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Sample records for mushrooms agaricus bisporus

  1. Melanin biosynthesis pathway in Agaricus bisporus mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijn, A.; Bastiaan-Net, S.; Wichers, H.J.; Mes, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    With the full genome sequence of Agaricus bisporus available, it was possible to investigate the genes involved in the melanin biosynthesis pathway of button mushrooms. Based on different BLAST and alignments, genes were identified in the genome which are postulated to be involved in this pathway.

  2. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    to provide data for the evaluation of whether the consumption of the cultivated mushroom constitutes a human risk. The present report summarises the Nordic seminar which had the aim to present Nordic studies and to promote exchange of information between chemists and toxicologists in the field of Agaricus...... bisporus research. American, English and Czech researchers gave an up-to-date overview on the cultivated mushroom and its hydrazines and reviewed their ongoing research. Finally, Nordic researchers summarised their chemical and toxicological studies on behalf of the Nordic Project Group on Phenylhydrazines...

  3. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay.

  4. Differences in taste in button mushroom strains (Agaricus bisporus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Stijger, I.; Kersten, M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of a screening of genetically diverse strains of mushroom Agaricus bisporus for differences in taste. Eight different strains were grown on regular commercial compost and casing soil. Two of these strains were also grown on a casing with calcium chloride added to

  5. Differences in taste in button mushroom strains (Agaricus bisporus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Stijger, I.; Kersten, M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of a screening of genetically diverse strains of mushroom Agaricus bisporus for differences in taste. Eight different strains were grown on regular commercial compost and casing soil. Two of these strains were also grown on a casing with calcium chloride added to in

  6. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  7. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON THE AGARICUS BISPORUS MUSHROOMS DEHYDRATION PROCESS

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    LILIANA I. MIHALCEA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible mushrooms are foods with high nutritional value, delicious and therapeutic products. The main objective of this research was to investigate the influence of different temperatures of the dehydration process on the microstructure and color of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms. Tray drying conditions were: constant air velocity, 50, 60 and 70 °C suited to relative humidity (RH values of 12.17, 4.8 and 2.26 % respectively. Mathematical modeling of drying process, effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy calculations were presented. The effective moisture diffusivity was between (1.09665 – 2.11723·10-10 m2∙s-1 for white and (0.99522 – 1.69885·10-10 m2∙s-1 for brown mushrooms. The activation energy values indicate a higher energy input for the white mushrooms drying. SEM micrographs revealed the overall integrity of the tissue and some hyphae from the stipes of brown and white mushroom appeared intact and similar. At 70 °C, the presence of these crystals is more emphasis due to calcium.

  8. Antioxidative and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Jakovljevic, D.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Partially purified polysaccharides were obtained from four medicinal mushroom species, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Phellinus linteus and Ganoderma lucidum by hot water extraction, followed by ethanol precipitation. The four samples contained varying amounts of both a- and ß-glucans as

  9. A detailed analysis of the recombination landscape of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Gao, Wei; Lavrijssen, Brian; Hendrickx, Patrick; Sedaghat-Tellgerd, Narges; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Kong, Won-Sik; Schijlen, Elio G W M; Baars, Johan J P; Visser, Richard G F

    2016-08-01

    The button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is one of the world's most cultivated mushroom species, but in spite of its economic importance generation of new cultivars by outbreeding is exceptional. Previous genetic analyses of the white bisporus variety, including all cultivars and most wild isolates revealed that crossing over frequencies are low, which might explain the lack of introducing novel traits into existing cultivars. By generating two high quality whole genome sequence assemblies (one de novo and the other by improving the existing reference genome) of the first commercial white hybrid Horst U1, a detailed study of the crossover (CO) landscape was initiated. Using a set of 626 SNPs in a haploid offspring of 139 single spore isolates and whole genome sequencing on a limited number of homo- and heterokaryotic single spore isolates, we precisely mapped all COs showing that they are almost exclusively restricted to regions of about 100kb at the chromosome ends. Most basidia of A. bisporus var. bisporus produce two spores and pair preferentially via non-sister nuclei. Combined with the COs restricted to the chromosome ends, these spores retain most of the heterozygosity of the parent thus explaining how present-day white cultivars are genetically so close to the first hybrid marketed in 1980. To our knowledge this is the first example of an organism which displays such specific CO landscape.

  10. Effect of spent mushroom compost tea on mycelial growth and yield of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Francisco J; Santos, Mila; Diánez, Fernando; Tello, Julio C; Navarro, María J

    2012-08-01

    Preliminary studies suggested that the use of compost tea made from spent mushroom substrate (SMS) may be regarded as a potential method for biologically controlling dry bubble disease in button mushroom. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SMS compost tea on the host, the button mushroom, to ascertain whether the addition of these water extracts has a toxic effect on Agaricus bisporus mycelium growth and on mushroom yield. In vitro experiments showed that the addition of SMS compost tea to the culture medium inoculated with a mushroom spawn grain did not have an inhibitory effect on A. bisporus mycelial growth. The effect of compost teas on the quantitative production parameters of A. bisporus (yield, unitary weight, biological efficiency and earliness) was tested in a cropping trial, applying the compost teas to the casing in three different drench applications. Quantitative production parameters were not significantly affected by the compost tea treatments although there was a slight delay of 0.8-1.4 days in the harvest time of the first flush. These results suggest that compost teas have no fungitoxic effect on A. bisporus so that they can be considered a suitable biocontrol substance for the control of dry bubble disease.

  11. The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Champignon) and some environmental and health aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as button mushroom, requires the use of substrates for its cultivation, such as chicken and/or horse manure and the application of manufacturing steps, such as storage and composting that produce odours. The odours may cause disturbance to people living near the plant and may be a problem for workers. This article examines some measures that can be taken to reduce the odorous emissions during the production of Agaricus bisporus. The possibility of recovery of some organic matter left from the cultivation is examined. Finally, some occupational hazards for workers are highlighted.

  12. Nutritional values of different strains of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

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    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional values and chemical composition of different strains of the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus were studied. The study covered four strains cultivated in Poland: OCNOS-1, Somycel-11 , Somycel-92, and Somycel-653. The samples were analyzed for dry matter, vitamin C, nitrates, nitrites, total nitrogen and crude protein (N × 4.38, amino acid composition, soluble carbohydrates composition, and minerals content. Besides, whiteness values were determined by Hunter's method. All determinations were made on two of fruit-bodies of two sizes: 25-40 mm in pileus diameter (small and 40-50 mm in pileus diameter (large. A significantly higher dry matter content was found in strain 1 in comparison with strain 92. The lowest value of total nitrogen was detected for strain 92 and the highest for strain 653. From among the four analyzed strains, strain 92 contained the highest amount of essential amino acids. Trehalose content was significantly lower in strain 11 in comparison with other strains both in small and large fruit-body.

  13. From respiratory sensitization to food allergy: Anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

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    Marta F. Gabriel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 38-year-old mold-allergic patient who developed episodes of generalized urticaria and systemic anaphylactic shock immediately after ingesting button mushrooms. A manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH from Agaricus bisporus mushroom were identified as patient-specific IgE-binding proteins. Cross-reactivity between A. bisporus MnSOD and mold aeroallergens was confirmed. We conclude that prior sensitization to mold aeroallergens might explain severe food reactions to cross-reacting homologs mushroom proteins.

  14. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus

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    Marie Foulongne-Oriol

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG, and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus. The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens.

  15. The Genetic Linkage Map of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Reveals Highly Conserved Macrosynteny with the Congeneric Species Agaricus bisporus

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    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cabannes, Delphine; Clément, Aurélien; Spataro, Cathy; Moinard, Magalie; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Callac, Philippe; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Comparative linkage mapping can rapidly facilitate the transfer of genetic information from model species to orphan species. This macrosynteny analysis approach has been extensively used in plant species, but few example are available in fungi, and even fewer in mushroom crop species. Among the latter, the Agaricus genus comprises the most cultivable or potentially cultivable species. Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom, is the model for edible and cultivable mushrooms. We have developed the first genetic linkage map for the basidiomycete A. subrufescens, an emerging mushroom crop known for its therapeutic properties and potential medicinal applications. The map includes 202 markers distributed over 16 linkage groups (LG), and covers a total length of 1701 cM, with an average marker spacing of 8.2 cM. Using 96 homologous loci, we also demonstrated the high level of macrosynteny with the genome of A. bisporus. The 13 main LG of A. subrufescens were syntenic to the 13 A. bisporus chromosomes. A disrupted synteny was observed for the three remaining A. subrufescens LG. Electronic mapping of a collection of A. subrufescens expressed sequence tags on A. bisporus genome showed that the homologous loci were evenly spread, with the exception of a few local hot or cold spots of homology. Our results were discussed in the light of Agaricus species evolution process. The map provides a framework for future genetic or genomic studies of the medicinal mushroom A. subrufescens. PMID:26921302

  16. Unraveling the mystery of commercial cultivation of Agaricus bisporus : plant biomass utilization and its effect on mushroom production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus, the white button mushroom, is economically the most important mushroom cultivated worldwide. Growth of A. bisporus needs a substrate produced by the composting of animal manure, wheat straw, gypsum, water and different additives. Therefore lignocellulose which is a complex mixture

  17. Primordia initiation of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) strains on axenic casing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, R.; Fermor, T.R.; Lincoln, S.; Dobrovin-Pennington, A.; Evered, C.; Mead, A.; Li, R. [Hort Research International, Wellesbourne (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    The mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) has a requirement for a 'casing layer' that has specific physical, chemical and microbiological properties which stimulate and promote the initiation of primordia. Some of these primordia then may develop further into sporophores, involving differentiation of tissue. Wild and commercial strains of A. bisporus were cultured in axenic and nonaxenic microcosms, using a rye grain substrate covered by a range of organic and inorganic casing materials. In axenic culture, A. bisporus (commercial strain A15) was capable of producing primordia and mature sporophores on charcoal (wood and activated), anthracite coal, lignite and zeolite, but not on bark, coir, peat, rockwool, silica or vermiculite.

  18. Biocontrol Activity of Bacillus subtilis Isolated from Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Compost Against Pathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Sheng, Jiping; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Yanyan; Lee, David Yue Wei; Yang, Yang; Xu, Mingshuang; Shen, Lin

    2015-07-08

    Bacillus subtilis strain B154, isolated from Agaricus bisporus mushroom compost infected by red bread mold, exhibited antagonistic activities against Neurospora sitophila. Antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was also observed. The maximum antifungal activity was reached during the stationary phase. This antifungal activity was stable over a wide pH and temperature range and was not affected by proteases. Assay of antifungal activity in vitro indicated that a purified antifungal substance could strongly inhibit mycelia growth and spore germination of N. sitophila. In addition, treatment with strain B154 in A. bisporus mushroom compost infected with N. sitophila significantly increased the yield of bisporus mushrooms. Ultraviolet scan spectroscopy, tricine sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-associated laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed a molecular weight consistent with 1498.7633 Da. The antifungal compound might belong to a new type of lipopeptide fengycin.

  19. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuelle Morin; Annegret Kohler; Adam R. Baker; Marie Foulongne-Oriol; Vincent Lombard; Laszlo G. Nagy; Robin A. Ohm; Aleksandrina Patyshakuliyeva; Annick Brun; Andrea L. Aerts; Andrew M. Bailey; Christophe Billette; Pedro M. Coutinho; Greg Deakin; Harshavardhan Doddapaneni; Dimitrios Floudas; Jane Grimwood; Kristiina Hild& #233; n; Ursula K& #252; es; Kurt M. LaButti; Alla Lapidus; Erika A. Lindquist; Susan M. Lucas; Claude Murat; Robert W. Riley; Asaf A. Salamov; Jeremy Schmutz; Venkataramanan Subrananian; Han A.B. W& #246; sten; Jianping Xu; Daniel C. Eastwood; Gary D. Foster; Anton S.M. Sonnenberg; Daniel Cullen; Ronald P. de Vries; Taina Lundell; David S. Hibbett; Bernard Henrissat; Kerry S. Burton; Richard W. Kerrigan; Michael P. Challen; Igor V. Grigoriev; Francis. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence,and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar...

  20. The pathogenic fungi in mushroom cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange. Imbach.

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    Agata Tekiela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a mushroom growing facility located near Rzeszów, consisting of three production cycles. The number and composition of microorganisms which accompany the mushroom cultivation depended on the healthiness of: the compost, casing and spawn of Agaricus bisporus. The presence of pathogenic fungi in the cultivation halls at the beginning of the production cycle is a serious threat to the cultivation of common mushroom because their rapid development shortens the span of fruiting body harvests.

  1. Evaluation of indigenous potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) on Agaricus bisporus production.

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    Zarenejad, F; Yakhchali, B; Rasooli, I

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms such as Agaricus bisporus, are cultivated for food worldwide. Fruit body initiation in Agaricus bisporus is a phase change from the vegetative to the reproductive stage which depends on the presence of a casing layer with particular physical, chemical and microbiological properties. The phase change is achieved practically by environmental manipulation and the presence of naturally occurring bacteria such as Pseuodomonas putida. In this study, 274 individual bacterial isolates were collected by screening the casing layer of 14 edible mushroom farms. The isolates were analysed with respect to biochemical properties, organic and inorganic phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore and growth in the presence of volatile compound of 1-octen-3-ol. It was found that approximately 97% of the strains were able to grow in the presence of 1-octen-3-ol and 36% were able to solubilize phosphorus. Among the isolates, 23 strains were selected as potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) for inoculation of the casing layer. Field experiments using these strains showed various promoting effects on production of mushroom. Finally, 2 strains (strains Bt4 and Ps7) showing the highest increase in A. bisporus production, were characterized as Pseuodomonas putida by molecular methods and identified as the best suited growth promoting inoculants for application in production farms for increasing the mushroom yield.

  2. Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer 1 Based Characterization of Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Strains.

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    Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Choi, Min Ah; Kim, Dae Wook; Oh, Youn-Lee; Hyun, Min Woo; Kong, Won-Sik; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-12-01

    Breeding the button mushroom requires genetic information about its strains. This study was undertaken to genetically characterize four domestically bred button mushroom strains (Saea, Saejung, Saedo, Saeyeon cultivars) and to assess the possibility of using the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region of rDNA as a genetically variable region in the genetic characterization. For the experiment, 34 strains of Agaricus bisporus, two strains of A. bitorquis, and one strain of A. silvaticus, from 17 countries were used. Nucleotide sequence analysis of IGS1 rDNA in these 37 Agaricus strains confirmed that genetic variations exist, not only among the four domestic strains, but also between the four domestic strains and foreign strains. Crossing two different haploid strains of A. bisporus seems to generate genetic variation in the IGS1 region in their off-spring haploid strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the IGS1 sequence revealed all A. bisporus strains could be differentiated from A. silvaticus and A. bitorquis strains. Five genetic groups were resolved among A. bisporus strains. Saejung and Saeyeon cultivars formed a separate genetic group. Our results suggest that IGS1 could be complementarily applied in the polymorphism analysis of button mushroom.

  3. Failure of the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) to induce tumors in the A/J mouse lung tumor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied whether the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) or 4-(carboxy)phenylhydrazine (CP) induce lung adenomas in the A/J mouse lung tumor model. For 26 weeks female mice were fed a semisynthetic diet where 11 or 22% of the diet was replaced by freeze-dried mushrooms. The intake...

  4. Quality Characteristics of Microwave-Vacuum Dried Button Mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus

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    S.K.Giri & Suresh Prasad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus slices as well as whole mushrooms were dried by microwave-vacuum drying technique to a moisture content of around 6 %(d.b.. The dehydrated mushrooms were compared with hot-air dried products on the basis of different quality attributes such as colour, texture, rehydration ratio and sensory score. Statistical analysis of data revealed significant difference among the drying methods for all the attributes at p ≤ 0.05. Microwave-vacuum dried mushrooms had significantly higher rehydration potential, lower density, better colour and softer texture than those obtained by air drying. The microwave-vacuum dried mushrooms were rated much better than air dried products by a sensory panel in terms of appearance, color and overall acceptability.

  5. Effect of storage conditions on the quality of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing.

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    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of quality factors were studied during storage of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus at 2°C in controlled atmospheres. A concentration of 15% CO2 and 1.5-2% O2 and an atmosphere with a continuous flow of nitrogen retarded cap expansion and stipe elongation, while 10% CO2 retarded only cap expansion. Controlled atmospheres suppressed the growth of some microorganisms. The toughness of mushrooms stored in a normal atmosphere at 2°C markedly decreased during storage, while 10% CO2 and nitrogen atmosphere did not influence toughness as compared to initial mushrooms. The acceptability value of mushrooms in controlled atmospheres was lower during 13 days of storage as compared to normal atmosphere. Normal atmosphere appeared to keep whiteness of mushrooms longer than did other treatments.

  6. The transcriptional regulator c2h2 accelerates mushroom formation in Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkmans, Jordi F; Vos, Aurin M; Scholtmeijer, Karin; Hendrix, Ed; Baars, Johan J P; Gehrmann, Thies; Reinders, Marcel J T; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B

    2016-08-01

    The Cys2His2 zinc finger protein gene c2h2 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in mushroom formation. Its inactivation results in a strain that is arrested at the stage of aggregate formation. In this study, the c2h2 orthologue of Agaricus bisporus was over-expressed in this white button mushroom forming basidiomycete using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Morphology, cap expansion rate, and total number and biomass of mushrooms were not affected by over-expression of c2h2. However, yield per day of the c2h2 over-expression strains peaked 1 day earlier. These data and expression analysis indicate that C2H2 impacts timing of mushroom formation at an early stage of development, making its encoding gene a target for breeding of commercial mushroom strains.

  7. Mitochondrial recombination in natural populations of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

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    Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Ying; Pun, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    In the majority of sexual eukaryotes, the mitochondrial genomes are inherited uniparentally and have predominantly clonal population structures. In clonally evolving genomes, alleles at different loci will be in significant linkage disequilibrium. In this study, the associations among alleles at nine mitochondrial loci were analyzed for 379 isolates in four natural populations of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The results indicated that the mitochondrial genome in the Desert California population was not significantly different from random recombination. In contrast, the three other populations all showed predominantly clonal mitochondrial population structure. While no evidence of recombination was found in the Alberta, Canada A. bisporus population, signatures of recombination were evident in the Coastal Californian and the French populations. We discuss the potential mechanisms that could have contributed to the observed mitochondrial recombination and to the differences in allelic associations among the geographic populations in this economically important mushroom.

  8. The influence of compost on carbohydrates and minerals content in the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

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    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of different composts: horse manure and broiler chicken manure and the influence of flushes during the growing cycle on the carbohydrates and mineral composition of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus was carried out. In this study the strain Somycel 11 was used. It was found that mannitol, glucose and fructose contents in mushrooms growing on broiler chicken manure were significantly higher than on horse manure. Noticeable differences of macro- and microelement contents were observed, depending on the size of the fruit-body, flushes and type of compost. Phosphorus content in mushroom tissue of the first three flushes growing on horse manure was 2.7 times higher than in those from broiler chicken manure. Boron level in mushrooms in all flushes growing on broiler chicken manure was four times higher as compared with that on horse manure.

  9. Macrophage immunomodulating and antitumor activities of polysaccharides isolated from Agaricus bisporus white button mushrooms.

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    Jeong, Sang Chul; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Yong Tae; Song, Chi Hyun; Pang, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom (WBM) is widely consumed in most countries for its culinary properties. Recently, its dietary intake has been shown to protect against breast cancer. Mushroom polysaccharides are known for their immunomodulating and antitumor properties; however, little is known regarding the properties of A. bisporus polysaccharides. Using size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude extract of A. bisporus, two polysaccharide fractions (designated as ABP-1 and ABP-2) were obtained. The estimated molecular masses of ABP-1 and ABP-2 were 2,000 kDa and 40-70 kDa, respectively, and their sugar compositions consisted mainly of glucose, mannose, xylose, and fructose. Analysis of the effects of the polysaccharides on murine macrophages demonstrated that both fractions stimulated the production of nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Modulation of macrophage function by A. bisporus polysaccharides was mediated in part through activation of nuclear factor-κB with the production p50/105 heterodimers. Both ABP-1 and ABP-2 had the ability to inhibit the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells but had little effect on the growth of human colon, prostate, gastric cancer, and murine Sarcoma 180 cells as assessed by a tetrazolium dye [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide]-based assay. However, when murine Sarcoma 180 cells exposed to ABP-1 or ABP-2 were implanted subcutaneously into mice, a reduction in tumor growth was observed compared with that observed in control mice. Taken together, our data provide a molecular basis to explain in part the reported beneficial therapeutic effects of A. bisporus WBM intake and suggest that macrophages likely contribute to the antitumor effects of Agaricus polysaccharides.

  10. Selected wild strains of Agaricus bisporus produce high yields of mushrooms at 25°C.

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    Navarro, Pilar; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    To cultivate the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus in warm countries or during summer in temperate countries, while saving energy, is a challenge that could be addressed by using the biological diversity of the species. The objective was to evaluate the yield potential of eight wild strains previously selected in small scale experiments for their ability to produce mature fruiting bodies at 25°C and above. Culture units of 8 kg of compost were used. The yield expressed as weight or number per surface unit and earliness of fruiting were recorded during cultivation in climatic rooms at 17, 25 or 30°C. Only strains of A. bisporus var. burnettii were able to fruit at 30°C. At 25°C they produced the highest yields (27 kg m(-2)) and had best earliness. The yields at 25°C for the strains of A. bisporus var. bisporus ranged from 12 to 16 kg m(-2). The yield ratios 25°C/17°C ranged from 0.8 to 1.2. The variety burnettii originated in the Sonoran Desert in California showed adaptation for quickly producing fruiting bodies at high temperature when humidity conditions were favorable. Strains of the variety bisporus showed interesting potentials for their ability to produce mature fruiting bodies at higher temperature than present cultivars and might be used in breeding programs. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Jia, Liang; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-Hai

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) were evaluated by various methods in vitro and in vivo. In antioxidant assays in vitro, ethanolic extract of A. bisporus was found to have strong reducing power, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and moderate hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with ethanolic extract of A. bisporus via gavage for 30 consecutive days. As a result, administration of ethanolic extract significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in serums, livers and hearts of mice. In addition, the total phenolic content in the extract determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method was 6.18mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight. The main phenolic compounds in ethanolic extract analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were determined as gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and myricetin. These results suggested that ethanolic extract of A. bisporus had potent antioxidant activity and could be explored as a novel natural antioxidant.

  12. Vitamin B12 is the active corrinoid produced in cultivated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Sang-Chul; Cho, Kai Yip; Pang, Gerald

    2009-07-22

    Analysis of vitamin B(12) in freshly harvested white button mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ) from five farms was performed by affinity chromatography and HPLC-ESI-MS techniques. The vitamin B(12) concentrations obtained varied from farm to farm, with higher concentrations of vitamin B(12) detected in outer peel than in cap, stalk, or flesh, suggesting that the vitamin B(12) is probably bacteria-derived. High concentrations of vitamin B(12) were also detected in the flush mushrooms including cups and flats. HPLC and mass spectrometry showed vitamin B(12) retention time and mass spectra identical to those of the standard vitamin B(12) and those of food products including beef, beef liver, salmon, egg, and milk but not of the pseudovitamin B(12), an inactive corrinoid in humans. The results suggest that the consumer may benefit from the consumption of mushroom to increase intake of this vitamin in the diet.

  13. Method Development for the Determination of Free and Esterified Sterols in Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2016-05-04

    Ergosterol is the major sterol in button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and can occur as free alcohol or esterified with fatty acids (ergosteryl esters). In this study, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC/MS-SIM) was used to determine ergosterol and ergosteryl esters as well as other sterols and steryl esters in button mushrooms. Different quality control measures were established and sample preparation procedures were compared to prevent the formation of artifacts and the degradation of ergosteryl esters. The final method was then used for the determination of ergosterol (443 ± 44 mg/100 g dry matter (d.m.)) and esterified ergosterol (12 ± 6 mg/100 g d.m.) in button mushroom samples (n = 4). While the free sterol fraction was vastly dominated by ergosterol (∼90% of five sterols in total), the steryl ester fraction was more diversified (nine sterols in total, ergosterol ∼55%) and consisted primarily of linoleic acid esters.

  14. First report of Syzygites megalocarpus (Mucorales) web mold on the commercial portabella button mushroom Agaricus bisporus in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach mushrooms are cultivated commercially under environmentally controlled conditions in several states within the US. They are the most important crop in Pennsylvania and an important high value crop in many other states. In August 2011 we first observed a mucoraceous m...

  15. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function.

  16. Unravelling the bruising discoloration of Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijn, A.

    2013-01-01

      In this research the browning-discoloration caused by bruising of button mushrooms was analysed. Brown-discoloration of mushrooms can amongst others be caused by the picking and storage of mushrooms. Current day commercial hybrids can not be used for mechanical harvesting because mushrooms

  17. Unravelling the bruising discoloration of Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijn, A.

    2013-01-01

      In this research the browning-discoloration caused by bruising of button mushrooms was analysed. Brown-discoloration of mushrooms can amongst others be caused by the picking and storage of mushrooms. Current day commercial hybrids can not be used for mechanical harvesting because mushrooms a

  18. Effect of plasma activated water on the postharvest quality of button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingyin; Tian, Ying; Ma, Ruonan; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Jue

    2016-04-15

    Non-thermal plasma is a new approach to improving microbiological safety while maintaining the sensory attributes of the treated foods. Recent research has reported that plasma activated water (PAW) can also efficiently inactivate a wide variety of microorganisms. This study invested the effects of plasma-activated water soaking on the postharvest preservation of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) over seven days of storage at 20°C. Plasma activated water reduced the microbial counts by 1.5 log and 0.5 log for bacteria and fungi during storage, respectively. Furthermore, the corresponding physicochemical and biological properties were assessed between plasma activated water soaking groups and control groups. The results for firmness, respiration rate and relative electrical conductivity suggested that plasma activated water soaking can delay mushroom softening. Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in the color, pH, or antioxidant properties of A. bisporus treated with plasma activated water. Thus, plasma activated water soaking is a promising method for postharvest fresh-keeping of A. bisporus.

  19. Failure of the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) to induce tumors in the A/J mouse lung tumor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied whether the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) or 4-(carboxy)phenylhydrazine (CP) induce lung adenomas in the A/J mouse lung tumor model. For 26 weeks female mice were fed a semisynthetic diet where 11 or 22% of the diet was replaced by freeze-dried mushrooms. The intake...... of the mushroom diets was equivalent to an intake of agaritine, the major phenylhydrazine derivative occurring in the mushroom, of 92 or 166 mg/kg body weight per day. The intake of CP was 106 mg/kg body weight per day. Neither the;freeze-dried mushroom nor CP induced statistically significant increased numbers...

  20. Compost degradation and growth of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive structures of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, form a high quality food source. Its mushrooms are cultivated on straw based compost that is rich in microbes. A. bisporus primarily degrades lignin during its vegetative growth while plant cell wall carbohydrates are primarily

  1. The influence of flushes on some constituents of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus cultivated on different composts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two different composts: horse manure and broiler chicken manure and the influence of flushes during the growing cycle on some chemical components contained in the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus was studied. The strain Somycel 11 was analyzed. The following determinations were made: dry matter, total nitrogen and crude protein, nitrates, nitrites and amino acids composition. It has been noted that the crude protein from. combined flushes III to VI of mushrooms cultivated on horse manure was about 24% higher than in those grown on broiler chicken manure. Some changes in amino acids composition, especially lysine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, serine, methionine, glutamic acid and alanine were observed, depending on the size of the fruit-body, flushes and type of compost.

  2. Efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms cultivation. Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Koc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The economical efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach SYLVAN 737 has been experimented in controlled weather conditions. It was found that the application of a 50 and 150 g•m-2 hydrogel dose is not economically proved due to the lack of harvest significant increase. In the cultivation of this particular variety of mushrooms, the optimal hydrogel dose should not be 100 g•m-2 of subsoil.

  3. Agaricus bisporus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter Omenda (Dr.)

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... Lycopene were determined in both ethanolic and aqueous mushrooms ... Mushroom extracts solution (1 ml) were diluted with 4.3 ml of 80% ... Determination of superoxide anion radical scavenging activity ..... Identifying the.

  4. Effects of preservation methods on amino acids and 5'-nucleotides of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Huang, Fan; Yang, Hong; Ibrahim, S A; Wang, Yan-Feng; Huang, Wen

    2014-04-15

    In this study, the proximate composition, free amino acids content and 5'-nucleotides in frozen, canned and salted Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) were investigated. We found that the three kinds of A. bisporus products were good sources of protein, with amount varying in the ranges of 16.54-24.35g/100g (dry weight). Freezing, canning and salting process, followed by 6months of storage led to a significant reduction in free amino acids, especially tyrosine, alanine, glutamine and cysteine. There were medium levels of MSG-like amino acids in frozen A. bisporus and canned A. bisporus, and low levels of MSG-like amino acids in salted A. bisporus. The mount of flavor 5'-nucleotides in frozen A. bisporus was higher than that of canned and salted A. bisporus. The present study thus suggests that freezing is beneficial for the preservation of A. bisporus.

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation dose rate on microbiological and physical quality of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, M.; Lacroix, M.; Charbonneau, R.; Laberge, I.; Gagnon, M. (Canadian Irradiation Centre, Laval, PQ (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (2 kGy) and dose rate of irradiation (4.5 and 32.0 kGy/h) on increasing the shelf-life and some quality properties of the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated during storage at 15 deg C and 90% R.H. The retardation of mushroom growth and ageing by reduction of gamma irradiation dose rate (4.5 kGy) was observed by measurements of the cap opening, the stipe increase, the cap diameter, the weight loss and the color of the caps. The color was measured in order to evaluate the lightness with the L value measurement and the color changes were measured in terms of lightness, hue and chroma. The control of fungal and bacterial diseases were also evaluated. The irradiation of mushrooms at both dose rates of irradiation was found to be effective in lowering microorganism counts initially and throughout storage and increased the shelf-life by four days. This study also showed that mushrooms exposed to a lower dose rate (4.5 kGy/h) of irradiation preserve the whiteness and reduce the stripe increase of mushrooms during storage.

  6. Shelf-life extension of fresh Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus by application of Tomato paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishverya srivastava,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A mushroom is a fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The edible mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus are the fleshy edible bodies devoid of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma. Mushroom browning occurs mainly as a result of tyrosinase activity, an enzyme belonging to the polyphenol oxidase (PPO family and known to be a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Tomato is an attractive candidate for food processing applications as fresh cut. However along with its desirable delicate taste, tomato shows a marked susceptibility to browning. This condition is mainly attributed to polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO. This PPO activity was observed especially in flesh tissues which was probably due to the presence of monophenolic substrates inducing a lag period, enzyme inhibitors and / or diphenolic substrates causing suicide inactivation, and proenzyme or latent isoforms of PPO. A paste of fresh tomatoes (wild and hybrid when applied to the freshly grown mushrooms were less subject to brown blotch as compared to the untreated mushroom. Other vegetable paste or paste made of the unwanted weeds that show tyrosinase activity can also be effected for the same purpose.

  7. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of Monokaryotic Progeny Strains of Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Choi, Min Ah; Yun, Yeo Hong; Oh, Youn-Lee; Kong, Won-Sik; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-03-01

    To promote the selection of promising monokaryotic strains of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during breeding, 61 progeny strains derived from basidiospores of two different lines of dikaryotic parental strains, ASI1038 and ASI1346, were analyzed by nucleotide sequencing of the intergenic spacer I (IGS I) region in their rDNA and by extracellular enzyme assays. Nineteen different sizes of IGS I, which ranged from 1,301 to 1,348 bp, were present among twenty ASI1346-derived progeny strains, while 15 different sizes of IGS I, which ranged from 700 to 1,347 bp, were present among twenty ASI1038-derived progeny strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the IGS sequences revealed that different clades were present in both the ASI10388- and ASI1346-derived progeny strains. Plating assays of seven kinds of extracellular enzymes (β-glucosidase, avicelase, CM-cellulase, amylase, pectinase, xylanase, and protease) also revealed apparent variation in the ability to produce extracellular enzymes among the 40 tested progeny strains from both parental A. bisporus strains. Overall, this study demonstrates that characterization of IGS I regions and extracellular enzymes is useful for the assessment of the substrate-degrading ability and heterogenicity of A. bisporus monokaryotic strains.

  8. Proteomic response of Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum to Agaricus bisporus tissue and mushroom compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Matt; Grogan, Helen; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    A cellular proteomic analysis was performed on Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum. Thirty-four individual protein spots were excised from 2-D electropherograms and analysed by ESI-Trap Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS). Searches of the NCBInr and SwissProt protein databases identified functions for 31 of these proteins based on sequence homology. A differential expression study was performed on the intracellular fraction of T. aggressivum f. europaeum grown in media containing Agaricus bisporus tissue and Phase 3 mushroom compost compared to a control medium. Differential expression was observed for seven proteins, three of which were upregulated in both treatments, two were down regulated in both treatments and two showed qualitatively different regulation under the two treatments. No proteins directly relating to fungal cell wall degradation or other mycoparasitic activity were observed. Functions of differentially produced intracellular proteins included oxidative stress tolerance, cytoskeletal structure, and cell longevity. Differential production of these proteins may contribute to the growth of T. aggressivum in mushroom compost and its virulence toward A. bisporus.

  9. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vitamin D2 Formation from Post-Harvest UV-B Treatment of Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and Retention during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this research were to study the effects of high intensity (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mW/cm2), dose (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 J/cm2), and post-harvest time (1 and 4 days) on the vitamin D2 formation in Portabella mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) as a result of UV-B exposure, as well as the vitamin D...

  11. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, M.; D' Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h (I{sup -}) and 32 kGy/h (I{sup +}). Both I{sup +} and I{sup -} showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control (C). Before day 9, no significant difference (p>0.05) in L{sup *} value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L{sup *} value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I{sup -}. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I{sup -} contained more phenols than I{sup +} and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered (p{<=}0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I{sup +}. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I{sup +}, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly (p{<=}0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I{sup -} than in I{sup +}. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I{sup +} was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I{sup +} than in I{sup -}.

  12. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h ( I-) and 32 kGy/h ( I+). Both I+ and I- showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control ( C). Before day 9, no significant difference ( p>0.05) in L* value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L* value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I-. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I- contained more phenols than I+ and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered ( p⩽0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I+. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I+, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly ( p⩽0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I- than in I+. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I+ was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I+ than in I-.

  13. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour...... of sunlight exposure, the vitamin D2 content of the mushrooms increased in a linear manner, with concentrations increasing from 0.1 μg/g up to 3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry weight (DW). At the subsequent two measurements one and 3 h later, respectively, a plateau was reached. Two hours of additional exposure triggered...... a significant decline in vitamin D2 content. After just 15 min of sun exposure and an UV-B dose of 0.13 J/cm(2), the vitamin D2 content increased significantly to 2.2 ± 0.5 μg/g DW (P vitamin D2 per 100 g of fresh mushrooms and comparable to levels found...

  14. Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Paul; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-09-23

    The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour of sunlight exposure, the vitamin D2 content of the mushrooms increased in a linear manner, with concentrations increasing from 0.1 μg/g up to 3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry weight (DW). At the subsequent two measurements one and 3 h later, respectively, a plateau was reached. Two hours of additional exposure triggered a significant decline in vitamin D2 content. After just 15 min of sun exposure and an UV-B dose of 0.13 J/cm(2), the vitamin D2 content increased significantly to 2.2 ± 0.5 μg/g DW (P < 0.0001), which is equivalent to 17.6 μg (704 IU) vitamin D2 per 100 g of fresh mushrooms and comparable to levels found in fatty fish like the Atlantic salmon.

  15. A note on challenge trials to determine the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Dara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the EU, food is considered safe with regard to Listeria monocytogenes if the number of micro-organisms does not exceed 100 colony forming units (cfu/g throughout its shelf-life. Therefore, it is important to determine if a food supports growth of L. monocytogenes. Guidelines for conducting challenge tests for growth assessment of L. monocytogenes on foods were published by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL in 2014. The aim of this study was to use these guidelines to determine if refrigerated, fresh, whole, closed-cap, prepackaged mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus support the growth of L. monocytogenes. Three batches of mushrooms were artificially inoculated at approximately 100 cfu/g with a three-strain mix of L. monocytogenes and incubated for 2 days at 8°C followed by 4 days at 12°C. L. monocytogenes numbers were determined (in triplicate for each batch on days 0, 2 and 6. Water activity, pH and total bacterial counts were also determined. There was no increase in the number of L. monocytogenes above the threshold of 0.5 log cfu/g in any of the replicates. In 8 of 9 replicates, the numbers decreased indicating that A. bisporus do not support the growth of L. monocytogenes. As the EU regulations allow < 100 cfu/g if the food cannot support growth of L. monocytogenes, the significance of this study is that mushrooms with < 100 cfu/g may be within the regulations and therefore, quantitative rather than qualitative determination may be required.

  16. Pathogenic variation in isolates of Pseudomonas causing the brown blotch of cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abou-Zeid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven bacterial isolates were isolated from superficial brown discolorations on the caps of cultivated Agaricus bisporus. After White Line Assay (WLA and the assist of Biolog computer-identification system, isolates were divided into groups: (I comprised ninteen bacterial isolates that positively responded to a Pseudomonas "reactans" reference strain (NCPPB1311 in WLA and were identified as Pseudomonas tolaasii, (II comprised two isolates which were WLA+ towards the reference strain (JCM21583 of P. tolaasii and were proposed to be P. "reactans". The third group comprised six isolates, two of which weakly responded to the strain of P. tolaasii and were identified as P. gingeri whereas the other four were WLA- and identified as P. fluorescens (three isolates and P. marginalis (one isolate. Isolates of P. tolaasii showed high aggressiveness compared with those of P. "reactans" in pathogenicity tests. Cubes of 1 cm³ of A. bisporus turned brown and decreased in size when were inoculated with 10 µl of P. tolaasii suspension containing 10(8 CFU ml-1, whereas a similar concentration of P. "reactans" caused only light browning. Fifty µl of the same concentration of P. tolaasii isolates gave typical brown blotch symptoms on fresh mushroom sporophores whereas the two P. "reactans" isolates caused superficial light discoloration only after inoculation with 100 µl of the same concentration. Mixture from both bacterial suspensions increased the brown areas formed on the pileus. This is the first pathogenicity report of P. tolasii and P. "reactans" isolated from cultivated A. bisporus in Egypt.

  17. Purification and Characterization of β-Glucosidase from Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ašić, Adna; Bešić, Larisa; Muhović, Imer; Dogan, Serkan; Turan, Yusuf

    2015-12-01

    β-Glucosidase (β-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.21) is a catalytic enzyme present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes that selectively catalyzes either the linkage between two glycone residues or between glycone and aryl or alkyl aglycone residue. Growing edible mushrooms in the soil with increased cellulose content can lead to the production of glucose, which is a process dependent on β-glucosidase. In this study, β-glucosidase was isolated from Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) using ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, giving 10.12-fold purification. Biochemical properties of the enzyme were investigated and complete characterization was performed. The enzyme is a dimer with two subunits of approximately 46 and 62 kDa. Optimum pH for the enzyme is 4.0, while the optimum temperature is 55 °C. The enzyme was found to be exceptionally thermostable. The most suitable commercial substrate for this enzyme is p-NPGlu with Km and Vmax values of 1.751 mM and 833 U/mg, respectively. Enzyme was inhibited in a competitive manner by both glucose and δ-gluconolactone with IC50 values of 19.185 and 0.39 mM, respectively and Ki values of 9.402 mM and 7.2 µM, respectively. Heavy metal ions that were found to inhibit β-glucosidase activity are I(-), Zn(2+), Fe(3+), Ag(+), and Cu(2+). This is the first study giving complete biochemical characterization of A. bisporus β-glucosidase.

  18. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA synthase enhances thermotolerance of mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglei Lu

    Full Text Available Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins.

  19. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase enhances thermotolerance of mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhonglei; Kong, Xiangxiang; Lu, Zhaoming; Xiao, Meixiang; Chen, Meiyuan; Zhu, Liang; Shen, Yuemao; Hu, Xiangyang; Song, Siyang

    2014-01-01

    Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase) under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins.

  20. The fungistatic activity of organic selenium and its application to the production of cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savic Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of organic selenium against pathogenic molds and its use as a potential selenium source in the production of enriched mushrooms were examined. The effect of commercial selenized yeast on mycelia growth was examined using a method with mycelia disks and a well diffusion method. For mushroom enrichment, different concentrations of selenium were added to a growth substrate. The results presented in this paper suggest that the most suitable concentration of selenized yeast that inhibits the growth of the mycopathogenic molds is 70-100 mg/kg of selenium. With the addition of this concentration to the substrate, mushroom fruit bodies will uptake a high level of selenium, about 100 μg/g for Pleurotus spp., and 200 μg/g for Agaricus bisporus in dry weight of the mushroom. Thereby a double effect in the cultivation of mushrooms is achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 and br. III46001

  1. Downregulation of Ethylene Production Increases Mycelial Growth and Primordia Formation in the Button Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaohui; Huang, Tao; Shen, Chaohui; Wang, Xiaoting; Qi, Yuancheng; Shen, Jinwen; Song, Andong; Qiu, Liyou; Ai, Yuncan

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene biosynthesis and function in Agaricus bisporus (the button mushroom) remain uncertain. The enzyme activities of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) were detectable in A. bisporus AS2796 and inhibited by α-aminooxyacetic acid and Co2+. We cloned and sequenced 2 ACS genes (Ab-ACS1 and Ab-ACS2) and 1 ACO gene (Ab-ACO) from the mushroom strain. Ab-ACS1 and Ab-ACS2 demonstrated low amino acid sequence similarity. Ab-ACO demonstrated an amino acid sequence completely identical to that of ACO1_AGABI from A. bisporus. Antisense ACO significantly reduced ACO gene expression level, ACO enzyme activity, and ethylene production in the mushroom transformants. The transformants grew faster than the wild-type strain in sterilized compost and normally formed primordia when cultivated in sterilized compost with the sterilized casing vermiculite, but the wild-type strain did not. Our results show that ethylene is synthesized in button mushrooms via the ACC pathway. Ethylene inhibited button mushroom mycelial growth and development.

  2. Transformation of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) using T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T.S.P.; Lavrijssen, B.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2001-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is known to transfer parts of its tumour-inducing plasmid, the T-DNA, to plants, yeasts and filamentous fungi. We have used this system to transform germinating basidiospores and vegetative mycelium of a commercial strain of the cultivated basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus. A

  3. In vivo immunomodulatory effect of the lectin from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditamo, Yanina; Rupil, Lucia L; Sendra, Victor G; Nores, Gustavo A; Roth, German A; Irazoqui, Fernando J

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are glycan-binding proteins that are resistant to digestion in the gastrointestinal tract and enter intact to blood circulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus lectin (ABL) on innate and adaptive immune responses as well as its effect in two different experimental pathologies that involve the immune system. ABL inhibited in vitro nitric oxide (NO) production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in response to the pro-inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). However, it did not modify the activity of arginase, showing that while ABL downregulates M1 activation, it does not affect M2 activation. ABL also inhibited mononuclear cell proliferation in response to mitogen Con A, or in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. During the in vivo studies, oral administration of ABL to BALB/c mice induced a marked inhibition of NO production by peritoneal macrophages after LPS stimuli. The influence of ABL on tumor growth was studied in BALB/c mice receiving daily oral doses of ABL and implanted with CT26 tumor cells. ABL treatment induced significantly higher rate of tumor growth when compared with control mice. On the other hand, oral ABL administration in Wistar rats induced a marked diminution of the incidence of the disease and the severity of the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We can conclude that ABL has an in vivo immunomodulatory effect reducing the innate and adaptive responses. This food lectin shows potential therapeutic application on control of inflammatory autoimmune pathologies.

  4. Prevalence of Ewingella americana in retail fresh cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus) in Zaragoza (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Juan E; Venturini, María E; Oria, Rosa; Blanco, Domingo

    2004-03-01

    The prevalence and mycopathogenic potential of Enterobacteriaceae (especially Ewingella americana) in cultivated mushrooms were studied. A total of 95 samples of Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus were analyzed to quantify the Enterobacteriaceae and to identify the species isolated. The host pathogenicity test was used to verify their mycopathogenic potential. The genus Pseudomonas was also quantified, since it is the predominant bacterial group in cultivated mushrooms. The counts of Enterobacteriaceae ranged from 2.88 to 3.66 log(10) CFU g(-1), which was significantly lower than the counts of Pseudomonas spp. (4.52-7.80 log(10) CFU g(-1)). Among the 151 strains of Enterobacteriaceae isolated, 112 strains (74.2%) were classified as Ewingella americana by the API 20 E system. Other species identified were Enterobacter amnigenus bgp. 1, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella terrigena, Pantoea spp. bgp. 2 and Serratia rubidaea. Only E. americana showed mycopathogenic effect, causing a browning lesion and necrosis in the center of the A. bisporus stipe. This is the first report of the isolation of E. americana from healthy cultivated button mushroom as well as from other species of cultivated mushrooms different from A. bisporus.

  5. Accumulation of recalcitrant xylan in mushroom-compost is due to a lack of xylan substituent removing enzyme activities of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Kapsokalyvas, Dimitris; Xing, Lia; van Zandvoort, Marc A M J; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Agaricus bisporus to degrade xylan in wheat straw based compost during mushroom formation is unclear. In this paper, xylan was extracted from the compost with water, 1M and 4M alkali. Over the phases analyzed, the remaining xylan was increasingly substituted with

  6. The edible and medicinal button mushroom [Agaricus bisporus (J.Lge) imbach] and its relatives: Present status, use and future in commerce and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2001-01-01

    The Netherlands is the largest exporter of button mushrooms [Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge.) Imbach] in the world and the third largest producer after China and the United States of America. The production volume has increased dramatically over the last 30 years, from an annual production of 30,000

  7. The edible and medicinal button mushroom [Agaricus bisporus (J.Lge) imbach] and its relatives: Present status, use and future in commerce and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2001-01-01

    The Netherlands is the largest exporter of button mushrooms [Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge.) Imbach] in the world and the third largest producer after China and the United States of America. The production volume has increased dramatically over the last 30 years, from an annual production of 30,000 tonn

  8. Cloning of a chitinase gene from Ewingella americana, a pathogen of the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Inglis

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated a gene encoding a chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 from Ewingella americana, a recently described pathogen of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. This gene, designated chiA (EMBL/Genbank/DDBJ accession number X90562, was cloned by expression screening of a plasmid-based E. americana HindIII genomic library in Escherichia coli using remazol brilliant violet-stained carboxymethylated chitin incorporated into selective medium. The chiA gene has a 918-bp ORF, terminated by a TAA codon, with a calculated polypeptide size of 33.2 kDa, likely corresponding to a previously purified and characterised 33-kDa endochitinase from E. americana. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 33% identity with chitinase II from Aeromonas sp. No. 10S-24 and 7.8% identity with a chitinase from Saccharopolyspora erythraeus. Homology to other chitinase sequences was otherwise low. The peptide sequence deduced from chiA lacks a typical N-terminal signal sequence and also lacks the chitin binding and type III fibronectin homology units common to many bacterial chitinases. The possibility that this chitinase is not primarily adapted for the environmental mineralisation of pre-formed chitin, but rather for the breakdown of nascent chitin, is discussed in the context of mushroom disease.O gene que codifica uma quitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 foi isolado de Ewingella americana, recentemente descrita como patógeno do cogumelo Agaricus bisporus. Este gene, denominado chiA (EMBL/Genebank/DDBJ número de acesso X9061, foi clonado e selecionado a partir de livraria genômica construída por digestão do DNA de E. americana com HindIII e ligação em plasmídio de expressão em E. coli, utilizando meio seletivo contendo quitina carboximetilada, corada com "remazol brilliant violet'' para seleção de clones. O gene chiA apresenta uma ORF de 918 bp, código terminador TAA, tendo o tamanho do polipeptídeo sido calculado como 33,2 kDa, o qual corresponde ao tamanho de 33 kDa da endoquitinase

  9. Determination of nutritive changes of canned mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) during storage period

    OpenAIRE

    Necla Caglarlrmak; Kemal Unal; Semih Otles

    2001-01-01

    Mushrooms (A. bisporus) have a high nutritive value. Consuming fresh mushrooms is not productive because of enzyme activity and other limiting factors. The canning process is one food treatment that provides long product shelf-life. The changes of nutrients were determined by proximate composition: fat, protein, moisture, ash, and total carbohydrates. Minerals: Zn, Cu, K, Na, Ca, Cr, and P. Water soluble vitamins: B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), folic acid, pantothenic acid, ni...

  10. Mass transfer characteristics of bisporus mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) slices during convective hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Davoud; Baraani Dastjerdi, Mojtaba; Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    An accurate understanding of moisture transfer parameters, including moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient, is essential for efficient mass transfer analysis and to design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments. The main objective of the present study was to carry out an experimental and theoretical investigation of mushroom slices drying and determine the mass transfer characteristics of the samples dried under different conditions. The mushroom slices with two thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm were dried at air temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C and air flow rates of 1 and 1.5 m s-1. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the moisture transfer parameters and predict the drying curves. It was observed that the entire drying process took place in the falling drying rate period. The obtained lag factor and Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the samples was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective moisture diffusivity and the moisture transfer coefficient increased with increasing air temperature, air flow rate and samples thickness and varied in the ranges of 6.5175 × 10-10 to 1.6726 × 10-9 m2 s-1 and 2.7715 × 10-7 to 3.5512 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively. The validation of the Dincer and Dost model indicated a good capability of the model to describe the drying curves of the mushroom slices.

  11. Comparison of the effect of two types of whole mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) powders on intestinal fermentation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Sakura; Araki, Takahiro; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko; Kamada, Takeo; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Han, Kyu-Ho; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-10-01

    The effects of two types of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus; white, WM; brown, BM) powders on intestinal fermentation in rats were investigated in terms of the physical characteristics of animals and by bacterial and HPLC analyses of cecal contents. Short-chain fatty acid levels were found to be significantly higher in the WM group than in the BM and the control (CN) groups; coliform bacteria levels in the BM group were significantly lower than those in the CN group, with the WM group inducing an apparent but insignificant decrease in coliforms. Anaerobe levels in the WM group were significantly higher than those in the CN group and, compared with the CN group, the BM and WM groups exhibited significantly increased feces weight and cecum weight, respectively. These results indicate that the mushroom powders, and in particular the WM powder, have beneficial effects on the intestinal environment in rats.

  12. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R.; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hilden, Kristiina; Kues, Ursula; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wosten, Han A. B.; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Foster, Gary D.; Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P.; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S.; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S.; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Challen, Michael P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Martin, Francis

    2012-04-27

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the button mushroom forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.

  13. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagy, Laszlo G; Ohm, Robin A; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L; Bailey, Andrew M; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hildén, Kristiina; Kües, Ursula; Labutti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lucas, Susan M; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W; Salamov, Asaf A; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wösten, Han A B; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C; Foster, Gary D; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S; Kerrigan, Richard W; Challen, Michael P; Grigoriev, Igor V; Martin, Francis

    2012-10-23

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.

  14. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... the basidiomycete fungus Agaricus bisporus are pro- duced in large ... selective and pathogen free substrate (Randle and. Hayes, 1972 ..... Development of mushroom cultivation techniques in Eastern Black Sea Region of.

  15. Deciphering the ability of Agaricus bisporus var. burnettii to produce mushrooms at high temperature (25 °C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Navarro, Pilar; Spataro, Cathy; Ferrer, Nathalie; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2014-12-01

    The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is cultivated almost worldwide. Its cultivation is standardized and a temperature of 16-19 °C is needed during the fruiting period. The development of A. bisporus cultivars able to fruit at higher temperature (FHT) represents a promising alternative to reduce energy costs during cultivation in hot countries as well as in temperate countries during the hot season. A. bisporus var. burnettii is able to fruit at 25 °C. Understanding the biological mechanisms that underlie such a thermo-tolerance is a prerequisite to further development of breeding strains. The foundation of the FHT ability of the var. burnettii was dissected using a combination of candidate gene approaches and genetic tools. Transcript profiling of A. bisporus var. burnettii at two developmental stages (primordium P and sporophore SP) under two fruit-producing temperature conditions (17 °C and 25 °C) were established by cDNA-AFLP. The expression patterns were more similar within the same stage at the two different temperatures rather than between stages under the same temperature. Only one transcript-derived fragment (TDF) sequence differentially expressed between temperatures was recovered but it could not be further characterized. Twenty-nine TDF sequences differentially expressed between development stages were obtained. The phenotypic assessment of an intervarietal A. bisporus var. bisporus×A. bisporus var. burnettii progeny demonstrated the complex inheritance of the FHT trait. Two quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in the number of fruit bodies yielded at 25 °C were found on LG II and LG VI. Two functional candidate genes known to be potentially involved in A. bisporus thermo-tolerance, a heat shock protein (HSP70) gene and a gene coding for a para-aminobenzoic acid synthase (PABA), were found in the vicinity of the QTL on LG II. Several positional candidate genes have been also identified in the confidence interval of the QTL on LG VI and are

  16. Effects of Some Beneficial Bacteria in Casing Soil on Growth and Yield of Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çetin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the interaction between some bacteria naturally existing in casing soil and Agaricus bisporus (Sylvan Hauser A15 hypha in laboratory (in vitro and cultivation (in vivo conditions, and to confirm its effects on mushroom yield. Totally 32 bacteria (3 Gram (+ and 29 Fluorescent Pseudomonads was isolated from casing soil and healthy sporophores. As a result of in vitro experiment carried out to determine the effects of bacteria on mycelium growth of A. bisporus, 24 bacterial isolates were found more effective at the rate of 2 to 115% than control treatment. To determine the effects of bacterium, chosen at the end of in vitro experiments, on mushroom yield in cultivation conditions, three experiments were established in March, May and July in 2008. At the end of experiments, bacterial isolates provided 8 – 40 % increase in total yield. Population density and change in population number related to time was observed during growing period, after the inoculation of bacterial isolates into casing soil. According to the results, Pseudomonas fluorescens (T 4/2 and Ş 8, P.putida (Ş 2/1 and Ş 10 and Bacillus mycoides (T 7/2 bacterial isolates were colonized successfully both in casing soil and sporophores.

  17. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morin, E.; Kohler, A.; Baker, A.R.; Foulongne-Oriol, M.; Lombard, V.; Nagy, L.G.; Ohm, R.A.; Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Brun, A.; Aerts, A.L.; Bailey, A.M.; Billette, C.; Coutinho, P.M.; Deakin, G.; Doddapaneni, H.; Floudas, D.; Grimwood, J.; Hildén, K.; Kües, U.; LaButti, K.M.; Lapidus, A.; Lindquist, E.A.; Lucas, S.M.; Murat, C.; Riley, R.W.; Salamov, A.A.; Schmutz, J.; Subramanian, V.; Wösten, H.A.B.; Xu, J.; Eastwood, D.C.; Foster, G.D.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Cullen, D.; Vries, de R.P.; Lundell, T.; Hibbett, D.S.; Henrissat, B.; Burton, K.S.; Kerrigan, R.W.; Challen, M.P.; Grigorievf, I.V.; Martin, M.

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the “button mushroom” forms a multibi

  18. Morphological and Pathogenic Characteristics of the Fungus Cladobotryum dendroides, the Causal Agent of Cobweb Disease of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty isolates were isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from Serbian mushroom farms during 2003-2007. The isolates formed white, cottony, aerial colonies on agar media. With age, conidia and colonies turned yellow and redish.Pathogenicity of these isolates was confirmed by inoculation of harvested basidiomes of A. bisporus and by casing inoculation. Symptoms similar to natural infection were recorded. Based on pathogenicity tests and morphological characteristics, the isolates were identified as Cladobotryum dendroides (Bulliard : Fries W. Gams & Hoozemans.

  19. Accumulation of recalcitrant xylan in mushroom-compost is due to a lack of xylan substituent removing enzyme activities of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Kapsokalyvas, Dimitris; Xing, Lia; van Zandvoort, Marc A M J; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-11-05

    The ability of Agaricus bisporus to degrade xylan in wheat straw based compost during mushroom formation is unclear. In this paper, xylan was extracted from the compost with water, 1M and 4M alkali. Over the phases analyzed, the remaining xylan was increasingly substituted with (4-O-methyl-)glucuronic acid and arabinosyl residues, both one and two arabinosyl residues per xylosyl residue remained. In the 1M and 4M KOH soluble solids of spent compost, 33 and 49 out of 100 xylosyl residues, respectively, were substituted. The accumulation of glucuronic acid substituents matched with the analysis that the two A. bisporus genes encoding for α-glucuronidase activity (both GH115) were not expressed in the A. bisporus mycelium in the compost during fruiting. Also, in a maximum likelihood tree it was shown that it is not likely that A. bisporus possesses genes encoding for the activity to remove arabinose from xylosyl residues having two arabinosyl residues.

  20. NAD+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus: biochemical and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, M A; Müller, Y; Baars, J J; Op den Camp, H J; van der Drift, C; Van Griensven, L J; Visser, J; Schaap, P J

    1999-04-01

    The NAD+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) of Agaricus bisporus, a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism, was purified to homogeneity. The apparent molecular mass of the native enzyme is 474 kDa comprising four subunits of 116 kDa. The isoelectric point of the enzyme is about 7.0. Km values for ammonium, 2-oxoglutarate, NADH, glutamate and NAD+ were 6.5, 3.5, 0.06, 37.1 and 0.046 mM, respectively. The enzyme is specific for NAD(H). The gene encoding this enzyme (gdhB) was isolated from an A. bisporus H39 recombinant lambda phage library. The deduced amino acid sequence specifies a 1029-amino acid protein with a deduced molecular mass of 115,463 Da, which displays a significant degree of similarity with NAD-GDH of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. The ORF is interrupted by fifteen introns. Northern analysis combined with enzyme activity measurements suggest that NAD-GDH from A. bisporus is regulated by the nitrogen source. NAD-GDH levels in mycelium grown on glutamate were higher than NAD-GDH levels in mycelium grown on ammonium as a nitrogen source. Combined with the kinetic parameters, these results suggest a catabolic role for NAD-GDH. However, upon addition of ammonium to the culture transcription of the gene is not repressed as strongly as that of the gene encoding NADP-GDH (gdhA). To date, tetrameric NAD-GDHs with large subunits, and their corresponding genes, have only been isolated from a few species. This enzyme represents the first NAD-GDH of basidiomycete origin to be purified and is the first such enzyme from basidiomycetes whose sequence has been determined.

  1. Nutritional value and amino acids composition of the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus at different stages of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the nutritional value and amino acid composition of the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus was carried out with the Somycel 653 strain cultivated on a synthetic compost containing rye straw, broiler chicken manure and gypsum. In 4 developmental stages of the whole fruit-bodies and the caps and stipes the following were determined: dry matter, vitamin C, nitrates, total nitrogen, crude protein (N × 4.38 and amino acid composition. It was observed that in all stages of development the levels of total N and crude protein are significantly higher in the caps than in the stipes. From the amino acid composition it appears that the caps of stage 4 contain the highest amounts of essential and total amino acids as compared with caps, stipes and whole sporophores found in any developmental stage. This is correlated with the opening of the mushrooms in stage 4. It was observed that the nitrates level tends, to be higher in the cap than in the stipe.

