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Sample records for mushroom stony corals

  1. Evaluation of Stony Coral Indicators for Coral Reef Management.

    Colonies of reef-building stony corals at 57 stations around St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands were characterized by species, size and percentage of living tissue. Taxonomic, biological and physical indicators of coral condition were derived from these measurements and assessed for ...

  2. Evaluation of Stony Coral Indicators for Coral Reef ...

    Colonies of reef-building stony corals at 57 stations around St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands were characterized by species, size and percentage of living tissue. Taxonomic, biological and physical indicators of coral condition were derived from these measurements and assessed for their response to gradients of human disturbance. The purpose of the study was to identify indicators that could be used for regulatory assessments under authority of the Clean Water Act--this requires that indicators distinguish anthropogenic disturbances from natural variation. Stony coral indicators were tested for correlation with human disturbance across gradients located on three different sides of the island. At the most intensely disturbed location, five of eight primary indicators were highly correlated with distance from the source of disturbance: Coral taxa richness, average colony size, the coefficient of variation of colony size (an indicator of colony size heterogeneity), total topographic coral surface area, and live coral surface area. An additional set of exploratory indicators related to rarity, reproductive and spawning mode, and taxonomic identity were also screened for association with disturbance at the same location. For the other two locations, there were no significant changes in indicator values and therefore no discernible effects of human activity. Coral indicators demonstrated sufficient precision to detect levels of change that would be applicable in a regio

  3. Problem solving environment for modelling stony coral morphogenesis

    Merks, R.M.H.; Hoekstra, A.G.; Kaandorp, J.A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Apart from experimental and theoretical approaches, computer simulation is an important tool in testing hypotheses about stony coral growth. However, the construction and use of such simulation tools needs extensive computational skills and knowledge that is not available to most research

  4. Deep-Sea Stony Coral Habitat Suitability

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  5. Comparative embryology of eleven species of stony corals (Scleractinia.

    Nami Okubo

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of coral reproduction and development is needed because corals are threatened in many ways by human activity. Major threats include the loss of their photosynthetic symbionts (Symbiodinium caused by rising temperatures (bleaching, reduced ability to calcify caused by ocean acidification, increased storm severity associated with global climate change and an increase in predators caused by runoff from human agricultural activity. In spite of these threats, detailed descriptions of embryonic development are not available for many coral species. The current consensus is that there are two major groups of stony corals, the "complex" and the "robust". In this paper we describe the embryonic development of four "complex" species, Pseudosiderastrea tayamai, Galaxea fascicularis, Montipora hispida, and Pavona Decussata, and seven "robust" species, Oulastrea crispata, Platygyra contorta, Favites abdita, Echinophyllia aspera, Goniastrea favulus, Dipsastraea speciosa (previously Favia speciosa, and Phymastrea valenciennesi (previously Montastrea valenciennesi. Data from both histologically sectioned embryos and whole mounts are presented. One apparent difference between these two major groups is that before gastrulation the cells of the complex corals thus far described (mainly Acropora species spread and flatten to produce the so-called prawn chip, which lacks a blastocoel. Our present broad survey of robust and complex corals reveals that prawn chip formation is not a synapomorphy of complex corals, as Pavona Decussata does not form a prawn chip and has a well-developed blastocoel. Although prawn chip formation cannot be used to separate the two clades, none of the robust corals which we surveyed has such a stage. Many robust coral embryos pass through two periods of invagination, separated by a return to a spherical shape. However, only the second of these periods is associated with endoderm formation. We have therefore

  6. SYMBIODINIUM ISOLATES FROM STONY CORAL: ISOLATION, GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECTS OF UV IRRADIATION

    Symbiodinium spp. Isolates from Stony Coral: Isolation, Growth Characteristics and Effects of UV Irradiation (Abstract). J. Phycol. 37(3):42-43.Symbiodinium species were isolated from Montipora capitata, Acropora palmata and two field samples of Porites porites. Cultures ...

  7. Phylogenetic diversity of actinobacteria associated with soft coral Alcyonium gracllimum and stony coral Tubastraea coccinea in the East China Sea.

    Yang, Shan; Sun, Wei; Tang, Cen; Jin, Liling; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

    2013-07-01

    Actinobacteria are widely distributed in the marine environment. To date, few studies have been performed to explore the coral-associated Actinobacteria, and little is known about the diversity of coral-associated Actinobacteria. In this study, the actinobacterial diversity associated with one soft coral Alcyonium gracllimum and one stony coral Tubastraea coccinea collected from the East China Sea was investigated using both culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. A total of 19 actinobacterial genera were detected in these two corals, among which nine genera (Corynebacterium, Dietzia, Gordonia, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Streptomyces, and Candidatus Microthrix) were common, three genera (Cellulomonas, Dermatophilus, and Janibacter) were unique to the soft coral, and seven genera (Brevibacterium, Dermacoccus, Leucobacter, Micromonospora, Nocardioides, Rhodococcus, and Serinicoccus) were unique to the stony coral. This finding suggested that highly diverse Actinobacteria were associated with different types of corals. In particular, five actinobacterial genera (Cellulomonas, Dermacoccus, Gordonia, Serinicoccus, and Candidatus Microthrix) were recovered from corals for the first time, extending the known diversity of coral-associated Actinobacteria. This study shows that soft and stony corals host diverse Actinobacteria and can serve as a new source of marine actinomycetes.

  8. RNA-Seq Reveals Extensive Transcriptional Response to Heat Stress in the Stony Coral Galaxea fascicularis

    Hou, Jing; Xu, Tao; Su, Dingjia; Wu, Ying; Cheng, Li; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Galaxea fascicularis, a stony coral belonging to family Oculinidae, is widely distributed in Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and large areas of the Indo-Pacific oceans. So far there is a lack of gene expression knowledge concerning this massive coral. In the present study, G. fascicularis was subjected to heat stress at 32.0 ± 0.5°C in the lab, we found that the density of symbiotic zooxanthellae decreased significantly; meanwhile apparent bleaching and tissue lysing were observed at 10 h and 18 h after heat stress. The transcriptome responses were investigated in the stony coral G. fascicularis during heat bleaching using RNA-seq. A total of 42,028 coral genes were assembled from over 439 million reads. Gene expressions were compared at 10 and 18 h after heat stress. The significantly upregulated genes found in the Control_10h vs. Heat_10h comparison, presented mainly in GO terms related with DNA integration and unfolded protein response; and for the Control_18h vs. Heat_18h comparison, the GO terms include DNA integration. In addition, comparison between groups of Control_10h vs. Heat_10h and Control_18h vs. Heat_18h revealed that 125 genes were significantly upregulated in common between the two groups, whereas 21 genes were significantly downregulated in common, all these differentially expressed genes were found to be involved in stress response, DNA integration and unfolded protein response. Taken together, our results suggest that high temperature could activate the stress response at the early stage, and subsequently induce the bleaching and lysing through DNA integration and unfolded protein response, which are able to disrupt the balance of coral-zooxanthella symbiosis in the stony coral G. fascicularis. PMID:29487614

  9. RNA-Seq Reveals Extensive Transcriptional Response to Heat Stress in the Stony Coral Galaxea fascicularis

    Jing Hou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Galaxea fascicularis, a stony coral belonging to family Oculinidae, is widely distributed in Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and large areas of the Indo-Pacific oceans. So far there is a lack of gene expression knowledge concerning this massive coral. In the present study, G. fascicularis was subjected to heat stress at 32.0 ± 0.5°C in the lab, we found that the density of symbiotic zooxanthellae decreased significantly; meanwhile apparent bleaching and tissue lysing were observed at 10 h and 18 h after heat stress. The transcriptome responses were investigated in the stony coral G. fascicularis during heat bleaching using RNA-seq. A total of 42,028 coral genes were assembled from over 439 million reads. Gene expressions were compared at 10 and 18 h after heat stress. The significantly upregulated genes found in the Control_10h vs. Heat_10h comparison, presented mainly in GO terms related with DNA integration and unfolded protein response; and for the Control_18h vs. Heat_18h comparison, the GO terms include DNA integration. In addition, comparison between groups of Control_10h vs. Heat_10h and Control_18h vs. Heat_18h revealed that 125 genes were significantly upregulated in common between the two groups, whereas 21 genes were significantly downregulated in common, all these differentially expressed genes were found to be involved in stress response, DNA integration and unfolded protein response. Taken together, our results suggest that high temperature could activate the stress response at the early stage, and subsequently induce the bleaching and lysing through DNA integration and unfolded protein response, which are able to disrupt the balance of coral-zooxanthella symbiosis in the stony coral G. fascicularis.

  10. Systemic response of the stony coral Pocillopora damicornis against acute cadmium stress.

    Zhou, Zhi; Yu, Xiaopeng; Tang, Jia; Wu, Yibo; Wang, Lingui; Huang, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Heavy metals have become one of the main pollutants in the marine environment and a major threat to the growth and reproduction of stony corals. In the present study, the density of symbiotic zooxanthellae, levels of crucial physiological activities and the transcriptome were investigated in the stony coral Pocillopora damicornis after the acute exposure to elevated cadmium concentration. The density of symbiotic zooxanthellae decreased significantly during 12-24h period, and reached lowest at 24h after acute cadmium stress. No significant changes were observed in the activity of glutathione S-transferase during the entire stress exposure. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of glutathione decreased significantly, but the activation level of caspase3 increased significantly after cadmium exposure. Furthermore, transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis revealed 3538 significantly upregulated genes and 8048 significantly downregulated genes at 12h after the treatment. There were 12 overrepresented GO terms for significantly upregulated genes, mostly related to unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. In addition, a total of 32 GO terms were overrepresented for significantly downregulated genes, and mainly correlated with macromolecular metabolic processes. These results collectively suggest that acute cadmium stress could induce apoptosis by repressing the production of the antioxidants, elevating oxidative stress and activating the unfolded protein response. This cascade of reactions would result to the collapse of the coral-zooxanthella symbiosis and the expulsion of symbiotic zooxanthellae in the stony coral P. damicornis, ultimately leading to coral bleaching. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The digestive system of the stony coral Stylophora pistillata.

    Raz-Bahat, M; Douek, J; Moiseeva, E; Peters, E C; Rinkevich, B

    2017-05-01

    Because hermatypic species use symbiotic algal photosynthesis, most of the literature in this field focuses on this autotrophic mode and very little research has studied the morphology of the coral's digestive system or the digestion process of particulate food. Using histology and histochemestry, our research reveals that Stylophora pistillata's digestive system is concentrated at the corals' peristome, actinopharynx and mesenterial filaments (MF). We used in-situ hybridization (ISH) of the RNA transcript of the gene that codes for the S. pistillata digestive enzyme, chymotrypsinogen, to shed light on the functionality of the digestive system. Both the histochemistry and the ISH pointed to the MF being specialized digestive organs, equipped with large numbers of acidophilic and basophilic granular gland cells, as well as acidophilic non-granular gland cells, some of which produce chymotrypsinogen. We identified two types of MF: short, trilobed MF and unilobed, long and convoluted MF. Each S. pistillata polyp harbors two long convoluted MF and 10 short MF. While the short MF have neither secreting nor stinging cells, each of the convoluted MF display gradual cytological changes along their longitudinal axis, alternating between stinging and secreting cells and three distinctive types of secretory cells. These observations indicate the important digestive role of the long convoluted MF. They also indicate the existence of novel feeding compartments in the gastric cavity of the polyp, primarily in the nutritionally active peristome, in the actinopharynx and in three regions of the MF that differ from each other in their cellular components, general morphology and chymotrypsinogen excretion.

  12. Mitochondrial and nuclear genes suggest that stony corals are monophyletic but most families of stony corals are not (Order Scleractinia, Class Anthozoa, Phylum Cnidaria.

    Hironobu Fukami

    Full Text Available Modern hard corals (Class Hexacorallia; Order Scleractinia are widely studied because of their fundamental role in reef building and their superb fossil record extending back to the Triassic. Nevertheless, interpretations of their evolutionary relationships have been in flux for over a decade. Recent analyses undermine the legitimacy of traditional suborders, families and genera, and suggest that a non-skeletal sister clade (Order Corallimorpharia might be imbedded within the stony corals. However, these studies either sampled a relatively limited array of taxa or assembled trees from heterogeneous data sets. Here we provide a more comprehensive analysis of Scleractinia (127 species, 75 genera, 17 families and various outgroups, based on two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b, with analyses of nuclear genes (ss-tubulin, ribosomal DNA of a subset of taxa to test unexpected relationships. Eleven of 16 families were found to be polyphyletic. Strikingly, over one third of all families as conventionally defined contain representatives from the highly divergent "robust" and "complex" clades. However, the recent suggestion that corallimorpharians are true corals that have lost their skeletons was not upheld. Relationships were supported not only by mitochondrial and nuclear genes, but also often by morphological characters which had been ignored or never noted previously. The concordance of molecular characters and more carefully examined morphological characters suggests a future of greater taxonomic stability, as well as the potential to trace the evolutionary history of this ecologically important group using fossils.

  13. Endolithic algae in living stony corals: algal concentrations under influence of depth-dependent light conditions and coral tissue fluorescence in Agaricia agaricites (L.) and Meandrina meandrites (L.) (Scleractinia, Anthozoa)

    Delvoye, Laurent

    1992-01-01

    DELVOYE, L., 1992. Endolithic algae in living stony corals: Algal concentrations under influence of depth-dependent light conditions and coral tissue fluorescence in Agaricia agaricites (L) and Meandrina meandrites (L.) (Sclereactinia, Anthozoa). Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 71, Amsterdam

  14. The Mediterranean stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) as habitat provider for molluscs: colony size effect

    Pitacco, Valentina; Crocetta, Fabio; Orlando-Bonaca, Martina; Mavrič, Borut; Lipej, Lovrenc

    2017-11-01

    The stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) is an important Mediterranean habitat builder, whose survival is now being threatened by human activities and possibly natural events such as mass mortality and bleaching. We characterized the mollusc assemblage associated with colonies in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) and then tested whether the number of mollusc species increases in relation with colony size, following a Species-Area Relationship (SAR) model. At least 62 taxa were found in association with coral colonies, with bivalves constituting the dominant group. More than half of the 3034 specimens encountered were juveniles. Mollusc taxa richness increased with increasing C. caespitosa colony size according to the power-function model, whilst the analyses of trophic and functional groups supports the hypothesis of at least two factors underlying SAR (area per se and habitat diversity). Our results confirmed the importance of C. caespitosa for benthic communities, indicating that larger colonies support higher biodiversity, and suggesting that C. caespitosa is the most important habit builder among Mediterranean cnidarians, having also an influential function as a natural nursery ground. These results underline the necessity of new investigations aimed at filling gaps in our knowledge and planning new measures to protect the species.

  15. Akumal ’s reefs: Stony coral communities along the developing Mexican Caribbean coastline

    Roshan E Roy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fringing coral reefs along coastlines experiencing rapid development and human population growth have declined worldwide because of human activity and of natural causes.The "Mayan Riviera "in Quintana Roo,México,attracts large numbers of tourists in part because it still retains some of the natural diversity and it is important to obtain baseline information to monitor changes over time in the area.In this paper,the condition of the stony corals in the developing coastline of the Akumal-area fore reefs is characterized at the start of the new millennium at two depths,and along an inferred sedimentation gradient.Transect surveys were conducted in five fringing reefs starting at haphazardly chosen points.with respect to species composition,live cover,colony density,relative exposure to TAS mats and,for one species (Diploria strigosa ,Dana,1848,tissue regression rates in the presence of TAS mats.Fish population density and herbivory rates are also assessed.Data from line intercept transects (n=74show that live stony coral cover,density and relative peripheral exposure of colonies to turf algal/sediment (TASmats were inversely related to an inferred sediment stress gradient at 13m.In 2000, live stony coral cover had decreased by 40-50%at two sites studied in 1990 by Muñoz-Chagín and de la Cruz- Agüero (1993.About half of this loss apparently occurred between 1998 and 2000 during an outbreak of white plague disease that mostly affected Montastraea faveolata ,and M.annularis .At a 13 m site,where inferred sedimentation rates are relatively high,time series photography of tagged Diploria strigosa ,(n=38showed an average loss of 70 cm 2 of live tissue/coral/year to encroachment by TAS mats during the same period.Whereas densities of carnivorous fishes and herbivores (echinoids,scarids,acanthurids and Microspathodon chrysurus in 2000 were low in belt transects at 10-19 m (n=106,turf-algal gardening pomacentrids were relatively common on these reefs

  16. The mushroom coral as a habitat

    Hoeksema, B.W.; Meij, van der S.E.T.; Fransen, C.H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of symbiotic relationships involving reef corals has had much impact on tropical marine biodiversity. Because of their endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) corals can grow fast in tropical shallow seas where they form reefs that supply food, substrate and shelter for other organisms.

  17. Effects of environmental factors on C-type lectin recognition to zooxanthellae in the stony coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Zhou, Zhi; Zhao, Shuimiao; Ni, Junyi; Su, Yilu; Wang, Lingui; Xu, Yanlai

    2018-05-15

    C-type lectin is a superfamily of Ca 2+ -dependent carbohydrate-recognition proteins that play significant roles in nonself-recognition and pathogen clearance. In the present study, a C-type lectin (PdC-Lectin) was chosen from stony coral Pocillopora damicornis to understand its recognition characteristics to zooxanthellae. PdC-Lectin protein contained a signal peptide and a carbohydrate-recognition domain with EPN motif in Ca 2+ -binding site 2. The PdC-Lectin recombinant protein was expressed and purified in vitro. The binding of PdC-Lectin protein to zooxanthellae was determined with western blotting method, and the bound protein to 10-10 5  cell mL -1 zooxanthellae was detectable in a concentration-dependent manner. Less PdC-Lectin protein binding to zooxanthellae was observed for the incubation at 36 °C than that at 26 °C. Furthermore, the PAMP recognition spectrum of PdC-Lectin protein was tested through surface plasmon resonance method, and it bound to LPS and Lipid A, but not to LTA, β-glucan, mannose or Poly (I:C). When PdC-Lectin protein was preincubated with LPS, there was less protein binding to zooxanthellae compared with that in non-preincubation group. These results collectively suggest that PdC-Lectin could recognize zooxanthellae, and the recognition could be repressed by high temperature and pathogenic bacteria, which would help to further understand the molecular mechanism of coral bleaching and the establishment of coral-zooxanthella symbiosis in the stony coral P. damicornis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution of gall crabs inhabiting mushroom corals on Semporna reefs, Malaysia

    van der Meij, Sancia E. T.; Hoeksema, Bert W.

    Coral reef cryptofauna forms an important component of tropical marine biodiversity, consisting primarily of invertebrates dwelling in and on corals. During a survey carried out around the Semporna peninsula (Sabah, NE Borneo), the occurrence of gall crabs inhabiting mushroom corals was examined on

  19. Transcriptome, expression, and activity analyses reveal a vital heat shock protein 70 in the stress response of stony coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Zhang, Yidan; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingui; Huang, Bo

    2018-02-12

    Coral bleaching occurs worldwide with increasing frequencies and intensities, which is caused by the stress response of stony coral to environmental change, especially increased sea surface temperature. In the present study, transcriptome, expression, and activity analyses were employed to illustrate the underlying molecular mechanisms of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the stress response of coral to environmental changes. The domain analyses of assembled transcripts revealed 30 HSP70 gene contigs in stony coral Pocillopora damicornis. One crucial HSP70 (PdHSP70) was observed, whose expressions were induced by both elevated temperature and ammonium after expression difference analysis. The complete complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of PdHSP70 was identified, which encoded a polypeptide of 650 amino acids with a molecular weight of 71.93 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of PdHSP70 contained a HSP70 domain (from Pro8 to Gly616), and it shared the highest similarity (95%) with HSP70 from Stylophora pistillata. The expression level of PdHSP70 gene increased significantly at 12 h, and returned to the initial level at 24 h after the stress of high temperature (32 °C). The cDNA fragment encoding the mature peptide of PdHSP70 was recombined and expressed in the prokaryotic expression system. The ATPase activity of recombinant PdHSP70 protein was determined, and it did not change significantly in a wide range of temperature from 25 to 40 °C. These results collectively suggested that PdHSP70 was a vital heat shock protein 70 in the stony coral P. damicornis, whose mRNA expression could be induced by diverse environmental stress and whose activity could remain stable under heat stress. PdHSP70 might be involved in the regulation of the bleaching owing to heat stress in the stony coral P. damicornis.

  20. Vibrio harveyi as a causative agent of the White Syndrome in tropical stony corals.

    Luna, Gian Marco; Bongiorni, Lucia; Gili, Claudia; Biavasco, Francesca; Danovaro, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    We investigated bacterial assemblages associated with corals displaying symptoms of the 'White Syndrome' (WS), a general term used for indicating the appearance of bands, spots or patches of tissue loss, which is devastating wide areas of tropical ecosystems worldwide. We collected WS-diseased (n = 15) and healthy (n = 15) corals from the natural reef (Indonesia, Indian Ocean) and from four large public aquaria. By using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, we found that a large fraction (73%) of the investigated WS events was associated with the presence of a high bacterial abundance and, specifically, of Vibrio spp. Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of many marine organisms and recently involved in coral Yellow Band disease, was the most represented species, being recovered from five out of 15 diseased corals. In experimental infection assays, two V. harveyi strains, isolated from diseased corals, were inoculated on a total of 62 healthy colonies of Pocillopora damicornis. WS signs appeared in 57 corals, confirming the ability of V. harveyi strains to induce the disease. We conclude that V. harveyi is one of the coral pathogens involved in the appearance of WS. However, not all of the investigated WSs were associated to V. harveyi detection, nor to other Vibrio species (such as V. coralliilyticus), which supports the hypothesis that WS is not caused exclusively by Vibrio spp., but rather can have a multifactorial aetiology, or can represent a group of diseases caused by a variety of agents. Further investigations to identify specific virulence traits will contribute to the understanding of the role of V. harveyi in WS pathogenesis. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Toxicity of crude oils and a dispersant to the stony coral Madracis mirabilis

    Elgershuizen, J H.B.W.; De Kruijf, H A.M.

    1976-02-01

    Coral reefs play a crucial role in the ecology of coastal tropical waters. In many areas they are now exposed to pollution hazards which have sometimes caused severe damage. Increasingly they are exposed to oil and, where clean-up methods are used, to dispersants. The report shows that the clean-up may be more damaging than the oil. (auth)

  2. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    Munkacsi, A.B.; Pan, J.J.; Villesen, P.

    2004-01-01

    family Pterulaceae using phylogenetic reconstructions based on broad taxon sampling, including the first mushroom collected from the garden of an ant species in the A. pilosum group. The domestication of the pterulaceous cultivar is independent from the domestication of the gilled mushrooms cultivated...... of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral-mushroom...

  3. Suppression of NF-κB signal pathway by NLRC3-like protein in stony coral Acropora aculeus under heat stress.

    Zhou, Zhi; Wu, Yibo; Zhang, Chengkai; Li, Can; Chen, Guangmei; Yu, Xiaopeng; Shi, Xiaowei; Xu, Yanlai; Wang, Lingui; Huang, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Heat stress is the most common factor for coral bleaching, which has increased both in frequency and severity due to global warming. In the present study, the stony coral Acropora aculeus was subjected to acute heat stress and entire transcriptomes were sequenced via the next generation sequencing platform. Four paired-end libraries were constructed and sequenced in two groups, including a control and a heat stress group. A total of 120,319,751 paired-end reads with lengths of 2 × 100 bp were assembled and 55,021 coral-derived genes were obtained. After read mapping and abundance estimation, 9110 differentially expressed genes were obtained in the comparison between the control and heat stress group, including 4465 significantly upregulated and 4645 significantly downregulated genes. Twenty-three GO terms in the Biological Process category were overrepresented for significantly upregulated genes, and divided into six groups according to their relationship. These three groups were related to the NF-κB signal pathway, and the remaining three groups were relevant for pathogen response, immunocyte activation and protein ubiquitination. Forty-three common genes were found in four GO terms, which were directly related to the NF-κB signal pathway. These included 2 NACHT, LRR, PYD domains-containing protein, 5 nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein, 29 NLRC3-like protein, 4 NLRC5-like protein, and 3 uncharacterized protein. For significantly downregulated genes, 27 overrepresented GO terms were found in the Biological Process category, which were relevant to protein ubiquitination and ATP metabolism. Our results indicate that heat stress suppressed the immune response level via the NLRC3-like protein, the fine-tuning of protein turnover activity, and ATP metabolism. This might disrupt the balance of coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis and result in the bleaching of the coral A. aculeus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mushrooms

    ... these mushrooms have effects similar to the drug LSD . Sometimes Called: shrooms, magic mushrooms How It's Used: ... this topic for: Teens Drugs: What to Know LSD Dealing With Addiction Marijuana Bath Salts Depressants GHB ...

  5. Dual recognition activity of a rhamnose-binding lectin to pathogenic bacteria and zooxanthellae in stony coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Zhou, Zhi; Yu, Xiaopeng; Tang, Jia; Zhu, Yunjie; Chen, Guangmei; Guo, Liping; Huang, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) is a type of Ca 2+ -independent lectin with tandem repeat carbohydrate-recognition domain, and is crucial for the innate immunity in many invertebrates. In this study, the cDNA sequence encoding RBL in coral Pocillopora damicornis (PdRBL-1) was cloned. The PdRBL-1 protein shared highest amino acid sequence similarity (55%) with the polyp of Hydra vulgaris, and contained a signal peptide and two tandem carbohydrate-recognition domains in which all cysteine residues were conserved. Surface plasmon resonance method revealed that the recombinant PdRBL-1 protein bound to LPS and Lipid A, but not to LTA, β-glucan, mannose and Poly (I:C). Results also showed that it bonded with zooxanthellae using western blotting method, and that the bound protein was detectable only at concentrations higher than 10 2 zooxanthellae cell mL -1 . When recombinant PdRBL-1 protein was preincubated with LPS, lower amounts of protein bound to zooxanthellae compared to cells not preincubated with LPS. Furthermore, PdRBL-1 mRNA expression increased significantly at 12 h, and declined to the baseline at 24 h after heat stress at 31 °C. These results collectively suggest that PdRBL-1 could recognize not only pathogenic bacteria but also symbiotic zooxanthellae, and that the recognition of zooxanthellae by PdRBL-1 could be repressed by pathogenic bacteria through competitive binding. This information allows us to gain new insights in the mechanisms influencing the establishment and maintenance of coral-zooxanthella symbiosis in coral P. damicornis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reclutamiento de corales pétreos en arrecifes coralinos a diferentes distancias de fuentes de contaminación en La Habana, Cuba Stony coral recruitment in coral reefs at different distances from pollution sources in Habana, Cuba

    Pedro Alcolado-Prieto

    2012-09-01

    í como entre de las distintas fechas de muestreo. El análisis de variancia bifactorial no mostró interacción significativa espacio-tiemporal. Malecón, sitio más contaminado, presentó menor reclutamiento y mayor presencia de especies consideradas indicadoras de contaminación orgánica, sedimentación y abrasión. Las densidades fueron mayores en Octubre 2007 y menores en Mayo 2008, al parecer influenciados por las épocas de reproducción y la acción de los frentes fríos respectivamente. El mayor predominio y abundancia de reclutas de S. siderea, S. radians y P. astreoides parece responder a sus elevados potenciales reproductivos y altas resistencias a disturbios. La identidad de las especies dominantes estuvo relacionada aparentemente con las distancias de las principales fuentes de contaminación. Se recomienda replicar esta investigación en otros lugares de la región del Caribe para probar la generalidad de estos resultados. Estudios futuros debieran tener en cuenta la influencia de otros factores ambientales, junto con una valoración de la tolerancia de las especies de reclutas a estos factores, para ponderar mejor el efecto de la contaminación urbana sobre el reclutamiento.The effect of pollution on coral recruitment has been insufficiently studied. This research deals with coral recruitment in coastal areas and aimed to determine the variations of density and dominant species of corals recruits in sites at different distances from pollution sources. The composition and structure of stony coral (scleractinian and milleporids recruit associations were characterized in the fringing reef of Western Havana, Cuba. This reef is influenced by urban pollution from the Almendares River and a sewage outlet located at its mouth. Four sites were sampled on the upper fore reef escarpment at 10m deep every three months between July 2007 and May 2008. A 25cm side quadrat was used to determine the density and taxonomic composition of recruits smaller than 3cm in

  7. Localization of early germ cells in a stony coral, Euphyllia ancora: potential implications for a germline stem cell system in coral gametogenesis

    Shikina, Shinya; Chung, Yi-Jou; Wang, Hsiang-Ming; Chiu, Yi-Ling; Shao, Zih-Fang; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2015-06-01

    Most corals exhibit annual or multiple gametogenic cycles. Thus far, coral gametogenesis has been studied in many species and locations during the past three decades; however, currently, only a few papers exist that describe the origin of germ cells, such as germline stem cells (GSCs), which support the continuous production of gametes in every reproductive cycle. To address this issue, in this study, we focused on and identified piwi gene, which has been used as a marker of germline cells, including GSCs, in various metazoans, in a scleractinian coral, Euphyllia ancora. Reverse-transcription PCR and Western blotting analyses revealed that E. ancora piwi-like ( Eapiwi) is expressed in mesentery tissues where the sites of gametogenesis are located for both sexes. Immunohistochemistry with a specific antibody against Eapiwi revealed strong immunoreactivity in the spermatogonia in males and in the oogonia and early oocytes in females, demonstrating that Eapiwi could be used as an early germ cell marker in E. ancora. Subsequent immunohistochemical analyses regarding the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of early germ cells in mesentery tissues revealed that early germ cells were present throughout the year in the mesentery tissue we examined, regardless of the sexual reproductive cycle. In particular, small numbers of early germ cells were observed in specific sites of mesentery tissues with fully matured gonads in both sexes. These early germ cells were not released together with mature gametes during the spawning period and remained in the mesentery tissues. These results suggested that these early germ cells most likely serve as a reservoir of germline cells and that some of these cells would produce differentiated germ cells for the upcoming sexual reproduction period; hence, these cells would function as GSCs. Our data provide new information for understanding continuous gamete production in corals.

  8. Control of bleaching in mushroom coral populations (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) in the Java Sea: stress tolerance and interference by life history strategy

    Hoeksema, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    Bleaching was studied in populations of phylogenetically closely related species (n = 21) of mushroom corals (Scleractinia: Fungiidae) around Pari Island (Java Sea) during a period of excessive seawater warming in 1983. The interspecific variation in the proportions of affected individuals was

  9. Impact of anthropogenic disturbances on the diversity of shallow stony corals in the Veracruz Reef System National Park Impacto de perturbaciones antrópicas sobre la diversidad de corales pétreos superficiales en el Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal veracruzano

    Carla V. Gutiérrez-Ruiz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic disturbances may affect the development and maintenance of coral reefs by promoting diseases and other syndromes. In turn, this may cause local decreases in coral species diversity. In this study, we compared the prevalence of syndromes (including diseases and non-disease syndromes and the diversity of stony coral species between reefs located close (Sacrificios reef and far away (Santiaguillo reef of the port of Veracruz, Mexico. The prevalence of syndromes was higher at Sacrificios than at Santiaguillo, and it also increased with the abundance of coral colonies at the former reef. On the other hand, coral diversity was lower at Sacrificios than at Santiaguillo, suggesting that anthropogenic disturbances, besides promoting diseases and other syndromes, also lead to local decreases in species diversity.Las perturbaciones antropogénicas pueden afectar el desarrollo y mantenimiento de los arrecifes de coral mediante la promoción de las enfermedades y otros síndromes. A su vez, esto puede producir un descenso en la diversidad local de especies. En este estudio, se comparó la prevalencia de síndromes (tanto aquellos causados por enfermedades, como por otros factores y la diversidad de especies de corales pétreos entre arrecifes ubicados cerca (Sacrificios y lejos (Santiaguillo del puerto de Veracruz, México. La prevalencia de síndromes fue mayor en Sacrificios que en Santiaguillo, y también se incrementó con la abundancia de colonias de coral en Sacrificios. Por otra parte, la diversidad de corales fue menor en Sacrificios que en Santiaguillo, sugiriendo que las perturbaciones antropogénicas, además de promover las enfermedades y otros síndromes, también disminuyen localmente la diversidad de especies.

  10. Endangered New Caledonian endemic mushroom coral Cantharellus noumeae in turbid, metal-rich, natural and artificial environments.

    Gilbert, Antoine; Heintz, Tom; Hoeksema, Bert W; Benzoni, Francesca; Fernandez, Jean Michel; Fauvelot, Cécile; Andréfouët, Serge

    2015-11-15

    Since its description in 1984, little attention has been paid to the New Caledonian endemic mushroom coral Cantharellus noumeae (Fungiidae), an IUCN Red-listed, endangered coral species. Our study presents the first ever quantitative assessment conducted on C. noumeae populations for two contrasting sites in the same turbid bay. Sites differed by their substrates of artificial or natural origins. Metal concentrations of superficial sediment were measured. C. noumeae was found in high densities in metal-rich and turbid environments at both locations, reaching up to 288 individuals per 50m(2). It was 3.5 times more abundant on natural rock than on artificial substrates. Recruitment was also higher proportionally on rock (47% vs 7-14%). The composition of the associated coral communities included 30-37 species occurring in low densities. Our findings clarify the environmental niche of this species and its colonization potential, in order to eventually better characterize its conservation status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    Munkacsi, A B; Pan, J J; Villesen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    -mushroom family Pterulaceae using phylogenetic reconstructions based on broad taxon sampling, including the first mushroom collected from the garden of an ant species in the A. pilosum group. The domestication of the pterulaceous cultivar is independent from the domestication of the gilled mushrooms cultivated......Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern...

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a monomeric mutant of Azami-Green (mAG), an Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein-like green-emitting fluorescent protein from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis

    Ebisawa, Tatsuki; Yamamura, Akihiro; Kameda, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Kou; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    A monomeric mutant of Azami-Green from G. fascicularis was expressed, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal belonged to space group P1 and diffracted X-rays to 2.20 Å resolution. Monomeric Azami-Green (mAG) from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis is the first monomeric green-emitting fluorescent protein that is not a derivative of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP). mAG and avGFP are 27% identical in amino-acid sequence. Diffraction-quality crystals of recombinant mAG were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The mAG crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.20 Å resolution on beamline AR-NW12A at the Photon Factory (Tsukuba, Japan). The crystal belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.78, b = 51.72, c = 52.89 Å, α = 90.96, β = 103.41, γ = 101.79°. The Matthews coefficient (V M = 2.10 Å 3 Da −1 ) indicated that the crystal contained two mAG molecules per asymmetric unit

  13. Phylogenetic placement of an unusual coral mushroom challenges the classic hypothesis of strict coevolution in the apterostigma pilosum group ant-fungus mutualism.

    Dentinger, Bryn T M; Lodge, D Jean; Munkacsi, Andrew B; Desjardin, Dennis E; McLaughlin, David J

    2009-08-01

    The approximately 50 million-year-old fungus-farming ant mutualism is a classic example of coevolution, involving ants that subsist on asexual, fungal biomass, in turn propagating the fungus clonally through nest-to-nest transmission. Most mutualistic ants cultivate two closely related groups of gilled mushrooms, whereas one small group of ants in the genus Apterostigma cultivates a distantly related lineage comprised of the G2 and G4 groups. The G2 and G4 fungi were previously shown to form a monophyletic group sister to the thread-like coral mushroom family Pterulaceae. Here, we identify an enigmatic coral mushroom that produces both fertile and sterile fruiting structures as the closest free-living relative of the G4 fungi, challenging the monophyly of the Apterostigma-cultivated fungi for the first time. Both nonparametric bootstrap and Bayesian posterior probability support the node leading to the G4 cultivars and a free-living Pterula mushroom. These data suggest three scenarios that contradict the hypothesis of strict coevolution: (1) multiple domestications, (2) escape from domestication, (3) selection of single cultivar lineages from an ancestral mixed-fungus garden. These results illustrate how incomplete phylogenies for coevolved symbionts impede our understanding of the patterns and processes of coevolution.

  14. Comparative genomics explains the evolutionary success of reef-forming corals

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Agrawal, Shobhit; Aranda, Manuel; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Belcaid, Mahdi; Drake, Jeana L; Erwin, Douglas; Foret, Sylvian; Gates, Ruth D; Gruber, David F; Kamel, Bishoy; Lesser, Michael P; Levy, Oren; Liew, Yi Jin; MacManes, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    eLife digest For millions of years, reef-building stony corals have created extensive habitats for numerous marine plants and animals in shallow tropical seas. Stony corals consist of many small, tentacled animals called polyps. These polyps secrete a mineral called aragonite to create the reef ? an external ?skeleton? that supports and protects the corals. Photosynthesizing algae live inside the cells of stony corals, and each species depends on the other to survive. The algae produce the co...

  15. Contrasting responses of coral reef fauna and foraminiferal assemblages to human influence in La Parguera, Puerto Rico

    Coral reef biota including stony corals, sponges, gorgonians, fish, benthic macroinvertebrates and foraminifera were surveyed in coastal waters near La Parguera, in southwestern Puerto Rico. The goal was to evaluate sensitivity of coral reef biological indicators to human distur...

  16. Mesophotic mushroom coral records at Brunei Darussalam support westward extension of the Coral Triangle to the South China Sea waters of Northwest Borneo

    Lane, D.J.W.; Hoeksema, B.W.

    2016-01-01

    This communication reports the discovery of two additional fungiid coral species, Cycloseris hexagonalis and Lithophyllon spinifer, from a relatively deep shelf reef in Brunei waters. These new records plus two earlier excluded ones, Cycloseris explanulata and C. wellsi, raise the known number of

  17. Spatial and Species Variations in Bacterial Communities Associated with Corals from the Red Sea as Revealed by Pyrosequencing

    Lee, O. O.; Yang, J.; Bougouffa, S.; Wang, Y.; Batang, Zenon B.; Tian, R.; Al-Suwailem, A.; Qian, P.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    -pyrosequencing technique to investigate the bacterial communities associated with three stony Scleractinea and two soft Octocorallia corals from three locations in the Red Sea. Our results revealed highly diverse bacterial communities in the Red Sea corals, with more than

  18. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    Ruzicka, Alex M.; Haack, Henning; Chabot, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    By far most of the melted and differentiated planetesimals that have been sampled as meteorites are metal-rich iron meteorites or stony iron meteorites. The parent asteroids of these meteorites accreted early and differentiated shortly after the solar system formed, producing some of the oldest...... and interpretations for iron and stony iron meteorites (Plate 13.1). Such meteorites provide important constraints on the nature of metal-silicate separation and mixing in planetesimals undergoing partial to complete differentiation. They include iron meteorites that formed by the solidification of cores...... (fractionally crystallized irons), irons in which partly molten metal and silicates of diverse types were mixed together (silicate-bearing irons), stony irons in which partly molten metal and olivine from cores and mantles were mixed together (pallasites), and stony irons in which partly molten metal...

  19. Iron and stony-iron meteorites

    Benedix, Gretchen K.; Haack, Henning; McCoy, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Without iron and stony-iron meteorites, our chances of ever sampling the deep interior of a differentiated planetary object would be next to nil. Although we live on a planet with a very substantial core, we will never be able to sample it. Fortunately, asteroid collisions provide us with a rich...... sampling of the deep interiors of differentiated asteroids. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are fragments of a large number of asteroids that underwent significant geological processing in the early solar system. Parent bodies of iron and some stony-iron meteorites completed a geological evolution similar...... to that continuing on Earth – although on much smaller length- and timescales – with melting of the metal and silicates; differentiation into core, mantle, and crust; and probably extensive volcanism. Iron and stony-iron meteorites are our only available analogues to materials found in the deep interiors of Earth...

  20. Corallovexiidae, a new family of transformed copepods endoparasitic in reef corals with two new genera and ten new species from Curaçao

    Stock, Jan H.

    1975-01-01

    Quite a few endoparasitic copepods are known from Indo-Pacific stony corals, but not a single species has so far been recorded from the West Indies. Intensive search in the past few decades has even supported the prevailing opinion that West Indian stony corals are devoid of endoparasitic copepods,

  1. A trait-based approach to advance coral reef science

    Madin, Joshua S.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Connolly, Sean R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are biologically diverse and ecologically complex ecosystems constructed by stony corals. Despite decades of research, basic coral population biology and community ecology questions remain. Quantifying trait variation among species can help resolve these questions, but progress has been...... a large amount of variation for a range of biological and ecological processes. Such an approach can accelerate our understanding of coral ecology and our ability to protect critically threatened global ecosystems....

  2. [Hallucinogenic mushrooms].

    Reingardiene, Dagmara; Vilcinskaite, Jolita; Lazauskas, Robertas

    2005-01-01

    The group of hallucinogenic mushrooms (species of the genera Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Panaeolus, Pluteus, Psilocybe, and Stropharia) is psilocybin-containing mushrooms. These "magic", psychoactive fungi have the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin. Toxicity of these mushrooms is substantial because of the popularity of hallucinogens. Psilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin are similar to lysergic acid diethylamide. These hallucinogens affect the central nervous system rapidly (within 0.5-1 hour after ingestion), producing ataxia, hyperkinesis, and hallucinations. In this review article there are discussed about history of use of hallucinogenic mushrooms and epidemiology; pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, somatic effects and pharmacokinetics of psilocybin, the clinical effects of psilocybin and psilocin, signs and symptoms of ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms, treatment and prognosis.

  3. Responses of reef building corals to microplastic exposure.

    Reichert, Jessica; Schellenberg, Johannes; Schubert, Patrick; Wilke, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Pollution of marine environments with microplastic particles (i.e. plastic fragments terrestrial origin, coastal ecosystems such as coral reefs are particularly threatened. Recent studies revealed that microplastic ingestion can have adverse effects on marine invertebrates. However, little is known about its effects on small-polyp stony corals that are the main framework builders in coral reefs. The goal of this study is to characterise how different coral species I) respond to microplastic particles and whether the exposure might II) lead to health effects. Therefore, six small-polyp stony coral species belonging to the genera Acropora, Pocillopora, and Porites were exposed to microplastics (polyethylene, size 37-163 μm, concentration ca. 4000 particles L -1 ) over four weeks, and responses and effects on health were documented. The study showed that the corals responded differentially to microplastics. Cleaning mechanisms (direct interaction, mucus production) but also feeding interactions (i.e. interaction with mesenterial filaments, ingestion, and egestion) were observed. Additionally, passive contact through overgrowth was documented. In five of the six studied species, negative effects on health (i.e. bleaching and tissue necrosis) were reported. We here provide preliminary knowledge about coral-microplastic-interactions. The results call for further investigations of the effects of realistic microplastic concentrations on growth, reproduction, and survival of stony corals. This might lead to a better understanding of resilience capacities in coral reef ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ROLE OF CORAL DISEASES AND ANTHROPOGENIC STRESSORS ON TROPIC MARINE CORAL REEFS

    Stony (scleractinian) and soft (octocorals) corals throughout the Western Atlantic have been affected by several fatal diseases in the last two decades. In many locations the communities have not recovered from these diseases and the ecosystem has permanently changed. Several hyp...

  5. Oyster Mushroom

    The pastoralists have been hopelessly trying to get rid of the bush through ... mushroom cultivation the mentioned problems can be solved yielding nutritious ..... Mean values within the same column with no common superscript letter differ at the 95% confidence level and the .... Encroachment in the Borana Low Land.

  6. Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure

    A collaborative Environmental Protection Agency effort is underway to elucidate the technical aspects of coral reef biocriteria implementation. A stony coral rapid bioassessment protocol has been introduced and applied in the Florida Keys and U.S. Virgin Islands, where several in...

  7. The Edible Mushroom Book

    Conte, Anna Del; Læssøe, Thomas

    A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats.......A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats....

  8. Metagenomic and ecophysiological analysis of biofilms colonizing coral substrates: "Life after death of coral"

    Sanchez, A., Sr.; Cerqueda-Garcia, D.; Falcón, L. I.; Iglesias-Prieto, R., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    Coral reefs are the most productive ecosystems on the planet and are the most important carbonated structures of biological origin. However, global warming is affecting the health and functionality of these ecosystems. Specifically, most of the Acropora sp. stony corals have declined their population all over the Mexican Caribbean in more than ~80% of their original coverage, resulting in vast extensions of dead coral rubble. When the coral dies, the skeleton begins to be colonized by algae, sponges, bacteria and others, forming a highly diverse biofilm. We analyzed the metagenomes of the dead A. palmata rubbles from Puerto Morelos, in the Mexican Caribbean. Also, we quantified the elemental composition of biomass and measured nitrogen fixation and emission of greenhouse gases over 24 hrs. This works provides information on how the community is composed and functions after the death of the coral, visualizing a possible picture for a world without coral reefs.

  9. Lithifying Microbes Associated to Coral Rubbles

    Beltran, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial communities taking part in calcium carbonate lithification processes are particularly relevant to coral reef formation in as much as this lithification allows the stabilization of secondary reef structure. This second framework promotes long-term permanence of the reef, favoring the establishment of macro-reef builders, including corals. The reef-bacterial crusts formed by microbial communities are composed of magnesium calcite. Although prokaryotes are not proper calcifiers, carbonate precipitation can be induced by their metabolic activity and EPS production. Coral reefs are rapidly declining due to several variables associated to environmental change. Specifically in the Caribbean, stony coral Acropora palmata have suffered damage due to diseases, bleaching and storms. Some reports show that in highly disturbed areas wide ridges of reef rubbles are formed by biological and physical lithification. In this study we explore microbial diversity associated to lithified rubbles left after the great decline of reef-building A. palmata.

  10. Spiders (Araneae of stony debris in North Bohemia

    Růžička, Vlastimil

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The arachnofauna was studied at five stony debris sites in northern Bohemia. In Central Europe, the northern and montane species inhabiting cold places live not only on mountain tops and peat bogs but also on the lower edges of boulder debris, where air streaming through the system of inner compartments gives rise to an exceedingly cold microclimate. At such cold sites, spiders can live either on bare stones (Bathyphantes simillimus, Wubanoides uralensis, or in the rich layers of moss and lichen (Diplocentria bidentata. Kratochviliella bicapitata exhibits a diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on the tree bark. Latithorax faustus and Theonoe minutissima display diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on peat bogs. The occurence of the species Scotina celans in the Czech Republic was documented for the first time.

