in these seasons. The symptoms, the initial time of the symptoms, the arrival time to the hospital, the physical examination findings, laboratory datas, treatments that were applied, the time kept in the hospital and the prognoses of the cases with mushroom intoxication diagnosis in the pediatry department were recorded between 1 October and 31 November 2006. During the time described above, a total of 24 cases with mushroom poisoning were determined. 8 of the cases (33.3 % were refered to another hospital, 16 of them (66.7 % were hospitalizated and observed. Gastrointestinal complaints was the symptom determined in every patient at the application time to the hospital whereas only 3 patients (12.5 % had neurologic symptoms. Symptoms occured within 6 hours of consumption of mushrooms in 7 cases (29.2 %. Elevated liver enzymes was determined in 4 patients (16.6 % whereas renal functions were normal in all of the cases. 16 cases who were hospitalizated, completely recovered and were discharged. However, 2 patients (8.3 % who were refered, died. Mushroom poisoning is an important health problem because of its high mortality and the best treatment is to make the public conscious of this problem. Therefore alerting the public, informing them about the symptoms and making them resort to hospitals with the first detected initial symptoms, by improving and strengthening the public education projects will reduce the mortality. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 341-344

  6. The Evaluation of Pediatric Cases with Mushroom Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Hizel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisonings are intoxications with high mortality. Toxic wild mushrooms usually grow up in spring and autmn and the intoxications of these mushrooms occur mostly in these seasons. The symptoms, the initial time of the symptoms, the arrival time to the hospital, the physical examination findings, laboratory datas, treatments that were applied, the time kept in the hospital and the prognoses of the cases with mushroom intoxication diagnosis in the pediatry department were recorded between 1 October and 31 November 2006. During the time described above, a total of 24 cases with mushroom poisoning were determined. 8 of the cases (33.3 % were refered to another hospital, 16 of them (66.7 % were hospitalizated and observed. Gastrointestinal complaints was the symptom determined in every patient at the application time to the hospital whereas only 3 patients (12.5 % had neurologic symptoms. Symptoms occured within 6 hours of consumption of mushrooms in 7 cases (29.2 %. Elevated liver enzymes was determined in 4 patients (16.6 % whereas renal functions were normal in all of the cases. 16 cases who were hospitalizated, completely recovered and were discharged. However, 2 patients (8.3 % who were refered, died. Mushroom poisoning is an important health problem because of its high mortality and the best treatment is to make the public conscious of this problem. Therefore alerting the public, informing them about the symptoms and making them resort to hospitals with the first detected initial symptoms, by improving and strengthening the public education projects will reduce the mortality. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 341-344

  7. Particularities of Cs-137 accumulation by mushrooms in different zones of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatrova, N.E.; Zarubin, O.L.; Koval', G.N.; Shovkun, N.A.; Ogorodnik, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    The cumulation of Cs-137 by the mushrooms of 30 km zone is more intensively, than on the 'southern' trace. The biggest concentrations are discovered in local mushrooms: Suillus luteus (L.) and Paxillus involutus (Batsch:Fr.)

  8. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In Hee; Kim, Se Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Young-Suk

    2006-08-23

    The characteristic aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry using aroma extract dilution analysis. 1-Octen-3-one (mushroom-like) was the major aroma-active compound in raw pine-mushrooms; this compound had the highest flavor dilution factor, followed by ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (floral and sweet), linalool (citrus-like), methional (boiled potato-like), 3-octanol (mushroom-like and buttery), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like), (E)-2-octen-1-ol (mushroom-like), and 3-octanone (mushroom-like and buttery). By contrast, methional, 2-acetylthiazole (roasted), an unknown compound (chocolate-like), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (buttery), and phenylacetaldehyde (floral and sweet), which could be formed by diverse thermal reactions during the cooking process, together with C8 compounds, were identified as the major aroma-active compounds in cooked pine-mushrooms.

  9. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ...)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade... preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of... mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  10. 77 FR 55808 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC).\\1\\ Based upon our analysis of comments... is listed in the ``Final Results of Review'' section below. \\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From...

  11. 76 FR 67146 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... results of the new shipper reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms.... (Hongda) in the Final Results of New Shipper Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Preserved Mushrooms...

  12. 78 FR 4126 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... conducting a new shipper review (NSR) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the..., respectively. Scope of the Order The products covered by this order are certain preserved mushrooms, whether...