  2. Efficient immobilization of mushroom tyrosinase utilizing whole cells from Agaricus bisporus and its application for degradation of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Markus; Boll, Stefan; Kossuch, Jan; Bielecki, Julia; Uhl, Stefan; Kleiner, Beatrice; Wichmann, Rolf

    2014-06-15

    A simple and efficient procedure for preparation and immobilization of tyrosinase enzyme was developed utilizing whole cells from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus, without the need for enzyme purification. Tyrosinase activity in the cell preparation remained constant during storage at 21 °C for at least six months. The cells were entrapped in chitosan and alginate matrix capsules and characterized with respect to their resulting tyrosinase activity. A modification of the alginate with colloidal silica enhanced the activity due to retention of both cells and tyrosinase from fractured cells, which otherwise leached from matrix capsules. The observed activity was similar to the activity that was obtained with immobilized isolated tyrosinase in the same material. Mushroom cells in water were susceptible to rapid inactivation, whereas the immobilized cells maintained 73% of their initial activity after 30 days of storage in water. Application in repeated batch experiments resulted in almost 100% conversion of endocrine disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) for 11 days, under stirring conditions, and 50-60% conversion after 20 days, without stirring under continuous usage. The results represent the longest yet reported application of immobilized tyrosinase for degradation of BPA in environmental water samples.

  3. The effect of process parameters and microstructural changes on a new convenience food - quick-frozen paste-coated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su-Wen; Chang, Xue-Dong; Liu, Xiu-Feng; Jiang, Wen-Hong; Ma, Xiao-Feng

    2015-03-01

    The technology of quick-freezing paste-coated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was studied and optimized. The best microwave pretreatment condition for 1 cm slices, regarding color protection, was 5.4 W/g, for 55, 55-60 and 60 s for mushrooms with 3, 4 and 5 cm diameter caps respectively. For a batch of paste (668.2-1034.6 g), the process parameters considered were oil content (46.6-63.4 g), water content (381-562.6 g) and flour content (166-334 g) with a constant additional content of 30 g starch, 9 g baking powder, 2.6 g carrageenan, 30 g salt and 3 g pepper. These parameters were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite design. The optimal levels of the major paste components were 300 g flour, 432.5 g water and 50 g oil. The freezing time and sensory acceptability for paste-coated Agaricus bisporus(PCAB) under the optimized conditions were 7.49 min and 6.2 respectively. The freezing curves of PCAB were established at different temperatures and the freezing rates were calculated to find the freezing characteristics. In addition, the cell structure of PCAB, frozen at -75 °C, the lowest freezing temperature, and studied using transmission electron microscopy, was similar in quality to that of fresh Agaricus bisporus. The results suggested that Agaricus bisporus can be quick-frozen with a paste coating to produce an acceptable and nutritious convenience food.

  4. Extracts of Medicinal Mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Phellinus linteus Induce Proapoptotic Effects in the Human Leukemia Cell Line K562

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shnyreva, A.V.; Song, W.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the effects of Agaricus bisporus and Phellinus linteus ethanol extracts on transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cytokine release and apoptosis in the human leukemia cell line K562. In particular, we applied quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assays to monitor alterations o

  5. Protective effects of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus against hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized mice as a model of postmenopausal women.

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    Noriko Kanaya

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM, Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX mice (a model of postmenopausal women. OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6, were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women.

  6. Serum immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G reactivity to Agaricus bisporus proteins in mushroom cultivation workers

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    Zahra Khakzad

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The obtained findings revealed that A. bisporus has different allergens and antigens, which contribute to its potential as an aeroallergen in hypersensitivity-related reactions of the lungs.

  7. Enhancement of Shelf Life of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) by Fumigant Application of Lippia alba Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Pratima; Pandey, Abhay K; Mishra, Priyanka; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

    2015-01-01

    Eleven essential oils isolated from higher plant species were assessed against the four isolates of Verticillium fungicola found on fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Eucalyptus citriodora and Lippia alba oils were more efficacious and completely inhibited the mycelial growth of fungal isolates. L. alba oil was fungistatic and fungicidal at 10- and 20-µL concentrations against all of the isolates, respectively, and was more potent than E. citriodora oil as well as some prevalent synthetic fungicides such as benomyl, ethylene dibromide, and phosphine. Eighty microliters of L. alba oil protected 500 g of fruiting bodies of A. bisporus for up to 7 d from infection of the fungus under in vivo conditions. The findings strengthen the possibility of L. alba oil as a plant-based protectant to enhance the shelf life of A. bisporus fruiting bodies.

  8. Agaricus bisporus and related Agaricus species on lignocellulose: production of manganese peroxidase and multicopper oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildén, Kristiina; Mäkelä, Miia R; Lankinen, Pauliina; Lundell, Taina

    2013-06-01

    Biotechnological, microbiological, and genetic studies of Agaricus species other than A. bisporus, the white button mushroom, have been limited so far. To expand the knowledge in the genus Agaricus, six novel wild-type isolates of Agaricus spp. were studied on their nutritional demands for enzyme production and mycelial growth. All the selected Agaricus species produced extracellular manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase activities in semi-solid rye bran cultures. Moderate MnP activities were measured for A. bisporus, A. bernardii and A. campestris. The highest laccase activities were obtained for A. bisporus and A. campestris. On soy medium, the highest mycelial tyrosinase activity was determined for A. bernardii. For A. bisporus, addition of copper caused no increase in laccase or tyrosinase activities on soy or malt extract media. Hyphal growth rate of the isolates was studied on lignocellulose amended agar plates. Fastest growth was obtained for A. bisporus on wheat bran and birch leaf litter agar. Except for A. bernardii, hyphal growth rates correlated well with MnP and laccase production levels between Agaricus species. Molecular taxonomy of the novel Agaricus spp. positioned them to distinct phylogenetic clusters with species-level identity. In conclusion, our data point to the importance of both MnP and multicopper enzymes in Agaricus spp. while growing on lignocelluloses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioremediation of multi-polluted soil by spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrate: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and Pb availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, Carlos; Yunta, Felipe; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates the effect of three spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS) application methods on bioremediation of soil multi-polluted with Pb and PAH from close to a shooting range with respect natural attenuation (SM). The remediation treatments involve (i) use of sterilized SAS to biostimulate the inherent soil microbiota (SSAS) and two bioaugmentation possibilities (ii) its use without previous treatment to inoculate A. bisporus and inherent microbiota (SAS) or (iii) SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp). The efficiency of each bioremediation microcosm was evaluated by: fungal activity, heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacterial population, PAH removal, Pb mobility and soil eco-toxicity. Biostimulation of the native soil microbiology (SSAS) achieved similar levels of PAH biodegradation as SM and poor soil detoxification. Bioaugmented microcosms produced higher PAH removal and eco-toxicity reduction via different routes. SAS increased the PAH-degrading bacterial population, but lowered fungal activity. Abisp was a good inoculum carrier for A. bisporus exhibiting high levels of ligninolytic activity, the total and PAH-degrading bacteria population increased with incubation time. The three SAS applications produced slight Pb mobilization (bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp) proved the best application method to remove PAH, mainly BaP, and detoxify the multi-polluted soil.

  10. Selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom protects against increase in gut permeability ex vivo and up-regulates glutathione peroxidase 1 and 2 in hyperthermally-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Tebo; Dunshea, Frank Rowland; Howell, Kate; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Rivera, Leni Rose; Furness, John Barton; Ng, Ken

    2014-06-24

    Dietary effects of organic Se supplementation in the form of Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom on ileal mucosal permeability and antioxidant selenoenzymes status in heat induced oxidative stress in rats were evaluated. Acute heat stress (40 °C, 21% relative humidity, 90 min exposure) increased ileum baseline short circuit current (Isc; 2.40-fold) and epithelial conductance (Ge; 2.74-fold). Dietary supplementation with Se-enriched A. bisporus (1 µg Se/g feed) reduced (p bisporus protected against increase in ileum permeability and up-regulated GPx-1 and GPx-2 expression, selenoenzymes relevant to mitigating oxidative stress.

  11. Safety assessment of the post-harvest treatment of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) using ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R R; Borzelleca, J F; DeLuca, H F; Weaver, C M

    2013-06-01

    Wild mushrooms are an excellent source of vitamin D. The presence of vitamin D in mushrooms is attributed to sunlight exposure, which catalyzes the conversion of fungal ergosterol to vitamin D2 via a series of photochemical/thermal reactions. Mushroom growers now incorporate UV light treatments during processing to produce mushrooms with levels of vitamin D that compare to those in wild mushrooms. Presented herein is a comprehensive review of information relevant to the safety of introducing vitamin D mushrooms, produced using UV light technologies, to the food supply. Historical reference to the use of UV light for production of vitamin D is discussed, and studies evaluating the nutritional value and safety of vitamin D mushrooms are reviewed. Traditional safety evaluation practices for food additives are not applicable to whole foods; therefore, the application of substantial equivalence and history-of-safe-use is presented. It was demonstrated that vitamin D in mushrooms, produced using UV light technologies, are equivalent to vitamin D in mushrooms exposed to sunlight, and that UV light has a long-history of safe use for production of vitamin D in food. Vitamin D mushrooms produced using UV light technologies were therefore considered safe and suitable for introduction to the marketplace.

  12. Anti-Browning of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Slices by Glutathione during Hot Air Drying

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    Zhenqiang Xia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Browning of mushroom tends to occur during hot air drying due to Poly Phenol Oxidase (PPO, while glutathione is known for its ability to inhibit the activity of PPO and browning. In this study, the efficacy of glutathione in inhibiting browning on mushroom slices was estimated. Browning of mushroom slices treated with glutathione was monitored during hot air drying. PPO activity in mushroom was inhibited by 98.2 with 0.08% glutathione. Compared with the control, mushroom slices treated with glutathione showed no browning during hot air drying. These results indicate that application of glutathione is a promising method of Anti-browning of mushroom by glutathione during hot air drying.

  13. Ultrastructural Studies of Raw and Processed Tissue of the Major Cultivated Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinki, E. M.; Stemberger, B.; Walsh, R.; Kilara, A.

    1984-01-01

    Commercial mushroom processors currently lose approximately 30 percent of the mushroom weight due to shrinkage during processing (blanching and canning) , resulting in substantial economic losses . Microscopy was used to assess the extent and type of chemical and structural changes induced by processing mushrooms and causing shrinkage. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the processing operations including vacuum hydration , blanching , and thermal treatment do not damage the integrity...

  14. Effects of UV-C treatment and cold storage on ergosterol and vitamin D2 contents in different parts of white and brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenqiang; Zhang, Jie; Yan, Ruixiang; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting; Lei, Jing; Wang, Zhidong

    2016-11-01

    Effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0kJ/m(2)) and cold storage on ergosterol and vitamin D2 content in different parts of white and brown button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were investigated. UV-C treatment did not significantly affect ergosterol content in the caps and stems of the two mushrooms, but ergosterol content increased significantly during 14days cold storage. Vitamin D2 content in the caps and stems of two mushrooms significantly increased as UV-C dose increased, and 2.0kJ/m(2) UV-C showed the best result. During cold storage, vitamin D2 content in the caps of the two mushrooms decreased from day 1 to day 7, and then kept stable until day 14, but vitamin D2 content in the stems of brown mushrooms kept increasing for the whole 14days period. UV-C could increase vitamin D2 contents in both caps and stems of white and brown mushrooms without significantly affecting ergosterol content.

  15. Effects of postharvest pulsed UV light treatment of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on vitamin D2 content and quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaras, Michael D; Beelman, Robert B; Elias, Ryan J

    2012-01-11

    Pulsed UV light (PUV) was investigated as a means to rapidly increase vitamin D(2) (D(2)) content in fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). D(2) was found to increase to over 100% RDA/serving following 3 pulses (1 s). Following 12 pulses, D(2) began to approach a maximum concentration of 27 μg/g DW. The D(2) produced with 3 pulses decreased from 11.9 to 9.05 μg/g DW after 3 days of storage; however, D(2) levels remained nearly constant after this point throughout an 11-day shelf life study. PUV treated sliced mushrooms produced significantly more D(2) than whole mushrooms, and it was also observed that brown buttons generated significantly less D(2) than white buttons. Several quality attributes were assessed, and no significant differences between control and PUV treated mushrooms were observed. These findings suggest that PUV treatment is a viable method for rapidly increasing the D(2) content of fresh mushrooms without adversely affecting quality parameters.

  16. Effect of Different Packaging Films on Storability of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus

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    R. Aminzadeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The button mushroom is rich food full of nutrient but compared with other fruits and vegetables, mushroom has a higher respiration rate and due to the lack of protective layer to prevent water loss, decay occurs quickly. It seems that suitable coating film is the one way for increase the storage life of mushroom. Therefore present research was carried out as split plot design in farme of CRD to find the best coating film in order to increase the storage life. In this research, the treatments were: control (package with Selefon, Poly Ethylene (PE with 40 and 65 micron thickness, Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP with 25, 35 and 40 micron thickness, Cast PolyPropylen (CPP with 25 and 40 micron thickness, Poly Ester (PET with 12 and 24 micron thickness and Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC with 30 micron thickness. The samples were estimated after 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days storage at 1°C and 90 % RH in 3 replications. The results showed that the types of plastic coating had significant effects on all measured characteristics as campared to that of control. Highest firmness value, Soluble Solid Content (SSC, titratable acidity, acidity (pH, and lowest weight less and decay were observed in packet mushroom with the coating film: BOPP and CPP and the lowest amounts were observed in the mushroom packed with control, PVC, PET and PE films. The effects of time on all of the measured during the storage period, were significant too.

  17. Agaricus bisporus genome sequence: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Richard W; Challen, Michael P; Burton, Kerry S

    2013-06-01

    The genomes of two isolates of Agaricus bisporus have been sequenced recently. This soil-inhabiting fungus has a wide geographical distribution in nature and it is also cultivated in an industrialized indoor process ($4.7bn annual worldwide value) to produce edible mushrooms. Previously this lignocellulosic fungus has resisted precise econutritional classification, i.e. into white- or brown-rot decomposers. The generation of the genome sequence and transcriptomic analyses has revealed a new classification, 'humicolous', for species adapted to grow in humic-rich, partially decomposed leaf material. The Agaricus biporus genomes contain a collection of polysaccharide and lignin-degrading genes and more interestingly an expanded number of genes (relative to other lignocellulosic fungi) that enhance degradation of lignin derivatives, i.e. heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases. A motif that is hypothesized to be a promoter element in the humicolous adaptation suite is present in a large number of genes specifically up-regulated when the mycelium is grown on humic-rich substrate. The genome sequence of A. bisporus offers a platform to explore fungal biology in carbon-rich soil environments and terrestrial cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

  18. Effects of polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phenllinus linteus on alcoholic liver injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyanoglu, M.; Canbek, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Yamac, M.; Senturk, H.; Kartkaya, K.; Oglakci, A.; Turgak, O.; Kanbak, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the curative effects of crude polysaccharides (PSs) from mushrooms on the symptoms of alcoholic liver injury were investigated. PSs from Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus fruiting bodies were administered by gavage at levels of 100¿mg per kg body w

  19. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities and in Vivo Anti-Hypoxic Activity of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Chaidam

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    Hong-Ji Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rising awareness of a healthy lifestyle, natural functional foods have gained much interest as promising alternatives to synthetic functional drugs. Recently, wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Chaidam has been found and artificially cultivated for its thick fresh body and excellent taste, with its antioxidant and anti-hypoxic abilities unknown. In this work, the antioxidant potential of its methanolic, 55% ethanolic, aqueous extracts and crude polysaccharide was evaluated in different systems. The results showed that polysaccharide was the most effective in scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, metal chelating activity and reducing power, with EC50 values of 0.02, 2.79, 1.29, and 1.82 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, we further studied the anti-hypoxic activity of crude polysaccharide. The results turned out that polysaccharide (300 mg/kg prolonged the survival time, decreased the blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid content as well as increased the liver glycogen significantly, compared with the blank control and the commercialized product Hongjingtian (p < 0.05. With such excellent activities, we purified the polysaccharide and analyzed its molecular weight (120 kDa as well as monosaccharide components (glucose, fructose and mannose. This study indicated that wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Chaidam had strong potential to be exploited as an effective natural functional food to relieve oxidative and hypoxia stresses

  20. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities and in Vivo Anti-Hypoxic Activity of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Ji; Chen, Hai-Yan; Fan, Lin-Lin; Jiao, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Qi-He; Jiao, Ying-Chun

    2015-09-25

    With the rising awareness of a healthy lifestyle, natural functional foods have gained much interest as promising alternatives to synthetic functional drugs. Recently, wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam has been found and artificially cultivated for its thick fresh body and excellent taste, with its antioxidant and anti-hypoxic abilities unknown. In this work, the antioxidant potential of its methanolic, 55% ethanolic, aqueous extracts and crude polysaccharide was evaluated in different systems. The results showed that polysaccharide was the most effective in scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals, metal chelating activity and reducing power, with EC50 values of 0.02, 2.79, 1.29, and 1.82 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, we further studied the anti-hypoxic activity of crude polysaccharide. The results turned out that polysaccharide (300 mg/kg) prolonged the survival time, decreased the blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid content as well as increased the liver glycogen significantly, compared with the blank control and the commercialized product Hongjingtian (p Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam had strong potential to be exploited as an effective natural functional food to relieve oxidative and hypoxia stresses.

  1. First Preliminary Report on Isolation and Characterization of Novel Acinetobacter spp. in Casing Soil Used for Cultivation of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach

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    D. K. Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite evaluation of large number of agroindustrial wastes for their use as casing material for Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach cultivation, scant attention has been given to the importance of biological properties of casing materials. In the present study, an attempt was made to characterize the bacterial flora in casing layer, namely, Farm Yard Manure (FYM and Spent Mushroom Substrate/spent compost (SMS/SC (FYM+SC, 3 : 1 and FYM and Vermi Compost (VC (FYM+VC, 3 : 1, employing partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Available data showed a significant variety of organisms that included Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas of the γ-proteobacteria, that were the most frequently encountered genera. This is the first preliminary report on the microbial diversity of casing soils and demonstrates the presence of Acinetobacter spp. that has not been previously described in casing material.

  2. Morphological and Pathogenic Characteristics of the Causal Agents of Dry and Wet Bubble Deseases of White Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach in Serbia

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    Ivana Potočnik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseased fruit bodies of Agaricus bisporus, bearing symptoms similar to those caused by Verticillium fungicola and Mycogone perniciosa, were observed during the screening of eight mushroom farms in Serbia in 2002 and 2003. Nine isolates, forming either appressed white or pale brown colonies on PDA medium, were recovered. The isolates were identified on the basis of their morphological, physiological and pathogenic characteristics, and by comparing them to V. fungicola var. fungicola and M. perniciosa isolates originating from United Kingdom, and V. fungicola var. aleophilum from the USA. Pathogenicity of these isolates was confirmed by casing inoculation, on which occasion symptoms of both dry and wet bubble disease were recorded. Five isolates were identified as Verticillium fungicola(Preuss Hassebrauk var. fungicola (W. Gams & Van Zaayen, and four as Mycogone perniciosa(Magnus Delacroix.

  3. Development of algorithms for detection of mechanical injury on white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, A. A.; O'Donnell, C. P.

    2009-05-01

    White mushrooms were subjected to mechanical injury by controlled shaking in a plastic box at 400 rpm for different times (0, 60, 120, 300 and 600 s). Immediately after shaking, hyperspectral images were obtained using two pushbroom line-scanning hyperspectral imaging instruments, one operating in the wavelength range of 400 - 1000 nm with spectroscopic resolution of 5 nm, the other operating in the wavelength range of 950 - 1700 nm with spectroscopic resolution of 7 nm. Different spectral and spatial pretreatments were investigated to reduce the effect of sample curvature on hyperspectral data. Algorithms based on Chemometric techniques (Principal Component Analysis and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) and image processing methods (masking, thresholding, morphological operations) were developed for pixel classification in hyperspectral images. In addition, correlation analysis, spectral angle mapping and scaled difference of sample spectra were investigated and compared with the chemometric approaches.

  4. Aggregation and conformational change of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) polyphenoloxidase subjected to thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Liu, Wei; Zou, Liqiang; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Hu, Xiuting; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the activity, conformation and microstructure of mushroom polyphenoloxidase (PPO) subjected to thermal treatment. The inactivation of PPO can be achieved by high temperature-short time or mild temperature-long time treatment. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra suggested that heating process induced the rearrangement of secondary structure and the disruption of tertiary structure. Red shifts of fluorescence spectra showed positive correlations with the inactivation rate of PPO. There were significant differences in the conformation and molecular microstructure among PPO samples with the same relative activity, which were obtained by treating PPO at 45, 55 and 65°C for different times. In summary, PPO molecules were deformed at mild temperature, while higher temperature induced the formation of large aggregates. PPO with the same relative activity might exist in different forms.

  5. Development and growth of fruit bodies and crops of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straatsma, Gerben; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2013-10-01

    We studied the appearance of fruit body primordia, the growth of individual fruit bodies and the development of the consecutive flushes of the crop. Relative growth, measured as cap expansion, was not constant. It started extremely rapidly, and slowed down to an exponential rate with diameter doubling of 1.7 d until fruit bodies showed maturation by veil breaking. Initially many outgrowing primordia were arrested, indicating nutritional competition. After reaching 10 mm diameter, no growth arrest occurred; all growing individuals, whether relatively large or small, showed an exponential increase of both cap diameter and biomass, until veil breaking. Biomass doubled in 0.8 d. Exponential growth indicates the absence of competition. Apparently there exist differential nutritional requirements for early growth and for later, continuing growth. Flushing was studied applying different picking sizes. An ordinary flushing pattern occurred at an immature picking size of 8 mm diameter (picking mushrooms once a day with a diameter above 8 mm). The smallest picking size yielded the highest number of mushrooms picked, confirming the competition and arrested growth of outgrowing primordia: competition seems less if outgrowing primordia are removed early. The flush duration (i.e. between the first and last picking moments) was not affected by picking size. At small picking size, the subsequent flushes were not fully separated in time but overlapped. Within 2 d after picking the first individuals of the first flush, primordia for the second flush started outgrowth. Our work supports the view that the acquisition of nutrients by the mycelium is demand rather than supply driven. For formation and early outgrowth of primordia, indications were found for an alternation of local and global control, at least in the casing layer. All these data combined, we postulate that flushing is the consequence of the depletion of some unknown specific nutrition required by outgrowing

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of latent isoform PPO4 mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Molitor, Christian; Al-Oweini, Rami; Kortz, Ulrich; Rompel, Annette

    2014-02-01

    Tyrosinase exhibits catalytic activity for the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones. Owing to polymerization of these quinones, brown-coloured high-molecular-weight compounds called melanins are generated. The latent precursor form of polyphenol oxidase 4, one of the six tyrosinase isoforms from Agaricus bisporus, was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The obtained crystals belonged to space group C121 (two molecules per asymmetric unit) and diffracted to 2.78 Å resolution. The protein only formed crystals under low-salt conditions using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na6[TeW6O24] · 22H2O as a co-crystallization agent.

  7. Biological Control of Olive Green Mold in Agaricus bisporus Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautorus, T E; Townsley, P M

    1983-02-01

    Successful methods to control the damaging weed mold Chaetomium olivaceum (olive green mold) in mushroom beds are not presently known. An attempt was made to control C. olivaceum by biological means. A thermophilic Bacillus sp. which showed dramatic activity against C. olivaceum on Trypticase soy agar (BBL Microbiology Systems)-0.4% yeast extract agar plates was isolated from commercial mushroom compost (phase I). When inoculated into conventional and hydroponic mushroom beds, the bacillus not only provided a significant degree of protection from C. olivaceum, but also increased yields of Agaricus bisporus.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of latent isoform PPO4 mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Molitor, Christian [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria); Al-Oweini, Rami; Kortz, Ulrich [Jacobs University, PO Box 750 561, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Rompel, Annette, E-mail: annette.rompel@univie.ac.at [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2014-01-23

    Polyphenol oxidase 4 (PPO4) from the natural source A. bisporus was crystallized in its latent precursor form (pro-tyrosinase; Ser2–Thr565) using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}]·22H{sub 2}O as a crystallization additive. Tyrosinase exhibits catalytic activity for the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols as well as their subsequent oxidation to quinones. Owing to polymerization of these quinones, brown-coloured high-molecular-weight compounds called melanins are generated. The latent precursor form of polyphenol oxidase 4, one of the six tyrosinase isoforms from Agaricus bisporus, was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The obtained crystals belonged to space group C121 (two molecules per asymmetric unit) and diffracted to 2.78 Å resolution. The protein only formed crystals under low-salt conditions using the 6-tungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}]·22H{sub 2}O as a co-crystallization agent.

  9. Production of a protease inhibitor from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus and its statistical optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishvakarma, Reena; Mishra, Abha

    2017-01-31

    The production of a protease inhibitor from Agaricus bisporus through solid state fermentation was studied. The purpose was to produce protease inhibitor from natural, cheap and readily available carbon and nitrogen sources. Solid state fermentation enhanced the mycelia growth and also gave a higher yield of the product. Further, fungal growth and other production parameters were statistically optimized. The specificity of the inhibitor was tested and was effective against trypsin. Screening of significant factors (wheat bran, cyanobacterial biomass, initial pH, temperature, incubation period, and moisture content and inoculum size) was done using Plackett-Burman Design. Central Composite Design was used to determine the optimized values of the significant variables which were found to be temperature (27.5 °C), incubation time (156 hrs.), cyanobacterial biomass (1 g) and moisture content (50%) and gave a statistical yield of 980 PIU/g which was 25.6% higher than experimental yield (780 PIU/g). The inhibitor was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and DEAE cellulose chromatography (yield 43.89% and 0.21% respectively) and subjected to Reversed-phase HPLC to validate its identity. Since protease inhibitors act against proteases, finding ample therapeutic roles; the isolated protease inhibitor from A. bisporus can also be a probable medicinal agent after its further characterization.

  10. Impact on Vitamin D2, Vitamin D4 and Agaritine in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms after Artificial and Natural Solar UV Light Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Paul; Valverde, Juan; Jakobsen, Jette

    2016-09-01

    Commercial mushroom production can expose mushrooms post-harvest to UV light for purposes of vitamin D2 enrichment by converting the naturally occurring provitamin D2 (ergosterol). The objectives of the present study were to artificially simulate solar UV-B doses occurring naturally in Central Europe and to investigate vitamin D2 and vitamin D4 production in sliced Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms) and to analyse and compare the agaritine content of naturally and artificially UV-irradiated mushrooms. Agaritine was measured for safety aspects even though there is no rationale for a link between UV light exposure and agaritine content. The artificial UV-B dose of 0.53 J/cm(2) raised the vitamin D2 content to significantly (P < 0.001) higher levels of 67.1 ± 9.9 μg/g dry weight (DW) than sun exposure (3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry DW). We observed a positive correlation between vitamin D4 and vitamin D2 production (r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.001) after artificial UV irradiation, with vitamin D4 levels ranging from 0 to 20.9 μg/g DW. The agaritine content varied widely but remained within normal ranges in all samples. Irrespective of the irradiation source, agaritine dropped dramatically in conjunction with all UV-B doses both artificial and natural solar, probably due to its known instability. The biological action of vitamin D from UV-exposed mushrooms reflects the activity of these two major vitamin D analogues (D2, D4). Vitamin D4 should be analysed and agaritine disregarded in future studies of UV-exposed mushrooms.

  11. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple time-of-flight with MS(E) technology used for qualitative analysis of non-volatile oxidation markers in sliced packed mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Canellas, Elena; Nerín, Cristina

    2016-02-05

    61 different non-volatile compounds were determined in Agaricus Bisporus sliced mushrooms using UHPLC/Q-TOF with MS(E) technology. Both positive and negative electrospray ionization were applied. Chemical profile of three parts of mushroom was created: cap, gills and stipe. The analysed mushrooms were oxidized to identify the non-volatile markers in their parts. MarkerLynx(®) was proposed as a powerful tool to distinguish mushrooms purchased in different countries (Spain and Portugal) by determining their non-volatile markers. Some metabolites were identified. Surprisingly a mix of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) was detected in cap and gills of mushrooms. Whole mushrooms were considered as vegetable resistant to migration from packaging compounds. Additionally migration tests were performed to determine the source of migrating compounds.

  12. Suppression of Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes and their Encoding Genes in Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) by CaCl2 and Citric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zia Ullah; Jiayin, Li; Khan, Nasir Mehmood; Mou, Wangshu; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Yansheng; Feng, Simin; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2017-03-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were harvested and treated with a solution of 1.5% CaCl2 + 0.5% citric acid and stored for 16 days at 12 °C. The effects of this treatment on firmness, weight, color, cell wall compositions (cellulose and chitin) and cell wall degrading enzymes (cel1ulase, beta-1, 3 glucanase, chitinase and phenylalanine ammonialyase) were investigated during post-harvest storage. The expressions of major genes (Cel1, Glu1, Chi1 and PAL1) involved in cell wall degradation during post-harvest storage were also monitored. The results revealed that the post-harvest chemical treatment maintained better firmness, weight, color and inhibited cellulase, beta-1, 3 glucanase, chitinase and phenylalanine ammonialyase activities. These findings showed that the down-regulation of cell wall degrading enzymes is a possible mechanism that delays the softening of button mushrooms by the application of combined chemical treatment.

  13. 保鲜剂对双孢菇褐变的影响%Browning of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) affected by preservatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毓宁; 胡花丽; 孙娅; 李志强; 李鹏霞

    2012-01-01

    To screen an ideal preservative, root-cut button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) was soaked into water (control) , 0. 2 mmol/L ascorbic acid ( Vc ) , 0. 25 mmol/L citric acid, and 0. 5 % CaCl2 aqueous solution for 1 min respectively , and the browning degree, total phenol content and activities of polyphenol oxidase ( PPO) , peroxydase (POD) , catalase (CAT) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were detected. The browning of mushroom soaked into water was serious and rapid; total polyphenols content decreased, the activities of PPO increased first and then decreased, and the activities of POD, CAT and LOX rose rapidly. The three preservatives worked on the mushroom at various degrees. 0. 2 mmol/L ascorbic acid remarkably slowed down the drop of phenol contents, reduced PPO and POD activities, and increased CAT activity. It was an ideal preservative and browning inhibitor for Agaricus bisporus.%为筛选双孢菇(Agaricus bisporus)理想的保鲜剂,在双孢菇去根30 min内分别置于0.2 mmol/L维生素C、0.25 mmol/L柠檬酸和0.5%CaCl2处理溶液中浸泡1 min,阴凉处沥干,聚乙烯薄膜包装,于温度0~2℃、相对湿度90%~95%条件下贮藏,0~14 d取样测定双孢菇褐变度、总酚含量以及多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和脂氧合酶(LOX)活性.结果表明:清水对照处理的双孢菇褐化迅速,褐变严重,总酚含量下降,PPO活性先上升后下降,POD、CAT和LOX活性呈上升趋势.与对照相比,0.2 mmol/L维生素C、0.25mmol/L柠檬酸和0.5% CaCl2浸泡处理对测定指标产生了不同程度的影响,其中0.2 mmol/L维生素C能够显著减缓双孢菇贮藏期间总酚含量的下降、降低PPO和POD的活性、提高CAT活性,保鲜处理效果最好,是双孢菇理想的保鲜剂及褐变抑制剂.

  14. Microbial biomass in compost during colonization of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Aurin M; Heijboer, Amber; Boschker, Henricus T S; Bonnet, Barbara; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B

    2017-12-01

    Agaricus bisporus mushrooms are commercially produced on a microbe rich compost. Here, fungal and bacterial biomass was quantified in compost with and without colonization by A. bisporus. Chitin content, indicative of total fungal biomass, increased during a 26-day period from 576 to 779 nmol N-acetylglucosamine g(-1) compost in the absence of A. bisporus (negative control). A similar increase was found in the presence of this mushroom forming fungus. The fungal phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) marker C18:2ω6, indicative of the living fraction of the fungal biomass, decreased from 575 to 280 nmol g(-1) compost in the negative control. In contrast, it increased to 1200 nmol g(-1) compost in the presence of A. bisporus. Laccase activity was absent throughout culturing in the negative control, while it correlated with the fungal PLFA marker in the presence of A. bisporus. PLFA was also used to quantify living bacterial biomass. In the negative control, the bacterial markers remained constant at 3000-3200 nmol PLFA g(-1) compost. In contrast, they decreased to 850 nmol g(-1) compost during vegetative growth of A. bisporus, implying that bacterial biomass decreased from 17.7 to 4.7 mg g(-1) compost. The relative amount of the Gram positive associated PLFA markers a15:0 and a17:0 and the Gram negative PLFA associated markers cy17:0 and cy19:0 increased and decreased, respectively, suggesting that Gram negative bacteria are more suppressed by A. bisporus. Together, these data indicate that fungal biomass can make up 6.8% of the compost after A. bisporus colonization, 57% of which being dead. Moreover, results show that A. bisporus impacts biomass and composition of bacteria in compost.

  15. Cloning, expression, and characterization of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase from Agaricus bisporus 02, a thermotolerant mushroom strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li-Xin; Shen, Yue-Mao; Song, Si-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The pabS gene of Agaricus bisporus 02 encoding a putative PABA synthase was cloned, and then the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 under the control of the T7 promoter. The enzyme with an N-terminal GST tag or His tag, designated GST-AbADCS or His-AbADCS, was purified with glutathione Sepharose 4B or Ni Sepharose 6 Fast Flow. The enzyme was an aminodeoxychorismate synthase, and it was necessary to add with an aminodeoxychorismate lyase for synthesizing PABA. AbADCS has maximum activity at a temperature of approximately 25°C and pH 8.0. Magnesium or manganese ions were necessary for the enzymatic activity. The Michaelis-Menten constant for chorismate was 0.12 mM, and 2.55 mM for glutamine. H2O2 did distinct damage on the activity of the enzyme, which could be slightly recovered by Hsp20. Sulfydryl reagents could remarkably promote its activity, suggesting that cysteine residues are essential for catalytic function.

  16. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction, Purification, and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Zhou, Xinghai

    2015-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides (ABP) were extracted by complex enzyme-assisted extraction methodology. The following were optimal conditions for the extraction of crude ABP: complex enzyme amount, 2.2%; temperature, 62°C; time, 3 h; and pH, 4. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of crude ABP was 6.87%. The crude ABP was purified by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and one fraction-namely, ABP-1-was produced. The ABP-1 contained 93.67% carbohydrate, 1.46% protein, and 0.62% uronic acid. The constituent monosaccharides were predominantly glucose, galactose, mannose, and xylose. The antioxidant activities of ABP-1 were investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals, its ferric-reducing activity power, and the reducing power assay. At a concentration of 1.2 mg/mL, ABP-1 seemed to possess good free radical scavenging activity, with a scavenging value of about 56%. The results indicate that ABP-1 has good antioxidant activity.

  17. 78 FR 34037 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... pieces. The certain preserved mushrooms covered under this order are the species Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus bitorquis. ``Certain Preserved Mushrooms'' refers to mushrooms that have been prepared...

  18. 78 FR 12034 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... and pieces. The preserved mushrooms covered under this order are the species Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus bitorquis. ``Preserved mushrooms'' refer to mushrooms that have been prepared or preserved...

  19. How mushrooms feed on compost: conversion of carbohydrates and linin in industrial wheat straw based compost enabling the growth of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurak, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this thesis, the fate of carbohydrates and lignin was studied in industrial wheat straw based compost during composting and growth of Agaricus bisporus. The aim was to understand the availability and degradability of carbohydrates in order to help improve their

  20. How mushrooms feed on compost: conversion of carbohydrates and linin in industrial wheat straw based compost enabling the growth of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurak, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this thesis, the fate of carbohydrates and lignin was studied in industrial wheat straw based compost during composting and growth of Agaricus bisporus. The aim was to understand the availability and degradability of carbohydrates in order to help improve their utilizati

  1. Functional analysis of dsRNAs (L1, L3, L5, and M2) associated with isometric 34-nm virions of Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDerLende, TR; Duitman, EH; Gunnewijk, MGW; Yu, L; Wessels, JGH

    1996-01-01

    cDNA clones of dsRNAs associated with La France disease of Agaricus bisporus were isolated, Clones corresponding to L1 and L5 dsRNAs were sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of L1 dsRNA (1078 amino acids, M(r) 121K) showed significant homology with RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of other dsRNA

  2. Functional analysis of dsRNAs (L1, L3, L5, and M2) associated with isometric 34-nm virions of Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDerLende, TR; Duitman, EH; Gunnewijk, MGW; Yu, L; Wessels, JGH

    1996-01-01

    cDNA clones of dsRNAs associated with La France disease of Agaricus bisporus were isolated, Clones corresponding to L1 and L5 dsRNAs were sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of L1 dsRNA (1078 amino acids, M(r) 121K) showed significant homology with RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of other dsRNA

  3. Comparison of yield and dry matter content of carpophores of common mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach strains belonging to types U1, intermediate and U3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Sobieralski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the performed investigations was the comparison of yield and dry matter content of carpophores from selected strains of Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach belonging to three types. Differences within the yielding of different strains of several types, as well as following flushes of yielding were found. In type U1 the highest yield was obtained by ‘Le Lion X1’ (175 g·kg-1 f.m. of substrate, in intermediate type - ‘Italspawn 56’ and ‘Sylvan 130’ (both 161 g·kg-1 f.m. of substrate and in type U3 - ‘Italspawn F62’ and ‘Polmycel 23’ (194 and 192 g·kg-1 f.m. of substrate. It was found that the dry matter content depended both on the strain and the flush. The highest dry matter content was determined within the third flush. The highest content of dry matter in carpophores was determined in the following strains of mushrooms: type U1 - ‘Italspawn F50’ (8.5%, intermediate type - ‘Hauser A1.5’ (9.2% and type U3 - ‘Italspawn F62’ (8.3%.

  4. Absence of induced resistance in Agaricus bisporus against Lecanicillium fungicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Roeland L; Schrier, Niek; Kalkhove, Stefanie I C; Lugones, Luis G; Baars, Johan J P; Zijlstra, Carolien; de Weerdt, Marjanne; Wösten, Han A B; Bakker, Peter A H M

    2013-03-01

    Lecanicillium fungicola causes dry bubble disease and is an important problem in the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. Little is known about the defense of mushrooms against pathogens in general and L. fungicola in particular. In plants and animals, a first attack by a pathogen often induces a systemic response that results in an acquired resistance to subsequent attacks by the same pathogen. The development of functionally similar responses in these two eukaryotic kingdoms indicates that they are important to all multi-cellular organisms. We investigated if such responses also occur in the interaction between the white button mushroom and L. fungicola. A first infection of mushrooms of the commercial A. bisporus strain Sylvan A15 by L. fungicola did not induce systemic resistance against a subsequent infection. Similar results were obtained with the A. bisporus strain MES01497, which was demonstrated to be more resistant to dry bubble disease. Apparently, fruiting bodies of A. bisporus do not express induced resistance against L. fungicola.

  5. Enhancement of antioxidant properties and increase of content of vitamin D2 and non-volatile components in fresh button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (higher Basidiomycetes) by γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shu-Yao; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Huang, Shih-Jeng

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is a popular culinary-medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, and γ-irradiation could extend its shelf life. Our objective was to study the content of vitamin D2 and the taste components and antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts from A. bisporus with various doses of γ-irradiation. After irradiation, the vitamin D2 content of 5-10 kGy irradiated mushrooms was in the range of 5.22-7.90 µg/g, higher than that of the unirradiated control (2.24 µg/g). For all treatments, the total content of soluble sugars and polyols ranged from 113 to 142 mg/g, and the monosodium glutamate-like components ranged from 6.57 to 13.50 mg/g, among which the 2.5 kGy irradiated sample has the highest content of flavor 5'-nucleotide. About antioxidant properties, 10 kGy irradiated samples exhibited lower EC50 values than did other samples. EC50 values were less than 5 mg/mL for ethanolic extracts. Total phenols were the major antioxidant components and the total content was 13.24-22.78 mg gallic acid equivalents/g. Based on the results obtained, γ-irradiation could be used to improve the vitamin D2 content and intensity of umami taste in fresh mushrooms. In addition, γ-irradiation not only maintained the antioxidant properties of mushrooms but also enhanced the antioxidant properties to some extent.

  6. Brown mushroom symptom expression following infection of an Agaricus bisporus crop with MVX associated dsRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Archibald, Caoimhe; Ruggiero, Angela; Grogan, Helen M

    2015-12-01

    Mushroom Virus X (MVX) is associated with a range of symptoms observed in mushroom crops. The most prominent symptom in Ireland is the occurrence of 'brown' or 'off-white' mushrooms in white strain crops. The browning symptoms are associated with the presence of four low molecular weight dsRNAs: MVX(0.6), MVX(0.8), MVX(1.8) and MVX(2.0), however viral dsRNAs also occur in non-symptomatic mushrooms. Three virus-infected mushroom cultures containing MVX(1.8) and MVX(2.0) were used to infect experimental crops at different rates and at different times in the crop cycle to test the effect on symptom expression. Mushroom colour was measured by chromometer, and the ΔE value calculated. RT-PCR was used to test for the presence of MVX(1.8) dsRNA in harvested mushrooms. Results indicate that following infection, browning symptom expression is variable both within and between crops. Control mushrooms from 1st and 2nd flush had ΔE values of 7-12, with most being 10 while 2nd flush mushrooms had ΔE values similar to controls. Only mushrooms with ΔE > 15 appeared visibly brown or off colour. The transient and inconsistent nature of MVX-associated browning symptoms is discussed.

  7. Increase of vitamin D2 by UV-B exposure during the growth phase of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hanne; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mushrooms are the only non-animal food source of vitamin D. Wild mushrooms have naturally high vitamin D2 content, and cultivated mushrooms produce vitamin D2 from ergosterol when exposed to supplementary UV-B during the post-harvest phase. Objectives: This study investigated...... the effects of providing supplementary UV-B during the growth phase on vitamin D2 formation and the interactions with growth of mushrooms, as compared to supplementary UV-B during the post-harvest phase or exposure to sunlight for both cultivated and wild mushrooms. Methods: Experiments were carried out...... with exposure to supplementary UV-B just prior to harvest in the range of 0-2,400 mJ cm-2. Mushrooms grew for 2 days with or without repeated UV-B exposure each day. Vitamin D2 and growth rate were determined. Some mushrooms were post-harvest treated by exposure at 200 mJ cm-2 supplementary UV-B or natural...

  8. Effect of Ascorbic Acid, CaCl2, and Hydrogen Peroxide on Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus Shelf Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sarlak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are characterized by a very short shelf life and browning, weight-loss and microbial infections are known as the most deteriorating postharvest modifications in the mushrooms, leading to notable economic losses. In this study, the effects of some postharvest treatments including calcium chloride (0.30 and 0.45%, ascorbic acid (1, 2 and 3 mM and hydrogen peroxide (1% on increasing mushroom shelf life were evaluated. Mushrooms were dipped in the solution treatments for 2 min, then dried at room temperature and packed in polyethylene container by cellophane cover and were stored at 4°C. Some qualitative and quantitative parameters were measured on 8th and 16th days of storage. Results showed that, 0.45% CaCl2, as well as 2 and 3 mM ascorbic acid and 1% peroxide hydrogen effectively maintained mushrooms marketability and kept the cap closed. CaCl2 treatment was effective in extending the postharvest life of mushrooms due to reducing weight loss, maintaining firmness, reducing electrolyte leakage and lowering bacterial populations. Ascorbic acid was an effective treatment in reducing the weight loss, electrolyte leakage, bacterial populations and, thereby, maintaining the firmness. Hydrogen peroxide treatment improved the postharvest quality of mushrooms only through reducing bacterial populations.

  9. Increase of vitamin D2 by UV-B exposure during the growth phase of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne L. Kristensen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mushrooms are the only non-animal food source of vitamin D. Wild mushrooms have naturally high vitamin D2 content, and cultivated mushrooms produce vitamin D2 from ergosterol when exposed to supplementary UV-B during the post-harvest phase.Objectives: This study investigated the effects of providing supplementary UV-B during the growth phase on vitamin D2 formation and the interactions with growth of mushrooms, as compared to supplementary UV-B during the post-harvest phase or exposure to sunlight for both cultivated and wild mushrooms.Methods: Experiments were carried out with exposure to supplementary UV-B just prior to harvest in the range of 0–2,400 mJ cm−2. Mushrooms grew for 2 days with or without repeated UV-B exposure each day. Vitamin D2 and growth rate were determined. In addition, some mushrooms were post-harvest treated by exposure at 200 mJ cm−2 supplementary UV-B or natural sunlight, prior to vitamin D2 determination.Results: The content of vitamin D2 was 0.2–164 µg 100 g−1 fresh weight, and there was a linear relationship between UV-dose up to 1,000 mJ cm−2 and vitamin D2 content. The fast growth rate of the mushrooms diluted the vitamin D2 from 24 to 3 µg 100 g−1 within 2 days of exposure at 200 mJ cm−2. Following repeated UV-B exposure, vitamin D2 increased to 33 µg vitamin D2 100 g−1. Growth was unaffected by UV-B. Post-harvest exposure to supplementary UV-B resulted in a higher vitamin D2 content of 32 µg 100 g−1 compared to the 24 µg 100 g−1 obtained from exposure to UV-B during the growth phase. In contrast, wild and cultivated mushrooms with and without exposure to sunlight had vitamin D2 content in the range of 0.2–1.5 µg vitamin D2 100 g−1.Conclusions: This study showed that mushrooms with a well-defined content of vitamin D2 can be obtained by exposure to supplementary UV-B just prior to harvest.

  10. Production of recombinant Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzi, Chiara; Bleve, Gianluca; Spagnolo, Stefano; Perrotta, Carla; Grieco, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase is able to oxidize various phenolic compounds, thus being an enzyme of great importance for a number of biotechnological applications. The tyrosinase-coding PPO2 gene was isolated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using total RNA extracted from the mushroom fruit bodies as template. The gene was sequenced and cloned into pYES2 plasmid, and the resulting pY-PPO2 recombinant vector was then used to transform Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by enzymatic activity staining with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) indicated that the recombinant tyrosinase is biologically active. The recombinant enzyme was overexpressed and biochemically characterized, showing that the catalytic constants of the recombinant tyrosinase were higher than those obtained when a commercial tyrosinase was used, for all the tested substrates. The present study describes the recombinant production of A. bisporus tyrosinase in active form. The produced enzyme has similar properties to the one produced in the native A. bisporus host, and its expression in S. cerevisiae provides good potential for protein engineering and functional studies of this important enzyme.

  11. Substrate specifity and inhibitors of polyphenol oxidase in aspect of darkening of fresh and frozen mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Activity of mushroom polyphenol oxidase (PPO toward 6 substrates and inhibitory effect of cysteine, 2-mercaptoethanol, benzoic acid and sodium metabisulphite were determined. The o-diphenols which appeared to be the best substrates were: catechin, DOPA (L-3,4-dihydro-xyphenylalanine and chlorogcnic acid. Affinity of PPO crude preparation substrates to enzyme, expressed as inverse value of Michaelis constant was lower then affinity of catechol. Inhibitory effect depended on specifity of inhibitors and their concentration. Electrophoretic patterns of PPO of mushrooms reveals slow and fast moving 4 isoforms when DOPA was used as a substrate, 2 bands for catechin and chlorogenic acid while only one band showed activity toward tyrosine and p-cresol.

  12. Carbohydrate utilization and metabolism is highly differentiated in Agaricus bisporus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patyshakuliyeva, A; Jurak, E; Kohler, A; Baker, A; Battaglia, E; de Bruijn, W; Burton, K.S; Challen, M.P; Coutinho, P.M; Eastwood, D.C; Gruben, B.S; Makela, M.R; Martin, F; Nadal, M; van den Brink, J; Wiebenga, A; Zhou, M; Henrissat, B; Kabel, M; Gruppen, H; de Vries, R.P

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown on compost, in which the available carbon sources consist mainly of plant-derived polysaccharides that are built out of various different constituent monosaccharides...

  13. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... waste tea leaves based composts and locally available ... protein, and carbohydrate contents of the fruit bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Results showed ... residues, such as rice and wheat straw, is a value-added ... Wheat bran.

  14. Optimization of Freeze-Drying Process Parameters for Qualitative Evaluation of Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayon Tarafdar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Button mushroom cubes of constant cross-sectional area (0.75 cm × 1.5 cm and varying thickness (2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm were freeze-dried. Pressure (0.04, 0.07, and 0.10 mbar, primary drying temperature (−2°C, −5°C, and −8°C, and secondary drying temperature (25°C, 28°C, and 31°C were taken as drying parameters. The protein, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant contents were taken as quality estimates for freeze-dried mushrooms. It was observed that the secondary drying temperature affected the protein (p<0.05 and antioxidant content (p<0.01 significantly, whereas all three freeze-drying parameters affected the ascorbic acid content with higher effect due to temperature parameters (p<0.01 as compared to pressure (p<0.05. The optimized values for protein, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant content obtained using response surface methodology were 7.28±0.56 mg/g, 26.92±0.87 mg/100 g, and 8.60±0.44 mg/g, respectively, as compared to 8.43±0.21 mg/g, 28.00±0.53 mg/100 g, and 9.10±0.10 mg/g, respectively, for fresh button mushrooms. The optimum values for process variables were obtained as 0.09 mbar, 0.36 cm, and −7.53°C and 25.03°C for pressure, sample thickness, and primary and secondary drying temperatures, respectively.

  15. Identification of Two Thermotolerance-Related Genes in Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To characterize thermotolerance-related genes in Agaricus bisporus strain 02, we employed differential display PCR (DD-PCR to analyze total RNA samples extracted from the mycelia grown at different temperatures. Two partial DNA fragments (023-11A and 023-11B were cloned thus far, the expression of which was correlated with the culturing temperature. The sequences of the two DNA fragments were determined and the results showed that the nucleotide sequence of 023-11A was unknown, and 023-11B was highly similar in nucleotide sequence (identities 24 %, positives 45 % to a gene coding for the karyopherin docking complex of the nuclear pore complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is possible to use the two fragments for further characterization of full-length coding sequences, which can potentially be used for generating new thermotolerant mushroom strains by transgenic technique.

  16. Evaluation of casing materials made from spent mushroom substrate and coconut fibre pith for use in production of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Pardo-Gonzalez, J. E.

    2008-07-01

    The agronomic performance of different proportions of mixtures of coconut fibre (CF) pith and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was studied for their use as casing material in mushroom cultivation. After chemical and biological characterisation of the casing substrates qualitative and quantitative production parameters were evaluated in a cycle of Agaricus production. An increase in the proportion of SMS reduced the number of carpophores and overall yield; while the first flush was delayed, mushroom size tended to increase and the mushrooms had a higher dry matter content and a better texture, although their colour was worse. Combinations of CF pith and SMS of 4:1 and 3:2 (v/v) gave biological efficiencies of 92.9 and 82.6 kg 100 kg-1 compost, respectively. These values compare well with that obtained from the commercial casings used as a control. The high electrical conductivity of the mixture containing the highest proportion of SMS would limit its use. However, the results indicate the viability of reusing SMS as an ingredient of casing material for mushroom cultivation. This alternative could be considered to partially replace the organic substrates normally used for mushroom cultivation, with the double advantage of decreasing cost and reducing the environmental impact of waste disposal. Additional key words: alternative casing, compost reuse, mushroom cultivation. (Author) 31 refs.

  17. Fatty Acid Composition of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.

    OpenAIRE

    Aktümsek, Abdurrahman; ÖZTÜRK, Celâleddin; KAŞIK, Giyasettin

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of fruit body, stem, lamellae and total of Agaricus bisporus were seperately analysed by GLC. In the all fatty acid compositions of A. bisporus, linoleic acid were predominant. Percentages of linoleic acid were varied between 53.45 - 68.78%. It was showed that the other major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and stearic acid in the fatty acid compositions.

  18. Physiologic response of Agaricus subrufescens using different casing materials and practices applied in the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Zied, Diego Cunha; Rinker, Danny Lee

    2013-01-01

    Casing materials and practices used in the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus were evaluated in the cultivation of Agaricus subrufescens, using the best techniques for optimization of production, including the possibility of re-casing of the compost for the production of a second crop of mushroom. Casing based on peat moss, loam soil or coir was compared to casing material mixed with or without spawn-run compost. Based on the results, we conclude that the casing layer used in the cultivation of A. subrufescens should not necessarily be the same as that used in the cultivation of A. bisporus. For the tested strain cultivated with loam soil as casing layer, the ruffling technique is highly superior to CACing and should be pursued in further research. The re-casing of compost in new cycles showed good results suggesting that the currently used compost could be improved.

  19. Implications of polluted soil biostimulation and bioaugmentation with spent mushroom substrate (Agaricus bisporus) on the microbial community and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, Carlos; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Pesciaroli, Lorena; Yunta, Felipe; Crognale, Silvia; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    Different applications of spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS), a widespread agro-industrial waste, were investigated with respect to the remediation of a historically polluted soil with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH). In one treatment, the waste was sterilized (SSAS) prior to its application in order to assess its ability to biostimulate, as an organic amendment, the resident soil microbiota and ensuing contaminant degradation. For the other treatments, two bioaugmentation approaches were investigated; the first involved the use of the waste itself and thus implied the application of A. bisporus and the inherent microbiota of the waste. In the second treatment, SAS was sterilized and inoculated again with the fungus to assess its ability to act as a fungal carrier. All these treatments were compared with natural attenuation in terms of their impact on soil heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacteria, fungal growth, biodiversity of soil microbiota and ability to affect PAH bioavailability and ensuing degradation and detoxification. Results clearly showed that historically PAH contaminated soil was not amenable to natural attenuation. Conversely, the addition of sterilized spent A. bisporus substrate to the soil stimulated resident soil bacteria with ensuing high removals of 3-ring PAH. Both augmentation treatments were more effective in removing highly condensed PAH, some of which known to possess a significant carcinogenic activity. Regardless of the mode of application, the present results strongly support the adequacy of SAS for environmental remediation purposes and open the way to an attractive recycling option of this waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical and ultrastructural studies of lignocellulose biodegradation during Agaricus bisporus cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, Hexiang; Liu, Qinghong; Ng, TziBun

    2014-01-01

    During Agaricus bisporus cultivation, lignocellulose degradation is the result of the activity of both the mushroom and microbial communities developed during the composting. To investigate the lignocellulose degradation in detail from the beginning to the end of the process, the functional groups of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin have been studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the morphological changes of lignocelluloses were elucidated with scanning electron microscopy. The aperture of lignin and cellulose increased to enable the mycelia of A. bisporus to penetrate into the medium and to degrade lignocelluloses in a more direct way. The chemical structure changes implied a preferential use of lignin that could make for better use of cellulose to boost growth of A. bisporus. Changes in chemical structure together with ultrastructural changes induced by the microbial flora during cultivation substrate production by the composting substrate are important in promoting the utilization of lignocelluloses by A. bisporus.

  1. Biodegradation of lignin by Agaricus Bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vane, C.H.; Abbott, G.D.; Head, I.M. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The lignolytic activity of Agaricus bisporus will be addressed in this paper. Sound and fungally degraded lignins were characterized by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FnR) and elemental analysis. Fungally degraded lignins displayed increased wt%N, wt%H and wt%O content and decreased wt%C content The FTIR spectrum of decayed lignin showed an increase in the relative intensity of absorption bands assigned to carbonyl and carboxyl functional groups located on the aliphatic side chain and a decrease in absorption bands assigned to aromatic skeletal vibration modes. Semiquantitative Py-GC-MS revealed an 82% decrease in lignin derived pyrolysis products upon biodegradation. No significant increase in pyrolysis products with an oxygenated aliphatic side chain were detected in the fungally degraded lignin however shortening of the aliphatic side chain via cleavage at the {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} positions was observed.

  2. Expression of the urease gene of Agaricus bisporus: a tool for studying fruit body formation and post-harvest development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemaker, M.J.M.; Eastwood, D.C.; Drift, van der C.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Burton, K.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Camp, op den H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Fruit body initials of Agaricus bisporus contain high levels of urea, which decrease in the following developmental stages until stage 4 (harvest) when urea levels increase again. At storage, the high urea content may affect the quality of the mushroom, i.e. by the formation of ammonia from urea thr

  3. Selenium-Enriched Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Protects against Increase in Gut Permeability ex vivo and Up-Regulates Glutathione Peroxidase 1 and 2 in Hyperthermally-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebo Maseko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary effects of organic Se supplementation in the form of Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus mushroom on ileal mucosal permeability and antioxidant selenoenzymes status in heat induced oxidative stress in rats were evaluated. Acute heat stress (40 °C, 21% relative humidity, 90 min exposure increased ileum baseline short circuit current (Isc; 2.40-fold and epithelial conductance (Ge; 2.74-fold. Dietary supplementation with Se-enriched A. bisporus (1 µg Se/g feed reduced (p < 0.05 ileum Isc and Ge during heat stress to 1.74 and 1.91 fold, respectively, indicating protection from heat stress-induced mucosal permeability increase. The expression of ileum glutathione peroxidase (GPx- 1 and 2 mRNAs were up-regulated (p < 0.05 by 1.90 and 1.87-fold, respectively, for non-heat stress rats on the Se-enriched diet relative to the control. The interplay between heat stress and dietary Se is complex. For rats on the control diet, heat stress alone increased ileum expression of GPx-1 (2.33-fold and GPx-2 (2.23-fold relative to thermoneutral conditions. For rats on the Se-enriched diet, heat stress increased (p < 0.05 GPx-1 expression only. Rats on Se-enriched + α-tocopherol diet exhibited increased expression of both genes (p < 0.05. Thus, dietary Se-enriched A. bisporus protected against increase in ileum permeability and up-regulated GPx-1 and GPx-2 expression, selenoenzymes relevant to mitigating oxidative stress.

  4. Effects of polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus on alcoholic liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanoglu, Mustafa; Canbek, Mediha; van Griensven, Leo J L D; Yamac, Mustafa; Senturk, Hakan; Kartkaya, Kazım; Oglakcı, Aysegul; Turgak, Ozge; Kanbak, Gungor

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the curative effects of crude polysaccharides (PSs) from mushrooms on the symptoms of alcoholic liver injury were investigated. PSs from Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus fruiting bodies were administered by gavage at levels of 100 mg per kg body weight per day for 7 d after the onset of the disease. The caspase-3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial outer membrane integrity of the liver tissues of sacrificed rats, and the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were determined. In addition, light and transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies were performed for histopathological and cytological evaluations on liver sections. PSs from A. brasiliensis decreased ALT level and mitochondrial membrane potential and increased the outer membrane integrity; microscopic examinations also revealed normal hepatocytes and tissue. On the basis of our data, it can be argued that crude PSs from Agaricus brasiliensis have therapeutic potential for alcoholic liver injury.

  5. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmation of the sensory scent features of the most commonly consumed Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus subrufescens exhibiting anticancerous traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győrfi, Júlia; Geösel, András; Kiss, Mária; Nemes, Katalin; Csóka, Mariann; Korány, Kornél

    2013-02-01

    In Hungary, fairly little is known about Agaricus subrufescens Peck (formerly called Agaricus blazei Murrill), which is cultivated on an industrial scale in the Far East. Nevertheless, this mushroom species exerts a curative influence and might become a new pillar of cancer research and antitumorous therapy. The present study gives a detailed discussion on the compositional differences of the scent components of A. subrufescens and its close relative Agaricus bisporus based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements, subsequent to Likens-Nickerson simultaneous distillation-extraction.