  11. Functional foods from mushroom

    Mushrooms are defined as “a macro fungus with distinctive fruiting bodies that could be hypogeous or epigeous, large enough to be seen by naked eyes and to be picked by hands.” The Basidiomycetes and some species of Ascomycetes are categorized as mushrooms. Mushrooms constitute 22,000 known species ...

  12. The coral genus Caulastraea Dana, 1846 (Scleractinia, Merulinidae) as a new host for gall crabs (Decapoda, Cryptochiridae), with the description of Lithoscaptus tuerkayi sp. nov.

    van der Meij, Sancia E. T.

    2017-01-01

    A new gall crab species is described from the stony coral genus Caulastraea, a new host coral genus for Cryptochiridae crabs. Specimens were collected during fieldwork off Kudat (Malaysian Borneo) and Okinawa (Japan). Further material was retrieved from the collections of the Institute of

  13. The influence of stony soil properties on water dynamics modeled by the HYDRUS model

    Hlaváčiková Hana

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Stony soils are composed of two fractions (rock fragments and fine soil with different hydrophysical characteristics. Although stony soils are abundant in many catchments, their properties are still not well understood. This manuscript presents an application of the simple methodology for deriving water retention properties of stony soils, taking into account a correction for the soil stoniness. Variations in the water retention of the fine soil fraction and its impact on both the soil water storage and the bottom boundary fluxes are studied as well. The deterministic water flow model HYDRUS-1D is used in the study. The results indicate that the presence of rock fragments in a moderate-to-high stony soil can decrease the soil water storage by 23% or more and affect the soil water dynamics. Simulated bottom fluxes increased or decreased faster, and their maxima during the wet period were larger in the stony soil compared to the non-stony one.

  14. Conservation genetics and the resilience of reef-building corals.

    van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Gates, Ruth D

    2006-11-01

    Coral reefs have suffered long-term decline due to a range of anthropogenic disturbances and are now also under threat from climate change. For appropriate management of these vulnerable and valuable ecosystems it is important to understand the factors and processes that determine their resilience and that of the organisms inhabiting them, as well as those that have led to existing patterns of coral reef biodiversity. The scleractinian (stony) corals deposit the structural framework that supports and promotes the maintenance of biological diversity and complexity of coral reefs, and as such, are major components of these ecosystems. The success of reef-building corals is related to their obligate symbiotic association with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. These one-celled algal symbionts (zooxanthellae) live in the endodermal tissues of their coral host, provide most of the host's energy budget and promote rapid calcification. Furthermore, zooxanthellae are the main primary producers on coral reefs due to the oligotrophic nature of the surrounding waters. In this review paper, we summarize and critically evaluate studies that have employed genetics and/or molecular biology in examining questions relating to the evolution and ecology of reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts, and that bear relevance to coral reef conservation. We discuss how these studies can focus future efforts, and examine how these approaches enhance our understanding of the resilience of reef-building corals.

  15. Effects of flow and colony morphology on the thermal boundary layer of corals

    Jimenez, Isabel M; Kühl, Michael; Larkum, Anthony W D

    2011-01-01

    The thermal microenvironment of corals and the thermal effects of changing flow and radiation are critical to understanding heat-induced coral bleaching, a stress response resulting from the destruction of the symbiosis between corals and their photosynthetic microalgae. Temperature microsensor...... measurements at the surface of illuminated stony corals with uneven surface topography (Leptastrea purpurea and Platygyra sinensis) revealed millimetre-scale variations in surface temperature and thermal boundary layer (TBL) that may help understand the patchy nature of coral bleaching within single colonies....... The effect of water flow on the thermal microenvironment was investigated in hemispherical and branching corals (Porites lobata and Stylophora pistillata, respectively) in a flow chamber experiment. For both coral types, the thickness of the TBL decreased exponentially from 2.5 mm at quasi-stagnant flow (0...

  16. DESIGN OF SLIT DAMS FOR CONTROLLING STONY DEBRIS FLOWS

    Hui-Pang LIEN

    2003-01-01

    A new method to a slit dam for controlling the stony debris flow has been derived based on the mass conservation law of the stony debris flow passing through a slit dam and the laboratory experiment results.This new method is then combined with three primary efficiency expressions: the dimensionless sediment outflow ratio,the sediment concentration ratio,and the sediment storage rate to develop a simple module,with which the height and the spacing of the posts,as well as the total spacing of slit dam are determined.Furthermore,these expressions can also be applied to check those slit dams that have already been constructed with their effectiveness against various magnitudes of the debris flow. The comparison between these expressions and laboratory data is in reasonable agreement.

  17. Radiation damage to mushrooms

    Sattler, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    This document contains newspaper cuttings and correspondence with various ministries in Hessen on the subject of radiation damage to mushrooms from the Odenwald area. The reader is given, amongst other things, detailed information on radiation damage to different types of mushroom in 1986. (MG) [de

  18. Mycosporine-like amino acids in six scleractinian coral species

    Ahmad A. Al-Utaibi; Gul Raze Niaz; Sultan S. Al-Lihaibi*

    2009-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were studied in stony coral species (Fungiidae) along the Eastern coast of the Red Sea. Six species - Fungia scutaria, F. danai, F. corona, F. repanda, Ctenactis echinata and Lithophyllor lobata - were examined for MAAs at water depths of 5, 10, 15 and 20 m. Protein and chlorophyll were also determined and showed higher contents in winter than in summer. Generally, the total content of MAAs in summer was found to be approximately three times greater than in...

  19. Hepatoprotective Effects of Mushrooms

    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts.

  20. High salinity conveys thermotolerance in the coral model Aiptasia

    Gegner, Hagen M.

    2017-12-15

    The endosymbiosis between dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Coral bleaching, the expulsion of endosymbionts from the coral host tissue as a consequence of heat or light stress, poses a threat to reef ecosystem functioning on a global scale. Hence, a better understanding of the factors contributing to heat stress susceptibility and tolerance is needed. In this regard, some of the most thermotolerant corals also live in particularly saline habitats, but possible effects of high salinity on thermotolerance in corals are anecdotal. Here we test the hypothesis that high salinity may lead to increased thermotolerance. We conducted a heat stress experiment at low, intermediate, and high salinities using a set of host-endosymbiont combinations of the coral model Aiptasia. As expected, all host-endosymbiont combinations showed reduced photosynthetic efficiency and endosymbiont loss during heat stress, but the severity of bleaching was significantly reduced with increasing salinities for one of the host-endosymbiont combinations. Our results show that higher salinities can convey increased thermotolerance in Aiptasia, although this effect seems to be dependent on the particular host strain and/or associated symbiont type. This finding may help explain the extraordinarily high thermotolerance of corals in high salinity environments such as the Red Sea and the Persian/Arabian Gulf and provides novel insight regarding factors that contribute to thermotolerance. Since our results are based on a salinity effect in symbiotic sea anemones, it remains to be determined whether this salinity effect can also be observed in stony corals.

  1. High salinity conveys thermotolerance in the coral model Aiptasia

    Gegner, Hagen M.; Ziegler, Maren; Radecker, Nils; Buitrago Lopez, Carol; Aranda, Manuel; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    The endosymbiosis between dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Coral bleaching, the expulsion of endosymbionts from the coral host tissue as a consequence of heat or light stress, poses a threat to reef ecosystem functioning on a global scale. Hence, a better understanding of the factors contributing to heat stress susceptibility and tolerance is needed. In this regard, some of the most thermotolerant corals also live in particularly saline habitats, but possible effects of high salinity on thermotolerance in corals are anecdotal. Here we test the hypothesis that high salinity may lead to increased thermotolerance. We conducted a heat stress experiment at low, intermediate, and high salinities using a set of host-endosymbiont combinations of the coral model Aiptasia. As expected, all host-endosymbiont combinations showed reduced photosynthetic efficiency and endosymbiont loss during heat stress, but the severity of bleaching was significantly reduced with increasing salinities for one of the host-endosymbiont combinations. Our results show that higher salinities can convey increased thermotolerance in Aiptasia, although this effect seems to be dependent on the particular host strain and/or associated symbiont type. This finding may help explain the extraordinarily high thermotolerance of corals in high salinity environments such as the Red Sea and the Persian/Arabian Gulf and provides novel insight regarding factors that contribute to thermotolerance. Since our results are based on a salinity effect in symbiotic sea anemones, it remains to be determined whether this salinity effect can also be observed in stony corals.

  2. FUNGI: A REVIEW ON MUSHROOMS

    Abulude, F. Olawale; Ndamitso, M. Muhammed

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews a fungus – mushrooms. In this paper, identification, cultivation, uses, side effects, nutritional and medicinal values, storage, marketing and other uses of mushrooms were discussed. From the review too it was observed that its usefulness surpasses the side effects. These side effects could be eliminated if proper ‘processing’ could be employed. Due to advances in both basic knowledge and practical technology relevant to mushroom farming, mushroom products and mushroom bior...

  3. A Trait-Based Approach to Advance Coral Reef Science.

    Madin, Joshua S; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Connolly, Sean R; Darling, Emily S; Falster, Daniel S; Huang, Danwei; Keith, Sally A; Mizerek, Toni; Pandolfi, John M; Putnam, Hollie M; Baird, Andrew H

    2016-06-01

    Coral reefs are biologically diverse and ecologically complex ecosystems constructed by stony corals. Despite decades of research, basic coral population biology and community ecology questions remain. Quantifying trait variation among species can help resolve these questions, but progress has been hampered by a paucity of trait data for the many, often rare, species and by a reliance on nonquantitative approaches. Therefore, we propose filling data gaps by prioritizing traits that are easy to measure, estimating key traits for species with missing data, and identifying 'supertraits' that capture a large amount of variation for a range of biological and ecological processes. Such an approach can accelerate our understanding of coral ecology and our ability to protect critically threatened global ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Are mushrooms radioactive?

    Randa, Z.; Benada, J.; Singert, M.; Horyna, J.

    1988-01-01

    Tabulated is the content of 137 Cs in dry matter of higher mushrooms collected in the years 1986 to 1987. The radioactive level of mushrooms collected in Czechoslovakia such as Boletus badius and B. chrysenteron reached 20 to 50 kBq/kg of dry matter. The individual dose at mean consumption of these mushrooms was estimated at 0.2 to 0.3 mSv/year which amounted to 20 to 30% of the dose from the natural background. (J.B.). 1 tab

  5. Coral Reef Coverage Percentage on Binor Paiton-Probolinggo Seashore

    Dwi Budi Wiyanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coral reef damage in Probolinggo region was expected to be caused by several factors. The first one comes from its society that exploits fishery by using cyanide toxin and bomb. The second one goes to the extraction of coral reef, which is used as decoration or construction materials. The other factor is likely caused by the existence of large industry on the seashore, such as Electric Steam Power Plant (PLTU Paiton and others alike. Related to the development of coral reef ecosystem, availability of an accurate data is crucially needed to support the manner of future policy, so the research of coral reef coverage percentage needs to be conducted continuously. The aim of this research is to collect biological data of coral reef and to identify coral reef coverage percentage in the effort of constructing coral reef condition basic data on Binor, Paiton, and Probolinggo regency seashore. The method used in this research is Line Intercept Transect (LIT method. LIT method is a method that used to decide benthic community on coral reef based on percentage growth, and to take note of benthic quantity along transect line. Percentage of living coral coverage in 3 meters depth on this Binor Paiton seashore that may be categorized in a good condition is 57,65%. While the rest are dead coral that is only 1,45%, other life form in 23,2%, and non-life form in 17,7%. A good condition of coral reef is caused by coral reef transplantation on the seashore, so this coral reef is dominated by Acropora Branching. On the other hand, Mortality Index (IM of coral reef resulted in 24,5%. The result from observation and calculation of coral reef is dominated by Hard Coral in Acropora Branching (ACB with coral reef coverage percentage of 39%, Coral Massive (CM with coral reef coverage percentage of 2,85%, Coral Foliose (CF with coral reef coverage percentage of 1,6%, and Coral Mushroom (CRM with coral reef coverage percentage of 8,5%. Observation in 10 meters depth

  6. Coral Reef Coverage Percentage on Binor Paiton-Probolinggo Seashore

    Dwi Budi Wiyanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The coral reef damage in Probolinggo region was expected to be caused by several factors. The first one comes from its society that exploits fishery by using cyanide toxin and bomb. The second one goes to the extraction of coral reef, which is used as decoration or construction materials. The other factor is likely caused by the existence of large industry on the seashore, such as Electric Steam Power Plant (PLTU Paiton and others alike. Related to the development of coral reef ecosystem, availability of an accurate data is crucially needed to support the manner of future policy, so the research of coral reef coverage percentage needs to be conducted continuously. The aim of this research is to collect biological data of coral reef and to identify coral reef coverage percentage in the effort of constructing coral reef condition basic data on Binor, Paiton, and Probolinggo regency seashore. The method used in this research is Line Intercept Transect (LIT method. LIT method is a method that used to decide benthic community on coral reef based on percentage growth, and to take note of benthic quantity along transect line. Percentage of living coral coverage in 3 meters depth on this Binor Paiton seashore that may be categorized in a good condition is 57,65%. While the rest are dead coral that is only 1,45%, other life form in 23,2%, and non-life form in 17,7%. A good condition of coral reef is caused by coral reef transplantation on the seashore, so this coral reef is dominated by Acropora Branching. On the other hand, Mortality Index (IM of coral reef resulted in 24,5%. The result from observation and calculation of coral reef is dominated by Hard Coral in Acropora Branching (ACB with coral reef coverage percentage of 39%, Coral Massive (CM with coral reef coverage percentage of 2,85%, Coral Foliose (CF with coral reef coverage percentage of 1,6%, and Coral Mushroom (CRM with coral reef coverage percentage of 8,5%. Observation in 10 meters depth

  7. Virus-host interactions and their roles in coral reef health and disease.

    Thurber, Rebecca Vega; Payet, Jérôme P; Thurber, Andrew R; Correa, Adrienne M S

    2017-04-01

    Coral reefs occur in nutrient-poor shallow waters, constitute biodiversity and productivity hotspots, and are threatened by anthropogenic disturbance. This Review provides an introduction to coral reef virology and emphasizes the links between viruses, coral mortality and reef ecosystem decline. We describe the distinctive benthic-associated and water-column- associated viromes that are unique to coral reefs, which have received less attention than viruses in open-ocean systems. We hypothesize that viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes dynamically interact with their hosts in the water column and with scleractinian (stony) corals to influence microbial community dynamics, coral bleaching and disease, and reef biogeochemical cycling. Last, we outline how marine viruses are an integral part of the reef system and suggest that the influence of viruses on reef function is an essential component of these globally important environments.

  8. ADAPTIVE ENERGY-SAVING CULTIVATOR FOR STONY SOILS CULTIVATING

    A. B. Kudzaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Practice of cultivators operation on stony soils in RNO-Alania with high hardness and humidity indicates that traction resistance during the work varies widely, with deviation from the mean value by more than 2 times. Optimally adjust the machine to the soil background when using most modern mechanisms of regulation is not always possible. Customizing the data machine boils down to the choice of priority between the vibration of the working bodies in the soil, the maintenance of the given depth and power reserve stands required to crawl the working body of the big stones. It is very difficult to get in practice the best combination of these three factors, especially on stony soils. Therefore, the machine must be designed with the ability to quickly adjust to changing operating conditions and modes to ensure energy-saving effects and not violations of the specified soil depth of various hardness with the possibility of equipping the machine racks with different working bodies. The interrow cultivator with the possibility of the quick adjustment (including automated to varying conditions was developed. In the process of studied basic parameters of elastic composite racks and parameters of pneumatic mechanism drive to adjust the proposed section of the machine were established. The system hardiness in layouts by elastic bars with air pressure up to 0.6 MPa varies from 17.7 to 45.3 N/mm. It was received effective values of pressures 0.4-0.5 MPa in the pneumatic drive partitions of the machine when operating with universal blade and ridger body OK-3 on stony soil. As a result, traction resistance decreases by 30-35 percent.

  9. Interactive effects of oxygen, carbon dioxide and flow on photosynthesis and respiration in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis

    Osinga, Ronald; Derksen-Hooijberg, Marlous; Wijgerde, Tim; Verreth, Johan A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Rates of dark respiration and net photosynthesis were measured for six replicate clonal fragments of the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767), which were incubated under 12 different combinations of dissolved oxygen (20%, 100% and 150% saturation), dissolved carbon dioxide (9.5 and

  10. Cesium fixation in mushrooms

    Keller, C.

    1990-01-01

    It has been found that the various mushroom species accumulate Cs-137 in very different quantities. Whereas specimens of the species Xeromus badius always contained high amounts of Cs-137, analyses of specimens of the related species Boletus edulis showed only weak accumulation of the radionuclide. It is assumed that this general difference in accumulation of Cs-137 is due to a difference in the organic constituents of the mushrooms. (orig.) [de

  11. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (cesarea, A. campestris, A. edulis, A. macrosporus, and A. silvaticus. A particularly rich source of selenium could be obtained from selenium-enriched mushrooms that are cultivated on a substrate fortified with selenium (as inorganic salt or selenized-yeast). The Se-enriched Champignon Mushroom could contain up to 30 or 110 microg Se/g dw, while the Varnished Polypore (Ganoderma lucidum) could contain up to 72 microg Se/g dw. An increasingly growing database on chemical forms of selenium of mushrooms indicates that the seleno-compounds identified in carpophore include selenocysteine, selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenite, and several unidentified seleno-compounds; their proportions vary widely. Some aspects of environmental selenium occurrence and human body pharmacokinetics and nutritional needs will also be briefly discussed in this review.

  12. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  13. Stony Brook's Graduate Courses in Clear, Vivid, Conversational Communication

    Bass, E.

    2011-12-01

    Graduate students in the sciences at Stony Brook University are taking for-credit courses to learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including public officials, the press, students, potential funders and employers, colleagues in other fields, and the general public. Five Communicating Science courses are offered; two more will be added in January, 2012. The courses are offered by the School of Journalism and developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). This interdisciplinary center was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, director and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. At the core of the program are three 1-credit (14-hour) modules that rely on experiential learning, repeated practice and immediate, interactive feedback. In Distilling Your Message, students practice speaking clearly, vividly and conversationally about their work at different levels of complexity and formality to different audiences, using storytelling techniques where appropriate. In Writing for the Public, they extend these skills into writing. In Improvisation for Scientists, the most unconventional of the courses, students play improvisational theater games to help themselves connect more directly, personally and responsively with their audiences. In their first two semesters, the courses are expected to serve about 90 students, taking a total of about 180 credits. Most of the courses have filled quickly, mixing master's and doctoral students from more than a dozen fields, including marine and atmospheric sciences. Three to six credits of Communicating Science courses are required for students in two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. The content and methods of the courses are based largely on lessons learned from evaluations of all-day workshops that CCS has conducted for more than 250

  14. Elemental composition analysis of stony meteorites discovered in Phitsanulok, Thailand

    Loylip, T.; Wannawichian, S.

    2017-09-01

    A meteorite is a fragment of pure stone, iron or the mixture of stony-iron. The falling of meteorites into Earth’s surface is part of Earth’s accretion process from dust and rocks in our solar system. When these fragments come close enough to the Earth to be attracted by its gravity, they may fall into the Earth. Following the detection of objects that fall from the sky onto a home in Phitsanulok in June 27, the meteorites were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) instruments. The results from SEM/EDS analysis show that the meteorites are mainly composed of Fe-Ni and Fe-s. The meteorite is Achondrite, a class of meteorite which does not contain Chondrule. The meteorites in this work are thought to be part of a large asteroid.

  15. Selenium content of mushrooms.

    Stijve, T

    1977-07-29

    The selenium contents of 83 species of wild mushrooms were determined by oxygen combustion of the sample, followed by conversion of selenite to bromopiazselenol and final estimation by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography. Selenium concentration were found to range from 0.012-20.0 mg/kg dry weight. Selenium content was species-dependent. High concentrations were found in Agaricaceae and in certain Boletaceae of the genus Tubiporus, whereas in Russulaceae, Amanitaceae and Cantharellaceae selenium-rich species were absent or rare. Ascomycetes and all mushrooms growing on wood had a very low selenium content. The highest selenium concentrations (up to 20 ppm) were found in Boletus (Tubiporus) edulis, a most popular edible mushroom. Analyses of various parts of carpophores of B. edulis, Suillus luteus and Amanita muscaria indicate that in all three species the stalk contains less selenium than the fleshy part of the cap. In Boletus and Suillus the highest selenium content was found in the tubes.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata.

    Sarit Karako-Lampert

    Full Text Available The principal architects of coral reefs are the scleractinian corals; these species are divided in two major clades referred to as "robust" and "complex" corals. Although the molecular diversity of the "complex" clade has received considerable attention, with several expressed sequence tag (EST libraries and a complete genome sequence having been constructed, the "robust" corals have received far less attention, despite the fact that robust corals have been prominent focal points for ecological and physiological studies. Filling this gap affords important opportunities to extend these studies and to improve our understanding of the differences between the two major clades. Here, we present an EST library from Stylophora pistillata (Esper 1797 and systematically analyze the assembled transcripts compared to putative homologs from the complete proteomes of six well-characterized metazoans: Nematostella vectensis, Hydra magnipapillata, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Ciona intestinalis and Homo sapiens. Furthermore, comparative analyses of the Stylophora pistillata ESTs were performed against several Cnidaria from the Scleractinia, Actiniaria and Hydrozoa, as well as against other stony corals separately. Functional characterization of S. pistillata transcripts into KOG/COG categories and further description of Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling pathways showed that the assembled EST library provides sufficient data and coverage. These features of this new library suggest considerable opportunities for extending our understanding of the molecular and physiological behavior of "robust" corals.

  17. Assessing land use, sedimentation, and water quality stressors as predictors of coral reef condition in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    Oliver, L M; Fisher, W S; Fore, L; Smith, A; Bradley, P

    2018-03-13

    Coral reef condition on the south shore of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, was assessed at various distances from Charlotte Amalie, the most densely populated city on the island. Human influence in the area includes industrial activity, wastewater discharge, cruise ship docks, and impervious surfaces throughout the watershed. Anthropogenic activity was characterized using a landscape development intensity (LDI) index, sedimentation threat (ST) estimates, and water quality (WQ) impairments in the near-coastal zone. Total three-dimensional coral cover, reef rugosity, and coral diversity had significant negative coefficients for LDI index, as did densities of dominant species Orbicella annularis, Orbicella franksi, Montastraea cavernosa, Orbicella faveolata, and Porites porites. However, overall stony coral colony density was not significantly correlated with stressors. Positive relationships between reef rugosity and ST, between coral diversity and ST, and between coral diversity and WQ were unexpected because these stressors are generally thought to negatively influence coral growth and health. Sponge density was greater with higher disturbance indicators (ST and WQ), consistent with reports of greater resistance by sponges to degraded water quality compared to stony corals. The highest FoRAM (Foraminifera in Reef Assessment and Monitoring) indices indicating good water quality were found offshore from the main island and outside the harbor. Negative associations between stony coral metrics and LDI index have been reported elsewhere in the Caribbean and highlight LDI index potential as a spatial tool to characterize land-based anthropogenic stressor gradients relevant to coral reefs. Fewer relationships were found with an integrated stressor index but with similar trends in response direction.

  18. Stony meteoroid space erosion and drag: Effect on cosmic ray exposure ages

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2017-09-01

    Collisions with dust particles in retrograde orbits cause space erosion on stony meteoroids in addition to the particle drag which causes drift toward resonances. The spacing between resonances determines the maximum drift time and sets upper limits on the neon-21 cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages for meteoroids less than ∼1 m in radius, while space erosion controls the limit for radii greater than ∼1 m; the limits accord well with the measured CRE ages of stony meteorites.

  19. Benthic community structure on coral reefs exposed to intensive recreational snorkeling.

    Bobbie Renfro

    Full Text Available Chronic anthropogenic disturbances on coral reefs in the form of overfishing and pollution can shift benthic community composition away from stony corals and toward macroalgae. The use of reefs for recreational snorkeling and diving potentially can lead to similar ecological impacts if not well-managed, but impacts of snorkeling on benthic organisms are not well understood. We quantified variation in benthic community structure along a gradient of snorkeling frequency in an intensively-visited portion of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. We determined rates of snorkeling in 6 water sections and rates of beach visitation in 4 adjacent land sections at Akumal Bay, Mexico. For each in-water section at 1-3 m depth, we also assessed the percent cover of benthic organisms including taxa of stony corals and macroalgae. Rates of recreational snorkeling varied from low in the southwestern to very high (>1000 snorkelers d-1 in the northeastern sections of the bay. Stony coral cover decreased and macroalgal cover increased significantly with levels of snorkeling, while trends varied among taxa for other organisms such as gorgonians, fire corals, and sea urchins. We conclude that benthic organisms appear to exhibit taxon-specific variation with levels of recreational snorkeling. To prevent further degradation, we recommend limitation of snorkeler visitation rates, coupled with visitor education and in-water guides to reduce reef-damaging behaviors by snorkelers in high-use areas. These types of management activities, integrated with reef monitoring and subsequent readjustment of management, have the potential to reverse the damage potentially inflicted on coral reefs by the expansion of reef-based recreational snorkeling.

  20. Beam emittance of the Stony Brook Tandem-LINAC booster

    Scholldorf, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation is primarily a study of the longitudinal and transverse beam emittance of the Stony Brook Heavy Ion Tandem LINAC Accelerator Facility, with a secondary emphasis on the beam dynamical design of two key elements of the system: a low energy double-drift buncher, and an achromatic double-90 0 LINAC injection system. A transverse emittance measuring system consisting of two translation stages controlled by stepper motors is described. Each stage carried a pair of beam defining slits mounted so that both horizontal and vertical emittances could be measured with only linear motion of the stage assembly. Beam currents were measured directly by a low-noise, high-sensitivity electrometer circuit integrated with the second slit-stage assembly. A mini-computer controlled the motors and acquired and displayed the data. Transverse emittance areas of beams of 12 C, 16 O, 32 S, and 58 Ni were measured at ion source extraction potential, after ion source acceleration, after tandem acceleration, and after LINAC acceleration. The results were analyzed in terms of source sputter-cone geometry, angle straggling in gas and foil strippers, and a variety of other factors

  1. Detecting Terrain Stoniness From Airborne Laser Scanning Data †

    Paavo Nevalainen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three methods to estimate the presence of ground surface stones from publicly available Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS point clouds are presented. The first method approximates the local curvature by local linear multi-scale fitting, and the second method uses Discrete-Differential Gaussian curvature based on the ground surface triangulation. The third baseline method applies Laplace filtering to Digital Elevation Model (DEM in a 2 m regular grid data. All methods produce an approximate Gaussian curvature distribution which is then vectorized and classified by logistic regression. Two training data sets consisted of 88 and 674 polygons of mass-flow deposits, respectively. The locality of the polygon samples is a sparse canopy boreal forest, where the density of ALS ground returns is sufficiently high to reveal information about terrain micro-topography. The surface stoniness of each polygon sample was categorized for supervised learning by expert observation on the site. The leave-pair-out (L2O cross-validation of the local linear fit method results in the area under curve A U C = 0 . 74 and A U C = 0 . 85 on two data sets, respectively. This performance can be expected to suit real world applications such as detecting coarse-grained sediments for infrastructure construction. A wall-to-wall predictor based on the study was demonstrated.

  2. Crowning corals

    Raghukumar, C.

    and build-awareness about the rich, diverse biological resources is warranted and a plea is made to manage the sewage, oil and thermal pollution to help preserve the biodiversity of coral and associated flora and fauna....

  3. Evapotranspiration simulated by CRITERIA and AquaCrop models in stony soils

    Pasquale Campi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a water balance model is also based on the ability to correctly perform simulations in heterogeneous soils. The objective of this paper is to test CRITERIA and AquaCrop models in order to evaluate their suitability in estimating evapotranspiration at the field scale in two types of soil in the Mediterranean region: non-stony and stony soil. The first step of the work was to calibrate both models under the non-stony conditions. The models were calibrated by using observations on wheat crop (leaf area index or canopy cover, and phenological stages as a function of degree days and pedo-climatic measurements. The second step consisted in the analysing the impact of the soil type on the models performances by comparing simulated and measured values. The outputs retained in the analysis were soil water content (at the daily scale and crop evapotranspiration (at two time scales: daily and crop season. The model performances were evaluated through four statistical tests: normalised difference (D% at the seasonal time scale; and relative root mean square error (RRMSE, efficiency index (EF, coefficient of determination (r2 at the daily scale. At the seasonal scale, values of D% were less than 15% in stony and on-stony soils, indicating a good performance attained by both models. At the daily scale, the RRMSE values (<30% indicate that the evapotranspiration simulated by CRITERIA is acceptable in both soil types. In the stony soil conditions, 3 out 4 statistical tests (RRMSE, EF, r2 indicate the inadequacy of AquaCrop to simulate correctly daily evapotranspiration. The higher performance of CRITERIA model to simulate daily evapotranspiration in stony soils, is due to the soil submodel, which requires the percentage skeleton as an input, while AquaCrop model takes into account the presence of skeleton by reducing the soil volume.

  4. Comparative genomics explains the evolutionary success of reef-forming corals

    Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2016-05-24

    Transcriptome and genome data from twenty stony coral species and a selection of reference bilaterians were studied to elucidate coral evolutionary history. We identified genes that encode the proteins responsible for the precipitation and aggregation of the aragonite skeleton on which the organisms live, and revealed a network of environmental sensors that coordinate responses of the host animals to temperature, light, and pH. Furthermore, we describe a variety of stress-related pathways, including apoptotic pathways that allow the host animals to detoxify reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are generated by their intracellular photosynthetic symbionts, and determine the fate of corals under environmental stress. Some of these genes arose through horizontal gene transfer and comprise at least 0.2% of the animal gene inventory. Our analysis elucidates the evolutionary strategies that have allowed symbiotic corals to adapt and thrive for hundreds of millions of years.

  5. Evidence for Rhythmicity Pacemaker in the Calcification Process of Scleractinian Coral

    Gutner-Hoch, Eldad; Schneider, Kenneth; Stolarski, Jaroslaw; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Yam, Ruth; Meibom, Anders; Shemesh, Aldo; Levy, Oren

    2016-02-01

    Reef-building scleractinian (stony) corals are among the most efficient bio-mineralizing organisms in nature. The calcification rate of scleractinian corals oscillates under ambient light conditions, with a cyclic, diurnal pattern. A fundamental question is whether this cyclic pattern is controlled by exogenous signals or by an endogenous ‘biological-clock’ mechanism, or both. To address this problem, we have studied calcification patterns of the Red Sea scleractinian coral Acropora eurystoma with frequent measurements of total alkalinity (AT) under different light conditions. Additionally, skeletal extension and ultra-structure of newly deposited calcium carbonate were elucidated with 86Sr isotope labeling analysis, combined with NanoSIMS ion microprobe and scanning electron microscope imaging. Our results show that the calcification process persists with its cyclic pattern under constant light conditions while dissolution takes place within one day of constant dark conditions, indicating that an intrinsic, light-entrained mechanism may be involved in controlling the calcification process in photosymbiotic corals.

  6. Comparative genomics explains the evolutionary success of reef-forming corals

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Agrawal, Shobhit; Aranda, Manuel; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Belcaid, Mahdi; Drake, Jeana L; Erwin, Douglas; Foret, Sylvian; Gates, Ruth D; Gruber, David F; Kamel, Bishoy; Lesser, Michael P; Levy, Oren; Liew, Yi Jin; MacManes, Matthew; Mass, Tali; Medina, Monica; Mehr, Shaadi; Meyer, Eli; Price, Dana C; Putnam, Hollie M; Qiu, Huan; Shinzato, Chuya; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Stokes, Alexander J; Tambutté , Sylvie; Tchernov, Dan; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wagner, Nicole; Walker, Charles W; Weber, Andreas PM; Weis, Virginia; Zelzion, Ehud; Zoccola, Didier; Falkowski, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptome and genome data from twenty stony coral species and a selection of reference bilaterians were studied to elucidate coral evolutionary history. We identified genes that encode the proteins responsible for the precipitation and aggregation of the aragonite skeleton on which the organisms live, and revealed a network of environmental sensors that coordinate responses of the host animals to temperature, light, and pH. Furthermore, we describe a variety of stress-related pathways, including apoptotic pathways that allow the host animals to detoxify reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are generated by their intracellular photosynthetic symbionts, and determine the fate of corals under environmental stress. Some of these genes arose through horizontal gene transfer and comprise at least 0.2% of the animal gene inventory. Our analysis elucidates the evolutionary strategies that have allowed symbiotic corals to adapt and thrive for hundreds of millions of years.

  7. Global collection of mushroom pathogens

    Baars, J.J.P.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Korsten, L.

    2013-01-01

    In many places in the world, increasingly less chemical crop protection agents are available for use in mushroom cultivation. As a consequence, mushroom cultivation will loose the ability to use crop protection agents. As a consequence, good hygiene management, early detection and monitoring of

  8. Dongsha Atoll: A potential thermal refuge for reef-building corals in the South China Sea.

    Tkachenko, Konstantin S; Soong, Keryea

    2017-06-01

    Dongsha Atoll (also known as the Pratas Islands), the northernmost atoll in the South China Sea, experiences two contrasting physical phenomena: repetitive anomalies of the sea surface temperature exceeding the coral bleaching threshold and regular effects of the world's strongest internal waves resulting in the rhythmic upwelling of cold deep waters at the outer reef slopes of the atoll. This unique combination may result in significant differences in coral species composition and structure between the lagoon and forereef. Surveys conducted in August-September 2016 at 12 study sites in the 2-15 m depth range at Dongsha Atoll revealed a clear spatial separation between 'thermally-susceptible' stony coral genera, including Acropora, Pocillopora and Montipora, which mainly inhabited the forereef, and 'thermally-resistant' genera, including massive Porites, foliaceous Echinopora, Pavona and Turbinaria, which mainly resided in the lagoon. The mean coral cover and species richness on the forereef were respectively 1.8 and 1.4 times higher than those in the lagoon (61.3% and 98 species on the forereef vs. 34.2% and 69 species in the lagoon). Coral mortality rates, expressed as the ratio of dead to live stony corals, showed the same pattern (0.4 in the lagoon vs. 0.009 on the forereef). Furthermore, in a laboratory experiment, 'thermally-susceptible' taxa from the lagoon, (e.g. Pocillopora verrucosa and P. damicornis), exhibited higher resistance to bleaching than did their counterparts from the forereef. The present findings indicate that Dongsha Atoll is a potential thermal refuge for reef-building corals in the northern South China Sea and reveal the development of resilience and resistance to bleaching in coral communities of the lagoon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: Button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Potočnik, Ivana; Stepanović, Miloš; Rekanović, Emil; Todorović, Biljana; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.) and shiitake (Lentinus edodes). Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal a...

  10. Radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms

    Kostiainen, E.; Ylipieti, J.

    2010-02-01

    Surveillance of radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms was started in 1986 at STUK. Results of the surveillance programs carried out in Lapland and other parts of Finland are given in this report. More than 2000 samples of edible mushrooms have been analysed during 1986-2008. The 137 Cs detected in the mushrooms mainly originates from the 137 Cs deposition due to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms in the end of 1970s and in the beginning of 1980s varied from some ten to two hundred becquerels per kilogram originating from the nuclear weapon test period. The uneven division of the Chernobyl fallout is seen in the areal variation of 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms, the 137 Cs concentrations being about tenfold in the areas with the highest deposition compared to those where the deposition was lowest. After the Chernobyl accident the maximum values in the 137 Cs concentrations were reached during 1987-88 among most species of mushrooms. The 137 Cs concentrations have decreased slowly, being in 2008 about 40 per cent of the maximum values. The 137 Cs concentrations may be tenfold in the mushroom species with high uptake of cesium (Rozites caperatus, Hygrophorus camarophyllus, Lactarius trivialis) compared to the species with low uptake (Albatrellus ovinus, Leccinum sp.) picked in the same area. The 137 Cs contents in certain species of commercial mushrooms in Finland still exceed the maximum permitted level, 600 Bq/kg, recommended to be respected when placing wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and lake fish on the market (Commission recommendation 2003/274/Euratom). Therefore, the 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms should be measured before placing them on the market in the areas of the highest 137 Cs deposition, except for Albatrellus ovinus, Boletus sp. and Cantharellus cibarius. The 137 Cs concentrations of common commercial mushroom species, Cantharellus tubaeformis and Craterellus

  11. Contamination of mushrooms with radionuclides

    Benova, K.

    2013-01-01

    There is 27 years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident and the half-life of 137 Cs is 30 years. The radioactive cloud hit both former Czechoslovakia, but also very distant cities throughout Europe. In this work, author focused on recovery of radiocesium content in mushrooms from various sites in Slovakia, Poland and England. Author evaluated 28 samples of dried mushrooms. 137 Cs was measured by gamma spectrometry (Canberra). Elevated levels have been reported occasionally in mushroom not only in Slovakia but also in distant England. The values obtained are lower than recommended standard (author)

  12. A snapshot of a coral "holobiont": a transcriptome assembly of the scleractinian coral, porites, captures a wide variety of genes from both the host and symbiotic zooxanthellae.

    Shinzato, Chuya; Inoue, Mayuri; Kusakabe, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Massive scleractinian corals of the genus Porites are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific, and they are more resistant to thermal stress than other stony corals, such as the genus Acropora. Because coral health and survival largely depend on the interaction between a coral host and its symbionts, it is important to understand the molecular interactions of an entire "coral holobiont". We simultaneously sequenced transcriptomes of Porites australiensis and its symbionts using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. We obtained 14.3 Gbp of sequencing data and assembled it into 74,997 contigs (average: 1,263 bp, N50 size: 2,037 bp). We successfully distinguished contigs originating from the host (Porites) and the symbiont (Symbiodinium) by aligning nucleotide sequences with the decoded Acropora digitifera and Symbiodinium minutum genomes. In contrast to previous coral transcriptome studies, at least 35% of the sequences were found to have originated from the symbionts, indicating that it is possible to analyze both host and symbiont transcriptomes simultaneously. Conserved protein domain and KEGG analyses showed that the dataset contains broad gene repertoires of both Porites and Symbiodinium. Effective utilization of sequence reads revealed that the polymorphism rate in P. australiensis is 1.0% and identified the major symbiotic Symbiodinium as Type C15. Analyses of amino acid biosynthetic pathways suggested that this Porites holobiont is probably able to synthesize most of the common amino acids and that Symbiodinium is potentially able to provide essential amino acids to its host. We believe this to be the first molecular evidence of complementarity in amino acid metabolism between coral hosts and their symbionts. We successfully assembled genes originating from both the host coral and the symbiotic Symbiodinium to create a snapshot of the coral holobiont transcriptome. This dataset will facilitate a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of coral symbioses

  13. A snapshot of a coral "holobiont": a transcriptome assembly of the scleractinian coral, porites, captures a wide variety of genes from both the host and symbiotic zooxanthellae.

    Chuya Shinzato

    Full Text Available Massive scleractinian corals of the genus Porites are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific, and they are more resistant to thermal stress than other stony corals, such as the genus Acropora. Because coral health and survival largely depend on the interaction between a coral host and its symbionts, it is important to understand the molecular interactions of an entire "coral holobiont". We simultaneously sequenced transcriptomes of Porites australiensis and its symbionts using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. We obtained 14.3 Gbp of sequencing data and assembled it into 74,997 contigs (average: 1,263 bp, N50 size: 2,037 bp. We successfully distinguished contigs originating from the host (Porites and the symbiont (Symbiodinium by aligning nucleotide sequences with the decoded Acropora digitifera and Symbiodinium minutum genomes. In contrast to previous coral transcriptome studies, at least 35% of the sequences were found to have originated from the symbionts, indicating that it is possible to analyze both host and symbiont transcriptomes simultaneously. Conserved protein domain and KEGG analyses showed that the dataset contains broad gene repertoires of both Porites and Symbiodinium. Effective utilization of sequence reads revealed that the polymorphism rate in P. australiensis is 1.0% and identified the major symbiotic Symbiodinium as Type C15. Analyses of amino acid biosynthetic pathways suggested that this Porites holobiont is probably able to synthesize most of the common amino acids and that Symbiodinium is potentially able to provide essential amino acids to its host. We believe this to be the first molecular evidence of complementarity in amino acid metabolism between coral hosts and their symbionts. We successfully assembled genes originating from both the host coral and the symbiotic Symbiodinium to create a snapshot of the coral holobiont transcriptome. This dataset will facilitate a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of

  14. Magnetic particles extracted from manganese nodules: Suggested origin from stony and iron meteorites

    Finkelman, R.B.

    1970-01-01

    On the basis of x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe data, spherical and ellipsoidal particles extracted from manganese nodules were divided into three groups. Group I particles are believed to be derived from iron meteorites, and Group II particles from stony meteorites. Group III particles are believed to be volcanic in origin.

  15. Biology of corals and coral reefs

    Rajkumar, R.; Parulekar, A.H.

    on the systematic position is presented. The general structure is depicted with illustrations. Physiology part is updated to current knowledge on reproduction, nutrition and excretion of corals. The coral reefs section begins with status of world reefs...

  16. The nitrogen isotopes of fossil Tahiti corals from the last deglaciation

    Wang, X.; Sigman, D. M.; Cohen, A. L.; Thompson, W. G.

    2015-12-01

    Despite its vast geographic area, the South Pacific gyre has been minimally explored in terms of its changing conditions over glacial cycles, partly due to slow sedimentation and poor preservation of carbonate in its deep sea sediments. We have developed a sensitive and precise method for measuring the nitrogen isotopes (d15N) of organic matter protected within the skeletal aragonite of stony corals (coral skeletal d15N). Analyses of modern corals from 8 global sites suggest that the coral skeletal d15N first and foremost records the d15N of regional ocean nitrate, with a secondary effect of local reef productivity. In this study, we apply this new proxy to fossil corals collected during the Expedition 310 of International Ocean Discovery Program, investigating the nitrogen cycle of the South Pacific since the last deglaciation. We measured skeletal d15N in consecutive growth bands in 4 U-Th dated coral samples (with ages of 14.3 ka, 13.3 ka, 11.8 ka and 8.4 ka) from a single core. Within each coral, over the 3-8 consecutive bands sampled, inter-band d15N variation was 1-2.5‰. However, the band-averaged d15N from each dated sample showed Pacific. The implications of these results for the regional nitrogen cycle as well as the deglacial change in mean ocean nitrate d15N will be discussed.

  17. Macroalgae in the coral reefs of Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea) as a possible indicator of reef degradation

    Bahartan, Karnit; Zibdah, Mohammad; Ahmed, Yousef; Israel, Alvaro; Brickner, Itzchak; Abelson, Avigdor

    2010-01-01

    The current state of health of the coral reefs in the northern Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea), notably the Eilat reefs, is under debate regarding both their exact condition and the causes of degradation. A dearth of earlier data and unequivocal reliable indices are the major problems hinder a clear understanding of the reef state. Our research objective was to examine coral-algal dynamics as a potential cause and an indication of reef degradation. The community structure of stony corals and algae along the northern Gulf of Aqaba reveal non-seasonal turf algae dominancy in the shallow Eilat reefs (up to 72%), while the proximate Aqaba reefs present negligible turf cover (<6%). We believe that turf dominancy can indicate degradation in these reefs, based on the reduction in essential reef components followed by proliferation of perennial turf algae. Our findings provide further evidence for the severe state of the Eilat coral reefs.

  18. Effectiveness of Training Programme on Mushroom Cultivation

    Rahman, Md. Sazzadur; Hossain, Kh. Zulfikar; Ali, Md. Sekender; Afroz, Fauzia

    2017-01-01

    Effectiveness is one of the key parameters to assess success of any programs. However, the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation was not well addressed. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation and to explore the relationships of each of the selected characteristics of the trained mushroom farmers with their effectiveness of training programme. Data were collected from the trained mushroom farmers of s...

  19. Wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in Nigeria ...

    African Crop Science Journal ... On the other hand, if nutrition analysis reveals different nutrition parameters for both types of mushrooms, 43.3% opted for cultivated mushroom, 42.2%, wild; 12.2% both; while 2.2% would eat ... Keywords: Consumption pattern, Lentinus squarrosulus, nutrition, perception, wild mushroom ...

  20. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  1. Comparative analysis of the genomes of Stylophora pistillata and Acropora digitifera provides evidence for extensive differences between species of corals

    Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-12-08

    Stony corals form the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Their phylogeny is characterized by a deep evolutionary divergence that separates corals into a robust and complex clade dating back to at least 245 mya. However, the genomic consequences and clade-specific evolution remain unexplored. In this study we have produced the genome of a robust coral, Stylophora pistillata, and compared it to the available genome of a complex coral, Acropora digitifera. We conducted a fine-scale gene-based analysis focusing on ortholog groups. Among the core set of conserved proteins, we found an emphasis on processes related to the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Genes associated with the algal symbiosis were also independently expanded in both species, but both corals diverged on the identity of ortholog groups expanded, and we found uneven expansions in genes associated with innate immunity and stress response. Our analyses demonstrate that coral genomes can be surprisingly disparate. Future analyses incorporating more genomic data should be able to determine whether the patterns elucidated here are not only characteristic of the differences between S. pistillata and A. digitifera but also representative of corals from the robust and complex clade at large.