  13. 76 FR 56732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  14. 78 FR 18315 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms.... (Yinfeng) under the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of... Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

  15. 76 FR 16604 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China... Industry Co., Ltd. (Tongfa). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...

  16. 76 FR 28732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Department) initiated a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from... 31, 2011. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

  17. 76 FR 70112 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  18. 77 FR 32941 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... order on certain preserved mushrooms from India with respect to the above-named companies.\\2\\ \\2\\ See... on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the POR. Therefore, in response to the petitioner's...

  19. 75 FR 17376 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results Pursuant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC for the period... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). EFFECTIVE DATE: April 6, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  20. 78 FR 34037 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period... Review'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...

  1. 75 FR 35769 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India... review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India with respect to these...

  2. 76 FR 43261 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of... order on certain preserved mushrooms from India with respect to the above-named companies. See...

  3. 75 FR 31426 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration (A-560-802) Certain Preserved Mushrooms... ``Opportunity to Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from Indonesia with respect to these companies. See...

  4. 76 FR 17836 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). In accordance with section 751(a)(2... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC. See Notice of Amendment of Final...

  5. 75 FR 62108 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Notice of... Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China, 64 FR 8308 (February 19, 1999). In accordance with...

  6. 75 FR 16075 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Notice of Amendment... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC. See Notice of Amendment of Final...

  7. 78 FR 26319 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India with respect to the...

  8. On the asymmetry of mating in natural populations of the mushroom fungus Schizophyllum commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S.; Nieuwhof, S.; Aanen, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    Before a mycelium of a mushroom-forming basidiomycete develops mushrooms, the monokaryotic mycelium needs to become fertilized. Although the mechanistic details of mating in mushrooms have been studied thoroughly in laboratory research, very little is known on mating patterns in nature. In this

  9. Content of radiocesium in mushrooms from some localities in Czech Republic and Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunova, V; Dvorak, P.; Benova, K.

    2004-01-01

    Interest about content radiocesium remain in mushrooms on actual. Mushrooms are able in bigger rate cumulate 137 Cs. Owing to different natural influence radiocesium all the time discovery, not only in mushrooms, but also in other live organism various kind. In regions, which hit Chernobyl radioactive cloud, we can with distance of several years deal out and funds transcendent permission limits. (authors)

  10. Identification of molecular species of acylglycerols of Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. We successfully cultivated four edible, medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid culture. Recently, we identified the molecular species of acylglycerols in the lipid extract of mushroom G. lucidum NRRL66208. One hundred and three molecular...

  11. A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus in anthropometric profile of women with colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Costa Fortes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal cancer is a disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Medicinal fungi and/or its extracts have been used in the adjuvant therapy of cancer because of their pharmacological, nutritional and immunomodulatory properties. Objective: To evaluate the anthropometric profile of colorectal cancer women after dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungus. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in a public hospital in the Federal District – Brazil for six months. Sample of 32 patients with colorectal cancer, female, was separated into two groups: supplemented with Agaricus sylvaticus (30 mg/kg/day and placebo. We conducted anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index, arm circumference, triceps skinfold, arm muscle circumference and fat percentage during the treatment. The results were analyzed at three different times (before the start of treatment, three months and after six months supplementation using the Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS 19.0, using Student's t-test and F, with significance for p ≤ 0.05. Results: The Agaricus sylvaticus group showed a significant increase in body mass index, arm circumference, percent body fat and triceps skinfold, and non-significant increase in arm muscle circumference after six months of supplementation. These results were not observed in the placebo group. Conclusion: The results suggest that dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus is capable to have benefits in anthropometric parameters of women with colorectal cancer. Resumo: Introdução: O câncer colorretal é uma doença influenciada por fatores genéticos e ambientais. A utilização de fungos medicinais e/ou de seus extratos tem sido utilizada no adjuvante tratamento do câncer devido às suas propriedades farmacológicas, nutricionais e imunomoduladoras. Objetivo: Avaliar o perfil antropométrico de mulheres com câncer colorretal após suplementa

  12. Mushroom speleothems: Stromatolites that formed in the absence of phototrophs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontognali, Tomaso; D'Angeli, Ilenia; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano; Gonzales, Esteban; DeWaele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Santa Catalina Cave, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammilaries). More peculiar is the cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) - the constituents of biofilms and microbial mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence of phototrophs) has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on Earth.