  6. 可食性涂膜对双孢蘑菇生理和品质的影响%Effect of Edible Coatings on Physiology and Quality of Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相友; 闫聪聪; 刘战丽

    2012-01-01

    The effects of carrageenan, carboxymethyl cellulose solution and their complex film on the physiology and quality of mushrooms stored at (2 ± 1 ) ℃ were studied. The minimum loss of weight was obtained in fruits coated with CMC coating, the minimum value of respiration rate, PPO activity, membrane permeability and the maximum hardness and L* value were obtained in mushrooms coated with carrageenan coating. Overall, the preservation effect of carrageenan film is the best, and it can extend the shelf-life of Agaricus bisporus to more than 12 d.%研究了卡拉胶、羧甲基纤维素钠及其复配涂膜对(2±1)℃下贮藏的双孢菇生理和品质的影响.实验结果表明:羧甲基纤维素钠涂膜抑制双孢菇失重率的效果最好;卡拉胶涂膜在抑制呼吸速率、PPO活性、细胞膜通透性的上升和果实硬度、白度的下降方面效果最好,可以将双孢菇的货架期延长至12d以上.

  7. 三种提取物对双孢菇片烫漂颜色和品质的影响%Effect of Three Plant Extracts on Color and Quality of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Slices during Blanching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 王安建; 刘丽娜; 魏书信; 田广瑞; 杨慧; 王赵改

    2014-01-01

    In order to select the effective browning inhibitors , the impact of water blanching followed by soaking in plant extracts solution on color and quality of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) slices were investigated. These pre-treatments, including soaking in rhizoma atractylodes, lophatherum gracile and papaya extracts solution combined with water blanching , can inhibit the browning of the mushroom slices to some extent , and the best treatment concentration were 0.5, 2.0 g/L and 2.0 g/L, respectively. Blanching can significantly reduce the ascorbic acid and total phenol content of mushroom slices. However , those mushrooms undergoing soaking in three plant extracts solution and blanching , as opposed to soaking in water and blanching , exhibited higher ascorbic acid and total phenol content.%为了筛选有效的褐变抑制剂,研究了白术、淡竹叶、木瓜提取物溶液浸泡前处理结合沸水烫漂对双孢菇颜色和品质的影响。结果表明,经白术、淡竹叶、木瓜3种植物提取物前处理均可以在一定程度上抑制菇片的褐变,其最佳处理浓度分别为0.5、2.0、2.0 g/L。沸水烫漂可以显著降低菇片的抗坏血酸和总酚的含量,但经3种植物提取物浸泡前处理的菇片抗坏血酸和总酚的含量均高于清水浸泡前处理的菇片。

  8. The influence of the strain, flush and size of carpophores on the yield and dry matter content of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach carpophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kałużewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to obtain information about the yield quantity and quality of 16 cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus. The ‘Somycel 516’ strain gave the highest yield, whereas the yield from the ‘Sylvan 130’ strain was the lowest. The ‘Hauser A1.5’ was characterised by the highest content of dry matter in all the three yield flushes. An equally high content of dry matter was in the first and second flush of the ‘Italspawn F 50’ strain and in the second flash of the strain ‘Italspawn F 62’. ‘Sylvan S100’, ‘Italspawn F 56’, ‘Irlandzka 501’, ‘Amycel 104’ and ‘Le Lion X13’ were the strains with the lowest content of dry matter in all of the three yield flushes. The size of the carpophores had significant influence on the dry matter content. In the all three flushes, the carpophores with diameter 4.6–5.5 cm were characterized by the lowest dry matter content.

  9. Determination of Zinc(II) Ions Released into Artificial Digestive Juices from Culinary-Medicinal Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Agaricomycetidae), Biomass of In Vitro Cultures Using an Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Katarzyna; Muszynska, Bozena; Zajac, Magdalena; Krezalek, Remigiusz; Opoka, Wlodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is one of those microelements that are essential for the proper functioning of the human body and must be supplemented in our food at a daily dose of 15 mg. It is well known that mushrooms accumulate elements; thus, in order to determine the extent of accumulation and the level of zinc released from mushrooms, in vitro cultures of Agaricus bisporus were established. The cultures were run on a modified Oddoux medium (a control culture) as well as on the same medium with the addition of zinc hydroaspartate (100 and 200 mg/L) and zinc sulfate (87.23 and 174.47 mg/L). These compounds were chosen to help estimate which form, organic or inorganic, results in a better assimilation of zinc(II) ions by biomass. As the next step, the level of zinc(II) ions released from the lyophilized biomass of in vitro cultures to the digestive juices, under thermal conditions of the human body (37°C), was determined. For this purpose, artificial digestive juices, imitating the composition of human digestive juices, were used. For determination of zinc(II) ions in the digestive tract, an anodic stripping voltammetry method was employed. The amount of zinc released into artificial saliva over 1 minute varied from 0.15 mg/100 g d.w. in the control culture to 2.35 mg/100 g d.w. in the biomass in the medium to which 200 mg/L zinc hydroaspartate had been added. Values were higher in gastric juice and depended on incubation time (2.66 to 30.63 mg/100 g d.w.). In intestinal juice, the highest value of the released zinc grew to 24.20 mg/100 g d.w. (biomass of A. bisporus in vitro cultures in medium with the addition of 200 mg/L zinc hydroaspartate). Total average amount of zinc released into artificial digestive juices was the highest (56.26 mg/100 g d.w.) from A. bisporus biomass of in vitro cultures in the medium to which 200 mg/L zinc hydroaspartate had been added.

  10. Developments in breeding of Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus: progress made and technical and legal hurdles to take.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Baars, Johan J P; Gao, Wei; Visser, Richard G F

    2017-03-01

    True breeding of button mushrooms has hardly been done in the last decades, despite this species being one of the most cultivated mushrooms worldwide. Research done in the last 20 years has identified and characterised new germplasm and improved our understanding of the genetic base for some traits. A substantial collection of wild-collected strains is now available and partly characterised for a number of important traits such as disease resistance and yield. Most of the variations found in a number of important agronomic traits have a considerable heritability and are thus useful for breeding. Genetic marker technology has also developed considerably for this mushrooms in the last decade and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for important agronomic traits. This progress has, except for one example, not resulted so far into new commercially varieties. One of the reasons lies in the typical life cycle of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus which hampers breeding. Joint investment is needed to solve technical problems in breeding. Special attention is needed for the protection of new varieties. Due to its typical life cycle, it is very easy to generate so called "look-a-likes" from protected cultivars by screening fertile single spore cultures. A consensus has been reached within the mushroom (breeding) industry to consider this method as the generation of essentially derived varieties as defined in plant breeding.

  11. Chemical characterisation and speciation of organic selenium in cultivated selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Tebo; Callahan, Damien L; Dunshea, Frank R; Doronila, Augustine; Kolev, Spas D; Ng, Ken

    2013-12-15

    The selenium concentration in Agaricus bisporus cultivated in growth compost irrigated with sodium selenite solution increased by 28- and 43-fold compared to the control mushroom irrigated solely with water. Selenium contents of mushroom proteins increased from 13.8 to 60.1 and 14.1 to 137 μgSe/g in caps and stalks from control and selenised mushrooms, respectively. Selenocystine (SeCys; detected as [SeCys]2 dimer), selenomethionine (SeMet), and methyl-selenocysteine (MeSeCys) were separated, identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry from water solubilised and acetone precipitated proteins, and significant increases were observed for the selenised mushrooms. The maximum selenoamino acids concentration in caps and stalks of control/selenised mushrooms was 4.16/9.65 μg/g dried weight (DW) for SeCys, 0.08/0.58 μg/g DW for SeMet, and 0.031/0.10 μg/g DW for MeSeCys, respectively. The most notable result was the much higher levels of SeCys accumulated by A. bisporus compared to SeMet and MeSeCys, for both control and selenised A. bisporus.

  12. Evaluation of the infection process by Lecanicillium fungicola in Agaricus bisporus by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana Nunes, Janaira; Rocha de Brito, Manuela; Cunha Zied, Diego; Aparecida das Graças Leite, Eloisa; Souza Dias, Eustáquio; Alves, Eduardo

    Lecanicillium fungicola causes dry bubble disease in Agaricus bisporus mushrooms leading to significant economic losses in commercial production. To monitor the infection process of L. fungicola in Brazilian strains of A. bisporus. The interaction between the mycelium of L. fungicola (LF.1) and three strains of A. bisporus (ABI 7, ABI 11/14 and ABI 11/21) was studied. Electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of vegetative growth and basidiocarp infection were evaluated. Micrographs show that the vegetative mycelium of the Brazilian strains of A. bisporus is not infected by the parasite. The images show that the pathogen can interlace the hyphae of A. bisporus without causing damage, which contributes to the presence of L. fungicola during the substrate colonization, allowing their presence during primordial formation of A. bisporus. In the basidiocarp, germ tubes form within 16h of infection with L. fungicola and the beginning of penetration takes place within 18h, both without the formation of specialized structures. Scanning electron microscopy enabled the process of colonization and reproduction to be observed within the formation of phialides, conidiophores and verticils of L. fungicola. The formation of calcium oxalate crystals by the pathogen was also visible using the X-ray microanalysis, both at the hyphae in the Petri plate and at basidiocarp infection site. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Agaricus bisporus attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Min Young; Park, Jae Ho; Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-12-01

    Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom, WBM) is widely consumed in most countries and is reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, little is known regarding its effects in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, which are related to dysfunction of intestinal immunity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of WBMs in an animal model of DSS-induced colitis. Male, 4-week-old ICR mice (n=10 per group) were fed a normal diet with or without 10% WBM for 4 weeks, and colitis was induced by 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. WBMs prevented DSS-induced shortening of colon length (P=.033) and diminished diarrhea (P=.049) and gross bleeding (P=.001), resulting in a decreased disease activity index. Results of histological analysis showed that WBMs suppressed mucosal damage. In addition, WBMs attenuated the DSS-induced increase in myeloperoxidase activity (P=.012) and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (P=.020) in the colon segment. Taken together, these findings suggest a possible role for the WBM as an immunomodulator that can prevent and/or treat ulcerative colitis.

  14. Removal of phenol from industrial effluents using enzymatic extract from Agaricus bisporus; Remocao de fenol de efluentes industriais utilizando extrato enzimatico de Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, E.; Coelho, M.A.Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica]. E-mail: alice@eq.ufrj.br; Langone, M.A.P. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: langonem@uerj.br

    2003-07-01

    Phenols are toxic pollutants found in several industrial wastes, mainly in oil industry. These substances impose several risks to human health. Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) is a polyphenol oxidase found in several life forms, like in the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. In this fungal tissue, the enzyme is readily available leading to high activity extracts needing no extensive purification. The tyrosinase extract is able to modify phenols in non-soluble reaction products, proving its potential as a biocatalyst for applications involving biomodification of phenols or bioremediation of phenol-polluted water. The purpose of this work was to employ the crude extract from the Agaricus bisporus mushroom in the removal of phenol from a synthetic oil industry wastewater. The crude extract was used in enzymatic reactions employing aqueous phenol solutions without pH control. The initial phenol concentration in all substrate solutions was 100 mg/L and different enzymatic concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400 U/mL were tested. Both reactions, with 200 U/mL and 400 U/mL enzymatic activity, lead to 90% of phenol removal. The treated and not treated samples toxicity were measured using Artemia salina (crustacean) and Brachydanio rerio (fish) bioassays. The final effluent shown to be less toxicity than the polluted water. (author)

  15. Diversity in the ability of Agaricus bisporus wild isolates to fruit at high temperature (25°C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeteau, Michèle L; Callac, Philippe; Navarro-Rodriguez, Anna-Maria; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2011-11-01

    The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus commercially cultivated requires 16-19 °C during the fruiting period. Wild strains are also present in natural habitat, and in light of their wide range of geographic distribution reported, from boreal region to tropical region, questions on the development adaptation to temperature arose. Isolates from various geographic areas were screened for their ability to fruit at higher temperature (FHT ability) than commercial cultivars. The FHT trait discriminated at the varietal rank. Agaricus bisporus var. eurotetrasporus was unable to develop any sporophores whilst A. bisporus var. burnettii adapted perfectly to 25 °C for fruiting, suggesting that the FHT ability is a fixed trait in these varieties. In contrast, FHT ability of A. bisporus var. bisporus appeared variable and correlated neither with climate/microclimate nor with habitat. However, FHT ability taken as a whole appeared higher in North American populations than in European ones. Some A. bisporus var. bisporus isolates revealed a good potential for cultivation at 25 °C.

  16. High Molecular Weight Glucan of the Culinary Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus bisporus is an α-Glucan that Forms Complexes with Low Molecular Weight Galactan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry J. Wichers

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An a-glucan was isolated from the culinary medicinal mushroom A. bisporus by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The resulting material showed a single HMW peak excluded from a Sephadex G50 column that could completely be degraded by α-amylase treatment. After heating in 1% SDS a small additional peak of low MW eluted from the G50 column. The monosaccharide composition of the main peak was evaluated by HPLC, and was found to consist of a majority of glucose (97.6%, and a minor proportion of galactose (2.4%. Methylation analysis and degradation by a-amylase indicated the presence of an a-glucan with a main chain consisting of (1®4-linked units, substituted at O-6 by α-D-glucopyranose single-units in the relation 1:8. Mono- (13C-, 1H-NMR and bidimensional [1H (obs.,13C-HSQC] spectroscopy analysis confirmed the a-configuration of the Glcp residues by low frequency resonances of C-1 at d 100.6, 100.2, and 98.8 ppm and H-1 high field ones at d 5.06, 5.11, and 4.74 ppm. The DEPT-13C-NMR allowed assigning the non-substituted and O-substituted –CH2 signals at d 60.3/60.8 and 66.2 ppm, respectively. Other assignments were attributed to C-2, C-3, C-4, C-5 and C-6 of the non-reducing ends at d 71.8; 72.8; 70.0; 71.3 and 60.3/60.8 ppm, respectively. The minor proportion of galactose that was demonstrated was probably derived from a complex between the a-glucan and a low molecular weight galactan.

  17. Composition and Biological Properties of Agaricus bisporus Fruiting Bodies – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muszyńska Bożena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available White Agaricus bisporus is both the most popular and the most commonly eaten edible mushroom species in the world. It is popular not only because of its taste, but also due to its high level of nutrients: dietary fiber (chitin, essential, semi-essential amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic and linolenic acids, easily digestible proteins, sterols, phenolic and indole compounds, and vitamins − especially provitamin D2 and B1, B2, B6, B7, and C. Fruiting bodies of A. bisporus have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activity. The presence of antioxidant ergothioneine (which also displays the antimutagenic, chemo- and radioprotective activity is also noteworthy. A. bisporus also contains derivatives of benzoquinone, a substance which belongs to the group of antibiotics. Studies of tyrosinase isolated from this species show its very high similarity to human tyrosinase. This points directly to the fact that this species could be a rich source of tyrosinase used for medicinal and cosmetics purposes. A. bisporus is also a rich source of selenium, zinc and other elements such as magnesium, copper, iron, potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, sulfur or manganese. In conclusion, the presence of these compounds and elements with biological activity in fruiting bodies of A. bisporus confirms their nutraceutical and medicinal properties.

  18. Development of nutraceutical formulations based on the mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rossana V C; Fernandes, Ângela; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-06-21

    The present work is aimed at developing nutraceutical formulations based on the mycelium of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus, highlighting the potential of in vitro culture as a tool to improve the production of bioactive compounds, namely phenolic acids and ergosterol. The mycelia of both species were cultured in different solid and liquid media in order to compare the growth rate and yielded biomass. Fruiting bodies, mycelia and culture media were compared regarding the antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory effects in RAW264.7 cells and cytotoxicity in human tumor cell lines and non-tumor porcine liver cells. P. ostreatus mycelia showed higher contents of ergosterol and phenolic compounds, and stronger antioxidant activity than the corresponding fruiting body. P. ostreatus and A. bisporus did not show anti-inflammatory activity, and P. ostreatus was the only one showing cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines. The results show that these mushrooms provide compounds with antioxidant and cytotoxic capacities, with variations among species.

  19. Uncovering the abilities of Agaricus bisporus to degrade plant biomass throughout its life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Post, Harm; Zhou, Miaomiao; Jurak, Edita; Heck, Albert J R; Hildén, Kristiina S; Kabel, Mirjam A; Mäkelä, Miia R; Altelaar, Maarten A F; de Vries, Ronald P

    2015-08-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest litter and contributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in plant biomass. Relatively little is known about how A. bisporus grows in the controlled environment in commercial production facilities and utilizes its substrate. Using transcriptomics and proteomics, we showed that changes in plant biomass degradation by A. bisporus occur throughout its life cycle. Ligninolytic genes were only highly expressed during the spawning stage day 16. In contrast, (hemi-)cellulolytic genes were highly expressed at the first flush, whereas low expression was observed at the second flush. The essential role for many highly expressed plant biomass degrading genes was supported by exo-proteome analysis. Our data also support a model of sequential lignocellulose degradation by wood-decaying fungi proposed in previous studies, concluding that lignin is degraded at the initial stage of growth in compost and is not modified after the spawning stage. The observed differences in gene expression involved in (hemi-)cellulose degradation between the first and second flushes could partially explain the reduction in the number of mushrooms during the second flush.

  20. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt.

  1. Antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic potential of Agaricus bisporus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2013-08-22

    Aug 22, 2013 ... of coarse powder was defatted with petroleum ether and ex- tracted exhaustively with 95% methanol at a temperature of. 60 °C. The extract was dried by a vacuum evaporator. Metha- nolic extract of A. bisporus was dissolved in dimethyl sulphox- ..... is involved in the conversion of androgens to proliferative.

  2. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms Produção de quatro linhagens de Agaricus bisporus em três formulações de compostos e análises bromatológicas dos cogumelos produzidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L. Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton and oat (Avena sativa straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test. According to the results, productivity of mushrooms was influenced by strain and/or compost type. It was also verified that crude protein, ash, and crude fiber contents in the mushroom varied with A. bisporus strain and straw used in the formulation of the compost.Três formulações de composto, à base de palhas de Cynodom dactylon (L. Pers. (cultivares Coast-cross e Tyfton e Aveia-Avena sativa, foram testadas no cultivo das linhagens ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03 e ABI-06/04 de A. bisporus. O delineamento experimental foi em esquema fatorial, inteiramente casualizado com 12 tratamentos (4 linhagens de A. bisporus x 3 tipos de composto e 8 repetições. Cada unidade experimental constou de uma caixa com 1212,5 kg de composto fresco úmido. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. De acordo com os resultados obtidos verificou-se que a produção de cogumelos foi influenciada pela linhagem e/ou pelo tipo de composto. Também verificou-se que o teor de proteína bruta, cinzas e fibra bruta de basidiomas variou com a linhagem de A. bisporus e com o tipo de palha utilizada na formulação do composto.

  3. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Ronald P.; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A.

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from mushroom-grown compost at different stages of mycelium growth and fruiting body formation, were analyzed for their ability to degrade a range of polysaccharides. Mainly endo-xylanase, endo-glucanase, β-xylosidase and β-glucanase activities were determined in the compost extracts obtained during mushroom growth. Interestingly, arabinofuranosidase activity able to remove arabinosyl residues from doubly substituted xylose residues and α-glucuronidase activity were not detected in the compost enzyme extracts. This correlates with the observed accumulation of arabinosyl and glucuronic acid substituents on the xylan backbone in the compost towards the end of the cultivation. Hence, it was concluded that compost grown A. bisporus lacks the ability to degrade and consume highly substituted xylan fragments. PMID:26237450

  4. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from mushroom-grown compost at different stages of mycelium growth and fruiting body formation, were analyzed for their ability to degrade a range of polysaccharides. Mainly endo-xylanase, endo-glucanase, β-xylosidase and β-glucanase activities were determined in the compost extracts obtained during mushroom growth. Interestingly, arabinofuranosidase activity able to remove arabinosyl residues from doubly substituted xylose residues and α-glucuronidase activity were not detected in the compost enzyme extracts. This correlates with the observed accumulation of arabinosyl and glucuronic acid substituents on the xylan backbone in the compost towards the end of the cultivation. Hence, it was concluded that compost grown A. bisporus lacks the ability to degrade and consume highly substituted xylan fragments.

  5. Effect of supplementing crop substrate with defatted pistachio meal on Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Giménez, Arturo; Catalán, Luis; Carrasco, Jaime; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego; Pardo, José

    2016-08-01

    This work assesses the agronomic performance of defatted pistachio meal, after oil extraction, as a nutritional substrate supplement when growing the mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. Materials were applied at different doses at spawning. Along with non-supplemented substrates, commercial nutritional supplements were used as controls. Proximate analysis of mushrooms is also considered. For the cultivation of champignon, defatted pistachio meal has provided larger mushrooms (unitary weight and cap diameter) with firmer texture and greater content in dry weight and protein, without significant alterations in quantitative parameters. For Pleurotus ostreatus, the supplement led to significant yield increase, even providing up to 34.4% of increment compared to non-supplementation with meal, reaching a biological efficiency of 129.9 kg dt(-1) , when applied to the 15 g kg(-1) compost dose. Supplementation has also been conducted to increase dry weight, protein and fibre within carpophores and to decrease the energy value. Defatted pistachio meal has similar or better results compared to the commercial supplements used as reference. Compost supplementation with defatted pistachio meal in A. bisporus concerns mainly the quantitative parameters (size, texture, dry weight and protein). Based on the results obtained, this technique has greater potential of development for P. ostreatus commercial crops, basically due to expected increases in production, with a direct impact on benefits and crop profitability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Changes in non-volatile taste components of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during different stages of freeze drying and freeze drying combined with microwave vacuum drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fei; Shi, Ying; Gao, Xingyang; Wu, Fangning; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Yang, Wenjian; Zhao, Liyan; An, Xinxin; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Fangmei; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-12-15

    Button mushroom slices were dehydrated using freeze drying (FD) or FD combined with microwave vacuum drying (FMVD), and the non-volatile component profiles were studied. The results showed that the level of non-volatile components in button mushroom firstly increased during sublimation of FD/FMVD process and then fell during desorption in FD process and MVD in FMVD process. Compared to FD products, the contents of soluble sugars and polyols in FMVD products were relatively low, whereas the contents of total free amino acids were significantly higher, close to the level of fresh mushroom. However, there was no significant difference in the contents of 5'-nucleotides and organic acids between FD and FMVD products. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values for FD and FMVD products did not differ from fresh, indicating that both drying methods could effectively preserve MSG (monosodium glutamate)-like components in button mushroom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Different Levels of Mushroom Waste (Agaricus bisporus with or without Probiotic on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Breast Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazaheri A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mushroom waste and probiotic levels on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality in broiler chickens. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two levels of probiotic supplementation (0 and recommended rate and three levels of mushroom waste inclusion (0%, 3%, and 6% was used in a completely randomized design using male broiler chickens (Ross 308 strain. Different levels of mushroom waste and probiotic had no significant effect on body weight gain and feed conversion ratio in broiler chickens. Neither different levels of mushroom waste nor probiotic independently had any significant effect on carcass characteristics. However, the use of mushroom waste and probiotics significantly reduced the malondialdehyde content in chicken breast meat 30 days after storage (P. Breast meat pH value was significantly reduced by supplementation with probiotic 1 and 30 days after storage (P. In conclusion, under the conditions of this experiment, inclusion of mushroom waste, particularly at 6% level, numerically improved growth performance and was effective in preventing meat oxidation.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of the interactions between Agaricus bisporus and Lecanicillium fungicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andy M; Collopy, Patrick D; Thomas, D John; Sergeant, Martin R; Costa, Ana M S B; Barker, Gary L A; Mills, Peter R; Challen, Michael P; Foster, Gary D

    2013-06-01

    Agaricus bisporus is susceptible to a number of diseases, particularly those caused by fungi, with Lecanicillium fungicola being the most serious. Control of this disease is important for the security of crop production, however given the lack of knowledge about fungal-fungal interactions, such disease control is rather limited. Exploiting the recently released genome sequence of A. bisporus, here we report studies simultaneously investigating both the host and the pathogen, focussing on transcriptional changes associated with the cap spotting lesions typically seen in this interaction. Forward-suppressive subtractive hybridisation (SSH) analysis identified 68 A. bisporus unigenes induced during infection. Chitin deacetylase showed the strongest response, with almost 1000-fold up-regulation during infection, so was targeted for down-regulation by silencing to see if it was involved in defence against L. fungicola. Transgenic lines were made expressing hairpin RNAi constructs, however no changes in susceptibility to L. fungicola were observed. Amongst the other up-regulated genes there were none with readily apparent roles in resisting infection in this susceptible interaction. Reverse-SSH identified 72 unigenes from A. bisporus showing reduced expression, including two tyrosinases, several genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and a hydrophobin. The forward-SSH analysis of infected mushrooms also yielded 64 unigenes which were not of A. bisporus origin and thus derived from L. fungicola. An EST analysis of infection-mimicking conditions generated an additional 623 unigenes from L. fungicola including several oxidoreductases, cell wall degrading enzymes, ABC and MFS transporter proteins and various other genes believed to play roles in other pathosystems. Together, this analysis shows how both the pathogen and the host modify their gene expression during an infection-interaction, shedding some light on the disease process, although we note that some 40% of unigenes

  9. Uptake and transformation of arsenic during the reproductive life stage of Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2016-11-01

    Fruiting bodies from the Agaricus genus have been found to contain non-toxic arsenobetaine (AB) as a major compound. It is unknown whether AB is formed during the vegetative or reproductive life stages of the fungus, or by the surrounding microbial community, but AB's structural similarity to glycine betaine has led to the hypothesis that AB may be adventitiously accumulated as an osmolyte. To investigate the potential formation of AB during the reproductive life stage of Agaricus species, growth substrate and fungi were collected during the commercial growth of Agaricus bisporus and analyzed for arsenic speciation using HPLC-ICP-MS. AB was found to be the major arsenic compound in the fungus at the earliest growth stage of fruiting (the primordium). The growth substrate mainly contained arsenate (As(V)). The distribution of arsenic in an A. bisporus primordium grown on As(V) treated substrate, and in a mature Agaricus campestris fruiting body collected from arsenic contaminated mine tailings, was mapped using two dimensional XAS imaging. The primordium and stalk of the mature fruiting body were both found to be growing around pockets of substrate material containing higher As concentrations, and AB was found exclusively in the fungal tissues. In the mature A. campestris the highest proportion of AB was found in the cap, supporting the AB as an osmolyte hypothesis. The results have allowed us to pinpoint the fungus life stage at which AB formation takes place, namely reproduction, which provides a direction for further research.

  10. The effect of ionizing radiation and storage temperature on the post-harvest growth and some quality properties of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryspina Śmierzchalska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a dose of 2.0 kGy (Co-60 and three ranges of storage temperature (0-4°C, 9-11°C, 18-19°C on increasing the shelf-life and some quality properties of the mushrooms were investigated. The retardation of mushroom growth and ageing by ionizing radiation was estimated by measurements of the cap diameter, stem elongation, cap opening and discoloration of cap surface. The control of fungal and bacterial diseases was also evaluated. The effect of lower doses, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy, was compared at the storage temperature of 10°C. The irradiation of mushrooms soon after harvest and storage at temperatures of 10 and 16°C allowed the retention of quality and increased the shelf-life to 8 days; at 18-19°C to 6 days.

  11. Impact on Vitamin D2, Vitamin D4 and Agaritine in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms after Artificial and Natural Solar UV Light Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbain, Paul; Valverde, Juan; Jakobsen, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Commercial mushroom production can expose mushrooms post-harvest to UV light for purposes of vitamin D2 enrichment by converting the naturally occurring provitamin D2 (ergosterol). The objectives of the present study were to artificially simulate solar UV-B doses occurring naturally in Central...... between UV light exposure and agaritine content. The artificial UV-B dose of 0.53 J/cm(2) raised the vitamin D2 content to significantly (P dry weight (DW) than sun exposure (3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry DW). We observed a positive correlation between vitamin D4 and vitamin...... with all UV-B doses both artificial and natural solar, probably due to its known instability. The biological action of vitamin D from UV-exposed mushrooms reflects the activity of these two major vitamin D analogues (D2, D4). Vitamin D4 should be analysed and agaritine disregarded in future studies of UV...

  12. Fungicide sensitivity of Trichoderma spp. from Agaricus bisporus farms in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanović, Dejana; Potočnik, Ivana; Vukojević, Jelena; Stajić, Mirjana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Todorović, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould disease, induce great losses in Agaricus bisporus farms. Fungicides are widely used to control mushroom diseases although green mould control is encumbered with difficulties. The aims of this study were, therefore, to research in vitro toxicity of several commercial fungicides to Trichoderma isolates originating from Serbian and Bosnia-Herzegovina farms, and to evaluate the effects of pH and light on their growth. The majority of isolates demonstrated optimal growth at pH 5.0, and the rest at pH 6.0. A few isolates also grew well at pH 7. The weakest mycelial growth was noted at pH 8.0-9.0. Generally, light had an inhibitory effect on the growth of tested isolates. The isolates showed the highest susceptibility to chlorothalonil and carbendazim (ED50 less than 1 mg L(-1)), and were less sensitive to iprodione (ED50 ranged 0.84-6.72 mg L(-1)), weakly resistant to thiophanate-methyl (ED50 = 3.75-24.13 mg L(-1)), and resistant to trifloxystrobin (ED50 = 10.25-178.23 mg L(-1)). Considering the toxicity of fungicides to A. bisporus, carbendazim showed the best selective toxicity (0.02), iprodione and chlorothalonil moderate (0.16), and thiophanate-methyl the lowest (1.24), while trifloxystrobin toxicity to A. bisporus was not tested because of its inefficiency against Trichoderma isolates.

  13. Influence of the harvesting method of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. grown on a phase four substrate on their yield Part II. Yield quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Gapiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the described mushroom cultivation is obtaining high yield of good quality from phase four substrate in a short period of time in two separate batches. Choosing the right harvesting moment with regard to the physiological development of the fruiting body is complicated and it is determined by: the number of harvesting days of the batch, its frequency during a day, which is the basis for gaining good quality yield. Obtaining high quality mushrooms is considered to be more difficult than obtaining high yield. The current paper introduces a comparison of mushroom quality from accelerated harvesting and traditional one. All of the picked up mushrooms from the phase four substrate were of very good quality, regardless of time and method of harvesting. The share of the A class yield in the accelerated harvesting was over 70% in commercial yield, regardless of the market. The yield for the fresh market was higher in the first batch, while for processing in the second one. The difference was 4.6 and 3.4 kg/m2, respectively. Dry matter of the fruiting bodies from the accelerated harvesting was significantly, by 1%, higher than dry matter of the fruiting bodies from the traditional harvesting. The weight of a single fruiting body of A and B class was significantly lower in the accelerated harvesting, regardless of the market. The number of harvested fruiting bodies of class A and B for a 1 m2 of a growing area was higher in the accelerated harvesting for the fresh market and processing, in comparison with the traditional harvesting.  

  14. Fungicide sensitivity of selected Verticillium fungicola isolates from Agaricus bisporus farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potočnik Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of Verticillium fungicola, isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from mushroom farms in Serbia during 2002-2003, were studied. By observing their colony morphology under different growth conditions and their pathogenic characteristics, the isolates were identified as V. fungicola var. fungicola. The peat/lime casing was the primary source of infection. Testing of sensitivity to selected fungicides showed that all isolates were highly resistant to benomyl (EC50 values were higher than 200.00 mg/l, moderately sensitive to iprodione (EC50 values were between 11.93 and 22.80 mg/l, and highly sensitive to prochloraz-Mn (EC50 values were less than 3.00 mg/l.

  15. Influence of the harvesting method of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. grown on a phase four substrate on their yield Part I. Size of yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Gapiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment the influence of mushroom harvesting method on yielding in phase four substrate, depending on the stage of development of the fruiting body and market requirements, was determined. The results proved that the accelerated harvest, applied in order to obtain higher yield, was characterised by a significant predominance in total harvest, as well as commercial one compared to traditional harvest. Total yield obtained from 1 t of substrate in traditional harvesting was lower and amounted to 359.3 kg of mushrooms while for the fresh market it was the highest, i.e. 439.3 kg in accelerated harvesting. The highest yields correspond to the highest rate of biological efficiency (%BE. The share of the commercial yield for the fresh market in the total yield was higher in accelerated harvesting in comparison to the traditional harvesting. The weight of stems was significantly lower in the accelerated harvesting yield, comparing to the weight of stems from the traditional harvesting. The accelerated harvesting allowed for obtaining higher economical results in comparison to the economical results from the traditional harvesting.

  16. Peculiarities of agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach strains obtained under the. gamma. -ray effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanek, M.; Dudka, Yi.O.; Byis' ko, N.A.; Vasser, S.P.; Srv, A.; Kolesnichenko, L.P.; Yablons' kij, Yi. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Novy Hradek. Mikrobiologicky Ustav; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Botaniki)

    A technique of irradiation of Agaricus bisporus (J.Lge) Imbach strains by gamma-rays is described, characteristics of strains, received during irradiation are given (productivity, protein content). The efficiency of gamma-ray usage in A bisporus selection is considered.

  17. First Report of Brown Discoloration of Agaricus bisporus Caused by Pseudomonas agarici in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lo Cantore

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available From superficial brown discolorations on the caps and stalks of deformed sporophores of Agaricus bisporus, bacteria were consistently isolated. On the basis of biochemical, nutritional and pathogenic characteristics, both on tissue blocks and on whole sporophores of A. bisporus, the above bacteria were identified as strains of Pseudomonas agarici.

  18. Combined effect of kinetin and radiation treatment on the cap opening of Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, E. (Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1982-01-01

    Cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) with a cap diameter of 3-5 cm were incubated at 20 deg C during the experimental period (30-72 h). The degree of cap opening was determined and the data were evaluated. It was found that kinetin solutions in the 0 to 32 mg kg/sup -1/ range stimulated the opening of the mushroom cap. The shorter the time elapsed between picking and treating the mushrooms, the greater was the effect. A kinetin solution with a concentration of 100 mg kg/sup -1/ inhibited the opening of the cap. Cap opening in irradiated mushrooms cannot be induced even with kinetin concentrations that stimulate cap opening. Treatment with 0, 2.5 and 10 kGy doses of radiation the stimulating effect on cap opening decreased as a function of the rising dose. The radiation effects in kinetin solutions and various natural cytokinins (zeatin, 2iP and 2iPA) were studied and it was found that cytokinin solutions lost 50-60% of their activity after a radiation dose of only 1 kGy.

  19. Vitamin D2-enriched button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus improves memory in both wild type and APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Bennett

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is widespread, affecting over 30% of adult Australians, and increasing up to 80% for at-risk groups including the elderly (age>65. The role for Vitamin D in development of the central nervous system is supported by the association between Vitamin D deficiency and incidence of neurological and psychiatric disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD. A reported positive relationship between Vitamin D status and cognitive performance suggests that restoring Vitamin D status might provide a cognitive benefit to those with Vitamin D deficiency. Mushrooms are a rich source of ergosterol, which can be converted to Vitamin D2 by treatment with UV light, presenting a new and convenient dietary source of Vitamin D2. We hypothesised that Vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (VDM could prevent the cognitive and pathological abnormalities associated with dementia. Two month old wild type (B6C3 and AD transgenic (APPSwe/PS1dE9 mice were fed a diet either deficient in Vitamin D2 or a diet which was supplemented with VDM, containing 1±0.2 µg/kg (∼54 IU/kg vitamin D2, for 7 months. Effects of the dietary intervention on memory were assessed pre- and post-feeding. Brain sections were evaluated for amyloid β (Aβ plaque loads and inflammation biomarkers using immuno-histochemical methods. Plasma vitamin D metabolites, Aβ40, Aβ42, calcium, protein and cholesterol were measured using biochemical assays. Compared with mice on the control diet, VDM-fed wild type and AD transgenic mice displayed improved learning and memory, had significantly reduced amyloid plaque load and glial fibrillary acidic protein, and elevated interleukin-10 in the brain. The results suggest that VDM might provide a dietary source of Vitamin D2 and other bioactives for preventing memory-impairment in dementia. This study supports the need for a randomised clinical trial to determine whether or not VDM consumption can benefit cognitive performance in the wider population.

  20. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Jurak

    Full Text Available In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S to guaiacyl (G units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

  1. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

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    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

  2. Extraction optimization and bioactivity of exopolysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus.

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    Mao, Yong; Mao, Jian; Meng, Xiangyong

    2013-02-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters of EPS produced by Agaricus bisporus MJ-0811 in submerged culture. The optimal levels for ethanol concentration (85%, v/v), pH (8) and precipitation time (22 h) were determined, and EPS production was estimated at 2.71 g/L. The actual yield of EPS under these conditions was 2.69 g/L. In addition, the antioxidant activity of EPS was investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the hypoglycemic activity of EPS was investigated by measuring its effects on body weights and blood glucose of diabetic mice. The study suggests that EPS has beneficial antioxidant activities (hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities, superoxide radical-scavenging activities) in vitro, anti-diabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic mice. The EPS from A. bisporus may be a novel resource of natural antioxidants and anti-diabetic agents for use in the functional food or medicine.

  3. Agaricus bisporus compost improves the potential of Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid for copper accumulation.

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    Magdziak, Z; Mleczek, M; Gąsecka, M; Drzewiecka, K; Kaczmarek, Z; Siwulski, M; Goliński, P

    2016-08-02

    The aim of the study was to determine the ability of spent mushroom compost (SMC) from the production of Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) to stimulate the growth and efficiency of copper (Cu) accumulation by Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid. Roots, shoots and leaves were analysed in terms of total Cu content and selected biometric parameters. Due to the absence of information regarding the physiological response of the studied plant, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), phenolic compounds and salicylic acid (SA) contents were investigated. The obtained results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness (usefulness) of SMC in promoting the growth and stimulation of Cu accumulation by the studied Salix taxon. The highest Cu content in roots and shoots was found at the 10% SMC addition (507±22 and 380±11 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while there was a reduction of the content in leaves and young shoots (109±8 and 124±7 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively). In terms of physiological response, lowered secretion of LMWOAs, biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and SA, as well as accumulation of soluble sugars in Salix leaves was observed with SMC addition. Simultaneously, an elevation of the total phenolic content in leaves of plants cultivated with SMC was observed, considered as antioxidant biomolecules.

  4. In vitro Toxicity of Fungicides of Different Mode of Action to Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach

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    Ivana Potočnik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolates of Agaricus bisporus strains F56 and U3 were tested for sensitivity to several selected fungicides in vitro. The analysis showed that flusilasole + carbendazim and cyproconazole + carbendazim were the most toxic fungicides to A. bisporus strain F56 with respective EC50 values of 0.04 and 0.23 mg/l. The least toxic fungicides were carbendazim (EC50 = 16.58 mg/l and trifloxystrobin (EC50 = 20.69 mg/l to A. bisporus F56 and benomyl (EC50 = 14.99 mg/l to A. bisporus U3.

  5. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase in an aqueous extract from Agaricus bisporus.

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    Gouzi, Hicham; Depagne, Christophe; Coradin, Thibaud

    2012-01-11

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in an aqueous extract from mushroom Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach was studied, using pyrocatechol as a substrate. Optimal conditions for enzymatic studies were determined to be pH 7.0 and 35-40 °C. The kinetics of PPO-catalyzed oxidation of pyrocatechol followed the Haldane model with an optimum substrate concentration of 20 mM. Thermal inactivation of PPO was examined in more detail between 50 and 73 °C and in relation to exposure time. Obtained monophasic kinetics were adequately described by a first-order model, with significant inactivation occurring with increasing temperature (less than 10% preserved activity after 6 min at 65 °C). Arrhenius plot determination and calculated thermodynamic parameters suggest that the PPO in aqueous extract from Agaricus bisporus mushroom is a structurally robust yet temperature-sensitive biocatalyst whose inactivation process is mainly entropy-driven.

  6. Polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis show similarities in their structures and their immunomodulatory effects on human monocytic THP-1 cells

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    Wichers Harry J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. Crude mushroom extracts have been tested without detailed chemical analyses of its polysaccharide content. For the present study we decided to chemically determine the carbohydrate composition of semi-purified extracts from 2 closely related and well known basidiomycete species, i.e. Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis and to study their effects on the innate immune system, in particular on the in vitro induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, using THP-1 cells. Methods Mushroom polysaccharide extracts were prepared by hot water extraction and precipitation with ethanol. Their composition was analyzed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. PMA activated THP-1 cells were treated with the extracts under different conditions and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was evaluated by qPCR. Results Semi-purified polysaccharide extracts of A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis (= blazei were found to contain (1→6,(1→4-linked α-glucan, (1→6-linked β-glucan, and mannogalactan. Their proportions were determined by integration of 1H-NMR signs, and were considerably different for the two species. A. brasiliensis showed a higher content of β-glucan, while A. bisporus presented mannogalactan as its main polysaccharide. The extracts induced a comparable increase of transcription of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL-1β and TNF-α as well as of COX-2 in PMA differentiated THP-1 cells. Pro-inflammatory effects of bacterial LPS in this assay could be reduced significantly by the simultaneous addition of A. brasiliensis extract. Conclusions The polysaccharide preparations from the closely related species A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis show major differences in composition: A. bisporus shows high mannogalactan content whereas A. brasiliensis has mostly

  7. Comparison of amino acid content in frozen P. ostreatus and A. bisporus mushrooms

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    Emilia Bernaś

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present work compares the content of basic chemical constituents as well as amino acids in frozen Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr. Kumm. and Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. mushrooms. Material and methods. The material investigated comprised of frozen P. ostreatus and A. bisporus mushrooms after 8 months’ storage, having been soaked and blanched in a solution 0.5% citric acid, 0.5% lactic acid and 0.1% L-ascorbic acid prior to freezing. Results. Compared with frozen A. bisporus, frozen P. ostreatus contained significantly higher levels of total carbohydrates (32% higher, raw fat (38% and most endogenous (6-163% and exogenous (10-200% amino acids, but lower levels of ash (45% lower, total nitrogen (50% and protein nitrogen (40%. In both species, asparagine and glutamine were the most abundant endogenous amino acids (respectively 10-12% and 12-19% of total amino acids, and leucine and lysine the most abundant exogenous amino acids (7-9% and 6-7%. The least abundant were glycine and proline (both 5%, and cysteine and methionine (1% and 2%. Conclusions. Frozen mushrooms of both species are potentially good sources of protein in the diet as no limiting amino acids were found when compared with the FAO/WHO reference protein pattern. However, it is important to determine the digestibility of protein in the mushrooms model studies using animals and people. The conversion coefficient from total nitrogen to protein was 5.23 in P. ostreatus and 2.46 in A. bisporus.

  8. GC-MS studies of the chemical composition of two inedible mushrooms of the genus Agaricus

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    Gjosheva Melania

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushrooms in the genus Agaricus have worldwide distribution and include the economically important species A. bisporus. Some Agaricus species are inedible, including A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, which are similar in appearance to certain edible species, yet are known to possess unpleasant odours and induce gastrointestinal problems if consumed. We have studied the chemical composition of these mushrooms using GC-MS. Results Our GC-MS studies on the volatile fractions and butanol extracts resulted in the identification of 44 and 34 compounds for A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, respectively, including fatty acids and their esters, amino acids, and sugar alcohols. The most abundant constituent in the volatiles and butanol were phenol and urea respectively. We also identified the presence of ergosterol and two Δ7-sterols. In addition, 5α,8α-Epidioxi-24(ξ-methylcholesta-6,22-diene-3β-ol was isolated for the first time from both mushrooms. Our study is therefore the first report on the chemical composition of these two species. Conclusion The results obtained contribute to the knowledge of the chemical composition of mushrooms belonging to the Agaricus genus, and provide some explanation for the reported mild toxicity of A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, a phenonomenon that can be explained by a high phenol content, similar to that found in other Xanthodermatei species.

  9. Effect of microwave blanching on the quality of frozen Agaricus bisporus.

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    Bernaś, Emilia; Jaworska, Grażyna

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of microwave blanching on the levels of selected quality parameters in frozen Agaricus bisporus. Before freezing, mushrooms underwent one of the following treatments: blanching in water; blanching in a solution of sodium metabisulphite and citric acid; microwaving for 5 min; and combined blanching (first in water, then in a microwave oven). Products were freeze stored for 8 months at -25 ℃. Frozen storage resulted in decreased levels of vitamin B1, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of 10-49%, as well as an increase in polyphenol oxidase activity compared with products immediately after freezing. The values for most colour parameters and whiteness intensity decreased, while cream, yellow, brown and grey saturation increased. There was a considerable deterioration in sensory quality, particularly colour. Microwave-blanched products had significantly higher dry matter, ash, vitamin B1 and B2 content than the remaining products as well as half the polyphenol oxidase activity. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were highest in the product blanched in the sodium metabisulphite solution, followed by the microwave-blanched product. Compared with the product blanched using sodium metabisulphite, microwave-blanched mushrooms showed slightly greater darkening but were superior in flavour and aroma.

  10. Dynamics of cap opening in Agaricus bisporus and changes in spore numbers vs. cap opening and radiation treatment

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    Kovacs, E.; Voeroes, Zs.; Farkas, J. (Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1981-01-01

    The spore count in Agaricus bisporus treated with radiation doses of 1.5 and 2.5 kGy was studied as a function of cap opening and radiation treatment (at 14-16 deg C and RH 80-90%). It was established that spore formation starts in the mushroom while the cap is still closed and the opening of the pileus starts when the spore number begins to increase. In treated mushrooms not only the cap remains closed but in lack of the development of gills the development of spores is also inhibited. Maturation retardation becomes apparent in the inhibition of the increase in number and of the darkening of the spores.

  11. Genetic variation and combining ability analysis of bruising sensitivity in Agaricus bisporus.

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    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available Advanced button mushroom cultivars that are less sensitive to mechanical bruising are required by the mushroom industry, where automated harvesting still cannot be used for the fresh mushroom market. The genetic variation in bruising sensitivity (BS of Agaricus bisporus was studied through an incomplete set of diallel crosses to get insight in the heritability of BS and the combining ability of the parental lines used and, in this way, to estimate their breeding value. To this end nineteen homokaryotic lines recovered from wild strains and cultivars were inter-crossed in a diallel scheme. Fifty-one successful hybrids were grown under controlled conditions, and the BS of these hybrids was assessed. BS was shown to be a trait with a very high heritability. The results also showed that brown hybrids were generally less sensitive to bruising than white hybrids. The diallel scheme allowed to estimate the general combining ability (GCA for each homokaryotic parental line and to estimate the specific combining ability (SCA of each hybrid. The line with the lowest GCA is seen as the most attractive donor for improving resistance to bruising. The line gave rise to hybrids sensitive to bruising having the highest GCA value. The highest negative SCA possibly indicates heterosis effects for resistance to bruising. This study provides a foundation for estimating breeding value of parental lines to further study the genetic factors underlying bruising sensitivity and other quality-related traits, and to select potential parental lines for further heterosis breeding. The approach of studying combining ability in a diallel scheme was used for the first time in button mushroom breeding.

  12. 不同地区双孢蘑菇中蘑菇氨酸含量的比较研究%Comparison of Agaritine Content of Fresh Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) from Different Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐; 赵晓燕; 邵毅; 边银丙; 邢增涛

    2012-01-01

    蘑菇氨酸曾被怀疑具有潜在的致癌效应,但其生理作用目前还存在争议.为比较分析我国不同地区双孢蘑菇中蘑菇氨酸含量,本研究采用反相高效液相色谱法检测了我国5个双孢蘑菇产区30份新鲜双孢蘑菇样品中蘑菇氨酸的含量.结果显示,我国双孢蘑菇中蘑菇氨酸含量范围较广,为155.6~934.4mg/kg FW.在此基础上,分析了菌株类型、培养料类型和采收季节等因素对蘑菇氨酸含量的影响.结果表明,不同菌株、不同栽培条件下生产的双孢蘑菇中蘑菇氨酸的含量差异明显.%Agaritine was suspected of its potential carcinogenic effect,but its physiological role was still controversial. In this article,the agaritine contents of 30 fresh mushrom ( Agarius bisporus ) from five provinces in China were detected by reverse-high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC). The results showed that the levels of agaritine in fresh mushroom were in the range of 155.6 -934.4 mg/kg FW. Basicly.the factors which probably influenced the agaritine content of the cultivated mushroom from strain type,compost type and harvest season were also analyzed. The results indicated that the agaritine levels were greatly different in mushrooms which were produced by different strain type and under different cultivate conditions.

  13. Effects of sesame and bitter almond seed oils on mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing.

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    kalyoncu, Ismail Hakki

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Secondary mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus from Nigde University Mushroom Research Centre (Aksaray-Nigde was monitored in malt extract agar medium containing sesame or bitter almond seed oils. With 1 % sesame oil, highest growth was established and less growth period was determined as 27.4 days. All of the samples with sesame oil showed better growth according to the control, being the stimulative effect of sesame oil higher than that of bitter almond oil.

    El crecimiento secundario de micelios de Agaricus bisporus del Centro de Investigación de Hongos de la Universidad de Nigde (Aksaray-Nigde se siguió en agar con extracto de malta conteniendo aceites de semillas de almendra amarga o sésamo. El mayor crecimiento se obtuvo con aceite de sésamo al 1%, y el periodo más corto para dicho crecimiento se estableció en 27.4 días. Todas las muestras con aceite de sésamo mostraron mejor crecimiento que el control, siendo el efecto estimulante del aceite de sésamo mayor que el del aceite de almendra amarga.

  14. Chemical composition and biological activities of the Agaricus mushrooms

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    L Munkhgerel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Agaricus mushroom grown in Mongolia were analyzed for their element content. Biological activity and chemical components study of Agaricus, grown in the Mongolian flora has been investigated for the first time. The ethanol extracts of dried Agaricus sp. mushrooms were analyzed for antioxidant activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and interferon-like activity. The ethanol extracts from Agaricus arvensis showed the most potent radical scavenging activity. The IC50 of A. silvaticus and A. arvensis were 216 and 17.75 g/ml respectively. Among the twenty three mushroom extracts, the extracts from A. silvatisus and A. arvensis have shown the interferon-like activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.197Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p41-45

  15. Effect of Selenium-Enriched Agaricus bisporus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Extracts, Obtained by Pressurized Water Extraction, on the Expression of Cholesterol Homeostasis Related Genes by Low-Density Array.

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    Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Soler-Rivas, Cristina; Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Reglero, Guillermo; Marín, Francisco Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Culinary-medicinal mushrooms are able to lower blood cholesterol levels in animal models by different mechanisms. They might impair the endogenous cholesterol synthesis and exogenous cholesterol absorption during digestion. Mushroom extracts, obtained using pressurized water extractions (PWE) from Agaricus bisporus basidiomes, supplemented or not supplemented with selenium, were applied to HepG2 cell cultures to study the expression of 19 genes related to cholesterol homeostasis by low-density arrays (LDA). Only the PWE fractions obtained at 25°C showed 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitory activity. Besides the enzymatic inhibition, PWE extracts may downregulate some of the key genes involved in the cholesterol homeostasis, such as the squalene synthase gene (FDFT1), since its mRNA expression falls by one third of its initial value. In summary, A. bisporus extracts may also modulate biological cholesterol levels by molecular mechanisms further than the enzymatic way previously reported.

  16. An abundant hydrophobin (ABH1) farms hydrophobic rodlet layers in Agaricus bisporus fruiting bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugones, LG; Bosscher, JS; Scholtmeyer, K; deVries, OMH; Wessels, JGH

    The SDS-insoluble protein fraction of Agaricus bisporus fruiting bodies was solubilized with trifluoroacetic acid. On SOS-PAGE this fraction was found to contain one abundant protein with an apparent M(r) of 16 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein was determined and RT-PCR used to

  17. Study on the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase inhibitory properties of Agaricus bisporus and extraction of bioactive fractions using pressurised solvent technologies.

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    Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Clavijo, Cristina; Palanisamy, Marimuthu; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Navarro-Rubio, María; Pérez, Margarita; Marín, Francisco R; Reglero, Guillermo; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2013-08-30

    Agaricus bisporus mushrooms were able to lower cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolaemic rats and it was suggested that dietary fibre might inhibit cholesterol absorption. However, A. bisporus extracts were also able to inhibit the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR, the key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway) and this might also contribute to the observed lowering of cholesterol levels in serum. The methanol-water extracts obtained from A. bisporus were able to inhibit up to 60% the HMGCR activity using an in vitro assay. The HMGCR inhibitory capacities depended on cultivation conditions, strains, etc. The potential inhibitors were not statins, they might be β-glucans able to scavenge the substrate and impair the enzymatic reaction. They were present during all mushroom developmental stages and similarly distributed through all the tissues including the parts discarded as a by-product. Accelerated solvent extractions using 1:1 ethanol-water as pressurised solvent (10.7 MPa, 25°C, five cycles of 5 min) were more effective in the extraction of the HMGCiR inhibitor(s) than supercritical fluid extractions (9 MPa, 40°C) using CO2 with 10% ethanol. A mushroom cultivation and two extraction procedures were optimised to obtain fractions from A. bisporus with high HMGCR inhibitory activities to design novel ingredients for hypocholesterolaemic functional foodstuffs. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Evaluation of agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Agaricus bisporus using a range of promoters linked to hygromycin resistance.

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    Burns, C; Leach, K M; Elliott, T J; Challen, M P; Foster, G D; Bailey, A

    2006-02-01

    There is interest in establishing genetic modification technologies for the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus, both for improved crop characteristics and for molecular pharming. For these methods to be successful, it is necessary to establish a set of transformation systems that include robust and reliable vectors for gene manipulation. In this article, we report the evaluation of a series of promoters for driving expression of the Escherichia coli hph gene encoding hygromycin phosphotransferase. This was achieved using the Aspergillus nidulans gpdA and the A. bisporus gpdII and trp2 promoters. The Coprinus cinereus beta-tubulin promoter gave contrasting results depending on the size of promoter used, with a 393-bp region being effective, whereas the longer 453-bp fragment failed to yield any hygromycin-resistant transformants. The C. cinereus trp1 and the A. bisporus lcc1 promoters both failed to yield transformants. We also show that transformation efficiency may be improved by careful selection of both appropriate Agrobacterium strains, with AGL-1 yielding more than LBA1126 and by the choice of the binary vectors used to mobilize the DNA, with pCAMBIA vectors appearing to be more efficient than either pBIN19- or pGREEN-based systems.

  19. Regulation of three genes encoding cell-wall-degrading enzymes of Trichoderma aggressivum during interaction with Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubaker, Kamal S; Sjaarda, Calvin; Castle, Alan J

    2013-06-01

    Members of the genus Trichoderma are very effective competitors of a variety of fungi. Cell-wall-degrading enzymes, including proteinases, glucanases, and chitinases, are commonly secreted as part of the competitive process. Trichoderma aggressivum is the causative agent of green mould disease of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. The structures of 3 T. aggressivum genes, prb1 encoding a proteinase, ech42 encoding an endochitinase, and a β-glucanase gene, were determined. Promoter elements in the prb1 and ech42 genes suggested that transcription is regulated by carbon and nitrogen levels and by stress. Both genes had mycoparasitism-related elements indicating potential roles for the protein products in competition. The promoter of the β-glucanase gene contained CreA and AreA binding sites indicative of catabolite regulation but contained no mycoparasitism elements. Transcription of the 3 genes was measured in mixed cultures of T. aggressivum and A. bisporus. Two A. bisporus strains, U1, which is sensitive to green mould disease, and SB65, which shows some resistance, were used in co-cultivation tests to assess possible roles of the genes in disease production and severity. prb1 and ech42 were coordinately upregulated after 5 days, whereas β-glucanase transcription was upregulated from day 0 with both Agaricus strains. Upregulation was much less pronounced in mixed cultures of T. aggressivum with the resistant strain, SB65, than with the sensitive strain, U1. These observations suggested that the proteins encoded by these genes have roles in both nutrition and in severity of green mould disease.

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater against CCl₄-induced hepatic injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiafu; Ou, Yixin; Yew, Tai Wai David; Liu, Jingna; Leng, Bo; Lin, Zhichao; Su, Yi; Zhuang, Yuanhong; Lin, Jiaofen; Li, Xiumin; Xue, Yu; Pan, Yutian

    2016-01-01

    During the industrial production of canned mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), a large quantity of wastewater is produced. In this study, the wastewater generated during the canning of mushroom was analyzed. From this wastewater, four polysaccharide components (Abnp1001, Abnp1002, Abap1001, and Abap1002) with hepatic-protective activity were isolated by ultrafiltration, DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-200 size-exclusion chromatography. Results of ultraviolet spectra analysis and molecular weight determination showed that Abnp1001, Abnp1002, Abap1001 and Abap1002 were uniform with average molecular weights of 336, 12.8, 330 and 15.8kDa, respectively. The monosaccharide composition analysis using gas chromatography (GC) showed that the four fractions were heteropolysaccharides and mainly composed of glucose. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analysis showed that the isolated fractions were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. Additionally, the potential hepatoprotective activities of these polysaccharides against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in mice were studied. Notably, Abnp1002 and Abap1002 could lower the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in serum in a dose dependent manner and reduce the hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, as well as inflammatory infiltration. These results indicate that these two polysaccharides had protective effects on acute hepatic injury induced by CCl4 in mice and suggest that the polysaccharides extracted from A. bisporus industrial wastewater might have potential in therapeutics of acute hepatic injury.

  1. Improving selenium extraction by sequential enzymatic processes for Se-speciation of selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dernovics, M.; Stefanka, Z.; Fodor, P. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science, Szent Istvan University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2002-02-01

    Sample preparation methods based on the use of proteolytic and cell wall digesting enzymes for the speciation analysis of selenized mushroom were investigated. The sample (Agaricus bisporus; 160 {mu}g total Se per g sample) was grown on compost supplemented with selenized yeast. Experiments were carried out to elucidate the possible role of the cell wall digesting enzymes - Lysing enzyme and Driselase - in the improvement of extraction efficiency with and without inhibiting proteolysis during cell wall digestion. A 3-step procedure applying Lysing enzyme and pronase gave the highest extraction efficiency (89%); however, the best species recovery was achieved by a one-step proteolytic procedure. All the procedures of selenium speciation were controlled by independent ICP-AES analysis measuring the total amount of selenium. (orig.)

  2. Improving selenium extraction by sequential enzymatic processes for Se-speciation of selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernovics, M; Stefánka, Zs; Fodor, P

    2002-02-01

    Sample preparation methods based on the use of proteolytic and cell wall digesting enzymes for the speciation analysis of selenized mushroom were investigated. The sample (Agaricus bisporus; 160 microg total Se per g sample) was grown on compost supplemented with selenized yeast. Experiments were carried out to elucidate the possible role of the cell wall digesting enzymes--Lysing enzyme and Driselase--in the improvement of extraction efficiency with and without inhibiting proteolysis during cell wall digestion. A 3-step procedure applying Lysing enzyme and pronase gave the highest extraction efficiency (89%); however, the best species recovery was achieved by a one-step proteolytic procedure. All the procedures of selenium speciation were controlled by independent ICP-AES analysis measuring the total amount of selenium.