  2. Comparative analysis of the genomes of Stylophora pistillata and Acropora digitifera provides evidence for extensive differences between species of corals

    Voolstra, Christian R.; Li, Yong; Liew, Yi Jin; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Zoccola, Didier; Flot, Jean-Franç ois; Tambutté , Sylvie; Allemand, Denis; Aranda, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Stony corals form the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Their phylogeny is characterized by a deep evolutionary divergence that separates corals into a robust and complex clade dating back to at least 245 mya. However, the genomic consequences and clade-specific evolution remain unexplored. In this study we have produced the genome of a robust coral, Stylophora pistillata, and compared it to the available genome of a complex coral, Acropora digitifera. We conducted a fine-scale gene-based analysis focusing on ortholog groups. Among the core set of conserved proteins, we found an emphasis on processes related to the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Genes associated with the algal symbiosis were also independently expanded in both species, but both corals diverged on the identity of ortholog groups expanded, and we found uneven expansions in genes associated with innate immunity and stress response. Our analyses demonstrate that coral genomes can be surprisingly disparate. Future analyses incorporating more genomic data should be able to determine whether the patterns elucidated here are not only characteristic of the differences between S. pistillata and A. digitifera but also representative of corals from the robust and complex clade at large.

  3. Spatial and Species Variations in Bacterial Communities Associated with Corals from the Red Sea as Revealed by Pyrosequencing

    Lee, O. O.

    2012-08-03

    Microbial associations with corals are common and are most likely symbiotic, although their diversity and relationships with environmental factors and host species remain unclear. In this study, we adopted a 16S rRNA gene tag-pyrosequencing technique to investigate the bacterial communities associated with three stony Scleractinea and two soft Octocorallia corals from three locations in the Red Sea. Our results revealed highly diverse bacterial communities in the Red Sea corals, with more than 600 ribotypes detected and up to 1,000 species estimated from a single coral species. Altogether, 21 bacterial phyla were recovered from the corals, of which Gammaproteobacteria was the most dominant group, and Chloroflexi, Chlamydiae, and the candidate phylum WS3 were reported in corals for the first time. The associated bacterial communities varied greatly with location, where environmental conditions differed significantly. Corals from disturbed areas appeared to share more similar bacterial communities, but larger variations in community structures were observed between different coral species from pristine waters. Ordination methods identified salinity and depth as the most influential parameters affecting the abundance of Vibrio, Pseudoalteromonas, Serratia, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Achromobacter in the corals. On the other hand, bacteria such as Chloracidobacterium and Endozoicomonas were more sensitive to the coral species, suggesting that the host species type may be influential in the associated bacterial community, as well. The combined influences of the coral host and environmental factors on the associated microbial communities are discussed. This study represents the first comparative study using tag-pyrosequencing technology to investigate the bacterial communities in Red Sea corals.

  4. Chemical compositions of magnetic, stony spherules from deep-sea sediments determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Yamakoshi, Kazuo

    1984-01-01

    Chemical compositions of magnetic, stony spherules from deep sea sediments were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. High Ir, Au, Ni and Co contents indicate their extraterrestrial origin. The obtained compositions are considerably different from those of chondrites. It can be qualitatively interpreted, however, that cosmic matters having the compositions of chondrites are changed into magnetic, stony spherules by thermal degenerations during their atmospheric entry. (author)

  5. Erosion on very stony forest soil during phenomenal rain in Webster County, West Virginia

    J. H. Patric; W. E., Jr. Kidd

    1982-01-01

    On July 15 and 16, 1979, at least 6 inches of rain fell in central West Virginia during 3 hours, a storm of return period longer than 1,000 years. More than 6 miles of logging roads were examined for evidences of soil erosion and sediment delivery to streams. Erosion was negligible on very stony soils where (a) logging roads were litter covered, (b) road grades were...

  6. Lead/tin resonator development at the Stony Brook heavy-ion linac

    Sikora, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brennan, J.M.; Cole, M.; Noe, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Stony Brook Nuclear Structure Laboratory (NSL) has operated a superconducting heavy-ion booster linac since April 1983. The 40 copper split-loop resonators were developed and fabricated at Cal-Tech and plated with lead at Stony Brook. These original lead surfaces have given stable performance for the last 4 years, at an average accelerating gradient of about 2.5 MV/m in the high-β section. The low-β resonators however have never run reliably on-line much better than 2.0 MV/m, due to excessive vibration of their rather soft loop arms in the working accelerator environment. For the last 2-3 years the efforts of the Stony Brook accelerator development group have been focused on (1) a retrofit of the low-beta section of the linac with new QWRs and (2) the further development of plated superconducting surfaces. In particular a Sn/Pb alloy has been shown to give resonator performance at least comparable to that obtained with pure Pb but with a greatly simplified plating technique, as discussed below. Recently a possible heavy-ion injector based on superconducting RF quadrupole (RFQ) structures has also been studied. 13 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  7. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  8. Coral reefs - Specialized ecosystems

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    This paper discusses briefly some aspects that characterize and differentiate coral reef ecosystems from other tropical marine ecosystems. A brief account on the resources that are extractable from coral reefs, their susceptibility to natural...

  9. Spatial Distribution of Stony Desertification and Key Influencing Factors on Different Sampling Scales in Small Karst Watersheds

    Zhang, Zhenming; Zhou, Yunchao; Wang, Shijie

    2018-01-01

    Karst areas are typical ecologically fragile areas, and stony desertification has become the most serious ecological and economic problems in these areas worldwide as well as a source of disasters and poverty. A reasonable sampling scale is of great importance for research on soil science in karst areas. In this paper, the spatial distribution of stony desertification characteristics and its influencing factors in karst areas are studied at different sampling scales using a grid sampling method based on geographic information system (GIS) technology and geo-statistics. The rock exposure obtained through sampling over a 150 m × 150 m grid in the Houzhai River Basin was utilized as the original data, and five grid scales (300 m × 300 m, 450 m × 450 m, 600 m × 600 m, 750 m × 750 m, and 900 m × 900 m) were used as the subsample sets. The results show that the rock exposure does not vary substantially from one sampling scale to another, while the average values of the five subsamples all fluctuate around the average value of the entire set. As the sampling scale increases, the maximum value and the average value of the rock exposure gradually decrease, and there is a gradual increase in the coefficient of variability. At the scale of 150 m × 150 m, the areas of minor stony desertification, medium stony desertification, and major stony desertification in the Houzhai River Basin are 7.81 km2, 4.50 km2, and 1.87 km2, respectively. The spatial variability of stony desertification at small scales is influenced by many factors, and the variability at medium scales is jointly influenced by gradient, rock content, and rock exposure. At large scales, the spatial variability of stony desertification is mainly influenced by soil thickness and rock content. PMID:29652811

  10. Spatial Distribution of Stony Desertification and Key Influencing Factors on Different Sampling Scales in Small Karst Watersheds

    Zhenming Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Karst areas are typical ecologically fragile areas, and stony desertification has become the most serious ecological and economic problems in these areas worldwide as well as a source of disasters and poverty. A reasonable sampling scale is of great importance for research on soil science in karst areas. In this paper, the spatial distribution of stony desertification characteristics and its influencing factors in karst areas are studied at different sampling scales using a grid sampling method based on geographic information system (GIS technology and geo-statistics. The rock exposure obtained through sampling over a 150 m × 150 m grid in the Houzhai River Basin was utilized as the original data, and five grid scales (300 m × 300 m, 450 m × 450 m, 600 m × 600 m, 750 m × 750 m, and 900 m × 900 m were used as the subsample sets. The results show that the rock exposure does not vary substantially from one sampling scale to another, while the average values of the five subsamples all fluctuate around the average value of the entire set. As the sampling scale increases, the maximum value and the average value of the rock exposure gradually decrease, and there is a gradual increase in the coefficient of variability. At the scale of 150 m × 150 m, the areas of minor stony desertification, medium stony desertification, and major stony desertification in the Houzhai River Basin are 7.81 km2, 4.50 km2, and 1.87 km2, respectively. The spatial variability of stony desertification at small scales is influenced by many factors, and the variability at medium scales is jointly influenced by gradient, rock content, and rock exposure. At large scales, the spatial variability of stony desertification is mainly influenced by soil thickness and rock content.

  11. Spatial Distribution of Stony Desertification and Key Influencing Factors on Different Sampling Scales in Small Karst Watersheds.

    Zhang, Zhenming; Zhou, Yunchao; Wang, Shijie; Huang, Xianfei

    2018-04-13

    Karst areas are typical ecologically fragile areas, and stony desertification has become the most serious ecological and economic problems in these areas worldwide as well as a source of disasters and poverty. A reasonable sampling scale is of great importance for research on soil science in karst areas. In this paper, the spatial distribution of stony desertification characteristics and its influencing factors in karst areas are studied at different sampling scales using a grid sampling method based on geographic information system (GIS) technology and geo-statistics. The rock exposure obtained through sampling over a 150 m × 150 m grid in the Houzhai River Basin was utilized as the original data, and five grid scales (300 m × 300 m, 450 m × 450 m, 600 m × 600 m, 750 m × 750 m, and 900 m × 900 m) were used as the subsample sets. The results show that the rock exposure does not vary substantially from one sampling scale to another, while the average values of the five subsamples all fluctuate around the average value of the entire set. As the sampling scale increases, the maximum value and the average value of the rock exposure gradually decrease, and there is a gradual increase in the coefficient of variability. At the scale of 150 m × 150 m, the areas of minor stony desertification, medium stony desertification, and major stony desertification in the Houzhai River Basin are 7.81 km², 4.50 km², and 1.87 km², respectively. The spatial variability of stony desertification at small scales is influenced by many factors, and the variability at medium scales is jointly influenced by gradient, rock content, and rock exposure. At large scales, the spatial variability of stony desertification is mainly influenced by soil thickness and rock content.

  12. Commercial Scale Production of Mushroom Liquid Seeds

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom liquid seed production technology was developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in the late 1990s. Initially, the liquid seeds were used mainly in the solid state fermentation process for converting oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres into ruminant feed. Considering widespread problems encountered by mushroom growers from use of solid seeds, especially in cases of contaminant agents infecting cultivated bags and inconsistencies in yield, we diverted our focus to utilising liquid seeds as alternative inocula for mushroom cultivation. These problems provide us opportunities to look into the issues and address the problems faced by mushroom growers. However, the technology of producing liquid seed at laboratory scale needs to be primed for commercial production. This paper discusses developmental aspects of mushroom liquid seed at commercial scale for the advancement of the country's mushroom industry. (author)

  13. Economic assessment of mushroom project commercialisation

    Mat Rasol Awang; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Meswan Maskom

    2010-01-01

    The market value of mushroom is worth US $45 billion comprising: US $28-30 billion from food, US $9-10 billion from medicinal products and US $3.5-4 billion from wild mushroom. Malaysian import deficit of mushroom over the year 2001-2007 was 40,933 metric ton that worth of RM 187.7 million. The existing local market is lucrative and the potential world market is very large. Having cultivation technology in placed, understanding key value chains of cultivation technology processes, this paper assesses the case study of project economic of mushroom commercialization. (author)

  14. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  15. Determining the extent and characterizing coral reef habitats of the northern latitudes of the Florida Reef Tract (Martin County).

    Walker, Brian K; Gilliam, David S

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has recently been implicated in poleward shifts of many tropical species including corals; thus attention focused on higher-latitude coral communities is warranted to investigate possible range expansions and ecosystem shifts due to global warming. As the northern extension of the Florida Reef Tract (FRT), the third-largest barrier reef ecosystem in the world, southeast Florida (25-27° N latitude) is a prime region to study such effects. Most of the shallow-water FRT benthic habitats have been mapped, however minimal data and limited knowledge exist about the coral reef communities of its northernmost reaches off Martin County. First benthic habitat mapping was conducted using newly acquired high resolution LIDAR bathymetry and aerial photography where possible to map the spatial extent of coral reef habitats. Quantitative data were collected to characterize benthic cover and stony coral demographics and a comprehensive accuracy assessment was performed. The data were then analyzed in a habitat biogeography context to determine if a new coral reef ecosystem region designation was warranted. Of the 374 km(2) seafloor mapped, 95.2% was Sand, 4.1% was Coral Reef and Colonized Pavement, and 0.7% was Other Delineations. Map accuracy assessment yielded an overall accuracy of 94.9% once adjusted for known map marginal proportions. Cluster analysis of cross-shelf habitat type and widths indicated that the benthic habitats were different than those further south and warranted designation of a new coral reef ecosystem region. Unlike the FRT further south, coral communities were dominated by cold-water tolerant species and LIDAR morphology indicated no evidence of historic reef growth during warmer climates. Present-day hydrographic conditions may be inhibiting poleward expansion of coral communities along Florida. This study provides new information on the benthic community composition of the northern FRT, serving as a baseline for future community shift and

  16. Water distribution in an orchard irrigated by perforated distributors in stony ground

    Decroix, M.; Marcesse, J.; Normand, M.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of new irrigation techniques the Compagnie Nationale d'Amenagement du Bas-Rhone et du Languedoc (B.Rh.L.) has developed a process of localized irrigation by perforated distributors. Conditions were defined for the optimum use of this process, especially the distribution of water in the ground. The study was carried out in a peach orchard in stony ground. The neutronic method was used to measure the soil moisture content. Because of the heterogeneous stone size distribution it was necessary for the specific humidity determination to take into account the dry apparent density. This parameter was measured by gammametry [fr

  17. New nanomaterials for applications in conservation and restoration of stony materials: A review

    Sierra-Fernandez, A.; Gomez-Villalba, L.S.; Rabanal, M.E.; Fort, R.

    2017-01-01

    In recent times, nanomaterials have been applied in the construction and maintenance of the world's cultural heritage with the aim of improving the consolidation and protection treatments of damaged stone. These nanomaterials include important advantages that could solve many problems found in the traditional interventions. The present paper aims to carry out a review of the state of art on the application of nanotechnology to the conservation and restoration of the stony cultural heritage. We highlight the different types of nanoparticles currently used to produce conservation treatments with enhanced material properties and novel functionalities.

  18. Corals diseases are a major cause of coral death

    Corals, like humans, are susceptible to diseases. Some coral diseases are associated with pathogenic bacteria; however, the causes of most remain unknown. Some diseases trigger rapid and extensive mortality, while others slowly cause localized color changes or injure coral tiss...

  19. Fresh-keeping of mushroom by irradiation

    Liu Chao; Xu Hongqing; Wang Hong; Cai Jian

    2003-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co γ irradiation on the preservation of Agaricus bisporus were studied. The results showed that after irradiation the mushroom had lower rates of membrane split, opening of pilei, browning, decomposition and lose of fresh weight. The fresh keeping period of mushroom irradiated with 1.2 kGy and stored at 4 degree C was prolonged to 30 days

  20. Accuracy of sampling during mushroom cultivation

    Baars, J.J.P.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments described in this report were performed to increase the accuracy of the analysis of the biological efficiency of Agaricus bisporus strains. Biological efficiency is a measure of the efficiency with which the mushroom strains use dry matter in the compost to produce mushrooms (expressed

  1. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  2. Temperature Control System for Mushroom Dryer

    Wibowo, I. A.; Indah, Nur; Sebayang, D.; Adam, N. H.

    2018-03-01

    The main problem in mushroom cultivation is the handling after the harvest. Drying is one technique to preserve the mushrooms. Traditionally, mushrooms are dried by sunshine which depends on the weather. This affects the quality of the dried mushrooms. Therefore, this paper proposes a system to provide an artificial drying for mushrooms in order to maintain their quality. The objective of the system is to control the mushroom drying process to be faster compared to the natural drying at an accurate and right temperature. A model of the mushroom dryer has been designed, built, and tested. The system comprises a chamber, heater, blower, temperature sensor and electronic control circuit. A microcontroller is used as the controller which is programmed to implement a bang-bang control that regulates the temperature of the chamber. A desired temperature is inputted as a set point of the control system. Temperature of 45 °C is chosen as the operational drying temperature. Several tests have been carried out to examine the performance of the system including drying speed, the effects of ambient conditions, and the effects of mushroom size. The results show that the system can satisfy the objective.

  3. The role of floridoside in osmoadaptation of coral-associated algal endosymbionts to high-salinity conditions

    Ochsenkuhn, Michael A.

    2017-08-17

    The endosymbiosis between Symbiodinium dinoflagellates and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. The survival of these ecosystems is under threat at a global scale, and better knowledge is needed to conceive strategies for mitigating future reef loss. Environmental disturbance imposing temperature, salinity, and nutrient stress can lead to the loss of the Symbiodinium partner, causing so-called coral bleaching. Some of the most thermotolerant coral-Symbiodinium associations occur in the Persian/Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea, which also represent the most saline coral habitats. We studied whether Symbiodinium alter their metabolite content in response to high-salinity environments. We found that Symbiodinium cells exposed to high salinity produced high levels of the osmolyte 2-O-glycerol-α-d-galactopyranoside (floridoside), both in vitro and in their coral host animals, thereby increasing their capacity and, putatively, the capacity of the holobiont to cope with the effects of osmotic stress in extreme environments. Given that floridoside has been previously shown to also act as an antioxidant, this osmolyte may serve a dual function: first, to serve as a compatible organic osmolyte accumulated by Symbiodinium in response to elevated salinities and, second, to counter reactive oxygen species produced as a consequence of potential salinity and heat stress.

  4. Investigation of trophic ecology in Newfoundland cold-water deep-sea corals using lipid class and fatty acid analyses

    Salvo, Flora; Hamoutene, Dounia; Hayes, Vonda E. Wareham; Edinger, Evan N.; Parrish, Christopher C.

    2018-03-01

    The trophic behavior of some deep-sea Newfoundland cold-water corals was explored using fatty acid (FA) and lipid profiles. No significant effect of geographic location and/or depth was identified in lipid or FA composition. However, differences were detected between and within taxon groups in hexa- or octocoral subclasses. Phospholipids constituted the main lipid class in all groups except black-thorny corals which had less structural lipids likely due to their morphology (stiff axes) and slower growth rates. Within each subclass, major differences in the identity of dominant FAs were detected at the order level, whereas differences between species and taxon groups of the same order were mainly driven by a variation in proportions of the dominant FA. Soft corals and gorgonians (Order Alcyonacea) were close in composition and are likely relying on phytodetritus resulting from algae, macrophytes and/or foraminifera, while sea pens (Order Pennatulacea) seem to consume more diatoms and/or herbivorous zooplankton with the exception of Pennatula sp. In the hexacoral subclass, black-thorny corals ( Stauropathes arctica) differed significantly from the stony-cup corals ( Flabellum alabastrum); S. arctica was seemingly more carnivorous (zooplankton markers) than F. alabastrum, which appears omnivorous (phyto- and zooplankton markers). Our results suggest that deep-sea corals are not as opportunistic as expected but have some selective feeding associated with taxonomy.

  5. Model for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

    Reedy, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This model is based on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production rates of many cosmogenic nuclides as a function of radius and depth. The peak production rates for most nuclides made by the reactions of energetic GCR particles occur near the centers of meteorites with radii of 40 to 70 g cm -2 . Although the model has some limitations, it reproduces well the basic trends for the depth-dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites of various radii. These production profiles agree fairly well with measurements of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites. Some of these production profiles are different than those calculated by others. The chemical dependence of the production rates for several nuclides varies with size and depth. 25 references, 8 figures

  6. The effect of soil stoniness on the estimation of water retention properties of soils: A case study from central France

    Tetegan, Marion; Richer de Forges, Anne; Verbeque, Bernard; Nicoullaud, Bernard; Desbourdes, Caroline; Bouthier, Alain; Arrouays, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the water retention capacity of a heterogeneous soil requires knowledge of the hydric properties of each soil phase. Nevertheless, for stony soils, the rock fragments have often been neglected. The objective of this work was then to propose a methodology to improve the calculation of the available water content (AWC) of stony soils at a regional scale. On a 36,200 ha surface area in Beauce located in the Region Centre of France, the AWC was calculated by coupling pedotransfer cl...

  7. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  8. Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications.

    El Enshasy, Hesham A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2013-12-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been used as food and medicine in different cultures. More recently, many bioactive compounds have been isolated from different types of mushrooms. Among these, immunomodulators have gained much interest based on the increasing growth of the immunotherapy sector. Mushroom immunomodulators are classified under four categories based on their chemical nature as: lectins, terpenoids, proteins, and polysaccharides. These compounds are produced naturally in mushrooms cultivated in greenhouses. For effective industrial production, cultivation is carried out in submerged culture to increase the bioactive compound yield, decrease the production time, and reduce the cost of downstream processing. This review provides a comprehensive overview on mushroom immunomodulators in terms of chemistry, industrial production, and applications in medical and nonmedical sectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mushroom flora and associated insect fauna in Nsukka Urban ...

    The mushroom flora and associated insect pests of mushrooms in Nsukka urban was studied. The abundance of mushrooms from sampled communites is indicaed with the family, Agaricaceae predominating “out of home” environment yielded more mushrooms (4.62) than the homestead environment (3.26). Insect pests ...

  10. Current Overview of Mushroom Production in the World

    Royse, Daniel J.; Baars, J.J.P.; Tan, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Edible, medicinal, and wild mushrooms are the three major components of the global mushroom industry. World production of cultivated, edible mushrooms has increased more than 30‐fold since 1978. China is the main producer of cultivated, edible mushrooms. Lentinus edodes is now the world's leading

  11. A Possible Role for Vitamin C in Coral Calcification

    Rosenthal, J. J.; Roberson, L.; Vazquez, N.

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of coral reefs to tropical, marine ecosystems, the biological components of the calcification process are poorly understood. Because calcification must involve the delivery of organic and inorganic components across cell membranes, we postulate that it has similar features to epithelial and neuronal transport mechanisms in vertebrates. Accordingly, we are interested in identifying the specific membrane transporters underlying skeleton formation. As a model, we are using larvae from the ubiquitous Caribbean species Porites astreoides, a rapidly growing stony coral that is resistant to anthropogenic stressors. Using Illumina RNAseq, we assembled a larval transcriptome and compared gene expression between swimming larvae and recently settled ones that had just commenced the process of calcification. As expected, we identified many ion transporter, pump and channel transcripts that were upregulated in settled larvae. It was surprising, however, to find that the most upregulated transcript appeared to encode a Na-dependent Vitamin C transporter (SLC23A). In vertebrates, SLC23A transporters play a vital role in bone morphogenesis where Vitamin C is an essential cofactor for enzymes that condition collagen precursors for assembly into mature molecules. In corals, collagen has been identified as a component of the skeleton's extracellular matrix. Using in situ hybridization, we showed that the P. astreoides SLC23A messages were expressed in regions adjacent to rapid skeleton formation, on the aboral surface and septa of settled larvae. To confirm that the coral clone is indeed a Vitamin C transporter, we expressed it in Xenopus oocytes and studied its activity using voltage-clamp. Preliminary data demonstrate that it induces a current that is activated by Na and Vitamin C. This approach will help us better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying calcification and how they might respond to environmental change.

  12. Coral reefs and eutrophication

    Stambler, N.

    1999-01-01

    Coral reefs are found in oligotrophic waters, which are poor in nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate, and possibly iron. In spite of this, coral reefs exhibit high gross primary productivity rates. They thrive in oligotrophic conditions because of the symbiotic relationship between corals and dinoflagellate algae (zooxanthellae) embedded in the coral tissue. In their mutualistic symbiosis, the zooxanthellae contribute their photosynthetic capability as the basis for the metabolic energy of the whole association, and eventually of a great part of the entire reef ecosystem

  13. Association of coral algal symbionts with a diverse viral community responsive to heat shock

    Brüwer, Jan D.

    2017-08-17

    Stony corals provide the structural foundation of coral reef ecosystems and are termed holobionts given they engage in symbioses, in particular with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Besides Symbiodinium, corals also engage with bacteria affecting metabolism, immunity, and resilience of the coral holobiont, but the role of associated viruses is largely unknown. In this regard, the increase of studies using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to assess gene expression provides an opportunity to elucidate viral signatures encompassed within the data via careful delineation of sequence reads and their source of origin.Here, we re-analyzed an RNA-Seq dataset from a cultured coral symbiont (Symbiodinium microadriaticum, Clade A1) across four experimental treatments (control, cold shock, heat shock, dark shock) to characterize associated viral diversity, abundance, and gene expression. Our approach comprised the filtering and removal of host sequence reads, subsequent phylogenetic assignment of sequence reads of putative viral origin, and the assembly and analysis of differentially expressed viral genes. About 15.46% (123 million) of all sequence reads were non-host-related, of which <1% could be classified as archaea, bacteria, or virus. Of these, 18.78% were annotated as virus and comprised a diverse community consistent across experimental treatments. Further, non-host related sequence reads assembled into 56,064 contigs, including 4856 contigs of putative viral origin that featured 43 differentially expressed genes during heat shock. The differentially expressed genes included viral kinases, ubiquitin, and ankyrin repeat proteins (amongst others), which are suggested to help the virus proliferate and inhibit the algal host\\'s antiviral response.Our results suggest that a diverse viral community is associated with coral algal endosymbionts of the genus Symbiodinium, which prompts further research on their ecological role in coral health and resilience.

  14. Oil palm empty fruit bunch as media for mushroom cultivation

    Mat Rasol Awang; Wan Badrin Wan Husin; Tajuddin Osman; Tamikazu Kume; Shinpei Matsuhashi

    1998-01-01

    The mushroom strains Pleurotus sajor caju(grey oyster mushroom), Pleurotus flavellatus((pink oyster mushroom), Pleurotus cystidiosus(abalone mushroom) and Auricularia polytricha (black jelly mushroom) grow satisfactorily on the EFB media treated with lime. Based on their Biological Efficiency (BE) or yield, the strain Pleurotus sajor caju was selected for further investigation. The BE of the Pleurotus sajor caju was 73.8 %. The lime treatment, aeration and four weeks incubation period was necessary for fruiting

  15. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    Sulistiya; Retno Lantarsih; Titop Dwiwinarno*

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrome...

  16. Performance of mushroom fruiting for large scale commercial production

    Mat Rosol Awang; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom

    2012-01-01

    The paper described the determination of mushroom fruiting yield, which is vital to economics of mushroom production. Consistency in mushroom yields enabling an estimation to be made for revenues and hence profitability could be predicted. It has been reported by many growers, there are a large variation in mushroom yields over different times of production. To assess such claims we have run four batches of mushroom fruiting and the performance fruiting body productions are presented. (author)

  17. What Do Facts Have to Do with It? Exploring Instructional Emphasis in Stony Brook News Literacy Curriculum

    Fleming, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    An analytic matrix comprised of multiple media literacy teaching and learning principles is conceptualized to examine a model of news literacy developed by journalism educators at Stony Brook University. The multidimensional analysis indicates that news literacy instructors focus on teaching students how to question and assess the veracity of news…

  18. Reducing Shrinkage in Canned and Frozen Mushrooms

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan); Walshe, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    The process involving a preliminary soaking of the mushrooms in water for 20 min followed by a chill storage period followed by a further water soak for 2 hr, and known as the 3S process, gave a considerable reduction in total shrinkage in both brown and white strain canned mushrooms compared with the control samples. Water uptake by the mushrooms in the 3S process was greatest when the soaking water temperature was between 20 and 30°C and had a pH of 8. Citric acid in the blanch water enhanc...

  19. Cryobiology of coral fragments.

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia L

    2013-02-01

    Around the world, coral reefs are dying due to human influences, and saving habitat alone may not stop this destruction. This investigation focused on the biological processes that will provide the first steps in understanding the cryobiology of whole coral fragments. Coral fragments are a partnership of coral tissue and endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., commonly called zooxanthellae. These data reflected their separate sensitivities to chilling and a cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide) for the coral Pocillopora damicornis, as measured by tissue loss and Pulse Amplitude Modulated fluorometry 3weeks post-treatment. Five cryoprotectant treatments maintained the viability of the coral tissue and zooxanthellae at control values (1M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0h exposures, and 1.5M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0 and 1.5h exposures, P>0.05, ANOVA), whereas 2M concentrations did not (Pzooxanthellae. During the winter when the fragments were chilled, the coral tissue remained relatively intact (∼25% loss) post-treatment, but the zooxanthellae numbers in the tissue declined after 5min of chilling (Pzooxanthellae numbers declined in response to chilling alone (P0.05, ANOVA), but it did not protect against the loss of zooxanthellae (Pzooxanthellae are the most sensitive element in the coral fragment complex and future cryopreservation protocols must be guided by their greater sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Coral Reefs: Beyond Mortality?

    Charles Sheppard

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The scale of the collapse of coral reef communities in 1998 following a warming episode (Wilkinson, 2000 was unprecedented, and took many people by surprise. The Indian Ocean was the worst affected with a coral mortality over 75% in many areas such as the Chagos Archipelago (Sheppard, 1999, Seychelles (Spencer et al., 2000 and Maldives (McClanahan, 2000. Several other locations were affected at least as much, with mortality reaching 100% (to the nearest whole number; this is being compiled by various authors (e.g., CORDIO, in press. For example, in the Arabian Gulf, coral mortality is almost total across many large areas of shallow water (Sheppard, unpublished; D. George and D. John, personal communication. The mortality is patchy of course, depending on currents, location inside or outside lagoons, etc., but it is now possible to swim for over 200 m and see not one remaining living coral or soft coral on some previously rich reefs.

  1. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    Sulistiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrometer and nozzle, and education and training bookkeeping, marketing, and processing waste into mushroom compost. The results showed an increase in the production of mushroom seen from the Biological Conversion Efficiency (BCE are in the top 30 percent. Partners also has a business bookkeeping and have Blog to market the mushroom by on-line. Partners also have the skills to process the manure (compost made from the waste of mushroom which can be used to help fertilize their crops.

  2. Ameliorative Effect of Different Concentration of Mushroom ...

    Prof. Ogunji

    ameliorative effect of mushroom in the post-experimental stage. Samples of liver and ... except in the liver which showed mild periportal chronic inflammatory cell. However, the .... alcohol for 12 hours and through absolute alcohol to remove ...

  3. Investigations on Mushroom Storage and Quality Parameters

    Ömür Dündar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers on storage and quality properties of mushrooms cultivated in the world and Turkey have been investigated. Mushrooms contain some important minerals and vitamins such as iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, copper and folate, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B, C, D and also they are a good source of carbohydrate and protein. After harvest, to extend the shelf life of mushrooms, some applications such as pre-cooling, storage in appropriate temperature, use of different types of polyethylene packaging, modified atmosphere packaging, nitric oxide and UV light applications were done on mushrooms. The effects of these applications on physical and chemical features such as like weight loss, firmness, cap opening rate, cap diameter, stem diameter, browning, colour, respiration rate, enzymatic reactions, total phenols, total sugars, aminoacid content were investigated.

  4. Flagellate dermatitis following consumption of shiitake mushroom

    Hui Voon Loo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Japanese dermatologists were the first to describe the very characteristic flagellate dermatitis following consumption of under-cooked or raw shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes. These similar eruptions were also reported in patients treated with bleomycin, in dermatomyositis and adult onset Still’s disease. We report a case where a 40 year old chinese female developed flagellate dermatitis following ingestion of a bun containing shiitake mushroom.

  5. Mushrooms, trees, and money: value estimates of commercial mushrooms and timber in the pacific northwest.

    Alexander, Susan J; Pilz, David; Weber, Nancy S; Brown, Ed; Rockwell, Victoria A

    2002-07-01

    Wild edible mushrooms are harvested in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, where both trees and mushrooms grow in the same landscape. Although there has been some discussion about the value of trees and mushrooms individually, little information exists about the joint production of, and value for, these two forest products. Through four case studies, the information needed to determine production and value for three wild mushroom species in different forests of the Pacific Northwest is described, and present values for several different forest management scenarios are presented. The values for timber and for mushrooms are site- and species-specific. On the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, timber is highly valued and chanterelles are a low-value product by weight; timber has a soil expectation value (SEV) 12 to 200 times higher than chanterelles. In south-central Oregon, timber and American matsutake mushrooms have the potential to have about the same SEV. In eastern Oregon, timber is worth 20 to 110 times as much as the morels that grow in the forest. Production economics is concerned with choices about how much and what to produce with what resources. The choices are influenced by changes in technical and economic circumstances. Through our description and analysis of the necessary definitions and assumptions to assess value in joint production of timber and wild mushrooms, we found that values are sensitive to assumptions about changes in forest management, yields for mushrooms and trees, and costs.

  6. Coral Reef Guidance

    Guidance prepared by EPA and Army Corps of Engineers concerning coral reef protection under the Clean Water Act, Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, Rivers and Harbors Act, and Federal Project Authorities.

  7. All Framing Corals

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data represent predicted habitat suitability for several taxa of deep-sea corals. Predictions were modeled using a statistical machine-learning algorithm called...

  8. Corals and Sclerosponges

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past climate and ocean environment derived from stable isotope, trace metal, and other measurements made on corals and sclerosponges. Parameter keywords...

  9. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  10. Effect of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) mycelia on ...

    Effect of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) mycelia on petroleum ... of chains of hydrocarbon in a petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated substrate over time. ... Keywords: Mycoremediation, Mycelia, Contaminated Soil, Oyster Mushroom ...

  11. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation technique using re ...

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... using re-usable substrate containers and comparison of ... oyster mushrooms in combination with other vegetables complements availability of various essential ..... higher than from oyster mushrooms produced from any.

  12. Occurrence of thraustochytrid fungi in corals and coral mucus

    Raghukumar, S.; Balasubramanian

    Occurrence of thraustochytrid fungi in corals, fresh coral mucus and floating and attached mucus detritus from the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea was studied. Corallochytrium limacisporum Raghukumar, Thraustochytrium motivum Goldstein...

  13. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in t...

  14. Mushroom cultivation in Brazil: challenges and potential for growth

    Dias,Eustáquio Souza

    2010-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is rapidly expanding in Brazil because Brazilians have discovered the medicinal and culinary value of mushrooms and their economic situation has improved. However, the horticultural technology for cultivating mushrooms under Brazilian conditions is lacking. For many years, the mushroom cultivation technology used in Brazil was adapted from developed countries whose materials and climate were different from those of Brazil. In order to exploit the Brazilian potential for m...

  15. Dung-associated, Potentially Hallucinogenic Mushrooms from Taiwan

    Yen-Wen Wang; Shean-Shong Tzean

    2015-01-01

    To identify potentially hallucinogenic mushrooms, dung-associated mushrooms collected from Qingtiangang, Yangmingshan National Park were subjected to a detailed morphological investigation and phylogentic analysis. The investigation identified four taxa: a recorded species (Panaeolus antillarum); a new combination (Conocybe nitrophila); and two new species (Psilocybe angulospora, Protostropharia ovalispora). Morphological and molecular characteristics of the collected mushrooms were compared ...

  16. Cultivation of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus spp.) on palm oil ...

    Oyster mushroom is a popular mushroom due to its nutritional, medicinal and potential commercial value. In Malaysia, the fungus is currently cultivated on sawdust and rice husk. In this study, the efficiency of cultivating oyster mushroom was assessed using palm oil mesocarp fibre as a substrate. The experiment consisted ...

  17. A resource efficiency assessment of the industrial mushroom production chain

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Becerra Ramírez, Henry A.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Boom, Remko M.

    2016-01-01

    We compare the exergetic performance of a conventional industrial mushroom production chain with a mushroom production chain where part of the compost waste is recycled and reused as raw material. The critical exergy loss points (CEPs) identified are the cooking-out process of the spent mushroom

  18. Proximate and mineral composition of four edible mushroom species

    Owner

    Key words: Edible mushrooms; food composition. INTRODUCTION. Mushrooms are saprophytes. ... riboflavin, biotin and thiamine (Chang and Buswell,. 1996). Ogundana and Fagade (1981) indicated that ... Four edible mushroom species were analyzed for food composition according to the Association of Official Analytical ...

  19. Vitamin D-fortified chitosan films from mushroom waste

    Brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk bases from mushroom waste were treated with UV-B light to rapidly increase vitamin D2 content. Chitin was also recovered from this waste and converted into chitosan by N-deacetylation. FTIR spectra showed that the mushroom chitosan were similar to chitosan fr...

  20. Symbiosis and synergy: Can mushrooms and timber be managed together?

    Sally. Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Recreational and tribal use of mushrooms has been historically important, and during the last two decades, commercial demand for mushrooms has burgeoned. A large nontimber forest product market in the Pacific Northwest is for various species of wild edible mushrooms. Many of these species grow symbiotically with forest trees by forming nutrient exchange structures...

  1. Mineral Composition of Four Edible Mushrooms

    S. E. Mallikarjuna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivated mushroom species, namely, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus florida and two wild growing species Lentinus cladopus and Pleurotus djamor were studied for their mineral contents such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Se, Pb, and Cd by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES and also Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, (AAS. Phosphorus was estimated by spectrophotometric method. K, Ca, Na, and P were in higher concentrations ranging from 59.3 mg to 3634 mg, 8.27 mg–174.9 mg, 22.2 mg–327.4 mg, and 100.5 mg–769.9 mg/100 g dry weight respectively in the four mushroom species studied. Fe, Zn, Mg and Se were ranging from 6.27 mg to 35.3 mg, 1.58 mg–9.44 mg, 21.1 mg–40.7 mg and 0.048 mg–0.182 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively, amongst the mushroom species analyzed. However, Ni, Cu, and Mn contents showed relatively lower concentrations, whereas Pb and Cd were below detectable level. The mushrooms were safe for consumption, in accordance with the permissible tolerance limits of the estimated toxic metals. Implications of the mineral contents on mushroom nutritional value are highlighted.

  2. Analysis of reinjection problems at the Stony Brook ATES field test site

    Supkow, D. J.; Shultz, J. A.

    1982-12-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) is one of several energy storage technologies being investigated by the DOE to determine the feasibility of reducing energy consumption by means of energy management systems. The State University of New York, (SUNY) Stony Brook, Long Island, New York site was selected by Battelle PNL for a Phase 1 investigation to determine the feasibility of an ATES demonstration to seasonally store chill energy by injecting chilled water in the winter and recovering it at a maximum rate of 100 MBTU/hr (30 MW) in the summer. The Phase 1 study was performed during 1981 by Dames & Moore under subcontract to Batelle PLN. The pumping and injection tests were performed using two wells in a doublet configuration. Well PI-1 is a previously existing well and PI-2 was installed specifically for this investigation. Both wells are screened in the Upper Magothy aquifer from approximately 300 to 350 feet below ground surface. Nine observation wells were also installed as a portion of the investigation to monitor water level and aquifer temperature changes during the test.

  3. Subsurface cadmium loss from a stony soil-effect of cow urine application.

    Gray, Colin William; Chrystal, Jane Marie; Monaghan, Ross Martin; Cavanagh, Jo-Anne

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) losses in subsurface flow from stony soils that have received cow urine are potentially important, but poorly understood. This study investigated Cd loss from a soil under a winter dairy-grazed forage crop that was grazed either conventionally (24 h) or with restricted grazing (6 h). This provided an opportunity to test the hypothesis that urine inputs could increase Cd concentrations in drainage. It was thought this would be a result of cow urine either (i) enhancing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations via an increase in soil pH, resulting in the formation of soluble Cd-organic carbon complexes and, or (ii) greater inputs of chloride (Cl) via cow urine, promoting the formation of soluble Cd-Cl complexes. Cadmium concentrations in subsurface flow were generally low, with a spike above the water quality guidelines for a month after the 24-h grazing. Cadmium fluxes were on average 0.30 g Cd ha -1  year -1 (0.27-0.32 g Cd ha -1  year -1 ), in line with previous estimates for agricultural soils. The mean Cd concentration in drainage from the 24-h grazed plots was significantly higher (P soil. Further study is warranted to confirm the mechanisms involved and quantities of Cd lost from other systems.

  4. Osmoadjustment in the Coral Holobiont

    Rö thig, Till

    2017-01-01

    and amino acids to be putatively involved in the osmoadjustment. Importantly, under high salinity the osmolyte floridoside was consistently increased. This could be corroborated in the coral model Aiptasia and in corals from the Persian/Arabian Gulf, where

  5. Coral lipids and environmental stress.

    Harriott, V J

    1993-04-01

    Environmental monitoring of coral reefs is presently limited by difficulties in recognising coral stress, other than by monitoring coral mortality over time. A recent report described an experiment demonstrating that a measured lipid index declined in shaded corals. The technique described might have application in monitoring coral health, with a decline in coral lipid index as an indicator of coral stress. The application of the technique as a practical monitoring tool was tested for two coral species from the Great Barrier Reef. Consistent with the previous results, lipid index for Pocillopora damicornis initially declined over a period of three weeks in corals maintained in filtered seawater in the dark, indicating possible utilization of lipid stored as energy reserves. However, lipid index subsequently rose to near normal levels. In contrast, lipid index of Acropora formosa increased after four weeks in the dark in filtered seawater. The results showed considerable variability in lipid content between samples from the same colony. Results were also found to be dependent on fixation times and sample weight, introducing potential error into the practical application of the technique. The method as described would be unsuitable for monitoring environmental stress in corals, but the search for a practical method to monitor coral health should continue, given its importance in coral reef management.

  6. A survey of cellular reactions to environmental stress and disease in Caribbean scleractinian corals

    Peters, Esther C.

    1984-03-01

    Despite growing concern about the demise of coral reefs in many areas of the world, few studies have investigated the possibility that bacteria- or virus-caused diseases may be important agents in the disappearance of living coral tissue from reefs, and that their occurrence and transmission may be influenced by natural or man-made changes in water quality, particularly increased sedimentation and turbidity. One forereef site off St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, and three shallow-water reef sites off Puerto Rico were examined for variations in coral composition, local environmental conditions, and the presence of possible diseases in the stony corals. Visual observations were supplemented with standard histopathological examination under the light microscope of tissues from 257 specimens (representing 9 genera and 13 species), along with additional samples obtained from the Netherlands Antilles, the Grenadines, the Florida Keys and the Smithsonian Coral Reef Microcosm. This procedure proved to be necessary to accurately determine the condition of the colony, to detect the presence of microorganisms, and to correlate tissue health and microparasite infestations with apparent symptoms. These lesions varied with the species and the site. For example, off Guayanilla Bay, three species showed increased or decreased mucosecretory cell development, and another exhibited an unusual microparasite, which may be related to the chronic sedimentation at this site. Although colonies of several species showed signs of “white band disease” at five locations, bacterial colonies composed of Gram-negative rods were present only in acroporid tissues from the relatively pristine St. Croix site and the Netherlands Antilles. The distribution and possible mode of occurrence of these and other diseases and microparasite infestations suggest that acute changes in microhabitat conditions or injuries to individual colonies may be as important to the development of some of these lesions as

  7. Radiocaesium - 137 in cultivated and woodland mushrooms

    Stankovic, S.; Stankovic, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work the results obtained for activity levels of 137 Cs in samples of cultivated mushrooms (Champignons - Agaricus Silvicola Vitt. Peck.) and woodland fruits ( Chantarelle - Cantarelus Cibarius Fr.; Bollets -Boletus Edulis. ex Fr. and Black Trumpets - Cratarelus Conucopioides) are presented. These samples were collected from 1991 to 1996. Biodiversity of the mushrooms regarding their uptake of radionuclides was found. Thus, the maximum value of 137 Cs activity was found in the sample of dry Bollets 375 Bq/kg in 1993. Moreover, the mean activity level of this species was much higher (126 + - 10 Bq/kg) in 1996. than, levels found in any samples taken from the same environment. (author)

  8. Rating of cesium contamination of wild mushrooms

    Henrich, E.; Zapletal, M.; Friedrich, M.; Haider, W.

    1988-08-01

    'Rating' means here a 5-fold scale with the ranges: more than 100 nCi/kg raw weight - 'very high'; 300 - 100; 3 - 30; 1 - 3; less than 1 nCi/kg - 'very low'. A list of some 50 - 60 different kinds of mushrooms are listed and evaluated in this scale, as from 1988 and from a region with a high Chernobyl fallout. As a comparison, contamination values of 12 mushroom sorts from before the Chernobyl accident, coming from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, are also given. 2 figs., 5 tabs. (qui)

  9. Microcontroller based automatic temperature control for oyster mushroom plants

    Sihombing, P.; Astuti, T. P.; Herriyance; Sitompul, D.

    2018-03-01

    In the cultivation of Oyster Mushrooms need special treatment because oyster mushrooms are susceptible to disease. Mushroom growth will be inhibited if the temperature and humidity are not well controlled because temperature and inertia can affect mold growth. Oyster mushroom growth usually will be optimal at temperatures around 22-28°C and humidity around 70-90%. This problem is often encountered in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. Therefore it is very important to control the temperature and humidity of the room of oyster mushroom cultivation. In this paper, we developed an automatic temperature monitoring tool in the cultivation of oyster mushroom-based Arduino Uno microcontroller. We have designed a tool that will control the temperature and humidity automatically by Android Smartphone. If the temperature increased more than 28°C in the room of mushroom plants, then this tool will turn on the pump automatically to run water in order to lower the room temperature. And if the room temperature of mushroom plants below of 22°C, then the light will be turned on in order to heat the room. Thus the temperature in the room oyster mushrooms will remain stable so that the growth of oyster mushrooms can grow with good quality.

  10. Re-evaluating the health of coral reef communities: baselines and evidence for human impacts across the central Pacific.