  13. Utilization following of bioremediation attributes using oyster mushrooms - Pleurotus ostreatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanda, D.; Matel, L.

    2007-01-01

    The mushrooms are not only rich food products, but also a specific component of forest biogeocenoses playing an important role in their functioning, including radionuclide migration. The reason why fungi work as such good indicators for radioactivity and pollution in general is connected to their structure. Using absorption to obtain their nutrition, fungi lack water-conducting organs like stems and roots. They absorb moisture and nutrients from the soil background through surface cells. Dissolved or airborne materials, which include pollutants, move freely through the compartments of hyphae. What is more, radiation released during nuclear testing or accidents is absorbed, especially in areas where it rained heavily shortly after the incident. The present work is devoted to an estimation of the transfer coefficient between reared oyster mushrooms and their support die, which was injected with known activity of 241 Am and 242 Pu. After 2 months when we get the reared mushrooms of cane oyster mushrooms were dried and prepared by liquid extraction with Aliquat 336. The samples were measured by alpha-spectrometry. The results of activity 241 Am and 242 Pu in the mushrooms body and residual activity in the support was detected and calculated (authors)

  14. Mushroom speleothems: Stromatolites that formed in the absence of phototrophs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaso eBontognali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Santa Catalina Cave, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammilaries. More peculiar is the cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS – the constituents of biofilms and microbial mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence of phototrophs has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on Earth.

  15. Advances in Mushroom Research in the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Pan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a lot of progress in mushroom science and biotechnology in the last decade. The optimization of PFGE separation of fungal chromosomes allowed the study of the molecular karyotype of mushrooms and the assignment of genes to chromosomes. There are 115 genes encoded from different species of mushrooms. Cross breeding continues to be the principal method, but it is accompanied by the analyses of RAPD or RFLPs methods. The genetic makers are used and introduced into commercial large hybrids via introgression breeding. The complex traits such as yield, resistance to disease and quality characteristics, and quantitative traits more than one quantitative trait locus (QTL are found and used in practice. The transformants or transgenic mutant strains were obtained by Agrobacterium system or particle bombardment. At least 651 species representing 182 genera of hetero- and homobasidiomycetes mushrooms were researched containing antitumor or immunostimulating polysaccharides. Ergosterol in the lipid fraction was identified as one of the most active constituents. New sesquiterpenoid hydroquinones, steroids, oxalic acid, triterpenes, water-soluble lignins, sulfated polysaccharides, protein-bound polysaccharides are researched intensively as antimicrobial or antiviral agents. Many small molecular mass compounds exhibit cytotoxic activities, such as illudins, leaianafulvene, triterpenes (ganoderic acids, acetoxyscirpenediol, ergosterol peroxide, sterols. There are many other compounds or activities found in the mushrooms, such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic action, anti-inflammatory effect, hepatoprotective compounds, psychoactive compounds and activities.

  16. Paleogene radiation of a plant pathogenic mushroom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P A Coetzee

    Full Text Available The global movement and speciation of fungal plant pathogens is important, especially because of the economic losses they cause and the ease with which they are able to spread across large areas. Understanding the biogeography and origin of these plant pathogens can provide insights regarding their dispersal and current day distribution. We tested the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin of the plant pathogenic mushroom genus Armillaria and the currently accepted premise that vicariance accounts for the extant distribution of the species.The phylogeny of a selection of Armillaria species was reconstructed based on Maximum Parsimony (MP, Maximum Likelihood (ML and Bayesian Inference (BI. A timeline was then placed on the divergence of lineages using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach.Phylogenetic analyses of sequenced data for three combined nuclear regions provided strong support for three major geographically defined clades: Holarctic, South American-Australasian and African. Molecular dating placed the initial radiation of the genus at 54 million years ago within the Early Paleogene, postdating the tectonic break-up of Gondwana.The distribution of extant Armillaria species is the result of ancient long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance due to continental drift. As these finding are contrary to most prior vicariance hypotheses for fungi, our results highlight the important role of long-distance dispersal in the radiation of fungal pathogens from the Southern Hemisphere.