  3. The antibrowning agent sulfite inactivates Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase through covalent modification of the copper-B site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Gruppen, Harry; Sforza, Stefano; van Berkel, Willem J H; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2013-12-01

    Sulfite salts are widely used as antibrowning agents in food processing. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism by which sulfite prevents enzymatic browning has remained unknown. Here, we show that sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3) irreversibly blocks the active site of tyrosinase from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus, and that the competitive inhibitors tropolone and kojic acid protect the enzyme from NaHSO3 inactivation. LC-MS analysis of pepsin digests of NaHSO3 -treated tyrosinase revealed two peptides showing a neutral loss corresponding to the mass of SO3 upon MS(2) fragmentation. These peptides were found to be homologous peptides containing two of the three histidine residues that form the copper-B-binding site of mushroom tyrosinase isoform PPO3 and mushroom tyrosinase isoform PPO4, which were both present in the tyrosinase preparation used. Peptides showing this neutral loss behavior were not found in the untreated control. Comparison of the effects of NaHSO3 on apo-tyrosinase and holo-tyrosinase indicated that inactivation is facilitated by the active site copper ions. These data provide compelling evidence that inactivation of mushroom tyrosinase by NaHSO3 occurs through covalent modification of a single amino-acid residue, probably via addition of HSO3(-) to one of the copper-coordinating histidines in the copper-B site of the enzyme.

  4. Evidence for Outcrossing via the Buller Phenomenon in a Substrate Simultaneously Inoculated with Spores and Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Callac, Philippe; Spataro, Cathy; Caille, Aurélie; Imbernon, Micheline

    2006-01-01

    In Agaricus bisporus, traditional cultivars and most of the wild populations belong to A. bisporus var. bisporus, which has a predominantly pseudohomothallic life cycle in which most meiospores are heterokaryons (n + n). A lower proportion of homokaryotic (n) meiospores, which typify the heterothallic life cycle, also are produced. In wild populations, pseudohomothallism was thought previously to play a major role, but recent analyses have found that significant outcrossing also may occur. We...

  5. Cytotoxic effect of Agaricus bisporus and Lactarius rufus β-D-glucans on HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Amanda do Rocio Andrade; Ruthes, Andrea Caroline; Cadena, Silvia Maria Suter Correia; Acco, Alexandra; Gorin, Philip Albert James; Iacomini, Marcello

    2013-07-01

    The cytotoxic activity of β-D-glucans isolated from Agaricus bisporus and Lactarius rufus fruiting bodies was evaluated on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). NMR and methylation analysis suggest that these β-d-glucans were composed of a linear (1→6)-linked and a branched (1→3), (1→6)-linked backbone, respectively. They both decreased cell viability at concentrations of up to 100 μg mL(-1), as shown by MTT assay. The amount of LDH released and the analysis of cell morphology corroborated these values and also showed that the β-D-glucan of L. rufus was more cytotoxic to HepG2 cells than that of A. bisporus. The treatment of HepG2 cells with L. rufus and A. bisporus β-D-glucans at a dose of 200 μg mL(-1) for 24h promoted an increase of cytochrome c release and a decrease of ATP content, suggesting that these polysaccharides could promote cell death by apoptosis. Both β-D-glucans were tested against murine primary hepatocytes at a dose of 200 μg mL(-1). The results suggest that the L. rufus β-d-glucan was as cytotoxic for hepatocytes as for HepG2 cells, whereas the A. bisporus β-D-glucan, under the same conditions, was cytotoxic only for HepG2 cells, suggesting cell selectivity. These results open new possibilities for use of mushroom β-D-glucans in cancer therapy.

  6. 不同压块模式对双孢菇生产的影响%Effects of different briquetting modes on production of Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿宇聪; 张涛; 刘宏斌; 翟丽梅; 杨波; 王洪媛

    2016-01-01

    In China, the technology ofAgaricus bisporus cultivation was so traditional that the production orAgaricus bisporus was not high. The technology ofAgaricus bisporus cultivation need to be promoted urgently, especially in Erhai River Basin of China. In early time, the production process ofAgaricus bisporus substrate was very simple. In our research, the briquetting method in substrate was developed to promote the utilization efficiency of edible mushrooms substrate. Three schemes were setup, scheme 1, traditional technology with 350 kg / m3Compaction, scheme 2,400 kg / m3 briquetting method and scheme 3,500 kg / m3briquetting method. The fruiting time, unit yield, conversion rate, cultivated area and total yield of Agaricus bisporus have been studied in this research, aim to provide theoretical basis for the practical application of the briquetting method. It is an important index to evaluate the quality of the substrate to affect the production efficiency of the Agaricus bisporus. The results showed that the fruiting time was 36 d by scheme 1, and it is 38 d by scheme 2 and 3. The distinction of two days would not affect theAgaricus bisporus production. The unit yield of scheme 1, 2 and 3 were 0.198, 0.205 and 0.279 kg / kg, respectively. The most obvious enhancement of unit yield was scheme 3 with the unit yield enhanced by 40.9%. The conversion rate ofAgaricus bisporus by scheme 1 was 30.2 %. The conversion rate of scheme 2 was reduced to 27.9%. Although there was a certain degree of improvement in the yield by scheme 2, the nutrients in the substrate were not fully utilized. The conversion rate ofAgaricus bisporus by scheme 3 was 28.6%, which was higher than that of scheme 2, but also lower than tradition method. If the conversion rate of the level can be further improved, further enhanced production will be achieved. It is demonstrated that the technology of briquetting method still has a certain potential in the improvement of the substrate utilization and

  7. Effect of papaya and corn silk extracts on color and quality of mushroom(Agaricus bisporus)slices during blanching%木瓜和玉米须提取物对双孢菇片烫漂后颜色和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 王安建; 刘丽娜; 魏书信; 李顺峰

    2013-01-01

    采用烫漂前浸泡和烫漂时添加两种方式,研究了木瓜和玉米须提取物对双孢菇片烫漂后颜色和品质的影响.结果表明,两种植物提取物的不同添加方式均可以在一定程度上抑制菇片的褐变和保持菇片的品质,其中浸泡前处理效果较好.木瓜和玉米须提取物最佳浸泡浓度均为2.0g/L,最大褐变抑制率分别为16.89%±4.57%、10.02%±3.24%;与清水浸泡前处理相比,维生素C含量分别提高67.30%、21.78%,总酚含量分别提高17.34%、38.29%.%The impact of papaya and corn silk extracts on color and quality of mushroom(Agaricus bisporus)slices during blanching were investigated.Compared with the contrast group,two different extracts addition way(soaking and blanching) could inhibit browning and keep quality of the mushroom slices in a degree,but the better way was soaking treatment. The results showed that the optimum soaking concentration of papaya and corn silk extracts were 2.0g/L,and the maximum browning inhibition rate were 16.89%±4.57% and 10.02%±3.24% respectively. Compared to the water treatment,the vitamin C content of mushroom slices increased by 6730% and 21.78% ,and total phenolic content enhanced by 17.34% and 38.29% ,separately.

  8. Mycosphere Essay 8: A review of genus Agaricus in tropical and humid subtropical regions of Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Karunarathna, Samantha Chandranath; Chen, J.; Mortimer, P.E.; Xu, J.C.; Zhao, R.L.; Callac, Philippe; Hyde, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Agaricus includes both edible and poisonous species, with more than 400 species worldwide. This genus includes many species, which are enormously important as sources of food and medicine, such as the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and the almond mushroom (Agaricus subrufescens). This paper reviews the genus Agaricus in tropical and humid subtropical regions of Asia, including the history, characteristics, pertinent morphological and organoleptic taxonomic traits, molecular phy...

  9. Bsn-t Alleles from French Field Strains of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Callac, Philippe; Hocquart, Sophie; Imbernon, Micheline; Desmerger, Christophe; Olivier, Jean-Marc

    1998-01-01

    In the Agaricus bisporus desert population in California, the dominant Bsn-t allele determines the production of tetrasporic basidia and homokaryotic spores (n) that characterize a heterothallic life cycle. Strains belonging to a French population have the Bsn-b/b genotype that results in bisporic basidia that produce heterokaryotic spores (n + n) which characterize a pseudohomothallic life cycle. More recombination occurs in the tetrasporic population than in the bisporic population. In Fran...

  10. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp. were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1. The experimental design was a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (composts x strains with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost. The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey's test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06.

  11. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; de Jesus, João Paulo Furlan; Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; Viana, Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira

    2013-12-01

    Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial scheme (composts × strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency) were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey's test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06.

  12. Evaluation of Antibacterial properties of the suspension of Ginger, Black Pepper, Vinegar, Honey and its application in Shelf life extension of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Jain; Himanshu Karaiya; Kumari Amrita; Swapnil Tiwari; Vishakha Dubey; C. Ramalingam

    2013-01-01

    Suspensions of vinegar, honey, black pepper and ginger were examined for antibacterial activity against Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and E.coli by agar well diffusion technique. The prepared suspensions were applied on Agaricus bisporus to evaluate suspensions effect for increasing the shelf life of it. Vinegar suspension showed better antibacterial effect and good result on Agaricus bisporus to increase its shelf life as compared to honey suspension. Enzymatic spoilage of Agaricus bisporu...

  13. The Agaricus bisporus cox1 Gene: The Longest Mitochondrial Gene and the Largest Reservoir of Mitochondrial Group I Introns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Férandon, Cyril; Moukha, Serge; Callac, Philippe; Benedetto, Jean-Pierre; Castroviejo, Michel; Barroso, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotes, introns are located in nuclear and organelle genes from several kingdoms. Large introns (up to 5 kbp) are frequent in mitochondrial genomes of plant and fungi but scarce in Metazoa, even if these organisms are grouped with fungi among the Opisthokonts. Mitochondrial introns are classified in two groups (I and II) according to their RNA secondary structure involved in the intron self-splicing mechanism. Most of these mitochondrial group I introns carry a “Homing Endonuclease Gene” (heg) encoding a DNA endonuclease acting in transfer and site-specific integration (“homing”) and allowing intron spreading and gain after lateral transfer even between species from different kingdoms. Opposed to this gain mechanism, is another which implies that introns, which would have been abundant in the ancestral genes, would mainly evolve by loss. The importance of both mechanisms (loss and gain) is matter of debate. Here we report the sequence of the cox1 gene of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world. This gene is both the longest mitochondrial gene (29,902 nt) and the largest group I intron reservoir reported to date with 18 group I and 1 group II. An exhaustive analysis of the group I introns available in cox1 genes shows that they are mobile genetic elements whose numerous events of loss and gain by lateral transfer combine to explain their wide and patchy distribution extending over several kingdoms. An overview of intron distribution, together with the high frequency of eroded heg, suggests that they are evolving towards loss. In this landscape of eroded and lost intron sequences, the A. bisporus cox1 gene exhibits a peculiar dynamics of intron keeping and catching, leading to the largest collection of mitochondrial group I introns reported to date in a Eukaryote. PMID:21124976

  14. The Agaricus bisporus cox1 gene: the longest mitochondrial gene and the largest reservoir of mitochondrial group i introns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Férandon

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, introns are located in nuclear and organelle genes from several kingdoms. Large introns (up to 5 kbp are frequent in mitochondrial genomes of plant and fungi but scarce in Metazoa, even if these organisms are grouped with fungi among the Opisthokonts. Mitochondrial introns are classified in two groups (I and II according to their RNA secondary structure involved in the intron self-splicing mechanism. Most of these mitochondrial group I introns carry a "Homing Endonuclease Gene" (heg encoding a DNA endonuclease acting in transfer and site-specific integration ("homing" and allowing intron spreading and gain after lateral transfer even between species from different kingdoms. Opposed to this gain mechanism, is another which implies that introns, which would have been abundant in the ancestral genes, would mainly evolve by loss. The importance of both mechanisms (loss and gain is matter of debate. Here we report the sequence of the cox1 gene of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world. This gene is both the longest mitochondrial gene (29,902 nt and the largest group I intron reservoir reported to date with 18 group I and 1 group II. An exhaustive analysis of the group I introns available in cox1 genes shows that they are mobile genetic elements whose numerous events of loss and gain by lateral transfer combine to explain their wide and patchy distribution extending over several kingdoms. An overview of intron distribution, together with the high frequency of eroded heg, suggests that they are evolving towards loss. In this landscape of eroded and lost intron sequences, the A. bisporus cox1 gene exhibits a peculiar dynamics of intron keeping and catching, leading to the largest collection of mitochondrial group I introns reported to date in a Eukaryote.

  15. Browning sensitivity of button mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijn, A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.; Bastiaan-Net, S.; Hendrix, E.A.H.J.; Baars, J.J.P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Wichers, H.J.; Mes, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    To study the sensitivity of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms to bruising, a reproducible method was developed to apply mechanical damage to mushroom caps and quantify the subsequent discoloration. The newly developed bruising device can apply damage to the cap tissue of intact button mushrooms by a

  16. Browning sensitivity of button mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijn, A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.; Bastiaan-Net, S.; Hendrix, E.A.H.J.; Baars, J.J.P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Wichers, H.J.; Mes, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    To study the sensitivity of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms to bruising, a reproducible method was developed to apply mechanical damage to mushroom caps and quantify the subsequent discoloration. The newly developed bruising device can apply damage to the cap tissue of intact button mushrooms by a slip-

  17. Two-component signal transduction in Agaricus bisporus: a comparative genomic analysis with other basidiomycetes through the web-based tool BASID2CS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavín, José L; García-Yoldi, Alberto; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Oguiza, José A

    2013-06-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are signal transduction mechanisms present in many eukaryotes, including fungi that play essential roles in the regulation of several cellular functions and responses. In this study, we carry out a genomic analysis of the TCS proteins in two varieties of the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The genomes of both A. bisporus varieties contain eight genes coding for TCS proteins, which include four hybrid Histidine Kinases (HKs), a single histidine-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) protein and three Response Regulators (RRs). Comparison of the TCS proteins among A. bisporus and the sequenced basidiomycetes showed a conserved core complement of five TCS proteins including the Tco1/Nik1 hybrid HK, HPt protein and Ssk1, Skn7 and Rim15-like RRs. In addition, Dual-HKs, unusual hybrid HKs with 2 HK and 2 RR domains, are absent in A. bisporus and are limited to various species of basidiomycetes. Differential expression analysis showed no significant up- or down-regulation of the Agaricus TCS genes in the conditions/tissue analyzed with the exception of the Skn7-like RR gene (Agabi_varbisH97_2|198669) that is significantly up-regulated on compost compared to cultured mycelia. Furthermore, the pipeline web server BASID2CS (http://bioinformatics.unavarra.es:1000/B2CS/BASID2CS.htm) has been specifically designed for the identification, classification and functional annotation of putative TCS proteins from any predicted proteome of basidiomycetes using a combination of several bioinformatic approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Production and application of transgenic mushroom mycelium and fruitbodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooibroek, A.; Rhee, van de M.D.; Huizing, H.J.; Rats, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    The invention involves different methods to modify genetic characteristics of homobasidiomycetes in particular commercial homobasidiomycetes such as the common or button mushroom Agaricus bisporus via treatment with donor DNA or fusions using protoplasts and via matings between strains. The methods

  19. The Antioxidative, Antiaging, and Hepatoprotective Effects of Alkali-Extractable Polysaccharides by Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangshang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was designed to investigate the antioxidant, antiaging, and hepatoprotective effects of alkali-extractable polysaccharides (AlAPS and their three purified fractions (AlAPS-1, AlAPS-2, and AlAPS-3 from Agaricus bisporus in D-galactose induced aging mice. For in vitro antioxidant analysis, both AlAPS and its fractions exhibited moderate reducing power, Fe2+-chelating activities, and potent scavenging activities on hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals. The in vivo results demonstrated that the polysaccharides, especially AlAPS-2, showed potential antiaging and hepatoprotective effects by enhancing the antioxidant status, decreasing serum hepatic enzyme activities, and improving the lipid metabolism. This study suggested that the polysaccharides extracted and purified from A. bisporus could be exploited as a potent dietary supplement to attenuate aging and prevent age-related diseases.

  20. Packed bed column studies on lead(II) removal from industrial wastewater by modified Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yunchuan; Lei, Daiyin; Ni, Jiangxia; Ren, Zhuolin; Chen, Can; Xu, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus showed best performance in removing Pb(II) with a biosorption capacity of 86.4 mg g(-1) after modification with NaOH. In this work, the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater has been conducted in column mode. The metal removal was dependent on the flow rate, initial metal concentration, and bed height. The experimental data obtained from the biosorption process was successfully correlated with the Bohart-Adams, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models. Five biosorption-desorption cycles yielded 95.34%, 92.27%, 90.13%, 86.75%, and 81.52% regeneration, respectively. Pb(II) could be effectively removed from industrial wastewater; some metal ions and organics were also removed concomitantly, and the obtained effluent had characteristics of better quality. The results confirmed that modified A. bisporus could be applied for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater in a continuous column process.

  1. The 135 kbp mitochondrial genome of Agaricus bisporus is the largest known eukaryotic reservoir of group I introns and plasmid-related sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Férandon, Cyril; Xu, Jianping; Barroso, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    At 135,005 nt, the mitochondrial genome in Agaricus bisporus represents the largest fungal mitochondrial genome sequenced to date. Its large size is mainly due to the presence of mobile genetic elements, including a total of 43 group I introns, three group II introns, and five DNA fragments that show sequence similarity to linear invertron-like plasmids. The introns are distributed in eight of the 15 protein coding genes. These introns contain a total of 61,092 nt (∼45.3% of the whole mitochondrial genome) and include representatives of most of the group I introns so far found in mitochondrial genomes of Basidiomycota. The plasmid-like sequences include 6730 nt total representing 5.0% of the genome. These sequences showed high-level similarities to two different mitochondrial plasmids reported for basidiomycete mushrooms: the autonomously replicating pEM in Agaricus bitorquis and the integrated linear plasmid sequences in Agrocybe aegerita and Moniliophthora perniciosa. Moreover, the plasmid-related sequences are located within or adjacent to two large (4559 nt) inverted repeats containing also two sets of mitochondrial tRNA genes. Our analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that horizontal DNA transfer has played a significant role in the evolution of the A. bisporus mitochondrial genome.

  2. The ornithine cycle enzyme arginase from Agaricus bisporus and its role in urea accumulation in fruit bodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemaker, M.J.M.; Welboren, W.; Drift, C. van der; Jetten, M.S.M.; Griensven, L.J.L.D. van; Camp, H.J.M. op den

    2005-01-01

    An extensive survey of higher fungi revealed that members of the family Agaricaceae, including Agaricus bisporus, accumulate substantial amounts of urea in their fruit bodies. An important role of the ornithine cycle enzymes in urea accumulation has been proposed. In this work, we present the clonin

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of Agaricus bisporus strains cultivated in different composts

    OpenAIRE

    MEIRE C.N. ANDRADE; JOÃO P.F. JESUS; FABRÍCIO R. VIEIRA; STHEFANY R.F. VIANA; MARTA H.F. SPOTO; MARLI T.A. MINHONI

    2014-01-01

    The effect of irradiation doses (0, 125, 250 and 500 Gy) on the nutritional quality of A. bisporus mushrooms (strains ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03 and PB-1) cultivated in composts based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) was evaluated. The experimental design was 4 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme (irradiation doses x strains x composts), with 24 treatments, consisting of two repetitions each, totaling 48 experimental units (samples of mushrooms). The samples were irradiated in Cobal...

  4. Agaricus blazei production on non-composted substrates based on sunflower seed hulls and spent oyster mushroom substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Matute, R; Figlas, D; Curvetto, N

    2011-06-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill is usually cultivated using the same biphasic composting method employed for A. bisporus. Because cultivation of A. blazei on traditional A. bisporus composts poses some disadvantages, non-composted substrates were studied for A. blazei cultivation. Mycelial growth rate and productive performance of A. blazei were evaluated on substrates containing sunflower seed hulls, Pleurotus spp. spent mushroom substrate, or their combination, in the absence or in the presence of different supplements (vermicompost, peat or brewery residues). Substrates were prepared by initially soaking them and then they were sterilized (1 atm for 120 min). In addition, each substrate's degradation was measured after cultivation by obtaining the lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, organic matter, total fiber, ash, carbon and nitrogen contents before spawn-run and at the end of two flushes of A. blazei. The cultivation of A. blazei on non-composted substrates is possible and with a low rate of contamination when using the spent mushroom substrate as the main component or combined 50:50 with sunflower seed hulls. In addition, the best yields were obtained on those substrates containing spent Pleurotus mushroom substrate with supplements and those mixtures with sunflower seed hulls and vermicompost. These yields were similar to those reported on composted substrates. Substrate changes in composition measured at the end of two flushes indicate that the lignin-hemicellulose fraction was preferentially used and that the substrates exhibiting the best yield showed greater biodegradation of lignin-hemicellulose fraction than the others did.

  5. Lectin from Agaricus Bisporus Suppresses Akt Phosphorylation and Arrests Cell Cycle Progression in Primary Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Cheung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells have been implicated in the development of retinal diseases. Lectin from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus (ABL was found to inhibit growth of RPE cells. To elucidate the mechanism through which ABL inhibits RPE cell proliferation, we investigated the changes in cell proliferation-related signaling pathways and cell cycle distribution patterns. Primary human RPE cells were grown with or without the lectin (ABL supplement (20ug or 90ug/ml for three days. Phosphorylation statuses of Akt, Jnk and p38 as well as p53 expression level were investigated by Western blotting. Cellular distributions in various cell cycle phases were investigated using flow cytometry. After ABL treatment (90ug/ml, Akt was found to be hypo-phosphorylated while the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated-Jnk and phosphorylated-p38 were not altered. The amount of cells present at S phase was reduced. Our results showed that ABL hypo-phosphorylated Akt and this observation is in line with the finding that ABL could attenuate cell proliferation. As the level of p53 was not significantly altered by ABL, this suggested that the mechanism in which ABL arrested cell proliferation was independent of Akt-mediated MDM2 activation but was possibly mediated by altering G1 to S phase transition.

  6. Scytalidium thermophilum-colonized grain, corncobs and chopped wheat straw substrates for the production of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose E; Royse, Daniel J

    2009-02-01

    We examined the possibility of cultivating Agaricus bisporus (Ab) on various grains and agricultural by-products, with the objective of improving yield capacity of substrate pre-colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum (St). Radial growth rate (RGR) of St at 45 degrees C ranged from no growth on sterile wheat grain to 14.9 mm/d on whole oats. The linear extension rate (LER) of Ab, grown on St-colonized substrate (4 days at 45 degrees C), ranged from a low of 2.7 mm/d on 100% corncobs to 4.7 mm/d on a 50/50 mixture of ground corncobs/millet grain. Several other substrates containing wheat straw+ground corncobs+boiled millet and pre-colonized by St (4 days at 42+/-3 degrees C), were evaluated for production of Ab. The biological efficiency (BE) of production increased linearly with the addition of millet to the formula. However, substrates with millet levels 84% often were contaminated before mushroom harvest. Maximum BE (99%) and yield (21.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained on St-colonized wheat straw+2% hydrated lime supplemented with 9% commercial supplement added both at spawning and at casing.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of Agaricus bisporus strains cultivated in different composts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira, E-mail: mcnandrade@hotmail.com [Universidade do Sagrado Coracao (USC), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Sociais Aplicadas; Jesus, Joao P.F.; Vieira, Fabricio R.; Viana, Sthefany R.F.; Minhoni, Marli T.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Producao Vegetal/Defesa Fitossanitaria, Modulo de Cogumelos; Spoto, Marta H.F. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2014-05-15

    The effect of irradiation doses (0, 125, 250 and 500 Gy) on the nutritional quality of A. bisporus mushrooms (strains ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03 and PB-1) cultivated in composts based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) was evaluated. The experimental design was 4 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme (irradiation doses x strains x composts), with 24 treatments, consisting of two repetitions each, totaling 48 experimental units (samples of mushrooms). The samples were irradiated in Cobalt-60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220 kGy, with dose rate of 0.740 kGy h{sup -1}, according to the treatments proposed. Subsequently, the control (unirradiated) and the other treatments were maintained at 4±1°C and 90% RH in a climatic chamber for carrying out the chemical analysis of the mushrooms on the 1st and 14th day of storage. It was found that all A. bisporus strains evaluated were food with excellent nutritional value, because they presented high protein and fiber contents and low ethereal extract content; the chemical characterization of the mushrooms was influenced by the compost type in which they were cultivated; gamma irradiation influenced the chemical composition of mushrooms. (author)

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of Agaricus bisporus strains cultivated in different composts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEIRE C.N. ANDRADE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of irradiation doses (0, 125, 250 and 500 Gy on the nutritional quality of A. bisporus mushrooms (strains ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03 and PB-1 cultivated in composts based on oat straw (Avena sativa and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp. was evaluated. The experimental design was 4 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme (irradiation doses x strains x composts, with 24 treatments, consisting of two repetitions each, totaling 48 experimental units (samples of mushrooms. The samples were irradiated in Cobalt-60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220 kGy, with dose rate of 0.740 kGy h–1, according to the treatments proposed. Subsequently, the control (unirradiated and the other treatments were maintained at 4±1°C and 90% RH in a climatic chamber for carrying out the chemical analysis of the mushrooms on the 1st and 14th day of storage. It was found that all A. bisporus strains evaluated were food with excellent nutritional value, because they presented high protein and fiber contents and low ethereal extract content; the chemical characterization of the mushrooms was influenced by the compost type in which they were cultivated; gamma irradiation influenced the chemical composition of mushrooms.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritional quality of Agaricus bisporus strains cultivated in different composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Meire C N; Jesus, João P F; Vieira, Fabrício R; Viana, Sthefany R F; Spoto, Marta H F; Minhoni, Marli T A

    2014-05-14

    The effect of irradiation doses (0, 125, 250 and 500 Gy) on the nutritional quality of A. bisporus mushrooms (strains ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03 and PB-1) cultivated in composts based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) was evaluated. The experimental design was 4 x 3 x 2 factorial scheme (irradiation doses x strains x composts), with 24 treatments, consisting of two repetitions each, totaling 48 experimental units (samples of mushrooms). The samples were irradiated in Cobalt-60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220 kGy, with dose rate of 0.740 kGy h-1, according to the treatments proposed. Subsequently, the control (unirradiated) and the other treatments were maintained at 4±1°C and 90% RH in a climatic chamber for carrying out the chemical analysis of the mushrooms on the 1st and 14th day of storage. It was found that all A. bisporus strains evaluated were food with excellent nutritional value, because they presented high protein and fiber contents and low ethereal extract content; the chemical characterization of the mushrooms was influenced by the compost type in which they were cultivated; gamma irradiation influenced the chemical composition of mushrooms.

  10. 大蒜/肉桂精油复配 PE 膜对双孢菇的保鲜研究%Study on Agaricus Bisporus Fresh-keeping Effect by Garlic/Cinnamon Essential Oil Compound PE Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪军; 潘艳娟; 王建清

    2015-01-01

    将大蒜精油与肉桂精油以1:2的比例复配,分别吸取5、10、15、20μL复配精油添加到双孢菇PE膜包装袋中,根据双孢菇保鲜评价指标评价组合包装对双孢菇的保鲜效果. 试验结果表明:与单独PE膜包装相比,10μL大蒜/肉桂精油复配PE膜可有效保持双孢菇的感官、Vc含量和总酚含量,降低褐变度,对还原糖含量和失重率影响不大;可将双孢菇的保鲜期延长2d.%Mixed garlic essential oil and cinnamon essential oil in ratio of 1:2 , learn 5μL,10μL,15μL, 20μL compound essential oil respectively added to the PE film packaging bag of agaricus bisporus ,according to the double spore mushroom fresh-keeping evaluating indicator evaluate the combined packaging fresh-keeping effect of Agaricus bisporus.The test results show that:compared with single PE film packaging ,10μL garlic /cinnamon essential oil compound PE film can effectively maintain the agaricus bisporus senses ,Vc content and total phenolic content ,reduce the browning degree ,have little effect to the reducing sugar content and weight loss rate.Can extende the preservation period of agaricus bisporus for 2 days.

  11. Evaluación del Residuo del Cultivo de Agaricus bisporus como Alimento de Vacas Lecheras en Lactancia Media / Evaluation of the Agaricus bisporus Spent Compost as Feed of Dairy Cows in Mid Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Gómez Urrego

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó el potencial del residuo del cultivo de la seta Agaricus bisporus como materia prima para la alimentación de vacas lecheras en segundo tercio de lactancia. Para esto, se sustituyó 10% del concentrado comercial por el residuo (sin turba y se evaluó su efecto en la producción, el balance nutricional de las vacas y el costo final del concentrado. El diseño experimental fue un cross-over o de intercambio con medidas repetidas en eltiempo. Cada periodo experimental tuvo una duración de 14 días. Se utilizaron dos grupos de animales, uno con 4 vacas Holstein y otro con 4 vacas cruzadas Holstein x BON. En promedio, las vacas tenían 117 ± 18,6 días en leche, 2,6 ± 0,9 partos, 529,5 ± 52,9 kg peso vivo y una producción de leche/día de 15,42 ± 2,6 L. El tratamiento experimental redujo los nutrientes digeribles totales de la dieta total en 2%. No hubo diferencias estadísticas en el balance nutricional de las vacas a causa del tratamiento experimental. Tampoco hubo diferencia estadística en cuanto a la producción de leche (14,4 L y calidad composicional (% de grasa:3,86; % de proteína: 3,5; relación grasa: proteína: 1,11. El análisis de costos mostró que al incluirse en el concentrado un 10% del residuo de A. bisporus (Champiñosa se obtenía una reducción en los costos de alimentación de $403 pesos colombianos/vaca/día. / Abstract. This study evaluated the potential of the growth bed of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus as a feed for mid lactation dairy cows. We replaced 10% of commercial concentrate with the residue (peat removed and assessed its effect on milk production, nutritional balance of the cows and final cost of the concentrate. The experimental design was a cross-over or change-over with repeated measurements. Each experimental period lasted 14 days. Two groups of animals, one with four Holstein cows and one with four crossbred Holstein x BON cows were used. On average, cows had 117

  12. Phenotypic variation of Pseudomonas putida and P. tolaasii affects attachment to Agaricus bisporus mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, P B

    1991-12-01

    The effect of phenotypic variation on attachment of Pseudomonas tolaasii and P. putida to Agaricus bisporus mycelium was investigated. Quantitative studies demonstrated the ability of each isolate to attach rapidly and firmly to A. bisporus mycelium and significant differences in attachment of wild-type and phenotypic variant strains were observed. This was most pronounced in P. tolaasii, where the percentage attachment of the wild-type form was always greater than that of the phenotypic variant. The medium upon which the bacteria were cultured, prior to conducting an attachment assay, had a significant effect on their ability to attach. Attachment of the wild-type form of P. putida was enhanced when the assay was performed in the presence of CaCl2, suggesting the involvement of electrostatic forces. No correlation was observed between bacterial hydrophobicity and ability to attach to A. bisporus mycelium. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the results obtained from the quantitative studies and provided further evidence for marked differences in the ability of the pseudomonads to attach to mycelium. Fibrillar structures and amorphous material were frequently associated with attached cells and appeared to anchor bacteria to each other and to the hyphal surface. A time-course study of attachment using transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of uneven fibrillar material on the surface of cells. This material stained positive for polysaccharide and may be involved in ensuring rapid, firm attachment of the cells.

  13. Selenium-enriched Agaricus bisporus increases expression and activity of glutathione peroxidase-1 and expression of glutathione peroxidase-2 in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Tebo; Howell, Kate; Dunshea, Frank R; Ng, Ken

    2014-03-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with Se-enriched Agaricus bisporus on cytosolic gluthathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), gastrointestinal specific glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx-2), thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR-1) and selenoprotein P (SeP) mRNA expression and GPx-1 enzyme activity in rat colon was examined. Rats were fed for 5weeks with control diet (0.15μg Se/g feed) or Se-enriched diet fortified with selenised mushroom (1μg Se/g feed). The mRNA expression levels were found to be significantly (Pbisporus can positively increase GPx-1 and GPx-2 gene expression and GPx-1 enzyme activity in rat colon.

  14. Long-distance translocation of protein during morphogenesis of the fruiting body in the filamentous fungus, Agaricus bisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Woolston

    Full Text Available Commercial cultivation of the mushroom fungus, Agaricus bisporus, utilizes a substrate consisting of a lower layer of compost and upper layer of peat. Typically, the two layers are seeded with individual mycelial inoculants representing a single genotype of A. bisporus. Studies aimed at examining the potential of this fungal species as a heterologous protein expression system have revealed unexpected contributions of the mycelial inoculants in the morphogenesis of the fruiting body. These contributions were elucidated using a dual-inoculant method whereby the two layers were differientially inoculated with transgenic β-glucuronidase (GUS and wild-type (WT lines. Surprisingly, use of a transgenic GUS line in the lower substrate and a WT line in the upper substrate yielded fruiting bodies expressing GUS activity while lacking the GUS transgene. Results of PCR and RT-PCR analyses for the GUS transgene and RNA transcript, respectively, suggested translocation of the GUS protein from the transgenic mycelium colonizing the lower layer into the fruiting body that developed exclusively from WT mycelium colonizing the upper layer. Effective translocation of the GUS protein depended on the use of a transgenic line in the lower layer in which the GUS gene was controlled by a vegetative mycelium-active promoter (laccase 2 and β-actin, rather than a fruiting body-active promoter (hydrophobin A. GUS-expressing fruiting bodies lacking the GUS gene had a bonafide WT genotype, confirmed by the absence of stably inherited GUS and hygromycin phosphotransferase selectable marker activities in their derived basidiospores and mycelial tissue cultures. Differientially inoculating the two substrate layers with individual lines carrying the GUS gene controlled by different tissue-preferred promoters resulted in up to a ∼3.5-fold increase in GUS activity over that obtained with a single inoculant. Our findings support the existence of a previously undescribed

  15. An expanded genetic linkage map of an intervarietal Agaricus bisporus var. bisporusxA. bisporus var. burnettii hybrid based on AFLP, SSR and CAPS markers sheds light on the recombination behaviour of the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Spataro, Cathy; Cathalot, Vincent; Monllor, Sarah; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2010-03-01

    A genetic linkage map for the edible basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus was constructed from 118 haploid homokaryons derived from an intervarietal A. bisporus var. bisporus x A. bisporus var. burnettii hybrid. Two hundred and thirty-one AFLP, 21 SSR, 68 CAPS markers together with the MAT, BSN, PPC1 loci and one allozyme locus (ADH) were evenly spread over 13 linkage groups corresponding to the chromosomes of A. bisporus. The map covers 1156cM, with an average marker spacing of 3.9cM and encompasses nearly the whole genome. The average number of crossovers per chromosome per individual is 0.86. Normal recombination over the entire genome occurs in the heterothallic variety, burnettii, contrary to the homothallic variety, bisporus, which showed adaptive genome-wide suppressed recombination. This first comprehensive genetic linkage map for A. bisporus provides foundations for quantitative trait analyses and breeding programme monitoring, as well as genome organisation studies.

  16. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility.

  17. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Karwa A, Rai MK. 2010. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 141-145. Melghat forest region from Central India was surveyed for occurrence of medicinal and culinary mushrooms during the years 2005-2008. Out of total 153 species, ten species of Agaricus were recorded from different localities. Of these, seven species namely Agaricus bitorquis, A. subrufescens, A. augustus, A. placomyces, A. essettei, A. basioanolosus and Agaricus sp. nov (a new species are being reported for the first time from the region. The commercial button mushroom Agaricus bisporus lacks good breeding characters due to its bisporic nature. These wild cousins of the button mushroom can definitely prove to be a good source of genetic manipulations to the existing strains and also to develop new strains with improved characters.

  18. Diversity Profile and Dynamics of Peptaibols Produced by Green Mould Trichoderma Species in Interactions with Their Hosts Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marik, Tamás; Urbán, Péter; Tyagi, Chetna; Szekeres, András; Leitgeb, Balázs; Vágvölgyi, Máté; Manczinger, László; Druzhinina, Irina S; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kredics, László

    2017-06-01

    Certain Trichoderma species are causing serious losses in mushroom production worldwide. Trichoderma aggressivum and Trichoderma pleuroti are among the major causal agents of the green mould diseases affecting Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus, respectively. The genus Trichoderma is well-known for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites, including peptaibols, which are short, linear peptides containing unusual amino acid residues and being synthesised via non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). The aim of this study was to get more insight into the peptaibol production of T. aggressivum and T. pleuroti. HPLC/MS-based methods revealed the production of peptaibols closely related to hypomurocins B by T. aggressivum, while tripleurins representing a new group of 18-residue peptaibols were identified in T. pleuroti. Putative NRPS genes enabling the biosynthesis of the detected peptaibols could be found in the genomes of both Trichoderma species. In vitro experiments revealed that peptaibols are potential growth inhibitors of mushroom mycelia, and that the host mushrooms may have an influence on the peptaibol profiles of green mould agents. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Vitamin D-fortified chitosan films from mushroom waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk bases from mushroom waste were treated with UV-B light to rapidly increase vitamin D2 content. Chitin was also recovered from this waste and converted into chitosan by N-deacetylation. FTIR spectra showed that the mushroom chitosan were similar to chitosan fr...

  20. Linear and nonlinear regression analysis for heavy metals removal using Agaricus bisporus macrofungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldizsar Nagy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the biosorption characteristics of Cd (II and Zn (II ions from monocomponent aqueous solutions by Agaricus bisporus macrofungus were investigated. The initial metal ion concentrations, contact time, initial pH and temperature were parameters that influence the biosorption. Maximum removal efficiencies up to 76.10% and 70.09% (318 K for Cd (II and Zn (II, respectively and adsorption capacities up to 3.49 and 2.39 mg/g for Cd (II and Zn (II, respectively at the highest concentration, were calculated. The experimental data were analyzed using pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models, various isotherm models in linear and nonlinear (CMA-ES optimization algorithm regression and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The results showed that the biosorption process of both studied metal ions, followed pseudo second-order kinetics, while equilibrium is best described by Sips isotherm. The changes in morphological structure after heavy metal-biomass interactions were evaluated by SEM analysis. Our results confirmed that macrofungus A. bisporus could be used as a cost effective, efficient biosorbent for the removal of Cd (II and Zn (II from aqueous synthetic solutions.

  1. Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus as functional foods Hongos del género Agaricus como alimentos funcionales

    OpenAIRE

    J. Vinhal Costa Orsine; R. Vinhal da Costa; M.ª R. Carvalho Garbi Novaes

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are noted for their pharmacological and culinary properties. In this study, it was performed a critical literature review, focusing primarily on aspects of the chemical composition of these mushrooms whose pharmacological properties and nutritional composition characterize them as functional foods. It was also discussed articles conducted in vitro and in vivo proving the high antioxidant potential of the Agaricaceae family, in addition to articles which emphasi...

  2. NMR and Mushrooms : imaging post harvest senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, H.C.W.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this thesis was to explore the potentials of NMR for the study of water relations in harvested mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ). Since harvested mushrooms tend to continue their growth after harvest, their morphogenesis is heavily influenced by the external cli

  3. Optimization of the Liquid Culture Medium Composition to Obtain the Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus Rich in Essential Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowska, Agata; Reczyński, Witold; Muszyńska, Bożena

    2016-09-01

    Agaricus bisporus species (J.E. Lange) Imbach one of the most popular Basidiomycota species was chosen for the research because of its dietary and medicinal value. The presented herein studies included determination of essential mineral accumulation level in the mycelium of A. bisporus, cultivated on liquid cultures in the medium supplemented with addition of the chosen metals' salts. Quantitative analyses of Zn, Cu, Mg, and Fe in liquid cultures made it possible to determine the relationship between accumulation of the selected mineral in A. bisporus mycelium and the culture conditions. Monitoring of the liquid cultures and determination of the elements' concentrations in mycelium of A. bisporus were performed using the flame technique of AAS method. Concentration of Zn in the mycelium, maintained in the medium with the addition of its salt, was in a very wide range from 95.9 to 4462.0 mg/g DW. In the analyzed A. bisporus mycelium, cultured in the medium enriched with copper salt, this metal concentration changed from 89.79 to 7491.50 mg/g DW; considering Mg in liquid cultured mycelium (medium with Mg addition), its concentration has changed from 0.32 to 10.55 mg/g DW. The medium enriched with iron salts has led to bioaccumulation of Fe in mycelia of A. bisporus. Determined Fe concentration was in the range from 0.62 to 161.28 mg/g DW. The proposed method of liquid A. bisporus culturing on medium enriched with the selected macro- and microelements in proper concentrations ratio have led to obtaining maximal growth of biomass, characterized by high efficiency of the mineral accumulation. As a result, a dietary component of increased nutritive value was obtained.

  4. STUDY ON THE PRODUCTION OF AGARICUS BISPORUS SEASONING BY ENZYME METHOD%酶法研制蘑菇调味汁工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云霞; 秦俊哲; 陈均志; 杨迎春

    2011-01-01

    以双孢蘑菇为主要原料,采用酶水解法研制出蘑菇特色调味汁.通过实验得到的最佳酶解条件为:温度50 ℃、pH 6、时间5 h、酶浓度15%.在此条件下所制得的蘑菇调味汁色泽棕红,口感鲜美,无苦涩等异味,无毒副产物形成,氨基态氮可达0.62%,是一种高级营养调味品.%This paper studied on the seasoning production by enzyme method, with the Agaricus bisporus as the mian raw materials and by the enzymatic of the mushrooms, to produced a compound mushroom juice beverage. The result suggest that the best technological conditions as follows: pH 6.0, temperature 50 ℃, reaction time 5 h and neutral protease 15%%. Under this conditions, the received seasoning is brown-red, and oscular sense is delicious and have no pecular smell and poisonous. The production amino acid nitrogen is 0.62 %.

  5. Synthesis of double-stranded RNA in a virus-enriched fraction from Agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriskantha, A.; Wach, P.; Schlagnhaufer, B.; Romaine, C.P.

    1986-03-01

    Partially purified virus preparations from sporophores of Agaricus bisporus affected with LaFrance disease had up to a 15-fold-higher RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity than did comparable preparations from health sporophores. Enzyme activity was dependent upon the presence of Mg/sup 2 +/ and the four nucleoside triphosphates and was insensitive to actinomycin D, ..cap alpha..-amanitin, and rifampin. The /sup 3/H-labeled enzyme reaction products were double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as indicated by CF-11 cellulose column chromatography and by their ionic-strength-dependent sensitivity to hydrolysis by RNase A. The principal dsRNA products had estimated molecular weights of 4.3 /times/ 10/sup 6/ and 1.4 /times/ 10/sup 6/. Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ equilibrium centrifugation of the virus preparation resolved a single peak of RNA polymerase activity that banded with a 35-nm spherical virus particle containing dsRNAs with molecular weights of 4.3 /times/ 10/sup 6/ and 1.4 /times/ 10/sup 6/. The data suggest that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase associated with the 35-nm spherical virus is a replicase which catalyzes the synthesis of the genomic dsRNAs.

  6. Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using partially purified laccase from residual compost of agaricus bisporus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayolo-Deloisa, K. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Center for Biotechnology-FEMSA, Monterrey Institute of Technology, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Machin-Ramirez, C. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rito-Palomares, M. [Center for Biotechnology-FEMSA, Monterrey Institute of Technology, Campus Monterrey, Monterrey (Mexico); Trejo-Hernandez, M.R. [Center for Biotechnology Research, Autonomous University of Morelos State, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-08-15

    Laccase partially purified from residual compost of Agaricus bisporus by an aqueous two-phase system (Lac ATPS) was used in degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: fluorene (Flu), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and benzo[a]anthracene (BaA). The capacity of the enzyme to oxidize polyaromatic compounds was compared to that of the crude laccase extract (CE). After treatment of 72 h, Lac ATPS and CE were not capable of oxidizing Flu and Phe, while Ant, BaP, and BaA were oxidized, resulting in percentages of oxidation of 11.2 {+-} 1, 26 {+-} 2, and 11.7 {+-} 4 % with CE, respectively. When Lac ATPS was used, the following percentages of oxidation were obtained: 11.4 {+-} 3 % for Ant, 34 {+-} 0.1 % for BaP, and 13.6 {+-} 2 % for BaA. The results reported here demonstrate the potential application of Lac ATPS for the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Uptake and fate of Cd and Zn in edible fungi of the Agaricus bisporus species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huetter, M.

    1979-01-01

    Cd and Zn were added to growth substrate of fungi in order to investigate the Cd uptake and the effects of Zn on Cd uptake in the edible fungus Agaricus bisporus. Fungus yields were found to decrease with Cd uptake. This effect was completely overcome and sometimes even overcompensated by adding zinc. Cd concentrations in the fungi increased with the soil Cd concentration: When Cd (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg Fg) was added to the soil cover as well as to the substrate, Cd concentrations in the fungi were found to be about 70% higher than in fungi where the same amount of Cd had been added only to the substrate. The following interactions between Cd and Zn uptake were observed: Low soil Cd concentrations enhance Zn uptake. In contrast, Zn enhances Cd uptake in fungi with low Cd concentrations. At high soil Cd concentrations, Zn inhibits Cd uptake. Cd concentrations in the fungi increased with the age of the cultures and with the size of the fungi. The highest concentrations were found in the lamellae. The enrichment factors are lower in the cultivated variety (0.6 to 1.4 in dependence of the soil Cd concentration) than in wild-growing fungi.

  8. Direct electrochemistry of dopamine on gold-Agaricus bisporus laccase enzyme electrode: characterization and quantitative detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervedani, Reza Karimi; Amini, Akbar

    2012-04-01

    Direct electrochemistry of a new laccase enzyme immobilized on gold and its application as a biosensor for dopamine (DA) are investigated by voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The sensor demonstrated a redox adsorption behavior with E(0') = + 180 mV vs. Ag/AgCl for immobilized Agaricus bisporus laccase (LacAB) enzyme. The MPA platform was assembled on Au with and without utilization of ultrasounds. Excellent results were obtained by using the enzyme electrode fabricated based on MPA assembled with sonication. The LacAB immobilized in this condition showed a large electrocatalytic activity for oxidation of DA. Accordingly, a third-generation (mediator free) biosensor was constructed for DA. The DA concentration could be measured in the linear range of 0.5 to 13.0 and 47.0 to 430.0 μmol L(-1) with correlation coefficients of 0.999 and 0.989, respectively, and a detection limit of 29.0 nmol L(-1). The biosensor was successfully tested for determination of DA in human blood plasma and pharmaceutical samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant and anti-aging effects of acidic-extractable polysaccharides by Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangshang; Liu, Hui; Wang, Wenshuai; Wang, Xiuxiu; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Jianjun; Jing, Huijuan; Ren, Zhenzhen; Gao, Zheng; Song, Xinling; Jia, Le

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-aging effects of D-galatose-induced (D-gal-induced) aging mice as well as monosaccharide compositions of acidic-extractable polysaccharides (AcAPS) and its major purified fractions (AcAPS-1, AcAPS-2 and AcAPS-3) from the fruiting body of Agaricus bisporus. In the in vitro assays, AcAPS-2 showed superior scavenging activities on hydroxyl (82.98±4.67%) and DPPH (64.47±4.05%) radicals at the concentration of 1.0mg/mL than AcAPS and other polysaccharides fractions. For in vivo anti-aging analysis, AcAPS-2 showed superior effects on hepatic and nephric protection by improving serum enzyme activities, biochemical levels, lipid contents and antioxidant status, respectively. The monosaccharide analysis showed that rhamnose (Rha) and glucose (Glu) may play vital roles in maintaining the antioxidant and anti-aging activities. The results suggested that both AcAPS and its purified fractions might be suitable for functional foods and natural drugs in preventing the acute aging-associated diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of single spore isolates of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach using conventional and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manju; Suman, B C; Gupta, Dharmesh

    2014-10-01

    Strains A-15, S11, S-140, and U3 of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach, were used as parent strains for raising single spore homokaryotic isolates. Out of total 1,642 single spore isolates, only 36 single spore isolates were homokaryons and exhibited slow mycelial growth rate (≤2.0 mm/day) and appressed colony morphology. All these SSIs failed to produce pinheads in Petri plates even after 65 days of incubation, whereas the strandy slow growing SSIs along with parent strains were able to form the fructification in petriplates after 30 days. Out of 24, six ISSR primers, exhibited scorable bands. In the ISSR fingerprints, single spore isolates, homokaryons, lacked amplification products at multiple loci; they grow slowly and all of them had appressed types of colony morphology. The study revealed losses of ISSR polymorphic patterns in non-fertile homokaryotic single spore isolates compared to the parental control or fertile heterokaryotic single spore isolates.

  11. Agronomic quantitative assessment of substrates based on spents of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Raquel Picornell Buendía

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the agronomic viability of substrates based on spents of Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange Imbach (SAS and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. P. Kumm. (SPS was studied. In addition to the commercial substrate used as reference, six different treatments were considered. In this experiment, SPS and SAS were mixed in different ratios (from 6,000 g and 0 g, respectively, up to 3,000 g and 3,000 g, respectively. SAS was subjected to a heat treatment in a growing room ("cook out" and then to a maturation treatment which consisted of a controlled recomposting process in growing rooms. SPS was subjected to a pasteurizing heat treatment (60 °C - 65 °C, 8 h and progressive decrease for at least 15 h to a "spawning" temperature (25 °C.SPS (5,400 g + SAS (600 g and SPS (4,800 g + SAS (1,200 g were prepared substrates with biological efficiencies (BE of 35.98 % and 39.68 % respectively, lower than the control (46.18 % and acceptable yields. The average unit mass of fruiting body harvested was low.

  12. Bsn-t Alleles from French Field Strains of Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callac, Philippe; Hocquart, Sophie; Imbernon, Micheline; Desmerger, Christophe; Olivier, Jean-Marc

    1998-01-01

    In the Agaricus bisporus desert population in California, the dominant Bsn-t allele determines the production of tetrasporic basidia and homokaryotic spores (n) that characterize a heterothallic life cycle. Strains belonging to a French population have the Bsn-b/b genotype that results in bisporic basidia that produce heterokaryotic spores (n + n) which characterize a pseudohomothallic life cycle. More recombination occurs in the tetrasporic population than in the bisporic population. In France, tetrasporic strains are rare. For two such isolates, Bs 261 and Bs 423, we determined the life cycle, the heritability of the tetrasporic trait, the amount of variation in the recombination rate, and the haploid fruiting ability. We found that (i) Bs 261 was heterothallic, (ii) Bs 423 was homokaryotic and homothallic, (iii) Bs 261 was Bsn-t/b, (iv) recombination on a segment of chromosome I depended on the genotype at BSN, (v) some of the homokaryotic offspring of Bs 261 and all of the progeny of Bs 423 were able to fruit, (vi) Bs 261 and Bs 423 were closely related, and (vii) Bs 423 was partially intersterile with other strains of the species. PMID:9603821

  13. Agaricus bisporus and its in vitro culture as a source of indole compounds released into artificial digestive juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Kała, Katarzyna; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Krakowska, Agata; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2016-05-15

    The popularity of Agaricus bisporus results not only from the quality of the flavors, but also from the content of many substances of therapeutic properties. This paper presents a study on RP-HPLC determination of the content of indole compounds released from the lyophilized biomass from in vitro cultures of A. bisporus into artificial digestive juices at 37°C. A. bisporus in vitro cultures were grown on media enriched with zinc salts. The release of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan and l-tryptophan was found in the greatest number of samples. The content of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan in the investigated samples ranged from 86.62 to 531 mg/100g d.w. The amount of l-tryptophan was determined within the range of 1.63-4.68 mg/100g d.w. and for melatonin 0.43-0.64 mg/100g d.w. It was demonstrated for the first time that in vitro cultures of A. bisporus release indole compounds in conditions simulating the human digestive tract.

  14. Evidence for Outcrossing via the Buller Phenomenon in a Substrate Simultaneously Inoculated with Spores and Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callac, Philippe; Spataro, Cathy; Caille, Aurélie; Imbernon, Micheline

    2006-01-01

    In Agaricus bisporus, traditional cultivars and most of the wild populations belong to A. bisporus var. bisporus, which has a predominantly pseudohomothallic life cycle in which most meiospores are heterokaryons (n + n). A lower proportion of homokaryotic (n) meiospores, which typify the heterothallic life cycle, also are produced. In wild populations, pseudohomothallism was thought previously to play a major role, but recent analyses have found that significant outcrossing also may occur. We inoculated a standard substrate for A. bisporus cultivation simultaneously with homokaryotic mycelium from one parent and spores from a second parent. Culture trays produced numerous sporocarps that could theoretically have resulted from five different reproductive modes (pseudohomothallism, selfing or outcrossing via heterothallism, and selfing or outcrossing via the Buller phenomenon [i.e., between a homokaryon and a heterokaryon]). Most or all of the sporocarps resulted from outcrossing between the inoculated homokaryon and the inoculated heterokaryotic spores (or mycelia that grew from them). These data broaden our understanding of population dynamics under field conditions and provide an outcrossing method that could be used in commercial breeding programs. PMID:16597931

  15. Study on Disposing Technology of Substrate of Agaricus bisporus Using Wheat Straw%小麦秸秆栽培双孢蘑菇培养料处理技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭学文; 解文强; 周廷斌; 吴志会

    2013-01-01

    Taking Agaricus Bisporus AS2796 as the test material, compared with outdoor fermentation, the effects of different disposing technology of substrate of Agaricus Bisporus on the growth of hypha, the budding rate and the fresh mushroom production were studied.The results showed that the substrate was ferment 22 d, then sustained stable heat treatment 1 h with 100 ℃ water vapour, compared with outdoor fermentation , the fermentation time was shortened by 13 d, the growth of hypha was increased by 2.6 mm/d, the arising time of button ahead of 4.7 d and the total output was increased by 81.1%.%以双孢蘑菇AS2796为试材,以培养料常规室外一次性发酵为对照,研究了培养料不同处理方法对双孢蘑菇菌丝生长、现蕾速度以及产量的影响。结果表明:培养料先发酵22 d后再用100℃蒸汽处理1 h的培养料处理技术,与对照相比,发酵时间缩短13 d,菌丝长速提高2.6 mm/d,出菇时间提早4.7 d,产量增加81.1%。

  16. Crescimento micelial in vitro de cinco linhagens de Agaricus bisporus submetidas a diferentes condições de temperatura = In vitro mycelium growth of five Agaricus bisporus strains submitted to different temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial in vitro das linhagens ABI-05/03, ABI-06/04, ABI-04/02, ABI-06/05 e ABI-01/01 de Agaricus bisporus em meios de cultura sólidos à base de composto. As avaliações foram realizadas por meio de medições de quatro diâmetros das colônias, a cada 48h, durante 12 dias de incubação, no escuro, a 20 e 25ºC. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com uso do teste de Tukey para a comparação das médias. Com base nos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que: o crescimento micelial de A. bisporus é influenciado pela temperatura de incubação; a temperatura de 25°C foi mais favorável para o crescimento micelial de todas as linhagens de A. bisporus; na temperatura de 20°C, o melhor crescimento foi obtido com as linhagens ABI-06/05 e ABI-01/01; na temperatura de 25°C, a linhagem ABI-01/01 apresentou crescimento significativamente maior que todas as demais.The in vitro mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus strains ABI-05/03, ABI-06/04, ABI-04/02, ABI-06/05 and ABI-01/01 was evaluated in solidculture media made up of compost. Evaluations were performed by means of measurements of four diameters of the colonies, every 48 hours, during 12 days of incubation in darkness under 20 and 25ºC. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, using the Tukey test to compare averages. Based on the obtained results, it was verified that: mycelium growth of A. bisporus is influenced by the temperature of incubation; the temperature of 25°C was more favorable to the mycelium growth of all A. bisporus strains; under the temperature of 20°C, the best growth was obtained with strainsABI-06/05 and ABI-01/01 and, under the temperature of 25°C, strain ABI-01/01 showed significantly higher growth than all other strains.

  17. White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) (WBM) constitute 90 percent of the total mushrooms consumed in the United States; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well studied...

  18. In vitro supplementation with white button mushroom promotes maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) constitute 90 percent of the total mushroom market in the US; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well-studied. Furthermore, littl...

  19. Usage of Edible Mushrooms in Various Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Süfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of edible mushrooms which are generally consumed in houses in dried form is based on mainly instant soup and sauce formulations. Recently, the cultivations of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species have become widespread. Utilization of these cultivated mushrooms in recipes would bring added value to related food products. For this purpose, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species farmed in Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Mushroom House were dried and then pulverized. Firstly, a snack was prepared with Agaricus bisporus powder. Agaricus bisporus powder was substituted for wheat flour at the rates of 5 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 % and thus the potential of food product which had relatively lower carbohydrate and fat level and higher fiber content was investigated. In the second part of the study, either 5 %, 10 % of Agaricus bisporus powder or 5 %, 10 % of Pleurotus ostreatus powder were added into traditional Turkish meatball (beef mince, salt which was cooked in conventional oven, so meat flavor could be replaced by herbal flavor coming from mushroom. This property mat obey the purpose that, the created new product will be consumed fondly especially by children. Sensory and physical (colour and texture analysis were performed in both snack and meatball samples and the results were evaluated statistically.

  20. Agaricus bisporus powder improved cutaneous mucosal and serum immune parameters and up-regulated intestinal cytokines gene expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadian Zou, Hassan; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate immunomodulatory effects of Agaricus bisporus, white bottom mushroom powder (WBMP) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Carps were fed on different levels of WBMP (0, 0.5, 1 and 2%) for 8 weeks and at the end of feeding trial, skin mucus immune parameters (total Ig, lysozyme and protease activity), cytokines gene expression (TNF-alpha, IL1b, IL8) in intestine as well as serum non-specific immune parameters (total Ig, lysozyme and ACH50) were measured. The results showed significant dose dependent increase of skin mucus immune parameters in carps fed WBMP (P  0.05). In case of serum non-specific immune parameters, except lysozyme activity, other parameters (Ig total and ACH50) were significantly affected by dietary inclusion of WBMP (P  0.05). Furthermore, feeding on WBMP supplemented diet significantly improved growth performance (P < 0.05). These results indicated that WBMP can be considered as a promising immunostimulants in early stage of common carp culture.

  1. Optimization of chemical sulfation, structural characterization and anticoagulant activity of Agaricus bisporus fucogalactan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Yony; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Cipriani, Thales R

    2016-08-01

    A fucogalactan (E) was isolated from aqueous extract of Agaricus bisporus. The monosaccharide composition, methylation, and NMR analyses showed it is constituted by a (1→6)-linked α-d-Galp main-chain, partially methylated at O-3, and partially substituted at O-2 by non-reducing end-units of α-l-Fucp or α-d-Galp. HPSEC analysis showed it had Mw of 1.28×10(4)gmol(-1). The polysaccharide was sulfated modifying reaction time, molar ratio of sulfation agent to hydroxyl group on the polysaccharide (ηClSO3H/OH ratio), and ratio of total reaction volume to weight of sample (VT/w ratio; μLmg(-1)). The degree of substitution (DS) was evaluated for all sulfated derivatives. The sulfated fucogalactan with the highest DS value (2.83) had the best anticoagulant activity on Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) and Protrombin Time (PT) assays. This sulfated fucogalactan, named E100, was obtained with the optimal conditions of ηClSO3H/OH ratio of 18, VT/w ratio of 100, in 6h of reaction. The results showed that E100 produces a linear increment of APTT for concentrations of 15-45μgmL(-1), whereas PT was almost constant between 20 and 400μgmL(-1), suggesting an anticoagulant activity via inhibition of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. NMR and methylation analyses showed that α-d-Galp units of the main chain were greatly sulfated on 2-O-, 3-O-, and 4-O-positions.