    Smith, Jennifer E; Brainard, Rusty; Carter, Amanda; Grillo, Saray; Edwards, Clinton; Harris, Jill; Lewis, Levi; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest; Sala, Enric; Vroom, Peter S; Sandin, Stuart

    2016-01-13

    Numerous studies have documented declines in the abundance of reef-building corals over the last several decades and in some but not all cases, phase shifts to dominance by macroalgae have occurred. These assessments, however, often ignore the remainder of the benthos and thus provide limited information on the present-day structure and function of coral reef communities. Here, using an unprecedentedly large dataset collected within the last 10 years across 56 islands spanning five archipelagos in the central Pacific, we examine how benthic reef communities differ in the presence and absence of human populations. Using islands as replicates, we examine whether benthic community structure is associated with human habitation within and among archipelagos and across latitude. While there was no evidence for coral to macroalgal phase shifts across our dataset we did find that the majority of reefs on inhabited islands were dominated by fleshy non-reef-building organisms (turf algae, fleshy macroalgae and non-calcifying invertebrates). By contrast, benthic communities from uninhabited islands were more variable but in general supported more calcifiers and active reef builders (stony corals and crustose coralline algae). Our results suggest that cumulative human impacts across the central Pacific may be causing a reduction in the abundance of reef builders resulting in island scale phase shifts to dominance by fleshy organisms. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Interactive effects of oxygen, carbon dioxide and flow on photosynthesis and respiration in the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    Osinga, Ronald; Derksen-Hooijberg, Marlous; Wijgerde, Tim; Verreth, Johan A J

    2017-06-15

    Rates of dark respiration and net photosynthesis were measured for six replicate clonal fragments of the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus 1767), which were incubated under 12 different combinations of dissolved oxygen (20%, 100% and 150% saturation), dissolved carbon dioxide (9.5 and 19.1 µmol l -1 ) and water flow (1-1.6 versus 4-13 cm s -1 ) in a repeated measures design. Dark respiration was enhanced by increased flow and increased oxygen saturation in an interactive way, which relates to improved oxygen influx into the coral tissue. Oxygen saturation did not influence net photosynthesis: neither hypoxia nor hyperoxia affected net photosynthesis, irrespective of flow and pH, which suggests that hyperoxia does not induce high rates of photorespiration in this coral. Flow and pH had a synergistic effect on net photosynthesis: at high flow, a decrease in pH stimulated net photosynthesis by 14%. These results indicate that for this individual of G. fascicularis , increased uptake of carbon dioxide rather than increased efflux of oxygen explains the beneficial effect of water flow on photosynthesis. Rates of net photosynthesis measured in this study are among the highest ever recorded for scleractinian corals and confirm a strong scope for growth. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS): Stony Asteroids Abundant in the Background and Family Populations

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; Lorenzi, Vania

    2016-10-01

    The Hungaria region represents a "purgatory" for the closest, preserved samples of the material from which the terrestrial planets accreted. The Hungaria region harbors a collisional family of Xe-type asteroids, which are situated among a background of predominantly S-complex asteroids. Deciphering their surface composition may provide constraints on the nature of the primordial building blocks of the terrestrial planets. We hypothesize that planetesimals in the inner part of the primordial asteroid belt experienced partial- to full-melting and differentiation, the Hungaria region should retain any petrologically-evolved material that formed there.We have undertaken an observational campaign entitled the Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) to record near-infrared (NIR) spectra to characterize taxonomy, surface mineralogy, and potential meteorite analogs. We used NIR instruments at two ground-based facilities (NASA IRTF; TNG). Our data set includes spectra of 82 Hungaria asteroids (61 background; 21 family), 65 were observed during HARTSS. We compare S-complex background asteroids to calibrations developed via laboratory analyses of ordinary chondrites, and to our analyses (EPMA, XRD, VIS+NIR spectra) of 11 primitive achondrite (acapulcoite-lodranite clan) meteorites.We find that stony S-complex asteroids dominate the Hungaria background population (~80%). Background objects exhibit considerable spectral diversity, when quantified by spectral band parameter measurements, translates to a variety of surface compositions. Two main meteorite groups are represented within the Hungaria background: unmelted, nebular L chondrites (and/or L chondrites), and partially-melted primitive achondrites. H-chondrite mineralogies appear to be absent from the Hungaria background. Xe-type Hungaria family members exhibit spectral homogeneity, consistent with the hypothesis that the family was derived from the disruption of a parent body analogous to an enstatite

  13. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with mushroom worker's lung: an update on the clinical significance of the importation of exotic mushroom varieties.

    Moore, John E; Convery, Rory P; Millar, B Cherie; Rao, Juluri R; Elborn, J Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis remains an important industrial disease in mushroom workers. It has a significant morbidity, and early diagnosis and removal from exposure to the antigen are critically important in its management. Recently, several new allergens have been described, particularly those from mushroom species originating in the Far East, which are of clinical significance to workers occupationally exposed to such allergens in cultivation, picking, and packing of commercial mushroom crops. Importing of exotic mushrooms including Shiitake is common in EU countries, and some of the exotic species of mushrooms are cultivated for local markets. This practice may contribute to an increase in clinical cases of mushroom hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This update reviews the recent literature and examines changing trends of mushroom worker's lung, with increased movement of commercial product and labour markets worldwide.

  14. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    2010-04-01

    ... percent of the water capacity of the container. (iii) Determine drained weight as specified in § 155.3(a..., packed with a suitable liquid medium which may include water; and may contain one or more safe and... to promote color retention. (4) Labeling requirements. (i) The name of the food is mushrooms. The...

  15. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of

  16. Antimicrobial activities of some selected Nigerian mushrooms ...

    ... were either weakly inhibited or not inhibited at all. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged between 1.25 and 9.00mg/ml for bacteria and between 10.50 and 17.50mg/ml for fungi. These results are discussed in relation to therapeutic value of the studied mushrooms. African Journal of Biomedical Research Vol.

  17. Neuroscience: Intelligence in the Honeybee Mushroom Body

    Caron, Sophie; Abbott, Larry F.

    2017-01-01

    Intelligence, in most people’s conception, involves combining pieces of evidence to reach non-obvious conclusions. A recent theoretical study shows that intelligence-like brain functions can emerge from simple neural circuits, in this case the honeybee mushroom body.

  18. Identification of medicinal and poisonous mushroom from Khorramabad, Iran

    seyede zahra Hosseini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms grow in a very wide range of ecological conditions, however their growth vary in different conditions. Mushrooms are a valuable source for antibiotics and they are known as drugs in traditional medicine. Identification and characterization of mushrooms is the first step of their exploitations in drug industry. There are many poisonous species of mushrooms, so their identification is essential for better health of societies and also a good indication for physicians in identification of mushroom poisonings and their cure. Material and Method: In this research the samples of mushroom were collected in Khorramabad district during spring and fall of 2008 and 2009. The macroscopic and microscopic characters of collected mushrooms were observed in field and laboratory and these criteria aligned to the species characters in scientific resources. Results: eight mushroom species namely Collybia maculate coprinus atramentarius three species of Boletus (B. luridus, B. felleus and B. satanas two species of Lactarius (L. piperatus and L. vellereus and Hypholoma capnoides were identified . Discussions: Based on the results of biodiversity of mushrooms in khorramabad district found in the present research, it is concluded that there are valuable resources of mushrooms for medicinal purposes in this area.

  19. Coral Reef Biological Criteria

    Coral reefs worldwide are experiencing decline from a variety of stressors. Some important stressors are land-based sources of pollution and human activities in the coastal zone. However, few tools are available to offset the impact of these stressors. The Clean Water Act (CWA...

  20. Raiding the Coral Nurseries?

    Alison M. Jones

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent shift in the pattern of commercial harvest in the Keppel Island region of the southern inshore Great Barrier Reef raises concern about the depletion of a number of relatively rare restricted range taxa. The shift appears to be driven by demand from the United States (US for corals for domestic aquaria. Data from the annual status reports from the Queensland Coral Fishery were compared with export trade data to the US from the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES. Evidence was found of recent increases in the harvest of species from the Mussidae family (Acanthastrea spp. which appears to be largely driven by demand from the US. On present trends, the industry runs the risk of localized depletion of Blastomussa and Scolymia; evidenced by an increase in the harvest of small specimens and the trend of decreasing harvest despite a concurrent increase in demand. Considering their relatively high sediment tolerance compared to other reef-building species, and the current lack of information about their functional role in reef stability, the trend raises concerns about the impact of the harvest on local coral communities. The recent shift in harvest patterns could have impacts on slow-growing species by allowing harvest beyond the rate of population regeneration. In light of these factors, combined with the value of such species to local tourism, a commercial coral fishery based on uncommon but highly sought-after species may not be ecologically sustainable or economically viable in the Keppels.

  1. Mycosporine-like amino acids in six scleractinian coral species

    Ahmad A. Al-Utaibi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs were studied in stony coral species (Fungiidae along the Eastern coast of the Red Sea. Six species - Fungia scutaria, F. danai, F. corona, F. repanda, Ctenactis echinata and Lithophyllor lobata - were examined for MAAs at water depths of 5, 10, 15 and 20 m. Protein and chlorophyll were also determined and showed higher contents in winter than in summer. Generally, the total content of MAAs in summer was found to be approximately three times greater than in winter. Overall, concentrations of MAAs were greatest at a depth of 5 m. Porphyra-334 was the most abundant MAA in F. Scutaria and F. Danai, whereas asterina-330 was either not detectable (e.g. L. lobata or present in low concentrations (e.g. F. danai, F. repanda and C. echinata. Shinorine was not detected in F. danai or L. lobata. Both C. echinata and L. Lobata had the lowest concentrations of MAAs, presumably because of their large calcareous skeletons. The variation in MAA concentrations among seasons and water depths is probably due to a number of factors, including the intensity of solar radiation, turbidity and phylogenetic variation.

  2. Non-local rheology of stony debris flow propagating over a cohesionless sediment bed

    Lanzoni, Stefano; Gregoretti, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Velocity profiles of gravel-water mixtures observed in flume experiments often exhibit a double-slope behavior, with a lower narrower region where the velocity increases slowly, and an upper wider region often exhibiting a nearly linear behavior. Even though the flow can be classified within the grain-inertia regime, the overall profile seems to not conform to the power law (with exponent 1.5) distribution obtained by integrating along the normal to the flow the dispersive stresses envisaged by Bagnold (1954) in his pioneer work. Note that this formulation neglects the contribution to the velocity profile of the quasi-static (frictional) stresses that tend to dominate close to an erodible sediment bottom. The present work investigates the possibility to find out a uniformly valid distribution of shear stress from the bottom to the flow surface. To this aim we follow a heuristic coherence length approach (GDR-MIDI, 2004) similar to the mixing length procedure commonly used to study the atmospheric boundary layer over canopy (see, e.g., Harmann and Finnegan, 2007). A database built on 64 systematic debris flow experiments is used to disclose the general features of velocity profiles that establish within the body of almost steady water-sediment flows and the dependence of transport sediment volumetric concentration on the relevant parameters. The almost steady water-sediment flows considered in the study were generated by releasing a prescribed water discharge on a saturated layer of sediment (specifically, 3 mm gravel, 6 mm gravel, and 3 mm glass spheres) initially placed in a 10 m long and 0.2 m wide laboratory flume. The analysis clearly indicates that stony debris flow conditions characterized the experiments. The mixing length does not result constant, as required by a Bagnold-like profile, but varies gradually, from zero at the flow surface, to a finite value near the erodible bottom. We discuss this structure in terms of shear stress distribution along the

  3. Concentration of radiocesium in cultivated mushrooms and substrates

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Higasa, Mamoru; Urabe, Ken-ichi; Haraguchi, Masato; Omura, Toshitaka

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K in mushrooms cultivated in Saitama prefecture and those substrates were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. In all mushrooms and substrates, 134 Cs was not detected. Concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms were in the range of 0.012 - 2.1 Bq/kg·fresh, and those in substrates were in the range of 0.080 - 1.8 Bq/kg·dry. Concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms varied widely with mushroom species, and the average concentration of 137 Cs in Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) was over 30 times higher than that in Pleurotus ostreatus (Hiratake). Mushroom-to-substrate concentration ratios of 137 Cs (fresh/dry) were 0.11-0.53. They were higher than the reported transfer factors for common agricultural plants. (author)

  4. Radioisotopes of the U, Th, Pu, Am in the mushrooms

    Galanda, D.; Matel, L.

    2001-01-01

    The present work is devoted the estimation of the data about radioactive contamination in different species of mushrooms with the aim to analyzing the influence of soil properties. The radioactive plutonium, uranium, thorium and americium was assayed in the dried mushrooms collected in areas of East and West Slovakia in 1998 -2000, and examined the effectiveness of this mushroom as a possible indicator of radioactive contamination of environment due to nuclear contamination of biosphere. Were determined the mushrooms of canes: Suillus, Leccinum, Baletus, Armillariella, Xerocomus and Craterellus. The mushrooms were dried and prepared by liquid extraction with Aliquat 336. The samples were measured by α-barrier spectrometry. The results of specific activity of plutonium, thorium, uranium and americium in the mushrooms and the layers of forest litter were summarized. (authors)

  5. Household methods to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms

    Kostiainen, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the {sup 137}Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times.

  6. Household methods to reduce 137Cs contents of mushrooms

    Kostiainen, E.

    2005-01-01

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the 137 Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce 137 Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the 137 Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times

  7. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    Roberta M Bonaldo

    Full Text Available Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae, and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals.

  8. Dung-associated, Potentially Hallucinogenic Mushrooms from Taiwan

    Yen-Wen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify potentially hallucinogenic mushrooms, dung-associated mushrooms collected from Qingtiangang, Yangmingshan National Park were subjected to a detailed morphological investigation and phylogentic analysis. The investigation identified four taxa: a recorded species (Panaeolus antillarum; a new combination (Conocybe nitrophila; and two new species (Psilocybe angulospora, Protostropharia ovalispora. Morphological and molecular characteristics of the collected mushrooms were compared with allied fungal taxa.

  9. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).

    Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a

  10. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing

    SHAUKET AHMED PALA; ABDUL HAMID WANI; ROUF HAMZA BODA; BILAL AHMAD WANI

    2014-01-01

    Pala SA, Wani AH, Boda RH, Wani BA. 2014. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 173-185. Mushroom can serve as food, tonic, and as medicine thus make people healthier, fitter and happier. They have a cracking potential for generating great socioeconomic impact in human welfare at local, national and international level. With the help of allied mushroom farming we can easily tackle the problem of food for growing world population; re...

  11. Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Wild Mushrooms in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Chinatu Charity Ndimele; Prince Emeka Ndimele; Kanayo Stephen Chukwuka

    2017-01-01

    Background. Many companies in Nigeria generate industrial effluents, including heavy metals. These metals can be accumulated by biota such as mushrooms, which are then eaten by the populace. Objectives. The present study investigates the metal content of wild mushrooms in order to educate the local population on the safety of their consumption. Methods. Seven different species of wild mushrooms (Cortinarius melliolens, Chlorophyllum brunneum, Pleurotus florida, Volvariella speciosa, Can...

  12. 137Cs content in edible mushrooms of the Transcarpathian region

    O. O. Parlag

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Edible mushrooms (Boletus edulis Bull.: Fr. and Leccinum scabrum (Bull.: Fr. S.F.Gray of Transcarpathian region were analyzed on content of 137Cs. Specific activity of 137Cs in collected mushrooms did not exceed 354 ± 53 Bq/kg (dry substance. Estimation of the contribution into internal exposure dose of population for the condi-tion of 1 kg of mushrooms consumption is carried out.

  13. Spectral response of the coral rubble, living corals, and dead corals: study case on the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Yamano, Hiroya; Arafat, Gulam; Rani, Chair; Akbar AS, M.

    2012-10-01

    Coral reefs play important ecological services such as providing foods, biodiversity, nutrient recycling etc. for human society. On the other hand, they are threatened by human impacts such as illegal fishing and environmental changes such as rises of sea water temperature and sea level due to global warming. Thus, it is very important to monitor dynamic spatial distributions of coral reefs and related habitats such as coral rubble, dead coral, bleached corals, seagrass, etc. Hyperspectral data, in particular, offer high potential for characterizing and mapping coral reefs because of their capability to identify individual reef components based on their detailed spectral response. We studied the optical properties by measuring in situ spectra of living corals, dead coral and coral rubble covered with algae. Study site was selected in Spermonde archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia because this area is included in the highest diversity of corals in the world named as Coral Triangle, which is recognized as the global centre of marine biodiversity and a global priority for conservation. Correlation analysis and cluster analysis support that there are distinct differences in reflectance spectra among categories. Common spectral characteristic of living corals, dead corals and coral rubble covered with algae was a reflectance minimum at 674 nm. Healthy corals, dead coral covered with algae and coral rubble covered with algae showed high similarity of spectral reflectance. It is estimated that this is due to photsynthetic pigments.

  14. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges

    Solomon P Wasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  15. Radiocesium uptake mechanisms in wild and culture mushrooms

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi; Isomura, Kimio; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Shibata, Hisashi.

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of 137 Cs and stable Cs in wild mushrooms, cultivated mushrooms and those substrates were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The average concentration of 137 Cs in 80 wild mushrooms in Japan was 87.5 Bq/kg (wet wt.), and concentration of 137 Cs in mycorrhizal mushrooms was higher than that of saprophytic mushrooms. High concentrations of 137 Cs were found in Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1, saprophytic mushrooms, cultivated in culture substrates containing high 137 Cs. Clear correlations with 5% level of significance were found between wild mushroom-to-substrate ratios (wet/dry) of 137 Cs concentration and those of stable Cs. Cultivated P. ostreatus-to-culture substrate ratios (wet/wet) of 137 Cs concentration were stable in the order of 10 0 when the culture substrate was containing 10 000 Bq/kg (wet wt.) of 137 Cs or 1 000 mg/kg (wet wt.) of stable Cs. The ratios of 137 Cs concentration in cultivated mushrooms were about equal to those in wild mushrooms. Higher concentration of 137 Cs in culture substrate after sampling P. ostreatus was observed at the upper layer where mycelium density was high. (author)

  16. Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  17. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

  18. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    María Elena Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.

  19. The first report on mushroom green mould disease in Croatia.

    Hatvani, Lóránt; Sabolić, Petra; Kocsubé, Sándor; Kredics, László; Czifra, Dorina; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kaliterna, Joško; Ivić, Dario; Đermić, Edyta; Kosalec, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Green mould disease, caused by Trichoderma species, is a severe problem for mushroom growers worldwide, including Croatia. Trichoderma strains were isolated from green mould-affected Agaricus bisporus (button or common mushroom) compost and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) substrate samples collected from Croatian mushroom farms. The causal agents of green mould disease in the oyster mushroom were T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola, similar to other countries. At the same time, the pathogen of A. bisporus was exclusively the species T. harzianum, which is different from earlier findings and indicates that the range of mushroom pathogens is widening. The temperature profiles of the isolates and their hosts overlapped, thus no range was found that would allow optimal growth of the mushrooms without mould contamination. Ferulic acid and certain phenolic compounds, such as thymol showed remarkable fungistatic effect on the Trichoderma isolates, but inhibited the host mushrooms as well. However, commercial fungicides prochloraz and carbendazim were effective agents for pest management. This is the first report on green mould disease of cultivated mushrooms in Croatia.

  20. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Vikineswary Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  1. The role of Drosophila mushroom body signaling in olfactory memory.

    McGuire, S E; Le, P T; Davis, R L

    2001-08-17

    The mushroom bodies of the Drosophila brain are important for olfactory learning and memory. To investigate the requirement for mushroom body signaling during the different phases of memory processing, we transiently inactivated neurotransmission through this region of the brain by expressing a temperature-sensitive allele of the shibire dynamin guanosine triphosphatase, which is required for synaptic transmission. Inactivation of mushroom body signaling through alpha/beta neurons during different phases of memory processing revealed a requirement for mushroom body signaling during memory retrieval, but not during acquisition or consolidation.

  2. Histoire de lÈstonie et de la nation estonienne : Eesti ja eesti rahvuse ajalugu : intervjuu Jean-Pierre Minaudier̀ga / Jean-Pierre Minaudier ; küsitlenud Marek Tamm

    Minaudier, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu raamatu "Histoire de lÈstonie et de la nation estonienne" autori, prantsuse ajaloolase Jean-Pierre Minaudier̀ga. Raamatututvustus : Minaudier, Jean-Pierre. Histoire de lÈstonie et de la nation estonienne. Paris : L̀Harmattan, 2007 (Bibliothèque finno-ougrienne; 17)

  3. [The Kombucha mushroom: two different opinions].

    Gamundi, R; Valdivia, M

    1995-01-01

    Positive and negative views of the Kombucha mushroom, a popular remedy in Asia, are expressed. The Kombucha mushroom, used for centuries, is believed to have antibiotic tendencies and to strengthen the immune and metabolic systems. Studies show that the tea, made from fermented fungus, has high levels of B vitamins. Caution should be used during fermentation because exposing the fungus to sunlight may adversely affect the process. The mold in which the fungus grows may contain aspergillus, a fungal infection which may be fatal to HIV-positive persons. The tea is being commercialized as a stimulant of the immune system but is unpopular in the U.S. due to its toxicity risks. Public awareness messages must convey the danger of overstimulating the immune system of HIV-positive patients, whose immune systems are already overstimulated. Furthermore, the process of fermentation may encourage the growth of other organisms which produce medical complications in HIV-positive patients.

  4. Diversity of edible mushrooms in pakistan

    Sultana, K.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Iftikhar, F.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty six edible species of mushrooms are reported from Pakistan including four from Balochistan, three from Sindh, five from Punjab and 44 from NWFP and Azad Kashmir. Some of species being commercially exploited in the world are Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia spp. Coprinus comatus, Flammulina vellutipes, Lentinus edodes, Phellorina inquinans, Pleurotus ostreatus, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Volvariella volvacea. Because of over collection, urbanization and deforestation, some of species are threatened of extinction. (author)

  5. Mushrooms as Possible Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav; Dašić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 μg/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 μg/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 μg/mL) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 μg/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases. PMID:24250542

  6. DEHYDRATION OF EDIBLE MUSHROOMS (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS)

    Salas de la Torre, N.; Bazán, D.; Osorio, A.; Cornejo, O.; Carrero, E.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have been subjected to thermal, chemical and thermal-chemical treatment. The results show that the chemical treatment produces a more effective enzymatic inactivation compared to the other two treatments. Also, the experimental study of fungi dehydration carried out at 55 ° C reveals that the critical moisture content is 10.4 kg water / kg dry solids, the equilibrium moisture is 0.22 kg water / kg of solid . Los hongos comestibles Pleurotus ostreatus...

  7. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium were selected for all studied species, from soybean cake – most suitable for the mycelial growth of 24 species, to walnut cake − suitable only for 2 species. The utilization of substrates has been evaluated by biological efficiency. The best index of biological efficiency varied from 19.0% to 41.6% depending on the mushroom species. It was established high biological efficiency of mycelia cultivation on substrates: wheat seed cake – Pleurotus djamor, Lyophyllum shimeji, Crinipellis schevczenkovi, Phellinus igniarius, Spongipellis litschaueri; oat seed cake – Ganoderma applanatum and G. lucidum; soybean cake – Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, Trametes versicolor, Morchella esculenta, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, and Agrocybe aegerita; rape seed cake – Auriporia aurea; camelina seed cake – Fomes fomentarius. The cultivation of these species are perspective as a biotechnological process of agricultural wastes converted into mycelia, which could be used in different forms of products with therapeutic action: powder or tablets nutraceuticals or ingredients for functional foods.

  8. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas. - Highlights: • Popular edible mushrooms display large variations in Cd and Pb content. • Low accumulating species are Sparassis crispa, Boletus luridus, or Boletus badius. • High accumulating species are Agaricus ssp., Russula vesca, or Calvatia gigantea. • Cd and Pb content in wild growing edible mushrooms were mostly above EU limits for cultivated mushrooms. • Cd and Pb content in commercial mushrooms cultures were regularly below EU limits for cultivated mushrooms. - Commercial mushroom cultures can be integrated into ‘Edible City’ approaches, but majority of wild growing mushroom samples highly accumulate trace metals

  9. Nitrification in reef corals

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.; David, J.J.

    . An estimate of the density of nitrifying bacteria on living corals can be made by comparing the nitrifying rates of bacterial cells and the rate of production of NO,-. Kaplan (1983) summarized the growth con- stants of marine nitrifying bacteria... Reef Con=. 3: 395-399. -, C. R. WILKINSON, V. p. VICENTE, J. M. MORELL, AND E. OTERO. 1988. Nitrate release by Carib- bean reef sponges. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33: 114- 120. CROSSLAND, C. J., AND D. J. BARNES. 1983. Dissolved nutrients and organic...

  10. Assessing Coral Community Recovery from Coral Bleaching by ...

    The densities of small colonies were lowest at the northern sites, and small colonies of genera of corals that suffered from high bleaching and mortality during the El Niño Southern Oscillation in 1998 were less abundant in the north. These northern reefs are relatively isolated from sources of coral larvae from reefs in the ...

  11. Osmoadjustment in the Coral Holobiont

    Röthig, Till

    2017-04-01

    Coral reefs are under considerable decline. The framework builders in coral reefs are scleractinian corals, which comprise so-called holobionts, consisting of cnidarian host, algal symbionts (genus Symbiodinium), and other associated microbes. Corals are commonly considered stenohaline osmoconformers, possessing limited capability to adjust to salinity changes. However, corals differ in their ability to cope with different salinities. The underlying mechanisms have not yet been addressed. To further understand putative mechanisms involved, I examined coral holobiont osmoregulation conducting a range of experiments on the coral Fungia granulosa. In my research F. granulosa from the Red Sea exhibited pronounced physiological reactions (decreased photosynthesis, cessation of calcification) upon short-term incubations (4 h) to high salinity (55). However, during a 29-day in situ salinity transect experiment, coral holobiont photosynthesis was unimpaired under high salinity (49) indicating acclimatization. F. granulosa microbiome changes after the 29-day high salinity exposure aligned with a bacterial community restructuring that putatively supports the coral salinity acclimatization (osmolyte synthesis, nutrient fixation/cycling). Long-term incubations (7 d) of cultured Symbiodinium exhibited cell growth even at ‘extreme’ salinity levels of 25 and 55. Metabolic profiles of four Symbiodinium strains exposed to increased (55) and decreased (25) salinities for 4 h indicated distinct carbohydrates and amino acids to be putatively involved in the osmoadjustment. Importantly, under high salinity the osmolyte floridoside was consistently increased. This could be corroborated in the coral model Aiptasia and in corals from the Persian/Arabian Gulf, where floridoside was also markedly increased upon short- (15 h) and long-term (>24 months) exposure to high salinity, confirming an important role of floridoside in the osmoadjustment of cnidarian holobionts. This thesis

  12. Hungaria asteroid region telescopic spectral survey (HARTSS) I: Stony asteroids abundant in the Hungaria background population

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; Lorenzi, Vania

    2017-07-01

    The Hungaria asteroids remain as survivors of late giant planet migration that destabilized a now extinct inner portion of the primordial asteroid belt and left in its wake the current resonance structure of the Main Belt. In this scenario, the Hungaria region represents a ;purgatory; for the closest, preserved samples of the asteroidal material from which the terrestrial planets accreted. Deciphering the surface composition of these unique samples may provide constraints on the nature of the primordial building blocks of the terrestrial planets. We have undertaken an observational campaign entitled the Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) to record near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra in order to characterize their taxonomy, surface mineralogy, and potential meteorite analogs. The overall objective of HARTSS is to evaluate the compositional diversity of asteroids located throughout the Hungaria region. This region harbors a collisional family of Xe-type asteroids, which are situated among a background (i.e., non-family) of predominantly S-complex asteroids. In order to assess the compositional diversity of the Hungaria region, we have targeted background objects during Phase I of HARTSS. Collisional family members likely reflect the composition of one original homogeneous parent body, so we have largely avoided them in this phase. We have employed NIR instruments at two ground-based telescope facilities: the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), and the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). Our data set includes the NIR spectra of 42 Hungaria asteroids (36 background; 6 family). We find that stony S-complex asteroids dominate the Hungaria background population (29/36 objects; ∼80%). C-complex asteroids are uncommon (2/42; ∼5%) within the Hungaria region. Background S-complex objects exhibit considerable spectral diversity as band parameter measurements of diagnostic absorption features near 1- and 2-μm indicate that several

  13. GPU-Accelerated Stony-Brook University 5-class Microphysics Scheme in WRF

    Mielikainen, J.; Huang, B.; Huang, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is a next-generation mesoscale numerical weather prediction system. Microphysics plays an important role in weather and climate prediction. Several bulk water microphysics schemes are available within the WRF, with different numbers of simulated hydrometeor classes and methods for estimating their size fall speeds, distributions and densities. Stony-Brook University scheme (SBU-YLIN) is a 5-class scheme with riming intensity predicted to account for mixed-phase processes. In the past few years, co-processing on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) has been a disruptive technology in High Performance Computing (HPC). GPUs use the ever increasing transistor count for adding more processor cores. Therefore, GPUs are well suited for massively data parallel processing with high floating point arithmetic intensity. Thus, it is imperative to update legacy scientific applications to take advantage of this unprecedented increase in computing power. CUDA is an extension to the C programming language offering programming GPU's directly. It is designed so that its constructs allow for natural expression of data-level parallelism. A CUDA program is organized into two parts: a serial program running on the CPU and a CUDA kernel running on the GPU. The CUDA code consists of three computational phases: transmission of data into the global memory of the GPU, execution of the CUDA kernel, and transmission of results from the GPU into the memory of CPU. CUDA takes a bottom-up point of view of parallelism is which thread is an atomic unit of parallelism. Individual threads are part of groups called warps, within which every thread executes exactly the same sequence of instructions. To test SBU-YLIN, we used a CONtinental United States (CONUS) benchmark data set for 12 km resolution domain for October 24, 2001. A WRF domain is a geographic region of interest discretized into a 2-dimensional grid parallel to the ground. Each grid point has

  14. Contact resistance problems applying ERT on low bulk density forested stony soils. Is there a solution?

    Deraedt, Deborah; Touzé, Camille; Robert, Tanguy; Colinet, Gilles; Degré, Aurore; Garré, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    contact resistance reduced to 5222 Ω. This improved the contact resistance substantially, but complicates the execution of a pulse tracer experiment. To date we did not find any better solution to this problem and we keep searching a way to improve the contact resistance in stony forested soils with very low bulk density. We would like to exchange on these questions with EGU attendees in order to improve the experimental design or point out a new research path for these specific conditions. This could lead to enhance the use of ERT in soils with low density and high stone content.

  15. The Economic Empowerment of Women in Uganda Through Mushroom Production

    Ibarahim Mayanja

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on empowering women both in peri-urban and rural areas through mushroom production. It was conducted in Kampala Metropolitan area-Uganda, during October 2016. It focused on estimating profits, conducting benefit-cost analysis/ratio (BCR and return on investment (ROI, finding reasons as to why women involved in the mushroom production and identifying the constraints of mushroom farming from the perspective of women as well as the possible solutions to the constraints. 29 women were interviewed face to face through the use of the questionnaires. The study revealed an average net profit of 3,464.28 US dollars, BCR of 3.84 and ROI of 2.84 per farm in a period of three months. Our study revealed that mushroom production is a profitable enterprise for women. The major reason for women to involve in mushroom was to earn income. However, a range of other reasons was given such as fast maturity of mushrooms, availability of market, healthy benefits of mushrooms, etc. were the most important reasons. The problems faced by women farmers were ranked from the most pressing problem to the least pressing problem in this order; Low market prices per kilogram of mushroom, scarcity of cotton during some seasons, poor quality mushroom spawn supplied to farmers by breeders, inadequate extension, and advisory services were the most observed problems among others. The suggested solutions were organizing farmers into groups or cooperatives in order to negotiate for better markets locally and abroad together with the help of government, researchers to carry out more research on the suitability of other substrates like bagasse other than relying on only cotton, ensuring that mushroom spawn breeders conform to the set standards of quality spawn production and re-equipping local extension workers with knowledge regarding mushroom production among others.

  16. Calicoblastic neoplasms in Acropora palmata, with a review of reports on anomalies of growth and form in corals.

    Peters, E C; Halas, J C; McCarty, H B

    1986-05-01

    Colonies of the elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata), possessing raised, whitened, irregularly shaped skeletal protuberances, were discovered at Carysfort Reef and Grecian Rocks, Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary, Key Largo, FL. These lesions exhibited relatively rapid growth and spread along the branches, as polyps were overlaid by coenosteal skeletal material. Histopathological examinations of the soft tissues surrounding and extending into the skeletal masses revealed proliferation of gastrovascular canals and associated calicoblastic epidermis, with loss of normal polyp structures and zooxanthellae. The slightly atypical tumor calicoblasts were cuboidal to columnar, resembling those found in the rapidly growing apical tips. Stable carbon isotope ratios of skeletal samples revealed that the tumor skeleton was isotopically lighter than the skeleton in the normal or apical track regions, indicative of higher tissue metabolic rates and lack of carbon isotope fractionation by zooxanthellae. This condition appears to be a neoplasm of the coral, and it is proposed that it be classified "calicoblastic epithelioma." Several different types of abnormal skeletal deposition, possibly the result of neoplastic processes, have been reported to occur in stony corals and are here reviewed.

  17. Fungal invasion of massive corals

    Raghukumar, C.; Raghukumar, S.

    Five species of corals from the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean) have been regularly found to have single or multiple necrotic patches. The occurrence of such corals with necrotic patches varied from 10-50% in the field. Sections...

  18. The Biology and Economics of Coral Growth

    Osinga, R.; Schutter, M.; Griffioen, B.; Wijffels, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Shafit, S.; Henard, S.; Taruffi, M.; Gili, C.; Lavorano, S.

    2011-01-01

    To protect natural coral reefs, it is of utmost importance to understand how the growth of the main reef-building organisms-the zooxanthellate scleractinian corals-is controlled. Understanding coral growth is also relevant for coral aquaculture, which is a rapidly developing business. This review

  19. Genomes of coral dinoflagellate symbionts highlight evolutionary adaptations conducive to a symbiotic lifestyle

    Aranda, Manuel

    2016-12-22

    Despite half a century of research, the biology of dinoflagellates remains enigmatic: they defy many functional and genetic traits attributed to typical eukaryotic cells. Genomic approaches to study dinoflagellates are often stymied due to their large, multi-gigabase genomes. Members of the genus Symbiodinium are photosynthetic endosymbionts of stony corals that provide the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Their smaller genome sizes provide an opportunity to interrogate evolution and functionality of dinoflagellate genomes and endosymbiosis. We sequenced the genome of the ancestral Symbiodinium microadriaticum and compared it to the genomes of the more derived Symbiodinium minutum and Symbiodinium kawagutii and eukaryote model systems as well as transcriptomes from other dinoflagellates. Comparative analyses of genome and transcriptome protein sets show that all dinoflagellates, not only Symbiodinium, possess significantly more transmembrane transporters involved in the exchange of amino acids, lipids, and glycerol than other eukaryotes. Importantly, we find that only Symbiodinium harbor an extensive transporter repertoire associated with the provisioning of carbon and nitrogen. Analyses of these transporters show species-specific expansions, which provides a genomic basis to explain differential compatibilities to an array of hosts and environments, and highlights the putative importance of gene duplications as an evolutionary mechanism in dinoflagellates and Symbiodinium.

  20. Genomes of coral dinoflagellate symbionts highlight evolutionary adaptations conducive to a symbiotic lifestyle

    Aranda, Manuel; Li, Yangyang; Liew, Yi Jin; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Simakov, O.; Wilson, M. C.; Piel, J.; Ashoor, Haitham; Bougouffa, Salim; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Ryu, Tae Woo; Ravasi, Timothy; Bayer, Till; Micklem, G.; Kim, H.; Bhak, J.; LaJeunesse, T. C.; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite half a century of research, the biology of dinoflagellates remains enigmatic: they defy many functional and genetic traits attributed to typical eukaryotic cells. Genomic approaches to study dinoflagellates are often stymied due to their large, multi-gigabase genomes. Members of the genus Symbiodinium are photosynthetic endosymbionts of stony corals that provide the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Their smaller genome sizes provide an opportunity to interrogate evolution and functionality of dinoflagellate genomes and endosymbiosis. We sequenced the genome of the ancestral Symbiodinium microadriaticum and compared it to the genomes of the more derived Symbiodinium minutum and Symbiodinium kawagutii and eukaryote model systems as well as transcriptomes from other dinoflagellates. Comparative analyses of genome and transcriptome protein sets show that all dinoflagellates, not only Symbiodinium, possess significantly more transmembrane transporters involved in the exchange of amino acids, lipids, and glycerol than other eukaryotes. Importantly, we find that only Symbiodinium harbor an extensive transporter repertoire associated with the provisioning of carbon and nitrogen. Analyses of these transporters show species-specific expansions, which provides a genomic basis to explain differential compatibilities to an array of hosts and environments, and highlights the putative importance of gene duplications as an evolutionary mechanism in dinoflagellates and Symbiodinium.

  1. More efficient mushroom canning through pinch and exergy analysis

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Sman, van der Ruud G.M.; Westerik, Nieke; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Dewi, Belinda P.C.; Boom, Remko M.

    2017-01-01

    Conventional production of canned mushrooms involves multiple processing steps as vacuum hydration, blanching, sterilization, etc. that are intensive in energy and water usage. We analyzed the current mushroom processing technique plus three alternative scenarios via pinch and exergy analysis.

  2. Cultivation experiments on uptake of radionuclides by mushrooms

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    1994-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, high concentrations of radiocesium in mushrooms were found in Europe. In our previous studies, we found that 137 Cs concentrations in mushrooms were markedly higher than autotrophic plants. In order to study radionuclide uptake by mushrooms, cultivation experiments in flasks were carried out using radiotracers, 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 60 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn. Three mushroom species Hebeloma vinosophyllum, Flammulina velutipes and Coprinus phlyctidosporus were used. In addition, a plant sample, Medicago sativa, was also tested. We found mushrooms tended to accumulate Cs, although there was a large difference between mushroom species. The concentration ratio, which was defined as 'activity of radionuclide in mushroom (Bq/g, wet wt.)' divided by 'activity of radionuclide in medium (Bq/g, wet wt.)', had the highest value of 21 for Cs in H. vinosophyllum. The value was much higher than that in the plant sample. The present findings agreed with previous observations in which Hebeloma species collected in forests contained large amount of 137 Cs. Considerable accumulations were not found for Sr and Co. The concentration ratio of Mn for the mushrooms was about 10, while the ratio of Zn ranged from 15 to 30. The effects of stable elements in the medium on the accumulations were investigated and was found the concentration ratios of Cs, Sr and Co were not influenced highly by coexisting stable elements in the medium. But the concentration ratio of Mn decreased as the amount of coexisting stable elements in the medium was increased. (author)

  3. wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in nigeria abstract

    USER

    of awareness, consumption history, wild or ... 15.6% were students and 11.1% business ... 1.1. N/A. 5. 5.6. NA = Not applicable mushrooms for over 10 years; whereas 13.3% ... Consumption history of wild and cultivated mushrooms in Nigeria.

  4. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing

    SHAUKET AHMED PALA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Boda RH, Wani BA. 2014. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 173-185. Mushroom can serve as food, tonic, and as medicine thus make people healthier, fitter and happier. They have a cracking potential for generating great socioeconomic impact in human welfare at local, national and international level. With the help of allied mushroom farming we can easily tackle the problem of food for growing world population; reduce environmental pollution by bioconversion of huge organic wastes into mushrooms; recycle huge quantity of organic wastes to mushroom crops, biofertilizers, and biogas; restore damaged environment by mushroom mycelia through mycoforestry, mycoremediation, mycofiltration and mycopesticides in a zero emission fashion. They can be used to degrade radioactive industrial biocide wastes in an eco-friendly fashion. Since mushroom cultivation is an indoor agribusiness, it could have great economic impact by generating employment, income and functional food requirements for rural people especially in developing countries. How far mushroom cultivation can meet the functional food requirements; address the domestic food challenges, rising food prices and crisis vis a vis environmental sustainability will be thrust areas of this communication.

  5. Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.

    Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

    2002-05-01

    Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw.

  6. Proximate and mineral analysis of some wild edible mushrooms

    israelikk

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... Key words: Edible mushroom, mineral composition, proximate analysis. ... than beef, pork and chicken that contain similar nutrients. .... legumes and meat. In earlier studies, Gruen and Wong. (1982) indicated that edible mushrooms were highly nutritional and compared favourably with meat, egg and milk.

  7. DRYING CHARACTERISTICS OF CAP AND STEM OF MUSHROOM

    Administrator

    mushrooms are not immediately processed. Drying is the most commonly used method of preservation of mushrooms. Dehydrated mush- rooms are used as an important ingredient in several food formulations including instant soups, pasta salads, snack seasonings, stuffing, casseroles, and meat and rice dishes (Tuley,.

  8. analysis of edible mushroom marketing in three villages in central

    BARTH

    Furthermore, extension agents should monitor beneficiaries of such loans to ensure ... Mushrooms belong to a group of living things ... environment, knowledge of simple and low cost .... =Taxes (naira) ... Inheritance ... Table 7 revealed that Alesi marketers made profit margin of N 60,000.00 per .... Guide to Edible Mushroom.

  9. Yield response of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw ...

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... 1Mugla University, Faculty of Technical Education, Kotekli, 48000, Mugla, Turkey. 2Mugla University, Mushroom ..... Hayes WA, Shandilya TR (1977). Casing soil and compost substrates used in the artifical culture of Agaricus bisporus, the cultivated mushroom. Indian J. Mycol. Plant Pathol. 7: 5-10. Lambert ...

  10. Indigenous knowledge and utilization of edible mushrooms in parts ...

    Heim and Coprinus disseminatus (Pers.: Fr.) S. F. Gray. Among the local people, names of edible mushrooms are based on the substrates on which they grow, their association with insects, and unrelated taxa are given collective names. Rural people believe mushrooms have medicinal values and can serve as blood tonic, ...

  11. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: patricialandim@ig.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; lilian.Pavanelli@terra.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)

  12. Assessing the potential of mushroom cultivation in improving ...

    Mo

    Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Faculty of Agriculture, Makerere University, P.O Box ... requires little land space, earns high income, and provides ... mushroom growing is one of the enterprises that would fit .... Children. 2. 3.30. Relative. 3. 5.00. Table 1. Availability of wild mushrooms now and in the past.

  13. [Progress of heterotrophic studies on symbiotic corals].

    Yang, Yang-Chu-Qiao; Hong, Wen Ting; Wang, Shu Hong

    2017-12-01

    Heterotrophy of zooxanthellae symbiotic corals refers to the nutrition directly coming from food absorption, not the nutrition obtained from photosynthesis. Most ex situ propagation of symbiotic corals focused on the effects of irradiation, flow rate and water quality on corals, few of them involved in the demand and supply of coral heterotrophic nutrition. This paper reviewed the significance of heterotrophic nutrient supply to symbiotic corals from the sources of coral heterotrophic nutrition, the factors affecting the supply of coral heterotrophic nutrient, and the methods of how to study the coral heterotrophy. In general, the research of coral heterotrophy is just at the beginning stage, and future studies should focus on the inherent mechanism of coral feeding selection and developing more effective research methods.

  14. Coral reef bleaching: ecological perspectives

    Glynn, P. W.

    1993-03-01

    Coral reef bleaching, the whitening of diverse invertebrate taxa, results from the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or a reduction in photosynthetic pigment concentrations in zooxanthellae residing within the gastrodermal tissues of host animals. Of particular concern are the consequences of bleaching of large numbers of reef-building scleractinian corals and hydrocorals. Published records of coral reef bleaching events from 1870 to the present suggest that the frequency (60 major events from 1979 to 1990), scale (co-occurrence in many coral reef regions and often over the bathymetric depth range of corals) and severity (>95% mortality in some areas) of recent bleaching disturbances are unprecedented in the scientific literature. The causes of small scale, isolated bleaching events can often be explained by particular stressors (e.g., temperature, salinity, light, sedimentation, aerial exposure and pollutants), but attempts to explain large scale bleaching events in terms of possible global change (e.g., greenhouse warming, increased UV radiation flux, deteriorating ecosystem health, or some combination of the above) have not been convincing. Attempts to relate the severity and extent of large scale coral reef bleaching events to particular causes have been hampered by a lack of (a) standardized methods to assess bleaching and (b) continuous, long-term data bases of environmental conditions over the periods of interest. An effort must be made to understand the impact of bleaching on the remainder of the reef community and the long-term effects on competition, predation, symbioses, bioerosion and substrate condition, all factors that can influence coral recruitment and reef recovery. If projected rates of sea warming are realized by mid to late AD 2000, i.e. a 2°C increase in high latitude coral seas, the upper thermal tolerance limits of many reef-building corals could be exceeded. Present evidence suggests that many corals would be unable to adapt

  15. Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species: part I. Problem of trace element toxicity in mushrooms.

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Rissmann, Iwona; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn accumulation in six edible mushroom species and to assess their risk and benefits to human consumers. Mushrooms (Leccinium aurantiacum, Xerocomus badius, Lactarius deliciosus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and Suillus luteus) were collected from selected regions of Poland during 1990-2010. The highest diversity between studied mushroom species was observed in terms of Cu and Zn accumulation. Significant differences in the accumulation efficiency were found among the six mushroom species examined. The most efficient were Boletus edulis (Cd and Hg), Suillus luteus (Cu and Sr), and Lactarius deliciosus (Pb and Zn). In the case of Co and Ni, the most effective were Xerocomus badius and Leccinium aurantiacum, respectively. The calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of Cd, Cu, Hg, Sr and Zn were > 1 for all species in this study while Co, Ni and Pb usually were bioexcluded (BCF luteus collected in Poland is safe and this finding largely agrees with results from recent studies by other authors.

  16. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  17. Level II scour analysis for brigde 5 (STOCTH00360005) on Town Highway 36, crossing Stony Brook, Stockridge, Vermont

    Striker, Lora K.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure STOCTH00360005 on Town Highway 36 crossing Stony Brook, Stockbridge, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D.

  18. 77 FR 66580 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    2012-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India. The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2011, through January... Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India...

  19. 77 FR 19620 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    2012-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). In accordance with section 751(a)(2... mushrooms from the PRC.\\1\\ The antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC therefore...

  20. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs.

    Navas-Camacho, Raúl; Gil-Agudelo, Diego Luis; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto; Reyes-Nivia, María Catalina; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC) has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá). The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10 x 2m) with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters) are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2), and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2). Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD), and White Plague Disease (WPD) were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A. grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years) variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few long

  1. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west). Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending on the timing of

  2. Influence of growing conditions on heavy metals content in cultivated mushrooms

    Kmitene, L.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of growing terms, microclimate conditions and growing medium on the mushroom harvest and quality. Champignons were grown according to the Polish technology. Pleurotus ostreatus was grown in perforate sacks using chopped wheat straw. Mycelium was sowed in different terms. It was established that the harvest of mushrooms, especially their quality, depends not only on growing conditions, but also on the kind of mushrooms, composte quality, mushroom size (diameter of cap), picking of mushrooms, storage time and other conditions. The technology of mushroom growing will be developed after studying all the factors determining the content of heavy metals and radiation in mushrooms

  3. Coral reef ecosystem

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.