  17. Ganoderma Lucidum (Reishi Mushroom) and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Ahmet; Nayir, Erdinc; Kirca, Onder; Ozdogan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Having a long historical past in traditional Chinese medicine, Ganoderma Lucidum (G. Lucidum) is a type of mushroom believed to extend life and promote health. Due to the increasing consumption pattern, it has been cultivated and marketed intensively since the 1970s. It is claimed to be effective in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, and in addition, it exerts anticancer properties. Almost all the data on the benefits of G. Lucidum are based on laboratory and preclinical studies. The few clinical studies conducted are questionable. Nevertheless, when the findings obtained from laboratory studies are considered, it turns that G. Lucidum is likely to have some benefits for cancer patients. What is important at this point is to determine the components that will provide these benefits, and use them in drug development, after testing their reliability. In conclusion, it would be the right approach to abstain from using and incentivizing this product, until its benefits and harms are set out clearly, by considering its potential side effects.

  18. Mushroom bodies regulate habit formation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Björn

    2009-08-25

    To make good decisions, we evaluate past choices to guide later decisions. In most situations, we have the opportunity to simultaneously learn about both the consequences of our choice (i.e., operantly) and the stimuli associated with correct or incorrect choices (i.e., classically). Interestingly, in many species, including humans, these learning processes occasionally lead to irrational decisions. An extreme case is the habitual drug user consistently administering the drug despite the negative consequences, but we all have experience with our own, less severe habits. The standard animal model employs a combination of operant and classical learning components to bring about habit formation in rodents. After extended training, these animals will press a lever even if the outcome associated with lever-pressing is no longer desired. In this study, experiments with wild-type and transgenic flies revealed that a prominent insect neuropil, the mushroom bodies (MBs), regulates habit formation in flies by inhibiting the operant learning system when a predictive stimulus is present. This inhibition enables generalization of the classical memory and prevents premature habit formation. Extended training in wild-type flies produced a phenocopy of MB-impaired flies, such that generalization was abolished and goal-directed actions were transformed into habitual responses.

  19. The Problems Detected in Mushroom Cultivation in Ankara

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    Mürüvvet Ulusoy Deniz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the cultivated mushroom farming which began to be produced in the 1960s in Turkey, has been more faster in the Mediterranean region than other regions. The development of mushroom cultivation has began to seen Marmara and İç Anadolu regions in recent years. The mushroom production which is very important for human health and nutrition, has been changing year to year (sometimes increase, sometimes decrease in the province of Ankara. The first private mushrrom cultivation company had been established in1963. Up to date, the number of private enterprises has changed over the years in Ankara. This study was carried out by doing a survey with an active 12 enterprises which the annual production capacity of 10-600 ton. The enterprises were visited and problems were determined during the cultivation. As a result of the study, It was observed that there are problems in production and marketing phases and with surface soil material

  20. Visualizing mushroom body response to a conditioned odor in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Till; Menzel, Randolf

    2001-11-01

    Combining differential conditioning with optophysiological recordings of bee brain activity allows the investigation of learning-related changes in complex neural systems. In this study we focused on the mushroom bodies of the bee brain. Presenting different odors to the animal leads to significant activation of the mushroom body lips. After differential conditioning, the rewarded odor leads to stronger activation than it did before training. Activation by the unrewarded odor remains unchanged. These results resemble findings in the bee's antennal lobes, which are the first olfactory relay station in the insect brain. As an integrative neural network, enhanced activation of the mushroom body lip may carry additional information, i.e., for processing odor concentrations.

  1. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  2. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Günç Ergönül

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2. Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids.

  3. Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide.

  4. Radical scavenging potential and DNA damage protection of wild edible mushrooms of Kashmir Himalaya

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    Nowsheen Shameem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushrooms Verpa bohemica and Morchella esculenta are locally used for dietary and antioxidant in tribal areas of Kashmir Himalaya. In the present study, sequences of solvents on the basis of their polarity were used for the extraction from selected mushrooms. The comprehensive antioxidant activity of all edible mushroom extracts was evaluated by seven different methods. V. bohemica exhibited significant inhibitory activity of radicals among all the mushrooms while Morchella extracts protected the DNA damage from OH· radicals. This study provides us the substantiation for the use of these mushrooms as antioxidants besides being already eaten as food.

  5. Mushrooms: significant source of internal contamination by radiocaesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randa, Zdenek; Benada, Jaroslav; Horyna, Jan; Klan, Jaroslav

    1990-01-01

    Various species of mushrooms and soils were analyzed for alkali elements (Rb, K) by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and for radiocaesium by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. There are differences between uptake of non-radioactive Cs and radiocaesium. Concentration factors for radiocaesium were higher than those for non-radioactive Cs. The highest accumulation of radio-caesium was observed in some species of the Boletus genus, Laccaria spp., Paxillus involutus, Cortinarius spp., Tylopilus felleus and in some species of the Lactarius genus. The consumption of some wild-growing mushrooms can be the most significant contribution to the exposure of population from Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  6. A ribonuclease from the wild mushroom Boletus griseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hexiang; Ng, T B

    2006-10-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase) with a molecular mass of 29 kDa and cospecific for poly A and poly U was isolated from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus griseus. Its N-terminal sequence exhibited some similarity to those of RNases from the mushrooms Irpex lacteus and Lentinus edodes. The RNase was adsorbed on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and Affi-gel blue gel and was unadsorbed on CM-cellulose. The enzyme exhibited a temperature optimum between 60 and 70 degrees C and a pH optimum at 3.5.

  7. Mushroom poisoning in children: liver MDCT findings in three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, Banu; Kirbas, Ismail; Cevik, Belma; Teksam, Mehmet; Coskun, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Wild mushroom poisoning occurs quite frequently in Turkey, usually during late summer and autumn when climatic conditions favour fungal growth. We report the MDCT findings of the liver in three children after mushroom poisoning. In all three patients, precontrast MDCT findings showed diffuse reduction of hepatic attenuation compared with the spleen. Contrast-enhanced MDCT images showed homogeneous contrast enhancement of the liver. All three patients recovered after medical treatment. A follow-up precontrast MDCT examination was performed in one patient in whom the density of the liver parenchyma had returned to normal. (orig.)

  8. Data in support of covalent attachment of tyrosinase onto cyanuric chloride crosslinked magnetic nanoparticles

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    Kourosh Abdollahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Preparation and characterization of cross linked amine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as an appropriate support for covalent immobilization on tyrosinase was presented in the study "Covalent immobilization of tyrosinase onto cyanuric chloride crosslinked amine-functionalized superparamagnetic nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization of the recyclable nanobiocatalyst" (Abdollahi et al., 2016 [1]. Herein, complementary data regarding X-ray powder diffraction (XRD to characterize the synthesized magnetic nanoparticles, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM to determine the size and morphology of tyrosinase immobilized magnetic nanoparticles (tyrosinase-MNPs were reported. The purification results of the extracted tyrosinase from mushroom Agaricus bisporus were provided in a purification table. The covalent immobilization of tyrosinase onto cyanuric chloride functionalized magnetic nanoparticles was proved by performing thermo-gravimetric and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses. The operational stability of immobilized tyrosinase was investigated by incubating tyrosinase-MNPs at different pH and temperatures.

  9. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production. Pure culture of oyster mushroom was obtained from Mycology laboratory, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University. The pure culture was inoculated on potato dextrose agar for spawn preparation. Then, the spawn containing sorghum was inoculated with the fungal culture for the formation of fruiting bodies on the agricultural wastes. The oyster mushroom cultivation was undertaken under aseptic conditions, and the growth and development of mushroom were monitored daily. Results of the study revealed that oyster mushroom can grow on cotton seed, paper waste, sawdust and wheat straw, with varying growth performances. The highest biological and economic yield, as well as the highest percentage of biological efficiency of oyster mushroom was obtained from cotton seed, while the least was from sawdust. The study recommends cotton seed, followed by paper waste as suitable substrates for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation on various aspects of oyster mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia to promote the industry.

  10. Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

    2013-08-01

    Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg⁻¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg⁻¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg⁻¹ dw).

  11. Effects of Portabella mushrooms on collagen-induced arthritis, inflammatory cytokines, and body composition in dilute brown non-agouti (DBA1 mice

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    Stanley A. Lightfoot

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Exotic mushrooms have long been used in Asia for treatment and/or prevention of chronic diseases due to their immunomodulatory properties. However, the health benefits of portabella mushrooms (PM (brown Agaricus bisporous, on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA and associated complications, (i.e. loss of lean mass, increased fat mass and inflammatory cytokines, have not been previously investigated.Methods:We investigated CIA pathogenesis, body composition and plasma levels of IL- 6, TNF-α and sICAM1 in DBA1 female mice fed either the AIN76 diet or the same diet fortified with 5% lyophilized PM (n=19-20/group. Ten mice/group were immunized with 100 μg bovine collagen type II on day 42 of the protocol, followed by 50 μg lipopolysaccharides on day 62, and euthanized on day 73-74. Cytokines were measured by ELISA.Results:Compared to baseline diet, PM had: no protective effect from CIA since all collagen-immunized mice developed severe edema, bone erosion, and mononuclear cell infiltration in paws. In mice with and those without CIA, feeding a PM-fortified diet resulted in higher percent of body fat than feeding the baseline diet (p<0.05. After CIA induction, PM provided the followingFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 9:279-296beneficial effects: (a a smaller reduction in lean mass and absolute thymus weight; (b a higher fat mass loss; and (c lower plasma TNF-α levels (p <0.05. PM-fortification did not alter plasma IL-6 and sICAM1 regardless of CIA status; but it increased in vitro IL-6 secretion by mitogen-treated spleen cells.Conclusion:Our data suggest that PM may reduce plasma TNF-α, attenuate lean mass loss and thymus atrophy associated with arthritis, and protect spleen cell function assessed by IL-6 secretion. However, PM-fortification did not attenuate overall CIA pathogenesis which may be due to lack of effect on plasma IL-6. Decreased TNF-α without alterations in IL-6 may reduce the risk of other conditions

  12. Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

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    Amporn Srikram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total phenol content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak. Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat. Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr. S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff. fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr. Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56–13.96%, 11.16–50.29%, 1.43–21.94%, 2.11–38.11% and 9.56–59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

  13. Mushrooms and the radioactivity coming from Tchernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In France, since the accident of Tchernobyl in 1986, the radiation regular monitoring of the food and the environment shows that the mushrooms present cesium 137 content levels upper than all the other agricultural products. This paper presents and explains the today and future situation

  14. Culinary-medicinal mushrooms: must action be taken?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    In the Western world, the mushroom industry suffers from overproduction. Expectations are stronger than reality, and as a result, production is too high and prices are too low. Because bulk production has taken the lead, which not only happens in the West, overproduction occurs regularly. Low

  15. Analysis of Edible Mushroom Marketing in Three Villages in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the marketing of edible mushroom in three villages (Alesi, Ekukunela ... The socio-economic characteristics of sellers, profit margin and marketing ... One hundred and twenty respondents were interviewed at three different markets in three selected ... The concentration of sellers is low while entry is free.

  16. Fungal and mycotoxin assessment of dried edible mushroom in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Sulyok, M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine whether dried mushrooms are a foodstuff that may be less susceptible to infection by toxigenic molds and consequently to mycotoxin contamination, 34 dried market samples were analyzed. Fungal population was determined in the samples by conventional mycological techniques...

  17. Diseases and pests noxious to Pleurotus spp. mushroom crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettini, Marcelo B; Bellettini, Sebastião; Fiorda, Fernanda A; Pedro, Alessandra C; Bach, Fabiane; Fabela-Morón, Miriam F; Hoffmann-Ribani, Rosemary

    The Pleurotus genus is one of most extensively studied white-rot fungi due to its exceptional ligninolytic properties. It is an edible mushroom that possesses biological effects, as it contains important bioactive molecules. It is a rich source of nutrients, particularly proteins, minerals as well as vitamins B, C and D. In basidiomycete fungi, intensive cultivations of edible mushrooms can often be affected by some bacterial, mold and virus diseases that rather frequently cause dramatic production loss. These infections are facilitated by the particular conditions under which mushroom cultivation is commonly carried out such as warm temperatures, humidity, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels and presence of pests. There is not much bibliographic information related to pests of mushrooms and their substrates. The updated review presents a practical checklist of diseases and pests of the Pleurotus genus, providing useful information that may help different users. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Porosity and Thermal Treatment on Hydration of Mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Boom, R.M.; Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, hydration of mushroom as a porous food material has been studied considering their biphasic character. It consists of a solid phase that consists of intertwined hyphae and having cell walls with a swellable polymeric matrix and a pore phase made up by the space in between the

  19. Effects of spent mushroom compost on quality and productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMC), which is a waste product of mushroom processing through a year, on greenhouse cucumber growth as an organic matter source for the soil. The effects of SMC on several yield related characteristics, such as total yield, fruit width, fruit ...

  20. Performance of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... These mixtures were compressed by pressing down with bottle in transparent poly bags ... The bags were then opened after two weeks and left open for mushroom ..... results of this work are within the range they reported.The.