  2. Identification of Resistance to Wet Bubble Disease and Genetic Diversity in Wild and Cultivated Strains of Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of wet bubble disease (WBD caused by Mycogone perniciosa are increasing across the world and seriously affecting the yield of Agaricus bisporus. However, highly WBD-resistant strains are rare. Here, we tested 28 A. bisporus strains for WBD resistance by inoculating M. perniciosa spore suspension on casing soil, and assessed genetic diversity of these strains using 17 new simple sequence repeat (SSR markers developed in this study. We found that 10 wild strains originating from the Tibetan Plateau in China were highly WBD-resistant strains, and 13 cultivated strains from six countries were highly susceptible strains. A total of 88 alleles were detected in these 28 strains, and the observed number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8. Cluster and genetic structure analysis results revealed the wild resources from China have a relatively high level of genetic diversity and occur at low level of gene flow and introgression with cultivated strains. Moreover, the wild strains from China potentially have the consensus ancestral genotypes different from the cultivated strains and evolved independently. Therefore, the highly WBD-resistant wild strains from China and newly developed SSR markers could be used as novel sources for WBD-resistant breeding and quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping of WBD-resistant gene of A. bisporus.

  3. Identification of Resistance to Wet Bubble Disease and Genetic Diversity in Wild and Cultivated Strains of Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongping; Wang, Xinxin; Li, Dan; Liu, Yuan; Song, Bing; Zhang, Chunlan; Wang, Qi; Chen, Meiyuan; Zhang, Zhiwu; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of wet bubble disease (WBD) caused by Mycogone perniciosa are increasing across the world and seriously affecting the yield of Agaricus bisporus. However, highly WBD-resistant strains are rare. Here, we tested 28 A. bisporus strains for WBD resistance by inoculating M. perniciosa spore suspension on casing soil, and assessed genetic diversity of these strains using 17 new simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed in this study. We found that 10 wild strains originating from the Tibetan Plateau in China were highly WBD-resistant strains, and 13 cultivated strains from six countries were highly susceptible strains. A total of 88 alleles were detected in these 28 strains, and the observed number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8. Cluster and genetic structure analysis results revealed the wild resources from China have a relatively high level of genetic diversity and occur at low level of gene flow and introgression with cultivated strains. Moreover, the wild strains from China potentially have the consensus ancestral genotypes different from the cultivated strains and evolved independently. Therefore, the highly WBD-resistant wild strains from China and newly developed SSR markers could be used as novel sources for WBD-resistant breeding and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of WBD-resistant gene of A. bisporus. PMID:27669211

  4. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercu, V., E-mail: vbercu@gmail.co [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Negut, C.D., E-mail: dnegut@nipne.r [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania); Duliu, O.G., E-mail: duliu@b.astral.r [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele (Ilfov) (Romania)

    2010-12-15

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of {gamma}-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel-Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom-Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle-Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom-Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  5. Production of Agaricus bisporus on substrates pre-colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum and supplemented at casing with protein-rich supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello-Castillo, M M; Sánchez, J E; Royse, D J

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate performance of Agaricus bisporus (Ab) on substrates pre-colonized by Scytalidiumthermophilum (St), a thermophilic fungus known to enhance yields of Ab and increase selectivity of the substrate. The radial extension rate (RER) of the mycelium of three strains of St and their influence on the growth of a brown strain of Ab were evaluated. We also determined the time required for colonization of pangola grass by St in a compost pile and the influence of three protein-rich supplements on yield of Ab on pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) colonized by St. RER of St ranged from 10.1mm/d on grass to 18.9 mm/d on potato dextrose yeast extract agar, with significant differences among substrates and among strains. Ab grew faster on substrate colonized for 1, 2, or 3 days by St (RER of 3.31, 3.29, 3.23 mm/d, respectively) compared to non-colonized substrate (1.85 mm/d). Ab was cultivated on substrate samples selected daily from the St-inoculated pile, with biological efficiencies (BE) ranging from 4% (day 0) to 73.9% (day 2). Protein-rich supplements (soybean, black beans and cowpeas) added at casing significantly stimulated mushroom yield on St-colonized substrate compared to the non-supplemented control. BE varied from 26.1% on substrate non-supplemented to 73.1% on compost supplemented with ground soybean. There were no significant differences in mushroom yield observed among supplements evaluated.

  6. Evaluation of 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K “Agaricus Bisporus” Activity in Cultivated Edible Mushroom formed in Tehran Province- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Changizi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Natural and man made radioactive sources exist in our environment they can enter into our food chains. One of these is the soil-mushroom-human chain. High level doses of natural radiation can cause hazards to humans. Materials and Methods Samples of Agaricus bisporus cultivated edible mushroom in Tehran province- Iran were collected from 7 farms. Specific activity of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137Cs, 40K and 235U of the samples were measured by two HPGe detectors. Results Specific activity of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137Cs and 40K in the edible mushroom samples were equal to 0.06 ± 0.03 - 0.7 ± 0.2 Bq kg-1 dry, 1.4 ± 0.7 Bq kg-1 dry, 0.1 ± 0.03- 0.3 ± 0.1 Bq kg-1dry and 920 ± 400 - 1370 ± 900 Bq kg-1dry , respectively. Conclusion As the measured concentrations of the radionuclides of interest are close or lower than MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity. Consumption of the mushrooms would impose no health consequences to the consumers.

  7. Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis (1→6)-β-D-glucans show immunostimulatory activity on human THP-1 derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Alquini, Giovana; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z; Iacomini, Marcello; Wichers, Harry J; Van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2013-04-15

    The (1→6)-β-D-glucans from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis were purified to evaluate their effects on the innate immune system. THP-1 macrophages were used to investigate the induction of the expression of TNF-α, IL1β, and COX-2 by RT-PCR. The purification of the polysaccharides gave rise to fractions containing 96-98% of glucose. The samples were analyzed by GC-MS, HPSEC and (13)C NMR, which confirmed the presence of homogeneous (1→6)-β-D-glucans. The β-glucans were incubated with THP-1 derived macrophages, for 3 h and 6 h to evaluate their effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Both β-glucans stimulated the expression of such genes as much as the pro-inflammatory control (LPS). When the cells were incubated with LPS+β-glucan, a significant inhibition of the expression of IL-1β and COX-2 was observed for both treatments after 3 h of incubation. By the results, we conclude that the (1→6)-β-D-glucans present an immunostimulatory activity when administered to THP-1 derived macrophages.

  8. Agaritine content of 53 Agaricus species collected from nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzova, V.; Hajslova, J.; Peroutka, R.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-three different species of the genus Agaricus were collected in the Czech Republic during the period 1998-2001 and identified by an experienced mycologist. The samples were analysed for agaritine (N2-(-L-glutamyl)-4-hydroxymethylphenylhydrazine) content, a precursor to a suspected rodent...... carcinogen. There was a huge variation in agaritine content between species, but less variation between samples of a species. Whereas the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus commonly contain 200-500 mg agaritine kg-1 fresh weight, no less than 24 of the 53 species contained agaritine levels above 1000 mg...... strain development of Agaricus mushrooms for cultivation. No correlation could be observed between agaritine content and size of the mushroom, week of the year when collected, year of collection, or site of collection. Besides occurring in the genus Agaricus, some species of the genera Leucoagaricus...

  9. Effect of the gas absorbing agent on preservation of agaricus bisporus%气体吸收剂对双孢菇贮藏效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜传来; 韩玲玲

    2011-01-01

    为保持双孢菇贮藏品质、延长货架期,研究气调包装对双孢菇保鲜效果的影响.采用不同浓度配比的气体吸收剂和不同厚度聚乙烯薄膜对双孢菇进行包装,置于4℃下贮藏,定期测定双孢菇的表面颜色,呼吸强度、失重率、硬度、PPO、POD活性的变化.结果表明:采用组成为1.44 g脱氧剂、0.5 g乙烯脱除荆,1.2 g二氧化碳脱除剂的气体吸收剂及厚度为0.05 mm的聚乙烯薄膜,对双孢菇贮藏中的褐变具有明显的抑制作用,能够有效降低双孢蘑菇呼吸强度,延长双孢菇的贮藏保鲜期.%In order to keep the quality and increase shelf life of Agaricus bisporus, the effect of modified atmosphere packaging on quality of Agaricus bisporus was studied. Agaricus bisporus were packaged in different initial gas absorbing concentration and different thickness of polyethylene film,then stored at 4 ℃ respectively, and surface color, respiration intensity, weight loss, hardness, PPO and POD's activity were determined regularly. The different content of gas absorbent and different thickness of polyethylene film were used to pack the fresh Agaricus bisporus, and then put up fresh-keeping tests with low-temperature. The results showed that, 1.44 g deoxidizer, 0.5 g ethylene scavengers, 1.2 g carbon dioxide scavengers, and 0. 05 mm polyethylene film had a clear inhibition on the browning of Agaricus bisporus, and could effectively reduce the respiration rate and prolong the storage life of Agaricus bisporus.

  10. Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus as functional foods Hongos del género Agaricus como alimentos funcionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vinhal Costa Orsine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are noted for their pharmacological and culinary properties. In this study, it was performed a critical literature review, focusing primarily on aspects of the chemical composition of these mushrooms whose pharmacological properties and nutritional composition characterize them as functional foods. It was also discussed articles conducted in vitro and in vivo proving the high antioxidant potential of the Agaricaceae family, in addition to articles which emphasize the toxicity characteristics and safety for its use in therapy or in human nutrition. These mushrooms exhibit numerous bioactive substances as well as safety regarding toxicity, which characterize them as functional foods. Despite the countless beneficial effects on human health, mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are little known by the population, making it necessary partnership and combined efforts among producers, industries and researchers in order to disseminate, research and consumption of these foods.Hongos del género Agaricus son conocidos por sus propiedades farmacológicas y culinarias. En este estudio, se realizó una revisión crítica de la literatura, centrándose principalmente en los aspectos de la composición química de estos hongos, cuyas propiedades farmacológicas y composición nutricional caracterizarlos como alimentos funcionales. También se discutió artículos realizados in vitro e in vivo demostrando el potencial antioxidante de alta de la familia Agaricaceae, además de los artículos que hacen hincapié en las características de toxicidad y seguridad para su uso en terapia o en la nutrición humana. Estos hongos presentan numerosas sustancias bioactivas, así como la seguridad en relación con la toxicidad, lo que les caracterizan como alimentos funcionales. A pesar de los innumerables efectos beneficiosos sobre la salud humana, las setas del género Agaricus son poco conocidos por la población, por lo que es colaboraci

  11. Lecanicillium fungicola: causal agent of dry dubble disease in white-button mushroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, R.L.; Baars, J.J.P.; Kalkhove, S.I.; Lugones, L.G.; Wösten, H.A.B.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Lecanicillium fungicola causes dry bubble disease in commercially cultivated mushroom. This review summarizes current knowledge on the biology of the pathogen and the interaction between the pathogen and its most important host, the white-button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. The ecology of the pathog

  12. 真空预冷减缓双孢菇细胞壁物质的降解%Vacuum cooling retards degradation of cell wall matter in Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶菲; 郜海燕; 葛林梅; 穆宏磊; 陈杭君

    2013-01-01

    Vacuum cooling is a rapid cooling technique extensively used for cooling some agricultural and food products. The vacuum cooling technology is now gradually applied to the precooling treatment of agricultural products due to the advantages of quick cooling, easy operation, no constraint of packing containers, and energy savings. Consumption of Agaricus bisporus has increased substantially because of its delicacy, flavor and nutritional value. Agaricus bisporus is an excellent source of several essential amino acids, vitamins (B2, niacin, and folates), and minerals (potassium, phosphorus, zinc, and copper). Agaricus bisporus has a short shelf life of 3-4 days compared to most vegetables at ambient temperatures because it has no cuticle to protect it from physical or microbial attack or water loss. Loss of quality is caused by morphological changes due to maturation, discoloration, changes in texture and flavor, and losses of nutrients. Textural changes of fruits are accompanied by loss of neutral sugars, solubilization and depolymerization of the polysaccharides of the cell wall, and rearrangements of their associations, as the result of the combined action of several cell wall-modifying enzymes, acting in both pectic and hemicellulosic fractions. Recent studies on the structure of the plant cell wall have disclosed a large number and type of biochemical linkages between the components. Such linkages are potential targets for enzymatic action and draw attention to the putative involvement of several members of enzymes able to act and modify its structure in a developmental and coordinated way. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vacuum cooling treatment on cell wall compositional changes and ultrastructure in fresh mushrooms during 15 d of post-harvest storage at 4℃. In this study, we investigated the change of cellulose content, cellulose activity, propectin content, WSP content, and the PG activity of Agaricus bisporus before and after

  13. Advances in structure-function relationships of tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus - investigation on heat-induced conformational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioniţă, Elena; Aprodu, Iuliana; Stănciuc, Nicoleta; Râpeanu, Gabriela; Bahrim, Gabriela

    2014-08-01

    A combination of fluorescence spectroscopic measurements, inactivation kinetics and in silico prediction was used in the present study to investigate the heat induced behaviour of tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus. The phase diagram indicated the existence of at least two distinct species induced by the temperature increase up to 75°C. Regardless of calcium ion presence, the fluorescence intensity results suggest that tyrosinase tends to form aggregates after 10min at 75°C. The quenching experiments using acrylamide and iodide demonstrate a more flexible conformation of tyrosinase at higher temperature. Detailed insights into tyrosinase structure after performing molecular dynamics simulations, suggest important structural rearrangements of the protein with the temperature increase. The copper coordinating His(94) residue was predicted to be involved in salt bridge formation with Glu(98), therefore causing significant alteration of the substrate binding site with increasing temperature. These significant changes in tyrosinase structure at temperatures over 60°C might lead to enzyme inactivation.

  14. Nutritional value of Agaricus sylvaticus: mushroom grown in Brazil El valor nutritivo de Agaricus Sylvaticus: setas cultivadas en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vinhal Costa Orsine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological characterization of the Agaricus sylvaticus species (A. sylvaticus, known as the Sun Mushroom and cultivated in Brazil, is necessary to determine substances with pharmacological and nutritional potential, in view its safe use in food and in human medicine. The purpose of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the A. sylvaticus mushroom grown in Brazil. Mushrooms were obtained in dehydrated form from a producer in Minas Gerais State. Through this study it was able to observe the fungus' rich chemical composition, highlighting the variety and quantity of minerals as well as its high protein content. There are many components of this mushroom that have medicinal properties, which are recognized as excellent antioxidants. Results also proved that the composition of A. sylvaticus presented differences when compared to the chemical composition of other Agaricaceae fungi.En la caracterización bromatológica del género Agaricus sylvaticus (A. sylvaticus, conocido como la seta del sol y cultivado en Brasil, es necesario determinar las sustancias con potencial farmacológico y nutritivo con el objetivo de un uso seguro en la alimentación y la medicina humana. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición química de la seta A. sylvaticus cultivada en Brasil. Se obtuvieron las setas en su forma deshidratada de un cultivador del estado de Minas Gerais. A través de este estudio pudimos observar la rica composición química del hongo, destacando la variedad y cantidad de minerales así como su alto contenido en proteínas. Esta seta contiene muchos componentes con propiedades medicinales, que se sabe que son excelentes antioxidantes. Los resultados también muestran que la composición de A. sylvaticus mostraba diferencias al compararla con la composición química de otros hongos de la familia Agaricaceae.

  15. Transcription analysis of pyranose dehydrogenase from the basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus and characterization of the recombinantly expressed enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonaus, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Sygmund, Christoph; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens

    2016-03-01

    Agaricus bisporus is a litter degrading basidiomycete commonly found in humic-rich environments. It is used as model organism and cultivated in large scale for food industry. Due to its ecological niche it produces a variety of enzymes for detoxification and degradation of humified plant litter. One of these, pyranose dehydrogenase, is thought to play a role in detoxification and lignocellulose degradation. It is a member of the glucose-methanol-choline family of flavin-dependent enzymes and oxidizes a wide range of sugars with concomitant reduction of electron acceptors like quinones. In this work, transcription of pdh in A. bisporus was investigated with real-time PCR revealing influence of the carbon source on pdh expression levels. The gene was isolated and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. Characterization of the recombinant enzyme showed a higher affinity towards disaccharides compared to other tested pyranose dehydrogenases from related Agariceae. Homology modeling and sequence alignments indicated that two loops of high sequence variability at substrate access site could play an important role in modulating these substrate specificities.

  16. Induction of lcc2 expression and activity by Agaricus bisporus provides defence against Trichoderma aggressivum toxic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaarda, Calvin P; Abubaker, Kamal S; Castle, Alan J

    2015-11-01

    Laccases are used by fungi for several functions including defence responses to stresses associated with attack by other fungi. Laccase activity changes and the induction of two laccase genes, lcc1 and lcc2, in Agaricus bisporus were measured in response to toxic extracts of medium in which Trichoderma aggressivum, the cause of green mould disease, was grown. A strain of A. bisporus that shows resistance to the extracts showed higher basal levels and greater enzymatic activity after extract exposure than did a sensitive strain. Furthermore, pre-incubation of T. aggressivum extract with laccases reduced toxicity. Faster induction and greater numbers of lcc2 transcripts in response to the extract were noted in the resistant strain than in the sensitive strain. The timing and increase in lcc2 transcript abundance mirrored changes in total laccase activity. No correlation between resistance and lcc1 transcription was apparent. Transcript abundance in transformants with a siRNA construct homologous to both genes varied widely. A strong negative correlation between transcript abundance and sensitivity of the transformant to toxic extract was observed in plate assays. These results indicated that laccase activity and in particular that encoded by lcc2 contributes to toxin metabolism and by extension green mould disease resistance.

  17. Environmental regulation of reproductive phase change in Agaricus bisporus by 1-octen-3-ol, temperature and CO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel C; Herman, Bram; Noble, Ralph; Dobrovin-Pennington, Andreja; Sreenivasaprasad, S; Burton, Kerry S

    2013-06-01

    Reproductive phase change from vegetative mycelium to the initiation of fruiting in Agaricus bisporus is regulated in large part by the sensing of environmental conditions. A model is proposed in which three separate environmental factors exert control at different stages of the reproductive developmental process change. The eight carbon volatile 1-octen-3-ol controls the early differentiation from vegetative hyphae to multicellular knots; temperature reduction is essential for the later differentiation of primodia; and carbon dioxide level exerts quantitative control on the number of fruiting bodies developed. Analysis of transcriptomic changes during the reproductive phase change was carried out with initiation-specific microarrays, and the newly published A. bisporus genome was used to analyse the promoter regions of differentially regulated genes. Our studies have shown there to be both early and late initiation responses relating to sensing of eight carbon volatiles and temperature respectively. A subset of 45 genes was transcriptionally regulated during the reproductive phase change which exhibited a range of functions including cell structure, nitrogen and carbon metabolism, and sensing and signalling. Three gene clusters linking increased transcription with developmental stage were identified. Analysis of promoter regions revealed cluster-specific conserved motifs indicative of co-ordinated regulation of transcription.

  18. Royal sun medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis Ka21 (higher Basidiomycetes), as a functional food in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Daisuke; Liu, Ying; Motoi, Masuro; Ohno, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    The Royal Sun medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis, is used as a natural health product. In Japan, however, the quality control of some of these mushroom products has been viewed as a safety problem. Focusing on the quality control of A. brasiliensis KA21, we have performed several safety studies. To date, we have established evidence that this mushroom can be used safely as an immunostimulant and to mediate biochemical parameters associated with obesity or diabetes. Furthermore, to improve the manufacturing process of this mushroom, we have studied the relationship between its pharmaceutical actions and the conditions of its cultivation and thermal management. The purpose of this review is to report the findings of basic and clinical studies of the fruit body of A. brasiliensis KA21.

  19. The intraspecific variability of mitochondrial genes of Agaricus bisporus reveals an extensive group I intron mobility combined with low nucleotide substitution rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalzadeh, Banafsheh; Saré, Idy Carras; Férandon, Cyril; Callac, Philippe; Farsi, Mohammad; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Barroso, Gérard

    2015-02-01

    Intraspecific mitochondrial variability was studied in ten strains of A. bisporus var. bisporus, in a strain representative of A. bisporus var. eurotetrasporus and in a strain of the closely related species Agaricus devoniensis. In A. bisporus, the cox1 gene is the richest in group I introns harboring homing endonuclease genes (heg). This study led to identify group I introns as the main source of cox1 gene polymorphism. Among the studied introns, two groups were distinguished according to the heg they contained. One group harbored heg maintained putatively functional. The other group was composed of eroded heg sequences that appeared to evolve toward their elimination. Low nucleotide substitution rates were found in both types of intronic sequences. This feature was also shared by all types of studied mitochondrial sequences, not only intronic but also genic and intergenic ones, when compared with nuclear sequences. Hence, the intraspecific evolution of A. bisporus mitochondrial genome appears characterized by both an important mobility (presence/absence) of large group I introns and by low nt substitution rates. This stringent conservation of mitochondrial sequences, when compared with their nuclear counterparts, appears irrespective of their apparent functionality and contrasts to what is widely accepted in fungal sequence evolution. This strengthens the usefulness of mtDNA sequences to get clues on intraspecific evolution.

  20. Study on the Fermentation Technology of Aimple Oxygen Ventilation of Agaricus bisporus Substrate%双孢蘑菇培养料简易通气增氧发酵技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾文捷; 贾培松; 管建华; 郝敬; 罗影; 努尔孜亚·亚力买买提; 魏鹏; 赛力克·阿克孜木别克

    2016-01-01

    Objective]In order to provide technical support for improving production and efficiency of Agaricus bisporus,the fermentation technology of simple oxygen ventilation of Agaricus bisporus substrate were developed to improve the technical level of fermentation of the small scale farming cultivation.[Method]De-vices of simple oxygen ventilation and double plastic film covering were used to treat the Agaricus bisporus sub-strate.[Result]The fermentation technology of simple oxygen ventilation could reduce the area of anaerobic fermentation,maintain the temperature and humidity of substrate pile,promote the growth of actinomycetes, ensure the homogeneity and stability of fermentation and improve the effect of fermentation,shorten the fer-mentation time of 3 to 5 days and increase the area of actinomycetes of 6 1%.[Conclusion]Simple ventilation oxygen fermentation technology has the advantages of simple operation,low cost,which effectively improved the fermentation quality and efficiency of the double spore mushroom culture medium and it is so suitable for the small scale farming cultivation of Agaricus bisporus that it must have a good application potential.%【目的】开发双孢蘑菇培养料简易通气增氧发酵技术,以提高双孢蘑菇小规模农法栽培培养料发酵水平,为双孢蘑菇增产增效提供技术支撑。【方法】采用简易通气发酵装备,辅之以全覆盖双层塑料膜,对双孢蘑菇培养料进行发酵处理,检测和分析培养料发酵效果。【结果】简易通气增氧发酵技术缩小了料堆厌氧区面积,提高了料堆保温保湿性,促进了放线菌生长,保障了发酵的均一性和稳定性,提高了培养料发酵效果,与常规方法相比可以缩短发酵时间3~5 d,放线菌层面积提高60.19%。【结论】简易通气增氧发酵技术操作简便、成本低廉,并有效提高了双孢蘑菇培养料发酵质量和效率,适宜双孢蘑菇小规模农法栽培

  1. Study on Screening the High Yield Cultivating Formula for Agaricus bisporus using Spent Pleurotus Substrate%利用平菇菌糠栽培双孢蘑菇高产配方筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭学文; 解文强; 周廷斌; 吴志会; 忻龙怍; 蔡海燕

    2015-01-01

    为筛选以平菇菌糠和牛粪为主要原料栽培双孢蘑菇的最佳配方,设主料菌糠与牛粪质量比〔m (菌糠)∶m(牛粪)〕5∶5(处理Ⅰ)、6∶4(处理Ⅱ)、7∶3(处理Ⅲ)、8∶2(处理Ⅳ)和9∶1(处理Ⅴ)5个处理,以尿素、过磷酸钙和石膏为辅料,研究了菌糠与牛粪不同质量配比对培养料发酵情况、菌丝生长情况以及鲜菇产量的影响。结果表明:以平菇菌糠和牛粪为主要原料栽培双孢蘑菇时,菌糠与牛粪的最佳质量比为6∶4。该配比下,培养料发酵温度上升较快,发菌速度和菌丝生长速度快,菌丝长势最好,现蕾密度最大,产量最高,达到了11.80 kg/hm2。%In order to screen the optimal formula for cultivation of Agaricus bisporus using spent pleurotus substrate and dry cow dung as the main materials, the mass ratios of fungus chaff and cow dung were conducted by 5∶5, 6∶4, 7∶3, 8∶2, 9∶1, respectively, and the urea, superphosphate and gypsum were taked as accessories, then the effects of different mass ratios of fungus chaff and cow dung on fermentation, growth of mycelium and fresh mushroom yield were studied.The results showed that when Agaricus bisporus cultivated with spent pleurotus substrate and dry cow dung as the main materials, the optimum mass ratio of fungus chaff and cow dung was 6∶4.In the condition, fermentation temperature of culture rose faster, the fungus sped and mycelium grew rapidly, the density was maximum, the yield of fresh mushroom was highest, it reached 11.80 kg/hm2.

  2. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE COGUMELOS (Agaricus bisporus DESIDRATADOS SOB DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES DE SECAGEM E ARMAZENAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza JORGE

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: Cogumelos desidratados (Agaricus bisporus foram submetidos à avaliação sensorial visando a avaliar os efeitos de três pré-tratamentos (branqueamento a vapor, sulfitação e um controle, duas temperaturas de secagem (60ºC e 80ºC, duas temperaturas de armazenagem (5ºC e 25º C por um tempo de armazenagem de até 60 dias. Os atributos sensoriais da cor, sabor e textura foram avaliados por uma equipe treinada constituída por sete provadores, a zero, 30 e 60 dias de armazenagem. Também foi conduzido um teste de aceitação por uma equipe não treinada, constituída de 25 provadores. Concluiu-se que a temperatura de 60ºC foi a mais adequada para a secagem de cogumelos e a sulfitação, o pré-tratamento que melhor preservou as propriedades sensoriais do produto desidratado. O produto apresentou uma boa qualidade para o consumo, quando submetido a uma avaliação sensorial, com 60 dias de armazenagem, independentemente das temperaturas de armazenagem estudadas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cogumelos desidratados; análise sensorial; armazenagem.

  3. Sulfation of fucogalactan from Agaricus bisporus: Different patterns in the chemical structure and their effects on anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román Ochoa, Yony; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    A fucogalactan from Agaricus bisporus was sulfated by two methodologies based on an optimized sulfation method. The direct action of chlorosulfonic acid and SO3-pyridine complex over the sulfation reaction and its effects on anticoagulant activity were evaluated. The products of chemical sulfations were two sulfated fucogalactans named E100 and ESL respectively. Clotting assays (APTT, PT and TT) showed that both sulfated polysaccharides have anticoagulant activity, and that ESL was more potent compared to E100. The FXa, T and FXIIa activities in the presence of the sulfated polysaccharides were determined. The better anticoagulant activity of ESL could be related to anti-FXIIa activity and also probably to its higher bioavailability. The HPSEC analysis showed similar Mw of 1.08×10(4)gmol(-1) and 1.00×10(4)gmol(-1) for E100 and ESL respectively. NMR and methylation analyses indicated a heterogeneous sulfation pattern for E100, whereas ESL showed conserved unsulfated (1→6)-linked α-d-Galp residues in the main-chain and a more homogeneous sulfation pattern. The DS values of ESL and E100 were 1.0 and 2.8 respectively, indicating that the sulfation pattern is more important for the anticoagulant activity than the amount of sulfate.

  4. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus by Adding Sheathing Leaves of Zizania latifolia%添加茭白鞘叶栽培双孢蘑菇初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡志英; 卢政辉; 丁中文; 曾辉

    2012-01-01

    The sheathing leaves of Zizania lati folia, which contained 4 times higher in organic matters and twice more nitrogen than the rice straw, was seen as an excellent potential substrate material for mushroom cultivation. Our experiment by adding the sheathing leaves of Z. lati folia to the traditional compost formulation in growing Agaricus bisporus indicated that increasing the sheathing leaves in the medium slowed the hyphae running, delayed the pinning to 3 days, and postponed the mushroom harvest up to 4 days. The optimal results appeared to be when 50% sheathing leaves and 50% rice straw were used in combination for the formulation. Using the formulation, (a) the mushroom yield in one growing season reached 20. 45 kg o m-2, approaching the same level as the traditional formula (Control) ; (b) the output/input ratio was 4. 479, which was higher than 3. 439 for Control) and, (c) there was no appreciable differences from Control on the single fruit weight or the characteristics of the fruiting body. Thus, the substitution seemed economically viable. And, at the same time, the practice could alleviate the rice straw shortage in major mushroom producing areas, and materially reduce waste and pollution caused by the disposal of the sheathing leaves.%检测表明茭白鞘叶中含有丰富的有机质与氮源,分别是稻草的2倍和4倍,是栽培双孢蘑菇的理想替代原料.在传统稻草配方中添加茭白鞘叶栽培蘑菇的试验,研究结果表明:走菌速度随配方中茭白鞘叶含量的增加而减慢,茭白鞘叶配方的蘑菇现蕾期和开始采菇时间分别比稻草配方迟3、4 d;稻草与茭白鞘叶各占50%配方为最佳,单季产量达到20.45 kg·m-2,几乎和传统配方持平,而投入产出比可以达到4.479,超过传统配方的3.439,并且菇体单粒重和传统配方没有显著差异,而且鲜菇的品质经分析和传统配方几乎无异,具有良好的经济效益.本研究初步明确了茭白鞘叶栽培蘑菇

  5. Antioxidant activity as indicator of UV radiation and other abiotic stress factors on Agaricus bisporus (Lange/Imbach and Sedum hybridum (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of stress level might be facilitated also in plant and horticultural sciences, but currently mainly morphological parameters are in use. Antioxidant activity routinely measured in food-oriented researches and several studies indirectly indicated that stress factors can influence this parameter. Our aim was to assess the potential direct indicator role of antioxidant activity in stress conditions. We measured the effects of UVB and soil-delivered stress on Agaricus bisporus and Sedum hybridum. Our results indicate that UVB slightly decreases, while the inadequate soil conditions increase antioxidant activity; hence these measurements are suitable for determining the level of stress in different living samples.

  6. Study on New Casing Soil Materials for Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.%双孢蘑菇新型覆土材料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁滨; 张金文; 张志鸿; 柯丽娜; 林德锋

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to explore the new casing soil materials for Agaricus bisporus(Lange)Sing. , to save peaty soil resources. [Method] Peaty soil was mixed with red loam according to different proportions and used the mixture to cultivate Agaricus bisporus ( Lange) Sing. , then investigated its mycelium growth status, yield and economic benefit. [ Result ] In the treatments adding to peaty soil, the time of mycelium climbing on the soil was early, harvesting time brought forward, and mycelium amount and yield both increased. Thereinto, that the ratio of peaty soil to red loam was 1: 2 appeared the best, compared to control, its yield increased 19.6% and its relatively net income increased 18.0% . [Conclusion] It is feasible of applying peaty soil as casing soil materials to cultivate Agaricus bisporus(Lange)Sing, in south Fujian and has good effects.%[目的]探索新型双孢蘑菇[Agaricus bisporus(Lange)Sing.]覆土材料,以节约泥炭土资源.[方法]将泥炭土与红壤土按不同比例混合后作为覆土材料栽培双孢蘑菇,调查覆土后蘑菇菌丝生长情况、产量及经济效益.[结果]添加泥炭土的处理菌丝上土时间早、覆土层菌丝量增加、出菇时间提前、产量增加.其中泥炭土与红壤土使用比例为1∶2作为覆土材料表现最好,产量比对照高出19.6%,相对纯收入提高了18.0%.[结论]闽南地区应用泥炭土作为覆土材料栽培双孢蘑菇是可行的,并有良好效果的.

  7. Análisis del perfil proteínico y efecto de la temperatura sobre la digestabilidad de proteinas de Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    García del Río, Ana

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo fin de máster experimental, el hongo sometido ha estudio Agaricus bisporus, conocido comúnmente como champiñón. En el presente trabajo experimental se realizaron ensayos de digestibilidad in vitro con un fluido gástrico simulado de los extractos acuosos de la seta a tiempos variables y posteriormente se empleó electroforesis SDS-PAGE imitando las condiciones gástricas, para identificar los productos de la digestión. Con el fin de vigilar el grado de digestión con pepsin...

  8. Effects of cellular structure and cell wall components on water holding capacity of mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Boom, Remko M.; Haaren, van Els; Siccama, Joanne; Sman, van der Ruud G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In a sequel of papers we have investigated effects of different physical contributions to the water holding capacity of foods by considering the common white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). In the current paper of our sequel, we consider individual contributions of the cellular phase to wate

  9. Effect of Filling Nitrogen in Vacuum on Cell Membrane and Colour after Blanching in Agaricus bisporus%真空充氮对双孢菇细胞膜及烫漂后颜色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安建; 刘丽娜; 魏书信; 李静

    2013-01-01

    为了有效防止双孢菇褐变,从菇体细胞膜和色泽两方面考虑,在不同真空度下对双孢菇进行充氮处理,检测其烫漂前的细胞膜透性、丙二醛含量和烫漂后的颜色变化,从而找出真空充氮烫漂有效防止双孢菇褐变的最佳条件.结果表明,随着真空度的提高,双孢菇的细胞膜透性增大,丙二醛含量增加,两者均在真空度0.100 MPa时达到最大;真空充氮处理能显著影响双孢菇烫漂后的颜色变化,最佳处理是真空度0.090 MPa下充氮,此时双孢菇的氧气含量为3.8%,褐变指数最小(28.74),褐变抑制率达17.52%.综合分析,真空充氮处理虽然不利于双孢菇细胞膜完整性的保持,但与沸水烫漂结合,能有效地抑制双孢菇的褐变,是一种有效的物理调控防褐变技术.%In order to effectively inhibit browning,Agaricus bisporus was treated by filling nitrogen in vacuum and blanching in different vacuum. The cell membrane permeability and malonalde-hyde (MDA) level before blanching and colour change after blanching were investigated respectively. The results showed that the cell membrane permeability and MDA level increased with the increase of vacuum,and both reached maximum at vacuum of 0.100 MPa. However,filling nitrogen in vacuum could significantly impact mushroom colour after blanching,and the optimum condition of filling nitrogen in vacuum was at vacuum 0. 090 MPa,oxygen content was 3.8% and the browning index of Agaricus bisporus was 28. 74 with 17. 52% of browning inhibition rate under this optimum condition. Overall,filling nitrogen in vacuum was not conducive to retain cell membrane integrity, but could effectively inhibit browning after blanching. Therefore, filling nitrogen in vacuum and blanching was an effective anti-browning technology.

  10. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercu, V.; Negut, C. D.; Duliu, O. G.

    2010-12-01

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of γ-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel— Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom— Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle— Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom— Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  11. The effect of fungal decay (Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw lignin using pyrolysis-GC-MS in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vane, C.H.; Abbott, G.D.; Head, I.M. [Department of Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry (Postgraduate Institute), NRG, Drummond Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2001-06-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), was used in the molecular characterisation of lignin in wheat straw during its fungal degradation by Agaricus bisporus. The decayed wheat straw had a lower proportion of syringyl to guaiacyl derived moieties than its native counterpart. The ratio of methyl 3,4-dimethoxybenzoate to 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde increased from 1.0 in native wheat straw to 6.4 following fungal degradation. Similarly the ratio of methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate to 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde increased from 1.6 in native wheat straw to 3.1 upon decay. The increase in both guaiacyl and syringyl acid to aldehyde ratios indicated that A. bisporus induces oxidative cleavage of lignin at the C{alpha}-C{beta} bonds. Both the threo- and erythro- isomers of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-trimethoxypropane decreased in intensity relative to other thermochemolysis products in degraded wheat straw. The increase in the ratio of methyl 3,4,-dimethoxybenzoate to the sum of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-trimethoxypropane (threo- and erythro- isomers) from 1.0 in native wheat straw to 10.9 in A. bisporus decayed wheat straw confirmed that the fungus had cleaved alkyl side chains. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the presence of TMAH provides a sensitive method for tracking the oxidative degradation of lignin during the fungal decay of wheat straw.

  12. Influence of structural features on immunostimulating activity of glucans extracted from Agaricus blazei mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarski Maja S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High molecular weight b-D-glucans derived from Basidiomycetes cell walls are able to specifically activate cellular and humoral components of the host immune system. The aim of this paper was to examine immunomodulating activity of native, chemically and enzimatically modified glucans from Agaricus blazei mushroom and to determine which structural features are of primary importance for their stimulation referring to humane immune cells. The immunomodulating activities were tested in vitro, by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and measuring of interferon-gamma (IFN-g production by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Measurements of immunomodulatory capacity of Agaricus blazei native glucans showed their expressive immunostimulating effect on activated PBMCs and synthesis of IFN-g. The results obtained after the stimulation of cells with 1M H2SO4 and 1M NaOH, the treated glucans showed that primary structure is of more importance than the tertiary structure of the triple helix for their immunostimulating activity and synthesis of IFN-g. Glucans of lower molecular weight obtained after acid hydrolysis appeared as effective immunostimulators of PBMC's. The results obtained after the incubation of cells with 1,6 b-glucanase modified glucans suggest that b-(1,6 binding of glucose monomers probably has no importance for the production of imunostimulating effects, in vitro. This confirmed that b-(1,3 bonds are the primary determinants of immunomodulatory activities and stimulation of IFN-g synthesis.

  13. 超声波辅助提取双孢菇多糖的研究%Study on the polysaccharides extraction of Agaricus bisporus using ultrasonic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振鹏; 袁亚宏; 岳田利; 杨昊博

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 Study was made on the optimum technology of Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides extraction by using ultrasonic to lay the foundation for solving by-products reuse in the canning process.【Method】 Using Agaricus bisporus canning by-products as raw materials,single factor experiment and orthogonal test were adopted to analyze the effect of each factor in solid-liquid ratio,ultrasonic power,extraction time and temperature on the extraction percentage of the polysaccharides using ultrasonic,and the process parameters were optimized.【Result】 The results indicated that the optimum condition of extraction is as follows:liquid-solid ratio 40 mL/g,ultrasonic power 560 W,time 120 min and temperature 60 ℃.【Conclusion】 Under this optimum condition,the extraction percentage of Agaricus bisporus polysaccharides reached 3.65%,which increased by 96.24% compared with the common technical yields.%【目的】对超声波辅助提取双孢菇多糖的工艺进行研究,为双孢菇罐头加工过程中废弃物的综合利用提供支持。【方法】以盐渍双孢菇罐头废弃物为原料,通过单因素及正交试验探讨了液料比、超声波功率、超声波处理时间及处理温度对双孢菇多糖提取率的影响,并对超声波辅助提取双孢菇多糖的工艺参数进行了优化。【结果】优化得到超声波辅助提取双孢菇多糖的最佳工艺参数为:超声波功率560W,超声波处理时间120min,超声波处理温度60℃,液料比40mL/g。【结论】在优化的最佳工艺条件下,双孢菇多糖的提取率为3.65%,较无超声波促进作用下普通工艺的多糖提取率提高了96.24%。

  14. Metaboličke osobitosti četveroglavog bedrenog mišića (m. quadriceps femoris) u ovaca pasmine Lička pramenka hranjenih uz dodatak plemenite pečurke (Agaricus bisporus).

    OpenAIRE

    Špiranec, Katarina; Popović, Maja; Živković, Mario; Špoljarić, Daniel; Vlahović, Ksenija; Brzica, Hrvoje; Mršić, Gordan; Mihelić, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je provjeriti prisutnost oksidativnih enzima u četveroglavom bedrenom mišiću (m. quadriceps femoris) ovaca pasmine Lička pramenka te procijeniti učinak u hranu dodanog pripravka plemenite pečurke Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) na histokemijske i morfološke karakteristike mišića. Četrnaest jednogodišnjih ovaca bilo je nasumično odabrano i podijeljeno u dvije skupine (kontrolna i pokusna skupina) s po sedam životinja. Pokus je bio proveden tijekom 6 tjedana hranjenja...

  15. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest

    OpenAIRE

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules....

  16. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction to obtain mycosterols from Agaricus bisporus L. by response surface methodology and comparison with conventional Soxhlet extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, Sandrina A; Diz, Patrícia; Prieto, M A; Barros, Lillian; Rodrigues, Alírio; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-15

    Ergosterol, a molecule with high commercial value, is the most abundant mycosterol in Agaricus bisporus L. To replace common conventional extraction techniques (e.g. Soxhlet), the present study reports the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for ergosterol. After preliminary tests, the results showed that solvents, time and ultrasound power altered the extraction efficiency. Using response surface methodology, models were developed to investigate the favourable experimental conditions that maximize the extraction efficiency. All statistical criteria demonstrated the validity of the proposed models. Overall, ultrasound-assisted extraction with ethanol at 375 W during 15 min proved to be as efficient as the Soxhlet extraction, yielding 671.5 ± 0.5mg ergosterol/100 g dw. However, with n-hexane extracts with higher purity (mg ergosterol/g extract) were obtained. Finally, it was proposed for the removal of the saponification step, which simplifies the extraction process and makes it more feasible for its industrial transference.

  17. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  18. Effect of mushroom Agaricus blazei on immune response and development of experimental cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Cynthia H; Brant, Fátima; Miranda, Aline S; Rodrigues, Flávia G; Oliveira, Bruno C L; Santos, Elândia A; Assis, Diego R R; Esper, Lísia; Silva, Bruno C; Rachid, Milene A; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Teixeira, Antônio L; Teixeira, Mauro M; Régis, Wiliam C B; Machado, Fabiana S

    2015-08-11

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is debilitating and sometimes fatal. Disease severity has been associated with poor treatment access, therapeutic complexity and drug resistance and, thus, alternative therapies are increasingly necessary. In this study, the effect of the administration of Agaricus blazei, a mushroom of Brazilian origin in a model of CM caused by Plasmodium berghei, strain ANKA, was investigated in mice. C57BL/6 mice were pre-treated with aqueous extract or fractions of A. blazei, or chloroquine, infected with P. berghei ANKA and then followed by daily administration of A. blazei or chloroquine. Parasitaemia, body weight, survival and clinical signs of the disease were evaluated periodically. The concentration of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, histopathology and in vitro analyses were performed. Mice treated with A. blazei aqueous extract or fraction C, that shows antioxidant activity, displayed lower parasitaemia, increased survival, reduced weight loss and protection against the development of CM. The administration of A. blazei resulted in reduced levels of TNF, IL-1β and IL-6 production when compared to untreated P. berghei-infected mice. Agaricus blazei (aqueous extract or fraction C) treated infected mice displayed reduction of brain lesions. Although chloroquine treatment reduced parasitaemia, there was increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and damage in the CNS not observed with A. blazei treatment. Moreover, the in vitro pretreatment of infected erythrocytes followed by in vivo infection resulted in lower parasitaemia, increased survival, and little evidence of clinical signs of disease. This study strongly suggests that the administration of A. blazei (aqueous extract or fraction C) was effective in improving the consequences of CM in mice and may provide novel therapeutic strategies.

  19. Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) polyphenoloxidase inhibited by apigenin: Multi-spectroscopic analyses and computational docking simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Lei; Zou, Liqiang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-15

    It has been revealed that some polyphenols can prevent enzymatic browning caused by polyphenoloxidase (PPO). Apigenin, widely distributed in many fruits and vegetables, is an important bioactive flavonoid compound. In this study, apigenin exhibited a strong inhibitory activity against PPO, and some reagents had synergistic effect with apigenin on inhibiting PPO. Apigenin inhibited PPO activity reversibly in a mixed-type manner. The fact that inactivation rate constant (k) of PPO increased while activation energy (Ea) and thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) decreased indicated that the thermosensitivity and stability of PPO decreased. The conformational changes of PPO were revealed by fluorescence emission spectra and circular dichroism. Atomic force microscopy observation suggested that the dimension of PPO molecules was larger after interacting with apigenin. Moreover, computational docking simulation indicated that apigenin bound to PPO and inserted into the hydrophobic cavity of PPO to interact with some amino acid residues.

  20. The Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill: Review of Literature and Pharmaco-Toxicological Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Firenzuoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM popularly known as ‘Cogumelo do Sol’ in Brazil, or ‘Himematsutake’ in Japan, is a mushroom native to Brazil, and widely cultivated in Japan for its medicinal uses, so it is now considered as one of the most important edible and culinary-medicinal biotechnological species. It was traditionally used to treat many common diseases like atherosclerosis, hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, dermatitis and cancer. In vitro and in vivo ABM has shown immunomodulatory and antimutagenic properties, although the biological pathways and chemical substances involved in its pharmacological activities are still not clear. The polysaccharides phytocomplex is thought to be responsible for its immunostimulant and antitumor properties, probably through an opsonizing biochemical pathway. Clinical studies are positive confirmations, but we are still at the beginning, and there are perplexing concerns especially relative to the content of agaritine. Argantine is a well-known carcinogenic and toxic substance in animals, that must be completely and fully evaluated.

  1. Impact of Fungicides Used for Wheat Treatment on Button Mushroom Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information is currently available on the potential environmental risks that fungicides applied during wheat cultivation and remaining in straw may have for mushroom production. The substrate for many cultivated mushrooms is mostly based on cereal straw. This review aimed to answer the question whether residues of the fungicides commonly used in wheat production and remaining in straw could be directly or indirectly responsible for changes in yields of Agaricus bisporus. Potential chemical risks of eight fungicides (for wheat treatments for A. bisporus: mancozeb, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl,carbendazim+cyproconazole, carbedazim+flusilasole, captan, chlorothalonil and trifloxystrobinare disscused. Only the value of maximum residue level of flusilasole and its formulation was evaluated as higher than medium effective concentration of the fungicide for A.bisporus. As a conclusion, flusilazole treatment could be a limiting factor for using straw for composting and mushroom cultivation.

  2. Assessment of arsenic bioaccessibility in raw and cooked edible mushrooms by a PBET method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Llorens-Muñoz, Mariona; Funes-Collado, Virginia; Sahuquillo, Àngels; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports arsenic analysis in Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus before and after being cooked. Furthermore, arsenic in raw and cooked mushroom was determined in the gastric and gastrointestinal bioaccessible fractions obtained after simulating human digestion by means of an in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Several certified reference materials (SRM 1568a, SRM 1570a, CRM 7503-a, BC211 and IPE-120) were analysed to evaluate the proposed methods. Total arsenic content was 1393, 181 and 335μgAskg(-1) for L. edodes, A. bisporus and P. ostreatus, respectively, and decreased by between 53% and 71% in boiled mushroom and less than 11% in griddled mushroom. High bioaccessibility was observed in raw, boiled and griddled mushroom, ranging from 74% to 89% and from 80% to 100% for gastric and gastrointestinal extracts, respectively, suggesting the need to consider the potential health risk of consumption of the mushrooms analysed.

  3. Remoção de cor de efluentes têxteis com cogumelos Agaricus bispora = Decolorization of textile effluent with mushroom Agaricus bispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Zarur Coelho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O emprego direto de cogumelos Agaricus bispora foi avaliado para a remoção de cor de uma mistura sintética de corantes reativos. Avaliou-se o efeito da granulometria das partículas (cubos de 0,5 ou 1,0 cm e cogumelos moídos, da massa de cogumelos (10, 20, 40, 60 ou 80 g em 250 mL de solução e de diferentes formas de tratamento do cogumelo sobre a remoção de cor de uma solução sintética dos corantes Reactive Yellow 37, Reactive Black 5 e Reactive Red na concentração de 13,3 mg L-1 cada corante. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos para maiores áreas superficiais de contato do cogumelo (cogumelo moído com o efluente colorido e sob aeração contínua. A adição de acetona durante o processo de moagem, seguido de congelamento, contribuiu para o aumento da remoção de cor, obtendo-se os melhoresresultados: 73% após 6h, com 20 g de biocatalisador 250 mL-1 de efluente. A utilização de diferentes lotes e marcas de cogumelo levou à obtenção de diferentes atividades enzimáticas, mas percentuais similares de remoção de cor, indicando que a remoção de cor não possuirelação direta com a atividade enzimática.The direct application of Agaricus bispora mushroom was evaluated for decolorization of a synthetic mixture of reactive dyes. The effects of particle size (0.5 or 1.0 cm cubes and triturated mushroom, mushroom mass (10, 20, 40, 60 or 80 g in 250 mL of solution and different mushroom tissue treatments were analyzed regarding color removal efficiency of dyes Reactive Yellow 37, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red in a synthetic solution of 13.3 mg L-1 concentrationof each dye. The best results were found with larger superficial contact area between mushroom particle (triturated mushroom and colored effluent under continuous aeration. Acetone addition during mushroom trituration process followed by a freezing step contributed to decolorization improvement, leading to best results: 73% after 6h, with 20 g of biocatalyst 250 m

  4. Cadmium and lead bioavailability and their effects on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation by spent mushroom substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, C; Jiménez-Ayuso, N; Frutos, I; Gárate, A; Eymar, E

    2013-12-01

    Bioremediation of mixed metal-organic soil pollution constitutes a difficult task in different ecosystems all around the world. The aims of this work are to determine the capacity of two spent mushroom substrates (Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus) to immobilize Cd and Pb, to assess the effect of these metals on laccase activity, and to determine the potential of spent A. bisporus substrate to biodegrade four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene, when those toxic heavy metals Cd and Pb are present. According to adsorption isotherms, spent P. ostreatus and A. bisporus substrates showed a high Pb and Cd adsorption capacity. Pb and Cd interactions with crude laccase enzyme extracts from spent P. ostreatus and A. bisporus substrates showed Cd and Pb enzyme inhibition; however, laccase activity of A. bisporus presented lower inhibition. Spent A. bisporus substrate polluted with PAH and Cd or Pb was able to biodegrade PAH, although both metals decrease the biodegradation rate. Spent A. bisporus substrate contained a microbiological consortium able to oxidize PAH with high ionization potential. Cd and Pb were immobilized during the bioremediation process by spent A. bisporus substrate. Consequently, spent A. bisporus substrate was adequate as a multi-polluted soil bioremediator.

  5. Study on the process of vacuum cooled Agaricus bisporus%白蘑菇真空预冷工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶菲; 郜海燕; 张慜; 葛林梅

    2009-01-01

    The technology for vacuum cooled Agaricus bisporus was studied. The influence of temperature, water addition and pressure was discussed. Mathematical model for predicting the color and soluble solid was set up by central composite design and response surface analysis(RSA), and the extraction technology was optimized. The results show that optimum conditions of extraction are: the temperature of 5 ℃, water addition of 5% and the pressure of 250 Pa.%考察预冷温度、水分添加量、预冷压力等因素对白蘑菇的色差和可溶性固形物的影响,通过中心组设计和响应面分析考察因素间的交互作用,优化白蘑菇的预冷工艺.研究结果表明,白蘑菇最优的预冷工艺条件为:预冷温度为5℃、水分添加量5%和最终预冷压力250 Pa.

  6. Physical Interaction of T Cells with Dendritic Cells is not Required for the Immunomodulatory Effects of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Wilbers

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are well known for their immunomodulating capacities. However, little is known about how mushroom-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs affect T cells. Therefore we investigated the effect of mushroom compounds derived from seven edible mushroom species on DCs, their fate in DCs and the effect of the mushroom-stimulated DCs on T cells. Each mushroom species stimulated DCs in a different manner as was revealed from the DC’s cytokine response. Assessing DC maturation revealed that only one mushroom species, Agaricus subrufescens, induced complete DC maturation. The other six mushroom species upregulated MHC-II and CD86 expression, but did not significantly affect the expression of CD40 and CD11c. Nevertheless, mushroom compounds of all investigated mushroom species are endocytosed by DCs. Endocytosis is most likely mediated by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs because CLR binding is Ca2+ dependent and EGTA reduces TNF-α secretion with more than 90%. Laminarin partly inhibited TNF-α secretion indicating that the CLR dectin-1, among other CLRs, is involved in binding mushroom compounds. Stimulated DCs were shown to stimulate T cells, however, physical contact of DCs and T cells is not required. Because CLRs seem to play a prominent role in DC stimulation, mushrooms may function as a carbohydrate containing adjuvant to be used in conjunction with anti-fungal vaccines.

  7. Test on the Medieaments Against the Disease of Agaricus Bisporus Infected by Candida and Sauhanolngles%双孢蘑菇酵母菌病害药剂试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康晓慧

    2003-01-01

    假丝酵母菌(Candida sp.)、酵母菌(Saccharomyces sp.)是稻田栽培双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)中的一类新病原菌.描述了病原菌的形态特征、致病症状,作了实验室药敏试验.试验表明:克霉灵、灭菌威、甲醛等药剂可有效杀灭病原菌.

  8. Composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei na dieta de frangos de corte Spent mushroom substrate of Agaricus blazei in broiler chicks diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Batista Machado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da substituição de um antibiótico por diferentes níveis do composto exaurido do cogumelo (CEC Agaricus blazei sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Foram avaliadas sete dietas, seis com adição de CEC (0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0% e uma com antibiótico (avilamicina 10 ppm. Foram utilizados 588 pintos de 1 dia de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições por dieta (três por sexo e 14 aves por unidade experimental. As aves que não receberam qualquer aditivo na dieta apresentaram os piores resultados de desempenho. Níveis de CEC superiores a 0,4% ocasionaram redução gradual no desempenho. O nível de 0,2% de CEC proporcionou o maior ganho de peso e o de 0,21%, a melhor conversão alimentar e o maior consumo de ração. À exceção do rendimento de peito e do rendimento de gordura abdominal, os aditivos não influenciaram os rendimentos de carcaça e dos cortes. O composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei pode ser utilizado como aditivo alternativo ao antibiótico no nível de 0,2% da dieta, pois não prejudicou o desempenho produtivo e o rendimento de carcaça das aves.The effect of the substitution of an antibiotic by different levels of spent mushroom substrate (SMS of Agaricus blazei on the performance of broiler chicks from 1 to 42 days old was evaluated. Seven diets were evaluated, six with SMS addiction (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0% and one with antibiotic (avilamycin 10 ppm. A total of 588 one day old chicks was allotted to a complete randomized design, with six replications per diet (three per sex and 14 birds per experimental unit. The birds fed diet with any additive showed the worst performance results. Levels of SMS above 0.4% caused gradual reduction in the performance. The level of 0.2% of SMS provided the highest value of weight gain and of 0.21% promoted the best feed conversion and the highest value of feed intake

  9. Commonly consumed and specialty dietary mushrooms reduce cellular proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith R; Brophy, Sara K

    2010-11-01

    Worldwide, over one million women will be newly diagnosed with breast cancer in the next year. Moreover, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the USA. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that consumption of dietary mushrooms can protect against breast cancer. In this study, we tested and compared the ability of five commonly consumed or specialty mushrooms to modulate cell number balance in the cancer process using MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Hot water extracts (80°C for 2 h) of maitake (MT, Grifola frondosa), crimini (CRIM, Agaricus bisporus), portabella (PORT, Agaricus bisporus), oyster (OYS, Pleurotus ostreatus) and white button (WB, Agaricus bisporus) mushrooms or water alone (5% v/v) were incubated for 24 h with MCF-7 cells. Cellular proliferation determined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was significantly (P mushrooms, with MT and OYS being the most effective. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction, an often used mitochondrion-dependent marker of proliferation, was unchanged although decreased (P > 0.05) by 15% with OYS extract. Lactate dehydrogenase release, as a marker of necrosis, was significantly increased after incubation with MT but not with other test mushrooms. Furthermore, MT extract significantly increased apoptosis, or programmed cell death, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl end labeling method, whereas other test mushrooms displayed trends of ∼15%. The total numbers of cells per flask, determined by hemacytometry, were not different from control cultures. Overall, all test mushrooms significantly suppressed cellular proliferation, with MT further significantly inducing apoptosis and cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. This suggests that both common and specialty mushrooms may be chemoprotective against breast cancer.

  10. Appropriate water blanching treatment to keep quality and color of Agaricus bisporus slices%适宜热烫条件保持双孢蘑菇片品质和颜色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李顺峰; 王安建; 陈瑾; 田广瑞

    2014-01-01

    Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is one of the most popular and valuable mushrooms in the world, and it is usually processed for long-time storage. Button mushrooms are a good source of vitamins, protein, phenolics, polysaccharose and many mineral elements. However, they are highly perishable commodities due to browning, water loss, senescence, and microbial attack, in which, browning reactions limit their shelf life to a few days. The enzyme polyphenoloxidase (PPO) is the responsible cause of this deteriorative process. In view of their highly perishable nature, button mushrooms must be processed to extend their commercial shelf life for off-season use. The production of heat-sterilized preserves represents most usual long-term preservation. Sterilization accounts for more than 60 percent of industrially processed mushrooms. In the preparation process of sterilized mushrooms, blanching is an important pre-treatment, which objectives may be:(i) to reduce enzymatic browning through thermal inactivation of PPO;(ii) to induce volume contraction (shrinkage) to avoid this occurrence at the sterilization stage;(iii) to make the product more pliable to facilitate filling operations. However, some negative features of blanching are the loss of valuable nutritious components, partial biochemical conversions of components resulting in changes in aroma and - in general - deteriorative effects on sensory properties like texture and color, which are the main features taken into account by consumers. To maintain the quality and color of button mushrooms, the content of ascorbic acid and total phenolic, antioxidant capacity, and color of button mushroom slices blanched between 85℃and 100℃with an increment of 5℃ for different times were investigated. Results showed that blanching significantly reduced the content of ascorbic acid and total phenolic, antioxidant capacity, and color. Ascorbic acid and total phenolic content decreased by 66.67 percent-93.33 percent and 12

  11. Characterization of phytase activity from cultivated edible mushrooms and their production substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collopy, Patrick D; Royse, Daniel J

    2004-12-15

    Phytase is used commercially to maximize phytic acid degradation and to decrease phosphorus levels in poultry and swine manure. To determine phytase content in edible mushrooms, basidiomata of Agaricus bisporus and three specialty mushrooms (Grifola frondosa, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus cornucopiae) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were surveyed. Enzyme activity ranged from 0.046 to 0.074 unit/g of tissue for four A. bisporus types (closed and open whites and closed and open browns) grown at The Pennsylvania State University's Mushroom Test Demonstration Facility (MTDF). The addition of various nutrient supplements to phase II mushroom production substrate did not alter phytase activity in A. bisporus. Portabella mushrooms (open brown) obtained from a commercial farm had significantly higher levels of phytase activity (0.211 unit/g of tissue) compared to A. bisporus grown at the MTDF. Of the specialty mushrooms surveyed, maitake (G. frondosa) had 20% higher phytase activity (0.287 unit/g of tissue) than commercial portabella mushrooms. The yellow oyster mushroom (P. cornucopiae) ranked second in level of phytase activity (0.213 unit/g of tissue). Shiitake (L. edodes) contained the least amount of phytase in basidiomata (0.107 unit/g of tissue). Post-crop steam treatment (60 degrees C, 24 h) of SMS reduced phytase activity from 0.074 to 0.018 unit/g. Phytase was partially purified from commercially grown portabella basidiomata 314-fold with an estimated molecular mass of 531 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. The optimum pH for activity was 5.5, but appreciable phytase activity was observed over the range of pH 5.0-8.0. Partially purified A. bisporus phytase was inactivated following a 10-min incubation at > or =60 degrees C.

  12. Furlough Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom, and A. arvensis or horse mushroom) in strong wine. Mushrooms are kept at a low boil for 10 minutes, placed in clean canning jars, and covered with wine (12% ethanol) or fortified wine (...

  13. Study on vitamin D₂ stability in dried mushrooms during drying and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sławińska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Zalewska-Korona, Marta; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Parfieniuk, Ewa; Stachniuk, Anna

    2016-05-15

    The main objective of this work was to determine the stability of vitamin D2 in dried mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes during storage, as well as to examine the possibility of inducing vitamin D2 production in dried mushrooms by UVB irradiation. After 1.5 year storage of dried mushrooms, the level of vitamin D2 in button mushrooms was found to be 6.90 μg/g dw, which is a 48.32% of initial level of vitamin D2. In the case of dried oyster and shiitake mushrooms there was a decrease to the level of 66.90% and 68.40%, respectively. It was determined that dried mushrooms can produce ergocalciferol under UVB irradiation. The highest content of vitamin D2 was observed in A. bisporus. Freeze-dried A. bisporus contained from 42.08 to 119.21 μg/g dw and hot-air dried mushrooms contained from 21.51 to 81.17 μg/g dw vitamin D2.

  14. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

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    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  15. Determination of Heavy Metal and Radioactivity in Agaricus campestris Mushroom Collected from Kahramanmaraş and Erzurum Proviences

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    Aysenur Yilmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, radioactivity and heavy metals accumulations in Agaricus campestris mushroom collected from Kahramanmaraş and Erzurum provinces was determined. HPGe gamma detector was used for the determination of radioactivity concentrations. Heavy metal content was measured using a ICP-MS. As radioactive element; natural (238U, 232Th 40K and artificial radionuclide (137Cs concentrations were determined. The values of the committed effective dose were calculated. Same measurements were made in soils. Absorbed dose and excess lifetime cancer risk were calculated. Amount of Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Pb206, Pb207 and Pb208 as heavy metals of mushrooms were determined. 238U, 232Th, 40K activity concentrations of mushroom collected from Erzurum was determined as 12.1 ± 0.8, 11.7 ± 0.9, 497.7 ± 17.8 Bq/kg, respectively and 137Cs was not detected by system. 232Th and 40K activity concentrations of mushroom collected from Kahramanmaraş was determined as 13.4 ± 0.5, 134.9 ± 6.3 Bq/kg, respectively, 238U and 137Cs was not detected by system similarly. The value of the committed effective dose collected from Erzurum and Kahramanmaraş were calculated as 75 and 29 μSv respectively and these values were found lower than 290 μSv accepted as world average. Absorbed dose and risk of lifetime cancer for Erzurum was determined as 37.39 nGy/h, 16.5 x 10-5; absorbed dose and excess lifetime cancer risk for Kahramanmaraş was determined as 30.92 nGy/h, 13.3 x 10-5 respectively. Amount of daily intake for each heavy metal was calculated. Radionuclide activity concentrations and accumulations of heavy metal were not founded threaten level to healthy, except from arsenic As (0.025 and 0.039 mg/kg in mushroom collected from both provinces. They were found a bit higher than upper limit (0.015 mg/kg in report which is prepared World Health Organization (WHO and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO jointly.

  16. 双孢菇深层发酵培养基的响应面优化%Optimization of submerged fermentation medium of Agaricus bisporus for extracellular polysaccharide production by response surface analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛勇; 毛健; 李华钟; 孟祥勇

    2013-01-01

    The effect of carbon sources,nitrogen source and mineral salt on extracellular polysaccharide production by submerged fermentation medium of Agaricus bisporus had been studied. On the base of single factors experiments,response surface analysis was applied to optimize the submerged fermentation medium of Agaricus bisporus for extracellular polysaccharide production. The quadratic regression analysis was applied to get the optimal level of main factors,and optimal quality concentrations of the variables were obtained as follows:glucose 35.7g/L,KH2PO4 2.1g/L and peptone 3.1g/L. Under these optimal conditions,the predicted and experimental production of extracellular polysaccharide was high up to 1.86g/L and 1.87g/L,respectively.%研究了碳源、氮源、无机盐对双孢菇胞外多糖产量的影响.在单因素实验的基础上,采用响应面实验设计对双孢菇(Agaricus bisporus)深层发酵生产胞外多糖的培养基进行了优化,并建立了葡萄糖、KH2PO4、蛋白胨变化的二次回归方程,探讨了各因子对胞外多糖产量的影响.最终确定适宜的培养基条件为葡萄糖35.7g/L,KH2PO42.1g/L,蛋白胨3.1g/L;在此条件下可得到胞外多糖的最大产量,预测值为1.86g/L,对实验结果进行验证,得到胞外多糖的产量为1.87g/L.

  17. Purification and Characterization of Melanogenic Enzyme Tyrosinase from Button Mushroom

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    Kamal Uddin Zaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway for the formation of the pigment melanin in human skin. A key enzyme, tyrosinase, catalyzes the first and only rate-limiting steps in melanogenesis. Since the discovery of its melanogenic properties, tyrosinase has been in prime focus and microbial sources of the enzyme are sought. Agaricus bisporus widely known as the common edible mushroom, it’s taking place in high amounts of proteins, enzyme, carbohydrates, fibers, and low fat contents are frequently cited in the literature in relation to their nutritional value. In the present study tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose; the enzyme was purified, 16.36-fold to give 26.6% yield on total activity in the crude extract and final specific activity of 52.19 U/mg. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed a migrating protein band molecular weight of 95 kDa. The purified tyrosinase was optimized and the results revealed that the optimum values are pH 7.0 and temperature 35°C. The highest activity was reported towards its natural substrate, L-DOPA, with an apparent Km value of 0.933 mM. This indicated that tyrosinase purified from Agaricus bisporus is a potential source for medical applications.

  18. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda NAGY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the consumption of mushrooms has significantly increased due to the scientific evidence of their ability to help the organism in the combat and prevention of several diseases (Kalac, 2009. Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are consumed as a delicacy for their texture and flavour, but also for their nutritional properties that makes them even more attractable (Heleno S. 2015. In this paper data were collected from several scientific studies with the aim to characterize the chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds of various mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lactarius piperatus. The chemical composition of 5 wild edible studied mushrooms, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total sugars, crude fat, crude protein and energy were determined according to AOAC procedures.

  19. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  20. Effect of package types on Agaricus bisporus during shelf-life%包装方式对双孢菇货架期品质和生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王步江

    2012-01-01

    以双孢菇为对象,研究了不同包装方式对双孢菇货架期品质的影响。结果表明,(4±1)℃销售条件下,与其他包装方式相比,用0.035mmPE抽真空方式进行包装效果显著,能较好地保持双孢菇原有的外观品质,降低了双孢菇贮藏期间PPO活性和MDA浓度,抑制了双孢菇的褐变,延长了双孢菇的货架期时间,与常规PE膜包装相比,延长双孢菇货架期至10d,为双孢菇的销售提供理论依据。%The objective of the paper was to provide a theoretical basis for shelf-life of Agaricus bisporus by different packing methods. The effects of different thickness PE film, microporous film, vacuum PE film, PE film packaging on physiology and quality of Agaricus bisporus stored at (4+1) % were investigated. Compared with other packing methods, 0.035 mm PE film package had significantly better result. The package gained a good score of sensory evaluation, obviously reduced the activity of PPO, concentration of MDA and the degree of browing, delayed the aging process during shelf-life. Meanwhile, comparing with conventional PE film packaging, 0.035 mm PE film package could extend storage time 10 d at (4±1) ℃.

  1. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Di Piero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas

  2. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  3. Effect of different cooking methods on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of cultivated mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Mendiola-Lanao, Mónica; Pérez-Clavijo, Margarita; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction. A significant decrease was detected in the antioxidant activity especially after boiling and frying, while grilled and microwaved mushrooms reached higher values of antioxidant activity. Maillard reaction products could be partially responsible, as supported by the absorbance values measured at 420 nm. Since cooking techniques clearly influence the nutritional attributes of mushrooms, the proper selection of treatments is a key factor to prevent/reduce nutritional losses. Microwaving and grilling were established as the best processes to maintain the nutritional profile of mushrooms.

  4. Extraction of lycopene from tomato sauce with mushrooms (Agaricus brasiliensis), determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cristiane Schüler; Miguel, Obdulio G; Eugênia, Balbi Maria; Penteado, Patrícia Teixeira Padilha Da Silva; Haracemiv, Sonia Maria Chaves

    2009-01-01

    Lycopene belongs to the subgroup of non-oxygenated carotenoids with antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties that are comparatively more powerful than the majority of plasma carotenoids. When foodstuffs containing lycopene are processed, the cell wall breaks down during the thermal process--thus enabling the extraction of lycopene from chromoplasts, improving their bioavailability. Edible mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis stands out given its medicinal properties and antioxidant potential when used to treat heart diseases and to prevent cancer. Given the interest in lycopene-rich foods, the purpose of the present study was to determine the lycopene present in different types of tomato sauce with A. brasiliensis and/or its extract by high-performance liquid chromatography. The type of solvent (dichloromethane, hexane and ethanol) to remove water from the tomato sauce was tested before the extraction of carotenoids. Lycopene determination in tomato sauces, in tomatoes and in the A. brasiliensis extract was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography. Findings show that when tomato sauce and raw materials underwent heat treatment, the type of treatment did not interfere with carotenoid and lycopene bioavailability--indicating that those sauces have a significant concentration of carotenoids and, in particular, their content in the lycopene proportion compared with total carotenoids.

  5. Antioxidant capacity of several Iranian, wild and cultivated strains of the button mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Tajalli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, is the most commonly grown mushroom in Iran; however, there is a significant shortage of research on its antioxidant activity and other medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extracts from four cultivated strains and four Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-identified, Iranian wild isolates of A. bisporus. Evaluations were made for total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity. Overall, results showed that all the wild isolates exhibited significantly lower DPPH-derived EC50, compared to the cultivated strains (p 2 > 0.60. However, these constituents could not statistically differentiate the group of wild samples from the cultivated ones, and there was low correlation with the DPPH-derived EC50s (r2

  6. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-11-15

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation. Gamma, electron-beam and UV irradiation have been shown to be potential tools in extending the postharvest shelf-life of fresh mushrooms. Studies evaluating the effects of ionizing radiation are available mainly in cultivated species such as Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. This review comprises a comprehensive study of the effects of irradiation on physico-chemical parameters (weight, colour, texture and pH), chemical compounds including nutrients (proteins, sugars and vitamins) and non-nutrients (phenolics, flavonoids and flavour compounds), and on biochemical parameters such as enzymatic activity of mushrooms for different species and from different regions of the world.

  7. Agaricus subrufescens : new to Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wisitrassameewong, Komsit; Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Thongklang, Naritsada; Zhao, Rui-lin; Callac, Philippe; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Bahkali, Ali H.; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus subrufescens is an edible and medicinal mushroom of Agaricaceae, Agaricales originally described from North America. It has increasingly been used as a health food and alternative medicine and is also used in cosmetics. Agaricus subrufescens has been shown to exhibit many pharmaceutical traits such as anti-cancer, anti-microbial and immunomodulatory properties and is rich in bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Recently, four specimens of Agaricus subrufescens were co...

  8. Visible and near-infrared calibrations for quality assessment of fresh phase I and II mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H S S; Kilpatrick, M; Lyons, G; Sturgeon, S; Archer, J; Moore, S; Cheung, L; Finegan, K

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that visible and near-infrared spectra (Vis-NIR) of dry and milled compost can be used for generating partial least squares (PLS) calibrations of phase II compost parameters including ammonia, nitrogen dry matter (NDM), dry matter (DM), pH, conductivity, carbon, microbial population, and potential productivity. The objective of this study was to develop robust calibrations for some of the key parameters from the spectra of fresh phase I and II composts. Samples of substrates from six commercial production yards were obtained during winter and summer months of 2000-2004 to monitor changes in quality and were analyzed for the test factors. Vis-NIR reflectance measurements of fresh samples (740) were made over the range of 400-2500 nm. After mathematical pretreatments, PLS calibrations of the key parameters were developed using the NIR (1100-2500 nm) and visible and NIR (400-2500 nm) regions and subsequently validated using an independent sample set of 123 phase I and II samples obtained during 2004-2005. The phase I and II standard errors of laboratory measurements of ammonia, pH, conductivity, DM, NDM, and ash were lower than the standard error of predictions of the same parameters, respectively, by the best NIR or Vis-NIR models. The degree of precision for some of the calibrations, especially ammonia, NDM, and DM, is suitable for composters to monitor changes in quality parameters during production. The laboratory measurement errors for phase I samples were greater than those of the phase II samples, except for ash, due to a higher degree of heterogeneity in the substrate. The calibrations, especially for pH, conductivity, and ash, need to be improved with new sample sets. A major advantage of NIR spectroscopy is the ability to assess substrate quality for a range of target parameters simultaneously, within a few hours of receiving the samples. The main drawbacks are the expensive instrumentation, expertise, and training necessary for operating the spectrometer and a dedicated chemometrician required for maintaining the equations compared to the reference methods.

  9. Genetic Analyses of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences Suggest Introgression and Duplication in the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens.

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    Jie Chen

    Full Text Available The internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster is widely used in fungal taxonomy and phylogeographic studies. The medicinal and edible mushroom Agaricus subrufescens has a worldwide distribution with a high level of polymorphism in the ITS region. A previous analysis suggested notable ITS sequence heterogeneity within the wild French isolate CA487. The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern and potential mechanism of ITS sequence heterogeneity within this strain. Using PCR, cloning, and sequencing, we identified three types of ITS sequences, A, B, and C with a balanced distribution, which differed from each other at 13 polymorphic positions. The phylogenetic comparisons with samples from different continents revealed that the type C sequence was similar to those found in Oceanian and Asian specimens of A. subrufescens while types A and B sequences were close to those found in the Americas or in Europe. We further investigated the inheritance of these three ITS sequence types by analyzing their distribution among single-spore isolates from CA487. In this analysis, three co-dominant markers were used firstly to distinguish the homokaryotic offspring from the heterokaryotic offspring. The homokaryotic offspring were then analyzed for their ITS types. Our genetic analyses revealed that types A and B were two alleles segregating at one locus ITSI, while type C was not allelic with types A and B but was located at another unlinked locus ITSII. Furthermore, type C was present in only one of the two constitutive haploid nuclei (n of the heterokaryotic (n+n parent CA487. These data suggest that there was a relatively recent introduction of the type C sequence and a duplication of the ITS locus in this strain. Whether other genes were also transferred and duplicated and their impacts on genome structure and stability remain to be investigated.

  10. Genetic Analyses of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences Suggest Introgression and Duplication in the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Moinard, Magalie; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Shouxian; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Zhao, Ruilin; Hyde, Kevin D.; Callac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster is widely used in fungal taxonomy and phylogeographic studies. The medicinal and edible mushroom Agaricus subrufescens has a worldwide distribution with a high level of polymorphism in the ITS region. A previous analysis suggested notable ITS sequence heterogeneity within the wild French isolate CA487. The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern and potential mechanism of ITS sequence heterogeneity within this strain. Using PCR, cloning, and sequencing, we identified three types of ITS sequences, A, B, and C with a balanced distribution, which differed from each other at 13 polymorphic positions. The phylogenetic comparisons with samples from different continents revealed that the type C sequence was similar to those found in Oceanian and Asian specimens of A. subrufescens while types A and B sequences were close to those found in the Americas or in Europe. We further investigated the inheritance of these three ITS sequence types by analyzing their distribution among single-spore isolates from CA487. In this analysis, three co-dominant markers were used firstly to distinguish the homokaryotic offspring from the heterokaryotic offspring. The homokaryotic offspring were then analyzed for their ITS types. Our genetic analyses revealed that types A and B were two alleles segregating at one locus ITSI, while type C was not allelic with types A and B but was located at another unlinked locus ITSII. Furthermore, type C was present in only one of the two constitutive haploid nuclei (n) of the heterokaryotic (n+n) parent CA487. These data suggest that there was a relatively recent introduction of the type C sequence and a duplication of the ITS locus in this strain. Whether other genes were also transferred and duplicated and their impacts on genome structure and stability remain to be investigated. PMID:27228131

  11. 二氧化氯浸泡对双孢蘑菇褐变的抑制效应及其机理分析%Suppression of ClO2 Treatment on Browning and the Analysis of Browning Mechanism of Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅; 田世龙; 颉敏华; 李守强; 张欣; 程建新; 葛霞

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect on postharvest physiology and enzyme activities of Agaricus bisporus of ' W2000', with C1O2 treatment in low-temperature storage. This study produced the following results: with C1O2 treatment and storing at 0℃ , respiration rate drops obviously,and the arrival of respiratory climacteric has been postponed,decreased 29. 2% and delayed 5 d; Enzyme activities of PPO and POD were significantly suppressed in C1O2-treated mushrooms, and restrained the accumulation of phenolic oxidation products,as well as slowing the browning rate of fruiting body. Stored 20 d, total phenolic content was only 0. 81 jamol/mg. Besides, impregnating with C1O2 could slow the decreasing speed of hardness of fruiting body,helps soluble solids content to be well maintained, while retarding the cap opening. C1O2 treatment could effectively extend the storage period, maintain the high quality. Therefore,the commercial value of mushrooms has been greatly improved. In conclusio|i,the handling of dipping mushrooms in 120 mg · L-1 C1O2 solution and stored at 0°C is very useful in keeping A. bisporus of 'W2000' fresh.%以‘W2000’双孢蘑菇为试验材料,设清水(CK)和ClO2浸泡(120mg· L-1)2个处理,研究ClO2浸泡处理在低温贮藏条件下对双孢蘑菇采后品质、生理及相关酶活性的影响.结果显示:ClO2浸泡处理配合0℃低温贮藏可显著降低双孢蘑菇的呼吸强度,推迟呼吸高峰的出现时间,呼吸强度较CK降低29.2%,并使呼吸高峰推迟5d出现;同时能够有效抑制子实体多酚氧化酶(PPO)和过氧化物酶(POD)的活性,控制酚类氧化产物的积累,减缓子实体褐化进程,贮藏20 d时,处理的总酚含量仅为0.81μmol/mg.另外,ClO2处理还可延缓子实体硬度的下降,保持其可溶性固形物的含量,并抑制开伞,有效延长双孢蘑菇的贮藏期.研究表明,ClO2处理+低温贮藏对双孢蘑菇具有较理想的保鲜

  12. Nutritional values and antioxidant potential of some edible mushrooms of Kashmir valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Rouf Hamza; Wani, Abdul Hamid; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal; Ganie, Bashir Ahmad; Wani, Bilal Ahmad; Ganie, Showkat Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Mushrooms are considered rich in proteins, carbohydrates and other nutrients. The present study was carried out to evaluate some edible mushrooms of Kashmir valley for their protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. The highest protein content was found in Boletus edulis (2.20g) followed by Agaricus bisporus (1.80g), Pleurotus ostreatus (1.68g), Morchella esculenta (1.62g) and Pleurotus sajor caju (1.6g). Carbohydrate content also showed variation in all the five tested edible mushroom species, the highest carbohydrate content observed in Boletus edulis (6.0g) followed by Agaricus bisporus (4.85g), Pleurotus ostreatus (4.30g), Morchella esculenta (4.25g) and Pleurotus sajor caju (3.35g) respectively. Similar results were observed for lipid content. The present study was also investigated for the antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of mushroom species by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent, which were compared with standard antioxidant Catechin.

  13. Biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimala, R., E-mail: vimararagu@yahoo.co.in [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Das, Nilanjana [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-08-30

    Sorption capacity of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus platypus), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) were evaluated on biosorption of heavy metals, viz. cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for each metal separately. The desired pH of the aqueous solution was found to be 6.0 for the removal of cadmium (II) and 5.0 for removal of lead (II) for all the mushrooms. The percent removal of both the metals was found to increase with the increase in biosorbent dosage and contact time. The fitness of the biosorption data for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models was investigated. It was found that biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions onto the biomass of the three mushrooms were better suitable to Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. P. platypus showed the highest metal uptake potential for cadmium (q{sub max} 34.96 mg/g) whereas A. bisporus exhibited maximum potential for lead (q{sub max} 33.78 mg/g). Milky mushroom showed the lowest metal uptake capacity for both the metals. The present data confirms that mushrooms may be used as efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution.

  14. Biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimala, R; Das, Nilanjana

    2009-08-30

    Sorption capacity of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus platypus), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) were evaluated on biosorption of heavy metals, viz. cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for each metal separately. The desired pH of the aqueous solution was found to be 6.0 for the removal of cadmium (II) and 5.0 for removal of lead (II) for all the mushrooms. The percent removal of both the metals was found to increase with the increase in biosorbent dosage and contact time. The fitness of the biosorption data for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models was investigated. It was found that biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions onto the biomass of the three mushrooms were better suitable to Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. P. platypus showed the highest metal uptake potential for cadmium (q(max) 34.96 mg/g) whereas A. bisporus exhibited maximum potential for lead (q(max) 33.78 mg/g). Milky mushroom showed the lowest metal uptake capacity for both the metals. The present data confirms that mushrooms may be used as efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution.

  15. [DNA quantification in nuclei of cultivated mushroom with DAPI staining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheva, E V; Volkova, V N; Kamzolkina, O V

    2004-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach is actively cultivated amphithallic basidiomycete, in which various strains are primary homothallic, heterothallic or secondary homothallic. Countings of relative nuclear DNA content by means of DAPI stain and its comparison in different strains can help to understand the mushroom's life cycle features. The authors for the first time observed change of nuclear phases in basidia of A. bisporus strains with different types of life cycle and revealed that DNA content in diploid nuclei is about 1.3 times higher than in haploid ones. The method is highly sensitive and can be used for quantitative measurings of nuclear DNA even in objects with nuclei of about 1 mkm in diameter.

  16. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps.

  17. Vitamin D2 Stability During the Refrigerated Storage of Ultraviolet B-Treated Cultivated Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Jablonska-Rys, Ewa; Parfieniuk, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation on the synthesis of vitamin D2 and its stability during refrigerated storage was determined in fresh cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lentinus edodes) after harvest. The irradiated mushrooms were stored at 4°C for up to 10 days. The concentrations of vitamin D2 and ergosterol were determined using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The cultivated mushrooms not treated with UVB were devoid of vitamin D2. After UVB irradiation, we obtained mushrooms with a large amount of ergocalciferol. A. bisporus showed the lowest vitamin D2 content (3.55 ± 0.11 μg D2/g dry weight); P. ostreatus contained 58.96 ± 1.15 μg D2/g dry weight, and L. edodes contained 29.46 ± 2.21 μg/g dry weight. During storage at 4°C, the amount of vitamin D2 was gradually decreased in P. ostreatus and L. edodes, whereas in A. bisporus vitamin D2 gradually increased until the sixth day, then decreased. Mushrooms exposed to UVB radiation contain a significant amount of vitamin D2 and are therefore an excellent food source of vitamin D.

  18. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: patricialandim@ig.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; lilian.Pavanelli@terra.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)

  19. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: An application to quantification of mushroom volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Dugo, Paola [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus-Biomedico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Roma (Italy); Mondello, Luigi, E-mail: lmondello@unime.it [Dipartimento Farmaco-chimico, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina (Italy); Centro Integrato di Ricerca (C.I.R.), Università Campus-Biomedico, Via Álvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Roma (Italy)

    2013-04-03

    Highlights: ► Multiple headspace extraction-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) has been applied to the analysis of Agaricus bisporus. ► Mushroom flavor is characterized by the presence of compounds with a 8-carbon atoms skeleton. ► Formation of 8-carbon compounds involves a unique fungal biochemical pathway. ► The MHS-SPME allowed to determine quantitatively 5 target analytes of A. bisporus for the first time. -- Abstract: Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and flame ionization detection (GC–FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033–0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111–0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3–108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented.

  20. Mercury content of edible mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woidich, H.; Pfannhauser, W.

    1975-05-01

    The mercury content of edible fungi is different. Relatively high burdened are Boletus and Agaricus campestris. A minimum of mercury is found in Russula, Agaricus bisporus and Cantharellus cibarius. The possibilities of mercury uptake and the potential cumulation mechanism is discussed. 8 references, 3 tables.

  1. A New Protocol for Extracting DNA from Agaricus bisporus Fruit Bodies without Thermal Incubation%一种不经热浴从双孢蘑菇子实体中提取DNA的新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬宏超; 万艳娟; 莫美华; 徐学锋

    2012-01-01

    介绍一种不经热浴快速从双孢蘑菇子实体中提取DNA的新方法,并与传统的CTAB和SDS法相比较,结果显示:该方法得到的DNA完整性好,时间短,步骤少,有毒试剂用量少,在提取DNA的质量、得率、时间及完整性等方面都优于传统的CTAB和SDS法,为食药用菌子实体DNA的提取参考.%A new,simple and rapid method for obtaining DNA from Agaricus bisporus fruit bodies is described and compared with the widely used CTAB and SDS methods in terms of yield,DNA quality and integrity,and duration of extraction time.Total DNA quality was estimated by restriction endonuclease digestion and by ITS,ISSR and RAPD analyses using standard protocols.Our data demonstrated that the new method rcnders improved yields of total DNA of high quality and integrity,and is less time-consuming than existing procedures.

  2. Effects of 1-MCP Treatments on Physiological and Chemical Characteristics of Post-harvest Agaricus bisporus%1-MCP处理对双孢蘑菇采后生理生化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄守程; 刘爱荣; 何华齐; 章鹏程

    2010-01-01

    以不同浓度1-MCP处理双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus),测定了过氧化物酶(POD)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、丙二醛(MDA)含量、可溶性糖含量及蛋白质含量等生理指标.结果表明,10μg/L浓度下,POD、SOD、CAT、可溶性糖和蛋白质含量分别较对照组上升1 950.00%、19.47%、389.42%、24.87%和3.46%,而MDA含量却比对照下降51.08%;100 μg/L浓度下,POD、CAT、MDA、可溶性糖和蛋白质含量分别较对照组上升1 150.00%、47.12%、20.29%、27.51%和4.61%,SOD活性反而下降2.07%.

  3. Blood parameters of sheep with high infection of Haemonchus contortus and treated with “mushroom of the sun” (Agaricus blazei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Almeida Bastos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood and parasitological parameters of sheep experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and treated with “mushroom of the sun” (Agaricus blazei were assessed. Lambs infected with the nematode were divided into three groups: treated with basidiocarp powder from the fungus, wormed with trichlorfon, and a control group that did not receive anthelmintic. Split-plot design analysis was performed where the treatments were defined as plots and four periods of collection were defined as subplots. Interaction between the treatments and the collection periods for the fecal egg counts per gram of feces (FEC was observed. Treatment with “mushroom of the sun” showed anthelmintic efficacies ranging from 28.6 to 54.2%. Similar performances to weight gain were observed among the groups. A significant interaction between treatments and evaluation periods was observed for erythrocyte counts, hematocrit value, and serum concentrations of albumin and urea. The values of the mean corpuscular volume, erythrocyte distribution width, and leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts, as well as the mean platelet volume, varied among the collection days. The administration of “mushroom of the sun” significantly reduced the FEC, did not influence on the erythrocyte count and hematocrit value, which remained within normal limits. However it increased the serum concentrations of albumin.

  4. Agaricus subrufescens: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wisitrassameewong, Komsit; Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Thongklang, Naritsada; Zhao, Ruilin; Callac, Philippe; Moukha, Serge; Férandon, Cyril; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have currently become a hot issue due to their various therapeutic properties. Of these, Agaricus subrufescens, also known as the “almond mushroom”, has long been valued by many societies (i.e., Brazil, China, France, and USA). Since its discovery in 1893, this mushroom has been cultivated throughout the world, especially in Brazil where several strains of A. subrufescens have been developed and used as health food and alternative medicine. This article presents up-to-date...

  5. Research on Anti-Browning of Disodium Stannous Citrate in Canned Agaricus bisporus%柠檬酸亚锡二钠对双孢菇罐头的护色作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷婷; 夏文水; 姜启兴; 许艳顺

    2013-01-01

    The investigation was conducted to determine the efficacy of DSC as a browning inhibition agent of fresh-cut and canned Agaricus bisporus. DSC and other anti-browning agents as well as the new compound color fixative ware used in pretreatment and canned Agaricus bisporus. Residual activity of PPO and the browning degree (BD) were measured as performance figures. DSC played an important part in enzymatic browning inhibition, compared to other anti-browning agents such as phytic acid,citric acid and VC. The sliced Agaricus bisporuss pretreated with mixed liquor containing 0.2% citric acid,0.03% DSC,0.02% phytic acid,0.03% VC were effectively kept from enzymatic browning and then blanched. In addition,the products with DSC resulted in better performance than those with sodium metabisulphite as well as other anti-browning agents. The best compound color fixative of anti -browning agents in the cans was to be 0.03% DSC, phytic acid 0.02%,citric acid 0.1% and 0.3% CaCi2,which leaded to a similar effect of browning inhibition,as compared with 0.02% of sodium metabisulphite. In general, DSC proves to be able to take the place of sodium metabisulphite and act as a new safe and effective anti-browning agent used in canned Agaric us bisporuss.%研究柠檬酸亚锡二钠(DSC)对双孢菇罐头的护色作用.在双孢菇切片预处理和罐头汤汁中添加DSC与其他常用护色剂及其正交复合护色剂,测定产品的PPO残余酶活和褐变度BD等质量指标.在预处理阶段,较之植酸、柠檬酸、VC,DSC对双孢菇酶促褐变有更佳的抑制作用,预煮前以最佳复合护色剂(质量分数)0.2%柠檬酸,0.03% DSC,0.02%植酸,0.03% VC护色液浸泡预处理可有效防止菇片褐变;DSC用于双孢菇罐头汤汁比其他护色剂有更显著的褐变抑制效果,汤汁复合护色剂的最佳参数组合为(质量分数):0.03% DSC,0.02%植酸,0.3% CaCl2和0.1%柠檬酸,各因素对其影响程度为:DSC>植酸>氯化钙.DSC

  6. The Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill Elicits Medicinal Effects on Tumor, Infection, Allergy, and Inflammation through Its Modulation of Innate Immunity and Amelioration of Th1/Th2 Imbalance and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Hetland

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill from the Brazilian rain forest has been used in traditional medicine and as health food for the prevention of a range of diseases, including infection, allergy, and cancer. Other scientists and we have examined whether there is scientific evidence behind such postulations. Agaricus blazei M is rich in the immunomodulating polysaccharides, β-glucans, and has been shown to have antitumor, anti-infection, and antiallergic/-asthmatic properties in mouse models, in addition to anti-inflammatory effects in inflammatory bowel disease patients. These effects are mediated through the mushroom's stimulation of innate immune cells, such as monocytes, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and the amelioration of a skewed Th1/Th2 balance and inflammation.

  7. Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, P; Könkö, K; Eurola, M; Pihlava, J M; Astola, J; Vahteristo, L; Hietaniemi, V; Kumpulainen, J; Valtonen, M; Piironen, V

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Se), vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(12), C, D, folates, and niacin), and certain phenolic compounds (flavonoids, lignans, and phenolic acids) in the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus/white, Agaricus bisporus/brown, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus. Selenium, toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb), and other mineral elements were analyzed by ETAAS, ICP-MS, and ICP methods, respectively; vitamins were detected by microbiological methods (folates, niacin, and vitamin B(12)) or HPLC methods (other vitamins), and phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC (flavonoids) or GC--MS methods (lignans and phenolic acids). Cultivated mushrooms were found to be good sources of vitamin B(2), niacin, and folates, with contents varying in the ranges 1.8--5.1, 31--65, and 0.30--0.64 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), respectively. Compared with vegetables, mushrooms proved to be a good source of many mineral elements, e.g., the contents of K, P, Zn, and Cu varied in the ranges 26.7--47.3 g/kg, 8.7--13.9 g/kg, 47--92 mg/kg, and 5.2--35 mg/kg dw, respectively. A. bisporus/brown contained large amounts of Se (3.2 mg/kg dw) and the levels of Cd were quite high in L. edodes (1.2 mg/kg dw). No flavonoids or lignans were found in the mushrooms analyzed. In addition, the phenolic acid contents were very low.

  8. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  9. Identification and Control of Cladobotryum spp., Causal Agents of Cobeweb Disease of Cultivated Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cladobotryum spp. are causal agents of cobweb disease, one of the most serious diseases of cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach in Serbia and worldwide, which affects product quality and yield. The disease symptoms are: cottony fluffy white oryellowish to pink colonies on mushroom casing, rapid colonization of casing surface, covering of host basidiomata by mycelia, and their decay. Prochloraz-Mn has been officially recommended for mushroom cultivation in EU countries. However, inefficiency of prochloraz-Mn has been noted at a level of spotting symptoms of cobweb disease. With regard to cases of resistance evolution and a general threat to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on good programmes of hygiene, and inventing and developing alternative methods of disease control.

  10. Characteristics of a hydrated, alginate-based delivery system for cultivation of the button mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, C P; Schlagnhaufer, B

    1992-09-01

    The production of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus with mycelium-colonized alginate pellets as an inoculant of the growing medium was investigated. Pellets having an irregular surface and porous internal structure were prepared by complexing a mixture of 1% sodium alginate, 2 to 6% vermiculite, 2% hygramer, and various concentrations of Nutrisoy (soy protein) with calcium chloride. The porous structure allowed the pellets to be formed septically and then inoculated and colonized with the fungus following sterilization. By using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate fungal biomass, the matrix components of the pellet were found to be of no nutritive value to A. bisporus. Pellets amended with Nutrisoy at a concentration of 0.5 to 8% supported extensive mycelial growth, as determined by significantly increased ELISA values, with a concentration of 4% being optimal and higher concentrations proving inhibitory. The addition of hydrated, mycelium-invaded pellets to the compost or casing layer supported the thorough colonization of the growing substrate and culminated in the formation of mushrooms that showed normal development and typical morphology. Yields and sizes of mushrooms were comparable from composts seeded with either colonized pellets or cereal grain spawn. Similarly, amending the casing layer with pelletized-mycelium-colonized compost resulted in a 2- to 3-day-earlier and more-synchronous emergence of mushrooms than with untreated casing. This technology shows the greatest potential as a pathogen-free inoculant of the casing layer in the commercial cultivation of mushrooms.

  11. Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrdal Miller, A; Mills, K; Wong, T; Drescher, G; Lee, S M; Sirimuangmoon, C; Schaefer, S; Langstaff, S; Minor, B; Guinard, J-X

    2014-09-01

    The effects of beef substitution with crimini or white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the flavor profiles of carne asada and beef taco blends were measured with a descriptive analysis panel. Sensory mitigation of sodium reduction through the incorporation of mushrooms was also investigated in the taco blends. The substitution of beef with mushrooms in the carne asada did not alter the overall flavor strength of the dish, but the incorporation of 50% or 80% ground mushroom in the beef taco blend did enhance its overall flavor as well as mushroom, veggie, onion, garlic and earthy flavors, and umami and sweet tastes. Overall flavor intensity of the 25% reduced-salt version of the 80% mushroom taco blend matched that of the full-salt versions of the 100% and 50% beef formulations, thus indicating that the substitution of 80% of the meat with mushrooms did mitigate the 25% sodium reduction in terms of the overall flavor impact of the dish, even if it did not quite compensate for the reduction in salty taste. This proof-of-concept study for the Healthy Flavors Research Initiative indicates that because of their flavor-enhancing umami principles, mushrooms can be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium reduction in meat-based dishes without loss of overall flavor. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Partial purification and characterization of polyphenoloxidase from culinary-medicinal Royal Sun mushroom (the Himematsutake), Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al. (Agaricomycetideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto-Akanuma, Akiko; Akanuma, Satoshi; Motoi, Masuro; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Ohno, Naohito

    2011-01-01

    The Royal Sun mushroom, the Himematsutake culinary-medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis has several polyphenoloxidase activities in a broad sense. Here we report the partial purification of tyrosinase-type polyphenoloxidase (PPO). PPO is purified from A. brasiliensis without browning using a two-phase partitioning with Triton X-114 and ammonium sulfate fractionation. Partially denaturing SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis) staining with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine was performed and the indicated molecular sizes were approximately 70 kDa and 45 kDa. The purified enzyme is in its latent state and can be activated maximally in the presence of 1.6 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). This enzyme catalyzes two distinct reactions, monophenolase and diphenolase activity, and the monophenolase activity showed a lag time typical of polyphenoloxidase. The K(m) value for 4-tert-butylcatechol was quite similar in the presence and absence of SDS, but the apparent V(max) value was increased 2.0-fold by SDS. Mimosine was a typical competitive inhibitor with K(i) values of 138.2 microM and 281.0 microM n the presence and absence of SDS, respectively.

  13. Pathogenicity Of Mycogone Perniciosa Isolates Collected On Polish Mushroom Farms

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    Szumigaj-Tarnowska Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycogone perniciosa is the fungal pathogen causing the wet bubble of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus. The main symptoms of disease are undifferentiated, irregular forms of mushroom tissue, cap spotting and development of amber liquid droplets on the distorted mushrooms. The aim of the research was to assess the pathogenicity of M. perniciosa isolates that were obtained from the infected sporophores. Six isolates from Polish mushroom farms as well reference strain of Hypomyces perniciosus CBS 322.52 were used in this study. The pathogenicity of isolates was assessed on the basis of severity of disease symptoms and crop reduction in the first flush. Mushroom crop was infected with different suspensions containing of M. perniciosa aleuriospores. Significant variability was shown between tested isolates. It was stated that the pathogenicity of isolates and concentration of conidia had a significant influence on the mushroom yield. The isolate of high pathogenicity caused significant yield losses, after inoculation with 1.3 × 104·m−2, whereas the isolate with fairly pathogenicity did not produce symptoms of wet bubble disease or caused slight deformation of single sporophores, even when the casing soil was inoculated with 1.3 × 106·m−2 spores.

  14. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) of silver in wild Agaricus campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falandysz, J.; Danisiewicz, D. [Univ. of Gdansk (Poland)

    1995-07-01

    Silver is an element naturally occurring in small concentrations in different environmental sites. However, many anthropogenic sources of silver led to contamination of this element in soil surfaces, pastures, and coastal marine areas in different parts of the world. Estimates are that 40% of the 1.15x10{sup 4}t of silver produced annually worldwide, will escape into the environment. Due to municipal waste discharge and/or industrial effluents with high silver concentrations, 100 x above the background level have been reported in invertebrate species from polluted marine areas. The meta-stabile radioisotope, {sup 110m}Ag, is a main component of the liquid effluents from nuclear facilities under normal operating conditions. The presence of {sup 111}Ag and {sup 110m}Ag also has been widely found throughout Europe in the 1986 Chernobyl fallout. Silver ions are environmentally harmful. High toxic effects have been observed at low concentrations, especially in aquatic species. Species of lower fungi as well as the mushroom Agaricus bisporus are know to bioaccumulate high concentrations of silver when grown on an artificially enriched substrate. This study looks at the relationship between the silver content of soil and bioconcentration potential of wild Agaricus campestris from sites under different use and with different concentrations of heavy metals. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. 双孢蘑菇基质中隐杆线虫Caenorhabditis sp.CNM生防潜力研究%Biocontrol potential of Caenorhabditis sp.CNM strain discovered from the compost of Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星月; 刘奇志; 杨道伟

    2012-01-01

    从双孢菇基质中诱集得到的一种隐杆属线虫(Caenorhabdtis sp.CNM)具有4天快速致死大蜡螟(Galleria mellonella),为探讨其生防潜力,对其进行了侵染力、抗逆能力及运动能力的研究.结果显示:小杆线虫CNM对大蜡螟的LD50 (48 h)为46.6 IJs· larva-1,LC50(48 h)为53.8 IJs·cm-2.CNM线虫在42℃,40℃和38℃水浴下全部个体死亡所需时间分别为45 min,20 h和55 h.CNM线虫在RH 50.5%、温度25℃条件下存放12 h,虽有46.0%个体存活,但侵染力下降43.3%.有51.7%的CNM线虫在30℃环境下经过24 h可爬行3.6 cm寻找大蜡螟寄主体液.由此认为,CNM线虫可以作为有效的生物防治制剂,用于害虫的防治.%One species of insect nematode ( Caenorhabditis sp. CNM) , which can cause Galleria mellonella death within 4 days, was discovered in the compost of Agaricus bisporus through the Galleria bait method. In order to discover the biological-control potential of CNM in the field application, we investigated its biology characteristics, especially the infectivity and anti-stress resistance. The result of its infectivity to G. mellonella showed that the larger of the dosage, the better of its infectivity. LD50 of CNM to G. mellonella was 46. 6 IJs per larva, and the LC50 is 53. 8 IJs·cm-2 at 48 h. After 45 min, 20 h and 55 h, all of the nematodes died with water bathing of 42℃ , 40℃ and 38℃. There're still 46. 0% of the nematodes alive after 12 h under 25℃ , 50. 5 % RH, and the infectivity decrease was 43. 3%. Besides, there were re 57. 1% of nematode that can move for as far as 3. 6 cm under 30℃. So Caenorhabditis sp. CNM strain has the bio-control potential with good infectivity, heat resistance and desiccation.

  16. Chemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties of Crude Water Soluble Polysaccharides from Four Common Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Long Sun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Four crude water soluble polysaccharides, CABP, CAAP, CFVP and CLDP, were isolated from common edible mushrooms, including Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia auricula, Flammulina velutipes and Lentinus edodes, and their chemical characteristics and antioxidant properties were determined. Fourier Transform-infrared analysis showed that the four crude polysaccharides were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. The major monosaccharide compositions were D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose for CABP, CAAP and CLDP, while CFVP was found to consist of L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose. The main molecular weight distributions of CABP and the other three polysaccharides were 66.0 × 104 Da, respectively. Antioxidant properties of the four polysaccharides were evaluated in in vitro systems and CABP showed the best antioxidant properties. The studied mushroom species could potentially be used in part of well-balanced diets and as a source of antioxidant compounds.

  17. FEATURES OF VENTILATION CONDITIONS BY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN MINING UNDERGROUND WORKINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rendulić

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The trial cultivation of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus in one of the dead faces of the »Krš« pit of the Dalmatian bauxite mines Obrovac proved, that an optimal yield can be attained with the domestic mycelium. The decision has been brought to go on with investments into equipment for new growing-site locations in underground workings of the mine. In order to cultivate high-quality mushrooms, the ventilation of growing sites has been particularly considered. Compressive separate ventilation of growing fields has been applied using the main and the return ventilating pipeline, with the air current regulation according to the growing stage (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Quality and shelf life of packaged fresh sliced mushrooms stored at two different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GONZÁLEZ-FANDOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensory and microbiological quality of sliced mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L. packaged in films of perforated and non-perforated PVC and stored at 3 and 9ºC, was studied. The carbon dioxide and oxygen content inside the packages, colour, weight loss, sensory attributes, mesophiles, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, aerobic and anaerobic spore formers were determined. The atmosphere generated with the perforated PVC film was similar to that of air atmosphere at 3 or 9ºC. T.he non-perforated PVC film generated inside the packages CO2 : O2 concentrations of 3.4% : 8.1% at 3ºC and CO2 : O2 concentrations of 4.5% : 0.15% at 9ºC. Browning of mushrooms was lower at 3 than at 9ºC. The quality of sliced mushrooms packaged in perforated PVC and stored at 3ºC was adequate after 9 days. However, at 9ºC, the slice deformation and brown blotches incidence were severe after 9 days. The atmosphere generated with non-perforated PVC inhibited aerobic microorganism growth compared to mushrooms packaged in perforated PVC. At 3ºC, the shelf life of mushrooms packaged in non perforated PVC was around 13 days. However, the extremely low O2 atmospheres generated at 9ºC was accompanied by off-odours and growth of anaerobic spore formers, although the appearance of sliced mushrooms was acceptable.;

  19. Chemical composition and nutritional value of the most widely appreciated cultivated mushrooms: an inter-species comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Filipa S; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-02-01

    Herein, it was reported and compared the chemical composition and nutritional value of the most consumed species as fresh cultivated mushrooms: Agaricus bisporus (white and brown mushrooms), Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom), Pleurotus eryngii (King oyster mushroom), Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) and Flammulina velutipes (Golden needle mushroom). Shiitake revealed the highest levels of macronutrients, unless proteins, as also the highest sugars, tocopherols and PUFA levels, and the lowest SFA content. White and brown mushrooms showed similar macronutrients composition, as also similar values of total sugars, MUFA, PUFA and total tocopherols. Oyster and king oyster mushrooms gave the highest MUFA contents with similar contents in PUFA, MUFA and SFA in both samples. They also revealed similar moisture, ash, carbohydrates and energy values. This study contributes to the elaboration of nutritional databases of the most consumed fungi species worldwide, allowing comparison between them. Moreover it was reported that cultivated and the wild samples of the same species have different chemical composition, including sugars, fatty acids and tocopherols profiles.

  20. Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough doses, have effects similar to the drug LSD . Hallucinogenic mushrooms might be either fresh or dried. ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Drugs: What to Know LSD Dealing With Addiction Marijuana Bath Salts Depressants GHB ...

  1. Chemical composition and nutrition value of dried cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlarirmak, Necla

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fiber, raw fiber, fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, vitamin A (retinol), B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B6 (pyridoxine), and niacin contents of dried cultivated mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (white and brown), Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus were determined and evaluated for nutrient and chemical composition. Assays of dried mushroom samples were carried out after the drying process. Dried shiitake samples showed the highest dietary fiber and raw fiber content (23.23 +/- 0.018 and 9.71 +/- 0.039 microg/100 g, respectively). Mushrooms in this study were valuable sources of vitamins such as retinol, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and niacin. A. bisporus contained the highest vitamin A content (43.93 +/- 1.85 microg/100 g) and shiitake had the highest contents of thiamine and pyridoxine (0.63 +/- 0.012 and 0.56 +/- 0.01 mg/100 g, respectively). Portobello had the highest riboflavin and niacin contents (0.90 +/- 0.015 and 8.37 +/- 0.17 mg/100 g, respectively).

  2. Effects of UV-B Radiation Levels on Concentrations of Phytosterols, Ergothioneine, and Polyphenolic Compounds in Mushroom Powders Used As Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Byrdwell, William Craig; Lobato, Amada; Romig, Bill

    2014-03-27

    Compositional changes of powder dietary supplements made from mushrooms exposed to different levels of UV-B irradiation were evaluated for the bioactive naturally occurring mushroom antioxidant, ergothioneine; other natural polyphenolic compounds, e.g., flavonoids, lignans, etc.; and selected phytosterols. Four types of mushroom powder consisting of white, brown (Agaricus bisporus), oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus), and shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushrooms from three different treatment groups (control, low and high UV-B exposures) were evaluated. Ergothioneine concentrations found in mushroom powders were 0.4-10.4 mg/g dry weight (dw) and were not appreciably affected by UV-B radiation. No individual polyphenols were detected above 0.1 μg/g. Phytosterols ergosterol (2.4-6.2 mg/g dw) and campesterol (14-43 μg/g dw) were measured in mushroom powder samples. Ergosterol concentrations decreased significantly with the increased level of UV-B treatment for all mushroom powder types, except for white. These results provide some new information on effects of UV-B radiation on these important natural bioactive compounds in mushrooms.

  3. Anxiolytic Effects of Royal Sun Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes) on Ischemia-Induced Anxiety in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunjing; Gao, Xiulan; Sun, Yan; Sun, Xiaojie; Wu, Yanmin; Liu, Ying; Yu, Haitao; Cui, Guangcheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the anxiolytic effects Agaricus brasiliensis extract (AbSE) on ischemia-induced anxiety using the plus-maze test and the social interaction test. The animals were treated orally with AbSE (4, 8, and 10 mg/kg/d, respectively) for 30 d, followed by middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced cerebral ischemia. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin in the cerebral cortex of rats, as well as oxidative stress and plasma corticosterone levels were analyzed, respectively. The rota-rod test was carried out to exclude any false positive results in experimental procedures related to anxiety disorders, and the catalepsy test was carried out to investigate whether AbSE induces catalepsy. Our results demonstrate that oral administration of AbSE presented anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze test and the social interaction test. Furthermore, AbSE did not induce extrapyramidal symptoms in the catalepsy test. The mechanism underlying the anxiolytic effect of AbSE might be increased brain monoamine levels and plasma corticosterone levels and decreased oxidative stress in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats.

  4. Microbial Community Structure of Casing Soil During Mushroom Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Wei-Ming; YAO Huai-Ying; FENG Wei-Lin; JIN Qun-Li; LIU Yue-Yan; LI Nan-Yi; ZHENG Zhong

    2009-01-01

    The culturable bacterial population and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)profile of casing soil were investigated at different mushroom (Agaricus bisporusI cropping stages.The change in soil bacterial PLFAs was always accompanied by a change in the soil culturable bacterial population in the first flush.Comparatively higher culturable bacterial population and bacterial PLFAs were found in the casing soil at the primordia formation stage of the first flush.There was a significant increase in the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs during mushroom growth.Multivariate analysis of PLFA data demonstrated that the mushroom cropping stage could considerably affect the microbial community structure of the casing soil.The bacterial population increased significantly from casing soil application to the primordia formation stage of the first flush.Casing soil application resulted in an increase in the ratio of gram-negative bacterial PLFAs to gram-positive bacterial PLFAs,suggesting that some gram-negative bacteria might play an important role in mushroom sporophore initiation.

  5. Determination of Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn by ICP-OES in mushroom samples from Sakarya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Altıntığ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Russula cyanoxantha, Russula delica, Lactarius salmonicolor, Lactarius deliciosus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus spp and Boletus edulis were collected from Sakarya-Turkey respectively. Also canned food in the form of the Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lactarius salmonicolor mushrooms were used for the examination. Trace metal concentrations found in these mushrooms were determined inductively using coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry microwave processes. The results were obtained for (Cr 0.3-26.65, (Cu 17.38-132.75, (Fe 26.3-225.40, (Ni 2.57-39.28, (Pb 11.52-185.20, and (Zn 22.86-126.84 mg/kg. The accuracy of the method was checked by the standard reference material; tea leaves (INCY-TL-1 and tomato leaves (1573a.

  6. In vitro Sensitivity of the Mushroom Pathogen Cladobotryum spp. to Thiophanate-Methyl and Different Carbendazim Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of in vitro sensitivity of 13 isolates of the mushroom pathogen Cladobotryum spp. to the fungicides thiophanate-methyl, carbendazim, cyproconazole+carbendazim and flusilazole+carbendazim was undertaken. The isolates were collected from diseased fruitingbodies of Agaricus bisporus sampled from mushroom farms in Serbia over the period 2003-2006. Sensitivity to the selected fungicides was tested and all isolates were found to be highly sensitive to carbendazim (EC50 = 0.24 - 2.92 mg l-1, cyproconazole+carbendazim(EC50 = 0.33 - 1.82 mg l-1 and especially to flusilazole+carbendazim (EC50 = 0.02 - 0.11 mg l-1. All the isolates tested were weakly resistant to thiophanate-methyl and had EC50 values in the region of 6.53 to 12.09 mg l-1.

  7. Agaricus subrufescens: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisitrassameewong, Komsit; Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Thongklang, Naritsada; Zhao, Ruilin; Callac, Philippe; Moukha, Serge; Férandon, Cyril; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Hyde, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have currently become a hot issue due to their various therapeutic properties. Of these, Agaricus subrufescens, also known as the “almond mushroom”, has long been valued by many societies (i.e., Brazil, China, France, and USA). Since its discovery in 1893, this mushroom has been cultivated throughout the world, especially in Brazil where several strains of A. subrufescens have been developed and used as health food and alternative medicine. This article presents up-to-date information on this mushroom including its taxonomy and health promoting benefits. Medicinal properties of A. subrufescens are emphasized in several studies which are reviewed here. In addition, safety issues concerning the use of this fungus will be discussed. PMID:23961172

  8. Bacterial communities in Agaricus bisporus compost analysed by denatu-ring gradient gel electrophoresis%双孢蘑菇培养料发酵过程中细菌群落结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 李敏; 魏启舜; 张洪海; 周影; 赵荷娟

    2015-01-01

    PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis ( DGGE) was emloyed to analyze the V3 regions of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA collected from the compost for Agaricus bisporus cultivation in spring and winter. The dominant DNA were cloned, sequenced and analyzed. Bacillus sp, Flavobacterium sp. , Lysinibacillus sp. , Thermus thermophilus,Pseudomonas fragi, Solibacillus silvestris,Thermobifida fusca, and two kinds of uncultured bacteria were identified in the compost. The bac-teria in spring and winter showed similar changing trend during phase I composting and similar community at the end of com-posting. The bacterial community structure differed at initial composting, phase I composting and phase II composting. The community diversity was environmental temperature-dependant. The bacteria existing in the compost all through the process of composting shared high sequence similarity with that of the bacteria degrading lignocellulose, which was favorable for the com-post to be applied as culture matrix.%为探明双孢蘑菇培养料发酵过程中细菌群落多样性和组成的演变,获得相关优势菌落的信息,本研究利用变性梯度凝胶电泳( Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis,DGGE)对不同季节不同发酵阶段样品的的细菌进行特异性扩增,并选取主要DNA条带进行克隆、测序和生物信息学分析。结果显示,不同发酵时期带谱差异明显。发酵过程中,培养料中主要有芽孢杆菌属、黄杆菌属、杆菌属、假单胞菌属、Solibacillus、嗜热裂孢菌属、高温双歧菌属和未知分类地位的不可培养细菌。不同季节(春季、冬季)的培养料一次发酵过程中细菌多样性变化趋势相似,且发酵结束时细菌菌落结构相似。双孢蘑菇培养料在发酵过程中细菌群落结构至少经历了3个阶段的演替,即建堆初期、一次发酵阶段和二次发酵阶段。双孢蘑菇培养料发酵过程中细菌种群丰富,并随着发酵的不同阶段发生演

  9. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  10. Enzyme inactivation analysis for industrial blanching applications: comparison of microwave, conventional, and combination heat treatments on mushroom polyphenoloxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devece, C; Rodríguez-López, J N; Fenoll, L G; Tudela, J; Catalá, J M; de Los Reyes, E; García-Cánovas, F

    1999-11-01

    Browning reactions in fruits and vegetables are a serious problem for the food industry. In mushrooms, the principal enzyme responsible for the browning reaction is polyphenoloxidase (PPO). Microwaves have recently been introduced as an alternative for the industrial blanching of mushrooms. However, the direct application of microwave energy to entire mushrooms is limited by the important temperature gradients generated within the samples during heating, which can produce internal water vaporization and associated damage to the mushrooms texture. A microwave applicator has been developed, whereby irradiation conditions can be regulated and the heating process monitored. Whole edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were blanched by conventional, microwave, and combined heating methods to optimize the rate of PPO inactivation. A combined microwave and hot-water bath treatment has achieved complete PPO inactivation in a short time. Both the loss of antioxidant content and the increase of browning were minor in the samples treated with this combined method when compared to the control. This reduction in processing time also decreased mushroom weight loss and shrinkage.

  11. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life.

  12. Optimization of Drying Process of Mushroom Powder Production from Pleurotus ostreatus using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Doğan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus ostreatus that known as poplar, beech and oyster mushrooms is second generation after Agaricus bisporus with the fungal species. Fresh and processed mushrooms products are in great demand worldwide in terms of taste and flavor. Edible mushrooms produced in the world is consumed fresh 40-50%. However, due to the high moisture content and enzyme, harvested mushrooms that can be stored for about one week and shows rapid loss of quality in the storage process. This situation limits the consumption of fresh edible fungus, so the marketing of canned mushrooms, drying and freezing and storage technology has come to the fore. In this study, besides the drying, unlike other studies it is intended to optimize the pulverization of the fungus accordingto the food processing operation. As a result of optimization, drying conditions of 50 °C and 269.02 minutes was concluded as the most suitable drying standard. EC50 value, Total Phenolic Content and desirability rate are determinated respectively; 275.464, 0.762 and 0.976 in this norm.

  13. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K estimate in edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de; Maihara, Vera A.; Moura, Patricia L.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: lilian.pavanelli@terra.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; patricialandim@ig.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, high levels of the radionuclide accumulation in different foodstuffs and the environment have being reported. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate fallout radionuclides in their fruit bodies have been well recognized. Mushrooms can also accumulate toxic elements in general, including natural radionuclides. In Southern Hemisphere countries, especially in Latin America, there are a few studies on this subject. In Brazilian literature, there are no studies that determine the composition of natural and artificial radionuclides in edible mushrooms. The objective of this study was to measure of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 40}K activity in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The activity measurements were carried out by spectrometry gamma. The system detection efficiency was measured using the certified reference materials IAEA- 300 Marine Sediment and IAEA-375 Soil. The activities of {sup 13}'7Cs in the mushroom samples varied from 2.2 to 6.5 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus osteatus and Agaricus bisporus respectively. The {sup 40}K activities varied from 150 to 907 Bq kg{sup -1} for Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes, respectively. (author)

  14. Possibility of environmentally-safe casing soil disinfection for control of cobwebdisease of button mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil-borne pathogen Cladobotryum dendroides causes cobweb disease of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus and its significant yield losses. Casing soil disinfection by toxic formaldehyde is a widespread practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of two environmentally friendly substances, colloidal silver and peracetic acid, against C. dendroides. Their biological efficacy (impact on mushroom yield, effectiveness (disease control and type of interactions between them and the fungicide prochloraz-manganese were evaluated. Black peat/lime casing soil was applied to a colonized substrate with the white button mushroom strain 737, then inoculated with C. dendroides and treated with the fungicide prochloraz-manganse and two environmentally friendly disinfectants based on peracetic acid and colloidal silver. The effects of fungicides on mushroom productivity were evaluated as biological efficacy and calculated as a ratio of fresh weight of total mushroom yield to the weight of dry substrate. Fungicide effectiveness and synergy factor were calculated by Abbott’s (1925 formula. Tests for synergism between prochloraz-manganese and both other substances were performed using Limpel’s formula. The highest biolgical efficacy, exceeding 92.00, was achieved in treatments with prochlorazmanganese, applied alone or in combination with both other disinfectants. The highest effectiveness of 93.33% was attained in treatments with peracetic acid combined with prochloraz-manganese. Trials against cobweb disease revealed a synergistic reaction between the fungicide and peracetic acid and antagonistic between the fungicide and colloidal silver. Peracetic acid provided better disease control, compared to colloidal silver applied alone or in combination with the fungicide. Based on these findings, peracetic acid should be recomended as an environmentally friendly casing soil disinfectant against cobweb disease of A. bisporus.

  15. Immunomodulatory Effects of the Agaricus blazei Murrill-Based Mushroom Extract AndoSan in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Undergoing High Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Randomized, Double Blinded Clinical Study

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    Jon-Magnus Tangen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients with multiple myeloma scheduled to undergo high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support were randomized in a double blinded fashion to receive adjuvant treatment with the mushroom extract AndoSan, containing 82% of Agaricus blazei Murrill (19 patients or placebo (21 patients. Intake of the study product started on the day of stem cell mobilizing chemotherapy and continued until the end of aplasia after high dose chemotherapy, a period of about seven weeks. Thirty-three patients were evaluable for all study endpoints, while all 40 included patients were evaluable for survival endpoints. In the leukapheresis product harvested after stem cell mobilisation, increased percentages of Treg cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were found in patients receiving AndoSan. Also, in this group, a significant increase of serum levels of IL-1ra, IL-5, and IL-7 at the end of treatment was found. Whole genome microarray showed increased expression of immunoglobulin genes, Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR genes, and HLA genes in the Agaricus group. Furthermore, AndoSan displayed a concentration dependent antiproliferative effect on mouse myeloma cells in vitro. There were no statistically significant differences in treatment response, overall survival, and time to new treatment. The study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00970021.

  16. Attraction, Oviposition and Larval Survival of the Fungus Gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, on Fungal Species Isolated from Adults, Larvae, and Mushroom Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Kevin R.; Andreadis, Stefanos S.; Chen, Haibin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L. ingenua, we isolated several species of fungi from adult males and females, third instar larvae, and mushroom compost itself. We then analyzed the attraction of females to these substrates using a static-flow two choice olfactometer, as well as their oviposition tendencies in another type of assay under choice and no-choice conditions. We also assessed the survival of larvae to adulthood when first instar larvae were placed on each of the isolated fungal species. We found that female flies were attracted most to the mycoparasitic green mold, T. aggressivum, to Penicilium citrinum isolated from adult female bodies, and to Scatylidium thermophilium isolated from the mushroom compost. Gravid female flies laid the most eggs on T. aggressivum, Aspergillus flavus isolated from third instar larval frass, Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from adult male bodies, and on P. citrinum. This egg-laying trend remained consistent under no-choice conditions as females aged. First instar larvae developed to adulthood only on S. thermophilium and Chaetomium sp. isolated from mushroom compost, and on P. citrinum. Our results indicate that the volatiles from a suite of different fungal species act in tandem in the natural setting of mushroom compost, with some first attracting gravid female flies and then others causing them to oviposit. The ecological context of these findings is important for creating an optimal strategy for using possible

  17. Discrimination Method of the Volatiles from Fresh Mushrooms by an Electronic Nose Using a Trapping System and Statistical Standardization to Reduce Sensor Value Variation

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    Kouki Fujioka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses have the benefit of obtaining smell information in a simple and objective manner, therefore, many applications have been developed for broad analysis areas such as food, drinks, cosmetics, medicine, and agriculture. However, measurement values from electronic noses have a tendency to vary under humidity or alcohol exposure conditions, since several types of sensors in the devices are affected by such variables. Consequently, we show three techniques for reducing the variation of sensor values: (1 using a trapping system to reduce the infering components; (2 performing statistical standardization (calculation of z-score; and (3 selecting suitable sensors. With these techniques, we discriminated the volatiles of four types of fresh mushrooms: golden needle (Flammulina velutipes, white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, shiitake (Lentinus edodes, and eryngii (Pleurotus eryngii among six fresh mushrooms (hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa, shimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus plus the above mushrooms. Additionally, we succeeded in discrimination of white mushroom, only comparing with artificial mushroom flavors, such as champignon flavor and truffle flavor. In conclusion, our techniques will expand the options to reduce variations in sensor values.

  18. Headspace-Solid-Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography as Analytical Methodology for the Determination of Volatiles in Wild Mushrooms and Evaluation of Modifications Occurring during Storage

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    Rosaria Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are sources of food, medicines, and agricultural means. Not much is reported in the literature about wild species of the Mediterranean flora, although many of them are traditionally collected for human consumption. The knowledge of their chemical constituents could represent a valid tool for both taxonomic and physiological characterizations. In this work, a headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME method coupled with GC-MS and GC-FID was developed to evaluate the volatile profiles of ten wild mushroom species collected in South Italy. In addition, in order to evaluate the potential of this analytical methodology for true quantitation of volatiles, samples of the cultivated species Agaricus bisporus were analyzed. The choice of this mushroom was dictated by its ease of availability in the food market, due to the consistent amounts required for SPME method development. For calibration of the main volatile compounds, the standard addition method was chosen. Finally, the assessed volatile composition of A. bisporus was monitored in order to evaluate compositional changes occurring during storage, which represents a relevant issue for such a wide consumption edible product.

  19. Drying kinetics and characteristics of combined infrared-vacuum drying of button mushroom slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Jafarianlari, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Infrared-vacuum drying characteristics of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) were evaluated in a combined dryer system. The effects of drying parameters, including infrared radiation power (150-375 W), system pressure (5-15 kPa) and time (0-160 min) on the drying kinetics and characteristics of button mushroom slices were investigated. Both the infrared lamp power and vacuum pressure influenced the drying time of button mushroom slices. The rate constants of the nine different kinetic's models for thin layer drying were established by nonlinear regression analysis of the experimental data which were found to be affected mainly by the infrared power level while system pressure had a little effect on the moisture ratios. The regression results showed that the Page model satisfactorily described the drying behavior of button mushroom slices with highest R value and lowest SE values. The effective moisture diffusivity increases as power increases and range between 0.83 and 2.33 × 10-9 m2/s. The rise in infrared power has a negative effect on the ΔE and with increasing in infrared radiation power it was increased.

  20. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of phorid and sciarid flies in mushroom crops

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    María Jesús Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and S. carpocapsae, to control mushroom flies and to evaluate the effect of these treatments on Agaricus bisporus production. Two mushroom cultivation trials were carried out in controlled conditions, in substrate previously infested with the diptera Megaselia halterata and Lycoriella auripila, with two treatments: 106infective juveniles (IJ per square meter of S. feltiae and 0.5x106IJ m-2S. feltiae + 0.5x106IJ m-2S. carpocapsae. Another experiment was carried out using the same treatments to evaluate the possible nematode effect on mushroom yield. The number of adults emerging from the substrate was evaluated for each fly species. No decrease in the population of M. halterata was detected with nematode application, whereas the number of L. auripila was reduced in both treatments, particularly in the individual treatment with S. feltiae. The application of entomopathogenic nematodes has no adverse effect on mushroom production.

  1. Drying kinetics and characteristics of combined infrared-vacuum drying of button mushroom slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Jafarianlari, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Infrared-vacuum drying characteristics of button mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) were evaluated in a combined dryer system. The effects of drying parameters, including infrared radiation power (150-375 W), system pressure (5-15 kPa) and time (0-160 min) on the drying kinetics and characteristics of button mushroom slices were investigated. Both the infrared lamp power and vacuum pressure influenced the drying time of button mushroom slices. The rate constants of the nine different kinetic's models for thin layer drying were established by nonlinear regression analysis of the experimental data which were found to be affected mainly by the infrared power level while system pressure had a little effect on the moisture ratios. The regression results showed that the Page model satisfactorily described the drying behavior of button mushroom slices with highest R value and lowest SE values. The effective moisture diffusivity increases as power increases and range between 0.83 and 2.33 × 10-9 m2/s. The rise in infrared power has a negative effect on the ΔE and with increasing in infrared radiation power it was increased.

  2. Cultivable microbiome of fresh white button mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, W; Korsten, L

    2017-02-01

    Microbial dynamics on commercially grown white button mushrooms is of importance in terms of food safety assurance and quality control. The purpose of this study was to establish the microbial profile of fresh white button mushrooms. The total microbial load was determined through standard viable counts. Presence and isolation of Gram-negative bacteria including coagulase-positive Staphylococci were performed using a selective enrichment approach. Dominant and presumptive organisms were confirmed using molecular methods. Total mushroom microbial counts ranged from 5·2 to 12·4 log CFU per g, with the genus Pseudomonas being most frequently isolated (45·37% of all isolations). In total, 91 different microbial species were isolated and identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrophotometry, PCR and sequencing. Considering current food safety guidelines in South Africa for ready-to-eat fresh produce, coliform counts exceeded the guidance specifications for fresh fruit and vegetables. Based on our research and similar studies, it is proposed that specifications for microbial loads on fresh, healthy mushrooms reflect a more natural microbiome at the point-of-harvest and point-of-sale. Presence and persistence of micro-organisms within the microbiome of fresh produce is important when identifying a potential niche for foodborne pathogens. Most foodborne outbreaks can be attributed to microbial imbalances or lack of diversity within the associated host surface and residing microbial population. Agaricus bisporus samples analysed during this study showed a higher microbial load (5·2 up to 12·4 log CFU per g) compared to known values for other fresh produce. These mushrooms were considered to carry microbial loads representing a healthy and safe product, fit for consumption, despite showing a high indicator incidence. Although foodborne pathogens may be associated on occasion with fresh mushrooms, it remains a low

  3. Evaluation of the antigenotoxic effects of the royal sun mushroom, agaricus brasiliensis (Higher basidiomycetes) in human lymphocytes treated with thymol in the comet assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radaković, Milena; Stevanović, Jevrosima; Soković, Marina; Radović, Dejan; Griensven, Van Leo J.L.D.; Stanimirović, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possible protective activity of Agaricus brasiliensis (=A. blazei sensu Murrill) ethanol extract against thymol-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Before we studied the possible interaction of thymol and A. brasiliensis extract, each compone

  4. Experimental analysis of the simultaneous uptake of the heavy metals Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Se in the sporophore of mushrooms. Versuche ueber die simultane Aufnahme der Schwermetalle Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn und Se in Pilzfruchtkoerper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehs, K.

    With mushrooms of the species Agaricus bisporus and Boletus badius the simultaneous uptake of the heavy metals Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Se from soil to the sporophore was studied. To avoid misleadingly overrated enrichmentfactors when comparing the heavy metal contents of dried mushrooms and soils, a so-called transfer factor TF[sub v] which is related to the volume is put to discussion here, this factor takes account of the relatively small amount of dry matter in mushrooms and of the different composition (that means specific weight) of the soils in question. With help of these transfer factors the conclusion is derived, that essential elements show a better enrichment behaviour than biologically superfluous heavy metals, at least this is true with the insignificantly contaminated soils we investigated. With Cd as an example of a ''superfluous'' element it is shown that there is a strict proportionality of Cd concentrations in the mushrooms and the corresponding soils, thus producing a constant transfer factor. Apart from this the uptake of copper into the mushrooms is promoted (growth of the transfer factor) by a larger Cd supply, whereas the other elements under investigation (even the classical antagonist Zn) are not significantly affected. Furthermore there is evidence that with increasing heavy metal concentration (Cd) first the fructification of the thallus is supported and moreover, that increasing age of this primary fungus corresponds with an increase of heavy metals in the mushrooms. (orig.)

  5. Development of Mushroom-Based Cosmeceutical Formulations with Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Tyrosinase, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taofiq, Oludemi; Heleno, Sandrina A; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Alves, Maria José; Barros, Lillian; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; González-Paramás, Ana M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-10-14

    The cosmetic industry is in a constant search for natural compounds or extracts with relevant bioactive properties, which became valuable ingredients to design cosmeceutical formulations. Mushrooms have been markedly studied in terms of nutritional value and medicinal properties. However, there is still slow progress in the biotechnological application of mushroom extracts in cosmetic formulations, either as antioxidants, anti-aging, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory agents or as hyperpigmentation correctors. In the present work, the cosmeceutical potential of ethanolic extracts prepared from Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lentinula edodes was analyzed in terms of anti-inflammatory, anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. The extracts were characterized in terms of phenolic acids and ergosterol composition, and further incorporated in a base cosmetic cream to achieve the same bioactive purposes. From the results obtained, the final cosmeceutical formulations presented 85%-100% of the phenolic acids and ergosterol levels found in the mushroom extracts, suggesting that there was no significant loss of bioactive compounds. The final cosmeceutical formulation also displayed all the ascribed bioactivities and as such, mushrooms can further be exploited as natural cosmeceutical ingredients.

  6. Development of Mushroom-Based Cosmeceutical Formulations with Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Tyrosinase, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludemi Taofiq

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cosmetic industry is in a constant search for natural compounds or extracts with relevant bioactive properties, which became valuable ingredients to design cosmeceutical formulations. Mushrooms have been markedly studied in terms of nutritional value and medicinal properties. However, there is still slow progress in the biotechnological application of mushroom extracts in cosmetic formulations, either as antioxidants, anti-aging, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory agents or as hyperpigmentation correctors. In the present work, the cosmeceutical potential of ethanolic extracts prepared from Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lentinula edodes was analyzed in terms of anti-inflammatory, anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. The extracts were characterized in terms of phenolic acids and ergosterol composition, and further incorporated in a base cosmetic cream to achieve the same bioactive purposes. From the results obtained, the final cosmeceutical formulations presented 85%–100% of the phenolic acids and ergosterol levels found in the mushroom extracts, suggesting that there was no significant loss of bioactive compounds. The final cosmeceutical formulation also displayed all the ascribed bioactivities and as such, mushrooms can further be exploited as natural cosmeceutical ingredients.

  7. Storage temperature and UV-irradiation influence on the ergosterol content in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, Ana; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; García-Lafuente, Ana; Guillamón, Eva

    2014-03-15

    Ergosterol (5,7,22-ergostatrien-3β-ol) and ergosteryl derivatives from different genera of edible mushrooms were separated and quantified by an isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The technique allowed a rapid separation of free ergosterol and two ergosteryl derivatives occurring in mushrooms. The ergosterol content varied considerably depending on the fungus. Thus, the species Agaricus bisporus and Hygrophorus marzuolus presented high quantities of ergosterol (6.4-6.8 mg/g, dry matter) followed by Pleurotus ostreatus, Calocybe gambosa, Lentinus edodes, and Boletus edulis (3.3-4.0mg/g). In contrast, other species, such as Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus and Craterellus cornucopioides, contained significantly lower ergosterol amounts (0.2-0.4 mg/g). Two ergosteryl derivatives were found in mushrooms and also the content depended on the fungus. The stability of ergosterol, in terms of the formation of ergosterol peroxide, was evaluated under different storage temperatures and UV radiation. The lower the temperature (-20°C) and the radiation time (10 min), the lower ergosterol oxidation was observed.

  8. Detection of Benzoic Acid by an Amperometric Inhibitor Biosensor Based on Mushroom Tissue Homogenate

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    Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric benzoic acid-sensing inhibitor biosensor was prepared by immobilizing mushroom (Agaricus bisporus tissue homogenate on a Clark-type oxygen electrode. The effects of the quantity of mushroom tissue homogenate, the quantity of gelatin and the effect of the crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde percent on the biosensor were studied. The optimum concentration of phenol used as substrate was 200 μM. The bioanalytical properties of the proposed biosensor, such as dependence of the biosensor response on the pH value and the temperature, were investigated. The biosensor responded linearly to benzoic acid in a concentration range of 25–100 μM. Standard deviation (s.d. was ±0.49 μM for 7 successive determinations at a concentration of 75 μM. The inhibitor biosensor based on mushroom tissue homogenate was applied for the determination of benzoic acid in fizzy lemonade, some fruits and groundwater samples. Results were compared to those obtained using AOAC method, showing a good agreement.

  9. Assessment of heavy metals in some wild edible mushrooms collected from Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fangkun; Qu, Li; Fan, Wenxiu; Qiao, Meiying; Hao, Hailing; Wang, Xuejing

    2011-08-01

    Eight heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) in 14 different wild-growing edible mushroom species (Coprinus comatus, Voluariella volvacea, Pleurotus nebrodensis, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Hericium erinaceus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lenfinus edodes, Collybia velutipes, Agaricus bisporus, Russula albida, Clitocybe conglobata, Pleurotus eryngii, Lepista sordida, and Pleurotus ostreatus) collected from Yunnan province, China, were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry after microwave digestion. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. The ranges of element concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead were 6.8-31.9, 42.9-94.3, 67.5-843, 13.5-113, 0.06-0.58, 10.7-42.7, 0.76-5.1, and 0.67-12.9 mg/kg, respectively. In general, iron content was higher than other metals in all mushroom species. The levels of zinc, cadmium, and lead in some edible mushroom samples were found to be higher than legal limits. The relative standard deviations were found below 10%. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference material.

  10. Essential oils in the control of dry bubble disease in white button mushroom

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    Tamara Leite dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Lecanicillium fungicola, which causes Dry bubble disease, induces infections and inflicts major losses in champignon production. The control can be managed through measures of hygiene and use of fungicides; however, in Brazil there are no registered products. This study aimed to estimate the influence of various essential oils extracted from Melissa officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Eucalyptus globulus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Syzygium aromaticum on the in vitro development and their uses. Therefore, analysis was performed of the L. fungicola isolates in vitro and the best oils were tested in vivo. Besides, the Agaricus bisporus - L. fungicola interaction was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Cinnamon and clove oils in concentrations of 0.4% and thyme oil of 0.8% were identified as good growth inhibitors of the pathogenic mycelium. Effective inhibition of the conidial germination was seen in all concentrations by cinnamon oil, and by clove and thyme oils only at 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively. When the essential oils were applied post-infestation in the in vivo experiments the incidence of the disease in the mushrooms was much lower. From the SEM it was clear that 19 hours after the inoculation of A. bisporus with L. fungicola, the spores had already completely germinated, revealing the presence of the infection. Therefore, the findings of this study indicated that the oil extracts of cinnamon, clove and thyme are potential and efficient alternatives in the control of dry bubble disease.

  11. Medicinal Mushroom Extracts Possess Differential Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbatrawy, Eman Nasr; Ghonimy, Eglal AbdAllah; Alassar, Mahomud Mohammed; Wu, Fang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Many species of edible mushrooms are known to contain a wide array of compounds with high nutritional and medicinal values. However, these values vary widely among mushroom species because of the wide diversity of compounds with different solubilities to solvents used in extraction. We report here the comparison of antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against cancer cells in extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, Agaricus campestris, and A. bisporus from 7 different solvents, including water, ethanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform, hexane, and petroleum ether. The extracts were analyzed for their antioxidant activities using the % DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylhydrate) scavenging activity method. Our results revealed that the water extracts exhibited the highest % DPPH scavenging activity in comparison to all other solvent extracts. The highest value was obtained from the water extract of P. sajor-caju (78.1%), and the lowest one was from the hexane extract of A. bisporus (0.8%). In general, extracts from nonpolar solvents exhibited much lower antioxidant activities than those from polar solvents. The cytotoxic effects of these extracts were evaluated using 2 cancer cell lines of larynx carcinoma (HEp-2) and breast carcinoma (MCF-7). When added into Hep-2 cells, the hexane extracts from P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, A. bisporus, and A. campestris yielded the highest IC50 values of 1.7 ± 1.56, 2.1 ± 2.82, 4.4 ± 1.71, and 2.2 ± 1.34 μg/mL, respectively, in comparison to all other solvent extracts. Similar IC50 values were obtained when the MCF-2 cancer cells were tested, suggesting that hexane is the preferred solvent to extract the anticancer compounds from these mushrooms. Our results also indicated that extracts from solvents with nonpolar or intermediate polarity were more potent than those with high polarity in their cytotoxicity against cancer cells, and extracts from different mushrooms by the same solvent possessed varied degrees of

  12. Evaluating the addition of activated carbon to heat-treated mushroom casing for grain-based and compost-based substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, Mark A; Heinemann, P H; Walker, P N; Demirci, A; Romaine, C P

    2009-10-01

    Two substrates, a non-composted grain spawn substrate and a traditional composted substrate, each covered with peat-based casing that contained varying amounts of activated carbon (AC) and each receiving different heat-treatment durations, were tested for Agaricus bisporus mushroom production. The amounts of AC were 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% v/v, and the heat treatments were 0, 60, and 180 min at 121 degrees C and 103.4 kPa. Overall, the addition of AC up to 10-15% of casing for a grain spawn substrate increased mushroom yield. However, the addition of AC to the casing for compost substrates had no significant effect on yield, whereas heat-treating the casing increased yield. The onset of fruiting was retarded in grain spawn treatments not receiving AC with heat-treatment durations of 60 and 180 min, whereas this effect was not as apparent for the compost substrates. On average, mushroom yield was greater for the grain spawn substrate (366 g) than for compost substrate (287 g). For grain spawn substrate, the results show that the addition of AC ranging from 5% to 10% was adequate for maximum mushroom production.

  13. Use of spent mushroom substrates from Agaricus subrufescens (syn. A. blazei, A. brasiliensis) and Lentinula edodes productions in the enrichment of a soil-based potting media for lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivation: Growth promotion and soil bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, L C C; de Mendonça, M M; Camelini, C M; Soares, C H L

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to assess physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh spent mushroom substrates (SMSs)--without post-crop heat treatment--from Agaricus subrufescens and Lentinula edodes production to optimize the use of these residues in the soil enrichment for lettuce growth promotion and soil remediation. Organic matter and C content of both SMSs were high. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was a good source of N, P and K. On the other hand, L. edodes SMS presented a lower concentration of these nutrients and a high level of immaturity. Both SMSs presented high electric conductivity values (2.5-3.4 mS/cm). Microbiological analysis, based upon enumeration of culturable bacteria (thermophilic and mesophilic) and fungi, and also evolution of CO(2), showed that SMSs played higher microbial diversity than soil control. Laccase activity from A. subrufescens SMS tended to remain constant during a 2-month period, while L. edodes SMS presented low laccase activity throughout the same period. Agaricus subrufescens and L. edodes were able to grow on a PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) media supplemented with different concentrations of atrazine (1-50 microg/ml), degraded the herbicide, attaining rates of 35% and 26%, respectively. On experiments of lettuce growth promotion using a soil-based potting media with different SMS rates, 5% and 10% (dw) rates of A. subrufescens SMS resulted in higher lettuce aerial dry weights than the rates of 25% and 40%, the chemical fertilization (NPK) and the control (soil). At 10% supplementation, lettuce aerial dry weight increased 2.2 and 1.3 times compared to the control and the NPK treatment, respectively. Protein content increased along with SMS rates. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was an excellent supplement for lettuce growth promotion and showed potential for remediation of biocides possibly due to improved microbial diversity and enzymatic activity. Fresh L. edodes SMS was not a good fertilizer, at least under the conditions tested

  14. Determinação da concentração de beta-glucano em cogumelo Agaricus blazei Murill por método enzimático Determination of beta-glucan concentration in Agaricus blazei Murill mushroom by enzymatic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong K. Park

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cogumelos comestíveis contêm importantes propriedades funcionais. Em particular, beta-glucanos, homo- e hetero-glucanos com ligações glicosídicas beta(1->3, beta(1->4 e beta(1->6, supostamente responsáveis por algumas propriedades benéficas à saúde humana, como atividade imunomodulatória, antioxidante, antiinflamatória e anticancerígena. Neste trabalho, a quantidade de beta-glucano presente em cogumelo Agaricus blazei Murill, coletados de três diferentes locais, foi analisada utilizando-se método enzimático. As amostras (em base seca foram tratadas com alfa-amilase, protease bacteriana e com glicoamilase fúngica. beta-glucano foi quantificado após hidrólise ácida e determinação da glicose liberada. Foi verificado que amostras de A. blazei Murill cultivadas em estufas apresentaram menor concentração de b-glucano (8,4±0,9 e 7,6±2,8g/100g quando comparado com amostras cultivadas em campo aberto (10,1±2,1g/100g. Observou-se ainda que, mesmo sendo cultivado em condições semelhantes, porém em locais diferentes, as amostras apresentaram diferenças significativas (7,6±2,8 e 8,4±0,9g/100g.Edible mushrooms contains a very interesting functional properties. Among them, the beta-glucans, polysaccharides with beta-1,3; b-1,4 and beta-1,6glucosidic linkages, they are responsible to a series of properties to human health, such as immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and, antitumoral activities. In the present work, the Agaricus blazei Murill beta-glucan concentrations from three locations, were determined through the enzymatic method. Samples were treated with alpha-amylase, bacterial protease and fungal glucoamylase. beta-glucans were quantified after acid hydrolysis and, the glucose determined for spectrophotometric method. It was verified that samples cultivated inside stoves presented smaller beta-glucan concentration (8.4±0.9 and 7.6±2.8g/100g, when compared with samples cultivated in open field (10.1±2.1g/100

  15. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phat, Chanvorleak; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2016-02-01

    Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds (5'-nucleotides: AMP, GMP, IMP, UMP, XMP; free amino acids: aspartic, glutamic acid) and subjected to human sensory evaluation and electronic tongue measurements. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content (36.9 ± 1.50 mg/g), while monosodium glutamate-like components (42.4 ± 6.90 mg/g) were highest in Agaricus bisporus. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) ranged from 1.51 ± 0.42 to 3890 ± 833 mg MSG/g dry weight; most mushrooms exhibited a high umami taste. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms.

  16. Agronomic assessment of spent substrates for mushroom cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picornell-Buendía, R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. In this work the agronomic viability of substrates based on spent Agaricus bisporus Imbach (Lange substrates (SAS and spent Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. P. Kumm. substrates (SPS is studied. Objectives. The aim of this work is the qualitative agronomic evaluation of SPS and SAS and the mixture of thereof in different proportions, such as lignocellulosic sources in new growing cycles of P. ostreatus. Method. In addition to the commercial substrate used as a control reference, six different treatments are considered. In this experiment, SPS and SAS were mixed in different amounts. SAS was subjected to a heat treatment in a growing room ("cook out" and then to a maturation treatment which consisted of a controlled recomposting process in cameras. SPS was subjected to a pasteurizing heat treatment (60 °C – 65 °C, 8 h and a progressive temperature decrease for at least 15 h to a "seeding" temperature (25 °C. Results. SPS (3,600 g + SAS (2,400 g and SPS (3,000 g + SAS (3,000 g were prepared substrates that achieved acceptable crude protein content in their fruiting bodies. Additionally, we obtained higher ash content, lightness, yellow-blue (y-b and red-green (r-g chromaticity, breaking strength (Bs, and compression energy (CE in these mushrooms. These values were higher than the mean values, and even higher than the commercial substrate. Conclusions. Increased SAS participation in the mixture of the processed substrate (and the consequent reduction of SPS participation resulted in mushrooms that require higher Bs, and CE. These formulation-based composts degraded by the growth of P. ostreatus, could be a low-cost substrate with selective and balanced nutrients for growth and development of oyster mushrooms.

  17. "Indoor" method of composting and genetic breeding of the strains to improve yield and quality of the almond mushroom Agaricus subrufescens

    OpenAIRE

    Zied, Diego C.; Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Pardo-Gonzalez, J.E.; Callac, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential efficiency of an indoor composting method and the genetic breeding of strains on the agronomic performance (yield, number and weight of basidiocarps, precociousness and earliness) and quality of A. subrufescens mushrooms. The experiment followed a factorial combination (3 composts types * 4 strains) with five replicates per treatment. One strain was a hybrid between French and Brazilian isolates. Strains and composts affected a...

  18. Both common and specialty mushrooms inhibit adhesion molecule expression and in vitro binding of monocytes to human aortic endothelial cells in a pro-inflammatory environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Keith R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a leading cause of mortality in the United States as well as globally. Epidemiological studies show that regular fruit and vegetable consumption reduces CVD risk, in part, due to antioxidant activity and immunomodulation since oxidative stress and inflammation are features of atherogenesis. Accumulating evidence also shows that dietary fungi, viz., mushrooms, can protect against chronic disease by altering inflammatory environments such as those associated with CVD although most research has focused on specialty mushrooms. In this study, we tested the ability of both common and specialty mushrooms to inhibit cellular processes associated with CVD. Methods Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC were incubated overnight with control media with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO vehicle (1% v/v or containing DMSO extracts of whole dehydrated mushrooms (0.1 mg/mL, which included Agaricus bisporus (white button and crimini, Lentinula edodes (shiitake, Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster, and Grifola frondosa (maitake. Monolayers were subsequently washed and incubated with medium alone or containing the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β (5 ng/mL for 6 h to upregulate pro-atherosclerotic adhesion molecules (AM. AM expression was assayed by ELISA and binding of U937 human monocytes pre-loaded with fluorescent dye was determined. Results White button mushrooms consistently reduced (p Conclusion These data provide evidence that dietary mushrooms can inhibit cellular processes such as adhesion molecule expression and ultimate binding of monocytes to the endothelium under pro-inflammatory conditions, which are associated with CVD. As a result, these findings support the notion that dietary mushrooms can be protective against CVD.

  19. Valor nutricional de cogumelos comestíveis Nutritional value of edible mushrooms

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    Regina Prado Zanes Furlani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar e comparar a composição centesimal, teor de ácido ascórbico, fibra alimentar e fósforo dos cogumelos mais cultivados no Brasil (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes e Pleorotus spp.. Cinco amostras de diferentes lotes e marcas, de cada espécie de cogumelo, foram analisadas segundo os métodos descritos pela "Association of Official Analytical Chemists International". Para sólidos totais, proteína, lipídeo, cinzas, carboidratos e fibra alimentar os valores médios obtidos, em base seca, foram, respectivamente: 9,37; 23,22; 4,71; 8,89; 63,17; e 34,0 g.100 g -1. Para fósforo e ácido ascórbico os valores médios encontrados em base úmida foram de 104,13 e 6,67 mg.100 g -1, respectivamente. A avaliação da composição centesimal dos cogumelos estudados mostrou ser um alimento com características nutricionais excelentes, com alto teor de proteínas e fibras alimentares, além do baixo teor de lipídeos e fonte considerável de fósforo; apresentaram, entretanto, baixo teor de ácido ascórbico.The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare the proximate composition, vitamin C (ascorbic acid, dietary fiber and phosphorus contents of the more cultivated mushrooms in Brazil (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, and Pleorotus spp.. Five different batches, from different brands of each mushroom were analyzed according to methods described in the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International. For total solids, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and dietary fiber, the average values, on a dry weight basis, were respectively: 9.37, 23.22, 4.71, 8.89, 63.17 and 34.0 g.100 g -1. For phosphorus and vitamin C, the average values on a wet weight basis were: 104.13 and 6.67 mg.100 g -1. From their compositions, the mushrooms studied here were shown to be excellent nutritional foods, presenting high protein and dietary fiber contents, low fat contents and reasonable sources of phosphorus, although

  20. Agaricus blazei Murill - immunomodulatory properties and health benefits

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    Biedron R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM, also known as Agaricus brasiliensis L. due to its origin in Brazilian rain forest, is an edible mushroom of the Basidiomycetes family, which also comprises medicinal mushrooms such as Hericium erinaceus and Grifola frondosa. AbM has been used in traditional medicine locally and also recently as a health food worldwide. Since it has been found to possess immunomodulatory properties, its biological and health-related effects, as well as its isolated active ingredients e.g. beta-glucans, have been examined by scientists. Otherinvestigations have been performed with mixed mushroom products, such as AndoSanTM, which contains mostly AbM, but also the two other mushrooms above. AbM-related benefits reviewed here include effects against cancer, infections, inflammation, allergy/ asthma and diabetes. Effects of AndoSanTMand other AbM-based extracts have been compared in a bacterial sepsis model.

  1. 菇渣复合基质配比对辣椒生长和产量的影响%Effect of Compound Substrate Rati Produced by Residue of Agaricus bisporus on Pepper Growth and Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于庆文; 王志伟; 王晓巍

    2011-01-01

    This experiment used 'Longjiao No.3' as testing material, cultivated it in greenhouse for the long season, and took soil cultivation as the CK. This paper studied the effects of 4 kinds compound substrates ratio of mushroom residue on pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. ) growth, yield and quality in greenhouse. The results showed that pepper grew stronger with higher yield and better quality with the substrate ratio of 15 mushroom residue, 6 sheep manure, 8 slag and 6 fine sand.%以陇椒3号为试材,采用设施长季节栽培,以土壤栽培为对照,研究了4种菇渣复合基质配比对设施辣椒生长、产量和品质的影响.结果表明:采用双孢菇渣:羊粪:炉渣:细河沙=15V:6V:8V:6V的基质配比栽培效果最好,辣椒植株生长健壮,产量高,品质好.

  2. Bioactive and Structural Metabolites of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia Species Causal Agents of Cultivated Mushrooms Diseases1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Cantore, Pietro Lo; Iacobellis, Nicola Sante; Evidente, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, P. reactans and Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola, are responsible of diseases on some species of cultivated mushrooms. The main bioactive metabolites produced by both Pseudomonas strains are the lipodepsipeptides (LDPs) tolaasin I and II and the so called White Line Inducing Principle (WLIP), respectively, LDPs which have been extensively studied for their role in the disease process and for their biological properties. In particular, their antimicrobial activity and the alteration of biological and model membranes (red blood cell and liposomes) was established. In the case of tolaasin I interaction with membranes was also related to the tridimensional structure in solution as determined by NMR combined with molecular dynamic calculation techniques. Recently, five news minor tolaasins, tolaasins A–E, were isolated from the culture filtrates of P. tolaasii and their chemical structure was determined by extensive use of NMR and MS spectroscopy. Furthermore, their antimicrobial activity was evaluated on target micro-organisms (fungi—including the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus spp.—chromista, yeast and bacteria). The Gram positive bacteria resulted the most sensible and a significant structure-activity relationships was apparent. The isolation and structure determination of bioactive metabolites produced by B. gladioli pv. agaricicola are still in progress but preliminary results indicate their peptide nature. Furthermore, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) from the culture filtrates of B. gladioli pv. agaricicola, as well as the O-chain and lipid A, from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the three bacteria, were isolated and the structures determined. PMID:19787100

  3. Bioactive and structural metabolites of pseudomonas and burkholderia species causal agents of cultivated mushrooms diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Cantore, Pietro Lo; Iacobellis, Nicola Sante; Evidente, Antonio

    2008-05-09

    Pseudomonas tolaasii, P. reactans and Burkholderia gladioli pv. agaricicola, are responsible of diseases on some species of cultivated mushrooms. The main bioactive metabolites produced by both Pseudomonas strains are the lipodepsipeptides (LDPs) tolaasin I and II and the so called White Line Inducing Principle (WLIP), respectively, LDPs which have been extensively studied for their role in the disease process and for their biological properties. In particular, their antimicrobial activity and the alteration of biological and model membranes (red blood cell and liposomes) was established. In the case of tolaasin I interaction with membranes was also related to the tridimensional structure in solution as determined by NMR combined with molecular dynamic calculation techniques. Recently, five news minor tolaasins, tolaasins A-E, were isolated from the culture filtrates of P. tolaasii and their chemical structure was determined by extensive use of NMR and MS spectroscopy. Furthermore, their antimicrobial activity was evaluated on target micro-organisms (fungi-including the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus spp.-chromista, yeast and bacteria). The Gram positive bacteria resulted the most sensible and a significant structure-activity relationships was apparent. The isolation and structure determination of bioactive metabolites produced by B. gladioli pv. agaricicola are still in progress but preliminary results indicate their peptide nature. Furthermore, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) from the culture filtrates of B. gladioli pv. agaricicola, as well as the O-chain and lipid A, from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the three bacteria, were isolated and the structures determined.

  4. LC–MS/MS based-comparative study of (S-nicotine metabolism by microorganisms, mushroom and plant cultures: Parallels to its mammalian metabolic fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira R. Khattab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic fate of nicotine using the cell cultures of microorganisms, mushroom and plants was explored using LC–MS/MS analysis. The study demonstrated parallels to phase I mammalian metabolism of nicotine and reported that nicotine was biotransformed into its N-oxide by Streptomyces fradiae culture. Moreover, it was metabolized in Pleurotus ostreatus culture into nornicotine, norcotinine and β-nicotyrine; whereas, cotinine and its 3′-hydroxylated derivative were the identified nicotine metabolic products in Pimpinella anisum cell culture. However, the microbial culture of Agaricus bisporus bioconverted nicotine into one of its derived-carcinogenic nitrosamines which is “4-(methylnitrosamino-4-(3-pyridylbutanal”. Mushroom and plant cell cultures were thus proven to be competent to microbial cultures in bioconverting nicotine into many of its previously reported metabolites. Convincingly, the obtained results highlighted the prospect of utilizing other species which are intrinsically-endowed with unique biocatalytic systems, such as mushrooms and plants, in the drug metabolic studies.

  5. Effect of the Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSanTM, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Crohn's Disease in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Palm Therkelsen

    Full Text Available Ingestion of AndoSanTM, based on the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, has previously shown an anti-inflammatory effect through reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with Crohn's disease (CD. In this randomized single-blinded placebo-controlled study we examined whether intake of AndoSanTM also resulted in clinical effects.50 patients with symptomatic CD were randomized for oral daily consumption of AndoSanTM or placebo for a 21-day experimental period, in this per-protocol study. Patients reported validated scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL at days 0, 14 and 21. Fecal calprotectin and general blood parameters were also analyzed. In the AndoSanTM group (n = 25 symptoms improved from baseline (day 0 to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI of 5.52 (4.64-6.40, 4.48 (3.69-5.27 and 4.08 (3.22-4.94 (p<0,001. We found significant improvements in symptom score for both genders in the AndoSanTM group, and no significant changes in the placebo (n = 25 group. There were however no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.106, although a marginal effect in symptom score for men (p = 0.054. There were comparable improvements in physical, mental and total fatigue for both groups. HRQoL versus baseline were at day 21 improved for bodily pain and vitality in the AndoSanTM group and for vitality and social functioning in the placebo group. No crucial changes in general blood samples and fecal calprotectin were detected.The results from this single-blinded randomized clinical trial shows significant improvement on symptoms, for both genders, in the AndoSanTM group, but no significant differences between the study groups. The results on fatigue, HRQoL, fecal calprotectin and blood samples were quite similar compared with placebo. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSanTM. CD patients with mild to moderate symptoms may have beneficiary

  6. Effect of a Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSan™, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Palm Therkelsen

    Full Text Available Ingestion of AndoSan™, based on the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, has previously been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects because of reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with ulcerative colitis. In this randomized single-blinded placebo controlled study we examined whether intake of AndoSan™ also resulted in clinical effects.50 patients with symptomatic ulcerative colitis were block-randomized and blinded for oral daily intake of AndoSan™ or placebo for the 21 days' experimental period. The patients reported scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL at days 0, 14 and 21. Fecal calprotectin and general blood parameters were also analyzed. In the AndoSan™ group (n = 24 symptoms improved from baseline (day 0 to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI of 5.88 (4.92-6.83, 4.71 (3.90-5.52 (p = 0.002 and 4.50 (3.70-5.30 (p = 0.001. Corresponding improved mean scores (±SD for total fatigue were 16.6 (5.59, 14.1 (4.50 (p = 0.001 and 15.1 (4.09 (p = 0.023. These scores in the placebo group (n = 26 were not improved. When comparing the two study groups using mixed model statistics, we found significant better scores for the AndoSan™-patients. HRQoL for dimensions bodily pain, vitality, social functioning and mental health improved in the AndoSan™ group. There were no alterations in general blood samples and fecal calprotectin.Beneficiary effects on symptoms, fatigue and HRQoL from AndoSan™ consumption were demonstrated in this per-protocol study, supporting its use as a supplement to conventional medication for patients with mild to moderate symptoms from ulcerative colitis. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSan™ in this study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01496053.

  7. Two new species in Agaricus tropical clade I

    OpenAIRE

    Karunarathna, Samantha C.; Guinberteau, Jacques; Chen, Jie; Vellinga, Else C.; Zhao, Rui-lin; Chukeatirote, Ekachai; Yan, Jiye; Hyde, Kevin D.; Callac, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    As part of our efforts of study the saprobic mushrooms in Asia we have collected numerous taxa of the genus Agaricus in northern Thailand. It is likely that more than 40 new species occur in this region and many are potentially edible or medicinal. A recent phylogenetic study revealed that most species of this region belong to exclusively tropical clades of which the largest one, TR I, was suspected to represent section Brunneopicti. In this paper we introduce two new species as Agaricus chia...

  8. Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in a small-scale mushroom production facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Prema; Murugesan, Latha; Knabel, Stephen J; Verghese, Bindhu; Chikthimmah, Naveen; Laborde, Luke F

    2013-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen of significant concern to the agricultural and food processing industry because of its ability to grow and persist in cool and moist environments and its association with listeriosis, a disease with a very high mortality rate. Although there have been no listeriosis outbreaks attributed to fresh mushrooms in the United States, retail surveys and recalls are evidence that L. monocytogenes contamination of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) can occur. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, in a small-scale mushroom production facility on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University in the United States. Of 184 samples taken from five production zones within the facility, 29 (15.8%) samples were positive for Listeria spp. Among the Listeria spp. isolates, L. innocua was most prevalent (10.3%) followed by L. welshimeri (3.3%), L. monocytogenes (1.6%), and L. grayi (0.5%). L. monocytogenes was recovered only from the phase I raw material composting area. Isolates of L. monocytogenes were confirmed and serotyped by multiplex PCR. The epidemiological relatedness of the three L. monocytogenes isolates to those serotypes or lineages frequently encountered in listeriosis infections was determined by multi-virulence-locus sequence typing using six virulence genes, namely, prfA, inlB, inlC, dal, clpP, and lisR. The phylogenetic positions of the three isolates in the dendrogram prepared with data from other isolates of L. monocytogenes showed that all isolates were grouped with serotype 4a, lineage IIIA. To date, this serotype has rarely been reported in foodborne disease outbreaks.

  9. Evaluation of the potential use of probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v in lactic fermentation of button mushroom fruiting bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jabłońska-Ryś

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The available literature does not provide data on the application of probiotic strains in mush- room processing. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential to use the L. plantarum 299v strain with documented probiotic properties in the process of lactic fermentation of button mushroom fruiting bodies (Agaricus bisporus. Materials and methods. Fresh button mushroom fruiting bodies and cultures of lactic acid bacteria L. plan- tarum Ib and a probiotic strain L. plantarum 299v were the material analysed. Sensory evaluation was per- formed with a 5-point scale, an instrumental method of colour measurement based on the CIA L*a*b* scale, total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin method, antioxidant properties were assayed with the DPPH radical test, and reducing power was determined using the FRAP method. Results. After a week-long lactic fermentation, the pH value in the samples declined to a level of 3.6 (L. plan- tarum Ib and 3.75 (L. plantarum 299v; these values persisted or decreased slightly during the period of maturation of the fermented samples under refrigeration. Fermented mushrooms were assigned high grades in the organoleptic evaluation. The colour analysis revealed significant changes in the values of the L*a*b* parameters in the fermented product, in comparison with fresh mushrooms. Blanching contributed to a sig- nificant decrease in the content of total phenolic compounds in the mushroom fruiting bodies and to a decline in antioxidant activity. Mushrooms fermented with the probiotic strain were characterised by higher phenolic compound content and higher antioxidant activity. Conclusion. L. plantarum 299v strain with documented probiotic properties can be applied in fermentation of button mushroom fruiting bodies. Products obtained with the use of both strains were characterised by good sensory properties. The type of strain used in the lactic fermentation of mushroom fruiting bodies had an ef- fect

  10. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species Determinação de cádmio em cogumelos da espécie Lentinus edodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.Muitos estudos têm encontrado elementos tóxicos em cogumelos. Sabe-se que algumas espécies de cogumelos comestíveis acumulam elevados níveis de contaminantes inorgânicos, como cádmio, mercúrio e chumbo. Há cerca de duas mil espécies de cogumelos comestíveis, mas apenas 25 espécies são cultivadas e usadas como alimentos. No Brasil, as espécies mais comercializadas e consumidas são Agaricus bisporus, conhecida como Champignon de Paris; Lentinus edodes ou Shitake, e Pleurotus sp, também chamada de Shimeji ou Hiratake. Neste trabalho, o cádmio (Cd foi determinado em amostras de cogumelos da espécie Lentinus edodes cultivadas em diversas cidades do Estado de São Paulo e algumas amostras importadas do Japão e da China. O cádmio foi determinado por espectrometria de absor

  11. Contents of folates in edible mushrooms commercialised in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil Teor de folatos em cogumelos comestíveis comercializados na cidade de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Prado Zanes Furlani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, folates were evaluated in the main species of mushroom cultivated in Brazil. The species analysed were Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom, Lentinula edodes (shiitake and Pleorotus ostreatus (shimeji. The five main forms of folate found in foods were determined: tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA, 10-methyl folic acid (10MFA, 5-methyl tetrahydrofolic acid (5MTHFA, 10-formyl folic acid (10FFA and 5-formy tetrahydrofolic acid (5FTHFA. The methodology employed used extraction with phosphate buffer, clean up with trichloroacetic acid and separation of the vitamins by high-performance liquid chromatography, with simultaneous ultraviolet and fluorescence detection. The results obtained for total folate were 551 to 1404 µg.100 g -1 for the button mushroom, 606 to 727 µg.100 g -1 for shiitake and 460 to 1325 µg.100 g-1 for shimeji. The data showed that mushrooms could be considered as sources of folates and that their contribution of these vitamins to the diet was meaningful.O teor de folatos nas principais espécies de cogumelos cultivados no Brasil foi avaliado neste trabalho. As espécies analisadas foram Agaricus bisporus (champignon de Paris, Lentinula edodes (shiitake e Pleorotus ostreatus (shimeji. Foram determinadas as cinco principais formas de folatos presentes em alimentos: tetrahidro ácido fólico (THAF, 10-metil ácido fólico (10MAF, 5-metil tetrahidro ácido fólico (5MTHAF, 10-formil ácido fólico (10FAF e 5formil tetrahidro ácido fólico (5FTHAF. A metodologia empregada utilizou extração com tampão fosfato, limpeza com ácido tricloroacético e separação das vitaminas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, com detecção em série por fluorescência e ultravioleta. Os resultados obtidos para o total de folatos foram 551 a 1404 µg.100 g -1 para o champignon de Paris, 606 a 727 µg.100 g -1 para o shiitake e 460 a 1325 µg.100 g -1 para o shimeji. Os dados mostram que os cogumelos podem ser considerados fontes

  12. Phenolic compounds present in medicinal mushroom extracts generate reactive oxygen species in human cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, S.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Hot-water extracts of the higher Basidiomycetes Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach, A. brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., Coprinus comatus (O.F. Mull.) Pers., Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst., and Phellinus linteus (Berk. et Curt.) Teng were made, and the resulting polysaccharide mixtures were

  13. Phenolic compounds present in medicinal mushroom extracts generate reactive oxygen species in human cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, S.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Hot-water extracts of the higher Basidiomycetes Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge) Imbach, A. brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., Coprinus comatus (O.F. Mull.) Pers., Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst., and Phellinus linteus (Berk. et Curt.) Teng were made, and the resulting polysaccharide mixtures were

  14. 双孢蘑菇菌糠配制辣椒育苗基质的研究%Studies on Matrix for Pepper Seedling Production by Spent Mushroom Substrate from Agaricus bisporus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈力; 杨舒惠; 高寿梅; 郭福华; 孟金贵

    2014-01-01

    以双孢蘑菇菌糠为试材,探索应用蘑菇菌糠制备辣椒育苗基质的效果.育苗基质配方处理按粉碎消毒的双孢蘑菇菌糠、细红土、细干猪粪、珍珠岩所占的体积分数4因素3水平正交试验设计(L9(34).结果表明,双孢蘑菇菌糠40%、红土30%、干猪粪20%、珍珠岩20%,为辣椒幼苗成苗率、株高、地上部和地下部鲜重最佳育苗基质配方.

  15. Effects of environmental factors on bruising sensitivity of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)%环境因子对双孢蘑菇损伤敏感性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高巍; BAARS Johan JP; DOLSTRA Oene; VISSER Richard GF; 张金霞; SONNENBERGAntonSM

    2016-01-01

    在机械损伤过程中,白色双孢蘑菇极易被损伤并迅速褐变,使得机械采收的鲜菇质量低下,并且影响机械采收技术的应用和发展.机械采收双孢蘑菇的褐变程度(损伤敏感性)受栽培环境条件的影响.本文应用因子设计分析的方式研究多个因子对双孢蘑菇机械损伤敏感性的影响.以4个菌株为材料测试3个环境因子对双孢蘑菇损伤敏感性的影响,即覆土的厚度(分为2.5cm和5cm两个水平),覆土的湿度(分为干覆土和正常覆土两个水平),以及菇房内的相对湿度(分为80%和87%两个水平).目的是找出能够在不敏感菌株和敏感菌株间产生最大敏感性差异的环境条件,由此得到的环境条件将应用到后续的群体分离分析中以得到最大的敏感性变异率.根据方差分析结果得出基因型(菌株)和覆土厚度是影响损伤敏感性的显著性因子,因子间相互作用显著.能够在不敏感菌株和敏感菌株间产生最大的损伤敏感性差异的环境条件为正常湿度的5cm厚覆土材料和87%的菇房内相对湿度.

  16. Effect of Purified Mushroom Tyrosinase on Melanin Content and Melanogenic Protein Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Uddin Zaidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammalian melanocytes, melanosome is a highly specialized organelle where melanin is synthesized. Melanin synthesis is controlled by tyrosinase, the vital enzyme in melanogenic pathway. The present investigation is based on an effect of purified mushroom tyrosinase of Agaricus bisporus on B16F10 melanocytes for the melanin production via blocking pigment cell machinery. Using B16F10 melanocytes showed that the stimulation of melanogenesis by purified tyrosinase is due to increased tyrosinase absorption. Cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content in B16F10 melanocytes were increased by purified tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed that cellular tyrosinase levels were enhanced after treatment with purified tyrosinase for 48 hours. Furthermore, tyrosinase induced phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB in a dose-dependent manner. The purified tyrosinase-mediated increase of tyrosinase activity was significantly attenuated by H89, LY294002, Ro-32-0432, and PD98059, cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitors. The results indicate that purified tyrosinase can be used as contestant for the treatment of vitiligous skin conditions.

  17. Potato and mushroom polyphenol oxidase activities are differently modulated by natural plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Tomas F M; van Herk, Teunie; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Janssen, Renske H; Narh, Deborah L; van Berkel, Willem J H; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major quality issue in fruit and vegetable processing and can be counteracted by different natural inhibitors. Often, model systems containing a single polyphenol oxidase (PPO) are used to screen for new inhibitors. To investigate the impact of the source of PPO on the outcome of such screening, this study compared the effect of 60 plant extracts on the activity of PPO from mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus , AbPPO) and PPO from potato ( Solanum tuberosum , StPPO). Some plant extracts had different effects on the two PPOs: an extract that inhibited one PPO could be an activator for the other. As an example of this, the mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) extract was investigated in more detail. In the presence of mate extract, oxygen consumption by AbPPO was found to be reduced >5-fold compared to a control reaction, whereas that of StPPO was increased >9-fold. RP-UHPLC-MS analysis showed that the mate extract contained a mixture of phenolic compounds and saponins. Upon incubation of mate extract with StPPO, phenolic compounds disappeared completely and saponins remained. Flash chromatography was used to separate saponins and phenolic compounds. It was found that the phenolic fraction was mainly responsible for inhibition of AbPPO and activation of StPPO. Activation of StPPO was probably caused by activation of latent StPPO by chlorogenic acid quinones.

  18. Effect of Purified Mushroom Tyrosinase on Melanin Content and Melanogenic Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ayesha S.

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian melanocytes, melanosome is a highly specialized organelle where melanin is synthesized. Melanin synthesis is controlled by tyrosinase, the vital enzyme in melanogenic pathway. The present investigation is based on an effect of purified mushroom tyrosinase of Agaricus bisporus on B16F10 melanocytes for the melanin production via blocking pigment cell machinery. Using B16F10 melanocytes showed that the stimulation of melanogenesis by purified tyrosinase is due to increased tyrosinase absorption. Cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content in B16F10 melanocytes were increased by purified tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed that cellular tyrosinase levels were enhanced after treatment with purified tyrosinase for 48 hours. Furthermore, tyrosinase induced phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB) in a dose-dependent manner. The purified tyrosinase-mediated increase of tyrosinase activity was significantly attenuated by H89, LY294002, Ro-32-0432, and PD98059, cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitors. The results indicate that purified tyrosinase can be used as contestant for the treatment of vitiligous skin conditions. PMID:27699070

  19. The effect of some osmolytes on the activity and stability of mushroom tyrosinase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Gheibi; A A Saboury; K Haghbeen; A A Moosavi-Movahedi

    2006-09-01

    The thermodynamical stability and remained activity of mushroom tyrosinase (MT) from Agaricus bisporus in 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, stored at two temperatures of 4 and 40°C were investigated in the presence of three different amino acids (His, Phe and Asp) and also trehalose as osmolytes, for comparing with the results obtained in the absence of any additive. Kinetics of inactivation obeye the first order law. Inactivation rate constant (kinact) value is the best parameter describing effect of osmolytes on kinetic stability of the enzyme. Trehalose and His have the smallest value of kinact (0.7×10–4 s–1) in comparison with their absence (2.5×10–4 s–1). Moreover, to obtain effect of these four osmolytes on thermodynamical stability of the enzyme, protein denaturation by dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and thermal scanning was investigated. Sigmoidal denaturation curves were analysed according to the two states model of Pace theory to find the Gibbs free energy change of denaturation process in aqueous solution at room temperature, as a very good thermodynamic criterion indicating stability of the protein. Although His, Phe and Asp induced constriction of MT tertiary structure, its secondary structure had not any change and the result was a chemical and thermal stabilization of MT. The enzyme shows a proper coincidence of thermodyanamic and structural changes with the presence of trehalose. Thus, among the four osmolytes, trehalose is an exceptional protein stabilizer.

  20. The effect of some osmolytes on the activity and stability of mushroom tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheibi, N; Saboury, A A; Haghbeen, K; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A

    2006-09-01

    The thermodynamical stability and remained activity of mushroom tyrosinase (MT) from Agaricus bisporus in 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, stored at two temperatures of 4 and 40 degrees C were investigated in the presence of three different amino acids (His, Phe and Asp) and also trehalose as osmolytes, for comparing with the results obtained in the absence of any additive. Kinetics of inactivation obey the first order law. Inactivation rate constant (kinact) value is the best parameter describing effect of osmolytes on kinetic stability of the enzyme. Trehalose and His have the smallest value of kinact (0.7x10(-4) s-1) in comparison with their absence (2.5x10(-4) s-1). Moreover, to obtain effect of these four osmolytes on thermodynamical stability of the enzyme, protein denaturation by dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and thermal scanning was investigated. Sigmoidal denaturation curves were analysed according to the two states model of Pace theory to find the Gibbs free energy change of denaturation process in aqueous solution at room temperature, as a very good thermodynamic criterion indicating stability of the protein. Although His, Phe and Asp induced constriction of MT tertiary structure, its secondary structure had not any change and the result was a chemical and thermal stabilization of MT. The enzyme shows a proper coincidence of thermodynamic and structural changes with the presence of trehalose. Thus, among the four osmolytes, trehalose is an exceptional protein stabilizer.

  1. Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) immune response in mice by an extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Kazunori; Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2012-12-01

    To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4(+) spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator.

  2. THERMAL PROCESSING OF AGARICUS BISPORUS AND ITS CONTROL VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Salas de la Torre, N.; Bazán, D.; Osorio, A.; Cornejo, O.; Reyna, L.; García Pantigozo, M.; Carhuaneho, H.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this work to estab1ish the controlled use of heat as a function of the pH in order to destroy all the microorganisms that are this bacterias anaerobic forced thermopiles and essentially mesófilas. The bacteria more resistant esporulada to 1he heat is Clostridium botulinum and it is considered lndicative microorganísm of the sterellization. Another parameter of very important control is the quality of the matter it prevails that it can resist the operations of thermal prc...

  3. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... During phase I, fungal and bacterial activity produces ... 1.87. 2.11. Ammonium nitrate. 20.0. 0.0. 20.0. 26.0. 5.20. Urea. 8.70. 0.0. 8.70. 44.0. 4.75 ..... maize stalks as substitutes for wheat straw to prepare synthetic compost for ...

  4. Laccases production by A.blazei mushroom grown either in composted or non-composted substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Matute, Ramiro; Figlas, Norma Débora; Curvetto, Néstor

    2013-01-01

    Agaricus blazei is an edible and medicinal mushroom commonly cultivated on compost. However, non-composted substrates are being particularly studied for specialty mushrooms because their economic and labour advantages. Addition of salt minerals to the substrate or casing materials may stimulate both the synthesis and activity of enzymes involved in the mushroom substrate biotransformation and eventually lead to an increase not only in mushroom productivity but in the fruitbody mineral content...

  5. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-12-16

    The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered.

  6. Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens Produced by Solid State Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalla S. O. Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this study had as objective to verify the effects on kidney function indices after long intake of A. brasiliensis mycelium. Approach: Wheat grains was cultured during 18 days with Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium by solid state culture and used for chown formulation. Groups of female Swiss mice (20 per group were fed during 14 weeks with 100 and 50% of the formulated feed denominated A100 and A50, respectively. Control group received formulated chown with wheat grains without mycelium. The water intake and excreted urine volume; the physic chemistry analysis of the urine and the serum levels of glucose, proteins, urea, creatinin and uric acid was determined (Meditron Junior-Boehringer, reagent strips Combur 10; microscopy and ADVIA 1650 Bayer. Results: A100 and A50 groups ingested 19.1 and 15.8% more water compared to C group, respectively. The urine and serum analysis showed that the verified parameters remained invariables for all groups, including glucose levels, which resulted in a 10% reduction of A100 group, without statistical difference (p>0.05 Vs C. Conclusion/Recommendations: The prolonged intake of supplemented feed with A. brasiliensis mycelium didn’t result in indicative alterations in the kidney function indices. The preventive use of the mushroom did not show any deleterious effects on kidney; however complementary studies are necessary to guarantee complete safety; possible correlation between increase of urinary excretion and hypotensive effect

  7. Spent mushroom substrates as component of growing media for germination and growth of horticultural plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, E; Paredes, C; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Bustamante, M A; Moral, R

    2009-09-01

    This research work was conducted in order to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom substrate (SMS) in the production of horticultural seedlings replacing part of the peat in the growing media. Three vegetable species with different salt sensitivities, the less sensitive being tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Muchamiel), the moderately salt-sensitive being courgette (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Afrodite F1) and the most salt-sensitive being pepper (Capsicum annum L. var. Lamuyo F1) were grown in 12 media containing SMS of two types of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (SMS-AB) and Pleurotus ostreatus (SMS-PO)) or a mixture of both 50% (v/v) (SMS-50), as well as peat in various ratios. The proportions of each residue in the mixtures elaborated with peat were 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% v/v residue. A substrate of 100% peat was used as control. The experiment was arranged in a completely-randomised design with two replicates per treatment under greenhouse conditions. Prior to sowing, some physical, physico-chemical and chemical properties of the growing media were determined and seed germination and fresh weight of seedling were also measured. In most of the cases, the addition of SMS to the growing media produced an increase in the pH values, salt contents, macro and micronutrient concentrations and a decrease in the water holding capacity contents in comparison to peat, whereas great differences were found in the air capacity values between SMS-based substrates and peat. Up to 75% SMS can be used in mixtures with peat for seed germination of the plant species studied. Regarding the most suitable SMS-based substrates for plant growth, any substrate could be used for tomato seedling production. However, all SMS-AB-based substrates and the media containing low dose of SMS-PO and SMS-50 were adequate for growth of courgette and pepper.

  8. Utilización de compost agotado de champiñón como capa de coberturas en nuevos ciclos de producción Using spent mushroom substrate as casing layers in new growing cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Pardo-Giménez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento agronómico de seis mezclas de cobertura, elaboradas a partir de sustrato postcultivo del champiñón Agaricus bisporus, en nuevos ciclos de cultivo. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la viabilidad de la reintroducción del sustrato en nuevos ciclos de cultivo, ya sea como material de base único, si se somete a un proceso de lavado para eliminar sales solubles, o bien mezclado con otros materiales de baja conductividad, como es el caso de la turba rubia o la fibra de coco. Se destacan los altos valores de eficiencia biológica registrados, que llegaron hasta los 100 kg kg-1 de compost, similares a los proporcionados por los testigos, y los altos valores relativos observados (con respecto a los testigos en el contenido en materia seca de los carpóforos cosechados con algunas de las nuevas coberturas elaboradas. Esta reutilización del compost constituye una alternativa interesante, con vistas a reemplazar a las tierras y a los sustratos orgánicos utilizados habitualmente como cobertura, con la doble ventaja de disminuir los costos de elaboración y el impacto ambiental.The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic behaviour of six mixtures of casing, prepared from spent mushroom substrate (SMS, in new production cycles of Agaricus bisporus. The results obtained showed the feasibility of reuse of the SMS in new cultivation cycles when used alone by submitting it to a washing process to remove soluble salts, or mixed with other materials of low conductivity, such as Sphagnum peat or coconut fiber pith. The high values of biological efficiency recorded up to 100 kg kg-1 compost, similar to that of the controls, and the same high values observed in the dry matter content of the mushrooms harvested with some of the new casing layers prepared must be highlighted. The suggested use for SMS is an important alternative to consider, in order to replace soils and other organic

  9. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  10. 野生口蘑菌种分离及人工驯化%Separation and Artificial Domestication of Wild Koumo Mushroom ( Tricholoma gambosum )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修翠娟

    2012-01-01

    为了给口蘑人工驯化栽培提供依据,开展了口蘑的碳、氨源营养研究.结果表明,蔗糖和牛肉膏分别为最佳碳源和最佳氨源.经转管纯化及在不同培养基驯化培养,该菌株在PSA培养基上,生长速度快、菌丝变得较浓密.但和双孢菇的菌丝相比,无论在麦柱上还是熟料上,菌丝不够粗壮,距离出菇仍然有一定的差距.口蘑的驯化栽培难度较大,欲获得实质性的突破还在于掌握其生长规律及生态习性.温度因子是影响蒙古口蘑菌丝及子实体正常生长发育的关键因子,作为长期适应低温生态环境的结果,适当温度的摸索将是驯化栽培的关键技术.口蘑具有严格的营养要求,因而培养基的筛选至关重要.%A study on carbon and nitrogen sources nutrition was inaugurated in order to provide the basis for artificial domestication cultivation of koumo mushroom ( Tricholoma gambosum). The results showed that sucrose and beef extract were the respectively optimal carbon and nitrogen source. The strain in the PSA medium grew fast and the hyphae became more densely after tube-transferring purification and domestication cultivation in different media. However, the hyphae were not stout enough as compared with mycelium of table mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) no matter on grains of wheat or done material, therefore, it still lakes time and has distance to produce mushroom. The domestication of koumo mushroom is very difficult, wishing to obtain a substantial breakthrough is to master its growth law and ecological habits. The key factor that affects the hyphae and sporogonia of Mongolian koumo mushroom to grow normally is temperature. As a result of a long-term adaptation to cryo-ecological environment, property fumbling for temperature is the key technique of the domestication cultivation. The koumo mushroom has a strict nutritional requirement, therefore , the screening of media is of vital importance.

  11. The mushroom Agaricus Blazei Murill in combination with metformin and gliclazide improves insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Hua; Liao, Yang-Li; Lin, Su-Ching; Hwang, Kung-Chang; Chou, Pesus

    2007-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine use in adults with type 2 diabetes is popular. Although most of the herbs and supplements appear to be safe, there is still insufficient evidence that demonstrates their definitive beneficial effects. This study was done to determine whether the supplement of Agaricus blazei Murill extract improves insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. This study was a clinical randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Of a population of 536 registered diabetes patients with 72 subjects (1) aged between 20 and 75 years, (2) being Chinese, (3) having type 2 diabetes for more than 1 year, and (4) having been taking gliclazide and metformin for more than 6 months were enrolled in this study. The enrolled patients were randomly assigned to either receiving supplement of Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) extract or placebo (cellulose) 1500 mg daily for 12 weeks. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used as the major outcome measurement. At the end of the study, subjects who received supplement of ABM extract (n = 29) showed significantly lower HOMA-IR index (3.6[standard deviation, 2.5] versus 6.6[standard deviation, 7.4], p = 0.04) than the control group (n = 31). The plasma adiponectin concentration increased 20.0(standard deviation, 40.7)% in the ABM group after 12 weeks of treatment, but decreased 12.0(20.0)% among those taking the placebo (p diabetes. The increase in adiponectin concentration after taking AMB extract for 12 weeks might be the mechanism that brings the beneficial effect. Studies with longer periods of follow-up should be conducted in the future.

  12. 双孢蘑菇酶促褐变特性及褐变的控制%Enzymatic Browning Characteristics and Control of Button Mushroom(Agaricus bisporus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相友; 王健; 朱继英; 赵亚

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively inhibit enzymatic browning in Agaricus bisporus,effects of pH values,temperature,substrate concentration and inhibitors on polyphenol oxidase(PPO) activity from Agaricus bisporus were studied.The results showed that the optimum pH value and temperature for PPO activity from Agaricus bisporus were 6.8 and 15-20℃ using pyrocatechol as substrate.The Michaelis constant of PPO was Km = 0.1072 mol/L.Computational imaging analysis showed that mixture of 0.30 mmol/L sodium sulfite,0.06% ascorbic acid and 0.05% acetic acid had effective inhibition on enzymatic browning in Agaricus bisporus.%为有效控制双孢蘑菇褐变,研究pH值、温度、底物浓度以及抑制剂对双孢蘑菇的多酚氧化酶(polyphenoloxidase,PPO)活性的影响。结果表明:以邻苯二酚为底物,双孢蘑菇PPO最适反应pH6.8,最适反应温度20℃,最适反应底物浓度为0.06mol/L,米氏常数Km为0.1072mol/L。采用计算机图像处理技术对双孢蘑菇褐变程度进行定量检测,得出对双孢蘑菇贮藏保鲜效果较好的褐变抑制剂及其最佳配比为0.30mmol/L半胱氨酸、0.06%抗坏血酸、0.05%乙酸。

  13. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolics Content of the Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Sixteen Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Varshney, Vinay K; Harsh, N S K; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The fruiting bodies and the submerged cultured mycelia of 16 higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms- Agaricus bisporus, Armillaria mellea, Auricularia auricula-judae, Ganoderma applanatum, G. lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus, Lentinus tigrinus, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Phellinus linteus, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, Polyporus arcularius, Russula brevipes, Schizophyllum commune, Sparassis crispa, and Spongipellis unicolor-from different taxonomic groups were examined for their antioxidant capacity (AOXC) and total phenolics content (TPC). Extraction of the freeze-dried and pulverized fruiting bodies and mycelia with methanol and water (8:2, v/v), followed by evaporation of the solvent under a vacuum, created their extracts, which were analyzed for their AOXC and TPC using a DPPH· scavenging assay and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The fruiting bodies and the culture mycelia of all the mushroom species exhibited varied antioxidant capacity; however, the fruiting bodies had more potent DPPH· scavenging than the corresponding mycelia irrespective of the mushroom species, as evident by the effective concentrations of extract that scavenges 50% of DPPH· (EC50) of the former (0.56-1.24 mg mL-1) being lower than those of the latter (2.51-8.39 mg mL-1). TPC in the fruiting bodies (6.08-24.85 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE] g-1) were higher than those in the mycelia (4.17-13.34 mg GAE g-1). AOXC of the fruiting bodies (r = -0.755) and the culture mycelia (r = -0.903) also was correlated to their TPC. Among the cultured mycelia, A. bisporus, A. mellea, L. tigrinus, P. ostreatus, and S. crispa were highly promising in terms of their highest TPC (10.55, 13.34, 11.00, 10.37, and 10.19 mg GAE g-1, respectively) and the lowest EC50 values (3.33, 2.85, 2.51, 3.65, and 3.17 mg mL-1, respectively) as they relate to the development of antioxidants.

  14. Pro- and antioxidative properties of medicinal mushroom extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, W.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Hot water extracts of 2 groups of medicinal mushrooms have been tested from the genera Agaricus, Antrodia, Auricularia, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Hericium, Grifola, Ganoderma, Lentinus, Phellinus, and Trametes for ROS-generating activity in human cells and for DPPH-TEAC antioxidant activity. Group 1

  15. Pro- and antioxidative properties of medicinal mushroom extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, W.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Hot water extracts of 2 groups of medicinal mushrooms have been tested from the genera Agaricus, Antrodia, Auricularia, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Hericium, Grifola, Ganoderma, Lentinus, Phellinus, and Trametes for ROS-generating activity in human cells and for DPPH-TEAC antioxidant activity. Group 1 comp

  16. Heavy metals bioaccumulation by edible saprophytic mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    ŠIRIĆ, Ivan; KOS, Ivica; Ante KASAP; Fran PETKOVIĆ; Držaić, Valentino

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb i Cd in certain edible species of saprophytic fungi and the substrate on three area of sampling, and to assess the role of individual species as biological indicators of environmental pollution. In this study were used three species of wild edible mushrooms (Agaricus macroarpus Bohus, Clitocybe inversa (Scop. ex Fr.) Pat. and Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr.) Sing.,). Completely developed and mature ...

  17. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human PathogenPseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Ciric, A.; Glamoclija, J.; Nicolic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence,

  18. The Investigation of Culture Conditions of Agaricus campester (L.)Fr. on Synthetic Compost With Wheat Straw

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Celaleddin; KAŞIK, Gıyasettin

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the culture conditions of Agaricus campester on synthetic compost with wheat straw were investigated. The culture-medium was prepared with fermentation and cemical disinfection methods. After the yield period of 5 weeks, 228.6 kilos of mushroom were obtained from the prepared compost using 1 ton of wheat straw.

  19. Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts increase the mitochondrial membrane potential and cause apoptotic death of THP-1 monocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The differentiation resp. death of human monocytic THP-1 cells induced by polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Phellinus linteus, Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis have been studied. This study aims to identify leads for the causal effects of these mushroom compon

  20. Detection and Evaluation on Levels of Heavy Metals in Brazilian Mushroom (Agaricus blazei) in Funan, Anhui Province%安徽阜南巴西菇重金属含量的检测和评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何炎炘; 李能树; 王彩云; 彭玲芳

    2015-01-01

    为摸清安徽阜南县生产巴西菇(Agaricus blazei)的食用安全性,对其菌盖和菌柄样品中汞、砷、镉、铬的含量进行了检测.发现菌盖重金属含量分别为汞0.019 mg·kg-1、砷0.414 mg· kg-1、镉0.022 mg·kg-1、铬1.246mg· kg-1;菌柄重金属含量分别为汞0.043 mg·kg-1、砷0.402 mg·kg-1、镉0.226 mg· kg-1、铬1.501 mg·kg-1.与国家标准比对结果表明:菌盖和菌柄内汞、砷、镉含量没有超标,而菌柄中铬的单因素污染指数为1.001.通过单因子污染指数法对巴西菇的重金属污染状况进行评价,确认样品菌盖、菌柄中汞、砷、镉的污染等级属非污染,菌柄中铬污染为轻微污染.

  1. Antigenotoxic Properties of Agaricus blazei against Hydrogen Peroxide in Human Peripheral Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozan, Sunčica; Topalović, Dijana; Ciptasari, Ummi; Bajić, Vladan

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Agaricus blazei mushroom in its dried and powdered mycelial form was evaluated for its antigenotoxic properties for the first time. Antigenotoxic effects in human peripheral blood cells against H2O2-induced DNA damage were examined in pretreatment and posttreatment protocol by comet assay. The results showed better antigenotoxic properties of Agaricus blazei on the interventional level, respectively, after treatment. Agaricus blazei in concentration of 250 μg/mL after treatment was most efficient in regard to its action against DNA damage. The evaluation of repair kinetics showed decrease in H2O2 induced DNA damage 15 min after the application of A. blazei, reaching the maximum potency after 30 min. Analysis of antioxidant properties of Agaricus blazei revealed strong •OH scavenging properties and moderate reducing power, while its DPPH scavenging ability was weak. In regard to our findings, we can conclude that our preliminary results demonstrated antigenotoxic properties of Agaricus blazei and its strong •OH scavenging ability. Mechanisms underlying its properties should be further evaluated in in vivo studies.

  2. Prediction of potential mushroom yield by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy using fresh phase II compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H S S; Kilpatrick, M; Lyons, G

    2005-08-01

    Potential mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) yield of phase II compost is determined by interactions of key quality parameters including dry matter, nitrogen dry matter, ammonia, pH, conductivity, thermophilic microorganisms, C : N ratio, fiber fractions, ash, and certain minerals. This study was aimed at generating robust visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) calibrations for predicting potential yield, using spectra from fresh phase II compost. Four compost comparative trials were carried out during the winter and summer months of 2001-2003, under controlled experimental conditions employing six commercially prepared composts, with eight replicate (8 bag) plots per treatment (48 x 8 = 384). The substrates were prepared by windrow or bunker phase I, followed by phase II production. The fresh samples were scanned for Vis-NIR (400-2498 nm) spectra, averaged, transformed, and regressed against the recorded yield by employing a modified partial least squares algorithm. The best calibration model generated from the database explained 84% of yield variation within the data set with a standard error of calibration of 13.75 kg/tonne of fresh compost. The model was successfully tested for robustness with yield results obtained from a validation trial, carried out under similar experimental conditions in early 2004, and the standard error of prediction was 18.21 kg/tonne, which was slightly higher than the mean experimental error (17.94 kg/tonne) of the trial. The accuracy of the model is acceptable for estimating potential yield by classifying phase II substrate as poor (180-220 kg), medium (220-260 kg), and high (260-300 kg) yielding compost. The yield prediction model is being transferred to a new instrument based at Loughgall for routine evaluation of commercial phase II samples.

  3. Macro and trace mineral constituents and radionuclides in mushrooms: health benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Borovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews and updates data on macro and trace elements and radionuclides in edible wild-grown and cultivated mushrooms. A huge biodiversity of mushrooms and spread of certain species over different continents makes the study on their multi-element constituents highly challenging. A few edible mushrooms are widely cultivated and efforts are on to employ them (largely Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Lentinula edodes) in the production of selenium-enriched food (mushrooms) or nutraceuticals (by using mycelia) and less on species used by traditional medicine, e.g., Ganoderma lucidum. There are also attempts to enrich mushrooms with other elements than Se and a good example is enrichment with lithium. Since minerals of nutritional value are common constituents of mushrooms collected from natural habitats, the problem is however their co-occurrence with some hazardous elements including Cd, Pb, Hg, Ag, As, and radionuclides. Discussed is also the problem of erroneous data on mineral compounds determined in mushrooms.

  4. Enzyme-assisted extraction enhancing the umami taste amino acids recovery from several cultivated mushrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poojary, Mahesha Manjunatha; Orlien, Vibeke; Passamonti, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, enzyme-assisted extraction was performed to extract umami taste and total free amino acids (FAAs) from the six different mushrooms including shiitake (Lentinus edodes), oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus), tea tree (Agrocybe aegerita) and, white, brown and portobello champignons (Agaricus...

  5. 三唇线虫(Trilabiatus spp.)对食用菌菌丝的危害性研究%Preliminary study on the harmfulness of nematode ( Trilabiatus spp.) in edible mushroom mycelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奇志; 罗子华; 边勇; 梁林琳; 杨道伟; 汤勇

    2011-01-01

    In order to ascertain the harmfulness of nematode ( Trilabiatus spp. ) in mushroon production, the effect of nematode on mushroom mycelium growth was carried out in this study. The investigation was given on nematode genera and their quantity in mushroom growing beds and substances ( straw and cow dung substrate) from serious mushroom mycelium damaged areas in Qinzhou region of Tianshui City, Gansu Province ( in mid and late August,2006) and in Cangnan County of Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province ( in beginning of August, 2009 and February,2010). The methods of purification of Trilabiatus spp. and their inoculation on slant medium of wood ear mushroom (Auricularia auricular) and button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) were used for the study. The number of Trilabiatus spp. was quite large in the substrate on which the mycelium was damaged seriously. The nematode could propagate in a large number on the two kinds of mushroom mycelium. After inoculated for 2 or 3 weeks, the nematode quantity increased 365 and 208 times, respectively on the mycelium of wood ear mushroom and button mushroom. The symbacteria on the surface of nematode could only accelerate the nematode affecting mycelium growth, but would not damage themselves. The nematodes, Trilabiatus spp. can affect hypha's normal growth, resulting in mycelium of wood ear mushroom and button mushroom becoming dark yellow, black brown and further premature withered.%研究了三唇属线虫(Trilabiatus spp.)对蘑菇菌丝生长的影响,以确定其对蘑菇生产的危害性.分别在甘肃省天水市秦州区(2006年8月中下旬)和浙江省温州市苍南县(2009年8月初和2010年2月)调查有退菌现象的蘑菇菇床及基质(草粪培养料)、鉴定线虫类群、统计线虫数量、纯化三唇线虫并接种于黑木耳及双孢蘑菇斜面培养基.退菌现象严重的木耳和双孢蘑菇基质中三唇属线虫数量多;三唇线虫可在供试的两种食用菌菌丝上大量繁殖,接种2或3周

  6. Simmered Mushrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Ingredients: 150 grams dried mushrooms, 75 grams oil, 25 grams sugar, cooking wine, soy sauce, scallions and minced ginger for taste. Method: 1. Clean and soak the mushrooms until they become soft. Put them in a bowl With some Water, sugar, minced Scallions and ginger and steam for about

  7. Medicinal mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargano, Maria Letizia; Griensven, van Leo J.L.D.; Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S.; Lindequist, Ulrike; Venturella, Giuseppe; Wasser, Solomon P.; Zervakis, Georgios I.

    2017-01-01

    Higher Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes mushrooms possess various immunological and anticancer properties. They also offer important health benefits and exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, cytotoxic, immunomodulating,

  8. Heavy metals bioaccumulation by edible saprophytic mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan ŠIRIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb i Cd in certain edible species of saprophytic fungi and the substrate on three area of sampling, and to assess the role of individual species as biological indicators of environmental pollution. In this study were used three species of wild edible mushrooms (Agaricus macroarpus Bohus, Clitocybe inversa (Scop. ex Fr. Pat. and Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr. Sing.,. Completely developed and mature fruiting bodies were collected at random selection in localities of Trakošćan, Jaska and Petrova gora. At the same time, the substrate soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-10. Determination of heavy metals in mushrooms and the substrate soil were carried out by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. The data obtained were analysed by means of the statistical program SAS V9.2. Significant differences were found in the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd between analysed species of mushrooms and localities of sampling (P 1. The consumption of investigated mushrooms poses no toxicological risk to human health due to low concentrations analysed metals.

  9. Hallucinogenic mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R H; Smith, D E

    1988-02-01

    Ingestion of mushrooms containing psilocybin produces hallucinogenic effects and has become a popular form of substance abuse among some adolescents and young adults. We have reviewed the medical literature on psilocybin mushrooms and describe current patterns of use, provide background material on the botony and pharmacology of these crude drugs, and report results of a small study on usage patterns among identified adolescent drug abusers. Among 174 adolescents already identified as substance abusers, 45 (26%) reported having used hallucinogenic mushrooms, frequently in conjunction with alcohol or other drugs. An average intake of 2-4 mushrooms was obtained for about +8, and led to intoxication for 5-6 hours. Mixing of intoxicants such as alcohol, marijuana, and psilocybin mushrooms was the rule. The acute adverse reactions may have been the result of drug synergy. Pediatricians should become aware of the specific patterns of the use of hallucinogenic drugs by adolescents and consider the possibility of such use when evaluating a delirious or psychotic adolescent.

  10. The selenium content of edible mushrooms in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepponen, S; Liukkonen-Lilja, H; Kuusi, T

    1983-01-01

    In this investigation the selenium contents of 142 mushroom samples were determined. The majority of the samples were wild Finnish mushroom species generally used for human consumption. The selenium contents of some cultivated mushrooms were also determined. In all, the material analyzed consisted of 38 different mushroom species. Selenium concentrations were assayed after modified wet and dry ashing, by atomic-absorption spectrometry using the hydride technique and the standard-addition procedure. The reliability of the method was tested with certified standard reference materials. The results of analysis obtained indicate that selenium contents vary considerably between different mushroom species. Of the species investigated, by far the highest selenium contents were found in Boletus edulis (mean 17 mg/kg dry weight). Other mushrooms having considerable selenium contents included Macrolepiota (5.0 mg/kg), wild Agaricus spp. (2.7 mg/kg), Gasteromycetes (1.9 mg/kg), Lactarius torminosus (1.9 mg/kg) and Marasmius oreades (1.6 mg/kg). The contents in these mushrooms are sufficient to provide an amount of selenium that is nutritionally significant in relation to the total daily intake of selenium of the Finnish population. Other edible mushrooms generally used in Finnland, e.g. species belonging to Cantharellaceae, Russula, Boletaceae (other than B. edulis) and Lactarius (other than L. torminosus) contained only small amounts of selenium. The importance of these mushrooms as a source of selenium is therefore marginal. The selenium content of Lactarius torminosus decreased by an average of 32% during the blanching necessary before consumption of these mushrooms.

  11. Antimutagenic effect of aqueous extract from Agaricus brasiliensis on culture of human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Paula H; Nascimento, José S; Rocha, Beatriz H G; Piana, Clause F B; Santos, Raquel A; Takahashi, Catarina S

    2013-02-01

    The mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis (sun mushroom), native from the southeast of Brazil, is well known by its medicinal properties that include effects on diabetes, cholesterol levels, and osteoporosis. The antimutagenic effects of A. brasiliensis has been investigated recently and revealed some controversial results depending on the temperature by which the A. brasiliensis tea is obtained. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the A. brasiliensis extract prepared in two different temperatures, 4°C and 25°C, on the doxorubicin-induced DNA strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in human lymphocytes. The results demonstrated that A. brasiliensis was able to reduce the DXR-induced DNA damage in both temperatures; however, the CA test was more sensitive to demonstrate a better reduction when the cells were treated with an extract obtained at 25°C. A. brasiliensis extract obtained in different temperatures exhibited antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects in human lymphocytes.

  12. Carnivorous mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, R G; Barron, G L

    1984-04-06

    Ten species of gilled fungi, including the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), have been shown to attack and consume nematodes. It is suggested that these wood-decay fungi utilize the nutrients in their prey to supplement the low levels of nitrogen available in wood. This mode of nutrition is similar in principle to that of carnivorous higher plants.

  13. Genetische basis voor metaboliet-variatie in de champignon Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Ca. 60 accessies van champignonlijnen uit de collectie van Plant Breeding Wageningen UR zijn geteeld en de vruchtlichamen genalayseerd op vetzuur derivaten en nucleotiden (o.a. mono sodium glutamaat (MSG)/umami smaak). Bij deze analyse is een “common control sample” meegenomen dat elders is

  14. Structural Characterization of a Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from the Fruiting Bodies of Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhe He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An edible fungal polysaccharide termed as ABP was obtained by extraction with hot water, and followed successive chromatographic purification using DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column and Sephacryl S-300 High-Resolution column. A symmetrical peak was obtained on high-performance size-exclusion chromatography with an average molecular weight of 5.17 × 104 Da, which was named ABP, and its main components were D-glucose and D-mannose. Based on the study of methylation analysis, along with FT-IR, GC, GC-MS, 1D 1H and 13C NMR and 2D NMR (H-HCOSY, TOCSY, HMQC, and NOESY, its chemical structure was featured with a repeating unit (1→6 linking β-D-Glcp as the main backbone with (1→4-linked α-D-Manp units. The structure of the mainly repeating units of ABP was established as: [PLEASE CHECK FORMULA IN THE PDF

  15. The Edible Mushroom Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Anna Del; Læssøe, Thomas

    A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats.......A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats....

  16. Extratos de Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei sobre Bipolaris sorokiniana e Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici, in vitro Extracts of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei on Bipolaris sorokiniana and Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici., in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Grade Fiori-Tutida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de buscar medidas alternativas para o controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana e Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici testou-se o efeito fungitóxico in vitro dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei sobre esses fungos. Os extratos brutos aquosos de ambos os cogumelos não tiveram efeito significativo tanto no crescimento micelial quanto na germinação de esporos de B. sorokiniana. Por outro lado, os extratos dos cogumelos inibiram a germinação de esporos de P. recondita f. sp. tritici, com destaque para o isolado LE 96/17 de L. edodes que apresentou inibição da ordem de 52,4%.With the purpose of finding alternative ways to control Bipolaris sorokiniana and Puccinia recondita f. sp. triciti, the fungitoxic effect in vitro of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei mushrooms was tested on these fungi. The aqueous crude extract of both mushrooms did not have significant effect on mycelial growth and spore germination of B. sorokiniana . On the other hand, the mushroom extracts inhibited the germination of P. recondita f. sp. tritici uredospores, particularly on the L. edodes (96/17, which exhibited the largest inhibition of spore germination (52,38%.

  17. Optimization of vacuum frooze-drving process and equipment of A.bisporus%双孢蘑菇切片真空冷冻干燥工艺及设备优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 杜传来

    2011-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is a common edible fungus due to its delicate texture,but it is easy to deteriorate and the fresh body is difficult to storage.The best freeze-drying process of fungi slice was determined by experiment and regression.The flow field and temperature filed in the chilling chamber were analyzed applying the numerical simulation method based on former freeze - drying process. The positive effect on improving the air - flow organization of the chilling chamber was achieved.The theoretical basis on the conclusion for controlling freeze-drying process parameters of edible fungus and transforming the vacuum freeze-drying machine was provided.%双孢蘑菇(Agaricus bisporus)是常见的食用真菌,其质地细嫩但易变质,且鲜菇不耐贮藏.通过实验研究及回归分析,确定了双孢蘑菇切片最佳冷冻干燥工艺;在此基础上采用数值模拟的方法进行了冷阱室内温度场的分析,通过优化设计,改善了冷阱室内的气流组织.结论可为食用真菌的真空冷冻加工工艺参数控制及冻干机改造提供一定理论依据.

  18. Mushrooms and Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FLORA CHANG

    1996-01-01

    NUMEROUS varieties of edible mushrooms are highly beneficial to health. Mushrooms enhance the mental and physical development of children and are highly beneficial to recovering cancer patients. People have developed an affinity for the taste of mushrooms and have in turn developed numerous recipes for cooking same. Pine mushrooms are commonly found in northeast China. with locals, especially women and children, heading to forests to collect same following periods of rain.

  19. AGARICUS BITORQUIS (QUEL.) SACCARDO’ İN MİSEL GELİŞİMİ VE YETİŞTİRİLMESİNE PROPOLİSİN ETKİLERİ

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLER, Perihan; Çelemli, Ömür Gençay; SORKUN, KADRİYE

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effects of bee product propolis onto the Agaricus bitorquis (Quel.) Saccardo which is known as summer mushroom that is resistant to high temperature were studied. Propolis, honey bees and the trees by the bark, buds and buds of plants collected, is a very strong sticky substance that has anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal effect. It has very rich aliphatic acid, amino acid, and aromatic acid, esters of aromatic acids, aromatic aldehyde, flavones, ketone and terpenoids ...

  20. Effect of cultivation practices on the β-glucan content of Agaricus subrufescens basidiocarps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Pardo Giménez, Arturo; Pardo González, Jose Emilio; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Carvalho, Maiara Andrade; Minhoni, Marli Teixeira de Almeida

    2014-01-08

    The present work aimed to assess the effect of the following treatments on the medicinal potential (β-glucan content) and agronomical performance (yield) of Agaricus subrufescens: five different fungal strains, three cultivation substrates (compost), four casing layers, and four cultivation environments. Two experiments were performed, and the results indicate that the greatest contribution to the variation in β-glucan content was the strain (35.8%), followed by the casing layer (34.5%), the cultivation environment (15.7%), and the type of compost (9.9%). On the other hand the variation in yield was affected most by the cultivation environment (82.1%), followed by the strain (81.3%), casing layer (49.1%), and compost type (15.2%). These findings underscore the importance of developing a production protocol that employs specific cultivation practices for improving mushroom yield as well as β-glucan content.

  1. Polysaccharide-rich fraction of Agaricus brasiliensis enhances the candidacidal activity of murine macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Raquel Martins

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A polysaccharide-rich fraction (ATF of medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis was evaluated on the candidacidal activity, H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO production, and expression of mannose receptors by murine peritoneal macrophages. Mice received three intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of ATF and after 48 h their peritoneal resident macrophages were assayed against Candida albicans yeast forms. The treatment increased fungicidal activity and it was associated with higher levels of H2O2, whereas NO production was not affected. We also found that the treatment enhances mannose receptor expression by peritoneal macrophages, which are involved in the attachment and phagocytosis of non-opsonized microorganisms. Treatment of animals with ATF was able to enhance the clearance of C. albicans during the first 6 h after the experimental i.p. infection. Our results suggest that this extract can increase host resistance against some infectious agents through the stimulation of microbicidal activity of macrophages.

  2. Hepatoprotective effects of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Andréia Assunço; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Bracht, Adelar; da Costa, Sandra Maria Gomes; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane Marina

    2013-07-01

    The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts.

  3. Microbial diversity in a bagasse-based compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Azevedo, Raquel Santos; Braga, Claudia; da Silva, Romildo; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Edible mushrooms are renowned for their nutritional and medicinal properties and are thus of considerable commercial importance. Mushroom production depends on the chemical composition of the basic substrates and additional supplements employed in the compost as well as on the method of composting. In order to minimise the cost of mushroom production, considerable interest has been shown in the use of agro-industrial residues in the preparation of alternative compost mixtures. However, the interaction of the natural microbiota present in agricultural residues during the composting process greatly influences the subsequent colonisation by the mushroom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify the microbiota present in a sugar cane bagasse and coast-cross straw compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasilienses. Composting lasted for 14 days, during which time the substrates and additives were mixed every 2 days, and this was followed by a two-step steam pasteurisation (55 - 65°C; 15 h each step). Bacteria, (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae) were the predominant micro-organisms present throughout the composting process with an average population density of 3 x 10(8) CFU/g. Actinomycetes, and especially members of the genus Streptomyces, were well represented with a population density of 2 - 3 x 10(8) CFU/g. The filamentous fungi, however, exhibited much lower population densities and were less diverse than the other micro-organisms, although Aspergillus fumigatus was present during the whole composting process and after pasteurisation.

  4. Cadmium in edible mushrooms from NW Spain: Bioconcentration factors and consumer health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, M Julia; Alonso, Julián; García, M Angeles

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms do not constitute a significant portion of the human diet, but the consumption of wild and cultivated mushrooms has become increasingly in recent years. Some species accumulate high levels of toxic metals, both in unpolluted and polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of cadmium in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Cadmium concentrations were determined by an ICP-MS spectrometer in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild and cultivated growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean cadmium concentration (mg/kg dry weight) was found in Agaricus macrosporus (52.9 in H and 28.3 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated cadmium in relation to the underlying soils. There were statistically significant differences between the hymenophore and the rest of the fruiting body (p mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as cadmium content is concerned, although the species A. macrosporus should not be consumed.

  5. Medicinal Mushroom Growth as Affected by Non-Axenic Casing Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. C. ZIED; M. T. A. MINHONI; J. KOPYTOWSKI-FILHO; L. BARBOSA; M. C. N. ANDRADE

    2011-01-01

    Ten different casing soils were collected from two soils at two depths (0.2 and 2.0 m below soil surface) to examine the relationships between the physical properties of non-axenic casing soil and yield, number and weight of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei ss. Heinemann. The results showed that soil clay content and bulk density were negatively correlated with the mushroom yield,respectively, but soil silt content and water-holding capacity were found to be positively correlated with the yield. The number of mushrooms was negatively correlated with soil water-holding capacity but positively correlated with soil clay, bulk density and porosity.The weight of mushroom was positively correlated with the content of soil fine sand and negatively correlated with the contents of soil coarse sand, total sand and clay. Neither soil depth nor different soil combinations affected the yield and number of mushrooms, but the mushroom weight was affected by the soil combinations and soil depth, so interplay in the fructification process with the physical characteristics of casing is complicated.

  6. Artificial and natural radioactivity in edible mushrooms from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, L P; Maihara, V A; Silva, P S C; Figueira, R C L

    2012-11-01

    Environmental biomonitoring has demonstrated that organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful to evaluate and monitor both ecosystem contamination and quality. Particularly, some mushroom species have a high capacity to retain radionuclides and some toxic elements from the soil and the air. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate radionuclides in their fruit-bodies has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide composition in edible mushrooms, in Brazil. Artificial ((137)Cs) and natural radioactivity ((40)K, (22)(6)Ra, (2)(28)Ra) were determined in 17 mushroom samples from 3 commercialized edible mushroom species. The edible mushrooms collected were Agaricus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula sp. species. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The levels of (137)Cs varied from 1.45 ± 0.04 to 10.6 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), (40)K levels varied from 461 ± 2 to 1535 ± 10 Bq kg(-1), (2)(26)Ra levels varied from 14 ± 3 to 66 ± 12 Bq kg(-1) and (228)Ra levels varied from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 54.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs levels in Brazilian mushrooms are in accordance with the radioactive fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The artificial and natural activities determined in this study were found to be below the maximum permissible levels as established by national legislation. Thus, these mushroom species can be normally consumed by the population without any apparent risks to human health.

  7. ANTIOXIDANT MUSHROOMS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Preeti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms have been extensively studied and many antioxidant compounds such as phenolic compounds, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids identified. The various antioxidant mechanisms of the mushroom species extracts may be attributed to strong hydrogen-donating ability, metal-chelating ability, and their effectiveness as good scavengers of superoxide and free radicals. This indicates the potential of mushrooms as panacea for many diseases and also reveals a novel potential to fight against tumors in man.

  8. Heavy metal bioaccumulation by wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Širić, Ivan; Humar, Miha; Kasap, Ante; Kos, Ivica; Mioč, Boro; Pohleven, Franc

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals cause serious problems in the environment, and they can be accumulated in organisms, especially in the higher fungi. The concentration of Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Hg in 10 species of edible mushrooms in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia was therefore determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis based on concentrations of the aforementioned metals in the fruiting bodies. The contents of nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, and mercury in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms were obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The highest concentrations of Ni (3.62 mg kg(-1)), Cr (3.01 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (2.67 mg kg(-1)) were determined in Agaricus campestris. The highest concentration of Pb (1.67 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Macrolepiota procera, and the highest concentration of Hg (2.39 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Boletus edulis. The concentration of all heavy metals significantly differed (p mushrooms. Considering anatomical part of the fruiting body (cap-stipe), a considerably higher concentration of the analyzed elements was found in the cap for all mushroom species. According to calculated bioconcentration factors, all the examined species were found to be bioexclusors of Ni, Cr, and Pb and bioaccumulators of Cd and Hg. Cluster analysis performed on the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals revealed great phenotypic similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation.

  9. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-15

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000-2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. & Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption.

  10. Microsatellites in the Genome of the Edible Mushroom, Volvariella volvacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using bioinformatics software and database, we have characterized the microsatellite pattern in the V. volvacea genome and compared it with microsatellite patterns found in the genomes of four other edible fungi: Coprinopsis cinerea, Schizophyllum commune, Agaricus bisporus, and Pleurotus ostreatus. A total of 1346 microsatellites have been identified, with mono-nucleotides being the most frequent motif. The relative abundance of microsatellites was lower in coding regions with 21 No./Mb. However, the microsatellites in the V. volvacea gene models showed a greater tendency to be located in the CDS regions. There was also a higher preponderance of trinucleotide repeats, especially in the kinase genes, which implied a possible role in phenotypic variation. Among the five fungal genomes, microsatellite abundance appeared to be unrelated to genome size. Furthermore, the short motifs (mono- to tri-nucleotides outnumbered other categories although these differed in proportion. Data analysis indicated a possible relationship between the most frequent microsatellite types and the genetic distance between the five fungal genomes.

  11. The cultural significance of wild mushrooms in San Mateo Huexoyucan, Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Aguilar, Luis Enrique; Montoya, Adriana; Kong, Alejandro; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto

    2014-03-05

    We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index (CSI). Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. Among the 49 mushroom species collected in the oak forest and open areas, 20 species were mentioned most often and were analyzed in more detail. Ordination and grouping techniques were used to determine the relationship between the cultural significance of the mushroom species, according to a perceived abundance index, frequency of use index, taste score appreciation index, multifunctional food index, knowledge transmission index, and health index. The mushrooms with highest CSI values were Agaricus campestris, Ramaria spp., Amanita aff. basii, Russula spp., Ustilago maydis, and Boletus variipes. These species were characterized by their good taste and were considered very nutritional. The species with the lowest cultural significance included Russula mexicana, Lycoperdon perlatum, and Strobylomyces strobilaceus. The ordination and grouping analyses identified four groups of mushrooms by their significance to the people of Huexoyucan. The most important variables that explained the grouping were the taste score appreciation index, health index, the knowledge transmission index, and the frequency of use index. A. aff. basii and A. campestris were the most significant wild mushrooms to the people of San Mateo. The diversity of the Russula species and the variety of Amanita and Ramaria species used by these people was outstanding. Environments outside the forest also produced useful resources. The CSI used in Oaxaca was useful for determining the cultural significance of mushrooms in SMH, Tlaxcala. This list of mushrooms can be used in conservation proposals for the Quercus

  12. Hepatoprotective Effects of Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts.

  13. Metal concentrations of wild edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Solak, Mehmet Halil; Cetinkaya, Serap

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the contents of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Al, Ca, Mg, and K in Agaricus campestris, Agrocybe cylindracea, Collybia dryophila, Helvella leucopus, Russula delica, Tricholoma auratum, Amanita ovoidea, Melanoleuca excissa, Rhizopogon roseolus, Russula chloroides, Volvoriella gloiocephala, Lyophyllum decastes, Morcella angusticeps, Morchella esculenta and Morcella eximia collected from Isparta, Mugla, and Osmaniye provinces (Turkey) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion. The intake of heavy metals (Pb, Cd) and other metals (Fe, Cu, Zn) by consumption of 30 g dry weight of mushrooms daily poses no risk at all except in A. cylindracea and H. leucopus (for Cd) for the consumer.

  14. Phylogeny and intraspecific variation of the extreme xerophile, Xeromyces bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettersson, Olga Vinnere; Leong, Su-lin L; Lantz, Henrik; Rice, Therese; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A; Schnürer, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous ascomycete Xeromyces bisporus is an extreme xerophile able to grow down to a water activity of 0.62. We have inferred the phylogenetic position of Xeromyces in relation to other xerophilic and xerotolerant fungi in the order Eurotiales. Using nrDNA and betatubulin sequences, we show

  15. Canning Tests on Mushroom Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan); MacCanna, C.

    1980-01-01

    Canning tests were carried out on 5 mushroom strains from 2 flushes of 4 separate crops. Particular attention was given to the ratio of whole closed canned mushrooms to that of whole closed canned mushrooms plus canned stems and pieces - i.e. total yield. Factors considered in the tests included grading prior to processing, blanching and retort losses, shrinkage in size and mushroom whiteness. Cream and off-white strains had the highest level of open and misshapen mushrooms prior to processin...

  16. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Soković

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria, including the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is considered as a novel and promising target for anti-infectious agents. In this study, the effect of the sub-MICs of Agaricus blazei water extract on QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation was evaluated against P. aeruginosa PAO1. Sub-MIC concentrations of the extract which did not kill P. aeruginosa nor inhibited its growth, demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa, such as pyocyanin production, twitching and swimming motility. The biofilm forming capability of P. aeruginosa was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at sub-MIC values. Water extract of A. blazei is a promising source of antiquorum sensing and antibacterial compounds.

  17. Bioconcentration of chromium in edible mushrooms: influence of environmental and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M A; Alonso, J; Melgar, M J

    2013-08-01

    Chromium concentrations were determined in 167 samples of wild edible mushrooms, collected from three different sites (urban, traffic and pastureland areas) in Lugo (NW Spain). The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The highest mean chromium levels (mg/kg dry weight) of 3.5 and 8.0, 4.5 and 6.2, and 6.2 and 4.3 were found in Lycoperdon utriforme, Coprinus comatus and Agaricus campestris in H and RFB, respectively. The highest concentrations of chromium were observed in terrestrial saprophytic species in relation to mycorrhizal species. With respect to the underlying substrates, chromium concentration was lowest in the pastureland area (24.6 mg/kg dw). All mushroom species were bioexclusors of chromium (BCFmushrooms harvested from the areas investigated poses no toxicological risk to human health due to chromium.

  18. Are mushrooms medicinal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the longstanding use of dried mushrooms and mushroom extracts in traditional Chinese medicine, there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of these preparations in the treatment of human disease. Consumers should evaluate assertions made by companies about the miraculous properties of medicinal mushrooms very critically. The potential harm caused by these natural products is another important consideration. In a more positive vein, the presence of potent toxins and neurotropic compounds in basidiomycete fruit bodies suggests that secondary metabolites with useful pharmacological properties are widespread in these fungi. Major investment in controlled experiments and objective clinical trials is necessary to develop this natural pharmacopeia.

  19. The anti-browning agent sulfite inactivates Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase through covalent modification of the copper-B site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, T.F.M.; Gruppen, H.; Sforza, S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Vincken, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfite salts are widely used as antibrowning agents in food processing. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism by which sulfite prevents enzymatic browning has remained unknown. Here, we show that sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3 ) irreversibly blocks the active site of tyrosinase from the edible mushroo

  20. The mushroom message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M

    1992-04-28

    A basic law of ecology is that living things are tightly dependent on one another, often in ways that are not easy to imagine. Who, for example, would have predicted that when the last dodo was killed in 1675, that death would lead to the slow extermination of the tambalocoque tree, whose fruits germinate only after passing through the dodo's digestive system? Now no natural strands of tambalocoque younger than 300 years can be found. Or who would have predicted that clear-cutting tropical rainforests would so significantly alter local weather patterns that the tropical rainforest biome itself and its vast diversity of life might not survive? Such interactions are worth noting because of the possible ramifications of a phenomenon that ecologists have just begun to document. Mushrooms worldwide appear to be in a catastrophic state of decline. Throughout Europe, in countries with terrains as diverse as Holland, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and England, wild mushrooms are becoming increasingly difficult to find. Those fungi that are found are significantly smaller than those found years ago. Preliminary data suggest that the same troubling situation is occurring throughout North American as well. The decline has been so precipitous that biologists have begun to refer to it as a mass extinction. The 2 obvious explanations for the demise of the mushrooms--habitat destruction and overpicking of edible types by an ever growing human population--have been ruled out. Sophisticated sampling schemes designed by ecologists control for the fact that there is less land available for wild mushrooms; they have been declining at a rate that far exceeds the rate at which land is being developed. The fact that the decline has affected both edible and inedible mushrooms equally indicates that humans hunting for tasty treats are not the main cause of the problem. The loss of wild mushrooms worldwide might not seem like that big a deal, but the consequences may well be grave

  1. Notulae ad Floram agaricinam neerlandicam — XXXVII. Notes on Agaricus section Arvenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Marijke M.

    2001-01-01

    Nomenclatural and taxonomical notes are given on species of Agaricus section Arvenses, together with a key to the accepted species occurring in the Netherlands and adjacent regions. Two new combinations, Agaricus osecanus var. squarrosipes (Bon & Collin) Nauta and Agaricus urinascens var. excellens

  2. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (cesarea, A. campestris, A. edulis, A. macrosporus, and A. silvaticus. A particularly rich source of selenium could be obtained from selenium-enriched mushrooms that are cultivated on a substrate fortified with selenium (as inorganic salt or selenized-yeast). The Se-enriched Champignon Mushroom could contain up to 30 or 110 microg Se/g dw, while the Varnished Polypore (Ganoderma lucidum) could contain up to 72 microg Se/g dw. An increasingly growing database on chemical forms of selenium of mushrooms indicates that the seleno-compounds identified in carpophore include selenocysteine, selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenite, and several unidentified seleno-compounds; their proportions vary widely. Some aspects of environmental selenium occurrence and human body pharmacokinetics and nutritional needs will also be briefly discussed in this review.

  3. Lead and cadmium in mushrooms from the vicinity of two large emission sources in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkovšek, Samar Al Sayegh, E-mail: samar.petkovsek@erico.si; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2013-01-15

    Cd and Pb contents were determined in 699 samples of fruiting bodies of 55 mushrooms species, collected in the period 2000–2007 in the vicinity of the largest Slovenian thermal power plant (the Šalek Valley) and near an abandoned lead smelter (the Upper Meža Valley). The present study is the first regarding lead and cadmium in mushrooms from those exposed areas. Therefore, there was a significant lack of prior data. Among 55 studied mushroom species 36 species are edible and important from an ecotoxicological perspective. However, the remaining non-edible species are important for bioindication and allowed us to compare our results with other studies carried out in other polluted areas in Europe. The highest contents of Cd were found in Agaricus arvensis Schff.: Fr. (117 mg/kg dw) and Agaricus silvicola L.: Fr. (67.9 mg/kg dw), while the highest contents of Pb were found in Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer (53.8 mg/kg dw) and Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. (50 mg/kg dw), respectively. Considering the high contents of both metals in fruiting bodies of edible fungi, together with FAO/WHO directives on tolerable levels of weekly intake of Pb/Cd by humans, it is evident that consumption of some mushroom species originating from both study areas may pose a significant human health risk. A. arvensis Schff.: Fr., A. silvicola L.: Fr. and Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr. originating from the Šalek Valley, and Armillaria mellea Vahl. P. Kumm., Boletus edulis Bull., L. perlatum Pers., Leccinum versipelle (Fr. and Hök) Snell, and M. procera (Scop.) Singer originating from the Upper Meža Valley should not be consumed at all. Our findings are consistent with some other studies, which emphasized that mushrooms from heavily polluted areas, such as in the vicinity of smelters, accumulate extremely high amounts of metals, and should therefore be omitted from human consumption. - Highlights: ► The Pb contents were higher in saprophytic fungi in comparison with mycorrhizal

  4. The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lindequist

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly.

  5. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  6. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-10-27

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  7. Mercury in edible mushrooms and underlying soil: bioconcentration factors and toxicological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, M J; Alonso, J; García, M A

    2009-10-01

    Wild growing mushrooms are a popular delicacy in many countries, but some species accumulate high levels of toxic heavy metals, e.g., mercury, both in unpolluted and mildly polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of mercury in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Total concentrations of mercury were determined by an anodic stripping voltammetric technique using a gold disc as the working electrode in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The mushrooms were collected from different sites in the province of Lugo (NW Spain). The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean mercury concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) were found in Boletus pinophilus (6.9 in H and 4.5 in RFB), Agaricus macrosporus (5.1 in H and 3.7 in RFB), Lepista nuda (5.1 in H and 3.1 in RFB) and Boletus aereus (4.6 in H and 3.3 in RFB), while the lowest was found in Agrocybe cylindrica (0.34 in H and 0.26 in RFB) and Fistulina hepatica (0.30 in H and 0.22 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated mercury (BCF>1) in relation to the underlying soils. There were no statistically significant differences between the mercury levels in the hymenophore and in the rest of the fruiting body. The total mercury concentrations were compared to data in the literature and to levels set by legislation. It was concluded that consumption of the majority of the studied mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as mercury content is concerned, although the species B.pinophilus, A.macrosporus, L.nuda and B.aereus should be consumed in low amounts.

  8. Identification of cadmium-induced Agaricus blazei genes through suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liling; Li, Haibo; Wei, Hailong; Wu, Xueqian; Ke, Leqin

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most serious environmental pollutants. Filamentous fungi are very promising organisms for controlling and reducing the amount of heavy metals released by human and industrial activities. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in Cd accumulation and tolerance of filamentous fungi are not fully understood. Agaricus blazei Murrill, an edible mushroom with medicinal properties, demonstrates high tolerance for heavy metals, especially Cd. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of A. blazei after Cd exposure, we constructed a forward subtractive library that represents cadmium-induced genes in A. blazei under 4 ppm Cd stress for 14 days using suppression subtractive hybridization combined with mirror orientation selection. Differential screening allowed us to identify 39 upregulated genes, 26 of which are involved in metabolism, protein fate, cellular transport, transport facilitation and transport routes, cell rescue, defense and virulence, transcription, and the action of proteins with a binding function, and 13 are encoding hypothetical proteins with unknown functions. Induction of six A. blazei genes after Cd exposure was further confirmed by RT-qPCR. The cDNAs isolated in this study contribute to our understanding of genes involved in the biochemical pathways that participate in the response of filamentous fungi to Cd exposure.

  9. Analysis of several heavy metals in wild edible mushrooms from regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Hua; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Qiu, Guan-Zhou

    2009-08-01

    The metal (Cu, Ni, Cd, Hg, As, Pb) contents in wild edible mushrooms collected from three different sites in China were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. All element concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis. A total of 11 species was studied, five being from the urban area and six from rural areas in China. The As content ranged from 0.44 to 1.48 mg/kg. The highest As content was seen in Macrolepiota crustosa from the urban area, and the lowest in Russula virescens from rural areas. A high Ni concentration (1.35 mg/kg) was found in Calvatia craniiformis from the urban area. The lowest Ni level was 0.11 mg/kg, for the species R. virescens and Cantharellus cibarius. The Cu content ranged from 39.0 to 181.5 mg/kg. The highest Cu content was seen in Agaricus silvaticus and the lowest in C. cibarius. The Pb content ranged from 1.9 to 10.8 mg/kg. The highest Pb value was found in C. craniiformis. The Cd content ranged from 0.4 to 91.8 mg/kg. The highest Cd value was found in M. crustosa. The Hg content ranged from 0.28 to 3.92 mg/kg. The highest Hg level was found in Agaricus species. The levels of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, and Hg in the studied mushroom species from urban area can be considered high. The metal-to-metal correlation analysis supported they were the same source of contamination. High automobile traffic was identified as the most likely source of the contamination. Based upon the present safety standards, consumption of those mushrooms that grow in the polluted urban area should be avoided.

  10. Pasteurization of Brazilian peat for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivationPasteurização de turfa brasileira para o cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Ferreira da Eira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus brasiliensis is a Brazilian basidiomycete which has been cultivated and consumed around the world as a therapeutic food. Casing layer is one of the most important steps on A. brasiliensis cultivation and European peat is the most used casing layer. Besides the importance of it on mushroom cultivation the peat import could be a risk of exotic organism introduction. Alternative as Brazilian peat is barely used for mushroom growers in Brazil. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate Brazilian peat with and without pasteurization as casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum prepared by composted traditional method. After mycelium colonization of the substratum a pasteurized or non pasteurized Brazilian peat (casing layer was added. It was concluded that pasteurization of the casing layer increases in 30% yield after 65 days of cultivation. There is no difference of yield for pasteurized and non pasteurized casing layer until 30 days of cultivation. An increase of flies is observed in non pasteurized casing layer. The production flush is easily perceived with pasteurized casing layer but not with non pasteurized casing layer.Agaricus brasiliensis é um basidiomiceto originário do Brasil, produzido e consumido mundialmente como alimento terapêutico. A camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de A. brasiliensis, sendo a turfa européia a mais utilizada para este fim. Apesar da importância deste material no cultivo de cogumelos, a sua importação implica em riscos de introdução de organismos exóticos. Alternativas como a turfa brasileira são pouco exploradas pelos produtores brasileiros. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a turfa brasileira, com e sem pasteurização, como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente cultivado em grãos de trigo e transferido para o substrato

  11. Essential and toxic element determination in edible mushrooms by neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de elementos essenciais e toxicos em cogumelos comestiveis por analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia Landim da Costa

    2008-07-01

    In this study concentrations of As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined in edible mushrooms acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from Mogi das Cruzes, Suzano, Juquitiba and Mirandopolis producers. The analytical technique used for determining these elements in edible mushrooms was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Species of the Agaricus, Lentinus and Pleurotus genera were acquired during the period from November, 2006 to March, 2007. About 150 to 200 mg of freeze-dried mushrooms were irradiated in a neutron flux of 1012 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for 8 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor at IPEN-CNEN-SP. In order to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methodology, four reference materials: INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves, NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver, and the material Mushroom from IAEA were analyzed. Results showed some variation in the element concentrations among the different genera. In some samples, arsenic was found but in low concentrations. Arsenic is probably derived from the contamination from pesticides used in the cultivation, in their the substrates where mushrooms uptake their nutrients. Although there are element concentration variations, mushrooms can still be considered a very rich nutritional source, mainly because of their low concentrations of Na, and due to the good source of K, Fe and Zn. (author)

  12. Mycochemical Characterization of Agaricus subrufescens considering Their Morphological and Physiological Stage of Maturity on the Traceability Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cunha Zied

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus subrufescens Peck is a basidiomycete with immunomodulatory compounds and antitumor activities. This research evaluated the mycochemical composition of A. subrufescens, considering their morphological and physiological stage of maturity, with a particular focus on the development of a traceability process for the formulation of new nutritional products based on fungal foods. The stipes contained a high amount of dry matter (10.33%, total carbohydrate (69.56%, available carbohydrate (63.89%, and energy value (363.97 kcal 100 g−1 DM. The pilei contained a high amount of moisture (90.66%, nitrogen (7.75%, protein (33.96%, ash (8.24, crude fat (2.44%, acid detergent fiber (16.75 g kg−1, neutral detergent fiber (41.82 g kg−1, hemicellulose (25.07 g kg−1, and lignin (9.77 g kg−1. Stipes with mature physiological stage had higher values of dry matter (10.50%, crude fiber (5.94%, total carbohydrate (72.82%, AC (66.88%, and energy value (364.91 kcal 100 g−1 DM. Pilei of the mushrooms in the immature physiological stage had higher values of P (36.83%, N (8.41%, and A (8.44%. Due to the differences between the mycochemical compositions of the morphological parts of mushrooms linked to their physiological stage of maturity, such characteristics have immense potential to be considered for a traceability process. This study can be used for the purpose of providing the consumer with more product diversity, optimizing bioactivities of composts, and allowing farmers an efficient and profitable use of the mushroom biomass.

  13. Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

    2014-07-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality.

  14. Biological efficiency of Agaricus brasiliensis cultivated in compost with nitrogen concentrations Eficiência biológica de Agaricus brasiliensis em composto com concentrações de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix G de Siqueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of compost is one of the most important steps for the cultivation of any species of mushroom. For the Agaricus species, this step is even more complex because it depends on the performance of different microorganisms that act on the substrate, turning it into selective compost that promotes the growth of the fungus to be cultivated. Among the various factors that affect the microbial activity, the initial concentration of nitrogen is considered one of the most important. Due to the lack of conclusive studies about that, the aim of this study was to evaluate the productivity and biological efficiency of Agaricus brasiliensis in compost prepared with different initial concentrations of nitrogen, according to the composting methodology and to the conventional pasteurization techniques (phase I and II. Three initial nitrogen concentrations (w/w (T1= 1.0%; T2= 1.5%; and T3= 2.0% were tested and mycelial growth was determined in terms of mm/day for all treatments. The productivity and biological efficiency were also determined. The most efficient initial concentrations of nitrogen were of 1.0% and 1.5%. This concentration of N in the compost permitted a faster development of the mushroom with higher productivity when compared to the results obtained with the application of 2% of nitrogen.A produção do composto é uma das etapas mais importantes para o cultivo de qualquer espécie de cogumelo. Para as espécies Agaricus, essa etapa é ainda mais complexa, porque depende da atuação de diferentes microrganismos que atuam sobre o substrato, transformando-o em um composto seletivo que favorece o crescimento do fungo a ser cultivado. Dentre os diversos fatores que afetam essa atividade microbiana, a concentração inicial de nitrogênio é considerada uma das mais importantes. Em função da falta de estudos conclusivos a respeito, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a produtividade e eficiência biológica de Agaricus brasiliensis em

  15. The dynamics of 1.3-β-D-glucan given in the form of Agaricus blazei Murill powder to the body of white mice Sprague Dawley and effect of renal and hepatic histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misgiati Misgiati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of compound 1,3-β-glucan in Agaricus Blazei Murill (ABM powder and the effect of renal and hepatic histopathology performed on 24 male rats aged 2 months, were randomly conducted in three treatments there are control, ABM powder, and the pure compound 1.3-β-glucan for 28 days. Provision of treatment given in the morning and then 1, 3, 8, 12, and 24 hours after administration of treatment blood was collected, while for urine and feces were collected every 8 hours. Giving treatment was continued until day 28. The results showed that the levels of 1,3-β-glucan in pure compounds is higher than the Agaricus Blazei Murill (ABM powder. The effects on the kidneys and liver histopathology showed that cells necrosis more on pure compounds from the mushroom powder gods, both the kidneys and liver. This study shows that the use of pure compounds to be more careful than Agaricus Blazei Murill (ABM powder in determining the doses used.

  16. The effect of royal sun agaricus, agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., Extract on methyl Methanesulfonate caused genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savic, T.; Patenkovic, A.; Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Andjelkovic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus (Agaricus brasiliensis) hot water extract on methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced mutagenicity/genotoxity in Drosophila melanogaster was studied using a quick and broadly applicable in vivo assay, i.e., the wing somatic mutation and recombination

  17. Bistability, mushrooms, and isolas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathisubramanian, N.; Showalter, Kenneth

    1984-05-01

    The iodate oxidation of arsenous acid exhibits single-hysteresis bistability in a continuous flow stirred tank reactor. Other patterns of multiple stationary states including mushrooms and isolas are exhibited by this system when a constant flow of solvent is introduced to the CSTR in addition to the usual flow of reactants. A simple empirical rate law model provides a near quantitative description of the behavior. This model is analyzed and compared to other model systems.

  18. Mushroom and Eggplant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 150 grams eggplant, 50 grams mushroom, 100 grams pork,one egg and some corn starch. scallion, ginger, salt, hot pepper and MSG (optional). Method: 1. Peel the eggplant and cut into large pieces; slice each piece halfway, so that it can be sandwiched with a filling. 2.Mince the pork and add chopped scallion and ginger,hot pepper.salt,and MSG to taste.Fill the eggplant with the meat.

  19. Quantification of Water-Soluble Metabolites in Medicinal Mushrooms Using Proton NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Chang; Chien, Shih-Chang; Mishchuk, Darya O; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2016-01-01

    The water-soluble metabolites in 5 mushrooms were identified and quantified using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and software for targeted metabolite detection and quantification. In total, 35 compounds were found in Agaricus brasiliensis, 25 in Taiwanofungus camphoratus, 23 in Ganoderma lucidum (Taiwan) and Lentinus edodes, and 16 in G. lucidum (China). Total amounts of all identified metabolites in A. brasiliensis, T. camphoratus, G. lucidum, G. lucidum (China), and L. edodes were 149,950.51, 12,834.18, 9,549.09, 2,788.41, and 111,726.51 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. These metabolites were categorized into 4 groups: free amino acids and derivatives, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and nucleosides. Carbohydrates were the most abundant metabolites among all 4 groups, with mannitol having the highest concentration among all analyzed metabolites (848-94,104 mg/kg dry weight). Principal components analysis (PCA) showed obvious distinction among the metabolites of the 5 different kinds of mushrooms analyzed in this study. Thus PCA could provide an optional analytical way of identifying and recognizing the compositions of flavor products. Furthermore, the results of this study demonstrate that NMRbased metabolomics is a powerful tool for differentiating between various medicinal mushrooms.

  20. Protein quality of four types of edible mushrooms found in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Takruri, Hamed R

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the protein quality of four types of edible mushrooms, Terfezia claveryi, Pleurotus ostreatus, Tricholoma terreum and Agaricus macrosporus that are common in Jordan. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein utilization methods (NPU) were used. The four mushroom types failed to support growth as reflected by negative values for PER; -1.76 for T. claveryi; -0.23 for P. ostreatus; -0.98 for T. terreum and -0.41 for A. macrosporus. The NPU(op), NPU(st) and NdpE% for T. claveryi were 32.6, 33.9 and 3.89%, respectively. The respective values for P. ostreatus were 38.5, 40.7 and 4.35%; T. terreum 29.1, 29.8 and 3.63%; and A. macrosporus 31.5, 32.9 and 3.91%. The results showed that the four mushrooms were significantly (p < or = 0.05) lower in protein quality compared with