    ), on submerged banks like Gave shani bank (13°24'N; 73°45'E) (Nair and Qasim 1978) andSidere~ko Bank (13°43.5' N; 73°42'E) (Rao 1972) and as stray individual units off Visakhapatnam (Bakus, G. personal communication) and Pondicherry (Ramesh, A. personal... communication). Fossil reefs, drowned as a result of the Holocene sea level rise, occur at 92, 85, 75 and 55 m depth along .. ~ !! ":2 0. ~ Figure 3.1 Graphical Representation of the SO-Box Model of a Caribbean Coral Reef Key: 1. Benthic producers. 2. Detritus...

  4. Mushrooms pollution by radioactivity and heavy metals

    Delatouche, L.

    2001-01-01

    Some basic notions of radioactivity are recalled first (definition, origin, measurement units, long- and short-term effects..). Then, the pedology of soils and the properties and toxicity of 3 heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury) are presented to better understand the influence of some factors (genre, age, ecological type, pollution, conservation..) on the contamination of macro-mycetes by radioactivity and heavy metals. The role of chemists is to inform the consumers about these chemical and radioactive pollutions and to give some advices about the picking up (quantities, species and places to avoid) and the cooking of mushrooms. (J.S.)

  5. New perspectives on ecological mechanisms affecting coral recruitment on reefs

    Ritson-Williams, R.; Arnold, S.N.; Fogarty, N.D.; Steneck, R.S.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Paul, V.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coral mortality has increased in recent decades, making coral recruitment more important than ever in sustaining coral reef ecosystems and contributing to their resilience. This review summarizes existing information on ecological factors affecting scleractinian coral recruitment. Successful

  6. Composition and biological activities of the aqueous extracts of three scleractinian corals from the Mexican Caribbean: Pseudodiploria strigosa, Porites astreoides and Siderastrea siderea.

    García-Arredondo, Alejandro; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Scleractinian corals (stony corals) are the most abundant reef-forming cnidarians found in coral reefs throughout the world. Despite their abundance and ecological importance, information about the diversity of their toxins and their biological activities is very scarce. In this study, the chemical composition and the biological activities of the aqueous extracts of Pseudodiploria strigosa , Porites astreoides and Siderastrea siderea , three scleractinian corals from the Mexican Caribbean, have been assessed for the first time. Toxicity of the extracts was assessed in crickets; the presence of cytolysins was detected by the hemolysis assay; the vasoconstrictor activity was determined by the isolated rat aortic ring assay; the nociceptive activity was evaluated by the formalin test. The presence of phospholipases A 2 (PLA 2 ), serine proteases, and hyaluronidases was determined by enzymatic methods. Low-molecular-weight fractions were obtained by gel filtration chromatography and ultrafiltration. Extracts from the three species were toxic to crickets, induced hemolysis in human and rat erythrocytes, produced vasoconstriction on isolated rat aortic rings, and presented phospholipase A 2 and serine-protease activity. Despite the fact that these corals are not considered to be harmless to humans, the extracts generated significant nociceptive responses. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis of the low-molecular-weight fractions revealed the presence of peptides within a mass range of 3000 to 6000 Da. These fractions were toxic to crickets and two of them induced a transitory vasoconstrictor effect on isolated rat aortic rings. This study suggests that scleractinian corals produce low-molecular-weight peptides that are lethal to crickets and induce vasoconstriction.

  7. Human activities threaten coral reefs

    Tveitdal, Svein; Bjoerke, Aake

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that 58 per cent of the coral reefs of the world are threatened by human activities. Pollution and global heating represent some of the threats. Coral reefs just beneath the surface of the sea are very sensitive to temperature changes. Since 1979, mass death of coral reefs has been reported increasingly often. More than 1000 marine species live in the coral reefs, among these are one fourth of all marine species of fish. It is imperative that the coral reefs be preserved, as coastal communities all over the world depend on them as sources of food and as they are the raw materials for important medicines. The article discusses the threats to the coral reefs in general and does not single out any particular energy-related activity as the principal threat. For instance, the El-Nino phenomenon of the Pacific Ocean is probably involved in mass death of coral reefs and in the North Sea large parts of deep-water reefs have been crushed by heavy beam trawlers fishing for bottom fish

  8. Effect of Edible Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on Type-2 Diabetics

    M. Abu Sayeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD like diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD are on the increase globally and predominantly in the South East Asian Region (SEAR. The increasing NCD and its complications burdened the health cost of Bangladesh. The available literatures suggest that edible mushrooms are effective in controlling metabolic risks like hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia. The study addressed the metabolic effects of edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus in diabetic individuals and to assess the undesirable effects of mushroom. A total of 5000 newly registered diabetic women were screened for eligible participants (urban housewives, age 30 – 50y, BMI 22 – 27, FBG 8 – 12 mmol/l; free from complications or systemic illnesses and agreed to adhere to the study for 360 days. The investigations included weight and height for BMI, waist- and hip-girth for WHR, BP, FBG, 2ABF, T-chol, TG, HDL, LDL, ALT and Creatinine starting from the day 0 (baseline and each subsequent follow-up days: 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 for comparison between placebo and mushroom groups and also within group (baseline vs. follow up days, individually for placebo and mushroom. The daily intake of mushroom was 200g for the mushroom group and an equivalent calorie of vegetables for the placebo group. Overall, 73 diabetic housewives (mushroom / placebo = 43 /30 volunteered. The mean (with SEM values of BMI, WHR, BP, FBG, 2ABF, T-chol, TG, HDL, LDL, ALT and Creatinine of the placebo group were compared with the mushroom group. Compared with the placebo, the mushroom group showed significant reductions of FBG (p<0.001, 2ABF (p<0.001, T-chol (p<0.001, TG (p=0.03 and LDL (p<0.001; whereas, no difference was observed for BMI, SBP, DBP, HDL, Hb, creatinine and ALT. The comparison within groups (baseline vs. follow-up there were significant reduction of these variables in mushroom but not in the

  9. 75 FR 39917 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs off the...

    2010-07-13

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs off the Southern Atlantic... regulations implementing the Fishery Management Plan for Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hardbottom Habitat of... Cancer Institute (http:// [[Page 39918

  10. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  11. Comparison of Different Drying Methods for Recovery of Mushroom DNA.

    Wang, Shouxian; Liu, Yu; Xu, Jianping

    2017-06-07

    Several methods have been reported for drying mushroom specimens for population genetic, taxonomic, and phylogenetic studies. However, most methods have not been directly compared for their effectiveness in preserving mushroom DNA. In this study, we compared silica gel drying at ambient temperature and oven drying at seven different temperatures. Two mushroom species representing two types of fruiting bodies were examined: the fleshy button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and the leathery shelf fungus Trametes versicolor. For each species dried with the eight methods, we assessed the mushroom water loss rate, the quality and quantity of extracted DNA, and the effectiveness of using the extracted DNA as a template for PCR amplification of two DNA fragments (ITS and a single copy gene). Dried specimens from all tested methods yielded sufficient DNA for PCR amplification of the two genes in both species. However, differences among the methods for the two species were found in: (i) the time required by different drying methods for the fresh mushroom tissue to reach a stable weight; and (ii) the relative quality and quantity of the extracted genomic DNA. Among these methods, oven drying at 70 °C for 3-4 h seemed the most efficient for preserving field mushroom samples for subsequent molecular work.

  12. Radiopasteurization of sawdust media used in propagation of mushrooms

    Ito, Hitoshi; Sato, Tomotaro

    1975-01-01

    In our country, cultivation of mushrooms such as Pleurotus ostreatus, Kuehneromyces nameko, and Lentinus edodes (Cortinellus shiitake) are expanding, and has reached considerable amounts. These mushrooms are cultivated generally on decaying logs of broad leaf trees. Recently, these mushrooms are also cultivated artificially on the sawdust-media containing rice bran and other nutrient in the room of which temperature is controlled. However, these artificial culture media must be germicidated for 2 or 6 hours at 100 to 120 0 C before inoculation of mushroom spawn. In this study, attempts were made to cultivate Pleurotus ostreatus on the sawdust-media pasteurized by ionizing radiation. Inhibition of mushrooms growth were caused mainly by multiplication of Citrobacter and Fusarium, and these organisms were eliminated by a dose of 0.5 Mrad gamma irradiation. A surprising result was that many of sawdust media subjected to 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Mrad increased mycelial growth rates more than heat treatments, and also mushroom yields were enhanced. The multiplication of remaining microorganisms such as Bacillus and yeasts after irradiation with a dose of 0.5 Mrad or 1.0 Mrad did not inhibit the mycelial growth of mushrooms. (auth.)

  13. Radiocaesium and natural gamma emitters in mushrooms collected in Spain

    Baeza, Antonio; Guillen, Fco. Javier [Department of Physics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain); Hernandez, Santiago [Department of Techniques, Means and Elements of Construction, Polytechnical School, University de Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain); Moreno, Gabriel; Manjon, Jose Luis [Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Alcala, Alcala de Henares, Madrid 28871 (Spain); Pascual, Rosario [Department of Zootechnics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain)

    2004-01-05

    Mushrooms can accumulate heavy metals in general, including radionuclides found in the nature. However, little attention has been paid to the radioactive content of mushrooms collected in Spain and the dose for the population due to their ingestion. To address this, we analysed the contents of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 7}Be present in different species of mushrooms, according to their genus and nutritional mechanism. We observed that mycorrhizal mushrooms accumulate {sup 137}Cs more than saprophytes, and vice versa for {sup 7}Be. {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra are accumulated to the same degree by the two groups of mushrooms. We estimated the dose due to ingestion of mushrooms in Spain to be 2 {mu}Sv/year, and the contribution of {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra to be generally greater than that of {sup 137}Cs. The contribution of {sup 137}Cs to the dose was calculated by taking into account the results of an experiment carried out under the controlled laboratory conditions, which showed that approximately 98% of {sup 134}Cs was associated with the readily digestible fraction of the mushrooms.

  14. Fungi and their role in corals and coral reef ecosystems

    Raghukumar, C.; Ravindran, J.

    fungal hyphae have on corals, their mechanism of penetration and the role their enzymes play in this process. 3.2. Fungi as pathogens in reef ecosystems Besides natural disasters and climate warming, diseases have contributed to coral decline... defence mechanisms against predation, biofouling, diseases, environmental perturbations and other stressors. These chemicals are either synthesized by the organisms themselves or their endobiontic microorganisms. If these valuable compounds...

  15. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Linhchi mushrooms as biological monitors for 137Cs pollution

    Tran Van, L.; Le Duy, T.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactivity of Linhchi mushrooms (Ganoderma Lucidum) cultivated in laboratory and production conditions has been measured in the Environmental Laboratory of Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat, Vietnam. The results showed that Linhchi mushroom has a high radioactive concentration of 137 Cs, which is about 20 Bq kg -1 fresh weight. In addition, the radioactive contents of substrata before and after cultivation were insignificant. This suggested that Linhchi mushroom should only accumulate the 137 Cs radioisotope from the atmosphere, directly. Therefore, it should be considered as a bio-indicator for environmental monitoring. (author) 13 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Coral Reef Protection Implementation Plan

    Lobel, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    This document identify policies and actions to implement the Department of Defense's responsibilities under Executive Order 13089 on Coral Reef Protection, and are a requirement of the interim Task...

  18. Advancing Ocean Monitoring Near Coral Reefs

    Heron, Scott F.; Steinberg, Craig R.; Heron, Mal L.; Mantovanelli, Alessandra; Jaffrés, Jasmine B. D.; Skirving, William J.; McAllister, Felicity; Rigby, Paul; Wisdom, Daniel; Bainbridge, Scott

    2010-10-01

    Corals, the foundation of tropical marine ecosystems, exist in a symbiotic relationship with zooxanthellae (algae). The corals obtain much of their energy by consuming compounds derived from photosynthesis by these microorganisms; the microorganisms, which reside in the coral tissue, in turn use waste products from the corals to sustain photosynthesis. This symbiosis is very sensitive to subtle changes in environment, such as increased ocean acidity, temperature, and light. When unduly stressed, the colorful algae are expelled from the corals, causing the corals to “bleach” and potentially die [e.g., van Oppen and Lough, 2009].

  19. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    Munkacsi, A B; Nees, Jan Pan; Villesen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a patter...

  20. Coral Sr-U Thermometry

    DeCarlo, T. M.; Gaetani, G. A.; Cohen, A. L.; Foster, G. L.; Alpert, A.; Stewart, J.

    2016-12-01

    Coral skeletons archive the past two millennia of climate variability in the oceans with unrivaled temporal resolution. However, extracting accurate temperature information from coral skeletons is confounded by "vital effects", which often override the temperature dependence of geochemical proxies. Here, we present a new approach to coral paleothermometry based on results of abiogenic precipitation experiments interpreted within a framework provided by a quantitative model of the coral biomineralization process. We conducted laboratory experiments to test the temperature and carbonate chemistry controls on abiogenic partitioning of Sr/Ca and U/Ca between aragonite and seawater, and we modeled the sensitivity of skeletal composition to processes occurring at the site of calcification. The model predicts that temperature can be accurately reconstructed from coral skeleton by combining Sr/Ca and U/Ca ratios into a new proxy, Sr-U. We tested the model predictions with measured Sr/Ca and U/Ca ratios of fourteen Porites sp. corals collected from the tropical Pacific Ocean and the Red Sea, with a subset also analyzed using the boron isotope (δ11B) pH proxy. Observed relationships among Sr/Ca, U/Ca, and δ11B agree with model predictions, indicating that the model accounts for the key features of the coral biomineralization process. We calibrated Sr-U to instrumental temperature records and found that it captures 93% of mean annual variability (26-30 °C) and predicts temperature within 0.5 °C (1 σ). Conversely, Sr/Ca alone has an error of prediction of 1 °C and often diverges from observed temperature by 3 °C or more. Many of the problems afflicting Sr/Ca - including offsets among neighboring corals and decouplings from temperature during coral stress events - are reconciled by Sr-U. By accounting for the influence of the coral biomineralization process, the Sr-U thermometer may offer significantly improved reliability for reconstructing ocean temperatures from coral

  1. Viruses: agents of coral disease?

    Davy, S K; Burchett, S G; Dale, A L; Davies, P; Davy, J E; Muncke, C; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Wilson, W H

    2006-03-23

    The potential role of viruses in coral disease has only recently begun to receive attention. Here we describe our attempts to determine whether viruses are present in thermally stressed corals Pavona danai, Acropora formosa and Stylophora pistillata and zoanthids Zoanthus sp., and their zooxanthellae. Heat-shocked P. danai, A. formosa and Zoanthus sp. all produced numerous virus-like particles (VLPs) that were evident in the animal tissue, zooxanthellae and the surrounding seawater; VLPs were also seen around heat-shocked freshly isolated zooxanthellae (FIZ) from P. danai and S. pistillata. The most commonly seen VLPs were tail-less, hexagonal and about 40 to 50 nm in diameter, though a diverse range of other VLP morphotypes (e.g. rounded, rod-shaped, droplet-shaped, filamentous) were also present around corals. When VLPs around heat-shocked FIZ from S. pistillata were added to non-stressed FIZ from this coral, they resulted in cell lysis, suggesting that an infectious agent was present; however, analysis with transmission electron microscopy provided no clear evidence of viral infection. The release of diverse VLPs was again apparent when flow cytometry was used to enumerate release by heat-stressed A. formosa nubbins. Our data support the infection of reef corals by viruses, though we cannot yet determine the precise origin (i.e. coral, zooxanthellae and/or surface microbes) of the VLPs seen. Furthermore, genome sequence data are required to establish the presence of viruses unequivocally.

  2. Species delimitation of common reef corals in the genus Pocillopora using nucleotide sequence phylogenies, population genetics and symbiosis ecology.

    Pinzón, Jorge H; LaJeunesse, Todd C

    2011-01-01

    Stony corals in the genus Pocillopora are among the most common and widely distributed of Indo-Pacific corals and, as such, are often the subject of physiological and ecological research. In the far Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), they are major constituents of shallow coral communities, exhibiting considerable variability in colony shape and branch morphology and marked differences in response to thermal stress. Numerous intermediates occur between morphospecies that may relate to extensive hybridization. The diversity of the Pocillopora genus in the TEP was analysed genetically using nuclear ribosomal (ITS2) and mitochondrial (ORF) sequences, and population genetic markers (seven microsatellite loci). The resident dinoflagellate endosymbiont (Symbiodinium sp.) in each sample was also characterized using sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) rDNA and the noncoding region of the chloroplast psbA minicircle. From these analyses, three symbiotically distinct, reproductively isolated, nonhybridizing, evolutionarily divergent animal lineages were identified. Designated types 1, 2 and 3, these groupings were incongruent with traditional morphospecies classification. Type 1 was abundant and widespread throughout the TEP; type 2 was restricted to the Clipperton Atoll; and type 3 was found only in Panama and the Galapagos Islands. Each type harboured a different Symbiodinium'species lineage' in Clade C, and only type 1 associated with the 'stress-tolerant'Symbiodinium glynni (D1). The accurate delineation of species and implementation of a proper taxonomy may profoundly improve our assessment of Pocillopora's reproductive biology, biogeographic distributions, and resilience to climate warming, information that must be considered when planning for the conservation of reef corals. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Natural disease resistance in threatened staghorn corals.

    Steven V Vollmer

    Full Text Available Disease epidemics have caused extensive damage to tropical coral reefs and to the reef-building corals themselves, yet nothing is known about the abilities of the coral host to resist disease infection. Understanding the potential for natural disease resistance in corals is critically important, especially in the Caribbean where the two ecologically dominant shallow-water corals, Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, have suffered an unprecedented mass die-off due to White Band Disease (WBD, and are now listed as threatened under the US Threatened Species Act and as critically endangered under the IUCN Red List criteria. Here we examine the potential for natural resistance to WBD in the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis by combining microsatellite genotype information with in situ transmission assays and field monitoring of WBD on tagged genotypes. We show that six percent of staghorn coral genotypes (3 out of 49 are resistant to WBD. This natural resistance to WBD in staghorn corals represents the first evidence of host disease resistance in scleractinian corals and demonstrates that staghorn corals have an innate ability to resist WBD infection. These resistant staghorn coral genotypes may explain why pockets of Acropora have been able to survive the WBD epidemic. Understanding disease resistance in these corals may be the critical link to restoring populations of these once dominant corals throughout their range.

  4. Radiocesium concentrations in wild mushrooms and characteristics of cesium accumulation by the edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hisashi; Morita, Yohoji; Kato, Fumio

    2000-01-01

    Mushrooms collected from a sub-alpine forest of Mt. Fuji and some other locations in Japan in 1996 were analyzed for radiocesium. The 137 Cs concentrations in 37 mushrooms varied widely from 1.6 to 783 Bqkg -1 fresh wt. The characteristics of Cs accumulation were analyzed by culturing fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1 (P. ostreatus Y-1). The 137 Cs and stable Cs accumulation expressed as the concentration ratio (CR, 137 Cs or Cs concentration in the dried fruiting body/ 137 Cs or Cs concentration in the fresh medium) were in good agreement, indicating similar migration. The CR of Cs grown on medium containing both 0.1% Cs and 0.1% K, 10.2, showed a decrease of about 30 percent as compared with that containing 0.1% Cs only. These CR values suggested that Cs accumulation by the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus Y-1 is affected by the presence of K similarly to previous observations in the mycelia. The 133 Cs-NMR spectra from the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus Y-1 showed two resonance signals, whereas those from the media after harvesting of fruiting bodies showed only one signal. Just before growth of the fruiting bodies, bunches consisting of many mycelia were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No significant differences in the elemental distribution (Cs, K, P and C) were detected in the mycelium surface by SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. (author)

  5. THE CONDITION OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTH FLORIDA (2000) USING CORAL DISEASE AND BLEACHING AS INDICATORS

    The destruction for coral reef habitats is occurring at unprecedented levels. Coral disease epizootics in the Southwestern Atlantic have lead to coral replacement by turf algae, prompting a call to classify some coral species as endangered. In addition, a massive bleaching event ...

  6. Coral calcification and ocean acidification

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Jury, Christopher P.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, the discovery that light increased calcification in the coral plant-animal symbiosis triggered interest in explaining the phenomenon and understanding the mechanisms involved. Major findings along the way include the observation that carbon fixed by photosynthesis in the zooxanthellae is translocated to animal cells throughout the colony and that corals can therefore live as autotrophs in many situations. Recent research has focused on explaining the observed reduction in calcification rate with increasing ocean acidification (OA). Experiments have shown a direct correlation between declining ocean pH, declining aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), declining [CO32_] and coral calcification. Nearly all previous reports on OA identify Ωarag or its surrogate [CO32] as the factor driving coral calcification. However, the alternate “Proton Flux Hypothesis” stated that coral calcification is controlled by diffusion limitation of net H+ transport through the boundary layer in relation to availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The “Two Compartment Proton Flux Model” expanded this explanation and synthesized diverse observations into a universal model that explains many paradoxes of coral metabolism, morphology and plasticity of growth form in addition to observed coral skeletal growth response to OA. It is now clear that irradiance is the main driver of net photosynthesis (Pnet), which in turn drives net calcification (Gnet), and alters pH in the bulk water surrounding the coral. Pnet controls [CO32] and thus Ωarag of the bulk water over the diel cycle. Changes in Ωarag and pH lag behind Gnet throughout the daily cycle by two or more hours. The flux rate Pnet, rather than concentration-based parameters (e.g., Ωarag, [CO3 2], pH and [DIC]:[H+] ratio) is the primary driver of Gnet. Daytime coral metabolism rapidly removes DIC from the bulk seawater. Photosynthesis increases the bulk seawater pH while providing the energy that drives

  7. Coastal nutrification and coral health at Porto Seguro reefs, Brazil

    Costa, O.; Attrill, M.; Nimmo, M.

    2003-04-01

    correlation between zoanthids and algal abundance and a positive correlation with the amount of available space for settlement. On the offshore reef, correlation of algal cover with both zoanthids and available space were negative, suggesting that hard substrate may be the primary limiting factor for algal settlement and growth in the nearshore reefs. Highly variable physical disturbances (like wave energy and low tide exposure) between landward and seaward reef sides appear to be the factors controlling algal distribution in the offshore reef. Highly spatial variability in coral cover ultimately reflects the patchy distribution of stony corals over the reefs.

  8. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and Bioactivity Relevant to Human Disease

    Mohamed Ali Abol Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell–cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity.

  9. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... effects related to their disposal (Mshandete et al., 2008). Cultivation of mushroom can .... The holes facilitated drainage, aeration (free diffusion of gases and .... sium, iron, copper, manganese, zinc and cobalt) were determined.

  10. Evaluating the production of Ganoderma mushroom on corn cobs

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... Full Length Research Paper. Evaluating the production ... Key words: Ganoderma, corn cobs, substrate, mushrooms, sawdust, basidiocarp. INTRODUCTION .... those which have high lignin and low cellulose. This is because ...

  11. Application of ionizing radiation to preservation of mushrooms

    Smierzchalska, K.; Gubrynowicz, E.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on prolongation of preservation time and quality of mushrooms is discussed. Some numerical data are cited. The influence of ionizing radiation on growth rate and physiological processes is also presented. (A.S.)

  12. Economic feasibility of small scale button mushroom production in pakistan

    Tahir, A.; Hassan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:- Mushroom is widely cultivated as a proteineous vegetable in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Its cultivation requires less space, care, equipment and cost compared to many other crops and livestock. The present study was conducted in 2010 to estimate the profitability of small scale button mushroom production at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. The cost of production methodology was used for this study. The yield and gross return of mushroom was estimated at 155.6 kg ha and Rs.77,800 ha , respectively. The results indicated the fact that mushroom production is very much remunerative to its producers as it can give maximum net return by reducing their cost of production as its cultivation is dependent on the agricultural raw material which is cheaply available. (author)

  13. Induction and evaluation of beneficial mutations in Volvariella volvacea mushroom

    Borromeo, J.D.

    1976-03-01

    The present strains of Volvariella volvacea are difficult to grow, hence the need for developing a wild-type mushroom that can be grown without the stringent cultural requirements. This would be suitable for backyard or small-scale production. A vigorous white mushroom that responds to the controlled conditions in mushroom houses is appropriate for large-scale or commercial production. The percentages success in getting the ''first flushes'' has been no more than 30%. There was a certain amount of difficulty in recognizing mutants based on their morphological features in laboratory culture. The first irradiation series utilizing 200 and 400 kR and using the box-type method of cultivation in growing the mushroom have given us the needed information in planning the next irradiation series

  14. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  15. Food, medicinal and environmental values of mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus

    O. M. Alekseenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the literature review describing food, medicinal and ecological properties of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom. It is shown that the mushroom is adequate foodstuff for human beings. It provides with proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and mineral salts. Protein of the oyster mushrooms’ mycothallus contains 18 amino acids, eight of which were essential (isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine, and valine. Therapeutic value of the mushroom is characterised by a content of water-soluble (thiamine B1, riboflavin B2, niacin, B5, PP, pyridoxine B6, biotin B7, ascorbic and pantothenic acid and liposoluble (calciferol, ergosterol, tocopherol vitamins. The considerable gains from the farm wastes use for the mushrooms raising with subsequent application of the substrate in plant cultivation and animal husbandry are stated.

  16. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Spent Mushroom Substrate Extract on ...

    Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Spent Mushroom Substrate Extract on Milk and ... Serum antioxidant activity as well as milk and serum immunoglobulin levels were ... total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and mean serum TAC concentration among ...

  17. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Melinda NAGY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the consumption of mushrooms has significantly increased due to the scientific evidence of their ability to help the organism in the combat and prevention of several diseases (Kalac, 2009. Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are consumed as a delicacy for their texture and flavour, but also for their nutritional properties that makes them even more attractable (Heleno S. 2015. In this paper data were collected from several scientific studies with the aim to characterize the chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds of various mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lactarius piperatus. The chemical composition of 5 wild edible studied mushrooms, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total sugars, crude fat, crude protein and energy were determined according to AOAC procedures.

  18. Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw ...

    Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts using supplements of some locally available peats and their mixture with some secondary casing materials.

  19. Cultivation of mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) on banana leaves

    SERVER

    percentage of the fibre components being degraded. The crude protein ... incubation of the mushroom due probably to the addition of microbial protein. The acid ... a plastic or tent-like construction or bamboo frame stretched with plastic film ...

  20. Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio

    S.M. Bratkovich

    1991-01-01

    Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.

  1. Identifying 8-hydroxynaringenin as a suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase.

    Chang, Te-Sheng; Lin, Meng-Yi; Lin, Hsuan-Jung

    2010-01-01

    A biotransformed metabolite of naringenin was isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus oryzae, fed with naringenin, and identified as 8-hydroxynaringenin based on the mass and (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectral data. The compound showed characteristics of both an irreversible inhibitor and a substrate of mushroom tyrosinase in preincubation and HPLC analysis. These results demonstrate that 8-hydroxynaringenin belongs to a suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase. The partition ratio between the compound's molecules in the formation of product and in the inactivation of the enzyme was determined to be 283 +/- 21. The present study's results, together with our previous findings, which proved that both 8-hydroxydaidzein and 8-hydroxygenistein are suicide substrates of mushroom tyrosinase, show that 7,8,4'-trihydroxyl functional groups on flavonoids' skeletons play important roles in producing suicide substrate properties toward mushroom tyrosinase.

  2. Molecular and Antibacterial Profile of Edible Oyster Mushrooms ...

    2012r

    2014-09-24

    Sep 24, 2014 ... Phenol/Chloroform DNA extraction protocol and the DNA was ... DNA from oyster mushroom fermentation broth, mycelia or fruiting bodies. .... Sample preparation: The different strains of Pleurotus were obtained in test- tubes.

  3. Soft coral abundance on the central Great Barrier Reef: effects of Acanthaster planci, space availability, and aspects of the physical environment

    Fabricius, K. E.

    1997-07-01

    The distribution and abundance of soft coral genera on reefs of the central Great Barrier Reef was investigated in relation to reef position, recent history of disturbance, wave exposure, substratum slope and depth. Eighty-five 25 m long transects were surveyed at 10 m depth on windward sides of 14 mid- and outer-shelf reefs. A further 75 transects in different zones on one mid-shelf reef (Davies Reef) between 5 and 30 m depth were investigated. The crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci had caused large-scale mortality of scleractinians on eight of these reefs five to ten years prior to the study, and as a result, scleractinian cover was only 35-55% of that on the six unimpacted reefs. On the impacted reefs, stony corals with massive and encrusting growths form had smaller average colony diameters but similar or slightly lower numerical abundance. In contrast, mean colony size, cover and abundance of branching stony corals showed no difference between impacted and unimpacted reefs. Twenty-four genera of soft corals (in eight families) were recorded, and none showed different abundance or cover in areas of former A. planci impact, compared to unaffected sites. Similarly, no difference was detected among locations in the numbers or area cover of sponges, tunicates, zoanthids, Halimeda or other macro-algae. Mean soft coral cover was 2 to 5% at 10 m on sheltered mid-shelf reefs, and 12 to 17% on more current-exposed reefs. Highest cover and abundances generally occurred on platforms of outer-shelf reefs exposed to relatively strong currents but low wave energy. On Davies Reef, cover and colony numbers of the families Nephtheidae and Xeniidae were low within the zone of wave impact, in flow-protected bays and lagoons, on shaded steep slopes, and at depths above 10 and below 25 m. In contrast, distributions of genera of the family Alcyoniidae were not related to these physical parameters. The physical conditions of a large proportion of habitats appear "sub

  4. Status of coral reefs of India

    Muley, E.V.; Venkataraman, K.; Alfred, J.R.B.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    and economic significance of coral reefs and the threat perceptions, Government of India has initiated measures for their intensive conservation and management. Present paper deals with ecological status of coral reefs in the country and various national...

  5. Elkhorn and Staghorn Corals Critical Habitat

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) and staghorn coral (A. cervicornis) as designated by 73 FR 72210, November 26, 2008,...

  6. Deep-Sea Soft Coral Habitat Suitability

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-sea corals, also known as cold water corals, create complex communities that provide habitat for a variety of invertebrate and fish species, such as grouper,...

  7. Coral Reef Watch, Hotspots, 50 km

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Coral Reef Watch provides Coral Bleaching hotspot maps derived from NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). This data provides global area...

  8. Uptake and transfer factors of 137Cs by mushrooms

    Heinrich, G.

    1991-01-01

    The 137 Cs content of 118 species (668 samples) of higher fungi collected in the period from August 1984 to October 1989 at three different locations in Styria, Austria, was determined by gamma-spectrometry. The Cs-content of most mushrooms has been increasing since September 1986. In order to find out which factors determine the 137 Cs-contamination of mushrooms and the transfer-value soil to mushroom, the concentration of total and plant-available radiocesium in soils as well as the pH-value, the content of humus, clay, silt, sand, exchangeable cations, the composition of the clay minerals, and the particle size distribution of the soils of two different locations were examined. The higher the 137 Cs contamination of the soil, the thicker the layer of humus and the higher the content of humus, the lower the pH-value, and the lower the amount of essential cations, especially of K + , the higher the amount of 137 Cs plant-available will be. Therefore, the contamination of the mushrooms in the coniferous forest of Koralpenblick (1000 m) is higher than in the mixed forest at the Rosenberg around Graz at approx. 500 m height. Of 26 different species of mushrooms measured at both sites, only 61% show the highest TF-values soil to mushrooms also at the Koralpenblick. In the spruce forest at Koralpenblick there are many species of mushrooms with high 137 Cs-contamination which were not found at the Rosenberg. However, the properties of the species to which a mushroom belongs are more important than environmental conditions and soil properties. The transfer values of 40 K stay within narrow bounds, whereas those of 137 Cs differ widely. (orig.)

  9. Comparative study of wild edible mushrooms as sources of antioxidants.

    Witkowska, Anna M; Zujko, Małgorzata E; Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore sixteen of the most popular edible species of wild-growing mushrooms as potential sources of antioxidants. Among the mushrooms tested, the highest total polyphenol contents, exceeding 100 mg/100 g fresh mass, were found in five mushrooms: Boletus chrysenteron, B. edulis, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Macrolepiota procera. Antioxidant activity was measured with the FRAP, TEAC, DPPH scavenging ability and ferrous ions chelating ability assays. Results of the study show that wild mushrooms vary according to their antioxidant properties. The highest FRAP potentials, exceeding 1 mmol/100 g, were found in five species ofBoletales: Boletus edulis, B. chrysenteron, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Suillus grevillei. TEAC values were from 1.07 to 4.01 mmol/100 g fresh mass. High TEAC values (>2.3 mmol/100 g) were found in Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, Macrolepiota procera, Boletus chrysenteron, and B. edulis. The DPPH radical scavenging effectiveness of mushroom extracts, expressed as EC50 values, was in range 2.91-13.86 mg/mL. Scavenging ability was the highest for B. edulis and B. chrysenteron. The metal chelating ability of mushroom extracts expressed as ECso values of chelating ability on ferrous ions were from 8.02 mg/mL in Cantharellus cibarius to 12.10 mg/mL in Suillus luteus. Among the mushrooms tested, Boletus chrysenteron and B. edulis were characterized by high scores of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity in the FRAP, TEAC, and DPPH assays. These results place these culinary species of wild-growing mushrooms among products with considerable antioxidant potential.

  10. Activity of 137Cs in mushrooms from Slovak Republic

    Benova, K.; Novakova, J.; Dvorak, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, activity concentrations of radiocesium in mushrooms from various locations in the Slovak Republic during the year 2001 are presented. The highest activity concentration of 137 Cs measured was 966 Bq/kg, for Suillus luteus from Senica. Mushrooms belonging to Boletaceae which grow in Central Europe are not only bio-indicators of the environmental contamination with radiocesium, but might also represent depending on their actual radiocesium contamination - some risk factor if consumed too extensively. (authors)

  11. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  12. The use of the ITS region in marketable mushrooms authenticity

    Nogueira, Liliana; Oliveira, Ivo; Baptista, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Edible mushrooms, due to their flavour and nutritional characteristics, are very popular in many dishes. Some species are high valuated and reaching high market values. There are frequent reports of adulteration of these kinds of products due to the presence of fungal species less expensive among others with high-value market. This adulteration occurs especially in products in which the flavour is not prominent and in which the mushrooms are difficult to examine. In this work we utilized the ...

  13. Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

    2010-07-01

    Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically.

  14. USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

    N. L. Poyedinok

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is used in greenhouses to increase productivity and quality of agricultural and ornamental plants. Despite the awareness of the fact that light also plays important role in the life of nonhotosynthetic organisms, such as fungi, its using in their biotechnology cultivation is currently limited. Science has quite a large amount information about the influence of artificial light of different nature on morphogenesis, metabolic processes and productivity of more than 100 species of fungi, many of which are valuable producers of biologically active compounds. Themechanisms of photoreactions of various fungi, which is an integral part of a purposeful photoregulation their activity in biotechnological processes are described. The analysis of the researches and of the experience of their practical application allows predicting potential of using artificial light in mushroom growing industry, as well as in creating highly productive, environmentally clean technologies of targeted synthesis of the final product.

  15. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs

    Raúl Navas-Camacho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá. The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10x2m with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2, and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2. Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD, and White Plague Disease (WPD were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A.grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few

  16. Toxic isolectins from the mushroom Boletus venenatus.

    Horibe, Masashi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Dohra, Hideo; Morita, Tatsuya; Murata, Takeomi; Usui, Taichi; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Kamei, Masugu; Hirabayashi, Jun; Matsuura, Masanori; Yamada, Mina; Saikawa, Yoko; Hashimoto, Kimiko; Nakata, Masaya; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2010-04-01

    Ingestion of the toxic mushroom Boletus venenatus causes a severe gastrointestinal syndrome, such as nausea, repetitive vomiting, diarrhea, and stomachache. A family of isolectins (B. venenatus lectins, BVLs) was isolated as the toxic principles from the mushroom by successive 80% ammonium sulfate-precipitation, Super Q anion-exchange chromatography, and TSK-gel G3000SW gel filtration. Although BVLs showed a single band on SDS-PAGE, they were further divided into eight isolectins (BVL-1 to -8) by BioAssist Q anion-exchange chromatography. All the isolectins showed lectin activity and had very similar molecular weights as detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. Among them, BVL-1 and -3 were further characterized with their complete amino acid sequences of 99 amino acids determined and found to be identical to each other. In the hemagglutination inhibition assay, both proteins failed to bind to any mono- or oligo-saccharides tested and showed the same sugar-binding specificity to glycoproteins. Among the glycoproteins examined, asialo-fetuin was the strongest inhibitor. The sugar-binding specificity of each isolectin was also analyzed by using frontal affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis, indicating that they recognized N-linked sugar chains, especially Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->4Manbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->4GlcNAc (Type II) residues in N-linked sugar chains. BVLs ingestion resulted in fatal toxicity in mice upon intraperitoneal administration and caused diarrhea upon oral administration in rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Suspended-sediment and turbidity responses to sediment and turbidity reduction projects in the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek, Watersheds, New York, 2010–14

    Siemion, Jason; McHale, Michael R.; Davis, Wae Danyelle

    2016-12-05

    Suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and turbidity were monitored within the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek tributaries to the upper Esopus Creek in New York, the main source of water to the Ashokan Reservoir, from October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2014. The purpose of the monitoring was to determine the effects of suspended-sediment and turbidity reduction projects (STRPs) on SSC and turbidity in two of the three streams; no STRPs were constructed in the Beaver Kill watershed. During the study period, four STRPs were completed in the Stony Clove Creek and Warner Creek watersheds. Daily mean SSCs decreased significantly for a given streamflow after the STRPs were completed. The most substantial decreases in daily mean SSCs were measured at the highest streamflows. Background SSCs, as measured in water samples collected in upstream reference stream reaches, in all three streams in this study were less than 5 milligrams per liter during low and high streamflows. Longitudinal stream sampling identified stream reaches with failing hillslopes in contact with the stream channel as the primary sediment sources in the Beaver Kill and Stony Clove Creek watersheds.

  18. Predicting soil water content at - 33 kPa by pedotransfer functions in stoniness 1 soils in northeast Venezuela.

    Pineda, M C; Viloria, J; Martínez-Casasnovas, J A; Valera, A; Lobo, D; Timm, L C; Pires, L F; Gabriels, D

    2018-02-22

    Soil water content is a key property in the study of water available for plants, infiltration, drainage, hydraulic conductivity, irrigation, plant water stress and solute movement. However, its measurement consumes time and, in the case of stony soils, the presence of stones difficult to determinate the water content. An alternative is the use of pedotransfer functions (PTFs), as models to predict these properties from readily available data. The present work shows a comparison of different widely used PTFs to estimate water content at-33 kPa (WR -33kPa ) in high stoniness soils. The work was carried out in the Caramacate River, an area of high interest because the frequent landslides worsen the quality of drinking water. The performance of all evaluated PTFs was compared with a PTF generated for the study area. Results showed that the Urach's PTF presented the best performance in relation to the others and could be used to estimate WR -33kPa in soils of Caramacate River basin. The calculated PTFs had a R 2 of 0.65. This was slightly higher than the R 2 of the Urach's PTF. The inclusion of the rock fragment volume could have the better results. The weak performance of the other PTFs could be related to the fact that the mountain soils of the basin are rich in 2:1 clay and high stoniness, which were not used as independent variables for PTFs to estimate the WR -33kPa .

  19. Antifatigue Functions and Mechanisms of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms

    Ping Geng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is the symptom of tiredness caused by physical and/or psychological stresses. As fatigue is becoming a serious problem in the modern society affecting human health, work efficiency, and quality of life, effective antifatigue remedies other than pharmacological drugs or therapies are highly needed. Mushrooms have been widely used as health foods, because of their various bioactive constituents such as polysaccharides, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. This paper reviews the major findings from previous studies on the antifatigue effects, the active components of mushrooms, and the possible mechanisms. Many studies have demonstrated the antifatigue effects of edible and medicinal mushrooms. These mushrooms probably mitigate human fatigue through effects on the functional systems, including the muscular, cardiovascular, hormone, and immune system. The bioactive constituents that contribute to the antifatigue effects of mushrooms may include polysaccharides, peptides, nucleosides, phenolic compounds, and triterpenoids. Further research is still needed to identify the active ingredients and to investigate their mechanism of action on the antifatigue effects. Since most previous studies have been carried out in animal models, more human trials should be performed to verify the antifatigue function of edible and medicinal mushrooms.

  20. Cobweb, a serious pathology in mushroom crops: A review

    Carrasco, J.; Navarro, M.J.; Gea, F.

    2017-01-01

    Cobweb is a fungal disease of commercially cultivated mushrooms. Several members of the ascomycete genus Cladobotryum sp. have been reported as causal agents. White button mushroom is the most frequently cited host, but a wide range of cultivated edible mushrooms suffer cobweb. The pathology causes production losses and reduces the crop surface available. The parasite produces a great number of harmful conidia that can be released easily and distributed throughout the mushroom farm to generate secondary points of infection. To prevent initial outbreaks, hygiene is of primary importance within the facilities dedicated to mushroom cultivation, while additional measures must be implemented to control and reduce cobweb if there is an outbreak, including chemical and biological methods. This review summarizes and discusses the knowledge available on the historic occurrence of cobweb and its impact on commercial mushroom crops worldwide. Causal agents, disease ecology, including the primary source of infection and the dispersal of harmful conidia are also reviewed. Finally, control treatments to prevent the disease from breaking out are discussed.

  1. Cobweb, a serious pathology in mushroom crops: A review

    Carrasco, J.; Navarro, M.J.; Gea, F.

    2017-07-01

    Cobweb is a fungal disease of commercially cultivated mushrooms. Several members of the ascomycete genus Cladobotryum sp. have been reported as causal agents. White button mushroom is the most frequently cited host, but a wide range of cultivated edible mushrooms suffer cobweb. The pathology causes production losses and reduces the crop surface available. The parasite produces a great number of harmful conidia that can be released easily and distributed throughout the mushroom farm to generate secondary points of infection. To prevent initial outbreaks, hygiene is of primary importance within the facilities dedicated to mushroom cultivation, while additional measures must be implemented to control and reduce cobweb if there is an outbreak, including chemical and biological methods. This review summarizes and discusses the knowledge available on the historic occurrence of cobweb and its impact on commercial mushroom crops worldwide. Causal agents, disease ecology, including the primary source of infection and the dispersal of harmful conidia are also reviewed. Finally, control treatments to prevent the disease from breaking out are discussed.

  2. Electrical stimulation in white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) production

    Roshita, I.; Nurfazira, K. M. P.; Fern, C. Shi; Ain, M. S. Nur

    2017-09-01

    White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) is an edible mushroom that gained popularity due to its nutritional values, low production cost and ease of cultivation. There are several research reported on the mushroom fruiting bodies which were actively developed when applying electrical shock treatment. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of different electrical voltages on the growth and yield of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). Five different electrical voltages had been applied during spawning period which were 6V, 9V, 12V, 15V and mushroom bags without any treatment served as control. Treatment at 6V showed the highest rate for mycelium growth while 15V took the shortest time for fruiting body formation. However, no significant different (P>0.05) among all the treatments was observed for the time taken for the mycelium to fill-up the bag and pinhead emergence. The total fresh weight and percentage of biological efficiency for treatment at 9V showed higher values compared to control. Treatment at 9V also showed the largest pileus diameter and the most firm in the pileus texture. Meanwhile, treatment at 6V showed the highest a* value (redness). In addition, different electrical voltage treatments applied did not show any significant effect on substrate utilization efficiency, colour L* and b* values. In conclusion, among all the electrical treatments applied, 9V could be considered as the best treatment to enhance the yield of white oyster mushroom.

  3. Cobweb, a serious pathology in mushroom crops: A review

    Jaime Carrasco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cobweb is a fungal disease of commercially cultivated mushrooms. Several members of the ascomycete genus Cladobotryum sp. have been reported as causal agents. White button mushroom is the most frequently cited host, but a wide range of cultivated edible mushrooms suffer cobweb. The pathology causes production losses and reduces the crop surface available. The parasite produces a great number of harmful conidia that can be released easily and distributed throughout the mushroom farm to generate secondary points of infection. To prevent initial outbreaks, hygiene is of primary importance within the facilities dedicated to mushroom cultivation, while additional measures must be implemented to control and reduce cobweb if there is an outbreak, including chemical and biological methods. This review summarizes and discusses the knowledge available on the historic occurrence of cobweb and its impact on commercial mushroom crops worldwide. Causal agents, disease ecology, including the primary source of infection and the dispersal of harmful conidia are also reviewed. Finally, control treatments to prevent the disease from breaking out are discussed.

  4. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities of Wild Boletales Mushrooms from France.

    Morel, Sylvie; Arnould, Stéphanie; Vitou, Manon; Boudard, Frédéric; Guzman, Caroline; Poucheret, Patrick; Fons, Françoise; Rapior, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    We selected edible and inedible mushrooms growing in the Mediterranean area of France to screen their biological activity: Caloboletus calopus, Rubroboletus lupinus, R. pulchrotinctus, R. satanas, Gyroporus castaneus, Suillus luteus, and Omphalotus olearius. Mushrooms were sequentially extracted using cyclohexane, chloroform, ethanol, and water. The antiproliferative activity against the HCT116 colon adenocarcinoma cell line and the antioxidant properties (DPPH radical scavenging assay, Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of the Boletales extracts were evaluated and compared. Among the 28 mushroom extracts evaluated, 11 presented antiproliferative activity against HCT116 cells. These activities were not linked to antioxidant capacity. Among the antioxidant extracts, most were aqueous extracts in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, whereas the highest values on the Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH assays were noted for chloroform, ethanol, or aqueous extracts, depending on the mushroom species. Further studies are necessary to identify bioactive compounds and to valorize the mushrooms-for edible species, directly as health foods, or, for inedible mushrooms, as ingredients in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  5. Chernobyl is still haunting us. Radionuclides in Estonian mushrooms

    Martin, J.; Vilde, R.; Martin, L.; Aaspollu, J.; Tekko, S.

    1993-01-01

    The disaster that happened at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in 1986 caused a sharp rise in radioactive pollution over an extensive area in the region of the Baltic Sea. To estimate the distribution and the concentration of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in Estonian ecosystems, samples of mushrooms, mosses, lichens and the upper horizons of soil were gathered from 63 test sites during 1991. We were particularly interested in the amounts of radionuclides in mushrooms because these are used as food by people. Dangerously high radionuclide concentrations were found in mushrooms gathered in North-East Estonia. Heightened concentrations were registered here and there all over the territory of Estonia, especially in mushrooms gathered in Central and South-Western Estonia. The Cs-137 content in mushrooms depends on its content in other components of the ecosystems, first and foremost on the concentrations of radiocaesium in mosses and litter, which, therefore, can be used as indicators in prognostication the radioactive pollution of mushrooms in a certain region. As Cs-137 migrates between various ecosystem components, it is necessary to check the radioactivity of the forest products used for food for still a number of years to come. The Sr-90 level was low in all the ecosystem components examined. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs

  6. 40 CFR 230.44 - Coral reefs.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coral reefs. 230.44 Section 230.44... Aquatic Sites § 230.44 Coral reefs. (a) Coral reefs consist of the skeletal deposit, usually of calcareous... organisms present in growing portions of the reef. (b) Possible loss of values: The discharge of dredged or...

  7. CORAL REEFS. Genomic determinants of coral heat tolerance across latitudes.

    Dixon, Groves B; Davies, Sarah W; Aglyamova, Galina A; Meyer, Eli; Bay, Line K; Matz, Mikhail V

    2015-06-26

    As global warming continues, reef-building corals could avoid local population declines through "genetic rescue" involving exchange of heat-tolerant genotypes across latitudes, but only if latitudinal variation in thermal tolerance is heritable. Here, we show an up-to-10-fold increase in odds of survival of coral larvae under heat stress when their parents come from a warmer lower-latitude location. Elevated thermal tolerance was associated with heritable differences in expression of oxidative, extracellular, transport, and mitochondrial functions that indicated a lack of prior stress. Moreover, two genomic regions strongly responded to selection for thermal tolerance in interlatitudinal crosses. These results demonstrate that variation in coral thermal tolerance across latitudes has a strong genetic basis and could serve as raw material for natural selection. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. [Knowledge of students of tourism and recreation Academy of Physical Education on wild mushrooms].

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Parnicki, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Prophylaxis of acute poisoning with mushrooms is justified because of the relatively high risk of death associated with these intoxications. Mushrooming in Poland has a long tradition and knowledge about mushrooms is usually passed on in families. In recent years the mushrooming becomes an organized form of recreation. Graduates of tourism and recreation should have a minimum of reliable knowledge about mushrooms, to ensure the safety of persons entrusted to their care. The knowledge of wild mushrooms among students of tourism and recreation was tested by means of questionnaire. Mushrooms gathered 108 out of 125 respondents. The primary source of knowledge about mushrooms for 84% of the mushrooms pickers were the parents. Up to 70% of respondents considered at least one of irrational methods useful to distinguish edible mushrooms from the poisonous. Thirteen percent of those polled believed that by simple means mushrooms may be deprived of their toxic properties. Knowledge of the only one deadly poisonous mushrooms growing in Poland was 53%. The tourism and recreation students must pass basic knowledge about mushrooms and identify reliable sources of knowledge in this field.

  9. Global microbialization of coral reefs.

    Haas, Andreas F; Fairoz, Mohamed F M; Kelly, Linda W; Nelson, Craig E; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Edwards, Robert A; Giles, Steve; Hatay, Mark; Hisakawa, Nao; Knowles, Ben; Lim, Yan Wei; Maughan, Heather; Pantos, Olga; Roach, Ty N F; Sanchez, Savannah E; Silveira, Cynthia B; Sandin, Stuart; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest

    2016-04-25

    Microbialization refers to the observed shift in ecosystem trophic structure towards higher microbial biomass and energy use. On coral reefs, the proximal causes of microbialization are overfishing and eutrophication, both of which facilitate enhanced growth of fleshy algae, conferring a competitive advantage over calcifying corals and coralline algae. The proposed mechanism for this competitive advantage is the DDAM positive feedback loop (dissolved organic carbon (DOC), disease, algae, microorganism), where DOC released by ungrazed fleshy algae supports copiotrophic, potentially pathogenic bacterial communities, ultimately harming corals and maintaining algal competitive dominance. Using an unprecedented data set of >400 samples from 60 coral reef sites, we show that the central DDAM predictions are consistent across three ocean basins. Reef algal cover is positively correlated with lower concentrations of DOC and higher microbial abundances. On turf and fleshy macroalgal-rich reefs, higher relative abundances of copiotrophic microbial taxa were identified. These microbial communities shift their metabolic potential for carbohydrate degradation from the more energy efficient Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway on coral-dominated reefs to the less efficient Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways on algal-dominated reefs. This 'yield-to-power' switch by microorganism directly threatens reefs via increased hypoxia and greater CO2 release from the microbial respiration of DOC.

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity to corals: A review.

    Turner, Nicholas R; Renegar, D Abigail

    2017-06-30

    The proximity of coral reefs to coastal urban areas and shipping lanes predisposes corals to petroleum pollution from multiple sources. Previous research has evaluated petroleum toxicity to coral using a variety of methodology, including monitoring effects of acute and chronic spills, in situ exposures, and ex situ exposures with both adult and larval stage corals. Variability in toxicant, bioassay conditions, species and other methodological disparities between studies prevents comprehensive conclusions regarding the toxicity of hydrocarbons to corals. Following standardized protocols and quantifying the concentration and composition of toxicant will aid in comparison of results between studies and extrapolation to actual spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oceanic forcing of coral reefs.

    Lowe, Ryan J; Falter, James L

    2015-01-01

    Although the oceans play a fundamental role in shaping the distribution and function of coral reefs worldwide, a modern understanding of the complex interactions between ocean and reef processes is still only emerging. These dynamics are especially challenging owing to both the broad range of spatial scales (less than a meter to hundreds of kilometers) and the complex physical and biological feedbacks involved. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of these processes, ranging from the small-scale mechanics of flow around coral communities and their influence on nutrient exchange to larger, reef-scale patterns of wave- and tide-driven circulation and their effects on reef water quality and perceived rates of metabolism. We also examine regional-scale drivers of reefs such as coastal upwelling, internal waves, and extreme disturbances such as cyclones. Our goal is to show how a wide range of ocean-driven processes ultimately shape the growth and metabolism of coral reefs.

  12. The Evaluation of Pediatric Cases with Mushroom Poisoning

    Selda Hizel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisonings are intoxications with high mortality. Toxic wild mushrooms usually grow up in spring and autmn and the intoxications of these mushrooms occur mostly in these seasons. The symptoms, the initial time of the symptoms, the arrival time to the hospital, the physical examination findings, laboratory datas, treatments that were applied, the time kept in the hospital and the prognoses of the cases with mushroom intoxication diagnosis in the pediatry department were recorded between 1 October and 31 November 2006. During the time described above, a total of 24 cases with mushroom poisoning were determined. 8 of the cases (33.3 % were refered to another hospital, 16 of them (66.7 % were hospitalizated and observed. Gastrointestinal complaints was the symptom determined in every patient at the application time to the hospital whereas only 3 patients (12.5 % had neurologic symptoms. Symptoms occured within 6 hours of consumption of mushrooms in 7 cases (29.2 %. Elevated liver enzymes was determined in 4 patients (16.6 % whereas renal functions were normal in all of the cases. 16 cases who were hospitalizated, completely recovered and were discharged. However, 2 patients (8.3 % who were refered, died. Mushroom poisoning is an important health problem because of its high mortality and the best treatment is to make the public conscious of this problem. Therefore alerting the public, informing them about the symptoms and making them resort to hospitals with the first detected initial symptoms, by improving and strengthening the public education projects will reduce the mortality. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 341-344

  13. The Evaluation of Pediatric Cases with Mushroom Poisoning

    Selda Hizel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisonings are intoxications with high mortality. Toxic wild mushrooms usually grow up in spring and autmn and the intoxications of these mushrooms occur mostly in these seasons. The symptoms, the initial time of the symptoms, the arrival time to the hospital, the physical examination findings, laboratory datas, treatments that were applied, the time kept in the hospital and the prognoses of the cases with mushroom intoxication diagnosis in the pediatry department were recorded between 1 October and 31 November 2006. During the time described above, a total of 24 cases with mushroom poisoning were determined. 8 of the cases (33.3 % were refered to another hospital, 16 of them (66.7 % were hospitalizated and observed. Gastrointestinal complaints was the symptom determined in every patient at the application time to the hospital whereas only 3 patients (12.5 % had neurologic symptoms. Symptoms occured within 6 hours of consumption of mushrooms in 7 cases (29.2 %. Elevated liver enzymes was determined in 4 patients (16.6 % whereas renal functions were normal in all of the cases. 16 cases who were hospitalizated, completely recovered and were discharged. However, 2 patients (8.3 % who were refered, died. Mushroom poisoning is an important health problem because of its high mortality and the best treatment is to make the public conscious of this problem. Therefore alerting the public, informing them about the symptoms and making them resort to hospitals with the first detected initial symptoms, by improving and strengthening the public education projects will reduce the mortality. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 341-344

  14. Particularities of Cs-137 accumulation by mushrooms in different zones of radioactive contamination

    Shatrova, N.E.; Zarubin, O.L.; Koval', G.N.; Shovkun, N.A.; Ogorodnik, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    The cumulation of Cs-137 by the mushrooms of 30 km zone is more intensively, than on the 'southern' trace. The biggest concentrations are discovered in local mushrooms: Suillus luteus (L.) and Paxillus involutus (Batsch:Fr.)

  15. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.).

    Cho, In Hee; Kim, Se Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Young-Suk

    2006-08-23

    The characteristic aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry using aroma extract dilution analysis. 1-Octen-3-one (mushroom-like) was the major aroma-active compound in raw pine-mushrooms; this compound had the highest flavor dilution factor, followed by ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (floral and sweet), linalool (citrus-like), methional (boiled potato-like), 3-octanol (mushroom-like and buttery), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like), (E)-2-octen-1-ol (mushroom-like), and 3-octanone (mushroom-like and buttery). By contrast, methional, 2-acetylthiazole (roasted), an unknown compound (chocolate-like), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (buttery), and phenylacetaldehyde (floral and sweet), which could be formed by diverse thermal reactions during the cooking process, together with C8 compounds, were identified as the major aroma-active compounds in cooked pine-mushrooms.

  16. CORAL Server and CORAL Server Proxy: Scalable Access to Relational Databases from CORAL Applications

    Valassi, A; Kalkhof, A; Salnikov, A; Wache, M

    2011-01-01

    The CORAL software is widely used at CERN for accessing the data stored by the LHC experiments using relational database technologies. CORAL provides a C++ abstraction layer that supports data persistency for several backends and deployment models, including local access to SQLite files, direct client access to Oracle and MySQL servers, and read-only access to Oracle through the FroNTier web server and cache. Two new components have recently been added to CORAL to implement a model involving a middle tier "CORAL server" deployed close to the database and a tree of "CORAL server proxy" instances, with data caching and multiplexing functionalities, deployed close to the client. The new components are meant to provide advantages for read-only and read-write data access, in both offline and online use cases, in the areas of scalability and performance (multiplexing for several incoming connections, optional data caching) and security (authentication via proxy certificates). A first implementation of the two new c...

  17. Microbial Regulation in Gorgonian Corals

    Laura D. Mydlarz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gorgonian corals possess many novel natural products that could potentially mediate coral-bacterial interactions. Since many bacteria use quorum sensing (QS signals to facilitate colonization of host organisms, regulation of prokaryotic cell-to-cell communication may represent an important bacterial control mechanism. In the present study, we examined extracts of twelve species of Caribbean gorgonian corals, for mechanisms that regulate microbial colonization, such as antibacterial activity and QS regulatory activity. Ethanol extracts of gorgonians collected from Puerto Rico and the Florida Keys showed a range of both antibacterial and QS activities using a specific Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS reporter, sensitive to long chain AHLs and a short chain N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL biosensor, Chromobacterium violaceium. Overall, the gorgonian corals had higher antimicrobial activity against non-marine strains when compared to marine strains. Pseudopterogorgia americana, Pseusopterogorgia acerosa, and Pseudoplexuara flexuosa had the highest QS inhibitory effect. Interestingly, Pseudoplexuara porosa extracts stimulated QS activity with a striking 17-fold increase in signal. The stimulation of QS by P. porosa or other elements of the holobiont may encourage colonization or recruitment of specific microbial species. Overall, these results suggest the presence of novel stimulatory QS, inhibitory QS and bactericidal compounds in gorgonian corals. A better understanding of these compounds may reveal insight into coral-microbial ecology and whether a therapeutic potential exists.

  18. Coral reefs in the Anthropocene.

    Hughes, Terry P; Barnes, Michele L; Bellwood, David R; Cinner, Joshua E; Cumming, Graeme S; Jackson, Jeremy B C; Kleypas, Joanie; van de Leemput, Ingrid A; Lough, Janice M; Morrison, Tiffany H; Palumbi, Stephen R; van Nes, Egbert H; Scheffer, Marten

    2017-05-31

    Coral reefs support immense biodiversity and provide important ecosystem services to many millions of people. Yet reefs are degrading rapidly in response to numerous anthropogenic drivers. In the coming centuries, reefs will run the gauntlet of climate change, and rising temperatures will transform them into new configurations, unlike anything observed previously by humans. Returning reefs to past configurations is no longer an option. Instead, the global challenge is to steer reefs through the Anthropocene era in a way that maintains their biological functions. Successful navigation of this transition will require radical changes in the science, management and governance of coral reefs.

  19. CORAL Server and CORAL Server Proxy: Scalable Access to Relational Databases from CORAL Applications

    Valassi, A; Kalkhof, A; Bartoldus, R; Salnikov, A; Wache, M

    2011-01-01

    The CORAL software is widely used at CERN by the LHC experiments to access the data they store on relational databases, such as Oracle. Two new components have recently been added to implement a model involving a middle tier 'CORAL server' deployed close to the database and a tree of 'CORAL server proxies', providing data caching and multiplexing, deployed close to the client. A first implementation of the two new components, released in the summer 2009, is now deployed in the ATLAS online system to read the data needed by the High Level Trigger, allowing the configuration of a farm of several thousand processes. This paper reviews the architecture of the software, its development status and its usage in ATLAS.

  20. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    2010-01-22

    ...)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade... preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of... mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  1. 77 FR 55808 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC).\\1\\ Based upon our analysis of comments... is listed in the ``Final Results of Review'' section below. \\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From...

  2. 76 FR 67146 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    2011-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... results of the new shipper reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms.... (Hongda) in the Final Results of New Shipper Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Preserved Mushrooms...

  3. 78 FR 4126 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of...

    2013-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... conducting a new shipper review (NSR) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the..., respectively. Scope of the Order The products covered by this order are certain preserved mushrooms, whether...

  4. 76 FR 56732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    2011-09-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  5. 78 FR 18315 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping...

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms.... (Yinfeng) under the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of... Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

  6. 76 FR 16604 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final...

    2011-03-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China... Industry Co., Ltd. (Tongfa). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...

  7. 76 FR 28732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Department) initiated a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from... 31, 2011. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

  8. 76 FR 70112 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...

    2011-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  9. 77 FR 32941 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    2012-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... order on certain preserved mushrooms from India with respect to the above-named companies.\\2\\ \\2\\ See... on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the POR. Therefore, in response to the petitioner's...

  10. 75 FR 17376 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results Pursuant...

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC for the period... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). EFFECTIVE DATE: April 6, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  11. 78 FR 34037 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    2013-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period... Review'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...

  12. 75 FR 35769 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    2010-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India... review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India with respect to these...

  13. 76 FR 43261 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    2011-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of... order on certain preserved mushrooms from India with respect to the above-named companies. See...

  14. 75 FR 31426 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    2010-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration (A-560-802) Certain Preserved Mushrooms... ``Opportunity to Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from Indonesia with respect to these companies. See...

  15. 76 FR 17836 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    2011-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). In accordance with section 751(a)(2... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC. See Notice of Amendment of Final...

  16. 75 FR 62108 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...

    2010-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Notice of... Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China, 64 FR 8308 (February 19, 1999). In accordance with...

  17. 75 FR 16075 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...

    2010-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Notice of Amendment... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC. See Notice of Amendment of Final...

  18. 78 FR 26319 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    2013-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India with respect to the...

  19. On the asymmetry of mating in natural populations of the mushroom fungus Schizophyllum commune

    Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S.; Nieuwhof, S.; Aanen, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    Before a mycelium of a mushroom-forming basidiomycete develops mushrooms, the monokaryotic mycelium needs to become fertilized. Although the mechanistic details of mating in mushrooms have been studied thoroughly in laboratory research, very little is known on mating patterns in nature. In this

  20. Content of radiocesium in mushrooms from some localities in Czech Republic and Slovak Republic

    Kunova, V; Dvorak, P.; Benova, K.

    2004-01-01

    Interest about content radiocesium remain in mushrooms on actual. Mushrooms are able in bigger rate cumulate 137 Cs. Owing to different natural influence radiocesium all the time discovery, not only in mushrooms, but also in other live organism various kind. In regions, which hit Chernobyl radioactive cloud, we can with distance of several years deal out and funds transcendent permission limits. (authors)

  1. Identification of molecular species of acylglycerols of Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. We successfully cultivated four edible, medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid culture. Recently, we identified the molecular species of acylglycerols in the lipid extract of mushroom G. lucidum NRRL66208. One hundred and three molecular...

  2. Mushroom speleothems: Stromatolites that formed in the absence of phototrophs

    Bontognali, Tomaso; D'Angeli, Ilenia; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano; Gonzales, Esteban; DeWaele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Santa Catalina Cave, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammilaries). More peculiar is the cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) - the constituents of biofilms and microbial mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence of phototrophs) has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on Earth.

  3. Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in packaged fresh mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    González-Fandos, E; Olarte, C; Giménez, M; Sanz, S; Simón, A

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Listeria monocytogenes to grow in mushrooms packaged in two different types of PVC films when stored at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C. Mushrooms were packed in two polymeric films (perforated and nonperforated PVC) and stored at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C. The carbon dioxide and oxygen content inside the packages, aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., Listeria monocytogenes, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, anaerobic spores and major sensory factors were determined. The mushrooms packaged in nonperforated film and stored at 4 degrees C had the most desirable quality parameters (texture, development stage and absence of moulds). Listeria monocytogenes was able to grow at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C in inoculated mushrooms packaged in perforated and nonperforated films between 1 and 2 log units during the first 48 h. After 10 d of storage, the populations of L. monocytogenes were higher in mushrooms packaged in nonperforated film and stored at 10 degrees C. MAP followed by storage at 4 degrees C or 10 degrees C extends the shelf life by maintaining an acceptable appearance, but allows the growth and survival of L. monocytogenes. According to this study additional hurdles must be studied in order to prevent the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  4. Utilization following of bioremediation attributes using oyster mushrooms - Pleurotus ostreatus

    Galanda, D.; Matel, L.

    2007-01-01

    The mushrooms are not only rich food products, but also a specific component of forest biogeocenoses playing an important role in their functioning, including radionuclide migration. The reason why fungi work as such good indicators for radioactivity and pollution in general is connected to their structure. Using absorption to obtain their nutrition, fungi lack water-conducting organs like stems and roots. They absorb moisture and nutrients from the soil background through surface cells. Dissolved or airborne materials, which include pollutants, move freely through the compartments of hyphae. What is more, radiation released during nuclear testing or accidents is absorbed, especially in areas where it rained heavily shortly after the incident. The present work is devoted to an estimation of the transfer coefficient between reared oyster mushrooms and their support die, which was injected with known activity of 241 Am and 242 Pu. After 2 months when we get the reared mushrooms of cane oyster mushrooms were dried and prepared by liquid extraction with Aliquat 336. The samples were measured by alpha-spectrometry. The results of activity 241 Am and 242 Pu in the mushrooms body and residual activity in the support was detected and calculated (authors)

  5. Mushroom speleothems: Stromatolites that formed in the absence of phototrophs

    Tomaso eBontognali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Santa Catalina Cave, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammilaries. More peculiar is the cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS – the constituents of biofilms and microbial mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence of phototrophs has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on Earth.

  6. Advances in Mushroom Research in the Last Decade

    Huijuan Pan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a lot of progress in mushroom science and biotechnology in the last decade. The optimization of PFGE separation of fungal chromosomes allowed the study of the molecular karyotype of mushrooms and the assignment of genes to chromosomes. There are 115 genes encoded from different species of mushrooms. Cross breeding continues to be the principal method, but it is accompanied by the analyses of RAPD or RFLPs methods. The genetic makers are used and introduced into commercial large hybrids via introgression breeding. The complex traits such as yield, resistance to disease and quality characteristics, and quantitative traits more than one quantitative trait locus (QTL are found and used in practice. The transformants or transgenic mutant strains were obtained by Agrobacterium system or particle bombardment. At least 651 species representing 182 genera of hetero- and homobasidiomycetes mushrooms were researched containing antitumor or immunostimulating polysaccharides. Ergosterol in the lipid fraction was identified as one of the most active constituents. New sesquiterpenoid hydroquinones, steroids, oxalic acid, triterpenes, water-soluble lignins, sulfated polysaccharides, protein-bound polysaccharides are researched intensively as antimicrobial or antiviral agents. Many small molecular mass compounds exhibit cytotoxic activities, such as illudins, leaianafulvene, triterpenes (ganoderic acids, acetoxyscirpenediol, ergosterol peroxide, sterols. There are many other compounds or activities found in the mushrooms, such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic action, anti-inflammatory effect, hepatoprotective compounds, psychoactive compounds and activities.

  7. Paleogene radiation of a plant pathogenic mushroom.

    Martin P A Coetzee

    Full Text Available The global movement and speciation of fungal plant pathogens is important, especially because of the economic losses they cause and the ease with which they are able to spread across large areas. Understanding the biogeography and origin of these plant pathogens can provide insights regarding their dispersal and current day distribution. We tested the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin of the plant pathogenic mushroom genus Armillaria and the currently accepted premise that vicariance accounts for the extant distribution of the species.The phylogeny of a selection of Armillaria species was reconstructed based on Maximum Parsimony (MP, Maximum Likelihood (ML and Bayesian Inference (BI. A timeline was then placed on the divergence of lineages using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach.Phylogenetic analyses of sequenced data for three combined nuclear regions provided strong support for three major geographically defined clades: Holarctic, South American-Australasian and African. Molecular dating placed the initial radiation of the genus at 54 million years ago within the Early Paleogene, postdating the tectonic break-up of Gondwana.The distribution of extant Armillaria species is the result of ancient long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance due to continental drift. As these finding are contrary to most prior vicariance hypotheses for fungi, our results highlight the important role of long-distance dispersal in the radiation of fungal pathogens from the Southern Hemisphere.

  8. Ganoderma Lucidum (Reishi Mushroom) and cancer.

    Unlu, Ahmet; Nayir, Erdinc; Kirca, Onder; Ozdogan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Having a long historical past in traditional Chinese medicine, Ganoderma Lucidum (G. Lucidum) is a type of mushroom believed to extend life and promote health. Due to the increasing consumption pattern, it has been cultivated and marketed intensively since the 1970s. It is claimed to be effective in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, and in addition, it exerts anticancer properties. Almost all the data on the benefits of G. Lucidum are based on laboratory and preclinical studies. The few clinical studies conducted are questionable. Nevertheless, when the findings obtained from laboratory studies are considered, it turns that G. Lucidum is likely to have some benefits for cancer patients. What is important at this point is to determine the components that will provide these benefits, and use them in drug development, after testing their reliability. In conclusion, it would be the right approach to abstain from using and incentivizing this product, until its benefits and harms are set out clearly, by considering its potential side effects.

  9. Mushroom bodies regulate habit formation in Drosophila.

    Brembs, Björn

    2009-08-25

    To make good decisions, we evaluate past choices to guide later decisions. In most situations, we have the opportunity to simultaneously learn about both the consequences of our choice (i.e., operantly) and the stimuli associated with correct or incorrect choices (i.e., classically). Interestingly, in many species, including humans, these learning processes occasionally lead to irrational decisions. An extreme case is the habitual drug user consistently administering the drug despite the negative consequences, but we all have experience with our own, less severe habits. The standard animal model employs a combination of operant and classical learning components to bring about habit formation in rodents. After extended training, these animals will press a lever even if the outcome associated with lever-pressing is no longer desired. In this study, experiments with wild-type and transgenic flies revealed that a prominent insect neuropil, the mushroom bodies (MBs), regulates habit formation in flies by inhibiting the operant learning system when a predictive stimulus is present. This inhibition enables generalization of the classical memory and prevents premature habit formation. Extended training in wild-type flies produced a phenocopy of MB-impaired flies, such that generalization was abolished and goal-directed actions were transformed into habitual responses.

  10. The cumulative impact of annual coral bleaching can turn some coral species winners into losers.

    Grottoli, Andréa G; Warner, Mark E; Levas, Stephen J; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D; Schoepf, Verena; McGinley, Michael; Baumann, Justin; Matsui, Yohei

    2014-12-01

    Mass coral bleaching events caused by elevated seawater temperatures result in extensive coral loss throughout the tropics, and are projected to increase in frequency and severity. If bleaching becomes an annual event later in this century, more than 90% of coral reefs worldwide may be at risk of long-term degradation. While corals can recover from single isolated bleaching and can acclimate to recurring bleaching events that are separated by multiple years, it is currently unknown if and how they will survive and possibly acclimatize to annual coral bleaching. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that annual coral bleaching can dramatically alter thermal tolerance in Caribbean corals. We found that high coral energy reserves and changes in the dominant algal endosymbiont type (Symbiodinium spp.) facilitated rapid acclimation in Porites divaricata, whereas low energy reserves and a lack of algal phenotypic plasticity significantly increased susceptibility in Porites astreoides to bleaching the following year. Phenotypic plasticity in the dominant endosymbiont type of Orbicella faveolata did not prevent repeat bleaching, but may have facilitated rapid recovery. Thus, coral holobiont response to an isolated single bleaching event is not an accurate predictor of its response to bleaching the following year. Rather, the cumulative impact of annual coral bleaching can turn some coral species 'winners' into 'losers', and can also facilitate acclimation and turn some coral species 'losers' into 'winners'. Overall, these findings indicate that cumulative impact of annual coral bleaching could result in some species becoming increasingly susceptible to bleaching and face a long-term decline, while phenotypically plastic coral species will acclimatize and persist. Thus, annual coral bleaching and recovery could contribute to the selective loss of coral diversity as well as the overall decline of coral reefs in the Caribbean. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Discoveries and Conservation Efforts of Extensive Deep-Sea Coral Habitat off the Southeastern U.S.

    Reed, J. K.; Messing, C. G.; Walker, B. K.; Farrington, S.; Brooke, S.; Correa, T.; Brouwer, M.

    2012-12-01

    The deep-sea floor of the Western Atlantic off the southeastern U.S. supports a variety of deep-sea coral ecosystem (DSCE) habitats, including: coral mounds, rock terraces (Miami and Pourtalès Terraces), canyons (Agassiz and Tortugas Valleys), and island slopes (western Bahamas and northern Cuba). We used NOAA bathymetric contour maps and digital elevation models to identify and delineate the areal extent of potential DSCE habitat (50-1000 m) from northeastern Florida through the Straits of Florida. Recently, shipboard and AUV side-scan and multibeam sonar have further documented portions of the region. The resulting maps have been ground-truthed with over 250 submersible and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives, revealing that high-relief topographic features, including steep escarpments and rocky terraces, are good predictors of DSCE habitat in this region. The benthic biota is diverse but locally variable; for example, Lophelia and Enallopsammia stony corals dominate the deep-water mounds, whereas stylasterid corals dominate the rocky terraces where Lophelia is sporadic. Octocorals, black corals, and sponges are common at most sites but different species exhibit site-specific distributional variability. In 2011, the first of two NOAA-sponsored cruises using sonar mapping and an ROV discovered the southernmost Lophelia coral mound in the continental United States, south of the Florida Keys, offering the possibility that more Lophelia mounds may exist in this region where they were previously thought to be absent. The second cruise discovered that deep-water Oculina varicosa coral reefs extend over 70 nmi north of the current boundaries of the Oculina Habitat Area of Particular Concern (OHAPC), which was first designated as a marine protected area in 1984. These studies indicate that cold-water coral mounds are significantly more diverse and abundant in this region than previously thought. These research results were presented to NOAA and the South Atlantic

  12. Quantifying Coral Reef Ecosystem Services

    Coral reefs have been declining during the last four decades as a result of both local and global anthropogenic stresses. Numerous research efforts to elucidate the nature, causes, magnitude, and potential remedies for the decline have led to the widely held belief that the recov...

  13. Large-area imaging reveals biologically driven non-random spatial patterns of corals at a remote reef

    Edwards, Clinton B.; Eynaud, Yoan; Williams, Gareth J.; Pedersen, Nicole E.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Gleason, Arthur C. R.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Sandin, Stuart A.

    2017-12-01

    For sessile organisms such as reef-building corals, differences in the degree of dispersion of individuals across a landscape may result from important differences in life-history strategies or may reflect patterns of habitat availability. Descriptions of spatial patterns can thus be useful not only for the identification of key biological and physical mechanisms structuring an ecosystem, but also by providing the data necessary to generate and test ecological theory. Here, we used an in situ imaging technique to create large-area photomosaics of 16 plots at Palmyra Atoll, central Pacific, each covering 100 m2 of benthic habitat. We mapped the location of 44,008 coral colonies and identified each to the lowest taxonomic level possible. Using metrics of spatial dispersion, we tested for departures from spatial randomness. We also used targeted model fitting to explore candidate processes leading to differences in spatial patterns among taxa. Most taxa were clustered and the degree of clustering varied by taxon. A small number of taxa did not significantly depart from randomness and none revealed evidence of spatial uniformity. Importantly, taxa that readily fragment or tolerate stress through partial mortality were more clustered. With little exception, clustering patterns were consistent with models of fragmentation and dispersal limitation. In some taxa, dispersion was linearly related to abundance, suggesting density dependence of spatial patterning. The spatial patterns of stony corals are non-random and reflect fundamental life-history characteristics of the taxa, suggesting that the reef landscape may, in many cases, have important elements of spatial predictability.

  14. Sharing the slope: depth partitioning of agariciid corals and associated

    Bongaerts, P.; Frade, P.R.; Ogier, J.J.; Hay, K.B.; van Bleijswijk, J.; Englebert, N.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Bak, R.P.M.; Visser, P.M.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Scleractinian corals and their algal endosymbionts (genus Symbiodinium) exhibit distinct bathymetric distributions on coral reefs. Yet, few studies have assessed the evolutionary context of these ecological distributions by exploring the genetic diversity of closely related coral species

  15. Threatened corals provide underexplored microbial habitats.

    Shinichi Sunagawa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary in-depth sequencing of environmental samples has provided novel insights into microbial community structures, revealing that their diversity had been previously underestimated. Communities in marine environments are commonly composed of a few dominant taxa and a high number of taxonomically diverse, low-abundance organisms. However, studying the roles and genomic information of these "rare" organisms remains challenging, because little is known about their ecological niches and the environmental conditions to which they respond. Given the current threat to coral reef ecosystems, we investigated the potential of corals to provide highly specialized habitats for bacterial taxa including those that are rarely detected or absent in surrounding reef waters. The analysis of more than 350,000 small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA sequence tags and almost 2,000 nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that rare seawater biosphere members are highly abundant or even dominant in diverse Caribbean corals. Closely related corals (in the same genus/family harbored similar bacterial communities. At higher taxonomic levels, however, the similarities of these communities did not correlate with the phylogenetic relationships among corals, opening novel questions about the evolutionary stability of coral-microbial associations. Large proportions of OTUs (28.7-49.1% were unique to the coral species of origin. Analysis of the most dominant ribotypes suggests that many uncovered bacterial taxa exist in coral habitats and await future exploration. Our results indicate that coral species, and by extension other animal hosts, act as specialized habitats of otherwise rare microbes in marine ecosystems. Here, deep sequencing provided insights into coral microbiota at an unparalleled resolution and revealed that corals harbor many bacterial taxa previously not known. Given that two of the coral species investigated are listed as threatened under

  16. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  17. The Problems Detected in Mushroom Cultivation in Ankara

    Mürüvvet Ulusoy Deniz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the cultivated mushroom farming which began to be produced in the 1960s in Turkey, has been more faster in the Mediterranean region than other regions. The development of mushroom cultivation has began to seen Marmara and İç Anadolu regions in recent years. The mushroom production which is very important for human health and nutrition, has been changing year to year (sometimes increase, sometimes decrease in the province of Ankara. The first private mushrrom cultivation company had been established in1963. Up to date, the number of private enterprises has changed over the years in Ankara. This study was carried out by doing a survey with an active 12 enterprises which the annual production capacity of 10-600 ton. The enterprises were visited and problems were determined during the cultivation. As a result of the study, It was observed that there are problems in production and marketing phases and with surface soil material

  18. Visualizing mushroom body response to a conditioned odor in honeybees

    Faber, Till; Menzel, Randolf

    2001-11-01

    Combining differential conditioning with optophysiological recordings of bee brain activity allows the investigation of learning-related changes in complex neural systems. In this study we focused on the mushroom bodies of the bee brain. Presenting different odors to the animal leads to significant activation of the mushroom body lips. After differential conditioning, the rewarded odor leads to stronger activation than it did before training. Activation by the unrewarded odor remains unchanged. These results resemble findings in the bee's antennal lobes, which are the first olfactory relay station in the insect brain. As an integrative neural network, enhanced activation of the mushroom body lip may carry additional information, i.e., for processing odor concentrations.

  19. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  20. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Pelin Günç Ergönül

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2. Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids.

  1. Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms

    Eva Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide.

  2. Extension of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) shelf life by gamma radiation

    Lescano, G.

    1994-01-01

    Fresh mushroom sporophores (Agaricus bisporus) were placed in trays and covered with PVC film. Forty-eight of the number of packs were irradiated by a γ-source with a dose of 3 kGy, and the remaining 24 treated as control packs. Both treated and control samples were subsequently stored at 10 ± 2°C and relative humidity of 94 ± 6%. After storage, mushrooms were subjected to quality assessments and taste panel-testing, both raw and when cooked. Irradiated sporophores had an extended shelf-life compared with control samples, with less browning and a delay in cap opening. Desiccation was slowed and stipe elongation reduced so that irradiated mushrooms were still acceptable for consumption 16 days after treatment. Deleterious effects of irradiation at this relatively low level were not observed

  3. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: 2016 projects to address coral reef conservation issues

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2016 the following projects will take place to address aspects of coral reef conservation: Enhancing Management of Pacific ESA-listed Corals with Improved Utility...

  4. EOP Settlement colonization and succession patterns of gold coral Kulamana haumeaae in Hawaiian deep coral assemblages

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Relational tabular data on corals relevant to the parasitic life history of gold coral. Surveys conducted throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago with attention on...

  5. Microbial ecology of the Agaricus bisporus mushroom cropping process.

    McGee, Conor F

    2018-02-01

    Agaricus bisporus is the most widely cultivated mushroom species in the world. Cultivation is commenced by inoculating beds of semi-pasteurised composted organic substrate with a pure spawn of A. bisporus. The A. bisporus mycelium subsequently colonises the composted substrate by degrading the organic material to release nutrients. A layer of peat, often called "casing soil", is laid upon the surface of the composted substrate to induce the development of the mushroom crop and maintain compost environmental conditions. Extensive research has been conducted investigating the biochemistry and genetics of A. bisporus throughout the cultivation process; however, little is currently known about the wider microbial ecology that co-inhabits the composted substrate and casing layers. The compost and casing microbial communities are known to play important roles in the mushroom production process. Microbial species present in the compost and casing are known for (1) being an important source of nitrogen for the A. bisporus mycelium, (2) releasing sugar residues through the degradation of the wheat straw in the composted substrate, (3) playing a critical role in inducing development of the A. bisporus fruiting bodies and (4) acting as pathogens by parasitising the mushroom mycelium/crop. Despite a long history of research into the mushroom cropping process, an extensive review of the microbial communities present in the compost and casing has not as of yet been undertaken. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the literature investigating the compost and casing microbial communities throughout cultivation of the A. bisporus mushroom crop.

  6. Radical scavenging potential and DNA damage protection of wild edible mushrooms of Kashmir Himalaya

    Nowsheen Shameem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushrooms Verpa bohemica and Morchella esculenta are locally used for dietary and antioxidant in tribal areas of Kashmir Himalaya. In the present study, sequences of solvents on the basis of their polarity were used for the extraction from selected mushrooms. The comprehensive antioxidant activity of all edible mushroom extracts was evaluated by seven different methods. V. bohemica exhibited significant inhibitory activity of radicals among all the mushrooms while Morchella extracts protected the DNA damage from OH· radicals. This study provides us the substantiation for the use of these mushrooms as antioxidants besides being already eaten as food.

  7. Bottlenecks to coral recovery in the Seychelles

    Chong-Seng, K. M.; Graham, N. A. J.; Pratchett, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Processes that affect recovery of coral assemblages require investigation because coral reefs are experiencing a diverse array of more frequent disturbances. Potential bottlenecks to coral recovery include limited larval supply, low rates of settlement, and high mortality of new recruits or juvenile corals. We investigated spatial variation in local abundance of scleractinian corals in the Seychelles at three distinct life history stages (recruits, juveniles, and adults) on reefs with differing benthic conditions. Following widespread coral loss due to the 1998 bleaching event, some reefs are recovering (i.e., relatively high scleractinian coral cover: `coral-dominated'), some reefs have low cover of living macrobenthos and unconsolidated rubble substrates (`rubble-dominated'), and some reefs have high cover of macroalgae (`macroalgal-dominated'). Rates of coral recruitment to artificial settlement tiles were similar across all reef conditions, suggesting that larval supply does not explain differential coral recovery across the three reef types. However, acroporid recruits were absent on macroalgal-dominated reefs (0.0 ± 0.0 recruits tile-1) in comparison to coral-dominated reefs (5.2 ± 1.6 recruits tile-1). Juvenile coral colony density was significantly lower on macroalgal-dominated reefs (2.4 ± 1.1 colonies m-2), compared to coral-dominated reefs (16.8 ± 2.4 m-2) and rubble-dominated reefs (33.1 ± 7.3 m-2), suggesting that macroalgal-dominated reefs have either a bottleneck to successful settlement on the natural substrates or a high post-settlement mortality bottleneck. Rubble-dominated reefs had very low cover of adult corals (10.0 ± 1.7 %) compared to coral-dominated reefs (33.4 ± 3.6 %) despite no statistical difference in their juvenile coral densities. A bottleneck caused by low juvenile colony survivorship on unconsolidated rubble-dominated reefs is possible, or alternatively, recruitment to rubble-dominated reefs has only recently begun. This

  8. Mushrooms: significant source of internal contamination by radiocaesium

    Randa, Zdenek; Benada, Jaroslav; Horyna, Jan; Klan, Jaroslav

    1990-01-01

    Various species of mushrooms and soils were analyzed for alkali elements (Rb, K) by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and for radiocaesium by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. There are differences between uptake of non-radioactive Cs and radiocaesium. Concentration factors for radiocaesium were higher than those for non-radioactive Cs. The highest accumulation of radio-caesium was observed in some species of the Boletus genus, Laccaria spp., Paxillus involutus, Cortinarius spp., Tylopilus felleus and in some species of the Lactarius genus. The consumption of some wild-growing mushrooms can be the most significant contribution to the exposure of population from Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  9. A ribonuclease from the wild mushroom Boletus griseus.

    Wang, Hexiang; Ng, T B

    2006-10-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase) with a molecular mass of 29 kDa and cospecific for poly A and poly U was isolated from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus griseus. Its N-terminal sequence exhibited some similarity to those of RNases from the mushrooms Irpex lacteus and Lentinus edodes. The RNase was adsorbed on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and Affi-gel blue gel and was unadsorbed on CM-cellulose. The enzyme exhibited a temperature optimum between 60 and 70 degrees C and a pH optimum at 3.5.

  10. Mushroom poisoning in children: liver MDCT findings in three cases

    Cakir, Banu; Kirbas, Ismail; Cevik, Belma; Teksam, Mehmet; Coskun, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Wild mushroom poisoning occurs quite frequently in Turkey, usually during late summer and autumn when climatic conditions favour fungal growth. We report the MDCT findings of the liver in three children after mushroom poisoning. In all three patients, precontrast MDCT findings showed diffuse reduction of hepatic attenuation compared with the spleen. Contrast-enhanced MDCT images showed homogeneous contrast enhancement of the liver. All three patients recovered after medical treatment. A follow-up precontrast MDCT examination was performed in one patient in whom the density of the liver parenchyma had returned to normal. (orig.)

  11. Investigation on Possibility of Transferring OysterMushroom (Pleurotusostreatus Manganese Peroxidase Gene (mnp to the White Button Mushroom (Agaricusbisporus

    Mojgan Parvandi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The white button mushroom does not produce remarkable yield in the third flash. Nutritional deficiency and the inability of this mushroom to efficient use of compost are mentioned as its reasons. Basically, compost includes two major food components, lignocellulose and microbial biomass. But this microbial biomass provides just 10% of button mushroom food needs. According to research studies, differentenzymes in both white button mushroom and oyster mushroom are responsible for decomposition of lignin compounds in compost media, from begin of mycelium grows to the end of fruiting. Lacasse, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, glyoxal oxidase enzymes contribute to degradation of lignin compounds in degradation mushroom has proven by researchers however itis dependent on mushroom types. Manganese peroxidase enzyme (EC. 1.11.1.13 is an extracellular parser lignin enzyme that has a central peroxidase core. Manganese peroxidase enzyme oxidizesMn2+ to Mn3+ and then Mn3+ oxidizes phenolic structure to fonoxile radical. Produced Mn3+ is very active and makes complex by chelating organic acids that is produced by mushrooms such as oxalate or malate. Mn3+ ions become stable by helping of these chelates and it can penetrate through materials such as wood. On the other hand, in recent years, plant biotechnology provides new solutions for old problems such as use of microorganisms, particularly using bacteria for gene transfer and improvement of superlatives. For a sample of this method, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system can be noted. In addition, the use of suitable promoters for heterologous genes expression in suitable hosts is an important strategy in functional biotechnology that has been raised in edible mushroom genetic engineering. The lack of efficient and sufficient use of compost, low power of white button mushroom in competition with other rivals, lack of yield per area unit due to production costs, pests and diseases

  12. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems

    Rix, L.; de Goeij, J.M.; Mueller, C.E.; Struck, U.; Middelburg, J.J.; van Duyl, F.C.; Al-Horani, F.A.; Wild, C.; Naumann, M.S.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and

  13. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates.

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production. Pure culture of oyster mushroom was obtained from Mycology laboratory, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University. The pure culture was inoculated on potato dextrose agar for spawn preparation. Then, the spawn containing sorghum was inoculated with the fungal culture for the formation of fruiting bodies on the agricultural wastes. The oyster mushroom cultivation was undertaken under aseptic conditions, and the growth and development of mushroom were monitored daily. Results of the study revealed that oyster mushroom can grow on cotton seed, paper waste, sawdust and wheat straw, with varying growth performances. The highest biological and economic yield, as well as the highest percentage of biological efficiency of oyster mushroom was obtained from cotton seed, while the least was from sawdust. The study recommends cotton seed, followed by paper waste as suitable substrates for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation on various aspects of oyster mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia to promote the industry.

  14. Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.

    Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

    2013-08-01

    Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg⁻¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg⁻¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg⁻¹ dw).

  15. Beneficial Microorganisms for Corals (BMC): Proposed Mechanisms for Coral Health and Resilience.

    Peixoto, Raquel S; Rosado, Phillipe M; Leite, Deborah Catharine de Assis; Rosado, Alexandre S; Bourne, David G

    2017-01-01

    The symbiotic association between the coral animal and its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate partner Symbiodinium is central to the success of corals. However, an array of other microorganisms associated with coral (i.e., Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, and viruses) have a complex and intricate role in maintaining homeostasis between corals and Symbiodinium . Corals are sensitive to shifts in the surrounding environmental conditions. One of the most widely reported responses of coral to stressful environmental conditions is bleaching. During this event, corals expel Symbiodinium cells from their gastrodermal tissues upon experiencing extended seawater temperatures above their thermal threshold. An array of other environmental stressors can also destabilize the coral microbiome, resulting in compromised health of the host, which may include disease and mortality in the worst scenario. However, the exact mechanisms by which the coral microbiome supports coral health and increases resilience are poorly understood. Earlier studies of coral microbiology proposed a coral probiotic hypothesis, wherein a dynamic relationship exists between corals and their symbiotic microorganisms, selecting for the coral holobiont that is best suited for the prevailing environmental conditions. Here, we discuss the microbial-host relationships within the coral holobiont, along with their potential roles in maintaining coral health. We propose the term BMC (Beneficial Microorganisms for Corals) to define (specific) symbionts that promote coral health. This term and concept are analogous to the term Plant Growth Promoting Rhizosphere (PGPR), which has been widely explored and manipulated in the agricultural industry for microorganisms that inhabit the rhizosphere and directly or indirectly promote plant growth and development through the production of regulatory signals, antibiotics and nutrients. Additionally, we propose and discuss the potential mechanisms of the effects of BMC on corals, suggesting

  16. Algae as reservoirs for coral pathogens.

    Michael J Sweet

    Full Text Available Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively. Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is

  17. Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

    Amporn Srikram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total phenol content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak. Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat. Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr. S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff. fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr. Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56–13.96%, 11.16–50.29%, 1.43–21.94%, 2.11–38.11% and 9.56–59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

  18. Amorphous calcium carbonate particles form coral skeletons

    Mass, Tali; Giuffre, Anthony J.; Sun, Chang-Yu; Stifler, Cayla A.; Frazier, Matthew J.; Neder, Maayan; Tamura, Nobumichi; Stan, Camelia V.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Gilbert, Pupa U. P. A.

    2017-09-01

    Do corals form their skeletons by precipitation from solution or by attachment of amorphous precursor particles as observed in other minerals and biominerals? The classical model assumes precipitation in contrast with observed “vital effects,” that is, deviations from elemental and isotopic compositions at thermodynamic equilibrium. Here, we show direct spectromicroscopy evidence in Stylophora pistillata corals that two amorphous precursors exist, one hydrated and one anhydrous amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC); that these are formed in the tissue as 400-nm particles; and that they attach to the surface of coral skeletons, remain amorphous for hours, and finally, crystallize into aragonite (CaCO3). We show in both coral and synthetic aragonite spherulites that crystal growth by attachment of ACC particles is more than 100 times faster than ion-by-ion growth from solution. Fast growth provides a distinct physiological advantage to corals in the rigors of the reef, a crowded and fiercely competitive ecosystem. Corals are affected by warming-induced bleaching and postmortem dissolution, but the finding here that ACC particles are formed inside tissue may make coral skeleton formation less susceptible to ocean acidification than previously assumed. If this is how other corals form their skeletons, perhaps this is how a few corals survived past CO2 increases, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum that occurred 56 Mya.

  19. A too acid world for coral reefs

    Allemand, D.; Reynaud, St.; Salvat, B.

    2010-01-01

    While briefly presenting how corals grow and exchange with their environment and after having recalled that temperature increase was already a threat for them, this article outlines that ocean acidification is now considered as another danger. This acidification is due to the dissolution in sea water of CO 2 produced by human activities. This entails a slower calcification which is the process by which corals grow their skeleton. But, some researches showed that some corals manage to survive normally in such acid conditions, and even without skeleton for some other species. Anyhow, coral reefs will tend to disappear with environmental and socio-economical consequences

  20. Cyanobacteria in Coral Reef Ecosystems: A Review

    L. Charpy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria have dominated marine environments and have been reef builders on Earth for more than three million years (myr. Cyanobacteria still play an essential role in modern coral reef ecosystems by forming a major component of epiphytic, epilithic, and endolithic communities as well as of microbial mats. Cyanobacteria are grazed by reef organisms and also provide nitrogen to the coral reef ecosystems through nitrogen fixation. Recently, new unicellular cyanobacteria that express nitrogenase were found in the open ocean and in coral reef lagoons. Furthermore, cyanobacteria are important in calcification and decalcification. All limestone surfaces have a layer of boring algae in which cyanobacteria often play a dominant role. Cyanobacterial symbioses are abundant in coral reefs; the most common hosts are sponges and ascidians. Cyanobacteria use tactics beyond space occupation to inhibit coral recruitment. Cyanobacteria can also form pathogenic microbial consortia in association with other microbes on living coral tissues, causing coral tissue lysis and death, and considerable declines in coral reefs. In deep lagoons, coccoid cyanobacteria are abundant and are grazed by ciliates, heteroflagellates, and the benthic coral reef community. Cyanobacteria produce metabolites that act as attractants for some species and deterrents for some grazers of the reef communities.

  1. Biological impacts of oil pollution: coral reefs

    Knap, A H [Bermuda Biological Station, Ferry Reach (Bermuda)

    1992-01-01

    Coral reefs are the largest structures made by living things and exist as extremely productive ecosystems in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. Their location in nearshore waters means that there is a potential danger to corals from tanker accidents, refinery operations, oil exploration and production. There are now a number of published scientific papers concerning the effects of oils on corals. This report summarises and interprets the findings, and provides background information on the structure and ecology of coral reefs. Clean-up options and their implications are discussed in the light of the latest evidence from case histories and field experiments. (author)

  2. Energy at Stony Brook.

    Visich, Marian, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses strategies used in a course for nonengineering students which consists of case studies of such sociotechnological problems as automobile safety, water pollution, and energy. Solutions to the problems are classified according to three approaches: education, government regulation, and technological fix. (BC)

  3. Mushrooms and the radioactivity coming from Tchernobyl fallout

    2001-01-01

    In France, since the accident of Tchernobyl in 1986, the radiation regular monitoring of the food and the environment shows that the mushrooms present cesium 137 content levels upper than all the other agricultural products. This paper presents and explains the today and future situation

  4. Culinary-medicinal mushrooms: must action be taken?

    Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    In the Western world, the mushroom industry suffers from overproduction. Expectations are stronger than reality, and as a result, production is too high and prices are too low. Because bulk production has taken the lead, which not only happens in the West, overproduction occurs regularly. Low

  5. Analysis of Edible Mushroom Marketing in Three Villages in Central ...

    This study examined the marketing of edible mushroom in three villages (Alesi, Ekukunela ... The socio-economic characteristics of sellers, profit margin and marketing ... One hundred and twenty respondents were interviewed at three different markets in three selected ... The concentration of sellers is low while entry is free.

  6. Usage of Edible Mushrooms in Various Food Products

    Özge Süfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of edible mushrooms which are generally consumed in houses in dried form is based on mainly instant soup and sauce formulations. Recently, the cultivations of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species have become widespread. Utilization of these cultivated mushrooms in recipes would bring added value to related food products. For this purpose, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species farmed in Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Mushroom House were dried and then pulverized. Firstly, a snack was prepared with Agaricus bisporus powder. Agaricus bisporus powder was substituted for wheat flour at the rates of 5 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 % and thus the potential of food product which had relatively lower carbohydrate and fat level and higher fiber content was investigated. In the second part of the study, either 5 %, 10 % of Agaricus bisporus powder or 5 %, 10 % of Pleurotus ostreatus powder were added into traditional Turkish meatball (beef mince, salt which was cooked in conventional oven, so meat flavor could be replaced by herbal flavor coming from mushroom. This property mat obey the purpose that, the created new product will be consumed fondly especially by children. Sensory and physical (colour and texture analysis were performed in both snack and meatball samples and the results were evaluated statistically.

  7. Fungal and mycotoxin assessment of dried edible mushroom in Nigeria

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Sulyok, M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine whether dried mushrooms are a foodstuff that may be less susceptible to infection by toxigenic molds and consequently to mycotoxin contamination, 34 dried market samples were analyzed. Fungal population was determined in the samples by conventional mycological techniques...

  8. Diseases and pests noxious to Pleurotus spp. mushroom crops.

    Bellettini, Marcelo B; Bellettini, Sebastião; Fiorda, Fernanda A; Pedro, Alessandra C; Bach, Fabiane; Fabela-Morón, Miriam F; Hoffmann-Ribani, Rosemary

    The Pleurotus genus is one of most extensively studied white-rot fungi due to its exceptional ligninolytic properties. It is an edible mushroom that possesses biological effects, as it contains important bioactive molecules. It is a rich source of nutrients, particularly proteins, minerals as well as vitamins B, C and D. In basidiomycete fungi, intensive cultivations of edible mushrooms can often be affected by some bacterial, mold and virus diseases that rather frequently cause dramatic production loss. These infections are facilitated by the particular conditions under which mushroom cultivation is commonly carried out such as warm temperatures, humidity, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels and presence of pests. There is not much bibliographic information related to pests of mushrooms and their substrates. The updated review presents a practical checklist of diseases and pests of the Pleurotus genus, providing useful information that may help different users. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Porosity and Thermal Treatment on Hydration of Mushrooms

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Boom, R.M.; Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, hydration of mushroom as a porous food material has been studied considering their biphasic character. It consists of a solid phase that consists of intertwined hyphae and having cell walls with a swellable polymeric matrix and a pore phase made up by the space in between the

  10. Effects of spent mushroom compost on quality and productivity of ...

    SMC), which is a waste product of mushroom processing through a year, on greenhouse cucumber growth as an organic matter source for the soil. The effects of SMC on several yield related characteristics, such as total yield, fruit width, fruit ...

  11. Performance of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in different ...

    USER

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... These mixtures were compressed by pressing down with bottle in transparent poly bags ... The bags were then opened after two weeks and left open for mushroom ..... results of this work are within the range they reported.The.

  12. The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.

    Sommer, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

  13. Evaluating the production of Ganoderma mushroom on corn cobs ...

    The corn cobs and saw dust (control) were sterilized, inoculated under aseptic conditions in clear plastic bags and incubated at room temperature. Fruit bodies were observed within 30 to 50 days, results considerably shorter compared to when using saw dust, which can take up to four months before mushrooms are ...

  14. Evaluation on the effects of P. ostreatus spent mushroom compost ...

    Realization in minimizing production cost for in vitro culture had brought to a study on application of P. ostreatus spent mushroom compost (SMC). Sterile nodal explants was inoculated on different treatments with 15 replicates each. Treatments were MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of SMC (1 and 2 ...

  15. Mushrooms as Efficient Solar Steam-Generation Devices.

    Xu, Ning; Hu, Xiaozhen; Xu, Weichao; Li, Xiuqiang; Zhou, Lin; Zhu, Shining; Zhu, Jia

    2017-07-01

    Solar steam generation is emerging as a promising technology, for its potential in harvesting solar energy for various applications such as desalination and sterilization. Recent studies have reported a variety of artificial structures that are designed and fabricated to improve energy conversion efficiencies by enhancing solar absorption, heat localization, water supply, and vapor transportation. Mushrooms, as a kind of living organism, are surprisingly found to be efficient solar steam-generation devices for the first time. Natural and carbonized mushrooms can achieve ≈62% and ≈78% conversion efficiencies under 1 sun illumination, respectively. It is found that this capability of high solar steam generation is attributed to the unique natural structure of mushroom, umbrella-shaped black pileus, porous context, and fibrous stipe with a small cross section. These features not only provide efficient light absorption, water supply, and vapor escape, but also suppress three components of heat losses at the same time. These findings not only reveal the hidden talent of mushrooms as low-cost materials for solar steam generation, but also provide inspiration for the future development of high-performance solar thermal conversion devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Pro- and antioxidative properties of medicinal mushroom extracts

    Song, W.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Hot water extracts of 2 groups of medicinal mushrooms have been tested from the genera Agaricus, Antrodia, Auricularia, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Hericium, Grifola, Ganoderma, Lentinus, Phellinus, and Trametes for ROS-generating activity in human cells and for DPPH-TEAC antioxidant activity. Group 1

  17. Cultivation of Schizophyllum commune mushroom on different wood substrates

    P.N. Dasanayaka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophyllum commune is an edible mushroom grown on wood under natural conditions. Present study focused on cultivation of S.commune on different wood substrates since it is not commercially cultivated. A pure culture of S. commune was obtained by growing a tissue of the mushroom on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium. Spawns were produced by growing the mycelium on paddy grains. Mushroom was cultivated on sawdust of seven different wood substrates. The maximum yield was observed in sawdust of jackfruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus followed by sawdust of rambutan (Nepheliumlappaceum and country almond (Terminaliacatappa. A significant difference was not observed when mango (Mangiferaindica elephant apple (Dilleniaindica, tulip wood tree (Harpulliaarborea and thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust used as substrate. The lowest yield was observed in thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust. Effect of some additives on the yield was studied and significant difference in yield was observed when rice bran and used-tea leaves used as additives. Effect of rice bran on yield was studied using different ratios of sawdust to rice bran and the highest was observed in 2:1 ratio of sawdust to rice bran. The best incubating temperature for mycelial growth on the substrate was 350C. The composition of the mushroom on a dry weight basis was; 71.4% moisture, 23.35% crude protein and 6% ash. Tested wood species are promising substrates for cultivation of S.communeas cottage industry.

  18. Microbial Community Structure of Casing Soil During Mushroom Growth

    CAI Wei-Ming; YAO Huai-Ying; FENG Wei-Lin; JIN Qun-Li; LIU Yue-Yan; LI Nan-Yi; ZHENG Zhong

    2009-01-01

    The culturable bacterial population and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)profile of casing soil were investigated at different mushroom (Agaricus bisporusI cropping stages.The change in soil bacterial PLFAs was always accompanied by a change in the soil culturable bacterial population in the first flush.Comparatively higher culturable bacterial population and bacterial PLFAs were found in the casing soil at the primordia formation stage of the first flush.There was a significant increase in the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs during mushroom growth.Multivariate analysis of PLFA data demonstrated that the mushroom cropping stage could considerably affect the microbial community structure of the casing soil.The bacterial population increased significantly from casing soil application to the primordia formation stage of the first flush.Casing soil application resulted in an increase in the ratio of gram-negative bacterial PLFAs to gram-positive bacterial PLFAs,suggesting that some gram-negative bacteria might play an important role in mushroom sporophore initiation.

  19. Cultivation and bromatological analysis of the medicinal mushroom ...

    User

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper ... Both treatments were carried out in 10 repetitions, totaling 200 packages. ... The mushrooms showed high levels of ethereal extract, fibers and ... Nowadays, they have a guaranteed market in many ... Residues processing ..... Effect of different.

  20. Mushroom production in the faculty of agriculture teaching and ...

    The study was carried out in the Teaching and Research of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The main objective was to conduct an economic assessment of mushroom production in the farm. The study utilized secondary data generated from the farm record of the farm. Gross margin model was ...

  1. Harm potential of magic mushroom use: A review

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van den Brink, Wim

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Minister of Health of the Netherlands requested the CAM (Coordination point Assessment and Monitoring new drugs) to assess the overall risk of magic mushrooms. The present paper is an updated redraft of the review, written to support the assessment by CAM experts. It summarizes the

  2. Cultivation of mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) using corn cobs and ...

    An investigation was carried out on the cultivation of mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) using corn cobs and saw dust as the main substrates. Lignocellulosic wastes such as corn cobs and saw dust were packaged inside heat – resistant polythene bags and pasteurized before being seeded with 7.5% w/w millet spawn of ...

  3. Effect of mushroom ( Pleurotus tuber-regium ) inoculums on crude ...

    Pollution of soils by crude oil in Niger-Delta of Nigeria has brought untold hardship to the inhabitants of the region. This study was carried out in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 to determine the effect of Pleurotus tuber-regium (mushroom) inoculums on crude oil polluted soil on stover and grain yields and as well as cob length ...

  4. Nigerian Mushrooms: Underutilized Non-Wood Forest Resources ...

    MICHAEL

    1 University of Benin, Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, P.M.B 1154, ... representation of Nigerian mushroom's diversity, .... Farm wastes: .... animals. Recently, Ganoderma species have been successfully tested in poultry farming for the ... capacity of birds in Nigeria (Ogbe et al., 2008).

  5. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs

    Raúl Navas-Camacho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá. The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10x2m with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2, and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2. Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD, and White Plague Disease (WPD were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A.grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few

  6. Loss of live coral compromises predator-avoidance behaviour in coral reef damselfish.

    Boström-Einarsson, Lisa; Bonin, Mary C; Munday, Philip L; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2018-05-17

    Tropical reefs have experienced an unprecedented loss of live coral in the past few decades and the biodiversity of coral-dependent species is under threat. Many reef fish species decline in abundance as coral cover is lost, yet the mechanisms responsible for these losses are largely unknown. A commonly hypothesised cause of fish decline is the loss of shelter space between branches as dead corals become overgrown by algae. Here we tested this hypothesis by quantifying changes in predator-avoidance behaviour of a common damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis, before and after the death of their coral colony. Groups of P. moluccensis were placed on either healthy or degraded coral colonies, startled using a visual stimulus and their sheltering responses compared over a 7-week period. P. moluccensis stopped sheltering amongst the coral branches immediately following the death of the coral, despite the presence of ample shelter space. Instead, most individuals swam away from the dead coral, potentially increasing their exposure to predators. It appears that the presence of live coral rather than shelter per se is the necessary cue that elicits the appropriate behavioural response to potential predators. The disruption of this link poses an immediate threat to coral-associated fishes on degrading reefs.

  7. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form.

    Swierts, Thomas; Vermeij, Mark Ja

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral-turf algal interactions among different coral growth forms (branching, upright, massive, encrusting, plating, and solitary) on a shallow reef in Vietnam. In total, the amount of turf algal interaction, i.e., the proportion of the coral boundary directly bordering turf algae, was quantified for 1,276 coral colonies belonging to 27 genera and the putative outcome of each interaction was noted. The amount of turf algal interaction and the outcome of these interactions differed predictably among the six growth forms. Encrusting corals interacted most often with turf algae, but also competed most successfully against turf algae. The opposite was observed for branching corals, which rarely interacted with turf algae and rarely won these competitive interactions. Including all other growth forms, a positive relationship was found between the amount of competitive interactions with neighboring turf algae and the percentage of such interaction won by the coral. This growth form dependent ability to outcompete turf algae was not only observed among coral species, but also among different growth forms in morphologically plastic coral genera (Acropora, Favia, Favites, Montastrea, Montipora, Porites) illustrating the general nature of this relationship.

  8. Spectral classifying base on color of live corals and dead corals covered with algae

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Barille, Laurent; Akbar, A. S. M.; Sawayama, Shuhei; Fitrah, Muh. Nur; Prasyad, Hermansyah

    2016-05-01

    Pigments in the host tissues of corals can make a significant contribution to their spectral signature and can affect their apparent color as perceived by a human observer. The aim of this study is classifying the spectral reflectance of corals base on different color. It is expected that they can be used as references in discriminating between live corals, dead coral covered with algae Spectral reflectance data was collected in three small islands, Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia by using a hyperspectral radiometer underwater. First and second derivative analysis resolved the wavelength locations of dominant features contributing to reflectance in corals and support the distinct differences in spectra among colour existed. Spectral derivative analysis was used to determine the specific wavelength regions ideal for remote identification of substrate type. The analysis results shown that yellow, green, brown and violet live corals are spectrally separable from each other, but they are similar with dead coral covered with algae spectral.

  9. Diversity and evolution of coral fluorescent proteins.

    Naila O Alieva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available GFP-like fluorescent proteins (FPs are the key color determinants in reef-building corals (class Anthozoa, order Scleractinia and are of considerable interest as potential genetically encoded fluorescent labels. Here we report 40 additional members of the GFP family from corals. There are three major paralogous lineages of coral FPs. One of them is retained in all sampled coral families and is responsible for the non-fluorescent purple-blue color, while each of the other two evolved a full complement of typical coral fluorescent colors (cyan, green, and red and underwent sorting between coral groups. Among the newly cloned proteins are a "chromo-red" color type from Echinopora forskaliana (family Faviidae and pink chromoprotein from Stylophora pistillata (Pocilloporidae, both evolving independently from the rest of coral chromoproteins. There are several cyan FPs that possess a novel kind of excitation spectrum indicating a neutral chromophore ground state, for which the residue E167 is responsible (numeration according to GFP from A. victoria. The chromoprotein from Acropora millepora is an unusual blue instead of purple, which is due to two mutations: S64C and S183T. We applied a novel probabilistic sampling approach to recreate the common ancestor of all coral FPs as well as the more derived common ancestor of three main fluorescent colors of the Faviina suborder. Both proteins were green such as found elsewhere outside class Anthozoa. Interestingly, a substantial fraction of the all-coral ancestral protein had a chromohore apparently locked in a non-fluorescent neutral state, which may reflect the transitional stage that enabled rapid color diversification early in the history of coral FPs. Our results highlight the extent of convergent or parallel evolution of the color diversity in corals, provide the foundation for experimental studies of evolutionary processes that led to color diversification, and enable a comparative analysis of

  10. Wild Mushroom Extracts as Inhibitors of Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    Maria José Alves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%. Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8% and Mycenas rosea (44.8% presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4% and Russula delica (53.1%. Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition—almost 29%, by Russula delica extract. This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other

  11. Mushroom drying with solar assisted heat pump system

    Şevik, Seyfi; Aktaş, Mustafa; Doğan, Hikmet; Koçak, Saim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system. • Developing of a computer program for a drying system with different scenarios by using PLC. • Obtained less energy input with high coefficients of performance of system and more quality products. • Determination of mushroom drying properties such as moisture content, moisture ratio and drying ratio. - Abstract: In this study, a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system (SAHP) with flat plate collectors and a water source heat pump has been proposed. Mushroom drying was examined experimentally in the drying system. Solar energy (SE) system and heat pump (HP) system can be used separately or together. A computer program has been developed for the system. Drying air temperature, relative humidity, weight of product values, etc. were monitored and controlled with different scenarios by using PLC. This system is cheap, good quality and sustainable and it is modeled for good quality product and increased efficiency. Thus, products could be dried with less energy input and more controlled conditions. Mushrooms were dried at 45 °C and 55 °C drying air temperature and 310 kg/h mass flow rate. Mushrooms were dried from initial moisture content 13.24 g water/g dry matter (dry basis) to final moisture content 0.07 g water/g dry matter (dry basis). Mushrooms were dried by using HP system, SE system and SAHP system respectively at 250–220 min, at 270–165 min and at 230–190 min. The coefficients of performance of system (COP) are calculated in a range from 2.1 to 3.1 with respect to the results of experiments. The energy utilization ratios (EURs) were found to vary between 0.42 and 0.66. Specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) values were found to vary between 0.26 and 0.92 kg/kW h

  12. Mercury in certain boletus mushrooms from Poland and Belarus.

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Krasińska, Grażyna; Pankavec, Sviatlana; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the study of Hg contents of four species of Boletus mushroom (Boletus reticulatus Schaeff. 1763, B. pinophilus Pilát & Dermek 1973, B. impolitus Fr. 1838 and B. luridus Schaeff. 1774) and the surface soils (0-10 cm layer, ∼100 g) samples beneath the mushrooms from ten forested areas in Poland and Belarus by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ability of the species to bioconcentrate Hg was calculated (as the BCF) while Hg intakes from consumption of these mushroom species were also estimated. The median Hg content of the caps of the species varied between 0.38 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) dm; in stipes between 0.13 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) dm and in the mean Hg contents of soils varied from 0.020 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.17 ± 0.10 mg kg(-1) dm which is considered as "background" Hg level. The median Hg content of caps of B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus were up to 4.7 and 3.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively, and they very efficiently bioaccumulate Hg with median BCF values of up to 130 for caps and 58 for stipes. The caps and stipes of these mushrooms if eaten will expose consumer to elevated dose of total Hg estimated at 1.4 mg for caps of Boletus reticulatus from the Kacze Łęgi site, which is a nature reserve area. Nevertheless, the occasional consumption of the valued B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus mushrooms maybe safe.

  13. Mushroom dehydration in a hybrid-solar dryer

    Reyes, Alejandro; Mahn, Andrea; Cubillos, Francisco; Huenulaf, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mushrooms (Paris variety) were dehydrated in a hybrid solar dryer. ► Effective diffusivity was estimated by the Constant Diffusivity Model. ► Drying kinetics were adjusted by a semi-theoretical and the empirical Page model. ► Temperature, thickness and air recycle significantly affected critical moisture. ► The input of solar energy resulted in 3.5–12.5% electrical energy saving. - Abstract: Mushrooms (Paris variety) were dehydrated in a hybrid solar dryer (HSD) provided with a 3 m 2 solar panel and electric resistances. Mushrooms were cut in 8 mm or 4 mm thickness slices. At the outlet of the tray dryer 80–90% air was recycled and the air temperature was adjusted to the pre-defined levels (50 or 60 °C). At the outlet of the solar panel the air temperature raised between 2 and 20 °C above the ambient temperature, depending mainly of solar radiation level. Temperature, slices thickness and air recycle level had statistically significant effects on critical moisture content (X c ), as well as on the time necessary to reach a moisture content of 0.1 (wb). The color parameters of dehydrated mushroom indicate a notorious darkening, in all runs. Rehydration assays at 35 °C showed that in less than 30 min rehydrated mushrooms reached a moisture content of 0.8 (wb). Effective diffusivity (D eff ) was estimated by the Simplified Constant Diffusivity Model (SCDM), and it ranged between 6E−10 and 40E−10 m 2 /s, with R 2 higher than 0.98, agreeing with literature. The adjustment of experimental drying kinetics with the empirical Page’s model resulted in R 2 higher than 0.997. Finally, the input of solar energy resulted in 3.5–12.5% energy saving. These values could even be improved by increasing the agro-product load in the HSD

  14. Accumulation of radiocesium and trace elements in mushrooms collected from Japanese forests

    Yoshida, S.; Muramatsu, Y.; Ban-Nai, T.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 40 K for 124 mushroom species (284 samples) collected from Japanese forests during 1989 to 1991 were studied. The levels of 137 Cs m mushrooms varied very widely ranging from 40 K were relatively constant. The median concentrations of 137 Cs and 40 K were 53 and 1180 Bq/kg (dry wt), respectively. The 134 Cs discharged through the Chernobyl accident was detected only in 33 mushroom samples. The proportions of 137 Cs originating from the Chernobyl accident m these mushrooms were in the range 137 Cs concentrations in mycorrhizal fungi tended to be higher than those in saprophytes. The concentrations in many mushrooms reflected the layers m which their mycelia were growing. In addition to the radionuclides, many stable elements including stable Cs in mushroom and soil samples were determined. A good correlation between 137 Cs and stable Cs was observed for 33 mushrooms collected from a pine forest on sandy soil near coast in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, indicating that mushroom available Cs is recycling in the pine forest with the constant 137 Cs/stable Cs ratio. Accumulations from soil to mushrooms were observed for Cd, Rb, Zn, Cu. Cs, K, Mg, Mn, Ni and Tl. Through cultivation experiments in flasks using radiotracers, 137 Cs, 65 Zn and 54 Mn were observed to be accumulated in mushrooms. (author)

  15. Microbial disease and the coral holobiont

    Bourne, David G.; Garren, Melissa; Work, Thierry M.; Rosenberg, Eugene; Smith, Garriet W.; Harvell, C. Drew

    2009-01-01

    Tropical coral reefs harbour a reservoir of enormous biodiversity that is increasingly threatened by direct human activities and indirect global climate shifts. Emerging coral diseases are one serious threat implicated in extensive reef deterioration through disruption of the integrity of the coral holobiont – a complex symbiosis between the coral animal, endobiotic alga and an array of microorganisms. In this article, we review our current understanding of the role of microorganisms in coral health and disease, and highlight the pressing interdisciplinary research priorities required to elucidate the mechanisms of disease. We advocate an approach that applies knowledge gained from experiences in human and veterinary medicine, integrated into multidisciplinary studies that investigate the interactions between host, agent and environment of a given coral disease. These approaches include robust and precise disease diagnosis, standardised ecological methods and application of rapidly developing DNA, RNA and protein technologies, alongside established histological, microbial ecology and ecological expertise. Such approaches will allow a better understanding of the causes of coral mortality and coral reef declines and help assess potential management options to mitigate their effects in the longer term.

  16. CORAL REEF BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA: USING THE CLEAN ...

    Coral reefs are declining at unprecedented rates worldwide due to multiple interactive stressors including climate change and land-based sources of pollution. The Clean Water Act (CWA) can be a powerful legal instrument for protecting water resources, including the biological inhabitants of coral reefs. The objective of the CWA is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of water resources. Coral reef protection and restoration under the Clean Water Act begins with water quality standards - provisions of state or Federal law that consist of a designated use(s) for the waters of the United States and water quality criteria sufficient to protect the uses. Aquatic life use is the designated use that is measured by biological criteria (biocriteria). Biocriteria are expectations set by a jurisdiction for the quality and quantity of living aquatic resources in a defined waterbody. Biocriteria are an important addition to existing management tools for coral reef ecosystems. The Technical Support Document “Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework to aid States and Territories in their development, adoption, and implementation of coral reef biocriteria in their respective water quality standards. The Technical Support Document “Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework for coral re

  17. The Stylasterine coral Allopora stellulata (Stewart)

    Boschma, H.

    1960-01-01

    The description of Stylaster stellulatus Stewart was based on a specimen obtained at Tahiti, the coral was stated to be extremely rare, and only found at one small island in the neighbourhood. The description contains all the peculiarities for a specific definition of the coral, the salient points

  18. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Marhaver, K.L.; Huijbers, C.M.; Nagelkerken, I.; Simpson, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to

  19. Mesopredator trophodynamics on thermally stressed coral reefs

    Hempson, Tessa N.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Hoey, Andrew S.; Almany, Glenn R.

    2018-03-01

    Ecosystems are becoming vastly modified through disturbance. In coral reef ecosystems, the differential susceptibility of coral taxa to climate-driven bleaching is predicted to shift coral assemblages towards reefs with an increased relative abundance of taxa with high thermal tolerance. Many thermally tolerant coral species are characterised by low structural complexity, with reduced habitat niche space for the small-bodied coral reef fishes on which piscivorous mesopredators feed. This study used a patch reef array to investigate the potential impacts of climate-driven shifts in coral assemblages on the trophodynamics of reef mesopredators and their prey communities. The `tolerant' reef treatment consisted only of coral taxa of low susceptibility to bleaching, while `vulnerable' reefs included species of moderate to high thermal vulnerability. `Vulnerable' reefs had higher structural complexity, and the fish assemblages that established on these reefs over 18 months had higher species diversity, abundance and biomass than those on `tolerant' reefs. Fish assemblages on `tolerant' reefs were also more strongly influenced by the introduction of a mesopredator ( Cephalopholis boenak). Mesopredators on `tolerant' reefs had lower lipid content in their muscle tissue by the end of the 6-week experiment. Such sublethal energetic costs can compromise growth, fecundity, and survivorship, resulting in unexpected population declines in long-lived mesopredators. This study provides valuable insight into the altered trophodynamics of future coral reef ecosystems, highlighting the potentially increased vulnerability of reef fish assemblages to predation as reef structure declines, and the cost of changing prey availability on mesopredator condition.

  20. Coral aquaculture: applying scientific knowledge to ex situ production

    Leal, M.C.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.; Petersen, D.; Osinga, R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral aquaculture is an activity of growing interest due to the degradation of coral reefs worldwide and concomitant growing demand for corals by three industries: marine ornamental trade, pharmaceutical industry and reef restoration. Although captive breeding and propagation of corals is a

  1. 75 FR 48934 - Coral Reef Conservation Program Implementation Guidelines

    2010-08-12

    ...-01] RIN 0648-ZC19 Coral Reef Conservation Program Implementation Guidelines AGENCY: National Oceanic... Guidelines (Guidelines) for the Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP or Program) under the Coral Reef... assistance for coral reef conservation projects under the Act. NOAA revised the Implementation Guidelines for...

  2. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: the collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. METHODS: Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland and the

  3. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: The collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    Background. Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. Methods. Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. Results. From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland

  4. The Keeling Curve and The Coral Reef Mosaic Project - Introducing the Realities of Climate Change to Educators and Scholars using Mosaic Arts.

    Lueker, T.; Chinn, P. W. U.

    2014-12-01

    In May 2013, The, record of atmospheric CO2 at Mauna Loa, popularly known as "The Keeling Curve" reached 400 ppm for the first time in human history. Among the most sobering consequences of rising CO2 is Ocean Acidification, caused when the excess CO2 emitted from the burning of fossil fuels is absorbed by the surface oceans. The resulting reduction in pH harms stony corals (Scleractinia), and many other calcareous organisms. If civilization continues along the current trajectory of fossil fuel emissions, most coral reef ecosystems are expected to suffer extreme stress or mortality within the lifetime of the next generation. "If we do not reverse current trends in carbon dioxide emissions soon, we will cause the biggest and most rapid change in ocean chemistry since the extinction of the dinosaurs." (www.seaweb.org/getinvolved/oceanvoices/KenCaldeira.php). This looming tragedy is topical among marine scientists, but less appreciated or unknown to the general public, particularly among communities in the tropics where impacts to coral reef ecosystems will be severe. The Coral Reef Mosaic Project grew from my experiences leading education outreach in local schools. Making mosaics is an engaging way to enlighten educators and scholars on the pressing issues of climate change. When taking part in a mural project, students find mosaic art is a fun and rewarding experience that results in a beautiful depiction of a coral reef. Students explore the ecosystem diversity of coral reef inhabitants as they design the mural and piece together a representative environment. They work together as a team to learn the mosaic techniques and then build their own chosen creatures to inhabit the reef. The result is a beautiful and lasting mural for their school or community that provides an important message for the future. In a cooperative project with Dr. Pauline Chin at UH Manoa we traveled to Hawaii to train teachers on the Big Island in the art of mosaic and to convey the

  5. 76 FR 30110 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the...

    2011-05-24

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the Southern Atlantic..., Coral Reefs, and Live/Hardbottom Habitat of the South Atlantic Region. The applicant has requested.... HHSN261200900012C) between the National Cancer Institute ( http://www.cancer.gov/ ) and the Coral Reef Research...

  6. 76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...

    2011-10-26

    ...-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic... the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the... Aquariums to collect, with certain conditions, various species of reef fish and live rock in Federal waters...

  7. Climate-driven coral reorganisation influences aggressive behaviour in juvenile coral-reef fishes

    Kok, Judith E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.

    2016-06-01

    Globally, habitat degradation is altering the abundance and diversity of species in a variety of ecosystems. This study aimed to determine how habitat degradation, in terms of changing coral composition under climate change, affected abundance, species richness and aggressive behaviour of juveniles of three damselfishes ( Pomacentrus moluccensis, P. amboinensis and Dischistodus perspicillatus, in order of decreasing reliance on coral). Patch reefs were constructed to simulate two types of reefs: present-day reefs that are vulnerable to climate-induced coral bleaching, and reefs with more bleaching-robust coral taxa, thereby simulating the likely future of coral reefs under a warming climate. Fish communities were allowed to establish naturally on the reefs during the summer recruitment period. Climate-robust reefs had lower total species richness of coral-reef fishes than climate-vulnerable reefs, but total fish abundance was not significantly different between reef types (pooled across all species and life-history stages). The nature of aggressive interactions, measured as the number of aggressive chases, varied according to coral composition; on climate-robust reefs, juveniles used the substratum less often to avoid aggression from competitors, and interspecific aggression became relatively more frequent than intraspecific aggression for juveniles of the coral-obligate P. moluccensis. This study highlights the importance of coral composition as a determinant of behaviour and diversity of coral-reef fishes.

  8. Use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.

    Palacios, Irene; Moro, Carlos; Lozano, Miguel; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Guillamón, Eva; García-Lafuente, Ana; Villares, Ana

    2011-09-01

    Mushrooms have attracted much attention due to their excellent nutritional and sensory properties. However, they are highly perishable and rapidly lose their organoleptic characteristics. Many methods have been employed for mushroom storage, such as packaging, blanching, canning, or freeze drying. Among them, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been widely employed for preserving fresh mushrooms. MAP provides an affordable packaging system that partly avoids enzymatic browning, fermentation and other biochemical processes by maintaining a controlled gas atmosphere. Several factors, including optimum CO2 and O2 partial pressures, permeability, package material, thickness, or product weight, must be considered in order to design a suitable modified atmosphere package for mushrooms. Thus, different strategies are available to preserve mushroom quality after harvest. The article presents some promising patents on use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.

  9. Wild mushrooms in Ethiopia: A review and synthesis for future perspective

    Dejene, T.; Oria-de-Rueda, J.A.; Martín-Pinto, P.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: To review and provide all-purpose information about wild mushrooms in Ethiopia and to create awareness for conservation and use of mycological resources. Area of study: We focused mainly on Ethiopia, where information about wild mushrooms is scanty and their status is unknown under the rampant degradation of the habitats. Main results: We reviewed all relevant references related to wild mushrooms and their ecological niches, cultural practices and species used for cultivation as well as the anthropogenic factors affecting the conservation of fungal diversity. Research highlights: This review summarizes issues related to the diversity of wild mushrooms, the main ecological niches and their associated fungal species, and mushroom cultivation practices in Ethiopia. Moreover, threats and the need for future conservation of wild mushrooms in the country are also reported. This review paper can serve as base line information and indicator for further mycological studies in Ethiopia as well as in other developing countries with similar scenarios.

  10. Wild mushrooms in Ethiopia: A review and synthesis for future perspective

    Dejene, T.; Oria-de-Rueda, J.A.; Martín-Pinto, P.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: To review and provide all-purpose information about wild mushrooms in Ethiopia and to create awareness for conservation and use of mycological resources. Area of study: We focused mainly on Ethiopia, where information about wild mushrooms is scanty and their status is unknown under the rampant degradation of the habitats. Main results: We reviewed all relevant references related to wild mushrooms and their ecological niches, cultural practices and species used for cultivation as well as the anthropogenic factors affecting the conservation of fungal diversity. Research highlights: This review summarizes issues related to the diversity of wild mushrooms, the main ecological niches and their associated fungal species, and mushroom cultivation practices in Ethiopia. Moreover, threats and the need for future conservation of wild mushrooms in the country are also reported. This review paper can serve as base line information and indicator for further mycological studies in Ethiopia as well as in other developing countries with similar scenarios.

  11. [The composition of volatile components of cepe (Boletus edulis) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)].

    Misharina, T A; Mukhutdinova, S M; Zharikova, G G; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    The composition of aroma compounds in cooked and canned cepe (Boletus edulis) and in cooked oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) is studied using capillary gas chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is found that unsaturated alcohols and ketones containing eight atoms of carbon determine the aroma of raw mushrooms and take part in the formation of the aroma of cooked mushrooms as well. The content of these compounds was the highest in canned cepes. In oyster mushrooms, the concentration of these alcohols and ketones was lower in comparison with cepes. The content of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes was much higher in oyster mushrooms. Volatile aliphatic and heterocyclic Maillard reaction products and isomeric octenols and octenones formed the aroma of cooked and canned mushrooms.

  12. Segmentation of Mushroom and Cap width Measurement using Modified K-Means Clustering Algorithm

    Eser Sert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom is one of the commonly consumed foods. Image processing is one of the effective way for examination of visual features and detecting the size of a mushroom. We developed software for segmentation of a mushroom in a picture and also to measure the cap width of the mushroom. K-Means clustering method is used for the process. K-Means is one of the most successful clustering methods. In our study we customized the algorithm to get the best result and tested the algorithm. In the system, at first mushroom picture is filtered, histograms are balanced and after that segmentation is performed. Results provided that customized algorithm performed better segmentation than classical K-Means algorithm. Tests performed on the designed software showed that segmentation on complex background pictures is performed with high accuracy, and 20 mushrooms caps are measured with 2.281 % relative error.

  13. Wild mushrooms in Ethiopia: A review and synthesis for future perspective

    Tatek Dejene

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To review and provide all-purpose information about wild mushrooms in Ethiopia and to create awareness for conservation and use of mycological resources. Area of study: We focused mainly on Ethiopia, where information about wild mushrooms is scanty and their status is unknown under the rampant degradation of the habitats. Main results: We reviewed all relevant references related to wild mushrooms and their ecological niches, cultural practices and species used for cultivation as well as the anthropogenic factors affecting the conservation of fungal diversity. Research highlights: This review summarizes issues related to the diversity of wild mushrooms, the main ecological niches and their associated fungal species, and mushroom cultivation practices in Ethiopia. Moreover, threats and the need for future conservation of wild mushrooms in the country are also reported. This review paper can serve as base line information and indicator for further mycological studies in Ethiopia as well as in other developing countries with similar scenarios.

  14. Big Data Approaches To Coral-Microbe Symbiosis

    Zaneveld, J.; Pollock, F. J.; McMinds, R.; Smith, S.; Payet, J.; Hanna, B.; Welsh, R.; Foster, A.; Ohdera, A.; Shantz, A. A.; Burkepile, D. E.; Maynard, J. A.; Medina, M.; Vega Thurber, R.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs face increasing challenges worldwide, threatened by overfishing and nutrient pollution, which drive growth of algal competitors of corals, and periods of extreme temperature, which drive mass coral bleaching. I will discuss two projects that examine how coral's complex relationships with microorganisms affect the response of coral colonies and coral species to environmental challenge. Microbiological studies have documented key roles for coral's microbial symbionts in energy harvest and defense against pathogens. However, the evolutionary history of corals and their microbes is little studied. As part of the Global Coral Microbiome Project, we are characterizing bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and Symbiodinium diversity across >1400 DNA samples from all major groups of corals, collected from 15 locations worldwide. This collection will allow us to ask how coral- microbe associations evolved over evolutionary time, and to determine whether microbial symbiosis helps predict the relative vulnerability of certain coral species to environmental stress. In the second project, we experimentally characterized how the long-term effects of human impacts such as overfishing and nutrient pollution influence coral-microbe symbiosis. We conducted a three-year field experiment in the Florida Keys applying nutrient pollution or simulated overfishing to reef plots, and traced the effects on reef communities, coral microbiomes, and coral health. The results show that extremes of temperature and algal competition destabilize coral microbiomes, increasing pathogen blooms, coral disease, and coral death. Surprisingly, these local stressors interacted strongly with thermal stress: the greatest microbiome disruption, and >80% of coral mortality happened in the hottest periods. Thus, overfishing and nutrient pollution may interact with increased climate-driven episodes of sub-bleaching thermal stress to increase coral mortality by disrupt reef communities down to microbial scales.

  15. Gamma irradiation protects oleic acid from oxidation: an experiment in Lactarius deliciosus wild mushroom

    Fernandes, Ângela; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers [1]. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation and a particular interest arises for wild species. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully i...

  16. Determination of cesium and selenium in cultivated mushrooms using radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique

    Racz, L.; Bumbalova, A.; Harangozo, M.; Toelgyessy, J.; Tomecek, O.

    2000-01-01

    Cesium and selenium intake of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), with these elements previously added to culture medium, has been examined from the viewpoint of health- and environmental protection. The process of measuring has been carried out by the radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique. Treatments of the elementary substance with Se salt appears to influence the Se content of the mushrooms to a significant extent. Cs intake is of considerable importance, as this element is accumulated by mushrooms. (author)

  17. The pathogenic fungi in mushroom cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange.) Imbach.

    Agata Tekiela

    2012-01-01

    The research was conducted in a mushroom growing facility located near Rzeszów, consisting of three production cycles. The number and composition of microorganisms which accompany the mushroom cultivation depended on the healthiness of: the compost, casing and spawn of Agaricus bisporus. The presence of pathogenic fungi in the cultivation halls at the beginning of the production cycle is a serious threat to the cultivation of common mushroom because their rapid development shortens the span o...

  18. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) ...

  19. Contents of trace elements in meadow mushrooms as results of PIXE, NAA and AAS measurements

    Urban, J.; Sieniawski, J.

    1992-01-01

    Contents of heavy elements in mushrooms from the Dresden area and from some parts of Poland, by use of three methods of measurement (PIXE, AAS and NAA) were determined, with the special interest focused on wild growing and cultivated meadow mushrooms. The ability for accumulation of Se, Cu, Ag and Cu was established. In some wild growing mushrooms the values of Cd, Hg, As and Pb exceeded allowed limits for human nutrition. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  20. Nicotine in dried boletus mushrooms - Causes for contamination must be determined

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2009-01-01

    Recently, nicotine has been detected in samples of dried boletus mushrooms. In large doses, nicotine is a strong neurotoxin and natural component of the tobacco plant. Yet food supply plants such as potatoes, tomatoes, aubergines and cauliflower also contain very small amounts of the substance. The cause of nicotine contamination in dried boletus mushrooms has thus far not been determined since nicotine has not been established as a naturally occurring component in mushrooms. Whether the nico...

  1. Identification and Control of Cladobotryum spp., Causal Agents of Cobeweb Disease of Cultivated Mushroom

    Ivana Potočnik

    2009-01-01

    Cladobotryum spp. are causal agents of cobweb disease, one of the most serious diseases of cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach) in Serbia and worldwide, which affects product quality and yield. The disease symptoms are: cottony fluffy white or yellowish to pink colonies on mushroom casing, rapid colonization of casing surface, covering of host basidiomata by mycelia, and their decay. Prochloraz-Mn has been officially recommended for mushroom cultivation in EU countries. Howe...

  2. Global warming and coral reefs

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    , notably at Ratnagiri. Malwan. Redi Port and Vizhingam. Relic reefs with living herm<:ltypic corals at depths ranging fror:l 25 to 45m are the Gaves hani Bank off~\\angalore,and the submerged banks (Bass<:ls de Pedro. Sesostris Bank and Cora Divh... the snore (Qaslm and Wafar, 1979). The other representative Sea le\\lel Variation 417 of the extensive reelS of the outer shelf that survived Pleistocene drowning is the Gaveshani Bank, fanhc: south (J 3° 24' N; 73° 45' E), about 100 km off \\1 ar:ga lore...

  3. Plant growth and gas balance in a plant and mushroom cultivation system

    Kitaya, Y.; Tani, A.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.

    1994-11-01

    In order to obtain basic data for construction of a plant cultivation system incorporating a mushroom cultivation subsystem in the CELSS, plant growth and atmospheric CO2 balance in the system were investigated. The plant growth was promoted by a high level of CO2 which resulted from the respiration of the mushroom mycelium in the system. The atmospheric CO2 concentration inside the system changed significantly due to the slight change in the net photosynthetic rate of plants and/or the respiration rate of the mushroom when the plant cultivation system combined directly with the mushroom cultivation subsystem.

  4. Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms

    Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Popescu, Ion V.; Busuioc, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

  5. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils

    Rieder, Stephan R.; Brunner, Ivano; Horvat, Milena; Jacobs, Anna; Frey, Beat

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg -1 dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg -1 dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: → Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. → Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. → MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. → Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

  6. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils

    Rieder, Stephan R. [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Brunner, Ivano [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Horvat, Milena [Jozef Stefan Institute, 1001 Ljubliana (Slovenia); Jacobs, Anna [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Kassel, 37213 Witzenhausen (Germany); Frey, Beat, E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: > Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. > Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. > MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. > Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

  7. Bioactive Mushroom Polysaccharides: A Review on Monosaccharide Composition, Biosynthesis and Regulation.

    Wang, Qiong; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhenghong; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-06-13

    Mushrooms are widely distributed around the world and are heavily consumed because of their nutritional value and medicinal properties. Polysaccharides (PSs) are an important component of mushrooms, a major factor in their bioactive properties, and have been intensively studied during the past two decades. Monosaccharide composition/combinations are important determinants of PS bioactivities. This review summarizes: (i) monosaccharide composition/combinations in various mushroom PSs, and their relationships with PS bioactivities; (ii) possible biosynthetic pathways of mushroom PSs and effects of key enzymes on monosaccharide composition; (iii) regulation strategies in PS biosynthesis, and prospects for controllable biosynthesis of PSs with enhanced bioactivities.

  8. Genetic diversity of Dahongjun, the commercially important "Big Red Mushroom" from southern China.

    Mochan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In southern China, a wild ectomycorrhizal mushroom commonly called "Dahongjun" or "Big Red Mushroom" by the local residents, has been harvested, consumed, and/or exported as an exotic food for many years. Although ecologically and economically important, very little is known about this mushroom, including its diversity and population structure. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we analyzed 122 samples from five local populations representing the known distribution ranges of this mushroom in southern China. We investigated the genetic diversity and geographic structure of this mushroom using sequences from four DNA fragments. Our analyses identified that this mushroom contained at least three divergent lineages: one corresponds to a recently described species Russula griseocarnosa from southern China and the remaining two likely represent two novel species. While these lineages were prominently structured geographically based on ITS sequences, evidence for ancient and/or recent gene flow was also identified within individual lineages. In addition, a local population from Ailaoshan in central Yunnan Province where 85 of our 122 specimens came from showed clear evidence of recombination. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The ectomycorrhizal mushroom "Dahongjun" from southern China is a species complex with at least three divergent lineages. These lineages are largely geographically structured and there is evidence for recombination in nature. Our results indicate mature Dahongjun mushrooms with abundant basidiospores are important for the reproduction of this mushroom in nature and that individual populations of this species should be managed separately.

  9. Mushroom cultivation, processing and value added products: a patent based review.

    Singhal, Somya; Rasane, Prasad; Kaur, Sawinder; Garba, Umar; Singh, Jyoti; Raj, Nishant; Gupta, Neeru

    2018-06-03

    Edible mushrooms are an abundant source of carbohydrates, proteins, and multiple antioxidants and phytonutrients. This paper presents a general overview on the edible fungus describing the inventions made in the field of its cultivation, equipment and value added products. To understand and review the innovations and nutraceutical benefits of mushrooms as well as to develop interest regarding the edible mushrooms. Information provided in this review is based on the available research investigations and patents. Mushrooms are an edible source of a wide variety of antioxidants and phytonutrients with a number of nutraceutical properties including anti-tumor and anti-carcinogenic. Thus, several investigations are made for cultivation and improvement of the yield of mushrooms through improvisation of growth substrates and equipment used for mushroom processing. The mushroom has been processed into various products to increase its consumption, providing the health and nutritional benefit to mankind. This paper summarizes the cultivation practices of mushroom, its processing equipments, methods of preservation, value added based products, and its nutraceutical properties. The review also highlights the various scientific feats achieved in terms of patents and research publications promoting mushroom as a wholesome food. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Edible wild mushrooms of the Western Ghats: Data on the ethnic knowledge

    Namera C. Karun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The edible wild mushrooms are most important in food security of ethnic groups and tribals throughout the world. Various indigenous strategies are followed to trace wild mushrooms suitable for human consumption. Data presented in this article projects ethnic knowledge on 51 edible wild mushrooms (in 23 genera in the Western Ghats region of India. Information collected with support of ethnic groups/tribals pertains to habitats, substrates, mutualistic association, extent of availability, extent of edibility and method of processing of wild mushrooms. Extensive field visits and interactions with ethnic groups were performed to collect the data on each mushroom. Initially, most of these mushrooms were identified based on the indigenous methods and designated with vernacular names (Are-Gowda, Kodava and Tulu. Based on macromorphology (in field and micromorphology (in laboratory, each mushroom was identified with its systematic name. Among the 51 wild mushrooms irrespective of extent of availability, the most preferred include Astraeus hygrometricus, Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Fistulina hepatica, Lentinus sajor-caju, Pleurotus (5 spp. and Scleroderma citrinum and Termitomyces (18 spp.. This data forecasts the importance of documentation of traditional knowledge, protection of habitats, management of resources (tree species and substrates and sustainable exploitation of wild mushrooms.

  11. Partial mortality in massive reef corals as an indicator of sediment stress on coral reefs

    Nugues, Maggy M.; Roberts, Callum M.

    2003-01-01

    Partial mortality and fission on colonies of four common massive coral species were examined at sites differing in their exposure to river sediments in St. Lucia, West Indies. Rates of partial mortality were higher close to the river mouths, where more sediments were deposited, than away from the rivers in two coral species. Frequency of fission showed no significant trend. The percent change in coral cover on reefs from 1995 to 1998 was negatively related to the rate of partial mortality estimated in 1998 in all species. This suggests that partial mortality rates could reflect longer-term temporal changes in coral communities. Similar conclusions could also be reached using a less precise measure and simply recording partial mortality on colonies as <50% and ≥50% dead tissue. We conclude that partial mortality in some species of massive reef corals, expressed as the amount of dead tissue per colony, could provide a rapid and effective means of detecting sediment stress on coral reefs

  12. Partial mortality in massive reef corals as an indicator of sediment stress on coral reefs

    Nugues, Maggy M.; Roberts, Callum M

    2003-03-01

    Partial mortality and fission on colonies of four common massive coral species were examined at sites differing in their exposure to river sediments in St. Lucia, West Indies. Rates of partial mortality were higher close to the river mouths, where more sediments were deposited, than away from the rivers in two coral species. Frequency of fission showed no significant trend. The percent change in coral cover on reefs from 1995 to 1998 was negatively related to the rate of partial mortality estimated in 1998 in all species. This suggests that partial mortality rates could reflect longer-term temporal changes in coral communities. Similar conclusions could also be reached using a less precise measure and simply recording partial mortality on colonies as <50% and {>=}50% dead tissue. We conclude that partial mortality in some species of massive reef corals, expressed as the amount of dead tissue per colony, could provide a rapid and effective means of detecting sediment stress on coral reefs.

  13. Shelf life extension of mushrooms (agaricus bisporus) by gamma irradiation

    Wahid, M.; Kovacs, E.

    1980-01-01

    Fresh mushrooms were irradiated (0, 1.0, 2.5 kGy) and kept for 8 days at 287 K (14 deg C). The stored samples were studied for different quality parameters. It was observed that the growth rate was higher in the pileus than in the stipe portion of mushrooms. Veils started unstretching on the first day, and on the second day all were open in the control samples. An irradiation dose of 2.5 kGy strongly inhibited the veil opening throughout the storage period. Highly significant moisture loss occurred during storage. Irradiation significant reduced the weight loss after 2 days of storage. Highly significantly softening occurred in storage, but irradiation improved this condition. The irradiation dose of 2.5 kGy showed better results than 1.0 kGy. (author)

  14. Oscillations and Sparsening of Odor Representations in the Mushroom Body

    Perez-Orive, Javier; Mazor, Ofer; Turner, Glenn C.; Cassenaer, Stijn; Wilson, Rachel I.; Laurent, Gilles

    2002-07-01

    In the insect olfactory system, oscillatory synchronization is functionally relevant and reflects the coherent activation of dynamic neural assemblies. We examined the role of such oscillatory synchronization in information transfer between networks in this system. The antennal lobe is the obligatory relay for olfactory afferent signals and generates oscillatory output. The mushroom body is responsible for formation and retrieval of olfactory and other memories. The format of odor representations differs significantly across these structures. Whereas representations are dense, dynamic, and seemingly redundant in the antennal lobe, they are sparse and carried by more selective neurons in the mushroom body. This transformation relies on a combination of oscillatory dynamics and intrinsic and circuit properties that act together to selectively filter and synthesize the output from the antennal lobe. These results provide direct support for the functional relevance of correlation codes and shed some light on the role of oscillatory synchronization in sensory networks.

  15. Forest farming of shiitake mushrooms: aspects of forced fruiting.

    Bruhn, J N; Mihail, J D

    2009-12-01

    Three outdoor shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) cultivation experiments were established during 2002-2004 at the University of Missouri Horticulture and Agroforestry Research Center, in central Missouri. Over three complete years following a year of spawn run, we examined shiitake mushroom production in response to the temperature of forcing water, inoculum strain, substrate host species and physical orientation of the log during fruiting. Forcing compressed the period of most productive fruiting to the two years following spawn run. Further, chilled forcing water, 10-12 degrees C, significantly enhanced yield, particularly when ambient air temperatures were favorable for the selected mushroom strain. The temperature of water available for force-fruiting shiitake logs depends on geographic location (latitude) and source (i.e., farm pond vs. spring or well water). Prospective growers should be aware of this effect when designing their management and business plans.

  16. [The influence of cooking on radiocaesium contamination of edible mushrooms].

    Skibniewska, K A; Smoczyński, S S

    1999-01-01

    Radiocaesium concentration in some kinds of edible mushrooms collected in October 1990 has been determined to evaluate the radiocaesium activity 5 years after Chernobyl accident. The highest activity was found in Xerocomus subtomentosus (1080.5 Bq/kg of fresh weight), then in Rozites caperata (768.5 Bq/kg) and Xerocomus badius (562.5 Bq/kg); the lowest--in Suillus luteus (52.0 Bq/kg) and Cantharellus cibarius (63.0 Bq/kg). Studies on the influence of cooking on radiocaesium activity revealed that parboiling and boiling of mushrooms led to high, even 85% losses of radiocaesium in the product. Samples of Xerocomus badius collected in various sites of North-East Poland in 1995 averaged to 195.4 +/- 125.5 Bq/kg of fresh weight.

  17. The influence of cooking on radiocesium contamination of edible mushrooms

    Skibniewska, K.A.; Smoczynski, S.S.

    1999-01-01

    Radiocesium concentration in some kinds of edible mushrooms collected in October 1990 has been determined to evaluate the radiocesium activity 5 years after Chernobyl accident. The highest activity was found in Xerocomus subtomentosus (1080.5 Bq/kg of fresh weight), then in Rozites caperata (768.5 Bq/kg) and Xerocomus badius (562.5 Bq/kg); the lowest - in Suillus luteus (52.0 Bq/kg) and Cantharellus cibarius (63.0 Bq/kg). Studies on the influence of cooking on radiocesium activity revealed that parboiling and boiling of mushrooms led to high, even 85% losses of radiocesium in the product. Samples of Xerocomus badius collected in various sites of North-East Poland in 1995 averaged to 195.4 ± 125.5 Bq/kg of fresh weight. (author)

  18. Radiocaesium in mushrooms from Northeast Italy, 1986-2002

    Giovani, C.; Garavaglia, M.; Scruzzi, E.

    2004-01-01

    Late in the summer of 1986, the Health Physics Depts. of Pordenone, Udine and Trieste, entrusted with monitoring radioactivity in the environment and food as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, started noticing high concentrations of radionuclides - especially radiocaesium - in mushroom samples coming from different areas of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region (northeast Italy). To date, the authors have conducted 14 annual rounds of sampling and gamma spectrometry measurements on mushrooms, generating a total of over 2250 samples belonging to more than 300 species, which were picked in about 30 stations in the region. This surveys the main results from 15 years of macro-mycetes radio-contamination analysis in the region, the still unsolved problems, and hypotheses for future work. (authors)

  19. Radiocesium activity reduction in mushrooms by heat pressure treatment

    Dvorak, P.; Dolezalova, J.; Benova, K.; Ohera, M.

    2008-01-01

    The total activity of radiocesium is decreasing in forest ecosystems more slowly than it was expected. Hence it is topical to find technology that reduces the radiocesium content in foodstuffs. Some kinds of mushrooms including consumable ones cumulate significant amount of radiocesium (Cs-137) from the environment. The samples of edible boletus (Xerosomus badius) always originate from the same location, i.e. the Bohemian-Moravian Uplands, where the contamination of Cs-137 has been monitored for a long time using a laboratory semiconductor gamma-spectrometry. To reduce the radiocesium content in the wet samples a pressure cooker was applied with the boiling time of 15 minutes. After cooling juice was separated from the samples. This technology offers 65 percent activity reduction on average in boiled mushrooms. (authors)

  20. Characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from thirteen boletus mushrooms.

    Zhang, Lan; Hu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyu; Tang, Tingting; Shen, Yingbin; Hu, Bin; Liu, Aiping; Chen, Hong; Li, Cheng; Liu, Yuntao

    2018-07-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from the caps and stipes of thirteen boletus mushrooms representing five different species collected in Southwest China. Investigations of their structures and antioxidant activities allowed an evaluation of structure-function relationships. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of the monosaccharides arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose. Most samples displayed a broad molecular weight range, with significant differences observed between the molecular weight ranges of the polysaccharides from the caps and the stipes. FT-IR spectral analysis of the polysaccharides revealed that most of polysaccharides from boletus mushrooms (except Boletus edulis) contained a pyranose ring. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides in stipes showed a significant correlation with their monosaccharide composition, and were also related to their molecular weight and anomeric configuration. Suillellus luridus collected in Pingwu, Mianyang, Sichuan, China had remarkably superior antioxidant activity and might be developed as a natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Radioactivity in mushrooms in northeast Italy following the Chernobyl accident

    Battiston, G.A.; Degetto, S.; Gerbasi, R.; Sbrignadello, G.

    1989-01-01

    Radionuclide activities in common edible mushrooms, collected in northeast Italy following the Chernobyl accident, are reported. The highest levels were found in Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Cantharellus lutescens and Boletus cavipes. In addition, a large number of soil samples was collected in the same area. From the 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratios, its was possible to differentiate the radiocesium contribution from pre-Chernobyl fallout in both fungi and soil. The contour maps for 137 Cs and 134 Cs distributions are reported. The radioactivity detected in the mushrooms is not related in a simple manner to the contamination level of the corresponding soil. Some species tend to concentrate cesium and silver nuclides, whilst others show little affinity for these and other nuclides. Explanations for the different behavioral characteristics of the species are suggested. (author)

  2. Free amino acids and 5'-nucleotides in Finnish forest mushrooms.

    Manninen, Hanna; Rotola-Pukkila, Minna; Aisala, Heikki; Hopia, Anu; Laaksonen, Timo

    2018-05-01

    Edible mushrooms are valued because of their umami taste and good nutritional values. Free amino acids, 5'-nucleotides and nucleosides were analyzed from four Nordic forest mushroom species (Lactarius camphoratus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus tubaeformis) using high precision liquid chromatography analysis. To our knowledge, these taste components were studied for the first time from Craterellus tubaeformis and Lactarius camphoratus. The focus was on the umami amino acids and 5'-nucleotides. The free amino acid and 5'-nucleotide/nucleoside contents of studied species differed from each other. In all studied samples, umami amino acids were among five major free amino acids. The highest concentration of umami amino acids was on L. camphoratus whereas B. edulis had the highest content of sweet amino acids and C. cibarius had the highest content of bitter amino acids. The content of umami enhancing 5'-nucleotides were low in all studied species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stable mucus-associated bacterial communities in bleached and healthy corals of Porites lobata from the Arabian Seas

    Hadaidi, Ghaida Ali Hassan; Rö thig, Till; Yum, Lauren; Ziegler, Maren; Arif, Chatchanit; Roder, Cornelia; Burt, John; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs are subject to coral bleaching manifested by the loss of endosymbiotic algae from coral host tissue. Besides algae, corals associate with bacteria. In particular, bacteria residing in the surface mucus layer are thought to mediate coral

  4. Arnfried Antonius, coral diseases, and the AMLC

    Laurie L. Richardson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of coral diseases, coral pathogens, and the effects of diseases on tropical and subtropical coral reefs are all current, high-profile research areas. This interest has grown steadily since the first report of a coral disease in 1973. The author of this report was Arnfried Antonius and the publication was an abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting of the Association of Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean, or AMLC (then known as the Association of Island Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean. Since Antonius’ pioneering communication he continued working on coral diseases on reefs throughout the world, often documenting the first observation of a novel pathology in a novel location. Each of the coral diseases Antonius first described, in particular black band disease, is the subject of current and ongoing investigations addressing pathogens, etiology, and their effects on coral reefs. Many of the points and observations he made in his early papers are highly relevant to research today. This paper reviews aspects of Antonius’ early work, highlighting contributions he made that include the first in situ experimental studies aimed at discerning coral epizootiology and the first quantitative assessments of the role of environmental factors in coral disease. Antonius’ early findings are discussed in terms of relevant current controversies in this research areaEl estudio de las enfermedades de los corales, los patogenos de los corales y los efectos de estas enfermedades sobre los arrecifes tropicales y subtropicales son actualmente areas importantes de investigacion. El interés en este tema ha crecido continuamente desde el primer informe sobre una enfermedad de coral que se publico en 1973. El autor de este informe fue Arnfried Antonius y la publicacion fue un resumen en el Libro de Programa y Resumenes de la Decima Reunion de la Asociacion de Laboratorios Marinos Islenos del Caribe (conocida ahora como la Asociacion de

  5. Reef corals bleach to resist stress.

    Obura, David O

    2009-02-01

    A rationale is presented here for a primary role of bleaching in regulation of the coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis under conditions of stress. Corals and zooxanthellae have fundamentally different metabolic rates, requiring active homeostasis to limit zooxanthellae production and manage translocated products to maintain the symbiosis. The control processes for homeostasis are compromised by environmental stress, resulting in metabolic imbalance between the symbionts. For the coral-zooxanthella symbiosis the most direct way to minimize metabolic imbalance under stress is to reduce photosynthetic production by zooxanthellae. Two mechanisms have been demonstrated that do this: reduction of the chlorophyll concentration in individual zooxanthellae and reduction of the relative biomass of zooxanthellae. Both mechanisms result in visual whitening of the coral, termed bleaching. Arguments are presented here that bleaching provides the final control to minimize physiological damage from stress as an adversity response to metabolic imbalance. As such, bleaching meets the requirements of a stress response syndrome/general adaptive mechanism that is sensitive to internal states rather than external parameters. Variation in bleaching responses among holobionts reflects genotypic and phenotypic differentiation, allowing evolutionary change by natural selection. Thus, reef corals bleach to resist stress, and thereby have some capacity to adapt to and survive change. The extreme thermal anomalies causing mass coral bleaching worldwide lie outside the reaction norms for most coral-zooxanthellae holobionts, revealing the limitations of bleaching as a control mechanism.

  6. New directions in coral reef microbial ecology.

    Garren, Melissa; Azam, Farooq

    2012-04-01

    Microbial processes largely control the health and resilience of coral reef ecosystems, and new technologies have led to an exciting wave of discovery regarding the mechanisms by which microbial communities support the functioning of these incredibly diverse and valuable systems. There are three questions at the forefront of discovery: What mechanisms underlie coral reef health and resilience? How do environmental and anthropogenic pressures affect ecosystem function? What is the ecology of microbial diseases of corals? The goal is to understand the functioning of coral reefs as integrated systems from microbes and molecules to regional and ocean-basin scale ecosystems to enable accurate predictions of resilience and responses to perturbations such as climate change and eutrophication. This review outlines recent discoveries regarding the microbial ecology of different microenvironments within coral ecosystems, and highlights research directions that take advantage of new technologies to build a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of how coral health is connected through microbial processes to its surrounding environment. The time is ripe for natural resource managers and microbial ecologists to work together to create an integrated understanding of coral reef functioning. In the context of long-term survival and conservation of reefs, the need for this work is immediate. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Monte Carlo modelling and comparison with experiment of the nuclide production in thick stony targets isotropically irradiated with 600 MeV protons

    Aylmer, D.; Herzog, G.F.; Kruse, T.H.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Moniot, R.K.; Signer, P.; Wieler, R.; Tuniz, C.

    1987-05-01

    Depth profiles for the production of stable and radioactive nuclides have been measured for a large variety of target elements in three thick spherical stony targets with radii of 5, 15 and 26 cm isotropically irradiated with 600 MeV protons at the CERN synchrocyclotron. These irradiation experiments (CERN SC96) were intended to simulate the irradiation of meteoroids by galactic cosmic ray protons. In order to combine this experimental approach with a theoretical one the intra- and internuclear cascades were calculated using Monte Carlo techniques via the high energy transport code HET/KFA 1. Together with transport calculations for low energy neutrons by the MORSE-CG code the depth dependent spectra of primary and secondary protons and of secondary neutrons were derived. On the basis of these spectra and a set of evaluated experimental excitation functions for p-induced reactions and of theoretical ones for n-induced reactions, calculated by the code ALICE LIVERMORE 82, theoretical depth profiles for the production of stable and radioactive nuclides in the three thick targets were calculated. This report is a comprehensive survey on all those target/product combination for which both experimental and theoretical data are available. It provides the basis for a detailed discussion of the various production modes of residual nuclides and on the depth and size dependence of their production rates in thick stony targets, serving as a simulation of the galactic cosmic ray irradiation of meteoroids in space. On the other hand the comparison of the experimental and theoretical depth profiles validates the high energy transport calculations, making them a promissing tool for further model calculations of the interactions of cosmic rays with matter. (orig.)

  8. Radiosensitivity Study of Local Mushroom Schizophyllum sp., Cendawan Kukur

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Shuhaimi Shamsudin

    2016-01-01

    The response to gamma irradiation in the vegetative reproduction of Schizophyllum sp., locally known as cendawan kukur or sisir was investigated. The mushroom mycelium was exposed to gamma rays at selected doses ranging from 0 - 5 kGy separately. The inactivation of mycelium viability was observed between doses of 0.75 - 1.5 kGy and complete inactive at 2.25 kGy. (author)

  9. First Collection and Identification of Wild Mushrooms in Western Iraq

    Mustafa Nadhim Owaid; Mowafaq Mizban Muslat; Wee Cheat Tan

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are found everywhere and affect our lives every day from mushroom to industrially important product, plant helpers, plant pathogens and to human diseases. Therefore, we concentrated our attention on fungi that can be grown in our environment, while maintaining an interest in their performance in nature. About fifteen different species were collected and identified from different villages of Heet district, Anbar province, Iraq. Out of the fifteen, two species, naming Armillaria mellea an...

  10. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS AND POTENTIAL USES OF THE MUSHROOM TRAMESTES VERSICOLOR

    CÓRDOBA M., Ketty A.; RÍOS H., Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The use of products obtained from fungi (particularly mushrooms) has increased lately due to their broad applicability in different scientific and industrial fields. The genus Trametes comprises a group of white rot producing ligninolytic fungi, with medicinal properties, biotechnological importance and environmental applications. One of the most potentially useful species is T. versicolor, formerly known as Coriolus versicolor or Polyporus versicolor. Also known as Yun Zhi in China, is a fun...

  11. Linking Wave Forcing to Coral Cover and Structural Complexity Across Coral Reef Flats

    Harris, D. L.; Rovere, A.; Parravicini, V.; Casella, E.

    2015-12-01

    The hydrodynamic regime is a significant component in the geomorphic and ecological development of coral reefs. The energy gradients and flow conditions generated by the breaking and transformation of waves across coral reef crests and flats drive changes in geomorphic structure, and coral growth form and distribution. One of the key aspects in regulating the wave energy propagating across reef flats is the rugosity or roughness of the benthic substrate. Rugosity and structural complexity of coral reefs is also a key indicator of species diversity, ecological functioning, and reef health. However, the links between reef rugosity, coral species distribution and abundance, and hydrodynamic forcing are poorly understood. In this study we examine this relationship by using high resolution measurement of waves in the surf zone and coral reef benthic structure.Pressure transducers (logging at 4 Hz) were deployed in cross reef transects at two sites (Tiahura and Ha'apiti reef systems) in Moorea, French Polynesia with wave characteristics determined on a wave by wave basis. A one dimensional hydrodynamic model (XBeach) was calibrated from this data to determine wave processes on the reef flats under average conditions. Transects of the reef benthic structure were conducted using photographic analysis and the three dimensional reef surface was constructed using structure from motion procedures. From this analysis reef rugosity, changes in coral genus and growth form, and across reef shifts in benthic community were determined. The results show clear changes in benthic assemblages along wave energy gradients with some indication of threshold values of wave induced bed shear stress above which live coral cover was reduced. Reef rugosity was shown to be significantly along the cross-reef transect which has important implications for accurate assessment of wave dissipation across coral reef flats. Links between reef rugosity and coral genus were also observed and may indicate

  12. Cumulative Human Impacts on Coral Reefs: Assessing Risk and Management Implications for Brazilian Coral Reefs

    Rafael A. Magris; Alana Grech; Robert L. Pressey

    2018-01-01

    Effective management of coral reefs requires strategies tailored to cope with cumulative disturbances from human activities. In Brazil, where coral reefs are a priority for conservation, intensifying threats from local and global stressors are of paramount concern to management agencies. Using a cumulative impact assessment approach, our goal was to inform management actions for coral reefs in Brazil by assessing their exposure to multiple stressors (fishing, land-based activities, coastal de...

  13. First study of hormesis effect on mushroom cultivation.

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Dourado, Fernanda Aparecida; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2017-10-05

    The use of fungicides is common in mushroom cultivation, but no study was carried out applying reduced doses of fungicides in order to increase yield, taking account the hormesis effect. The aim of this manuscript was to verify the effects of different concentrations of fungicides to stimulate the productivity of different strains of Agaricus bisporus. Two stages were developed, an in vitro study to define the best concentration to be applied in the second experiment an agronomic study, which consisted of the application of the selected fungicides, in their respective concentrations, in an experiment carried out in the mushroom chamber. Clearly, the result of the hormesis effect on mushroom cultivation can be verified. The results obtained in the 1st stage of the study (in vitro) were not always reproduced in the 2nd stage of the study (in vivo). The kresoxim methyl active ingredient may be an important chemical agent, while strain ABI 15/01 may be an extremely important biological agent to increase yield in the study of hormesis effects.

  14. Radioactive contamination of wild mushrooms: mycological approach and risk perception

    Droujinina, I.

    2001-11-01

    Recent investigations of the wide range of polluted environments have proven that different toxic elements, especially long-lived radionuclides of caesium and strontium, can be accumulated in fruit bodies of fungi. Therefore, consumption of wild mushrooms can be regarded as a risky activity. Radiocaesium, which was released into the environment by atomic weapons testing and accidents in the nuclear industry, is now accumulated particularly in the upper, mainly organic horizons of forest soils and it is assumed that fungal mycelium play a substantial role for the retention of this pollutant in top layers of soil. Nowadays macromycete fungi become a key point of the forest radioecology because of the extremely high level of the inter- and intraspecific variability of the radionuclide accumulation (from two to four orders of magnitude). The latter significantly complicates all efforts to predict the future migration of radionuclides in the ecosystem and creates a high uncertainty in the radioecological models. At the same time, mechanisms of radiocaesium uptake by fungal mycelium remain poorly understood. In this work, physiological mechanisms of radiocaesium accumulation by fungal mycelium (complex in vitro mycological approach) were investigated along with the pilot sociological study of the perception of the contamination of wild edible mushrooms by citizens of different countries. Such bilateral approach allows the comparison of an expert's perception of the problem with the mental model of those people who consume wild mushrooms. The revealed difference should be useful in future risk communication efforts when interested population should be informed. (author)

  15. First Collection and Identification of Wild Mushrooms in Western Iraq

    Mustafa Nadhim Owaid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are found everywhere and affect our lives every day from mushroom to industrially important product, plant helpers, plant pathogens and to human diseases. Therefore, we concentrated our attention on fungi that can be grown in our environment, while maintaining an interest in their performance in nature. About fifteen different species were collected and identified from different villages of Heet district, Anbar province, Iraq. Out of the fifteen, two species, naming Armillaria mellea and Coprinus disseminates were identified as species level and others: Pleurotus spp., Agaricus spp., Calvatia sp., Telephora sp., Fomes sp., Lepiota sp. and Morchella sp. as genus level only. This study was aimed to collect and identify wild mushrooms that grow naturally in different orchards and gardens on 2009-2013 in Heet city. A total of 15 species in 9 genera, 9 families and 5 orders belong to woody and fleshy species were identified for the first time in Anbar province. The collected mushrooms were appearing from November to February of each year.

  16. Mushroom poisoning in children: clinical presentation and outcome

    Jan, M.A.; Khan, Z.; Siddiqui, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    A variable clinical picture characterizes mushroom poisoning. The Amatoxin, the main toxic component of these fungi, are responsible for gastrointestinal symptoms as well as hepatic and renal failure. As acute gastroenteritis is extremely common in our set up, so every patient presenting with these symptoms is treated as gastroenteritis of viral aetiology. The authors present the clinical picture of the phalloid syndrome, its treatment and immediate outcome. All children age less than 16 years admitted in Saidu Hospital Swat from January to December 2006 with mushroom poisoning were included in the study. Patients with doubtful history or with associated illness were not included. The diagnosis was based on the clinical picture of the patient, history and the laboratory data. In addition to maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and treating sepsis, oral Silymarin and intravenous penicillin was started. Liver function tests, renal functions tests, serum electrolytes and coagulation profile was done in all the patients. The severity of poisoning was graded according to hepatic transaminase elevations and prolongation of prothrombin time. Of the 18 patients, fifteen were above five years of age. Female were twice in number. Fifteen patients developed hepatic failure and three patients developed renal failure. Thirteen patients expired. To start timely management, Mushroom poisoning should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with food poisoning particularly coming in groups. Delay in diagnosis is associated with high mortality. (author)

  17. Memory-Relevant Mushroom Body Output Synapses Are Cholinergic.

    Barnstedt, Oliver; Owald, David; Felsenberg, Johannes; Brain, Ruth; Moszynski, John-Paul; Talbot, Clifford B; Perrat, Paola N; Waddell, Scott

    2016-03-16

    Memories are stored in the fan-out fan-in neural architectures of the mammalian cerebellum and hippocampus and the insect mushroom bodies. However, whereas key plasticity occurs at glutamatergic synapses in mammals, the neurochemistry of the memory-storing mushroom body Kenyon cell output synapses is unknown. Here we demonstrate a role for acetylcholine (ACh) in Drosophila. Kenyon cells express the ACh-processing proteins ChAT and VAChT, and reducing their expression impairs learned olfactory-driven behavior. Local ACh application, or direct Kenyon cell activation, evokes activity in mushroom body output neurons (MBONs). MBON activation depends on VAChT expression in Kenyon cells and is blocked by ACh receptor antagonism. Furthermore, reducing nicotinic ACh receptor subunit expression in MBONs compromises odor-evoked activation and redirects odor-driven behavior. Lastly, peptidergic corelease enhances ACh-evoked responses in MBONs, suggesting an interaction between the fast- and slow-acting transmitters. Therefore, olfactory memories in Drosophila are likely stored as plasticity of cholinergic synapses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of mycelial extracts from medicinal mushrooms.

    Geng, Yan; Zhu, Shuiling; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform extracts from H. erinaceus and A. mellea; and ethyl acetate extracts from A. mellea at nontoxic concentrations (effective inhibitor, with the lowest half maximal inhibitory concentration (64.09 ± 6.29 μg/mL) of the LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate that extracts from medicinal mushrooms exhibited anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributable to the inhibition of NO generation and can therefore be considered a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammation-related diseases.

  19. Lithium biofortification of medicinal mushrooms Agrocybe cylindracea and Hericium erinaceus.

    Rzymski, Piotr; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Siwulski, Marek; Mleczek, Mirosław; Budzyńska, Sylwia; Gąsecka, Monika; Poniedziałek, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    Although an increase in dietary lithium (Li) has been suggested as a possible method for mood stabilization and for decreasing violence and suicidal rates, no Li-enriched food has entered the market. Here we continue to explore the feasibility of mushrooms in this respect and have investigated the growth, accumulation and mineral content (Ca, K, Mg and Na) of Agrocybe cylidracea and Hericium erinaceus cultivated on substrates supplemented with 0.25-1.0 mM of Li as acetate or chloride. As demonstrated, supplementation with LiCl yielded more satisfactory results, did not alter mushroom biomass, appearance, shape or size regardless of Li concentration. It also had no significant effect on mineral composition and resulted in a concentration-dependent uptake of Li and its accumulation in fruiting bodies. More promising results were found for H. erinaceus . As calculated, consumption of 100 g dw of its fruiting bodies obtained from cultivation with 1.0 mM of Li (as acetate or chloride) would constitute 69% of the provisional recommended dietary daily intake of Li set at 1.0 mg. The study highlights that H. erinaceus could be selected for further studies on Li-enriched food that concern the bioavailability of Li from mushrooms, their safety and activity in animal experimental models and eventually, human studies.

  20. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) for cancer treatment.

    Jin, Xingzhong; Ruiz Beguerie, Julieta; Sze, Daniel Man-Yeun; Chan, Godfrey C F

    2016-04-05

    Ganoderma lucidum is a natural medicine that is widely used and recommended by Asian physicians and naturopaths for its supporting effects on immune system. Laboratory research and a handful of preclinical trials have suggested that G. lucidum carries promising anticancer and immunomodulatory properties. The popularity of taking G. lucidum as an alternative medicine has been increasing in cancer patients. However, there is no systematic review that has been conducted to evaluate the actual benefits of G. lucidum in cancer treatment. To evaluate the clinical effects of G. lucidum on long-term survival, tumour response, host immune functions and quality of life in cancer patients, as well as adverse events associated with its use. We searched an extensive set of databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, NIH, AMED, CBM, CNKI, CMCC and VIP Information/Chinese Scientific Journals Database was searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in October 2011. Other strategies used were scanning the references of articles retrieved, handsearching of the International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms and contact with herbal medicine experts and manufacturers of G. lucidum. For this update we updated the searches in February 2016. To be eligible for being included in this review, studies had to be RCTs comparing the efficacy of G. lucidum medications to active or placebo control in patients with cancer that had been diagnosed by pathology. All types and stages of cancer were eligible for inclusion. Trials were not restricted on the basis of language. Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Two independent review authors assessed the methodological quality of individual trials. Common primary outcomes were tumour response evaluated according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, immune function parameters such as natural killer (NK)-cell activity and T-lymphocyte co

  1. Changes in biodiversity and functioning of reef fish assemblages following coral bleaching and coral loss

    Pratchett, M.S.; Hoey, A.S.; Wilson, S.K.; Messmer, V.; Graham, N.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are increasingly subject to severe, large-scale disturbances caused by climate change (e.g., coral bleaching) and other more direct anthropogenic impacts. Many of these disturbances cause coral loss and corresponding changes in habitat structure, which has further important effects on abundance and diversity of coral reef fishes. Declines in the abundance and diversity of coral reef fishes are of considerable concern, given the potential loss of ecosystem function. This study explored the effects of coral loss, recorded in studies conducted throughout the world, on the diversity of fishes and also on individual responses of fishes within different functional groups. Extensive (>60%) coral loss almost invariably led to declines in fish diversity. Moreover, most fishes declined in abundance following acute disturbances that caused >10% declines in local coral cover. Response diversity, which is considered critical in maintaining ecosystem function and promoting resilience, was very low for corallivores, but was much higher for herbivores, omnivores and carnivores. Sustained and ongoing climate change thus poses a significant threat to coral reef ecosystems and diversity hotspots are no less susceptible to projected changes in diversity and function.

  2. Corals like it waxed: paraffin-based antifouling technology enhances coral spat survival.

    Jan Tebben

    Full Text Available The early post-settlement stage is the most sensitive during the life history of reef building corals. However, few studies have examined the factors that influence coral mortality during this period. Here, the impact of fouling on the survival of newly settled coral spat of Acropora millepora was investigated by manipulating the extent of fouling cover on settlement tiles using non-toxic, wax antifouling coatings. Survival of spat on coated tiles was double that on control tiles. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between percentage cover of fouling and spat survival across all tiles types, suggesting that fouling in direct proximity to settled corals has detrimental effects on early post-settlement survival. While previous studies have shown that increased fouling negatively affects coral larval settlement and health of juvenile and adult corals, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a direct relationship between fouling and early post-settlement survival for a broadcast spawning scleractinian coral. The negative effects of fouling on this sensitive life history stage may become more pronounced in the future as coastal eutrophication increases. Our results further suggest that targeted seeding of coral spat on artificial surfaces in combination with fouling control could prove useful to improve the efficiency of sexual reproduction-based coral propagation for reef rehabilitation.

  3. Coral reef fish assemblages at Clipperton Atoll (Eastern Tropical Pacific and their relationship with coral cover

    Aurora M. Ricart

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clipperton Atoll, one of the most isolated coral reefs worldwide, is of great scientific interest due to its geomorphology and high levels of endemism. This study explored the reef fish assemblage structure of Clipperton Atoll and its relationship with live coral cover. Nine stations were sampled at three sites and three depths (6, 12 and 20 m around the reef, measuring fish species richness and biomass and hermatypic coral cover (at genus level. We evaluated variation in species richness, biomass and diversity of fish assemblages among sites and depths, as well as the relationship between the entire fish assemblage composition and live coral cover. The results showed that species richness and biomass were similar among sites, but differed across depths, increasing with depth. In contrast, diversity differed among sites but not among depths. Multivariate analyses indicated that fish assemblage composition differed among sites and depths in relation to changes in cover of coral of the genera Pocillopora, Porites, Pavona and Leptoseris, which dominate at different depths. The results showed that fish species richness and diversity were low at Clipperton Atoll and that, in isolated coral reefs with a low habitat heterogeneity and low human disturbance, live coral cover has a significant influence on the spatial variation of the reef fish assemblages. This study highlights the importance of coral habitat structure in shaping coral reef fish assemblages.

  4. Changes in biodiversity and functioning of reef fish assemblages following coral bleaching and coral loss

    Pratchett, M.S.

    2011-08-12

    Coral reef ecosystems are increasingly subject to severe, large-scale disturbances caused by climate change (e.g., coral bleaching) and other more direct anthropogenic impacts. Many of these disturbances cause coral loss and corresponding changes in habitat structure, which has further important effects on abundance and diversity of coral reef fishes. Declines in the abundance and diversity of coral reef fishes are of considerable concern, given the potential loss of ecosystem function. This study explored the effects of coral loss, recorded in studies conducted throughout the world, on the diversity of fishes and also on individual responses of fishes within different functional groups. Extensive (>60%) coral loss almost invariably led to declines in fish diversity. Moreover, most fishes declined in abundance following acute disturbances that caused >10% declines in local coral cover. Response diversity, which is considered critical in maintaining ecosystem function and promoting resilience, was very low for corallivores, but was much higher for herbivores, omnivores and carnivores. Sustained and ongoing climate change thus poses a significant threat to coral reef ecosystems and diversity hotspots are no less susceptible to projected changes in diversity and function.

  5. Use of a fluorescent membrane probe to identify zooxanthellae in hospite among dissociated endoderm cell culture from coral.

    Chen, C-S; Lin, H-P; Yeh, C-C; Fang, L-S

    2005-12-01

    Preparation of homogeneous endoderm cells and culture is a prerequisite to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanism of endosymbiosis in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate association. During the cell isolation from the stony coral Euphyllia glabrescens, various amounts of symbiotic endoderm cells were found to release their symbionts (Symbiodinium spp., or zooxanthellae in generic usage) into the culture. Due to the bulky occupation by zooxanthellae inside the endoderm cell, the symbiotic endoderm cells, or zooxanthellae in hospite, are difficult to be distinguished from released zooxanthellae by microscopic examination. We now report a method for this identification using a fluorescent analogue of sphingomyelin, N-[5-(5,7-dimethyl boron dipyrromethene difluoride)-1-pentanoyl]-D-erythro-sphingosylphosphorylcholine (C(5)-DMB-SM). Incubation of symbiotic endoderm cells with C(5)-DMB-SM-defatted bovine serum albumin (DF-BSA) complex results in bright fluorescent membrane staining. Nevertheless, the membrane staining of free-living or released zooxanthellae by this complex is significantly decreased or even diminished. This method has provided a fast and reliable assay to identify symbiotic endoderm cells and will greatly accelerate the progress of endosymbiosis research.

  6. Facilitation in Caribbean coral reefs: high densities of staghorn coral foster greater coral condition and reef fish composition.

    Huntington, Brittany E; Miller, Margaret W; Pausch, Rachel; Richter, Lee

    2017-05-01

    Recovery of the threatened staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) is posited to play a key role in Caribbean reef resilience. At four Caribbean locations (including one restored and three extant populations), we quantified characteristics of contemporary staghorn coral across increasing conspecific densities, and investigated a hypothesis of facilitation between staghorn coral and reef fishes. High staghorn densities in the Dry Tortugas exhibited significantly less partial mortality, higher branch growth, and supported greater fish abundances compared to lower densities within the same population. In contrast, partial mortality, branch growth, and fish community composition did not vary with staghorn density at the three other study locations where staghorn densities were lower overall. This suggests that density-dependent effects between the coral and fish community may only manifest at high staghorn densities. We then evaluated one facilitative mechanism for such density-dependence, whereby abundant fishes sheltering in dense staghorn aggregations deliver nutrients back to the coral, fueling faster coral growth, thereby creating more fish habitat. Indeed, dense staghorn aggregations within the Dry Tortugas exhibited significantly higher growth rates, tissue nitrogen, and zooxanthellae densities than sparse aggregations. Similarly, higher tissue nitrogen was induced in a macroalgae bioassay outplanted into the same dense and sparse aggregations, confirming greater bioavailability of nutrients at high staghorn densities. Our findings inform staghorn restoration efforts, suggesting that the most effective targets may be higher coral densities than previously thought. These coral-dense aggregations may reap the benefits of positive facilitation between the staghorn and fish community, favoring the growth and survivorship of this threatened species.

  7. Use of medicinal plants in different composts for yield improvement of various strains of oyster mushroom

    Inam-ul-Haq, M.; Khan, M.N.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, M.A.; Javed, N.; Binyamin, R.; Irshad, G.

    2010-01-01

    Different of concentration of four medicinal plants viz., Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Azadirachta indica, Citrus lemon, Cymbopogon marginatus were investigated for the effect of certain active components in their parts, capable of increasing mushroom yield and controlling mushrooms pathogenic microbes which cause great loss in mushroom yield. Four strains of Oyster mushroom were selected on the basis of their well mycelial growth on MEA. For selection of best compost simple composts were also prepared without any medicinal plant products i.e., cotton, wheat, paddy straw. Corn stover composts and cotton compost gave the maximum yield. The dried leaves of the Citrus lemons, lemon grass and Neem cake (dried) were crushed, and the sawdust of the logs of Eucalyptus were incorporated with different doses of 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% w/w of substrates with cotton substrate before compost fermentation. Each of the compost bag having specific medicinal plant product with specific concentration were spawned with selected four strains of Oyster mushroom i.e., two local strain Pleurotus florida (P-17), Pleurotus ostreatus (P- 19) and two exotic strains Pleurotus (florida) ostreatus (WC536), Pleurotus ostreatus (WC-522). Spawn running and mushroom fruitification were allowed to develop under optimum environmental condition. The mushroom yield data of compost bags with different concentration of medicinal plant products plants were calculated. The results showed that presence of Neem cake and Citrus lemon in the substrate increased the yield of Oyster mushroom strains i.e. Pleurotus florida) ostreatus (WC-536) followed by P. ostreatus (WC-522) strain. Neem cake and Citrus lemon were more promising in improving yield of mushroom. These results led to the conclusion that addition of specific medicinal plants concentration to compost increases the yield of Oyster mushroom by reducing the incidence of microbes and is more preferable than chemicals due to their lethal effects during human

  8. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation. Gamma, electron-beam and UV irradiation have been shown to be potential tools in extending the postharvest shelf-life of fresh mushrooms. Studies eval...

  9. NOAA Photo Library - The Coral Kingdom

    has only begun within the past 200 years. Charles Darwin, James Dwight Dana, and Louis Agassiz were photographs found here that will help you learn more about coral reefs in this album, visit the following

  10. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  11. EOP Gold Coral (Gerardia sp.) Growth Measurements

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gold coral (Gerardia sp.) trees that were inspected years earlier on Pisces submersible dives were revisited and their change in size measured. The fishery for...

  12. EPA Field Manual for Coral Reef Assessments

    The Water Quality Research Program (WQRP) supports development of coral reef biological criteria. Research is focused on developing methods and tools to support implementation of legally defensible biological standards for maintaining biological integrity, which is protected by ...

  13. Marine metabolites: The sterols of soft coral

    Sarma, N.S.; Krishna, M.S.; Pasha, Sk.G.; Rao, T.S.P.; Venkateswarlu, Y.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    Sterols constitute a major group of secondary metabolites of soft corals. Several of these compounds have the 'usual' 3 beta-hydroxy, delta sup(5) (or delta sup(0)) cholestane skeleton, a large number of these metabolites are polar sterols...

  14. Ecosystem function and biodiversity on coral reefs

    Ogden, J.; Done, T.; Salvat, B.

    1994-01-01

    The article highlights a workshop held in Key West, Florida in November 1993 attended by a group of 35 international scientists where topics of ecosystem function and biodiversity on coral reefs were discussed.

  15. New protection initiatives announced for coral reefs

    Showstack, Randy

    Off the coasts of some of the South Pacific's most idyllic-sounding atolls, Austin Bowden-Kerby has seen first-hand the heavy damage to coral reefs from dynamite and cyanide fishing. For instance, while snorkeling near Chuuk, an island in Micronesia, he has observed craters and rubble beds of coral, which locals have told him date to World War II ordnance.A marine biologist and project scientist for the Coral Gardens Initiative of the Foundation for the Peoples of the South Pacific, Bowden-Kerby has also identified what he says are some public health effects related to destroyed coral reefs and their dying fisheries. These problems include protein and vitamin A deficiency and blindness, all of which may—in some instances—be linked to poor nutrition resulting from lower reef fish consumption by islanders, according to Bowden-Kerby.

  16. Carbonate chemistry, water quality, coral measurements

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Carbonate chemistry parameters (pH, total alkalinity, and pCO2), water quality parameters (Temperature, salinity, Ca, Mg, PO4, NH3 and NO3) as well as all coral...

  17. Coral Reef Status of Navassa Island 2004

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic and habitat data collected on the 2004 cruise to Navassa Islands National Wildlife Refuge. Parameters include benthic cover, coral disease prevalence,...

  18. Precious Coral Sales Report Data Set

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated sales log which collects information on sales of raw coral, including weight and revenue. Also includes seller and buyer information....

  19. 76 FR 4287 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period of February 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms...

  20. 75 FR 60076 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    2010-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration (A-570-851) Certain Preserved Mushrooms... reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period of February 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms...