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Sample records for mushroom polyphenol oxidase

  1. Tissue Printing to Visualize Polyphenol Oxidase and Peroxidase in Vegetables, Fruits, and Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melberg, Amanda R.; Flurkey, William H.; Inlow, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    A simple tissue-printing procedure to determine the tissue location of the endogenous enzymes polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in a variety of vegetables, fruits, and mushrooms is described. In tissue printing, cell contents from the surface of a cut section of the tissue are transferred to an adsorptive surface, commonly a nitrocellulose…

  2. Potato and Mushroom Polyphenol Oxidase Activities Are Differently Modulated by Natural Plant Extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, T.F.M.; Herk, van T.; Vincken, J.P.; Janssen, R.H.; Narh, D.L.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Gruppen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major quality issue in fruit and vegetable processing and can be counteracted by different natural inhibitors. Often, model systems containing a single polyphenol oxidase (PPO) are used to screen for new inhibitors. To investigate the impact of the source of PPO on the

  3. Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme and Inactivation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Yılmaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase enzyme is found in vegetables and fruits, as well as in some animal organs and microorganisms. Polyphenol oxidase enzyme responsible for enzymatic browning is a group of copper proteins that catalyses the oxidation of phenolic compounds to quinones, which produce brown pigments, commonly found in fruits and vegetables. During the industrial preparation of fruits and vegetables, results of catalytic effect of polyphenol oxidase causes enzymatic browning. Enzymatic browning impairs the appearance of products containing phenolic compounds along with undesirable colour, odor and taste formation and significant loss of nutritional value of the products. This affects the acceptability of the products by the consumers and causes economic losses. In this review, some characteristics of polyphenol oxidase enzyme in different fruits and vegetables have been reviewed and information about chemical antibrowning agents, thermal applications, irradiation applications and alternative methods such as high pressure processing, pulse electric field, supercritical carbon dioxide and ultrasound applications to inactivate this enzyme has been presented.

  4. Forage Polyphenol Oxidase and Ruminant Livestock Nutrition

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    Michael Richard F. Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase (PPO is associated with the detrimental effect of browning fruit and vegetables, however interest within PPO containing forage crops has grown since the brownng reaction was associated with reduced nitrogen (N losses in silo and the rumen. The reduction in protein breakdown in silo of red clover (high PPO forage increased the quality of protein, improving N-use efficiency (NUE when fed to ruminants. A further benefit of red clover silage feeding is a significant reduction in lipolysis in silo and an increase in the deposition of beneficial C18 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA in animal products, which has also been linked to PPO activity. PPOs protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in silo is related to the deactivation of plant proteases and lipases. This deactivation occurs through PPO catalysing the conversion of diphenols to quinones which bind with cellular nucleophiles such as protein reforming a protein-bound phenol (PBP. If the protein is an enzyme the complexing denatures the enzyme. However, PPO is inactive in the anaerobic rumen and therefore any subsequent protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen must be as a result of events that occurred to the forage pre-ingestion. Reduced activity of plant proteases and lipases would have little effect on NUE and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen due to the greater concentration of rumen microbial proteases and lipases. The mechanism for PPOs protection of plant protein in the rumen is a consequence of complexing plant protein, rather than protease deactivation per se. These complexed proteins reduce protein digestibility in the rumen and subsequently increase un-degraded dietary protein flow to the small intestine. The mechanism for protecting glycerol-based PUFA has yet to be fully elucidated but may be associated with entrapment within PBP reducing access to microbial lipases or differences in rumen digestion kinetics of red clover.

  5. Effect of heat treatment on polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of heat treatment (55°C/20 min) on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities and total phenolic compounds was investigated in Algerian dates (Deglet Nour variety) at Tamar (fully ripe) stage and in dates stored for 5 months at ambient temperature and in cold storage (10°C). Results obtained ...

  6. Analysis of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production by southern pine beetle associated fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduvali Valiev; Zumrut B. Ogel; Dier D. Klepzig

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the production of extracellular enzymes by fungi associated with southern pine beetle was investigated for the first time. Cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production were analyzed for three beetle associated fungi. Only the mutualistic symbiont Entomocorticium sp. A was found to produce cellulases and polyphenol oxidase....

  7. Polyphenol Oxidases in Crops: Biochemical, Physiological and Genetic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Taranto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic browning is a colour reaction occurring in plants, including cereals, fruit and horticultural crops, due to oxidation during postharvest processing and storage. This has a negative impact on the colour, flavour, nutritional properties and shelf life of food products. Browning is usually caused by polyphenol oxidases (PPOs, following cell damage caused by senescence, wounding and the attack of pests and pathogens. Several studies indicated that PPOs play a role in plant immunity, and emerging evidence suggested that PPOs might also be involved in other physiological processes. Genomic investigations ultimately led to the isolation of PPO homologs in several crops, which will be possibly characterized at the functional level in the near future. Here, focusing on the botanic families of Poaceae and Solanaceae, we provide an overview on available scientific literature on PPOs, resulting in useful information on biochemical, physiological and genetic aspects.

  8. Isolation and properties of polyphenol oxidase from basidiocarps of Lactarius pergamenus Fr. (Fr. fungi

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    M. V. Tsivinska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh juice of basidiocarps of Lactarius pergamenus Fr. (Fr. fungi was subjected to ion exchange chromatography with used DEAE-toyopearl and CM-cellulose columns, as well as preparative electrophoresis in 7.5% polyacrylamide gels (pH 8.6. Three isoforms of polyphenol oxidase (PPO were discovered and two isoforms (1-1 and 1-2 were purified with a release of protein 0.42 mg/kg and 0.15 mg/kg of basidiocarps, respectively. These isoforms differ in the mobility at disc-electrophoresis in 7.5% PAGE in alkaline buffer system (pH 8.6. Specific activity of isoform 1-2 is 4.8 times higher than that of the isoforms 1-1. The molecular weight determination by gel chromatography on the Toyopearl HW-55 demonstrated that both isoforms 1-1 and 1-2 have the same 64 ± 2 kDa molecular mass. Electrophoresis in 15% PAGE in the presence of sodium dodecylsulphate and β-mercaptoethanol revealed one band with molecular mass of 64 ± 1 kDa which suggests the presence of one polypeptide chain in the molecule of the enzyme. The enzyme has demonstrated the highest activity at pH 6.0 and temperature +10 ºC, and at +70 ºC the enzyme was inactivated. The PPO activity was the highest in young mushrooms and it decreased with their age and positively correlated with the content of the milky juice. Ortho-aminophenol was most effective among all the tested substrates to determine the activity of PPO (o-, m– and p-aminophenol, catechol, tyrosine, resorcinol, phloroglucinol and its relative activity was 129% of the activity of catechol. Ascorbic acid was the most effective inhibitor of the polyphenol oxidase activity which was completely blocked at 1 mM concentration, whereas the same concentration of thiourea and sodium sulphite decreased the enzymatic activity by 40-45%. The PPO in L. pergamenus fungi basidiocarps was mainly localized in the mushroom milky juice where its high activity may be associated with protection of basidiocarps against various pathogens.

  9. Temperature dependence of the activity of polyphenol peroxidases and polyphenol oxidases in modern and buried soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushev, A. V.; Kuznetsova, I. N.; Blagodatskaya, E. V.; Blagodatsky, S. A.

    2014-05-01

    Under conditions of the global climate warming, the changes in the reserves of soil humus depend on the temperature sensitivities of polyphenol peroxidases (PPPOs) and polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). They play an important role in lignin decomposition, mineralization, and humus formation. The temperature dependence of the potential enzyme activity in modern and buried soils has been studied during incubation at 10 or 20°C. The experimental results indicate that it depends on the availability of the substrate and the presence of oxygen. The activity of PPOs during incubation in the absence of oxygen for two months decreases by 2-2.5 times, which is balanced by an increase in the activity of PPPOs by 2-3 times. The increase in the incubation temperature to 20°C and the addition of glucose accelerates this transition due to the more abrupt decrease in the activity of PPOs. The preincubation of the soil with glucose doubles the activity of PPPOs but has no significant effect on the activity of PPOs. The different effects of temperature on two groups of the studied oxidases and the possibility of substituting enzymes by those of another type under changing aeration conditions should be taken into consideration in predicting the effect of the climate warming on the mineralization of the soil organic matter. The absence of statistically significant differences in the enzymatic activity between the buried and modern soil horizons indicates the retention by the buried soil of some of its properties (soil memory) and the rapid restoration of high enzymatic activity during the preincubation.

  10. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiq, M; Dolan, K D

    2017-03-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted and characterized from high-bush blueberries. PPO showed an optimum activity at pH 6.1-6.3 and 35°C, with the enzyme showing significant activity over a wide temperature range (25-60°C). Catechol was the most readily oxidized substrate followed by 4-methylcatechol, DL-DOPA, and dopamine. Blueberry PPO showed a K m of 15mM and V max of 2.57 ΔA 420 nm/min×10 -1 , determined with catechol. PPO was completely inactivated in 20min at 85°C, however, after 30minat 75°C it showed about 10% residual activity. Thermal treatment at 55 and 65°C for 30min resulted in the partial inactivation of PPO. Ascorbic acid, sodium diethyldithiocarbamic acid, L-cysteine, and sodium metabisulfite were effective inhibitors of PPO at 1.0mM. Benzoic acid and cinnamic acid series inhibitors showed relatively weak inhibition of PPO (21.8-27.6%), even at as high as 2.0mM concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polyphenol Oxidase as a Biochemical Seed Defense Mechanism

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    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy and resistance to decay are fundamental survival strategies, which allow a population of seeds to germinate over long periods of time. Seeds have physical, chemical, and biological defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. Here, we hypothesize that seeds also possess enzyme-based biochemical defenses, based on induction of the plant defense enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, when wild oat (Avena fatua L. caryopses and seeds were challenged with seed-decaying Fusarium fungi. These studies suggest that dormant seeds are capable of mounting a defense response to pathogens. The pathogen-induced PPO activity from wild oat was attributed to a soluble isoform of the enzyme that appeared to result, at least in part, from proteolytic activation of a latent PPO isoform. PPO activity was also induced in wild oat hulls (lemma and palea, non-living tissues that cover and protect the caryopsis. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that seeds possess inducible enzyme-based biochemical defenses arrayed on the exterior of seeds and these defenses represent a fundamental mechanism of seed survival and longevity in the soil. Enzyme-based biochemical defenses may have broader implications since they may apply to other defense enzymes as well as to a diversity of plant species and ecosystems.

  12. Functional Analysis of Polyphenol Oxidases by Antisense/Sense Technology

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    Jutharat Attajarusit

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs catalyze the oxidation of phenolics to quinones, the secondary reactions of which lead to oxidative browning and postharvest losses of many fruits and vegetables. PPOs are ubiquitous in angiosperms, are inducible by both biotic and abiotic stresses, and have been implicated in several physiological processes including plant defense against pathogens and insects, the Mehler reaction, photoreduction of molecular oxygen by PSI, regulation of plastidic oxygen levels, aurone biosynthesis and the phenylpropanoid pathway. Here we review experiments in which the roles of PPO in disease and insect resistance as well as in the Mehler reaction were investigated using transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum plants with modified PPO expression levels (suppressed PPO and overexpressing PPO. These transgenic plants showed normal growth, development and reproduction under laboratory, growth chamber and greenhouse conditions. Antisense PPO expression dramatically increased susceptibility while PPO overexpression increased resistance of tomato plants to Pseudomonas syringae. Similarly, PPO-overexpressing transgenic plants showed an increase in resistance to various insects, including common cutworm (Spodoptera litura (F., cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner and beet army worm (Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, whereas larvae feeding on plants with suppressed PPO activity had higher larval growth rates and consumed more foliage. Similar increases in weight gain, foliage consumption, and survival were also observed with Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say feeding on antisense PPO transgenic tomatoes. The putative defensive mechanisms conferred by PPO and its interaction with other defense proteins are discussed. In addition, transgenic plants with suppressed PPO exhibited more favorable water relations and decreased photoinhibition compared to nontransformed controls and transgenic plants

  13. Impacts on the metabolome of down-regulating polyphenol oxidase in transgenic potato tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Estima) genetically modified (GM) to reduce polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and enzymatic discolouration were assessed for changes in the metabolome using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) and Gas Chromatography (GC)-MS. Metabolome changes ...

  14. Effect of high pressure on peanut allergens in the presence of polyphenol oxidase and caffeic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure (HP) enhances enzymatic reactions. Because polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme, and reduces IgE binding of peanut allergens in presence of caffeic acid (CA), we postulated that a further reduction in IgE binding can be achieved, using HP together with PPO and CA. Peanut extracts cont...

  15. Immunological and molecular comparison of polyphenol oxidase in Rosaceae fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, M; Murata, M; Kadokura, H; Homma, S

    1999-03-01

    An antibody raised against apple polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cross-reacted with PPOs from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia), pear (Pyrus communis), peach (Prunus persica), Chinese quince (Pseudocydonia sinensis) and Japanese loquat (Eriobotrya japonica). Core fragments (681 bp) of the corresponding PPO genes were amplified and characterized. The deduced protein sequences showed identities of 85.3 to 97.5%. Chlorogenic acid oxidase activity of these PPOs showed higher activities when assayed at pH 4 than at pH 6. These results indicate that PPOs in Rosaceae plants are structurally and enzymatically similar.

  16. Optimum pH and pH Stability of Crude Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pH on the activity and stability of crude polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extracted from garden egg (Solanum aethiopicum), pawpaw (Carica papaya), pumpkin ... Optimum pH values were found to be 6.0,6.5,6.0, 4.5 and 4.0/or 8.0 for the enzyme extracted from Solanum aethiopicum, Carica papaya, Cucurbita pepo, ...

  17. Immobilization of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase on dendrispheres: In partial fulfilment of the degree Magister Scientiae

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bannister, M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OF THE ENZYME POLYPHENOL OXIDASE ON DENDRISPHERES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE DEGREE MAGISTER SCIENTIAE Magdalien Bannister 26112664 April 2011 TEA (Camellia sinensis plant) ? CSIR 2011 Slide 2 Second most consumed beverage in the world Grouped into...: ?Green tea Non-fermented ?Oolong tea Partially fermented ?Black tea Fermented Catechins: ?Major component present in green tea leaves ?(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epicatechin...

  18. Molecular Modeling of Peroxidase and Polyphenol Oxidase: Substrate Specificity and Active Site Comparison

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    Lalida Shank

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidases (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO are enzymes that are well known to be involved in the enzymatic browning reaction of fruits and vegetables with different catalytic mechanisms. Both enzymes have some common substrates, but each also has its specific substrates. In our computational study, the amino acid sequence of grape peroxidase (ABX was used for the construction of models employing homology modeling method based on the X-ray structure of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase from pea (PDB ID:1APX, whereas the model of grape polyphenol oxidase was obtained directly from the available X-ray structure (PDB ID:2P3X. Molecular docking of common substrates of these two enzymes was subsequently studied. It was found that epicatechin and catechin exhibited high affinity with both enzymes, even though POD and PPO have different binding pockets regarding the size and the key amino acids involved in binding. Predicted binding modes of substrates with both enzymes were also compared. The calculated docking interaction energy of trihydroxybenzoic acid related compounds shows high affinity, suggesting specificity and potential use as common inhibitor to grape ascorbate peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase.

  19. Effects of UV-B radiation levels on concentrations of phytosterol, ergothioneine, and polyphenolic compounds in mushroom powder used as dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compositional changes of powder dietary supplement made from mushrooms previously exposed to different levels of UV-B irradiation were evaluated for the bioactive naturally occurring mushroom anti-oxidant, ergothioneine, other natural polyphenolic anti-oxidants: e.g. flavonoids, lignans, and others,...

  20. Extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols modulates VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing NADPH oxidase activity and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabriso, Nadia; Massaro, Marika; Scoditti, Egeria; D'Amore, Simona; Gnoni, Antonio; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Storelli, Carlo; De Caterina, Raffaele; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown the antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties by pure olive oil polyphenols; however, the effects of olive oil phenolic fraction on the inflammatory angiogenesis are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of the phenolic fraction (olive oil polyphenolic extract, OOPE) from extra virgin olive oil and related circulating metabolites on the VEGF-induced angiogenic responses and NADPH oxidase activity and expression in human cultured endothelial cells. We found that OOPE (1-10 μg/ml), at concentrations achievable nutritionally, significantly reduced, in a concentration-dependent manner, the VEGF-induced cell migration, invasiveness and tube-like structure formation through the inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9. OOPE significantly (Pextra virgin olive oil, with high polyphenol content, decreased VEGF-induced NADPH oxidase activity and Nox4 expression, as well as, MMP-9 expression, as compared with fasting control serum. Overall, native polyphenols and serum metabolites of extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols are able to lower the VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing endothelial NADPH oxidase activity and decreasing the expression of selective NADPH oxidase subunits. Our results provide an alternative mechanism by which the consumption of olive oil rich in polyphenols may account for a reduction of oxidative stress inflammatory-related sequelae associated with chronic degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effects of Polyphenol Oxidase and Cycloheximide on the Early Stage of Browning in Phalaenopsis Explants

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    Xu Chuanjun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Explant browning is one of the major problems in the tissue culture process, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, is the major proteases involved in plant tissue browning. We investigated the effects of polyphenol oxidase on the early stage of browning in explants of the orchid Phalaenopsis. Our results show that PPO activity was significantly higher in explants cultured for 3 d than in the 0 h control. The levels of PPO transcripts and PPO protein were significantly higher in explants cultured for 6 h compared to the 0 h control; these high expression levels were maintained over increasing cultivation time. Cycloheximide (CHX treatment reduced PPO transcript levels, PPO protein levels, and PPO enzyme activity. High levels of PPO mRNA and PPO protein were detected in the cytoplasm and vascular bundles of Phalaenopsis explants cultured for 6 h compared to explants cultured for 0 h, 24 h, and 3 d. CHX treatment did not significantly affect the distribution of PPO mRNA and PPO protein in explant tissues, but their levels were significantly lower than those of the untreated control.

  2. Association of molecular markers with polyphenol oxidase activity in selected wheat genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Z.; Javad, B.; Majeed, N.; Naqvi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a major staple food for the people of Pakistan and other Asian countries, is used as bread, chapatti, porridge, noodles and many other. It is established that color quality of wheat products depend on chemical and enzymatic factors especially the polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). These are copper containing enzymes which induce browning in wheat-based products. Various procedures for determining PPO activity available and differences in PPO activity among wheat genotypes have been documented. In present study, an attempt was made to establish the association of molecular markers with polyphenol oxidase activity in wheat genotypes having very high or very low PPO activities. Twelve pairs of markers were used out of which only three primer pairs viz. PPO43, PPO30 and WP2-2 yielded specific pattern discriminating high and low PPO genotypes. Cluster analysis for all 12 markers revealed that all the low PPO lline share the same sub cluster, but high PPO lines were dispersed in different clusters. (author)

  3. Effect of temperature stress on polyphenol oxidase activity in grains of some wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayani, W.K.

    2011-01-01

    Color is a key quality trait of wheat-based products and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is implicated to play a significant role in their undesirable darkening. Polyphenol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of phenols to quinines, which auto oxidize and polymerize with amino acid of cellular proteins resulting brown and black pigmentation propounding reduced nutritional values. In present study, the PPO activity in 50 different Pakistani wheat cultivars was investigated and grouped into three categories viz; low, medium and high PPO activity cultivars. PPO is a heat labile enzyme. To investigate effect of heat stress, nine cultivars from each category were chosen for treatment at 30, 40 and 50 deg. C for 30, 60, and 120 minutes each. A substantial change was experienced in PPO activity as compared to room temperature. Two wheat cultivar Wafaq-2001 and AS-2002 showed a compromising attitude of minimum PPO activity at 30 deg. C for a period of 30 and 60 minutes of incubation. In general, an incubation of 30 deg. C or 60 deg. C (low or high) for a period of 30 minutes can be recommended for suppressing PPO activity. (author)

  4. Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these mushrooms have effects similar to the drug LSD . Sometimes Called: shrooms, magic mushrooms How It's Used: ... this topic for: Teens Drugs: What to Know LSD Dealing With Addiction Marijuana Bath Salts Depressants GHB ...

  5. Comparison of content in phenolic compounds, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in grains of fifty sorghum cultivars from Burkina Faso.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Hilhorst, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Laane, N.C.M.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of fifty sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties used in Burkina Faso showed that they have different contents of phenolic compounds, peroxidase (POX), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Most of the varieties (82%) had a tannin content less than 0.25% (w/w). POX specific activity was

  6. Genetic Variation of Isozyme Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO Profiles in Different Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.

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    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chilli pepper is a major spice crop and is of cosmopolitan in distribution. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native PAGE was used to study the polyphenol oxidase (PPO isozyme variation in 21 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. A maximum of 4 PPO bands were scored in five varieties i.e., Ca14, Ca15, Ca16, Ca19 & Ca20, while the minimum (2 bands was observed in four varieties (Ca3, Ca10, Ca13 & Ca17. 15 pair wise combinations showed highest average per cent similarity (100% and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The present study revealed that considerable intraspecific differences were found in the varieties. Thus the results obtained could be used in fingerprinting the genotypes.

  7. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase expression in four pineapple varieties (Ananas comosus L.) after a chilling injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbault, Astrid-Kim; Marie-Alphonsine, Paul-Alex; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Francois-Haugrin, Madlyn; Romuald, Karell; Soler, Alain

    2011-01-12

    Pineapple internal browning (IB) is a chilling injury that produces enzymatic browning associated with flesh translucency. Pineapple biodiversity allowed the investigation of how polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities with their different isoforms are involved in the IB mechanism. Fruits of four varieties that expressed IB symptoms differently, Smooth Cayenne (SCay) and the hybrids MD2, Flhoran 41 (Flh 41), and Flhoran 53 (Flh 53), were stressed by cold. The susceptible varieties showed classical brown spots but different patterns of IB, whereas MD2 and controls showed no IB. Enzymatic activities were measured on fruit protein extracts and PPO and POD isoforms separated on mini-gels (PhastSystem). Only PPO activity was significantly enhanced in the presence of IB. Up to six PPO isoforms were identified in the susceptible varieties. PPO was barely detectable in the nonsusceptible variety MD2 and in controls. The number of PPO isoforms and the total PPO activity after chilling are varietal characteristics.

  8. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Andi Nur Faidah; Ohta, Mayumi; Nakatani, Kazuya; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Fujita, Shuji

    2012-04-11

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of cauliflower was purified to 282-fold with a recovery rate of 8.1%, using phloroglucinol as a substrate. The enzyme appeared as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The estimated molecular weight of the enzyme was 60 and 54 kDa by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, respectively. The purified enzyme, called phloroglucinol oxidase (PhO), oxidized phloroglucinol (K(m) = 3.3 mM) and phloroglucinolcarboxylic acid. The enzyme also had peroxidase (POD) activity. At the final step, the activity of purified cauliflower POD was 110-fold with a recovery rate of 3.2%. The PhO and POD showed the highest activity at pH 8.0 and 4.0 and were stable in the pH range of 3.0-11.0 and 5.0-8.0 at 5 °C for 20 h, respectively. The optimum temperature was 55 °C for PhO and 20 °C for POD. The most effective inhibitor for PhO was sodium diethyldithiocarbamate at 10 mM (IC(50) = 0.64 and K(i) = 0.15 mM), and the most effective inhibitor for POD was potassium cyanide at 1.0 mM (IC(50) = 0.03 and K(i) = 29 μM).

  9. Gamma irradiation of mushrooms, preliminary studies: effect on O-diphenyl oxidase activity and amino acid content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, S.; Gebicka, L.

    1992-01-01

    Mushrooms are a valuable food raw materials because of their nutritional and taste values. Post-harvest ripening, chemical composition (94% water) and possible microbial contamination decrease not only organoleptic and nutritional value, but also the shelf-life. As an objective method of evaluation of irradiated mushrooms we adopted activity determination of o-diphenyl oxidase (o-DPO) which is responsible for discoloration of the edible mushrooms and altered qualitative and quantitative content of amino acids. It was observed that doses up to 2 kGy did not cause any increase in the activity of o-DPO; irradiation also did not affect the taste. Mushrooms irradiated with doses up to 4 kGy were of good quality after 5 days of storage at 4 C, while the control samples (unirradiated) after the same time were considerably changed, probably due too post-harvest ripening. Immediately after exposure the activity of o-DPO increased in proportion to the dose used. During subsequent storage, however, no increase in o-DPO activity was observed. Irradiation used in the range from 0.2 to 0.4 kGy did not affect the nutritional value of the raw material. The results are an additional confirmation that radiation can be used for efficient preservation of mushrooms. (author). 14 refs, 6 tabs

  10. Effect of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and air treatments on total phenol and tannin content of cocoa nibs

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    Brito Edy Sousa de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa flavour is greatly influenced by polyphenols. These compounds undergo a series of transformations during cocoa processing leading to the characteristic cocoa flavour. The use of exogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO proved to be useful to reduce polyphenol content in cocoa nibs. The effect of a PPO associated or not with air over total phenol and tannin content was evaluated. Cocoa nibs were autoclaved and treated with a PPO or water in the absence or presence of an air flow for 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 hours. Total phenol content was reduced in PPO or water treatments, but when associated with air there was an increase in phenol content. Tannin content was reduced only by the treatment with water and air.

  11. Isolation of a polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from artichoke and expression analysis in wounded artichoke heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarta, Angela; Mita, Giovanni; Durante, Miriana; Arlorio, Marco; De Paolis, Angelo

    2013-07-01

    The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme, which can catalyze the oxidation of phenolics to quinones, has been reported to be involved in undesirable browning in many plant foods. This phenomenon is particularly severe in artichoke heads wounded during the manufacturing process. A full-length cDNA encoding for a putative polyphenol oxidase (designated as CsPPO) along with a 1432 bp sequence upstream of the starting ATG codon was characterized for the first time from [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori]. The 1764 bp CsPPO sequence encodes a putative protein of 587 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 65,327 Da and an isoelectric point of 5.50. Analysis of the promoter region revealed the presence of cis-acting elements, some of which are putatively involved in the response to light and wounds. Expression analysis of the gene in wounded capitula indicated that CsPPO was significantly induced after 48 h, even though the browning process had started earlier. This suggests that the early browning event observed in artichoke heads was not directly related to de novo mRNA synthesis. Finally, we provide the complete gene sequence encoding for polyphenol oxidase and the upstream regulative region in artichoke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yi-Ming; Yao, Le-Yi; Qin, Qiu-Yan; Shen, Wang

    2013-12-26

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from jackfruit bulb was purified through acetone precipitation, ion-exchange column, and gel filtration column. PPO was a dimer with the molecular weight of 130 kDa determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel filtration. The Km was 8.3 and 18.2 mM using catechol and 4-methylcatechol as substrates, respectively. The optimum pH was 7.0 (catechol as the substrate) or 6.5 (4-methylcatechol as the substrate). The optimum temperature was 8 °C. The enzyme was stable below 40 °C. The activation energy (Ea) of heat inactivation was estimated to be 103.30 kJ/mol. The PPO activity was activated by Mn(2+), SDS, Tween-20, Triton X-100, citric acid, and malic acid but inhibited by K(+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), kojic acid, tropolone, glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), and ascorbic acid (AA). Cys and AA were effective to reduce browning of jackfruit bulbs during the storage at 8 °C for 15 days.

  13. Effect of phenol on germination capacity and polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase activities in lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Vojin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and antioxidant enzymes, peroxidase (POX and catalase (CAT during lettuce seed germination at different concentrations of phenol. Out of eleven varieties of lettuce, four were chosen according to their germination tolerance to phenol as follows: plants exhibiting high (Ljubljanska ledenka - LJL and Nansen - N and low toleranace (Little Gem - LG and Majska kraljica - MK. A decrease in germination efficiency after exposure to LD50 of phenol was determined for these four varieties. The effects of phenol treatment on POX, CAT and PPO activities were determined after 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 days of growth at LD50 concentrations. A trend of increased peroxidase activity was observed in seeds grown on LD50 of phenol compared to control seeds. A significant increase in CAT activity was observed at the beginning of treatment for MK, LG and N in seeds grown on phenol as well as in control seeds. A trend of increased PPO activity was observed in all control seeds. We also investigated the affinity of PPO for two different substrates that were used for the determination of enzyme activity. Our results show that LJL and N are the varieties most tolerant to growth on phenol. Here we report on the activities of their antioxidant enzymes and PPO during seed germination. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON173017

  14. Purification and Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase, Peroxidase and Lipoxygenase from Freshly Cut Lettuce (L. sativa

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    Vural Gökmen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic reactions taking place in minimally processed vegetables are considered as a major problem, because they adversely affect sensorial and nutritional quality. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, peroxidase (POD and lipoxygenase (LOX from lettuce were purified on a column packed with positively charged diethylaminoethyl (DEAE cellulose by applying pH gradient elution from pH=4.0 to 9.0. The main purified fractions (PPO1 and PPO4, POD1 and POD2, LOX1 and LOX2 were characterized for enzyme concentration-reaction rate relationship, thermal stability, pH activity and kinetic parameters. Kinetic properties of each isoform were considerably different. Cysteine was found as the most effective inhibitor of both fractions of PPO. Kinetic parameters of lettuce POD were presented using guaiacol at various H2O2 concentrations. β-carotene directly influences lettuce LOX in the reaction medium available for the catalytic conversion of linoleic acid into hydroperoxides. Ascorbic and oxalic acids appear as effective PPO inhibitors, protecting phenolic compounds against oxidation in lettuce. Understanding the characteristics of deteriorative enzymes becomes important to maintain suitable conditions for fresh-like quality of lettuce. The results can be useful to keep the nutritional quality of minimally processed lettuce during shelf-life.

  15. Partial purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from banana (Musa sapientum L.) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C P; Fujita, S; Kohno, K; Kusubayashi, A; Ashrafuzzaman, M; Hayashi, N

    2001-03-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.1, o-diphenol: oxygen oxidoreductase, PPO) of banana (Musa sapientum L.) peel was partially purified about 460-fold with a recovery of 2.2% using dopamine as substrate. The enzyme showed a single peak on Toyopearl HW55-S chromatography. However, two bands were detected by staining with Coomassie brilliant blue on PAGE: one was very clear, and the other was faint. Molecular weight for purified PPO was estimated to be about 41 000 by gel filtration. The enzyme quickly oxidized dopamine, and its Km value (Michaelis constant) for dopamine was 3.9 mM. Optimum pH was 6.5 and the PPO activity was quite stable in the range of pH 5-11 for 48 h. The enzyme had an optimum temperature at 30 degrees C and was stable up to 60 degrees C after heat treatment for 30 min. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, potassium cyanide, L-ascorbic acid, and cysteine at 1 mM. Under a low buffer capacity, the enzyme was also strongly inhibited by citric acid and acetic acid at 10 mM.

  16. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from banana (Musa sapientum L.) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C P; Fujita, S; Ashrafuzzaman, M; Nakamura, N; Hayashi, N

    2000-07-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.1, PPO) in the pulp of banana (Musa sapientum L.) was purified to 636-fold with a recovery of 3.0%, using dopamine as substrate. The purified enzyme exhibited a clear single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be about 41000 and 42000 by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively. The enzyme quickly oxidized dopamine, and its K(m) value for dopamine was 2.8 mM. The optimum pH was at 6.5, and the enzyme activity was stable in the range of pH 5-11 at 5 degrees C for 48 h. The enzyme had an optimum temperature of 30 degrees C and was stable even after a heat treatment at 70 degrees C for 30 min. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by L-ascorbic acid, cysteine, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, and potassium cyanide. Under a low buffer capacity, the enzyme was also strongly inhibited by citric acid and acetic acid at 10 mM.

  17. Polyphenol oxidase activity and antioxidant properties of Yomra apple (Malus communis L.) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Zehra; Dincer, Barbaros; Sahin, Huseyin; Baltas, Nimet; Yildiz, Oktay; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, firstly, antioxidant and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) properties of Yomra apple were investigated. Seventeen phenolic constituents were measured by reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total phenolic compounds (TPCs), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activities were performed to measure antioxidant capacity. Some kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax), and inhibition behaviors against five different substrates were measured in the crude extract. Catechin and chlorogenic acid were found as the major components in the methanolic extract, while ferulic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin and p-coumaric acid were small quantities. Km values ranged from 0.70 to 10.10 mM in the substrates, and also 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid (HPPA) and L-DOPA showed the highest affinity. The inhibition constant of Ki were ranged from 0.05 to 14.90 mM against sodium metabisulphite, ascorbic acid, sodium azide and benzoic acid, while ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulphite were the best inhibitors.

  18. Purification and partial biochemical characterization of polyphenol oxidase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Manila).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Orozco, Gisela; Marrufo-Hernández, Norma A; Sampedro, José G; Nájera, Hugo

    2014-10-08

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme widely distributed in the plant kingdom that has been detected in most fruits and vegetables. PPO was extracted and purified from Manila mango (Mangifera indica), and its biochemical properties were studied. PPO was purified 216-fold by hydrophobic interaction and ion exchange chromatography. PPO was purified to homogeneity, and the estimated PPO molecular weight (MW) by SDS-PAGE was ≈31.5 kDa. However, a MW of 65 kDa was determined by gel filtration, indicating a dimeric structure for the native PPO. The isolated PPO showed the highest affinity to pyrogallol (Km = 2.77 mM) followed by 4-methylcatechol (Km = 3.14 mM) and catechol (Km = 15.14 mM). The optimum pH for activity was 6.0. PPO was stable in the temperature range of 20-70 °C. PPO activity was completely inhibited by tropolone, ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulfite, and kojic acid at 0.1 mM.

  19. Potential Use of Apple Polyphenol Oxidase for Bioremediation of Phenolic Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Šalić

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds, such as catechol, are released into the environment from a variety of industrial sources and they present a serious ecosystem burden. This work examined the possibility of using partially purified apple polyphenol oxidase (PPO for bioremediation of phenolic contaminants. In order to optimize process conditions, the optimal pH and temperature for PPO activity were determined, while PPO affinity toward various phenols, as well as the effect of some salts and organic solvents which can be found in wastewaters, was used to confirm applicability of PPO in wastewater treatment. It was found that partially purified apple PPO shows maximal activity at pH 6.8 and 25 °C, but exhibits more than 85 % of its maximal activity in pH range from 5 to 8, and more than 90 % of activity in temperature range from 10 to 50 °C. PPO showed high affinity for various diphenols, but lack of affinity toward monophenols. Sodium tetraborate decahydrate moderately inhibited PPO activity, while exposure of PPO to the presence of organic solvents (φ = 5 % caused 40 % loss in its activity. Catechol oxidation by PPO performed for just 5 min in a batch reactor at optimal process conditions resulted in 25 % conversion. Based on obtained data, it seems that partially purified apple PPO has reasonable potential in wastewater treatment.

  20. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Karent; Osorio, Edison

    2016-04-15

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an exotic fruit highly valued, however it is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In this study, Cape gooseberry PPO was isolated and biochemically characterized. The enzyme was extracted and purified using acetone and aqueous two-phase systems. The data indicated that PPO had the highest substrate affinity for chlorogenic acid, 4-methylcatechol and catechol. Chlorogenic acid was the most suitable substrate (Km=0.56±0.07 mM and Vmax=53.15±2.03 UPPO mL(-1) min(-1)). The optimal pH values were 5.5 for catechol and 4-methylcatechol and 5.0 for chlorogenic acid. Optimal temperatures were 40°C for catechol, 25°C for 4-methylcatechol and 20°C for chlorogenic acid. In inhibition tests, the most potent inhibitor was found to be ascorbic acid followed by L-cysteine and quercetin. This study shows possible treatments that can be implemented during the processing of Cape gooseberry fruits to prevent browning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cloning, sequencing, purification, and crystal structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) polyphenol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virador, Victoria M; Reyes Grajeda, Juan P; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; Mendiola-Olaya, Elizabeth; Smith, Gary M; Moreno, Abel; Whitaker, John R

    2010-01-27

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622_VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C222(1). The structure was obtained at 2.2 A resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1 ) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and alpha, beta, and gamma) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed.

  2. Polyphenol Oxidase Induction in Lulo Fruits (Solanum quitoense Infected by Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradith Caicedo O.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase (PFO activity induction was evaluated in lulo fruits to determine the role of this enzyme in resistance responses towards the pathogen Colletotrichum acutatum which causes anthracnose disease. We studied the experimental conditions to obtain the enzyme, using lulo peel, and found that extraction with phosphates buffer 100 mM pH 7, 1% SDS y 1% PVPP showed higher activities. The adequate parameters for activity measurement was also evaluated and established as cathecol 40 mM, pH 7,0, 23 °C and 30 µL of extract. Then, we performed an in vivo assay using lulo fruits in three maturity stages, green, semimature and mature, which were inoculated with the fungus or with sterile water. Enzymatic induction of this protein was studied at nine postinoculation times, and it was found that the induction was differential according to the time, the maturity stage, and as consequence of pathogen presence. The PFO activity increased in green fruits at 48, 96 y 144 (hours postinoculation (hpi, and in mature lulos for the majority of times studied, with the most significant induction response at this stage. In semimature lulo, the induction was observed only at 72 and 144 hpi. The highest nominal value of activity was found in green fruits. Fruits responded to incision with enzyme activation. The increase in the activity of the enzyme was faster in the fruits with the minor anthracnose symptoms than the ones that were more affected. Therefore, it is possible to postulate a positive relation between PFO induction and tolerance to anthracnose symptoms.

  3. Purification and biochemical characterization of ionically unbound polyphenol oxidase from Musa paradisiaca leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Sanjeev Kumar; Mishra, Sarad Kumar

    2011-01-01

    An ionically unbound and thermostable polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted from the leaf of Musa paradisiaca. The enzyme was purified 2.54-fold with a total yield of 9.5% by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme exhibited a clear single band on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) PAGE. It was found to be monomeric protein with molecular mass of about 40 kD. The zymographic study using crude extract as enzyme source showed a very clear band around 40 kD and a faint band at around 15 kD, which might be isozymes. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 7.0 and 50°C temperature. The enzyme was active in wide range of pH (4.0-9.0) and temperature (30-90°C). From the thermal inactivation studies in the range 60-75°C, the half-life (t(1/2)) values of the enzyme ranged from 17 to 77 min. The inactivation energy (Ea) value of PPO was estimated to be 91.3 kJ mol(-1). It showed higher specificity with catechol (K(m) = 8 mM) as compared to 4-methylcatechol (K(m) = 10 mM). Among metal ions and reagents tested, Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Hg(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), protocatechuic acid, and ferrulic acid enhanced the enzyme activity, while K(+), Na(+), Co(2+), kojic acid, ascorbic acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium azide, β-mercaptoethanol, and L-cysteine inhibited the activity of the enzyme.

  4. [Spectral analysis of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and lipoxygenase (LOX) treated by pulsed electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Ruo-Bing; Chen, Jie; Wang, Li-Ming; Guan, Zhi-Cheng; Jia, Zhi-Dong

    2009-08-01

    Inactivation effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and lipoxygenase (LOX) was investigated using a laboratory PEF system with a coaxial treatment chamber. Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence analysis were used to study the conformation change of the protein. The experimental results show that PPO and LOX can be effectively inactivated by the PEF treatment. Inactivation effect of PPO and LOX increases with the increase in the applied electric strength and the treatment time. Activity of PPO and LOX can be reduced by 60.3% and 21.7% at 20 kV x cm(-1) after being treated for 320 micros respectively. The decrease of the negative peaks (208 and 215 nm in PPO spectra, 208 nm and 218 nm in LOX spectra) in CD spectra of PPO and LOX shows that PEF treatment caused a loss of alpha-helix and increase in beta-sheet content, indicating that conformation changes occur in the secondary structure of PPO and LOX enzyme. This effect was strengthened as the applied electric field increased: alpha-helical content of PPO and LOX was 56% and 29% after being treated at 8 kV x cm(-1), however, when the electric field was increased up to 20 kV x cm(-1), alpha-helical content of PPO and LOX decreased to 21% and 16% respectively. The decrease rate of alpha-helix and increase rate of beta-sheet in PPO are higher than LOX, indicating that the second conformation of PPO is less resistant to PEF treatment than LOX. The fluorescence intensity of LOX increases after PEF treatment. At the same time, increasing the applied pulsed electric field increases the fluorescence intensity emitted. Fluorescence measurements confirm that tertiary conformation changes occur in the local structure of LOX. However the possible mechanism of the conformation change induced by the PEF treatment is beyond the scope of the present investigation.

  5. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of dried wild edible mushrooms from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzki, Wojciech; Sławińska, Aneta; Jabłońska-Ryś, Ewa; Gustaw, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    In this study 6 species of wild edible mushrooms were evaluated in terms of their total phenolic content and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay methods. The mushrooms, namely Armillaria mellea, Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus, Leccinum aurantiacum, Suillus luteus, and Boletus badius, were dried using both freeze drying and convection drying at 50°C. The amounts of phenolic compounds varied from 3.0 ± 0.1 to 12.8 ± 0.4 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (for water extracts) and from 2.4 ± 0.1 to 11 ± 0.5 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (for ethanolic extracts). The species that presented the highest antioxidant potential were B. badius and S. luteus. The impact of hot-air drying on the antioxidant activity of water and ethanolic extracts was evaluated. We demonstrated that hot-air drying may have either a negative or positive influence on phenolics and antioxidant activity, depending on the mushroom species. However, a negative effect was more frequent.

  6. The polyphenol oxidase gene family in land plants: Lineage-specific duplication and expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Lan T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs are enzymes that typically use molecular oxygen to oxidize ortho-diphenols to ortho-quinones. These commonly cause browning reactions following tissue damage, and may be important in plant defense. Some PPOs function as hydroxylases or in cross-linking reactions, but in most plants their physiological roles are not known. To better understand the importance of PPOs in the plant kingdom, we surveyed PPO gene families in 25 sequenced genomes from chlorophytes, bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants. The PPO genes were then analyzed in silico for gene structure, phylogenetic relationships, and targeting signals. Results Many previously uncharacterized PPO genes were uncovered. The moss, Physcomitrella patens, contained 13 PPO genes and Selaginella moellendorffii (spike moss and Glycine max (soybean each had 11 genes. Populus trichocarpa (poplar contained a highly diversified gene family with 11 PPO genes, but several flowering plants had only a single PPO gene. By contrast, no PPO-like sequences were identified in several chlorophyte (green algae genomes or Arabidopsis (A. lyrata and A. thaliana. We found that many PPOs contained one or two introns often near the 3’ terminus. Furthermore, N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis using ChloroP and TargetP 1.1 predicted that several putative PPOs are synthesized via the secretory pathway, a unique finding as most PPOs are predicted to be chloroplast proteins. Phylogenetic reconstruction of these sequences revealed that large PPO gene repertoires in some species are mostly a consequence of independent bursts of gene duplication, while the lineage leading to Arabidopsis must have lost all PPO genes. Conclusion Our survey identified PPOs in gene families of varying sizes in all land plants except in the genus Arabidopsis. While we found variation in intron numbers and positions, overall PPO gene structure is congruent with the phylogenetic

  7. Extension of the shelf-life of fresh oyster mushrooms ( Pleurotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to improve the preservation of fresh oyster mushrooms by modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and chemical treatments. The MAP effects and treatments on organoleptic quality, weight loss, cell permeability, texture changes and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were studied. In addition ...

  8. Characterization and purification of polyphenol oxidase from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Serap; Turan, Yusuf; Ertürk, Hatibe; Arslan, Oktay

    2005-02-09

    In this study, the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) was first purified by a combination of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, dialysis, and a Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine-p-aminobenzoic acid affinity column. At the end of purification, 43-fold purification was achieved. The purified enzyme migrated as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that PPO had a 57 kDa molecular mass. Second, the contents of total phenolic and protein of artichoke head extracts were determined. The total phenolic content of artichoke head was determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and was found to be 425 mg 100 g(-1) on a fresh weight basis. Protein content was determined according to Bradford method. Third, the effects of substrate specificity, pH, temperature, and heat inactivation were investigated on the activity of PPO purified from artichoke. The enzyme showed activity to 4-methylcatechol, pyrogallol, catechol, and L-dopa. No activity was detected toward L-tyrosine, resorsinol, and p-cresol. According to V(max)/K(m) values, 4-methylcatechol (1393 EU min(-1) mM(-1)) was the best substrate, followed by pyrogallol (1220 EU min(-1) mM(-1)), catechol (697 EU min(-1) mM(-1)), and L-dopa (102 EU min(-1) mM(-1)). The optimum pH values for PPO were 5.0, 8.0, and 7.0 using 4-methylcatechol, pyrogallol, and catechol as substrate, respectively. It was found that optimum temperatures were dependent on the substrates studied. The enzyme activity decreased due to heat denaturation of the enzyme with increasing temperature and inactivation time for 4-methylcatechol and pyrogallol substrates. However, all inactivation experiments for catechol showed that the activity of artichoke PPO increased with mild heating, reached a maximum, and then decreased with time. Finally, inhibition of artichoke PPO was investigated with inhibitors such as L-cysteine, EDTA, ascorbic

  9. Expression analysis of polyphenol oxidase isozymes by active staining method and tissue browning of head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takahiro; Iimure, Kazuhiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Saito, Akira

    2017-08-01

    Browning of plant tissue is generally considered attributable to enzymatic oxidation by polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Electrophoresis followed by activity staining has been used as an effective procedure to visually detect and isolate isozymes; however, it has not been applied for examination of various PPO isozymes in lettuce. Our study demonstrated that different lettuce PPO isozymes could be detected at different pH in active staining, and multiple isozymes were detected only under alkaline conditions. As a result, we concluded that activity staining with approximately pH 8 enabled to detect various PPO isozymes in lettuce. By expression analysis of the PPO isozymes after wounding, PPO isozymes that correlated with time-course of tissue browning were detected. The wound-induced PPO may play a key role in enzymatic browning.

  10. Promising perspectives for ruminal protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids through polyphenol-oxidase-mediated crosslinking of interfacial protein in emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, N; Vlaeminck, B; Gadeyne, F; Claeys, E; Van der Meeren, P; Fievez, V

    2018-03-16

    Previously, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from linseed oil were effectively protected (>80%) against biohydrogenation through polyphenol-oxidase-mediated protein crosslinking of an emulsion, prepared with polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extract from potato tuber peelings. However, until now, emulsions of only 2 wt% oil have been successfully protected, which implies serious limitations both from a research perspective (e.g. in vivo trials) as well as for further upscaling toward practical applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to increase the oil/PPO ratio. In the original protocol, the PPO extract served both an emulsifying function as well as a crosslinking function. Here, it was first evaluated whether alternative protein sources could replace the emulsifying function of the PPO extract, with addition of PPO extract and 4-methylcatechol (4MC) to induce crosslinking after emulsion preparation. This approach was then further used to evaluate protection of emulsions with higher oil content. Five candidate emulsifiers (soy glycinin, gelatin, whey protein isolate (WPI), bovine serum albumin and sodium caseinate) were used to prepare 10 wt% oil emulsions, which were diluted five times (w/w) with PPO extract (experiment 1). As a positive control, 2 wt% oil emulsions were prepared directly with PPO extract according to the original protocol. Further, emulsions of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt% oil were prepared, with 80 wt% PPO extract (experiment 2), or with 90, 80, 70, 60 and 50 wt% PPO extract, respectively (experiment 3) starting from WPI-stabilized emulsions. Enzymatic crosslinking was induced by 24-h incubation with 4MC. Ruminal protection efficiency was evaluated by 24-h in vitro batch simulation of the rumen metabolism. In experiment 1, protection efficiencies were equal or higher than the control (85.5% to 92.5% v. 81.3%). In both experiments 2 and 3, high protection efficiencies (>80%) were achieved, except for emulsions containing 10 wt% oil emulsions

  11. Tea polyphenols alleviate high fat and high glucose-induced endothelial hyperpermeability by attenuating ROS production via NADPH oxidase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xuezhi; Tian, Chong; Zhao, Nana; Ren, Weiye; Meng, Yi; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Shibin; Ying, Chenjiang; Ye, Xiaolei

    2014-03-02

    Hyperglycemia-induced endothelial hyperpermeability is crucial to cardiovascular disorders and macro-vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on endothelial hyperpermeability and the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) pathway. Male Wistar rats fed on a high fat diet (HF) were treated with GTPs (0, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 g/L in drinking water) for 26 weeks. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were treated with high glucose (HG, 33 mmol/L) and GTPs (0.0, 0.4, or 4 μg/mL) for 24 hours in vitro. The endothelial permeabilities in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by Evans blue injection method and efflux of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran, respectively. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in rat aorta and monolayer BAECs were measured by dihydroethidium (DHE) and 2', 7'-dichloro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probe, respectively. Protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits were determined by Western-blot. HF diet-fed increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in rat aorta while HG treatments increased the endothelial permeability and ROS levels in cultured BAECs. Co-treatment with GTPs alleviated those changes both in vivo and in vitro. In in vitro studies, GTPs treatments protected against the HG-induced over-expressions of p22phox and p67phox. Diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, alleviated the hyperpermeability induced by HG. GTPs could alleviate endothelial hyperpermeabilities in HF diet-fed rat aorta and in HG treated BAECs. The decrease of ROS production resulting from down-regulation of NADPH oxidase contributed to the alleviation of endothelial hyperpermeability.

  12. Thermal and pH stabilities of partially purified polyphenol oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Paul Chidoka Chikezie

    2012-07-30

    Jul 30, 2012 ... indices of the two PPO extracts is summarized in Table. 1. At the end of the .... activity near neutral pH values (Jime´nez-Atie´nzar et al.,. 2004; Dogan and Dogan, 2004). ..... oxidase from white cherry fruit (Starks gold). GIDA.

  13. Preparation of biosensors by immobilization of polyphenol oxidase in conducting copolymers and their use in determination of phenolic compounds in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böyükbayram, A Elif; Kiralp, Senem; Toppare, Levent; Yağci, Yusuf

    2006-10-01

    Electrochemically produced graft copolymers of thiophene capped polytetrahydofuran (TPTHF1 and TPTHF2) and pyrrole were achieved by constant potential electrolysis using sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as the supporting electrolyte. Characterizations were based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrical conductivities were measured by the four-probe technique. Novel biosensors for phenolic compounds were constructed by immobilizing polyphenol oxidase (PPO) into conducting copolymers prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole with thiophene capped polytetrahydrofuran. Kinetic parameters, maximum reaction rate (V(max)) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) and optimum conditions regarding temperature and pH were determined for the immobilized enzyme. Operational stability and shelf-life of the enzyme electrodes were investigated. Enzyme electrodes of polyphenol oxidase were used to determine the amount of phenolic compounds in two brands of Turkish red wines and found very useful owing to their high kinetic parameters and wide pH working range.

  14. Characterization of the polyphenol oxidase gene family reveals a novel microRNA involved in posttranscriptional regulation of PPOs in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Caili; Li, Dongqiao; Li, Jiang; Shao, Fenjuan; Lu, Shanfa

    2017-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is a well-known material of traditional Chinese medicine. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of phenolic acid biosynthesis and metabolism are important for S. miltiorrhiza quality improvement. We report here that S. miltiorrhiza contains 19 polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), forming the largest PPO gene family in plant species to our knowledge. Analysis of gene structures and sequence features revealed the conservation and divergence of SmPPOs. SmPPOs were differentially exp...

  15. Removal of bisphenol derivatives through quinone oxidation by polyphenol oxidase and subsequent quinone adsorption on chitosan in the heterogeneous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuji; Takahashi, Ayumi; Kashiwada, Ayumi; Yamada, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the combined use of a biopolymer chitosan and an oxidoreductase polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was systematically investigated for the removal of bisphenol derivatives from aqueous medium. The process parameters, such as the pH value, temperature, and PPO concentration, were estimated to conduct the enzymatic quinone oxidation of bisphenol derivatives by as little enzyme as possible. Bisphenol derivatives effectively underwent PPO-catalysed quinone oxidation without H2O2 unlike other oxidoreductases, such as peroxidase and tyrosinase, and the optimum conditions were determined to be pH 7.0 and 40°C for bisphenol B, bisphenol E, bisphenol O, and bisphenol Z; pH 7.0 and 30°C for bisphenol C and bisphenol F; and pH 8.0 and 40°C for bisphenol T. They were completely removed through adsorption of enzymatically generated quinone derivatives on chitosan beads or chitosan powders. Quinone adsorption on chitosan beads or chitosan powders in the heterogeneous system was found to be a more effective procedure than generation of aggregates in the homogeneous system with chitosan solution. The removal time was shortened by increasing the amount of chitosan beads or decreasing the size of the chitosan powders.

  16. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that can reduce post-harvest proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael L; Foster, Jamie L

    2013-08-15

    Studies of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) suggest its hay and haylage have greater levels of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) than other legume forages such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Greater RUP can result in more efficient nitrogen utilization by ruminant animals with positive economic and environmental effects. We sought to determine whether, like red clover (Trifolium pretense L.), perennial peanut contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that might be responsible for increased RUP. Perennial peanut extracts contain immunologically detectible PPO protein and high levels of PPO activity (>100 nkatal mg(-1) protein). Addition of caffeic acid (PPO substrate) to perennial peanut extracts depleted of endogenous substrates reduced proteolysis by 90%. Addition of phenolics prepared from perennial peanut leaves to extracts of either transgenic PPO-expressing or control (non-expressing) alfalfa showed peanut phenolics could reduce proteolysis >70% in a PPO-dependent manner. Two abundant likely PPO substrates are present in perennial peanut leaves including caftaric acid. Perennial peanut contains PPO and PPO substrates that together are capable of inhibiting post-harvest proteolysis, suggesting a possible mechanism for increased RUP in this forage. Research related to optimizing the PPO system in other forage crops will likely be applicable to perennial peanut. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation on the radiation-resistant bacteria and polyphenol oxidase activity in fresh kale juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongho; Song, Hyunpa; Lim, Sangyong; Yun, Hyejeong; Chung, Jinwoo

    2007-01-01

    Gamma radiation was performed to prolong the shelf life of natural kale juice. The total aerobic bacteria in fresh kale juice, prepared by a general kitchen process, was detected in the range of 10 6 cfu/ml, and about 10 2 cfu/ml of the bacteria survived in the juice in spite of gamma irradiation treatment with a dose of 5 kGy. Two typical radiation-resistant bacteria, Bacillus megaterium and Exiguobacterium acetylicum were isolated and identified from the 5 kGy-irradiated kale juices. The D 10 values of the vegetative cell and endospore of the B. megaterium in peptone water were 0.63±0.05 and 1.52±0.05 kGy, respectively. The D 10 value of the E. acetylicum was calculated as 0.65±0.06 kGy. In the inoculation test, the growth of the surviving B. megaterium and E. acetylicum in the 3-5 kGy-irradiated kale juice retarded and/or decreased significantly during a 3 d post-irradiation storage period. However, there were no significant differences in the residual polyphenol oxidase activity and browning index between the nonirradiated control and the gamma irradiated kale juice during a post-irradiation period

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on the radiation-resistant bacteria and polyphenol oxidase activity in fresh kale juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Song, Hyunpa; Lim, Sangyong; Yun, Hyejeong; Chung, Jinwoo

    2007-07-01

    Gamma radiation was performed to prolong the shelf life of natural kale juice. The total aerobic bacteria in fresh kale juice, prepared by a general kitchen process, was detected in the range of 10 6 cfu/ml, and about 10 2 cfu/ml of the bacteria survived in the juice in spite of gamma irradiation treatment with a dose of 5 kGy. Two typical radiation-resistant bacteria, Bacillus megaterium and Exiguobacterium acetylicum were isolated and identified from the 5 kGy-irradiated kale juices. The D10 values of the vegetative cell and endospore of the B. megaterium in peptone water were 0.63±0.05 and 1.52±0.05 kGy, respectively. The D10 value of the E. acetylicum was calculated as 0.65±0.06 kGy. In the inoculation test, the growth of the surviving B. megaterium and E. acetylicum in the 3-5 kGy-irradiated kale juice retarded and/or decreased significantly during a 3 d post-irradiation storage period. However, there were no significant differences in the residual polyphenol oxidase activity and browning index between the nonirradiated control and the gamma irradiated kale juice during a post-irradiation period.

  19. The effect of ultrasound on particle size, color, viscosity and polyphenol oxidase activity of diluted avocado puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiufang; Hemar, Yacine; Balaban, Murat O; Liao, Xiaojun

    2015-11-01

    The effect of ultrasound treatment on particle size, color, viscosity, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and microstructure in diluted avocado puree was investigated. The treatments were carried out at 20 kHz (375 W/cm(2)) for 0-10 min. The surface mean diameter (D[3,2]) was reduced to 13.44 μm from an original value of 52.31 μm by ultrasound after 1 min. A higher L(∗) value, ΔE value and lower a(∗) value was observed in ultrasound treated samples. The avocado puree dilution followed pseudoplastic flow behavior, and the viscosity of diluted avocado puree (at 100 s(-1)) after ultrasound treatment for 1 min was 6.0 and 74.4 times higher than the control samples for dilution levels of 1:2 and 1:9, respectively. PPO activity greatly increased under all treatment conditions. A maximum increase of 25.1%, 36.9% and 187.8% in PPO activity was found in samples with dilution ratios of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:9, respectively. The increase in viscosity and measured PPO activity might be related to the decrease in particle size. The microscopy images further confirmed that ultrasound treatment induced disruption of avocado puree structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of latent, active and recombinantly expressed aurone synthase, a polyphenol oxidase, from Coreopsis grandiflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molitor, Christian; Mauracher, Stephan Gerhard; Rompel, Annette, E-mail: annette.rompel@univie.ac.at [Universität Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2015-05-22

    Latent and active aurone synthase purified from petals of C. grandiflora (cgAUS1) were crystallized. The crystal quality of recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 was significantly improved by co-crystallization with the polyoxotungstate Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase-separation zone. Aurone synthase (AUS), a member of a novel group of plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), catalyzes the oxidative conversion of chalcones to aurones. Two active cgAUS1 (41.6 kDa) forms that differed in the level of phosphorylation or sulfation as well as the latent precursor form (58.9 kDa) were purified from the petals of Coreopsis grandiflora. The differing active cgAUS1 forms and the latent cgAUS1 as well as recombinantly expressed latent cgAUS1 were crystallized, resulting in six different crystal forms. The active forms crystallized in space groups P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to ∼1.65 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of active cgAUS1 with 1,4-resorcinol led to crystals belonging to space group P3{sub 1}21. The crystals of latent cgAUS1 belonged to space group P12{sub 1}1 and diffracted to 2.50 Å resolution. Co-crystallization of recombinantly expressed pro-AUS with the hexatungstotellurate(VI) salt Na{sub 6}[TeW{sub 6}O{sub 24}] within the liquid–liquid phase separation zone significantly improved the quality of the crystals compared with crystals obtained without hexatungstotellurate(VI)

  1. Browning in Annona cherimola fruit: role of polyphenol oxidase and characterization of a coding sequence of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Humberto; Utz, Daniella; Castro, Alvaro; Aguirre, Carlos; González-Agüero, Mauricio; Valdés, Héctor; Cifuentes, Nicolas; Defilippi, Bruno G; Zamora, Pablo; Zúñiga, Gustavo; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo

    2007-10-31

    Cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) fruit is an attractive candidate for food processing applications as fresh cut. However, along with its desirable delicate taste, cherimoya shows a marked susceptibility to browning. This condition is mainly attributed to polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO). A general lack of knowledge regarding PPO and its role in the oxidative loss of quality in processed cherimoya fruit requires a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. The work carried out included the cloning of a full-length cDNA, an analysis of its properties in the deduced amino sequence, and linkage of its mRNA levels with enzyme activity in mature and ripe fruits after wounding. The results showed one gene different at the nucleotide level when compared with previously reported genes, but a well-conserved protein, either in functional and in structural terms. Cherimoya PPO gene (Ac-ppo, GenBank DQ990911) showed to be present apparently in one copy of the genome, and its transcripts could be significantly detected in leaves and less abundantly in flowers and fruits. Analysis of wounded matured and ripened fruits revealed an inductive behavior for mRNA levels in the flesh of mature cherimoya after 16 h. Although the highest enzymatic activity was observed on rind, a consistent PPO activity was detected on flesh samples. A lack of correlation between PPO mRNA level and PPO activity was observed, especially in flesh tissue. This is probably due to the presence of monophenolic substrates inducing a lag period, enzyme inhibitors and/or diphenolic substrates causing suicide inactivation, and proenzyme or latent isoforms of PPO. To our knowledge this is the first report of a complete PPO sequence in cherimoya. Furthermore, the gene is highly divergent from known nucleotide sequences but shows a well conserved protein in terms of its function, deduced structure, and physiological role.

  2. Comparative investigation to see the efficacy of polyphenol oxidase inhibitors parallel to sulphite for control of enzymatic browning in guava juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zai, M.N.K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Comparative study was conducted to determine the efficacy of polyphenol oxidase inhibitors to control browning in guava juice/concentrates parallel to sulfite. Although sulfites are highly effective to control the browning but these have shown adverse effect on health particularly to those who have pulmonary disorder like asthma. Filtration with useful filter aid and juicing agents are found to be helpful in removing browning residue particulates fractions to extend the shelf life of the juice. Non-enzymatic browning can be prevented by cold blanching. (author)

  3. Immunogold Labelling to Localize Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) During Wilting of Red Clover Leaf Tissue and the Effect of Removing Cellular Matrices on PPO Protection of Glycerol-Based Lipid in the Rumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) reduces the extent of proteolysis and lipolysis within red clover fed to ruminants. PPO catalyses the conversion of phenols to quinones which can react with nucleophilic cellular constituents (e.g. proteins), forming protein-phenol complexes that may reduce protei...

  4. Polyphenol oxidase activity from three sicilian artichoke [ Cynara cardunculus L. Var. scolymus L. (Fiori)] cultivars: studies and technological application on minimally processed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro, Aldo; Peluso, Orazio; Catalano, Anna Eghle; Mauromicale, Giovanni; Spagna, Giovanni

    2010-02-10

    Several papers helped with the development of more methods to control browning, or study thermal polyphenol oxidase (PPO) inactivation, but did not provide any solutions to technological process problems and food process improvement. Artichokes [ Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus L. (Fiori)] are susceptible to browning; this alteration could affect and reduce the suitability for its use, fresh or processed. Within this study, the catecholase and cresolase activities of PPO from three different Sicilian artichokes cultivar were characterized with regard to substrate specificity and enzyme kinetics, optimum pH and temperature, temperature and pH stability, and inhibitor test; all of the results were used for technological purposes, particularly to optimize minimally processed productions (ready-to-eat and cook-chilled artichokes).

  5. Egg white hybrid nanoflower (EW-hNF) with biomimetic polyphenol oxidase reactivity: Synthesis, characterization and potential use in decolorization of synthetic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkaynak, Cevahir; Kocazorbaz, Ebru; Özdemir, Nalan; Zihnioglu, Figen

    2018-04-01

    In this study, for the first time, we described organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers using crude egg white as the organic component and copper (II) ions as the inorganic component under the mild conditions. The synthesized egg white-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers (EW-hNFs) were characterized using SEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR analysis. The biomimetic Polyphenol/Peroxidase like activities of synthesized egg white-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers (EW-hNFs) were determined by using various phenolics with or without H 2 O 2 . Optimum pH and temperature, kinetic parameters, reusability, pH and thermal stability of EW-hNFs were also studied. The most noteworthy aspect of our study is that synthesized EW-hNFs which consist of only egg white proteins, showed polyphenol oxidase activity. Furthermore, potential use of the EW-hNFs in the discoloration of the some synthetic dyes was also evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of a Highly Thermostable and Organic Solvent-Tolerant Copper-Containing Polyphenol Oxidase with Dye-Decolorizing Ability from Kurthia huakuii LAM0618T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Guo

    Full Text Available Laccases are green biocatalysts that possess attractive advantages for the treatment of resistant environmental pollutants and dye effluents. A putative laccase-like gene, laclK, encoding a protein of 29.3 kDa and belonging to the Cu-oxidase_4 superfamily, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein LaclK (LaclK was able to oxidize typical laccase substrates such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and l-dopamine. The characteristic adsorption maximums of typical laccases at 330 nm and 610 nm were not detected for LaclK. Cu2+ was essential for substrate oxidation, but the ratio of copper atoms/molecule of LaclK was determined to only be 1:1. Notably, the optimal temperature of LaclK was 85°C with 2,6-dimethoxyphenol as substrates, and the half-life approximately 3 days at 80°C. Furthermore, 10% (v/v organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, butyl alcohol, Triton x-100 or dimethyl sulfoxide could promote enzymatic activity. LaclK exhibited wide-spectrum decolorization ability towards triphenylmethane dyes, azo dyes and aromatic dyes, decolorizing 92% and 94% of Victoria Blue B (25 μM and Ethyl Violet (25 μM, respectively, at a concentration of 60 U/L after 1 h of incubation at 60°C. Overall, we characterized a novel thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant copper-containing polyphenol oxidase possessing dye-decolorizing ability. These unusual properties make LaclK an alternative for industrial applications, particularly processes that require high-temperature conditions.

  7. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h ( I-) and 32 kGy/h ( I+). Both I+ and I- showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control ( C). Before day 9, no significant difference ( p>0.05) in L* value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L* value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I-. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I- contained more phenols than I+ and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered ( p⩽0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I+. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I+, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly ( p⩽0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I- than in I+. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I+ was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I+ than in I-.

  8. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-01-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h (I - ) and 32 kGy/h (I + ). Both I + and I - showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control (C). Before day 9, no significant difference (p>0.05) in L * value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L * value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I - . Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I - contained more phenols than I + and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered (p≤0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I + . Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I + , contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly (p≤0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I - than in I + . It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I + was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I + than in I -

  9. Enzyme characterisation, isolation and cDNA cloning of polyphenol oxidase in the hearts of palm of three commercially important species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Milton Massao; Melo, Geraldo Aclécio; Brombini Dos Santos, Adriana; Bottcher, Alexandra; Cesarino, Igor; Araújo, Pedro; Magalhães Silva Moura, Jullyana Cristina; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2011-09-01

    Heart of palm (palmito) is the edible part of the apical meristem of palms and is considered a gourmet vegetable. Palmitos from the palms Euterpe edulis (Juçara) and Euterpe oleracea (Açaí) oxidise after harvesting, whereas almost no oxidation is observed in palmitos from Bactris gasipaes (Pupunha). Previous investigations showed that oxidation in Juçara and Açaí was mainly attributable to polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.14.18.1) activity. In this study, we partially purified PPOs from these three palmitos and analysed them for SDS activation, substrate specificity, inhibition by specific inhibitors, thermal stability, optimum pH and temperature conditions, Km and Ki. In addition, the total phenolic content and chlorogenic acid content were determined. Two partial cDNA sequences were isolated and sequenced from Açaí (EoPPO1) and Juçara (EePPO1). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR expression assays showed that Açaí and Juçara PPOs were strongly expressed in palmitos and weakly expressed in leaves. No amplification was observed for Pupunha samples. The lack of oxidation in the palmito Pupunha might be explained by the low PPO expression, low enzyme activity or the phenolic profile, particularly the low content of chlorogenic acid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of high pressure processing on color, bioactive compounds, polyphenol oxidase activity, and microbiological attributes of pumpkin purée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cebrino, Francisco; Durán, Rocío; Delgado-Adámez, Jonathan; Contador, Rebeca; Bernabé, Rosario Ramírez

    2016-04-01

    Physicochemical parameters, bioactive compounds' content (carotenoids and total phenols), total antioxidant activity, and enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated after high pressure processing (HPP) on a pumpkin purée (cv. 'Butternut'). Three pressure levels (400, 500, and 600 MPa) were combined with three holding times (200, 400, and 600 s). The applied treatments reduced the levels of total aerobic mesophilic (TAM), total psychrophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria (TPP), and molds and yeasts (M&Y). All applied treatments did not affect enzymatic activity of PPO. Pressure level increased CIE L* values, which could enhance the lightness perception of high pressure (HP)-treated purées. No differences were found between the untreated and HP-treated purées regarding total phenols and carotenoids content (lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene) and total antioxidant activity. HPP did not affect most quality parameters and maintained the levels of bioactive compounds. However, it did not achieve the complete inhibition of PPO, which could reduce the shelf-life of the pumpkin purée. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. In silico analysis, mapping of regulatory elements and corresponding dna-protein interaction in polyphenol oxidase gene promoter from different rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, T.; Rehman, M.; Aziz, E.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an important enzyme that has positive impact regarding plant resistance against different biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study PPO promoter from six different rice varieties was amplified and then analyzed for cis- and trans-acting elements. The study revealed a total of 79 different cis-acting regulatory elements including 11 elements restricted to only one or other variety. Among six varieties Pakhal-Basmati had highest number (5) of these elements, whereas C-622 and Rachna-Basmati have no such sequences. Rachna-Basmati, IR-36-Basmati and Kashmir- Basmati had 1, 2 and 3 unique elements, respectively. Different elementsrelated to pathogen, salt and water stresses were found, which may be helpful in controlling PPO activity according to changing environment. Moreover, HADDOCK was used to understand molecular mechanism of PPO regulation and it was found that DNA-protein interactions are stabilized by many potential hydrogen bonds. Adenine and arginine were the most reactive residues in DNA and proteins respectively.Structural comparison of different protein-DNA complexes show that even a highly conserved transcriptional factor can adopt different conformations when they contact a different DNA binding sequence, however their stable interactions depend on the number of hydrogen bonds formed and distance. (author)

  12. Characterization of the polyphenol oxidase gene family reveals a novel microRNA involved in posttranscriptional regulation of PPOs in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caili; Li, Dongqiao; Li, Jiang; Shao, Fenjuan; Lu, Shanfa

    2017-03-17

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is a well-known material of traditional Chinese medicine. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of phenolic acid biosynthesis and metabolism are important for S. miltiorrhiza quality improvement. We report here that S. miltiorrhiza contains 19 polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), forming the largest PPO gene family in plant species to our knowledge. Analysis of gene structures and sequence features revealed the conservation and divergence of SmPPOs. SmPPOs were differentially expressed in plant tissues and eight of them were predominantly expressed in phloem and xylem, indicating that some SmPPOs are functionally redundant, whereas the others are associated with different physiological processes. Expression patterns of eighteen SmPPOs were significantly altered under MeJA treatment, and twelve were yeast extract and Ag + -responsive, suggesting the majority of SmPPOs are stress-responsive. Analysis of high-throughput small RNA sequences and degradome data showed that miR1444-mediated regulation of PPOs existing in P. trichocarpa is absent from S. miltiorrhiza. Instead, a subset of SmPPOs was posttranscriptionally regulated by a novel miRNA, termed Smi-miR12112. It indicates the specificity and significance of miRNA-mediated regulation of PPOs. The results shed light on the regulation of SmPPO expression and suggest the complexity of SmPPO-associated phenolic acid biosynthesis and metabolism.

  13. Composition, physicochemical properties and thermal inactivation kinetics of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase from coconut (Cocos nucifera) water obtained from immature, mature and overly-mature coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thuan-Chew; Cheng, Lai-Hoong; Bhat, Rajeev; Rusul, Gulam; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2014-01-01

    Composition, physicochemical properties and enzyme inactivation kinetics of coconut water were compared between immature (IMC), mature (MC) and overly-mature coconuts (OMC). Among the samples studied, pH, turbidity and mineral contents for OMC water was the highest, whereas water volume, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and total phenolics content for OMC water were the lowest. Maturity was found to affect sugar contents. Sucrose content was found to increase with maturity, and the reverse trend was observed for fructose and glucose. Enzyme activity assessment showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in all samples was more heat resistant than peroxidase (POD). Compared to IMC and MC, PPO and POD from OMC water showed the lowest thermal resistance, with D83.3°C=243.9s (z=27.9°C), and D83.3°C=129.9s (z=19.5°C), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a Polyphenol Oxidase Biosensor from Jenipapo Fruit Extract (Genipa americana L. and Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Textile Industrial Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Souza Antunes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an innovative polyphenol oxidase biosensor was developed from Jenipapo (Genipa americana L. fruit and used to assess phenolic compounds in industrial effluent samples obtained from a textile industry located in Jaraguá-GO, Brasil. The biosensor was prepared and optimized according to: the proportion of crude vegetal extract, pH and overall voltammetric parameters for differential pulse voltammetry. The calibration curve presented a linear interval from 10 to 310 µM (r2 = 0.9982 and a limit of detection of 7 µM. Biosensor stability was evaluated throughout 15 days, and it exhibited 88.22% of the initial response. The amount of catechol standard recovered post analysis varied between 87.50% and 96.00%. Moreover, the biosensor was able to detect phenolic compounds in a real sample, and the results were in accordance with standard spectrophotometric assays. Therefore, the innovatively-designed biosensor hereby proposed is a promising tool for phenolic compound detection and quantification when environmental contaminants are concerned.

  15. Variation of the Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activities of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade Associated with Different Drying Methods and Polyphenol Oxidase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-06-17

    The effects of different drying methods (freeze drying, vacuum oven drying, and shade drying) on the phytochemical constituents associated with the antioxidant activities of Z. officinale var. rubrum Theilade were evaluated to determine the optimal drying process for these rhizomes. Total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic acids and flavonoids, 6- and 8-gingerol and shogaol were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used for the evaluation of antioxidant activities. The highest reduction in moisture content was observed after freeze drying (82.97%), followed by vacuum oven drying (80.43%) and shade drying (72.65%). The highest TPC, TFC, and 6- and 8-shogaol contents were observed in samples dried by the vacuum oven drying method compared to other drying methods. The highest content of 6- and 8-gingerol was observed after freeze drying, followed by vacuum oven drying and shade drying methods. Fresh samples had the highest PPO activity and lowest content of flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds compared to dried samples. Rhizomes dried by the vacuum oven drying method represent the highest DPPH (52.9%) and FRAP activities (566.5 μM of Fe (II)/g DM), followed by freeze drying (48.3% and 527.1 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) and shade drying methods (37.64% and 471.8 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) with IC50 values of 27.2, 29.1, and 34.8 μg/mL, respectively. Negative and significant correlations were observed between PPO and antioxidant activity of rhizomes. Vacuum oven dried rhizomes can be utilized as an ingredient for the development of value-added food products as they contain high contents of phytochemicals with valuable antioxidant potential.

  16. Combined effect of ultrasound, heat, and pressure on Escherichia coli O157:H7, polyphenol oxidase activity, and anthocyanins in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinyan; Wang, Yuehua; Li, Xinghe; Li, Bin; Liu, Suwen; Chang, Nan; Jie, Ding; Ning, Chong; Gao, Haiyan; Meng, Xianjun

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different treatments-heat treatment (HT), sonication (SC), thermosonication (TS), manosonication (MS), manothermal (MT), and manothermosonication (MTS) on Escherichia coli O157:H7, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and anthocyanin content in blueberry juice. First, samples were treated at different temperatures (30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80°C) and power intensities (280, 420, 560, and 700W) for 10min. Subsequently, samples were treated using combinations of power intensity and mild temperature for 10min. For further study, samples were treated using HT (80°C), TS (40°C, 560W), MT (350MPa, 40°C), MS (560W, 5min/350MPa), or MTS (560W, 5min, 40°C/350MPa, 40°C) for 5, 10, 15, 20min for each treatment, and the results compared between treatments. HT significantly reduced PPO activation (2.05% residual activity after only 5min), and resulted in a 2.00-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7 and an 85.25% retention of anthocyanin. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was slightly inactivated by TS after 5min (0.17-log reduction), while residual PPO activity was 23.36% and anthocyanin retention was 98.48%. However, Escherichia coli O157:H7 was rapidly inactivated by MTS (5.85-log reduction) after 5min, while anthocyanin retention was 97.49% and residual PPO activity dropped to 10.91%. The destruction of E. coli cells as a result of these treatments were confirmed using SEM and TEM. Therefore, a combination of sonication, high pressure, and mild heat allows the safety of blueberry juice to be maintained without compromising the retention of desirable antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High isostatic pressure and thermal processing of açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea Martius): Effect on pulp color and inactivation of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Ana Laura Tibério de; Leite, Thiago Soares; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2018-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of high isostatic pressure (HIP) on the activity of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from açaí. Açaí pulp was submitted to several combinations of pressure (400, 500, 600MPa), temperature (25 and 65°C) for 5 and 15min. The combined effect of HIP technology and high temperatures (690MPa by 2 and 5min at 80°C) was also investigated and compared to the conventional thermal treatment (85°C/1min). POD and PPO enzyme activity and instrumental color were examined after processing and after 24h of refrigerated storage. Results showed stability of POD for all pressures at 25°C, which proved to be heat-resistant and baro-resistant at 65°C. For PPO, the inactivation at 65°C was 71.7% for 600MPa after 15min. In general, the increase in temperature from 25°C to 65°C reduced the PPO relative activity with no changes in color. Although the thermal treatment and the HIP (690MPa) along with high temperature (80°C) reduced the PPO relative activity, and relevant darkening was observed in the processed samples. Thus, it can be concluded that POD is more baro-resistant than PPO in açaí pulp subjected to the same HIP processing conditions and processing at 600MPa/65°C for 5min may be an effective alternative for thermal pasteurization treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polyphenols and Oxidative Stress in Atherosclerosis-Related Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good nutrition could maintain health and life. Polyphenols are common nutrient mainly derived from fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, cocoa, mushrooms, beverages, and traditional medicinal herbs. They are potential substances against oxidative-related diseases, for example, cardiovascular disease, specifically, atherosclerosis-related ischemic heart disease and stroke, which are health and economic problems recognized worldwide. In this study, we reviewed the risk factors for atherosclerosis, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and cigarette smoking as well as the antioxidative activity of polyphenols, which could prevent the pathology of atherosclerosis, including endothelial dysfunction, low-density lipoprotein oxidation, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, inflammatory process by monocytes, macrophages or T lymphocytes, and platelet aggregation. The strong radical-scavenging properties of polyphenols would exhibit antioxidative and anti-inflammation effects. Polyphenols reduce ROS production by inhibiting oxidases, reducing the production of superoxide, inhibiting OxLDL formation, suppressing VSMC proliferation and migration, reducing platelet aggregation, and improving mitochondrial oxidative stress. Polyphenol consumption also inhibits the development of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. Despite the numerous in vivo and in vitro studies, more advanced clinical trials are necessary to confirm the efficacy of polyphenols in the treatment of atherosclerosis-related vascular diseases.

  19. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  20. [Hallucinogenic mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingardiene, Dagmara; Vilcinskaite, Jolita; Lazauskas, Robertas

    2005-01-01

    The group of hallucinogenic mushrooms (species of the genera Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Panaeolus, Pluteus, Psilocybe, and Stropharia) is psilocybin-containing mushrooms. These "magic", psychoactive fungi have the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin. Toxicity of these mushrooms is substantial because of the popularity of hallucinogens. Psilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin are similar to lysergic acid diethylamide. These hallucinogens affect the central nervous system rapidly (within 0.5-1 hour after ingestion), producing ataxia, hyperkinesis, and hallucinations. In this review article there are discussed about history of use of hallucinogenic mushrooms and epidemiology; pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, somatic effects and pharmacokinetics of psilocybin, the clinical effects of psilocybin and psilocin, signs and symptoms of ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms, treatment and prognosis.

  1. Effects of a high O2 dynamic-controlled atmosphere technology on the browning of postharvest white mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) in relation to energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Sun, Han; Kitazawa, Hiroaki; Wang, Xiangyou

    2017-07-01

    Browning is one of the main problems in senescence of mushrooms, and it is also one of the most important attributes accounting for the loss of the quality and reduction in market value. In order to study the relationship between the energy metabolism and the browning of white mushroom under high O 2 dynamic-controlled atmosphere (HO-DCA), mushrooms were stored in 100% O 2 (SCA1), 80% O 2  + 20% CO 2 (SCA2), 100% O 2 for three days and then transferred into the treatment of 80% O 2  + 20% CO 2 (HO-DCA) at 2 ± 1 ℃ and air as control. In this study, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, energy charge level, sensory evaluation, browning of surface and flesh, cell membrane integrity, exogenous ATP, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity and genes encoding PPO of the white mushroom were investigated. These were all closely related to the browning of products. The optimal storage condition of the HO-DCA treatment could delay the browning of pericarp and flesh tissues of the mushrooms, inhibit PPO activity and reduce the relative expression levels of the three genes encoding PPO. Meanwhile, it maintained moderate POD activity, good sensory properties and cell membrane integrity in a certain extent and thus slowed down the senescence of mushrooms. Results indicated that there was a positive correlation between the ATP content and whitening index ( r = 0.901). In addition, HO-DCA maintained a higher ATP level, prolonged the storage time to 28 days and it might be an ideal strategy for preserving the quality of mushroom during storage.

  2. Comparative study of the banana pulp browning process of 'Giant Dwarf' and FHIA-23 during fruit ripening based on image analysis and the polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante-Minakata, Pilar; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; García-Ibáñez, Victoria; Virgen-Ortíz, José J; González-Potes, Apolinar; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime D; Orozco-Santos, Mario

    2018-01-01

    This work presents a novel method to associate the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the peroxidase (POD) activities with the ripening-mediated color changes in banana peel and pulp by computational image analysis. The method was used to follow up the de-greening of peel and browning of homogenized pulp from 'Giant Dwarf' (GD: Musa AAA, subgroup Cavendish) and FHIA-23 (tetraploid hybrid, AAAA) banana cultivars. In both cultivars, the color changes of peel during the ripening process clearly showed four stages, which were used to group the fruit into ripening stages. The PPO and POD were extracted from pulp of fruit at these ripening stages, precipitated, and partially purified by gel filtration chromatography. Moreover, the pulp browning was digitally monitored after homogenization for a span time of up to 120 min. The browning level was higher for GD than FHIA-23 tissues. This fact correlated with an 11.7-fold higher PPO activity in the GD cultivar, as compared with that of FHIA-23. POD activity was 8.1 times higher for GD as compared that that of FHIA-23.

  3. Role of ascorbic acid in the inhibition of polyphenol oxidase and the prevention of browning in different browning-sensitive Lactuca sativa var. capitata (L.) and Eruca sativa (Mill.) stored as fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Degl'Innocenti, Elena; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and, to a minor extent, peroxidase (POD) represent the key enzymes involved in enzymatic browning, a negative process induced by cutting fresh-cut produce such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa). Although ascorbic acid is frequently utilised as an anti-browning agent, its mechanism in the prevention of the browning phenomenon is not clearly understood. The activity of PPO and POD and their isoforms in lettuce (a high-browning and low-ascorbic acid species) and rocket salad (a low-browning and high-ascorbic species) was characterised. The kinetic parameters of PPO and in vitro ascorbic acid-PPO inhibition were also investigated. In rocket salad, PPO activity was much lower than that in lettuce and cutting induced an increase in PPO activity only in lettuce. Exogenous ascorbic acid (5 mmol L(-1)) reduced PPO activity by about 90% in lettuce. POD did not appear to be closely related to browning in lettuce. PPO is the main enzyme involved in the browning phenomenon; POD appears to play a minor role. The concentration of endogenous ascorbic acid in rocket salad was related to its low-browning sensitivity after cutting. In lettuce, the addition of ascorbic acid directly inhibited PPO activity. The results suggest that the high ascorbic acid content found in rocket salad plays an effective role in reducing PPO activity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Oyster Mushroom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pastoralists have been hopelessly trying to get rid of the bush through ... mushroom cultivation the mentioned problems can be solved yielding nutritious ..... Mean values within the same column with no common superscript letter differ at the 95% confidence level and the .... Encroachment in the Borana Low Land.

  5. The Edible Mushroom Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Anna Del; Læssøe, Thomas

    A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats.......A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats....

  6. Multiple origins of the phenol reaction negative phenotype in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv., were caused by independent loss-of-function mutations of the polyphenol oxidase (Si7PPO) gene during domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takahiko; Yuo, Takahisa; Ohta, Takeshi; Hitomi, Eriko; Ichitani, Katsuyuki; Kawase, Makoto; Taketa, Shin; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    Foxtail millet shows variation in positive phenol color reaction (Phr) and negative Phr in grains, but predominant accessions of this crop are negative reaction type, and the molecular genetic basis of the Phr reaction remains unresolved. In this article, we isolated polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene responsible for Phr using genome sequence information and investigated molecular genetic basis of negative Phr and crop evolution of foxtail millet. First of all, we searched for PPO gene homologs in a foxtail millet genome database using a rice PPO gene as a query and successfully found three copies of the PPO gene. One of the PPO gene homologs on chromosome 7 showed the highest similarity with PPO genes expressed in hulls (grains) of other cereal species including rice, wheat, and barley and was designated as Si7PPO. Phr phenotypes and Si7PPO genotypes completely co-segregated in a segregating population. We also analyzed the genetic variation conferring negative Phr reaction. Of 480 accessions of the landraces investigated, 87 (18.1 %) showed positive Phr and 393 (81.9 %) showed negative Phr. In the 393 Phr negative accessions, three types of loss-of-function Si7PPO gene were predominant and independently found in various locations. One of them has an SNP in exon 1 resulting in a premature stop codon and was designated as stop codon type, another has an insertion of a transposon (Si7PPO-TE1) in intron 2 and was designated as TE1-insertion type, and the other has a 6-bp duplication in exon 3 resulting in the duplication of 2 amino acids and was designated as 6-bp duplication type. As a rare variant of the stop codon type, one accession additionally has an insertion of a transposon, Si7PPO-TE2, in intron 2 and was designated as "stop codon +TE2 insertion type". The geographical distribution of accessions with positive Phr and those with three major types of negative Phr was also investigated. Accessions with positive Phr were found in subtropical and tropical regions at

  7. Polyphenols in preventing endothelial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Biegańska-Hensoldt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main causes of mortality in developed countries is atherosclerosis. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Consumption of food rich in natural antioxidants including polyphenols significantly improves endothelial cells functions.Polyphenols have a beneficial effect on the human body and play an important part in protecting the cardiovascular system. Polyphenols present in food have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and antiproliferative properties. Catechins cause an increase in the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and increased production of nitric oxide (NO and decrease in blood pressure. Catechins also reduce platelet adhesion, lower the concentration of C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6. Resveratrol inhibits NADPH oxidase expression, increases the expression of eNOS and NO production as well as decreases the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and also lowers the concentration of the soluble forms of adhesion molecules – sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in blood. Quercetin reduces the blood level of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lowers blood pressure, reduces the concentration of C-reactive protein and F2-isoprostane level. Curcumin has antagonistic activity to homocysteine. Curcumin increases the expression of eNOS and reduces oxidative DNA damage in rat cardiomyocytes. Numerous attempts are taken for improving the bioavailability of polyphenols in order to increase their use in the body.

  8. Functional foods from mushroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrooms are defined as “a macro fungus with distinctive fruiting bodies that could be hypogeous or epigeous, large enough to be seen by naked eyes and to be picked by hands.” The Basidiomycetes and some species of Ascomycetes are categorized as mushrooms. Mushrooms constitute 22,000 known species ...

  9. Comparative study of wild edible mushrooms as sources of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Anna M; Zujko, Małgorzata E; Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore sixteen of the most popular edible species of wild-growing mushrooms as potential sources of antioxidants. Among the mushrooms tested, the highest total polyphenol contents, exceeding 100 mg/100 g fresh mass, were found in five mushrooms: Boletus chrysenteron, B. edulis, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Macrolepiota procera. Antioxidant activity was measured with the FRAP, TEAC, DPPH scavenging ability and ferrous ions chelating ability assays. Results of the study show that wild mushrooms vary according to their antioxidant properties. The highest FRAP potentials, exceeding 1 mmol/100 g, were found in five species ofBoletales: Boletus edulis, B. chrysenteron, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Suillus grevillei. TEAC values were from 1.07 to 4.01 mmol/100 g fresh mass. High TEAC values (>2.3 mmol/100 g) were found in Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, Macrolepiota procera, Boletus chrysenteron, and B. edulis. The DPPH radical scavenging effectiveness of mushroom extracts, expressed as EC50 values, was in range 2.91-13.86 mg/mL. Scavenging ability was the highest for B. edulis and B. chrysenteron. The metal chelating ability of mushroom extracts expressed as ECso values of chelating ability on ferrous ions were from 8.02 mg/mL in Cantharellus cibarius to 12.10 mg/mL in Suillus luteus. Among the mushrooms tested, Boletus chrysenteron and B. edulis were characterized by high scores of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity in the FRAP, TEAC, and DPPH assays. These results place these culinary species of wild-growing mushrooms among products with considerable antioxidant potential.

  10. A New Laccase Biosensor For Polyphenols Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J.F. Rebelo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of polyphenols in human health is a well known fact. Prompted by that, a very intensive research has been directed to get a method to detect them, wich will improve the current ones. Laccase (p-diphenol:dioxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.10.3.2 is a multi-copper oxidase, wich couples catalytic oxidation of phenolic substrates with four electron reduction of dioxygen to water [1]. A maximum catalytic response in oxigenated electrolyte was observed between 4.5 and 5.5 [2], while for pH > 6.9 the laccase was found to be inactive [3]. We prepared a biosensor with laccase immobilised on a polyether sulphone membrane, at pH 4.5, wich was applied at Universal Sensors base electrode. Reduction of the product of oxidation of several polyphenols, catalysed by laccase, was done at a potential for wich the polyphenol of interest was found to respond. Reduction of catechol was found to occur at a potential of -200mV, wich is often referred to in the literature for polyphenolic biosensors. However other polyphenols did not respond at that potential. It was observed that (+- catechin produced a very large cathodic current when +100mV were applied to the laccase biosensor, both in aqueous acetate and 12% ethanol acetate buffer, whereas caffeic acid responded at -50mV. Other polyphenols tested were gallic acid, malvidin, quercetin, rutin, trans-resveratrol

  11. Polyphenols and Sunburn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Saric

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods such as green tea, chocolate, grape seeds, and wine. Polyphenols have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Growing evidence suggests that polyphenols may be used for the prevention of sunburns as polyphenols decrease the damaging effects of ultraviolet A (UVA and ultraviolet B (UVB radiation on the skin. This review was conducted to examine the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested polyphenols in prevention of sunburns. The PubMed database was searched for studies that examined polyphenols and its effects on sunburns. Of the 27 studies found, 15 met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies were conducted on human subjects and eight on animals (mice and rats. Eleven studies evaluated the effects of topical polyphenols, two studies examined ingested polyphenols, and two studies examined both topical and ingested polyphenols. Polyphenol sources included the following plant origins: green tea, white tea, cocoa, Romanian propolis (RP, Calluna vulgaris (Cv, grape seeds, honeybush, and Lepidium meyenii (maca. Eight studies examined green tea. Overall, based on the studies, there is evidence that polyphenols in both oral and topical form may provide protection from UV damage and sunburn, and thus are beneficial to skin health. However, current studies are limited and further research is necessary to evaluate the efficacy, mechanism of action, and potential side effects of various forms and concentrations of polyphenols.

  12. Polyphenols and Sunburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saric, Suzana; Sivamani, Raja K

    2016-09-09

    Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods such as green tea, chocolate, grape seeds, and wine. Polyphenols have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Growing evidence suggests that polyphenols may be used for the prevention of sunburns as polyphenols decrease the damaging effects of ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the skin. This review was conducted to examine the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested polyphenols in prevention of sunburns. The PubMed database was searched for studies that examined polyphenols and its effects on sunburns. Of the 27 studies found, 15 met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies were conducted on human subjects and eight on animals (mice and rats). Eleven studies evaluated the effects of topical polyphenols, two studies examined ingested polyphenols, and two studies examined both topical and ingested polyphenols. Polyphenol sources included the following plant origins: green tea, white tea, cocoa, Romanian propolis (RP), Calluna vulgaris (Cv), grape seeds, honeybush, and Lepidium meyenii (maca). Eight studies examined green tea. Overall, based on the studies, there is evidence that polyphenols in both oral and topical form may provide protection from UV damage and sunburn, and thus are beneficial to skin health. However, current studies are limited and further research is necessary to evaluate the efficacy, mechanism of action, and potential side effects of various forms and concentrations of polyphenols.

  13. Radiation damage to mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    This document contains newspaper cuttings and correspondence with various ministries in Hessen on the subject of radiation damage to mushrooms from the Odenwald area. The reader is given, amongst other things, detailed information on radiation damage to different types of mushroom in 1986. (MG) [de

  14. Hepatoprotective Effects of Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts.

  15. Effects of water blanching on polyphenol reaction kinetics and quality of cocoa beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, A. S.; Hii, C. L.; Law, C. L.; Suzannah, S.; Djaeni, M.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have been reported on the potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols. However, drying has an inhibitory effect on the substantial recovery of cocoa polyphenols. This is majorly because of the high degradation of polyphenol compounds as well as the enhanced activity of polyphenol oxidases; a pre-cursor for browning of polyphenols during drying. Pre-treatment technique such as water blanching (80° and 90°C for 5 min, 10 min and 15 min exposure times respectively) can inactivate the polyphenol oxidases enzyme and promote high percent of the polyphenol recovery in dried cocoa bean. The degradation kinetics of cocoa polyphenols during hot water blanching are analyzed; The rate constant for the polyphenol degradation after blanching was found to be ranging from 0.0208 to 0.0340 /min. The results for dried fresh cocoa beans showed an optimal level of polyphenol recovery (118 mg GAE/g) when blanched at 90°C for 5 minutes duration. The antioxidant activity is also analyzed using DPPH scavenging assay.

  16. FUNGI: A REVIEW ON MUSHROOMS

    OpenAIRE

    Abulude, F. Olawale; Ndamitso, M. Muhammed

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews a fungus – mushrooms. In this paper, identification, cultivation, uses, side effects, nutritional and medicinal values, storage, marketing and other uses of mushrooms were discussed. From the review too it was observed that its usefulness surpasses the side effects. These side effects could be eliminated if proper ‘processing’ could be employed. Due to advances in both basic knowledge and practical technology relevant to mushroom farming, mushroom products and mushroom bior...

  17. Biodegradation of phenolic compounds with oxidases from sorghum and non-defined mixed bacterium media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obame, C. E. L.; Savadogo, P. W.; Mamoudou, D. H.; Dembele, R. H.; Traore, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    The biodegradation of the phenolic compounds is performed using oxidative enzymes, e. g. polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) and peroxidases (POXs). These oxidases displaying a wide spectrum for the oxidation of phenolic compounds were isolated either from sorghum or mixed bacteria. Spectrophotometric methods were used to assess the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of PPOs as well as the hydrogen-dependant oxidation of POXs. (Author)

  18. Biodegradation of phenolic compounds with oxidases from sorghum and non-defined mixed bacterium media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obame, C. E. L.; Savadogo, P. W.; Mamoudou, D. H.; Dembele, R. H.; Traore, A. S.

    2009-07-01

    The biodegradation of the phenolic compounds is performed using oxidative enzymes, e. g. polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) and peroxidases (POXs). These oxidases displaying a wide spectrum for the oxidation of phenolic compounds were isolated either from sorghum or mixed bacteria. Spectrophotometric methods were used to assess the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of PPOs as well as the hydrogen-dependant oxidation of POXs. (Author)

  19. Are mushrooms radioactive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randa, Z.; Benada, J.; Singert, M.; Horyna, J.

    1988-01-01

    Tabulated is the content of 137 Cs in dry matter of higher mushrooms collected in the years 1986 to 1987. The radioactive level of mushrooms collected in Czechoslovakia such as Boletus badius and B. chrysenteron reached 20 to 50 kBq/kg of dry matter. The individual dose at mean consumption of these mushrooms was estimated at 0.2 to 0.3 mSv/year which amounted to 20 to 30% of the dose from the natural background. (J.B.). 1 tab

  20. Cesium fixation in mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1990-01-01

    It has been found that the various mushroom species accumulate Cs-137 in very different quantities. Whereas specimens of the species Xeromus badius always contained high amounts of Cs-137, analyses of specimens of the related species Boletus edulis showed only weak accumulation of the radionuclide. It is assumed that this general difference in accumulation of Cs-137 is due to a difference in the organic constituents of the mushrooms. (orig.) [de

  1. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (cesarea, A. campestris, A. edulis, A. macrosporus, and A. silvaticus. A particularly rich source of selenium could be obtained from selenium-enriched mushrooms that are cultivated on a substrate fortified with selenium (as inorganic salt or selenized-yeast). The Se-enriched Champignon Mushroom could contain up to 30 or 110 microg Se/g dw, while the Varnished Polypore (Ganoderma lucidum) could contain up to 72 microg Se/g dw. An increasingly growing database on chemical forms of selenium of mushrooms indicates that the seleno-compounds identified in carpophore include selenocysteine, selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenite, and several unidentified seleno-compounds; their proportions vary widely. Some aspects of environmental selenium occurrence and human body pharmacokinetics and nutritional needs will also be briefly discussed in this review.

  2. Polyphenols and Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoona Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence from animal studies supports the anti-diabetic properties of some dietary polyphenols, suggesting that dietary polyphenols could be one dietary therapy for the prevention and management of Type 2 diabetes. This review aims to address the potential mechanisms of action of dietary polyphenols in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity based on in vitro and in vivo studies, and to provide a comprehensive overview of the anti-diabetic effects of commonly consumed dietary polyphenols including polyphenol-rich mixed diets, tea and coffee, chocolate and cocoa, cinnamon, grape, pomegranate, red wine, berries and olive oil, with a focus on human clinical trials. Dietary polyphenols may inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, inhibit glucose absorption in the intestine by sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1, stimulate insulin secretion and reduce hepatic glucose output. Polyphenols may also enhance insulin-dependent glucose uptake, activate 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, modify the microbiome and have anti-inflammatory effects. However, human epidemiological and intervention studies have shown inconsistent results. Further intervention studies are essential to clarify the conflicting findings and confirm or refute the anti-diabetic effects of dietary polyphenols.

  3. Selenium content of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stijve, T

    1977-07-29

    The selenium contents of 83 species of wild mushrooms were determined by oxygen combustion of the sample, followed by conversion of selenite to bromopiazselenol and final estimation by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography. Selenium concentration were found to range from 0.012-20.0 mg/kg dry weight. Selenium content was species-dependent. High concentrations were found in Agaricaceae and in certain Boletaceae of the genus Tubiporus, whereas in Russulaceae, Amanitaceae and Cantharellaceae selenium-rich species were absent or rare. Ascomycetes and all mushrooms growing on wood had a very low selenium content. The highest selenium concentrations (up to 20 ppm) were found in Boletus (Tubiporus) edulis, a most popular edible mushroom. Analyses of various parts of carpophores of B. edulis, Suillus luteus and Amanita muscaria indicate that in all three species the stalk contains less selenium than the fleshy part of the cap. In Boletus and Suillus the highest selenium content was found in the tubes.

  4. Obtaining a Functional Product Through the Exploitation of Mushroom Flour in Pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Carmen MURESAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the influence of adding mushroom powder on a certain assortment of pasta. The research comprises two major directions: the study of the raw materials used to produce pasta from a compositional point of view and the quantification of some biologically active compounds of interest; emphasizing the potential of using Boletus edulis mushroom powder in the composition of pasta and evaluating the quality of the product from a nutritional and sensorial point of view. For this purpose, two types of pasta have been created, with different percentages of mushroom, 10% and 20%, but also a blank sample obtained in the same conditions, but without mushroom powder. To achieve the goal the following analyzes were conducted: proteins, total polyphenols, antioxidant activity, fat, humidity, ashes, acidity, increase in volume of the boiled pasta and customers’ preferences. By using sensory analysis has been established that the consumers preferred pasta enriched with 10% mushroom powder. In conclusion, the addition of mushrooms flour assures an enhancement of the nutritional value, as well as of the organoleptic characteristics of the final product.

  5. Managing hypertension by polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Camps, Jordi; Menendez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Some polyphenols, obtained from plants of broad use, induce a favorable endothelial response in hypertension and beneficial effects in the management of other metabolic cardiovascular risks. Previous studies in our laboratories using the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa as a source of polyphenols show that significant effects on hypertension are noticeable in humans only when provided in high amounts. Available data are suggestive in animal models and ex vivo experiments, but data in humans are difficult to acquire. Additionally, and despite the low bioavailability of polyphenols, intervention studies provide evidence for the protective effects of secondary plant metabolites. Assumptions on public health benefits are limited by the lack of scientific knowledge, robust data derived from large randomized clinical trials, and an accurate assessment of the bioactive components provided by common foodstuff. Because it is likely that clinical effects are the result of multiple interactions among different polyphenols rather than the isolated action of unique compounds, to provide polyphenol-rich botanical extracts as dietary supplements is a suggestive option. Unfortunately, the lack of patent perspectives for the pharmaceutical industries and the high cost of production and release for alimentary industries will hamper the performance of the necessary clinical trials. Here we briefly discuss whether and how such limitations may complicate the extensive use of plant-derived products in the management of hypertension and which steps are the necessary to deal with the predictable complexity in a possible clinical practice. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Polyphenol oxidase-based luminescent enzyme hydrogel: an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-02

    Feb 2, 2018 ... ranging from educational domain to industrial research. [3–8]. ... All chemicals and related consumables were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich and used as ... The non-toxic nature of the supramolecular hydrogel [9] is an added ...

  7. Allelic variations of functional markers for polyphenol oxidase (PPO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    genes in Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Rajender Singh, Umesh Goutam, R. K. Gupta, G. C. Pandey, Jag Shoran and Ratan Tiwari. J. Genet. 88, 325–329. Figure 1. Phenol colour reaction of kernels. Kernels without treatment by phenol solution are shown as controls. Phenol colour reaction of kernels; ...

  8. Effect of heat treatment on polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2006-12-18

    Dec 18, 2006 ... enzymes in plant and its resistance to heat has been reported by a ... sintered glass funnel and washed with cold acetone under low vacuum ... Peroxidase activity was determined by measuring the colour deve- lopment at ...

  9. Global collection of mushroom pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Korsten, L.

    2013-01-01

    In many places in the world, increasingly less chemical crop protection agents are available for use in mushroom cultivation. As a consequence, mushroom cultivation will loose the ability to use crop protection agents. As a consequence, good hygiene management, early detection and monitoring of

  10. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: Button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    OpenAIRE

    Potočnik, Ivana; Stepanović, Miloš; Rekanović, Emil; Todorović, Biljana; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.) and shiitake (Lentinus edodes). Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal a...

  11. Radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.; Ylipieti, J.

    2010-02-01

    Surveillance of radioactive cesium in Finnish mushrooms was started in 1986 at STUK. Results of the surveillance programs carried out in Lapland and other parts of Finland are given in this report. More than 2000 samples of edible mushrooms have been analysed during 1986-2008. The 137 Cs detected in the mushrooms mainly originates from the 137 Cs deposition due to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms in the end of 1970s and in the beginning of 1980s varied from some ten to two hundred becquerels per kilogram originating from the nuclear weapon test period. The uneven division of the Chernobyl fallout is seen in the areal variation of 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms, the 137 Cs concentrations being about tenfold in the areas with the highest deposition compared to those where the deposition was lowest. After the Chernobyl accident the maximum values in the 137 Cs concentrations were reached during 1987-88 among most species of mushrooms. The 137 Cs concentrations have decreased slowly, being in 2008 about 40 per cent of the maximum values. The 137 Cs concentrations may be tenfold in the mushroom species with high uptake of cesium (Rozites caperatus, Hygrophorus camarophyllus, Lactarius trivialis) compared to the species with low uptake (Albatrellus ovinus, Leccinum sp.) picked in the same area. The 137 Cs contents in certain species of commercial mushrooms in Finland still exceed the maximum permitted level, 600 Bq/kg, recommended to be respected when placing wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and lake fish on the market (Commission recommendation 2003/274/Euratom). Therefore, the 137 Cs concentrations of mushrooms should be measured before placing them on the market in the areas of the highest 137 Cs deposition, except for Albatrellus ovinus, Boletus sp. and Cantharellus cibarius. The 137 Cs concentrations of common commercial mushroom species, Cantharellus tubaeformis and Craterellus

  12. Investigation on Possibility of Transferring OysterMushroom (Pleurotusostreatus Manganese Peroxidase Gene (mnp to the White Button Mushroom (Agaricusbisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Parvandi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The white button mushroom does not produce remarkable yield in the third flash. Nutritional deficiency and the inability of this mushroom to efficient use of compost are mentioned as its reasons. Basically, compost includes two major food components, lignocellulose and microbial biomass. But this microbial biomass provides just 10% of button mushroom food needs. According to research studies, differentenzymes in both white button mushroom and oyster mushroom are responsible for decomposition of lignin compounds in compost media, from begin of mycelium grows to the end of fruiting. Lacasse, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, glyoxal oxidase enzymes contribute to degradation of lignin compounds in degradation mushroom has proven by researchers however itis dependent on mushroom types. Manganese peroxidase enzyme (EC. 1.11.1.13 is an extracellular parser lignin enzyme that has a central peroxidase core. Manganese peroxidase enzyme oxidizesMn2+ to Mn3+ and then Mn3+ oxidizes phenolic structure to fonoxile radical. Produced Mn3+ is very active and makes complex by chelating organic acids that is produced by mushrooms such as oxalate or malate. Mn3+ ions become stable by helping of these chelates and it can penetrate through materials such as wood. On the other hand, in recent years, plant biotechnology provides new solutions for old problems such as use of microorganisms, particularly using bacteria for gene transfer and improvement of superlatives. For a sample of this method, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system can be noted. In addition, the use of suitable promoters for heterologous genes expression in suitable hosts is an important strategy in functional biotechnology that has been raised in edible mushroom genetic engineering. The lack of efficient and sufficient use of compost, low power of white button mushroom in competition with other rivals, lack of yield per area unit due to production costs, pests and diseases

  13. Contamination of mushrooms with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.

    2013-01-01

    There is 27 years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident and the half-life of 137 Cs is 30 years. The radioactive cloud hit both former Czechoslovakia, but also very distant cities throughout Europe. In this work, author focused on recovery of radiocesium content in mushrooms from various sites in Slovakia, Poland and England. Author evaluated 28 samples of dried mushrooms. 137 Cs was measured by gamma spectrometry (Canberra). Elevated levels have been reported occasionally in mushroom not only in Slovakia but also in distant England. The values obtained are lower than recommended standard (author)

  14. Composition and antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius prepared for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Grażyna; Pogoń, Krystyna; Skrzypczak, Aleksandra; Bernaś, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    Wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius were prepared for consumption by braising with 10 % canola oil (half of the batch was blanched prior to braising). Fresh X.badius had comparable to B.edulis amounts of proximate components and higher levels of most B-group vitamins and antioxidants. Analyzed mushrooms prepared for consumption fulfilled 7-14 % RDA of vitamin B1 for healthy adults and 15-35, 18-37 and 1 % RDA of B2, B3 and B3 respectively. Prepared for consumption mushrooms were rich in antioxidants containing in 100 g dry weight 164,601 mg total polyphenols, 19-87 mg total flavonoids, 22.1-27.4 mg L-ascorbic acid, 0.531-1.031 mg β-carotene, 0.325-0.456 mg lycopene and 38.64-44.49 mg total tocopherols and presented high antioxidant activity against ABTS (4.9-36.5 mmol TE), against DPPH (7.8-21.3 mmol TE) and in FRAP assay (15.0-28.1 mmol Fe(2+)). Mushrooms prepared for consumption with blanching prior to culinary treatment showed lower antioxidant properties and vitamin content in comparison to mushrooms braised raw.

  15. Antibacterial, Antiradical Potential and Phenolic Compounds of Thirty-One Polish Mushrooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nowacka

    Full Text Available Among many sources of natural bioactive substances, mushrooms constitute a huge and almost unexplored group. Fungal compounds have been repeatedly reported to exert biological effects which have prompted their use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was analysis of chemical composition and biological activity of 31 wild growing mushroom species (including saprophytic and parasitic from Poland.Qualitative and quantitative LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fourteen phenolic acids in the mushrooms analysed was performed. Moreover, total phenolic content was determined by the modified Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidative activity of ethanolic extracts towards DPPH• free radical was examined. Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (S. epidermidis, S. aureus, B. subtilis, M. luteus and Gram-negative (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis microbial strains was analyzed.As a result, the first such broad report on polyphenolic composition, antiradical and antimicrobial potential of wild growing Polish mushrooms was developed. Mushroom extracts were found to contain both benzoic (protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, syringic and cinnamic acid derivatives (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic. Total phenolic content in mushrooms ranged between 2.79 and 53.13 mg gallic acid equivalent /g of dried extract in Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum and Fomes fomentarius, respectively. Fungi showed much differentiated antiradical activity, from highly active F. fomentarius to poorly effective Russula fragilis (IC50 1.39 to 120.54 mg per mg DPPH•, respectively. A quite considerable relationship between phenolic content and antiradical activity has been demonstrated. Mushrooms varied widely in antimicrobial potential (MIC from 0.156 to 5 mg/ml. Generally, a slightly higher activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative strains was observed. This is the first study concerning the chemical composition and biological activity

  16. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health-medications/index.shtml. Accessed May 16, 2016. Hirsch M, et al. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for ... www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 16, 2016. Hirsch M, et al. Discontinuing antidepressant medications in adults. ...

  17. Effectiveness of Training Programme on Mushroom Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Sazzadur; Hossain, Kh. Zulfikar; Ali, Md. Sekender; Afroz, Fauzia

    2017-01-01

    Effectiveness is one of the key parameters to assess success of any programs. However, the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation was not well addressed. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of training programme on mushroom cultivation and to explore the relationships of each of the selected characteristics of the trained mushroom farmers with their effectiveness of training programme. Data were collected from the trained mushroom farmers of s...

  18. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  19. Polyphenols and brain health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vauzour David

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that diet and lifestyle can play an important role in delaying the onset or halting the progression of age-related health disorders and to improve cognitive function. A growing number of dietary intervention studies in humans and animals and in particular those using polyphenol-rich diets have been proposed to exert a multiplicity of neuroprotective actions within the brain, including a potential to protect neurons against injury induced by neurotoxins, an ability to suppress neuroinflammation and a potential to promote memory, learning, and cognitive functions. These effects appear to be underpinned by two common processes. First, they are capable of interactions with critical protein and lipid kinase signalling cascades in the brain, leading to an inhibition of apoptosis triggered by neurotoxic species and to a promotion of neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity. Second, they induce beneficial effects on the vascular system, leading to changes in cerebrovascular blood flow capable of causing enhance vascularisation and neurogenesis, two events important in the maintenance of cognitive performances. Together, these processes act to maintain brain homeostasis and play important roles in neuronal stress adaptation and thus polyphenols might have the potential to prevent the progression of neurodegenerative pathologies.

  20. Wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal ... On the other hand, if nutrition analysis reveals different nutrition parameters for both types of mushrooms, 43.3% opted for cultivated mushroom, 42.2%, wild; 12.2% both; while 2.2% would eat ... Keywords: Consumption pattern, Lentinus squarrosulus, nutrition, perception, wild mushroom ...

  1. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  2. Evaluation of the radioprotective potential of the polyphenol norbadione A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, Antoine; Josset, Elodie; Benzina, Sami; Bischoff, Pierre; Nadal, Brice; Desage-El Murr, Marine; Heurtaux, Benoit; Taran, Frederic; Le Gall, Thierry; Meunier, Stephane; Denis, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    There is an obvious need to develop efficient countermeasure agents for use in emergency situations or as adjuncts to radiotherapy to protect healthy tissues from the consequences of an irradiation. To this end, we have investigated the capacity of norbadione A, a polyphenol extracted from the edible mushroom Bay boletus to reduce the toxicity of ionizing radiation towards cultured cells and whole-body exposed mice. Results indicate that this compound could slightly enhance the resistance of TK6 lymphoid cells to radiation and increase the survival rate in lethally irradiated mice. However, norbadione A was found to be cytotoxic at concentrations over 30 μM in vitro. The acute toxicity of this compound also precluded its use at higher doses for enhanced in vivo radioprotection. Norbadione A may nevertheless serve as lead for development of less toxic analogs with potentially cytoprotective/radioprotective activities. (authors)

  3. Improvement of Nutritional and Bioactive Compound Production by Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes), by Spraying Growth Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vi, Minhthuan; Yang, Xueqin; Zeng, Xianlu; Chen, Rui'an; Guo, Liqiong; Lin, Junfang; He, Qianyun; Zheng, Qianwang; Wei, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus is a popular culinary and medicinal mushroom in China because of its broad beneficial effects. In this study we evaluated the effects of stimulation with 7 growth regulators at 5 different concentrations on improving the production of nutritional and bioactive compounds by H. erinaceus. Results showed that among all the tested regulators, gibberellic acid (GA) increased protein content (165%), free amino acids (100%), polysaccharides (108%), and polyphenols (26%). Spraying nephthyl acetic acid increased polysaccharides and triterpenoids to 4.37 and 17.27 g/100 g, respectively. Spraying chitosan significantly increased polyphenols by 42%. The addition of triacontanol, indole acetic acid, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid improved the production of proteins, free amino acids, polysaccharides, and polyphenols, but not to the extent that GA did. These results indicate that adding certain growth regulators can effectively improve the production of nutritional and bioactive compounds in H. erinaceus.

  4. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  5. Modification of growth conditions by mm-waves of wood-decaying mushrooms cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avagyan, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Basidial macromycetes are not only value food, but can be used as source of such biological active compounds as the genistein, β -glucans, glioxal-oxidase et al. In this work we used different frequencies of extremely high frequency of electromagnetic irradiation (EHF EMI) with the aim of obtaining mushroom cultures with increased fermentative activity by the modulation of its growth conditions during growth on the peptone media. We investigated the influence of the non-thermal extremely high frequency electromagnetic waves in the interval of 45-53 GHz on β-glucosidase activities of two species of wood-decaying mushroom. In this study we examined the most popular edible wood-decaying mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, which is wide-spread in the forests and commercial mushroom Lentinula edodes, under influence of such an abiotic factor as the extremely high frequency waves in the interval of 45 GHz - 53 GHz during 20 and 40 min on the 7th day of mycelial culture's growth. After the treatment of cultures we continued their growth and on the 3th day we examined the influence of these waves on fermentative activity of mycelial extracts. The some conditions of such treatment led to significant rising of β-glucosidase activities in the extracts of mycelial cultures

  6. SCREENING OF CONTENT AND DYNAMIC OF ACCUMULATION OF POLYPHENOLS IN SOME BASIDIOMYCETES SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Veligodska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the total content of polyphenolic substances in Basidiomycetes carpophores from 50 species, of which 27 belong to the order Polyporales and 23 to the order Agaricales. Introduced 23 strains of 8 species of Basidiomycetes. Methods. Gathered wild carpophores dried and crushed to a particle size of 0,1 till 0,01 mm and searching strains were cultured in Erlenmeyyers flasks by surface method on standard glucose-peptone culture medium. Determination of total content of polyphenolic compounds was carried out in ethanol extracts of mycological material by a modified method of Folin-Chokalteu. Completely dry biomass of carpophores and mycelium was determined gravimetrically. Results. There was identified the species of polyporal fungi Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus and Fomes fomentarius and types of agarical mushrooms Stropharia rugosoannulata, Agrocybe cylindracea, Tricholoma flavovirens, Flammulina velutipes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Fistulina hepatica high in polyphenolic compounds. It was determined the content of polyphenols ranging from more than 60 mg / g completely dry biomass. For introduced strains established dynamics of growth and accumulation of polyphenolic compounds in the mycelium and culture filtrate during fermentation on glucose-peptone medium. All cultures reach a maximum accumulation of biomass on the 12th day of growth. Shizophyllum commune Sc-1101 and 10 and F. velutipes F-202 have been identified as the most productive strains. The lowest accumulation of absolutely dry biomass was recorded for strain P. ostreatus P-192 and strain F. fomentarius Ff-09. Cultures have investigated individual value growth such as biomass accumulation in the applied cultivation conditions, which probably reflects the suitability of the medium for their growth and genotypic characteristics. Strains are overwhelmingly able to accumulate polyphenolic compounds in both mycelium and

  7. Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupar, C A; Gillett, J; Gordon, B A; Ramsay, D A; Johnson, J L; Garrett, R M; Rajagopalan, K V; Jung, J H; Bacheyie, G S; Sellers, A R

    1996-12-01

    Isolated sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of sulfur metabolism. In this report of a ninth patient the clinical history, laboratory results, neuropathological findings and a mutation in the sulfite oxidase gene are described. The data from this patient and previously published patients with isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency and molybdenum cofactor deficiency are summarized to characterize this rare disorder. The patient presented neonatally with intractable seizures and did not progress developmentally beyond the neonatal stage. Dislocated lenses were apparent at 2 months. There was increased urine excretion of sulfite and S-sulfocysteine and a decreased concentration of plasma cystine. A lactic acidemia was present for 6 months. Liver sulfite oxidase activity was not detectable but xanthine dehydrogenase activity was normal. The boy died of respiratory failure at 32 months. Neuropathological findings of cortical necrosis and extensive cavitating leukoencephalopathy were reminiscent of those seen in severe perinatal asphyxia suggesting an etiology of energy deficiency. A point mutation that resulted in a truncated protein missing the molybdenum-binding site has been identified.

  8. Commercial Scale Production of Mushroom Liquid Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom liquid seed production technology was developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in the late 1990s. Initially, the liquid seeds were used mainly in the solid state fermentation process for converting oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres into ruminant feed. Considering widespread problems encountered by mushroom growers from use of solid seeds, especially in cases of contaminant agents infecting cultivated bags and inconsistencies in yield, we diverted our focus to utilising liquid seeds as alternative inocula for mushroom cultivation. These problems provide us opportunities to look into the issues and address the problems faced by mushroom growers. However, the technology of producing liquid seed at laboratory scale needs to be primed for commercial production. This paper discusses developmental aspects of mushroom liquid seed at commercial scale for the advancement of the country's mushroom industry. (author)

  9. Economic assessment of mushroom project commercialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Meswan Maskom

    2010-01-01

    The market value of mushroom is worth US $45 billion comprising: US $28-30 billion from food, US $9-10 billion from medicinal products and US $3.5-4 billion from wild mushroom. Malaysian import deficit of mushroom over the year 2001-2007 was 40,933 metric ton that worth of RM 187.7 million. The existing local market is lucrative and the potential world market is very large. Having cultivation technology in placed, understanding key value chains of cultivation technology processes, this paper assesses the case study of project economic of mushroom commercialization. (author)

  10. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenols from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... population depend on them as primary health care. (Akinyemi ... The mechanism of polyphenols toxicity against microbes may be related to ... and incubated at room temperature for 3 min. ..... polyphenols in copper foliage.

  12. Recent advances on tea polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Jyoti; Taskeen, Mujtaba; Mohammad, Imthiyaz; Huo, Congde; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Qing Ping

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade many scientific and medical studies have focused on green tea for its long-purported health benefits. There is convincing evidence that tea is a cup of life. It has multiple preventive and therapeutic effects. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of tea polyphenols and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancers. Of the various polyphenols in tea, (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant, and active compound studied in tea research. EGCG inhibits several molecular targets to inhibit cancer initiation and modulates several essential survival pathways to block cancer progression. Herein, we describe the various mechanisms of action of EGCG and also discuss previous and current ongoing clinical trials of EGCG and green tea polyphenols in different cancer types. PMID:22201858

  13. SCREENING OF CONTENT AND DYNAMIC OF ACCUMULATION OF POLYPHENOLS IN SOME BASIDIOMYCETES SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veligodska A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the total content of polyphenolic substances in Basidiomycetes carpophores from 50 species, of which 27 belong to the order Polyporales and 23 to the order Agaricales. Introduced 23 strains of 8 species of Basidiomycetes. Methods. Gathered wild carpophores dried and crushed to a particle size of 0,1 till 0,01 mm and searching strains were cultured in Erlenmeyyers flasks by surface method on standard glucose-peptone culture medium. Determination of total content of polyphenolic compounds was carried out in ethanol extracts of mycological material by a modified method of Folin-Chokalteu. Completely dry biomass of carpophores and mycelium was determined gravimetrically. Results. There was identified the species of polyporal fungi Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Laetiporus sulphureus and Fomes fomentarius and types of agarical mushrooms Stropharia rugosoannulata, Agrocybe cylindracea, Tricholoma flavovirens, Flammulina velutipes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Fistulina hepatica high in polyphenolic compounds. It was determined the content of polyphenols ranging from more than 60 mg / g completely dry biomass. For introduced strains established dynamics of growth and accumulation of polyphenolic compounds in the mycelium and culture filtrate during fermentation on glucose-peptone medium. All cultures reach a maximum accumulation of biomass on the 12th day of growth. Shizophyllum commune Sc-1101 and 10 and F. velutipes F-202 have been identified as the most productive strains. The lowest accumulation of absolutely dry biomass was recorded for strain P. ostreatus P-192 and strain F. fomentarius Ff-09. Cultures have investigated individual value growth such as biomass accumulation in the applied cultivation conditions, which probably reflects the suitability of the medium for their growth and genotypic characteristics. Strains are overwhelmingly able to accumulate polyphenolic compounds in both mycelium and

  14. Fresh-keeping of mushroom by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Xu Hongqing; Wang Hong; Cai Jian

    2003-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co γ irradiation on the preservation of Agaricus bisporus were studied. The results showed that after irradiation the mushroom had lower rates of membrane split, opening of pilei, browning, decomposition and lose of fresh weight. The fresh keeping period of mushroom irradiated with 1.2 kGy and stored at 4 degree C was prolonged to 30 days

  15. Accuracy of sampling during mushroom cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments described in this report were performed to increase the accuracy of the analysis of the biological efficiency of Agaricus bisporus strains. Biological efficiency is a measure of the efficiency with which the mushroom strains use dry matter in the compost to produce mushrooms (expressed

  16. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  17. Temperature Control System for Mushroom Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, I. A.; Indah, Nur; Sebayang, D.; Adam, N. H.

    2018-03-01

    The main problem in mushroom cultivation is the handling after the harvest. Drying is one technique to preserve the mushrooms. Traditionally, mushrooms are dried by sunshine which depends on the weather. This affects the quality of the dried mushrooms. Therefore, this paper proposes a system to provide an artificial drying for mushrooms in order to maintain their quality. The objective of the system is to control the mushroom drying process to be faster compared to the natural drying at an accurate and right temperature. A model of the mushroom dryer has been designed, built, and tested. The system comprises a chamber, heater, blower, temperature sensor and electronic control circuit. A microcontroller is used as the controller which is programmed to implement a bang-bang control that regulates the temperature of the chamber. A desired temperature is inputted as a set point of the control system. Temperature of 45 °C is chosen as the operational drying temperature. Several tests have been carried out to examine the performance of the system including drying speed, the effects of ambient conditions, and the effects of mushroom size. The results show that the system can satisfy the objective.

  18. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  19. Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Enshasy, Hesham A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2013-12-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been used as food and medicine in different cultures. More recently, many bioactive compounds have been isolated from different types of mushrooms. Among these, immunomodulators have gained much interest based on the increasing growth of the immunotherapy sector. Mushroom immunomodulators are classified under four categories based on their chemical nature as: lectins, terpenoids, proteins, and polysaccharides. These compounds are produced naturally in mushrooms cultivated in greenhouses. For effective industrial production, cultivation is carried out in submerged culture to increase the bioactive compound yield, decrease the production time, and reduce the cost of downstream processing. This review provides a comprehensive overview on mushroom immunomodulators in terms of chemistry, industrial production, and applications in medical and nonmedical sectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Shiitake Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Higher Basidiomycetes) Productivity and Lignocellulolytic Enzyme Profiles during Wheat Straw and Tree Leaf Bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Asatiani, Mikheil D

    2015-01-01

    Two commercial strains of Lentinus edodes have been comparatively evaluated for their productivity and lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles in mushroom cultivation using wheat straw or tree leaves as the growth substrates. Both substrates are profitable for recycling into shiitake fruit bodies. L. edodes 3715 gave the lowest yield of mushroom during tree leaves bioconversion with the biological efficiency (BE) 74.8% while the L. edodes 3721 BE achieved 83.4%. Cultivation of shiitake on wheat straw, especially in the presence of additional nitrogen source, increased the L. edodes 3721 BE to 92-95.3% owing to the high hydrolases activity and favorable conditions. Despite the quantitative variations, each strain of L. edodes had a similar pattern for secreting enzymes into the wheat straw and tree leaves. The mushrooms laccase and MnP activities were high during substrate colonization and declined rapidly during primordia appearance and fruit body development. While oxidase activity decreased, during the same period cellulases and xylanase activity raised sharply. Both cellulase and xylanase activity peaked at the mature fruit body stage. When mushrooms again shifted to the vegetative growth, oxidase activity gradually increased, whereas the hydrolases activity dropped rapidly. The MnP, CMCase, and FP activities of L. edodes 3721 during cultivation on wheat straw were higher than those during mushroom growth on tree leaves whereas the laccase activity was rather higher in fermentation of tree leaves. Enrichment of wheat straw with an additional nitrogen source rather favored to laccase, MnP, and FPA secretion during the vegetative stage of the L. edodes 3721 growth.

  1. Dietary polyphenols and chromatin remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gian Luigi; Vastolo, Viviana; Ciccarelli, Marco; Albano, Luigi; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Ungaro, Paola

    2017-08-13

    Polyphenols are the most abundant phytochemicals in fruits, vegetables, and plant-derived beverages. Recent findings suggest that polyphenols display the ability to reverse adverse epigenetic regulation involved in pathological conditions, such as obesity, metabolic disorder, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and various forms of cancer. Epigenetics, defined as heritable changes to the transcriptome, independent from those occurring in the genome, includes DNA methylation, histone modifications, and posttranscriptional gene regulation by noncoding RNAs. Sinergistically and cooperatively, these processes regulate gene expression by changing chromatin organization and DNA accessibility. Such induced epigenetic changes can be inherited during cell division, resulting in permanent maintenance of the acquired phenotype, but they may also occur throughout an individual life-course and may ultimately influence phenotypic outcomes (health and disease risk). In the last decade, a number of studies have shown that nutrients can affect metabolic traits by altering the structure of chromatin and directly regulate both transcription and translational processes. In this context, dietary polyphenol-targeted epigenetics becomes an attractive approach for disease prevention and intervention. Here, we will review how polyphenols, including flavonoids, curcuminoids, and stilbenes, modulate the establishment and maintenance of key epigenetic marks, thereby influencing gene expression and, hence, disease risk and health.

  2. Changes in polyphenol profile of dried apricots containing SO2 at various concentrations during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altındağ, Melek; Türkyılmaz, Meltem; Özkan, Mehmet

    2018-05-01

    Changes in polyphenols have important effects on the quality (especially color) and health benefits of dried apricots. SO 2 concentration, storage and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were factors which had significant effects on polyphenols. Polyphenol profile and activities of PPO and PAL in sulfured dried apricots (SDAs, 0, 451, 832, 2112 and 3241 mg SO 2 kg -1 ) were monitored during storage at 4, 20 and 30 °C for 379 days for the first time. Even the lowest SO 2 concentration (451 mg kg -1 ) was sufficient to inactivate PPO during the entire storage period. However, while SO 2 led to the increase in PAL activity of the samples (r = 0.767) before storage, PAL activities of SDAs decreased during storage. After 90 days of storage, PAL activity was determined in only non-sulfured dried apricots (NSDAs) and dried apricots containing 451 mg SO 2 kg -1 . Although the major polyphenol in NSDAs was epicatechin (611.4 mg kg -1 ), that in SDAs was chlorogenic acid (455-1508 mg kg -1 ), followed by epicatechin (0-426.8 mg kg -1 ), rutin (148.9-477.3 mg kg -1 ), ferulic acid (23.3-55.3 mg kg -1 ) and gallic acid (2.4-43.6 mg kg -1 ). After storage at 30 °C for 379 days, the major polyphenol in SDAs was gallic acid (706-2324 mg kg -1 ). However, the major polyphenol in NSDAs did not change after storage. The highest total polyphenol content was detected in SDAs containing 2112 mg SO 2 kg -1 and stored at 30 °C. To produce dried apricots having high polyphenol content, ∼2000 mg SO 2 kg -1 should be used. Low storage temperature (<30 °C) was not necessary for the protection of polyphenols. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Mushroom flora and associated insect fauna in Nsukka Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mushroom flora and associated insect pests of mushrooms in Nsukka urban was studied. The abundance of mushrooms from sampled communites is indicaed with the family, Agaricaceae predominating “out of home” environment yielded more mushrooms (4.62) than the homestead environment (3.26). Insect pests ...

  4. Current Overview of Mushroom Production in the World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royse, Daniel J.; Baars, J.J.P.; Tan, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Edible, medicinal, and wild mushrooms are the three major components of the global mushroom industry. World production of cultivated, edible mushrooms has increased more than 30‐fold since 1978. China is the main producer of cultivated, edible mushrooms. Lentinus edodes is now the world's leading

  5. Nutrient Management in Aquaponics: Comparison of Three Approaches for Cultivating Lettuce, Mint and Mushroom Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Nozzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients that are contained in aquaculture effluent may not supply sufficient levels of nutrients for proper plant development and growth in hydroponics; therefore, they need to be supplemented. To determine the required level of supplementation, three identical aquaponic systems (A, B, and C and one hydroponic system (D were stocked with lettuce, mint, and mushroom herbs. The aquaponic systems were stocked with Nile tilapia. System A only received nutrients derived from fish feed; system B received nutrients from fish feed as well as weekly supplements of micronutrients and Fe; system C received the same nutrients as B, with weekly supplements of the macronutrients, P and K; in system D, a hydroponic inorganic solution containing N, Ca, and the same nutrients as system C was added weekly. Lettuce achieved the highest yields in system C, mint in system B, and mushroom herb in systems A and B. The present study demonstrated that the nutritional requirements of the mint and mushroom herb make them suitable for aquaponic farming because they require low levels of supplement addition, and hence little management effort, resulting in minimal cost increases. While the addition of supplements accelerated the lettuce growth (Systems B, C, and even surpassed the growth in hydroponic (System C vs. D, the nutritional quality (polyphenols, nitrate content was better without supplementation.

  6. Oil palm empty fruit bunch as media for mushroom cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Wan Badrin Wan Husin; Tajuddin Osman; Tamikazu Kume; Shinpei Matsuhashi

    1998-01-01

    The mushroom strains Pleurotus sajor caju(grey oyster mushroom), Pleurotus flavellatus((pink oyster mushroom), Pleurotus cystidiosus(abalone mushroom) and Auricularia polytricha (black jelly mushroom) grow satisfactorily on the EFB media treated with lime. Based on their Biological Efficiency (BE) or yield, the strain Pleurotus sajor caju was selected for further investigation. The BE of the Pleurotus sajor caju was 73.8 %. The lime treatment, aeration and four weeks incubation period was necessary for fruiting

  7. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistiya; Retno Lantarsih; Titop Dwiwinarno*

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrome...

  8. Performance of mushroom fruiting for large scale commercial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rosol Awang; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mohd Meswan Maskom

    2012-01-01

    The paper described the determination of mushroom fruiting yield, which is vital to economics of mushroom production. Consistency in mushroom yields enabling an estimation to be made for revenues and hence profitability could be predicted. It has been reported by many growers, there are a large variation in mushroom yields over different times of production. To assess such claims we have run four batches of mushroom fruiting and the performance fruiting body productions are presented. (author)

  9. Oxidase-based biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramesh, Hemalata; Woodley, John; Krühne, Ulrich

    interestingbiocatalystsbecause they use a mild oxidant (oxygen) as a substrateas opposed to their chemical counterparts which use strong oxidants such as permanganates. A class of oxidases calledmonoamine oxidases has been used as the central case study for the thesis. The rationale for choosing thissystemis that it has been...

  10. Reducing Shrinkage in Canned and Frozen Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan); Walshe, P.E.

    1982-01-01

    The process involving a preliminary soaking of the mushrooms in water for 20 min followed by a chill storage period followed by a further water soak for 2 hr, and known as the 3S process, gave a considerable reduction in total shrinkage in both brown and white strain canned mushrooms compared with the control samples. Water uptake by the mushrooms in the 3S process was greatest when the soaking water temperature was between 20 and 30°C and had a pH of 8. Citric acid in the blanch water enhanc...

  11. In vitro antioxidant, lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of fractions from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav., Sida alba L. and Sida acuta Burn f. (Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaté, K; Souza, A; Coulibaly, A Y; Meda, N T R; Kiendrebeogo, M; Lamien-Meda, A; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J; Lamidi, M; Nacoulma, O G

    2010-11-15

    In this study polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, lipoxygenase (LOX) and Xanthine Oxidase (XO) inhibitory effects of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of aqueous acetone extracts from S. alba L., S. acuta Burn f and Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. were investigated. The total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and total tannins were determined by spectrophotometric methods using Folin-ciocalteu, AlCl3 reagents and tannic acid, respectively. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using three methods: inhibition of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydramzyl (DPPH), ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and Iron (III) to iron (II) reduction activity (FRAP). For enzymatic activity, lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities were used. This study shows a relationship between polyphenol contents, antioxidant and enzymatic activities. Present results showed that ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions elicit the highest polyphenol content, antioxidant and enzymatic activities.

  12. Contribution of Polyphenol Oxidation, Chlorophyll and Vitamin C Degradation to the Blackening of Piper nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Huang, Feifei; Wu, Guiping; Zhu, Hongying

    2018-02-09

    Black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.) is the most widely used spice in the world. Blackening is considered to be beneficial and important in the processing of black pepper because it contributes to its color and flavor. The purpose of this paper is to investigate polyphenol oxidation as well as the chlorophyll and vitamin C (VC) degradation in the blackening of Piper nigrum L. Black pepper was produced by four methods, and changes in polyphenols, chlorophyll and VC were studied by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultraviolet-visible and visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry. The results show that polyphenol oxidase activity significantly decreased during the preparation of black pepper, and the concentrations of phenolic compounds, VC, and chlorophyll a and b also significantly decreased. Polyphenol oxidation and chlorophyll and VC degradation contribute to the blackening. A crude extract of phenolic compounds from black pepper was prepared by the system solvent method. The greater the polarity of the extraction solvent, the higher the extraction rates of the phenolic compounds and the total phenol content. Pepper phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC analysis.

  13. Contribution of Polyphenol Oxidation, Chlorophyll and Vitamin C Degradation to the Blackening of Piper nigrum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Gu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is the most widely used spice in the world. Blackening is considered to be beneficial and important in the processing of black pepper because it contributes to its color and flavor. The purpose of this paper is to investigate polyphenol oxidation as well as the chlorophyll and vitamin C (VC degradation in the blackening of Piper nigrum L. Black pepper was produced by four methods, and changes in polyphenols, chlorophyll and VC were studied by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and ultraviolet-visible and visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The results show that polyphenol oxidase activity significantly decreased during the preparation of black pepper, and the concentrations of phenolic compounds, VC, and chlorophyll a and b also significantly decreased. Polyphenol oxidation and chlorophyll and VC degradation contribute to the blackening. A crude extract of phenolic compounds from black pepper was prepared by the system solvent method. The greater the polarity of the extraction solvent, the higher the extraction rates of the phenolic compounds and the total phenol content. Pepper phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC analysis.

  14. Inhibition of rat mammary microsomal oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde by plant polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, María Eugenia; Castro, José Alberto; Castro, Gerardo Daniel

    2011-07-01

    We previously reported that the microsomal fraction from rat mammary tissue is able to oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, a mutagenic-carcinogenic metabolite, depending on the presence of NADPH and oxygen but not inhibited by carbon monoxide or other cytochrome P450 inhibitors. The process was strongly inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium, a known inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, and by nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of lipoxygenases. This led us to suggest that both enzymes could be involved. With the purpose of identifying natural compounds present in food with the ability to decrease the production of acetaldehyde in mammary tissue, in the present studies, several plant polyphenols having inhibitory effects on lipoxygenases and of antioxidant nature were tested as potential inhibitors of the rat mammary tissue microsomal pathway of ethanol oxidation. We included in the present screening study 32 polyphenols having ready availability and that were also tested against the rat mammary tissue cytosolic metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Several polyphenols were also able to inhibit the microsomal ethanol oxidation at concentrations as low was 10-50 μM. The results of these screening experiments suggest the potential of several plant polyphenols to prevent in vivo production and accumulation of acetaldehyde in mammary tissue.

  15. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrometer and nozzle, and education and training bookkeeping, marketing, and processing waste into mushroom compost. The results showed an increase in the production of mushroom seen from the Biological Conversion Efficiency (BCE are in the top 30 percent. Partners also has a business bookkeeping and have Blog to market the mushroom by on-line. Partners also have the skills to process the manure (compost made from the waste of mushroom which can be used to help fertilize their crops.

  16. Ameliorative Effect of Different Concentration of Mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    ameliorative effect of mushroom in the post-experimental stage. Samples of liver and ... except in the liver which showed mild periportal chronic inflammatory cell. However, the .... alcohol for 12 hours and through absolute alcohol to remove ...

  17. Investigations on Mushroom Storage and Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömür Dündar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers on storage and quality properties of mushrooms cultivated in the world and Turkey have been investigated. Mushrooms contain some important minerals and vitamins such as iron, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, copper and folate, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B, C, D and also they are a good source of carbohydrate and protein. After harvest, to extend the shelf life of mushrooms, some applications such as pre-cooling, storage in appropriate temperature, use of different types of polyethylene packaging, modified atmosphere packaging, nitric oxide and UV light applications were done on mushrooms. The effects of these applications on physical and chemical features such as like weight loss, firmness, cap opening rate, cap diameter, stem diameter, browning, colour, respiration rate, enzymatic reactions, total phenols, total sugars, aminoacid content were investigated.

  18. Cellular Targets of Dietary Polyphenol Resveratrol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Joseph M

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that resveratrol, a grape derived polyphenol, exerts its chemopreventive properties against prostate cancer by interacting with specific cellular targets, denoted resveratrol targeting proteins (RTPs...

  19. Flagellate dermatitis following consumption of shiitake mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Voon Loo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Japanese dermatologists were the first to describe the very characteristic flagellate dermatitis following consumption of under-cooked or raw shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes. These similar eruptions were also reported in patients treated with bleomycin, in dermatomyositis and adult onset Still’s disease. We report a case where a 40 year old chinese female developed flagellate dermatitis following ingestion of a bun containing shiitake mushroom.

  20. Resveratrol protects vascular endothelial cells from high glucose-induced apoptosis through inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation-driven oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Qian, Li-Hua; Deng, Bo; Liu, Zhi-Min; Zhao, Ying; Le, Ying-Ying

    2013-09-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress has been implicated in diabetic vascular complications in which NADPH oxidase is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol, which has vasoprotective effects in diabetic animal models and inhibits high glucose (HG)-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells. We aimed to examine whether HG-induced NADPH oxidase activation and ROS production contribute to glucotoxicity to endothelial cells and the effect of resveratrol on glucotoxicity. Using a murine brain microvascular endothelial cell line bEnd3, we found that NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin) and resveratrol both inhibited HG-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. HG-induced elevation of NADPH oxidase activity and production of ROS were inhibited by apocynin, suggesting that HG induces endothelial cell apoptosis through NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production. Mechanistic studies revealed that HG upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit Nox1 but not Nox2, Nox4, and p22(phox) expression through NF-κB activation, which resulted in elevation of NADPH oxidase activity and consequent ROS production. Resveratrol prevented HG-induced endothelial cell apoptosis through inhibiting HG-induced NF-κB activation, NADPH oxidase activity elevation, and ROS production. HG induces endothelial cell apoptosis through NF-κB/NADPH oxidase/ROS pathway, which was inhibited by resveratrol. Our findings provide new potential therapeutic targets against brain vascular complications of diabetes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mushrooms, trees, and money: value estimates of commercial mushrooms and timber in the pacific northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Susan J; Pilz, David; Weber, Nancy S; Brown, Ed; Rockwell, Victoria A

    2002-07-01

    Wild edible mushrooms are harvested in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, where both trees and mushrooms grow in the same landscape. Although there has been some discussion about the value of trees and mushrooms individually, little information exists about the joint production of, and value for, these two forest products. Through four case studies, the information needed to determine production and value for three wild mushroom species in different forests of the Pacific Northwest is described, and present values for several different forest management scenarios are presented. The values for timber and for mushrooms are site- and species-specific. On the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, timber is highly valued and chanterelles are a low-value product by weight; timber has a soil expectation value (SEV) 12 to 200 times higher than chanterelles. In south-central Oregon, timber and American matsutake mushrooms have the potential to have about the same SEV. In eastern Oregon, timber is worth 20 to 110 times as much as the morels that grow in the forest. Production economics is concerned with choices about how much and what to produce with what resources. The choices are influenced by changes in technical and economic circumstances. Through our description and analysis of the necessary definitions and assumptions to assess value in joint production of timber and wild mushrooms, we found that values are sensitive to assumptions about changes in forest management, yields for mushrooms and trees, and costs.

  2. Oxidases as Breast Cancer Oncogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeldandi, Anjana

    2000-01-01

    ...) in a non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cell line to ascertain whether oxidase overexpressing cells undergo transformation when exposed to substrate xanthine for XOX and uric acid for UOX...

  3. Glucose oxidase variants with improved properities

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Rainer; Ostafe, Raluca; Prodanovic, Radivoje

    2014-01-01

    Source: WO14173822A3 [EN] The technology provided herein relates to novel variants of microbial glucose oxidase with improved properties, more specifically to polypeptides having glucose oxidase activity as their major enzymatic activity; to nucleic acid molecules encoding said glucose oxidases; vectors and host cells containing the nucleic acids and methods for producing the glucose oxidase; compositions comprising said glucose oxidase; methods for the preparation and production of such enzy...

  4. NADPH Oxidases: Progress and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    San Martin, Alejandra; Griendling, Kathy K.

    2014-01-01

    From the initial discovery in 1999 that NADPH oxidases comprise a family of enzymes to our current focus on drug development to treat multiple pathologies related to this enzyme family, progress has been swift and impressive. We have expanded our understanding of the extent of the family, the basic enzymatic biochemistry, the multiple cellular functions controlled by NADPH oxidases, and their varied roles in physiology and diseases. We have developed numerous cell culture tools, animal models...

  5. Polyphenols as enzyme inhibitors in different degraded peat soils: Implication for microbial metabolism in rewetted peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Dominik; Roth, Cyril; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Fenner, Nathalie; Reuter, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    Recently, more than 30,000 ha of drained minerotrophic peatlands (= fens) in NE Germany were rewetted to restore their ecological functions. Due to an extended drainage history, a re-establishment of their original state is not expected in the short-term. Elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, ammonium and phosphate have been measured in the soil porewater of the upper degraded peat layers of rewetted fens at levels of one to three orders higher than the values in pristine systems; an indicator of increased microbial activity in the upper degraded soil layers. On the other hand there is evidence that the substrate availability within the degraded peat layer is lowered since the organic matter has formerly been subject to intense decomposition over the decades of drainage and intense agricultural use of the areas. Previously however, it was suggested that inhibition of hydrolytic enzymes by polyphenolic substances is suspended during aeration of peat soils mainly due to the decomposition of the inhibiting polyphenols by oxidising enzymes such as phenol oxidase. Accordingly we hypothesised a lack of enzyme inhibiting polyphenols in degraded peat soils of rewetted fens compared to less decomposed peat of more natural fens. We collected both peat samples at the soil surface (0-20 cm) and fresh roots of dominating vascular plants and mosses (as peat parent material) from five formerly drained rewetted sites and five more natural sites of NE Germany and NW Poland. Less decomposed peat and living roots were used to obtain an internal standard for polyphenol analysis and to run enzyme inhibition tests. For all samples we determined the total phenolic contents and in addition we distinguished between the contents of hydrolysable and condensed tannic substances. From a methodical perspective the advantage of internal standards compared to the commercially available standards cyanidin chloride and tannic acid became apparent. Quantification with cyanidin or

  6. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  7. Effect of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) mycelia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) mycelia on petroleum ... of chains of hydrocarbon in a petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated substrate over time. ... Keywords: Mycoremediation, Mycelia, Contaminated Soil, Oyster Mushroom ...

  8. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation technique using re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... using re-usable substrate containers and comparison of ... oyster mushrooms in combination with other vegetables complements availability of various essential ..... higher than from oyster mushrooms produced from any.

  9. A Review of Polyphenolics in Oak Woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenolics, which are ubiquitous in plants, currently are among the most studied phytochemicals because of their perceptible chemical properties and antioxidant activity. Oak barrels and their alternatives, which are widely used in winemaking nowadays, contribute polyphenolics to wines and are thought to play crucial roles in the development of wines during aging. This study summarizes the detailed information of polyphenolics in oak woods and their products by examining their structures and discussing their chemical reactions during wine aging. This paper evaluates the most recent developments in polyphenolic chemistry by summarizing their extraction, separation, and their identification by the use of chromatographic and spectral techniques. In addition, this paper also introduces polyphenol bioactive ingredients in other plant foods.

  10. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in t...

  11. Mushroom cultivation in Brazil: challenges and potential for growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,Eustáquio Souza

    2010-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is rapidly expanding in Brazil because Brazilians have discovered the medicinal and culinary value of mushrooms and their economic situation has improved. However, the horticultural technology for cultivating mushrooms under Brazilian conditions is lacking. For many years, the mushroom cultivation technology used in Brazil was adapted from developed countries whose materials and climate were different from those of Brazil. In order to exploit the Brazilian potential for m...

  12. Dung-associated, Potentially Hallucinogenic Mushrooms from Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Wen Wang; Shean-Shong Tzean

    2015-01-01

    To identify potentially hallucinogenic mushrooms, dung-associated mushrooms collected from Qingtiangang, Yangmingshan National Park were subjected to a detailed morphological investigation and phylogentic analysis. The investigation identified four taxa: a recorded species (Panaeolus antillarum); a new combination (Conocybe nitrophila); and two new species (Psilocybe angulospora, Protostropharia ovalispora). Morphological and molecular characteristics of the collected mushrooms were compared ...

  13. Cultivation of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus spp.) on palm oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oyster mushroom is a popular mushroom due to its nutritional, medicinal and potential commercial value. In Malaysia, the fungus is currently cultivated on sawdust and rice husk. In this study, the efficiency of cultivating oyster mushroom was assessed using palm oil mesocarp fibre as a substrate. The experiment consisted ...

  14. A resource efficiency assessment of the industrial mushroom production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Becerra Ramírez, Henry A.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Boom, Remko M.

    2016-01-01

    We compare the exergetic performance of a conventional industrial mushroom production chain with a mushroom production chain where part of the compost waste is recycled and reused as raw material. The critical exergy loss points (CEPs) identified are the cooking-out process of the spent mushroom

  15. Proximate and mineral composition of four edible mushroom species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Key words: Edible mushrooms; food composition. INTRODUCTION. Mushrooms are saprophytes. ... riboflavin, biotin and thiamine (Chang and Buswell,. 1996). Ogundana and Fagade (1981) indicated that ... Four edible mushroom species were analyzed for food composition according to the Association of Official Analytical ...

  16. Vitamin D-fortified chitosan films from mushroom waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk bases from mushroom waste were treated with UV-B light to rapidly increase vitamin D2 content. Chitin was also recovered from this waste and converted into chitosan by N-deacetylation. FTIR spectra showed that the mushroom chitosan were similar to chitosan fr...

  17. Symbiosis and synergy: Can mushrooms and timber be managed together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally. Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Recreational and tribal use of mushrooms has been historically important, and during the last two decades, commercial demand for mushrooms has burgeoned. A large nontimber forest product market in the Pacific Northwest is for various species of wild edible mushrooms. Many of these species grow symbiotically with forest trees by forming nutrient exchange structures...

  18. Mineral Composition of Four Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Mallikarjuna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivated mushroom species, namely, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus florida and two wild growing species Lentinus cladopus and Pleurotus djamor were studied for their mineral contents such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Se, Pb, and Cd by Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES and also Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, (AAS. Phosphorus was estimated by spectrophotometric method. K, Ca, Na, and P were in higher concentrations ranging from 59.3 mg to 3634 mg, 8.27 mg–174.9 mg, 22.2 mg–327.4 mg, and 100.5 mg–769.9 mg/100 g dry weight respectively in the four mushroom species studied. Fe, Zn, Mg and Se were ranging from 6.27 mg to 35.3 mg, 1.58 mg–9.44 mg, 21.1 mg–40.7 mg and 0.048 mg–0.182 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively, amongst the mushroom species analyzed. However, Ni, Cu, and Mn contents showed relatively lower concentrations, whereas Pb and Cd were below detectable level. The mushrooms were safe for consumption, in accordance with the permissible tolerance limits of the estimated toxic metals. Implications of the mineral contents on mushroom nutritional value are highlighted.

  19. Flavonoid glycosides isolated from unique legume plant extracts as novel inhibitors of xanthine oxidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysoula Spanou

    Full Text Available Legumes and the polyphenolic compounds present in them have gained a lot of interest due to their beneficial health implications. Dietary polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, exert antioxidant properties and are potent inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (XO activity. XO is the main contributor of free radicals during exercise but it is also involved in pathogenesis of several diseases such as vascular disorders, cancer and gout. In order to discover new natural, dietary XO inhibitors, some polyphenolic fractions and pure compounds isolated from two legume plant extracts were tested for their effects on XO activity. The fractions isolated from both Vicia faba and Lotus edulis plant extracts were potent inhibitors of XO with IC(50 values range from 40-135 µg/mL and 55-260 µg/mL, respectively. All the pure polyphenolic compounds inhibited XO and their K(i values ranged from 13-767 µM. Ten of the compounds followed the non competitive inhibitory model whereas one of them was a competitive inhibitor. These findings indicate that flavonoid isolates from legume plant extracts are novel, natural XO inhibitors. Their mode of action is under investigation in order to examine their potential in drug design for diseases related to overwhelming XO action.

  20. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Hanhineva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic b-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  1. Wine polyphenols: potential agents in neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols.

  2. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols. PMID:22829964

  3. Radiocaesium - 137 in cultivated and woodland mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, S.; Stankovic, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the present work the results obtained for activity levels of 137 Cs in samples of cultivated mushrooms (Champignons - Agaricus Silvicola Vitt. Peck.) and woodland fruits ( Chantarelle - Cantarelus Cibarius Fr.; Bollets -Boletus Edulis. ex Fr. and Black Trumpets - Cratarelus Conucopioides) are presented. These samples were collected from 1991 to 1996. Biodiversity of the mushrooms regarding their uptake of radionuclides was found. Thus, the maximum value of 137 Cs activity was found in the sample of dry Bollets 375 Bq/kg in 1993. Moreover, the mean activity level of this species was much higher (126 + - 10 Bq/kg) in 1996. than, levels found in any samples taken from the same environment. (author)

  4. Rating of cesium contamination of wild mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Zapletal, M.; Friedrich, M.; Haider, W.

    1988-08-01

    'Rating' means here a 5-fold scale with the ranges: more than 100 nCi/kg raw weight - 'very high'; 300 - 100; 3 - 30; 1 - 3; less than 1 nCi/kg - 'very low'. A list of some 50 - 60 different kinds of mushrooms are listed and evaluated in this scale, as from 1988 and from a region with a high Chernobyl fallout. As a comparison, contamination values of 12 mushroom sorts from before the Chernobyl accident, coming from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, are also given. 2 figs., 5 tabs. (qui)

  5. Lysyl oxidase in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine T

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent form of cancer worldwide and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, leading to ~600,000 deaths annually, predominantly affecting the developed world. Lysyl oxidase is a secreted, extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme previously suggested...... to act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. However, emerging evidence has rapidly implicated lysyl oxidase in promoting metastasis of solid tumors and in particular colorectal cancer at multiple stages, affecting tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. This emerging research has...... advancements in the field of colorectal cancer....

  6. Microcontroller based automatic temperature control for oyster mushroom plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, P.; Astuti, T. P.; Herriyance; Sitompul, D.

    2018-03-01

    In the cultivation of Oyster Mushrooms need special treatment because oyster mushrooms are susceptible to disease. Mushroom growth will be inhibited if the temperature and humidity are not well controlled because temperature and inertia can affect mold growth. Oyster mushroom growth usually will be optimal at temperatures around 22-28°C and humidity around 70-90%. This problem is often encountered in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. Therefore it is very important to control the temperature and humidity of the room of oyster mushroom cultivation. In this paper, we developed an automatic temperature monitoring tool in the cultivation of oyster mushroom-based Arduino Uno microcontroller. We have designed a tool that will control the temperature and humidity automatically by Android Smartphone. If the temperature increased more than 28°C in the room of mushroom plants, then this tool will turn on the pump automatically to run water in order to lower the room temperature. And if the room temperature of mushroom plants below of 22°C, then the light will be turned on in order to heat the room. Thus the temperature in the room oyster mushrooms will remain stable so that the growth of oyster mushrooms can grow with good quality.

  7. Paenalcaligenes suwonensis sp. nov., isolated from spent mushroom compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Young; Lim, Jun-Muk; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Kim, Soo-Jin

    2014-03-01

    A bacterial strain, ABC02-12(T), was isolated from spent mushroom compost, a waste product of button mushroom cultivation. Cells of the strain were Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-spore-forming, aerobic flagellated rods. Optimum growth occurred at 28 °C and pH 7.0. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain ABC02-12(T) shared the highest sequence similarities with Paenalcaligenes hominis CCUG 53761A(T) (96.0 %), Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis G(T) (95.7 %), Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis IAM 12369(T) (95.4 %) and Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9(T) (95.3 %). According to the phylogenetic tree, strain ABC02-12(T) formed a robust cluster with Paenalcaligenes hominis CCUG 53761A(T) and Paenalcaligenes hermetiae KBL009(T). The quinone system was ubiquinone Q-8 with minor amounts of Q-7. The major fatty acids (>5 % of total fatty acids) were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c (summed feature 3), C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c (summed feature 8), C17 : 0 cyclo, and iso-C16 : 1 I, C14 : 0 3-OH and/or an unknown fatty acid (summed feature 2). The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unknown aminolipid. Putrescine was the principal polyamine, with small amounts of 2-hydroxyputrescine and cadaverine. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain ABC02-12(T) is a representative of a novel species within the genus Paenalcaligenes, for which the name Paenalcaligenes suwonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ABC02-12(T) ( = KACC 16537(T) = NBRC 108927(T)).

  8. Polyphenol extract from Phellinus igniarius protects against acrolein toxicity in vitro and provides protection in a mouse stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suabjakyong, Papawee; Saiki, Ryotaro; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Higashi, Kyohei; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Kazuei; Toida, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    The basidiomycetous mushroom Phellinus igniarius (L.) Quel. has been used as traditional medicine in various Asian countries for many years. Although many reports exist on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects against various diseases, our current knowledge of its effect on stroke is very limited. Stroke is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress is a key hallmark. Following the 2005 discovery by Igarashi's group that acrolein produced from polyamines in vivo is a major cause of cell damage by oxidative stress, we now describe the effects of anti-oxidative extracts from P. igniarius on symptoms of experimentally induced stroke in mice. The toxicity of acrolein was compared with that of hydrogen peroxide in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line (FM3A). We found that the complete inhibition of FM3A cell growth by 5 μM acrolein could be prevented by crude ethanol extract of P. igniarius at 0.5 μg/ml. Seven polyphenol compounds named 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-3-buten-2one, inonoblin C, phelligridin D, inoscavin C, phelligridin C and interfungin B were identified from this ethanolic extract by LCMS and 1H NMR. Polyphenol-containing extracts of P. igniarius were then used to prevent acrolein toxicity in a mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cell line. The results suggested that Neuro-2a cells were protected from acrolein toxicity at 2 and 5 μM by this polyphenol extract at 0.5 and 2 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, in mice with experimentally induced stroke, intraperitoneal treatment with P. igniarius polyphenol extract at 20 μg/kg caused a reduction of the infarction volume by 62.2% compared to untreated mice. These observations suggest that the polyphenol extract of P. igniarius could serve to prevent ischemic stroke.

  9. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin. PMID:19325788

  10. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  11. Dietary Polyphenols in the Prevention of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tressera-Rimbau

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols have an important protective role against a number of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, brain dysfunction, stroke, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death worldwide: more people die annually from cardiovascular diseases than from any other cause. The most important behavioural risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excess alcohol intake. The dietary consumption of polyphenols has shown to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality by cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. It is well-known that the protective effects of polyphenols in vivo depend on the grade how they are extracted from food and on their intestinal absorption, metabolism, and biological action with target tissues. The aim of this review was to summarise the relation between polyphenols of different plant sources and stroke in human intervention studies, animal models, and in vitro studies.

  12. Dietary Polyphenols in the Prevention of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, M.

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols have an important protective role against a number of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, brain dysfunction, stroke, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death worldwide: more people die annually from cardiovascular diseases than from any other cause. The most important behavioural risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excess alcohol intake. The dietary consumption of polyphenols has shown to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality by cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. It is well-known that the protective effects of polyphenols in vivo depend on the grade how they are extracted from food and on their intestinal absorption, metabolism, and biological action with target tissues. The aim of this review was to summarise the relation between polyphenols of different plant sources and stroke in human intervention studies, animal models, and in vitro studies. PMID:29204249

  13. Study of irradiation effect on curcuma polyphenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejeb, Imen

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin (Curcuma Longa rhizome) component, particularly the polyphenolic fraction. Powdered rhizome was irradiated at 0, 5, 10 and 15 KGy (dose rate of 6 KGy / H). Polyphenolics were extracted and total polyphenols conent (TPC) was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The irradiation effect was also evaluated by the HPLC technique. The chromatographic analysis showed that the irradiated and non-irradiated curcumin spectrum gave similar data. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the phenolic extracts were also assessed. the anti oxidative potential of the sample was evaluated using two radical scavenging methods with DPPH and ABTS. The antimicrobial analysis showed that the phenolic extracts of curcumin inhibited the growth of the studied microorganisms. Our results showed that irradiated samples were not affected in terms of polyphenols content and characteristics. (Author)

  14. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenols from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the medicinal plants were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic micro organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Esherichia coli and Candida albicans). The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and antioxidant activities. In addition, varying ...

  15. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with mushroom worker's lung: an update on the clinical significance of the importation of exotic mushroom varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E; Convery, Rory P; Millar, B Cherie; Rao, Juluri R; Elborn, J Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis remains an important industrial disease in mushroom workers. It has a significant morbidity, and early diagnosis and removal from exposure to the antigen are critically important in its management. Recently, several new allergens have been described, particularly those from mushroom species originating in the Far East, which are of clinical significance to workers occupationally exposed to such allergens in cultivation, picking, and packing of commercial mushroom crops. Importing of exotic mushrooms including Shiitake is common in EU countries, and some of the exotic species of mushrooms are cultivated for local markets. This practice may contribute to an increase in clinical cases of mushroom hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This update reviews the recent literature and examines changing trends of mushroom worker's lung, with increased movement of commercial product and labour markets worldwide.

  16. Polyphenols: skin photoprotection and inhibition of photocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaq, F; Katiyar, S K

    2011-12-01

    Polyphenols are a large family of naturally occurring plant products and are widely distributed in plant foods, such as, fruits, vegetables, nuts, flowers, bark and seeds, etc. These polyphenols contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary products. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of the skin to environmental factors/pollutants, such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induce harmful effects and leads to various skin diseases including the risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer, comprising of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, is a significant public health concern world-wide. Exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation results in inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways and immunosuppression thereby resulting in skin cancer. The regular intake of natural plant products, especially polyphenols, which are widely present in fruits, vegetables, dry legumes and beverages have gained considerable attention as protective agents against the adverse effects of UV radiation. In this article, we first discussed the impact of polyphenols on human health based on their structure-activity relationship and bioavailability. We then discussed in detail the photoprotective effects of some selected polyphenols on UV-induced skin inflammation, proliferation, immunosuppression, DNA damage and dysregulation of important cellular signaling pathways and their implications in skin cancer management. The selected polyphenols include: green tea polyphenols, pomegranate fruit extract, grape seed proanthocyanidins, resveratrol, silymarin, genistein and delphinidin. The new information on the mechanisms of action of these polyphenols supports their potential use in skin photoprotection and prevention of photocarcinogenesis in humans.

  17. Cocoa Polyphenols: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Chisa

    2018-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests potential preventive effects of chocolate/cocoa on the risk of cardio vascular disease (CVD). However, cocoa products also contain high levels of sugar and fat, which increase CVD risk factors. Even, the identity of the substance in chocolate/cocoa that has a favorable effect on CVD and CVD risk factors remains unclear, growing evidence from experimental studies suggests that cocoa polyphenols might be a major contributor to cardiovascular-protective effects. However, epidemiological studies, which are necessary to evaluate an association between the risk of CVD and cocoa polyphenol, remain sparse. We will discuss recent evidence regarding the association between cocoa polyphenol consumption and the risks of CVD and its risk factors by reviewing recent epidemiological studies. We shall also provide some guidance for patient counseling and will discuss the public health implications for recommending cocoa polyphenol consumption to prevent CVD. Epidemiological studies evaluating the association between cocoa polyphenol itself and the risk of CVD are sparse. However, evidence from limited epidemiological studies suggests that cocoa polyphenol consumption may lower the risk of CVD. Given the potential adverse effects of the consumption of cocoa products with high fat and sugar and the fact that the most appropriate dose of cocoa polyphenol for cardio-protective effects has not yet been established, health care providers should remain cautious about recommending cocoa/cocoa polyphenol consumption to their patients to reduce the risk of CVD, taking the characteristics of individual patients into careful consideration. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Lysyl oxidase in cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for cancer-associated deaths and therapies are desperately needed to target the progression of cancer. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, including metastasis, and is therefore is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review we...

  19. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... percent of the water capacity of the container. (iii) Determine drained weight as specified in § 155.3(a..., packed with a suitable liquid medium which may include water; and may contain one or more safe and... to promote color retention. (4) Labeling requirements. (i) The name of the food is mushrooms. The...

  20. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of

  1. Antimicrobial activities of some selected Nigerian mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were either weakly inhibited or not inhibited at all. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged between 1.25 and 9.00mg/ml for bacteria and between 10.50 and 17.50mg/ml for fungi. These results are discussed in relation to therapeutic value of the studied mushrooms. African Journal of Biomedical Research Vol.

  2. Neuroscience: Intelligence in the Honeybee Mushroom Body

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Sophie; Abbott, Larry F.

    2017-01-01

    Intelligence, in most people’s conception, involves combining pieces of evidence to reach non-obvious conclusions. A recent theoretical study shows that intelligence-like brain functions can emerge from simple neural circuits, in this case the honeybee mushroom body.

  3. Season-controlled changes in biochemical constituents and oxidase enzyme activities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Supatra; Mukherji, S

    2009-07-01

    Season-controlled changes in biochemical constituents viz. carotenoids (carotene and xanthophyll) and pectic substances along with IAA-oxidase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme activities were estimated/assayed in leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato) in two developmental stages--pre-flowering (35 days after sowing) and post-flowering (75 days after sowing) in three different seasons--summer rainy and winter Carotenoid content along with pectic substances were highest in winter and declined significantly in summer followed by rainy i.e. winter > summer > rainy. Carotenoid content was significantly higher in the pre-flowering as compared to post-flowering in all three seasons while pectic substances increased in the post-flowering as compared to pre-flowering throughout the annual cycle. IAA oxidase and PPO enzyme activities were enhanced in rainy and decreased sharply in summer and winter i.e. rainy > summer > winter. Both the enzymes exhibited higher activity in the post-flowering stage as compared to pre-flowering in all three seasons. These results indicate winter to be the most favourable season for tomato plants while rainy season environmental conditions prove to be unfavourable (stressful) with diminished content of carotenoid and pectic substances and low activities of IAA oxidase and PPO, ultimately leading to poor growth and productivity.

  4. Antioxidative Effects of Phenolic Compounds of Mushroom Mycelia in Simulated Regions of the Human Colon, In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamanu Emanuel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds in mushrooms are biologically active; however, the in vivo actions of their metabolites are poorly understood. An in vitro system, GIS1, was used to simulate the fermentation action of microbiota in each colon region. We used MycoPo, a natural product obtained from the lyophilized mycelia of different Pleurotus ostreatus species to determine the biological effects in human-colon regions. Controls (Lentinula edodes mycelia; dried basidia of Agaricus brunnescens were chosen to confirm the biological activity of P. ostreatus mycelia in vitro. We measured total antioxidant capacity and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP in simulated colon regions to identify antioxidant compounds, and undertook in vitro gastrointestinal simulation and microbiological analyses. The highest FRAP was found for the ascending colon, and the antioxidant effect was higher when MycoPo was administered. A. brunnescens consumption resulted in low total antioxidant capacity. Polyphenol content was correlated with the antioxidant status and microbial composition of microbiota. Total polyphenolic content was higher after A. brunnescens consumption, and four types of polyphenols were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Major phenolic acids were gentisic acid, homogentisic acid, and small amounts of caffeic acid. The Enterobacteriaceae species populations varied greatly across the three parts of the colon. We noted a significant (p0.85. These data suggest a direct relationship between favorable bacterial strains and availability of bioactive compounds, with specificity for each colon region.

  5. Comparing COI and ITS as DNA barcode markers for mushrooms and allies (Agaricomycotina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Bryn T M; Didukh, Maryna Y; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding is an approach to rapidly identify species using short, standard genetic markers. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) has been proposed as the universal barcode locus, but its utility for barcoding in mushrooms (ca. 20,000 species) has not been established. We succeeded in generating 167 partial COI sequences (~450 bp) representing ~100 morphospecies from ~650 collections of Agaricomycotina using several sets of new primers. Large introns (~1500 bp) at variable locations were detected in ~5% of the sequences we obtained. We suspect that widespread presence of large introns is responsible for our low PCR success (~30%) with this locus. We also sequenced the nuclear internal transcribed spacer rDNA regions (ITS) to compare with COI. Among the small proportion of taxa for which COI could be sequenced, COI and ITS perform similarly as a barcode. However, in a densely sampled set of closely related taxa, COI was less divergent than ITS and failed to distinguish all terminal clades. Given our results and the wealth of ITS data already available in public databases, we recommend that COI be abandoned in favor of ITS as the primary DNA barcode locus in mushrooms.

  6. Identification of medicinal and poisonous mushroom from Khorramabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyede zahra Hosseini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms grow in a very wide range of ecological conditions, however their growth vary in different conditions. Mushrooms are a valuable source for antibiotics and they are known as drugs in traditional medicine. Identification and characterization of mushrooms is the first step of their exploitations in drug industry. There are many poisonous species of mushrooms, so their identification is essential for better health of societies and also a good indication for physicians in identification of mushroom poisonings and their cure. Material and Method: In this research the samples of mushroom were collected in Khorramabad district during spring and fall of 2008 and 2009. The macroscopic and microscopic characters of collected mushrooms were observed in field and laboratory and these criteria aligned to the species characters in scientific resources. Results: eight mushroom species namely Collybia maculate coprinus atramentarius three species of Boletus (B. luridus, B. felleus and B. satanas two species of Lactarius (L. piperatus and L. vellereus and Hypholoma capnoides were identified . Discussions: Based on the results of biodiversity of mushrooms in khorramabad district found in the present research, it is concluded that there are valuable resources of mushrooms for medicinal purposes in this area.

  7. Boosting LPMO-driven lignocellulose degradation by polyphenol oxidase-activated lignin building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frommhagen, Matthias; Mutte, Sumanth Kumar; Westphal, Adrie H.; Koetsier, Martijn J.; Hinz, Sandra W.A.; Visser, Jaap; Vincken, Jean Paul; Weijers, Dolf; Berkel, Van Willem J.H.; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many fungi boost the deconstruction of lignocellulosic plant biomass via oxidation using lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs). The application of LPMOs is expected to contribute to ecologically friendly conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. Moreover, applications of

  8. Concentration of radiocesium in cultivated mushrooms and substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Higasa, Mamoru; Urabe, Ken-ichi; Haraguchi, Masato; Omura, Toshitaka

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K in mushrooms cultivated in Saitama prefecture and those substrates were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. In all mushrooms and substrates, 134 Cs was not detected. Concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms were in the range of 0.012 - 2.1 Bq/kg·fresh, and those in substrates were in the range of 0.080 - 1.8 Bq/kg·dry. Concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms varied widely with mushroom species, and the average concentration of 137 Cs in Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) was over 30 times higher than that in Pleurotus ostreatus (Hiratake). Mushroom-to-substrate concentration ratios of 137 Cs (fresh/dry) were 0.11-0.53. They were higher than the reported transfer factors for common agricultural plants. (author)

  9. Radioisotopes of the U, Th, Pu, Am in the mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanda, D.; Matel, L.

    2001-01-01

    The present work is devoted the estimation of the data about radioactive contamination in different species of mushrooms with the aim to analyzing the influence of soil properties. The radioactive plutonium, uranium, thorium and americium was assayed in the dried mushrooms collected in areas of East and West Slovakia in 1998 -2000, and examined the effectiveness of this mushroom as a possible indicator of radioactive contamination of environment due to nuclear contamination of biosphere. Were determined the mushrooms of canes: Suillus, Leccinum, Baletus, Armillariella, Xerocomus and Craterellus. The mushrooms were dried and prepared by liquid extraction with Aliquat 336. The samples were measured by α-barrier spectrometry. The results of specific activity of plutonium, thorium, uranium and americium in the mushrooms and the layers of forest litter were summarized. (authors)

  10. Household methods to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostiainen, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the {sup 137}Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times.

  11. Household methods to reduce 137Cs contents of mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.

    2005-01-01

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the 137 Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce 137 Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the 137 Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times

  12. Dung-associated, Potentially Hallucinogenic Mushrooms from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Wen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify potentially hallucinogenic mushrooms, dung-associated mushrooms collected from Qingtiangang, Yangmingshan National Park were subjected to a detailed morphological investigation and phylogentic analysis. The investigation identified four taxa: a recorded species (Panaeolus antillarum; a new combination (Conocybe nitrophila; and two new species (Psilocybe angulospora, Protostropharia ovalispora. Morphological and molecular characteristics of the collected mushrooms were compared with allied fungal taxa.

  13. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a

  14. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing

    OpenAIRE

    SHAUKET AHMED PALA; ABDUL HAMID WANI; ROUF HAMZA BODA; BILAL AHMAD WANI

    2014-01-01

    Pala SA, Wani AH, Boda RH, Wani BA. 2014. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 173-185. Mushroom can serve as food, tonic, and as medicine thus make people healthier, fitter and happier. They have a cracking potential for generating great socioeconomic impact in human welfare at local, national and international level. With the help of allied mushroom farming we can easily tackle the problem of food for growing world population; re...

  15. Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Wild Mushrooms in Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chinatu Charity Ndimele; Prince Emeka Ndimele; Kanayo Stephen Chukwuka

    2017-01-01

    Background. Many companies in Nigeria generate industrial effluents, including heavy metals. These metals can be accumulated by biota such as mushrooms, which are then eaten by the populace. Objectives. The present study investigates the metal content of wild mushrooms in order to educate the local population on the safety of their consumption. Methods. Seven different species of wild mushrooms (Cortinarius melliolens, Chlorophyllum brunneum, Pleurotus florida, Volvariella speciosa, Can...

  16. 137Cs content in edible mushrooms of the Transcarpathian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Parlag

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Edible mushrooms (Boletus edulis Bull.: Fr. and Leccinum scabrum (Bull.: Fr. S.F.Gray of Transcarpathian region were analyzed on content of 137Cs. Specific activity of 137Cs in collected mushrooms did not exceed 354 ± 53 Bq/kg (dry substance. Estimation of the contribution into internal exposure dose of population for the condi-tion of 1 kg of mushrooms consumption is carried out.

  17. Natural polyphenols: Influence on membrane transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Abdulrahman Hussain

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated evidences have focused on the use of natural polyphenolic compounds as nutraceuticals, since they showed a wide range of bioactivities and exhibited protection against variety of age related disorders. Polyphenols have variable potencies to interact, and hence alter the activities of various transporter proteins, many of them classified as ATP-Binding Cassette transporters, like multidrug resistance protein (MDRP, and p-glycoprotein (P-gp. Some of the efflux transporters are generally linked with anticancer and antiviral drug resistance; in this context, polyphenols may be beneficial in modulating drug resistance by increasing the efficacy of anticancer and antiviral drugs. Additionally, these effects were implicated to explain the influence of dietary polyphenols on drug efficacy as result of food-drug interactions. However, limited data are available about the influence of these components on uptake transporters. Therefore, the objective of this article is to review the potential efficacies of polyphenols in modulating the functional integrity of uptake transporter proteins, including those terminated the effect of neurotransmitters, and their possible influence in neuropharmacology. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 97-104

  18. Spirit drinks: a source of dietary polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Posavec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a long tradition in the production of spirit drinks and using them in the human diet, especially in the Southeast European and Mediterranean regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether and which spirits can serve, and to what extent, as a source of biologically active compounds in the human diet. Polyphenolic compounds are biologically active compounds of fruits, vegetables and derived beverages, which have been implicated in their antioxidant activity. Therefore, the total polyphenol content (TPC and antioxidative properties of 46 spirit drinks and liqueurs produced in Croatia were examined. The total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity were estimated using spectrophotometric methods (Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH and FRAP, while certain phenols were detected by the HPLC. It was established that spirit drinks aged in wooden casks, such as wine or plum brandy, contain polyphenols ranging from 40-90 mg GAE/L (gallic acid equivalents, whereas walnut or sour cherry liquors contain much more polyphenols ranging from 680-3360 mg GAE/L. The antioxidant activity of analyzed spirit drinks was in correlation with TPC. Walnut and sour cherry liqueur samples had very high antioxidant activity, within the range of those obtained with 1.26 mM Trolox-DPPH assay and 9.5 mM Trolox-FRAP assay.

  19. Plant Polyphenol Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INES URQUIAGA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a remarkable increment in scientific articles dealing with oxidative stress. Several reasons justify this trend: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species metabolism; definition of markers for oxidative damage; evidence linking chronic diseases and oxidative stress; identification of flavonoids and other dietary polyphenol antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and data supporting the idea that health benefits associated with fruits, vegetables and red wine in the diet are probably linked to the polyphenol antioxidants they contain.In this review we examine some of the evidence linking chronic diseases and oxidative stress, the distribution and basic structure of plant polyphenol antioxidants, some biological effects of polyphenols, and data related to their bioavailability and the metabolic changes they undergo in the intestinal lumen and after absorption into the organism.Finally, we consider some of the challenges that research in this area currently faces, with particular emphasis on the contributions made at the International Symposium "Biology and Pathology of Free Radicals: Plant and Wine Polyphenol Antioxidants" held July 29-30, 1999, at the Catholic University, Santiago, Chile and collected in this special issue of Biological Research

  20. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon P Wasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  1. Radiocesium uptake mechanisms in wild and culture mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi; Isomura, Kimio; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Shibata, Hisashi.

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of 137 Cs and stable Cs in wild mushrooms, cultivated mushrooms and those substrates were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The average concentration of 137 Cs in 80 wild mushrooms in Japan was 87.5 Bq/kg (wet wt.), and concentration of 137 Cs in mycorrhizal mushrooms was higher than that of saprophytic mushrooms. High concentrations of 137 Cs were found in Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1, saprophytic mushrooms, cultivated in culture substrates containing high 137 Cs. Clear correlations with 5% level of significance were found between wild mushroom-to-substrate ratios (wet/dry) of 137 Cs concentration and those of stable Cs. Cultivated P. ostreatus-to-culture substrate ratios (wet/wet) of 137 Cs concentration were stable in the order of 10 0 when the culture substrate was containing 10 000 Bq/kg (wet wt.) of 137 Cs or 1 000 mg/kg (wet wt.) of stable Cs. The ratios of 137 Cs concentration in cultivated mushrooms were about equal to those in wild mushrooms. Higher concentration of 137 Cs in culture substrate after sampling P. ostreatus was observed at the upper layer where mycelium density was high. (author)

  2. Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  3. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

  4. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.

  5. The first report on mushroom green mould disease in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatvani, Lóránt; Sabolić, Petra; Kocsubé, Sándor; Kredics, László; Czifra, Dorina; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kaliterna, Joško; Ivić, Dario; Đermić, Edyta; Kosalec, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Green mould disease, caused by Trichoderma species, is a severe problem for mushroom growers worldwide, including Croatia. Trichoderma strains were isolated from green mould-affected Agaricus bisporus (button or common mushroom) compost and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) substrate samples collected from Croatian mushroom farms. The causal agents of green mould disease in the oyster mushroom were T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola, similar to other countries. At the same time, the pathogen of A. bisporus was exclusively the species T. harzianum, which is different from earlier findings and indicates that the range of mushroom pathogens is widening. The temperature profiles of the isolates and their hosts overlapped, thus no range was found that would allow optimal growth of the mushrooms without mould contamination. Ferulic acid and certain phenolic compounds, such as thymol showed remarkable fungistatic effect on the Trichoderma isolates, but inhibited the host mushrooms as well. However, commercial fungicides prochloraz and carbendazim were effective agents for pest management. This is the first report on green mould disease of cultivated mushrooms in Croatia.

  6. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikineswary Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  7. The role of Drosophila mushroom body signaling in olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, S E; Le, P T; Davis, R L

    2001-08-17

    The mushroom bodies of the Drosophila brain are important for olfactory learning and memory. To investigate the requirement for mushroom body signaling during the different phases of memory processing, we transiently inactivated neurotransmission through this region of the brain by expressing a temperature-sensitive allele of the shibire dynamin guanosine triphosphatase, which is required for synaptic transmission. Inactivation of mushroom body signaling through alpha/beta neurons during different phases of memory processing revealed a requirement for mushroom body signaling during memory retrieval, but not during acquisition or consolidation.

  8. Small GTPases and Stress Responses of vvran1 in the Straw Mushroom Volvariella volvacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Yan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Small GTPases play important roles in the growth, development and environmental responses of eukaryotes. Based on the genomic sequence of the straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea, 44 small GTPases were identified. A clustering analysis using human small GTPases as the references revealed that V. volvacea small GTPases can be grouped into five families: nine are in the Ras family, 10 are in the Rho family, 15 are in the Rab family, one is in the Ran family and nine are in the Arf family. The transcription of vvran1 was up-regulated upon hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 stress, and could be repressed by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI, a NADPH oxidase-specific inhibitor. The number of vvran1 transcripts also increased upon cold stress. Diphenyleneiodonium chloride, but not the superoxide dismutase (SOD inhibitor diethy dithiocarbamate (DDC, could suppress the up-regulation of vvran1 gene expression to cold stress. These results combined with the high correlations between gene expression and superoxide anion (O2− generation indicated that vvran1 could be one of the candidate genes in the downstream of O2− mediated pathways that are generated by NADPH oxidase under low temperature and oxidative stresses.

  9. [The Kombucha mushroom: two different opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamundi, R; Valdivia, M

    1995-01-01

    Positive and negative views of the Kombucha mushroom, a popular remedy in Asia, are expressed. The Kombucha mushroom, used for centuries, is believed to have antibiotic tendencies and to strengthen the immune and metabolic systems. Studies show that the tea, made from fermented fungus, has high levels of B vitamins. Caution should be used during fermentation because exposing the fungus to sunlight may adversely affect the process. The mold in which the fungus grows may contain aspergillus, a fungal infection which may be fatal to HIV-positive persons. The tea is being commercialized as a stimulant of the immune system but is unpopular in the U.S. due to its toxicity risks. Public awareness messages must convey the danger of overstimulating the immune system of HIV-positive patients, whose immune systems are already overstimulated. Furthermore, the process of fermentation may encourage the growth of other organisms which produce medical complications in HIV-positive patients.

  10. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Polyphenol Extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Polyphenol content was determined using spectrophotometric and High performance liquid ... Keywords: European cornel, Blackthorn, Wild blackberry, Polyphenols, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial. Tropical ... Acetonitrile, and acetic acid of HPLC-grade were ..... Anthocyanin Quantification and radical scavenging.

  11. Diversity of edible mushrooms in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, K.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Iftikhar, F.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty six edible species of mushrooms are reported from Pakistan including four from Balochistan, three from Sindh, five from Punjab and 44 from NWFP and Azad Kashmir. Some of species being commercially exploited in the world are Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia spp. Coprinus comatus, Flammulina vellutipes, Lentinus edodes, Phellorina inquinans, Pleurotus ostreatus, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Volvariella volvacea. Because of over collection, urbanization and deforestation, some of species are threatened of extinction. (author)

  12. Mushrooms as Possible Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav; Dašić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 μg/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 μg/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 μg/mL) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 μg/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases. PMID:24250542

  13. DEHYDRATION OF EDIBLE MUSHROOMS (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Salas de la Torre, N.; Bazán, D.; Osorio, A.; Cornejo, O.; Carrero, E.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus have been subjected to thermal, chemical and thermal-chemical treatment. The results show that the chemical treatment produces a more effective enzymatic inactivation compared to the other two treatments. Also, the experimental study of fungi dehydration carried out at 55 ° C reveals that the critical moisture content is 10.4 kg water / kg dry solids, the equilibrium moisture is 0.22 kg water / kg of solid . Los hongos comestibles Pleurotus ostreatus...

  14. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Basli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols.

  15. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium were selected for all studied species, from soybean cake – most suitable for the mycelial growth of 24 species, to walnut cake − suitable only for 2 species. The utilization of substrates has been evaluated by biological efficiency. The best index of biological efficiency varied from 19.0% to 41.6% depending on the mushroom species. It was established high biological efficiency of mycelia cultivation on substrates: wheat seed cake – Pleurotus djamor, Lyophyllum shimeji, Crinipellis schevczenkovi, Phellinus igniarius, Spongipellis litschaueri; oat seed cake – Ganoderma applanatum and G. lucidum; soybean cake – Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, Trametes versicolor, Morchella esculenta, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, and Agrocybe aegerita; rape seed cake – Auriporia aurea; camelina seed cake – Fomes fomentarius. The cultivation of these species are perspective as a biotechnological process of agricultural wastes converted into mycelia, which could be used in different forms of products with therapeutic action: powder or tablets nutraceuticals or ingredients for functional foods.

  16. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas. - Highlights: • Popular edible mushrooms display large variations in Cd and Pb content. • Low accumulating species are Sparassis crispa, Boletus luridus, or Boletus badius. • High accumulating species are Agaricus ssp., Russula vesca, or Calvatia gigantea. • Cd and Pb content in wild growing edible mushrooms were mostly above EU limits for cultivated mushrooms. • Cd and Pb content in commercial mushrooms cultures were regularly below EU limits for cultivated mushrooms. - Commercial mushroom cultures can be integrated into ‘Edible City’ approaches, but majority of wild growing mushroom samples highly accumulate trace metals

  17. Influence of diabetes on the pharmacokinetic behavior of natural polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianbo; Högger, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The development of food fortified with polyphenols and polyphenol-rich foods represents a novel approach to prevent or attenuate type 2 diabetes. It has been reported that type 2 diabetes may affect the pharmacokinetics of various drugs in several animal models. There is powerful evidence linking dietary polyphenols consumption with the risk factors defining type 2 diabetes, even if some opposite results occurred. This mini-review summarizes important advances on diabetes-associated changes in pharmacokinetics of natural polyphenols. The pharmacokinetic behavior between drugs and dietary polyphenols probably may be different due to (i) Ingested dose/amount per day. The dietary polyphenol intake per day is much higher than that of clinical drugs; (ii) Complexity of the components. Clinical drugs are well-characterized and typically small molecules. However, the polyphenols in diet are unimaginably complex; (iii) Interaction with food proteins. Although the effects of food proteins on the bioavailability of polyphenols are still not examined in much detail, direct binding interactions of polyphenols to proteins always occur; (iv) The most common polyphenols in the human diet have a low intrinsic activity and are poorly absorbed from the intestine, highly metabolized, or rapidly eliminated. Although there is very limited information available so far, it is proposed that type 2 diabetes influences the pharmacokinetic behavior of dietary polyphenols including: i) competition of glucose with polyphenols regarding binding to plasma proteins; ii) weakened non-covalent interaction affinities of plasma proteins for natural polyphenols due to protein glycation in type II diabetes; iii) the enhanced clearance of polyphenols in type 2 diabetes. An understanding of diabetes-associated changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and bioactivities of natural polyphenols as well as the mechanism of the variability should lead to the improvement of the benefits of

  18. Cancer Prevention by Tocopherols and Tea Polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S.; Li, Guangxun; Yang, Zhihong; Guan, Fei; Chen, Amber; Ju, Jihyeung

    2013-01-01

    Tocopherols (vitamin E) and tea polyphenols have been reported to have cancer preventive activities. Large-scale human trials with high doses of alpha-tocopherol, however, have produced disappointing results. This review presents data showing that γ- and δ-tocopherols inhibit colon, lung, mammary and prostate carcinogenesis in animal models, whereas α-tocopherol is ineffective in animal and human studies. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed. A broad cancer preventive activity of green tea polyphenols has been demonstrated in animal models, and many mechanisms have been proposed. The cancer preventive activity of green tea in humans, however, has not been conclusively demonstrated and remains to be further investigated. PMID:23403075

  19. The Economic Empowerment of Women in Uganda Through Mushroom Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarahim Mayanja

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on empowering women both in peri-urban and rural areas through mushroom production. It was conducted in Kampala Metropolitan area-Uganda, during October 2016. It focused on estimating profits, conducting benefit-cost analysis/ratio (BCR and return on investment (ROI, finding reasons as to why women involved in the mushroom production and identifying the constraints of mushroom farming from the perspective of women as well as the possible solutions to the constraints. 29 women were interviewed face to face through the use of the questionnaires. The study revealed an average net profit of 3,464.28 US dollars, BCR of 3.84 and ROI of 2.84 per farm in a period of three months. Our study revealed that mushroom production is a profitable enterprise for women. The major reason for women to involve in mushroom was to earn income. However, a range of other reasons was given such as fast maturity of mushrooms, availability of market, healthy benefits of mushrooms, etc. were the most important reasons. The problems faced by women farmers were ranked from the most pressing problem to the least pressing problem in this order; Low market prices per kilogram of mushroom, scarcity of cotton during some seasons, poor quality mushroom spawn supplied to farmers by breeders, inadequate extension, and advisory services were the most observed problems among others. The suggested solutions were organizing farmers into groups or cooperatives in order to negotiate for better markets locally and abroad together with the help of government, researchers to carry out more research on the suitability of other substrates like bagasse other than relying on only cotton, ensuring that mushroom spawn breeders conform to the set standards of quality spawn production and re-equipping local extension workers with knowledge regarding mushroom production among others.

  20. Wound healing activity of an aqueous extract of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Asheesh; Kirar, Vandana; Keshri, Gaurav Kr; Gola, Shefali; Yadav, Anju; Negi, Prem Singh; Misra, Kshipra

    2014-01-01

    The Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) is popular because of its health-promoting properties. The effects of G. lucidum extract on cancer, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and hepatitis have been reported by many researchers. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the healing efficacy of an aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum from the Indian Himalayan region on dermal excision wound in experimental rats. The extract used in the study was found to be rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid contents. The healing efficacy was comparatively assessed with a reference povidone-iodine ointment. The G. lucidum extract showed significant enhanced healing activity, evidenced by an increase in wound contraction, collagen accumulation (hydroxyproline), hexosamine, and total protein contents. Histopathological findings further supported the biochemical indices. The results suggest that aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum possesses significant wound-healing activity.

  1. More efficient mushroom canning through pinch and exergy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Sman, van der Ruud G.M.; Westerik, Nieke; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Dewi, Belinda P.C.; Boom, Remko M.

    2017-01-01

    Conventional production of canned mushrooms involves multiple processing steps as vacuum hydration, blanching, sterilization, etc. that are intensive in energy and water usage. We analyzed the current mushroom processing technique plus three alternative scenarios via pinch and exergy analysis.

  2. Cultivation experiments on uptake of radionuclides by mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    1994-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, high concentrations of radiocesium in mushrooms were found in Europe. In our previous studies, we found that 137 Cs concentrations in mushrooms were markedly higher than autotrophic plants. In order to study radionuclide uptake by mushrooms, cultivation experiments in flasks were carried out using radiotracers, 137 Cs, 85 Sr, 60 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn. Three mushroom species Hebeloma vinosophyllum, Flammulina velutipes and Coprinus phlyctidosporus were used. In addition, a plant sample, Medicago sativa, was also tested. We found mushrooms tended to accumulate Cs, although there was a large difference between mushroom species. The concentration ratio, which was defined as 'activity of radionuclide in mushroom (Bq/g, wet wt.)' divided by 'activity of radionuclide in medium (Bq/g, wet wt.)', had the highest value of 21 for Cs in H. vinosophyllum. The value was much higher than that in the plant sample. The present findings agreed with previous observations in which Hebeloma species collected in forests contained large amount of 137 Cs. Considerable accumulations were not found for Sr and Co. The concentration ratio of Mn for the mushrooms was about 10, while the ratio of Zn ranged from 15 to 30. The effects of stable elements in the medium on the accumulations were investigated and was found the concentration ratios of Cs, Sr and Co were not influenced highly by coexisting stable elements in the medium. But the concentration ratio of Mn decreased as the amount of coexisting stable elements in the medium was increased. (author)

  3. wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in nigeria abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    of awareness, consumption history, wild or ... 15.6% were students and 11.1% business ... 1.1. N/A. 5. 5.6. NA = Not applicable mushrooms for over 10 years; whereas 13.3% ... Consumption history of wild and cultivated mushrooms in Nigeria.

  4. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAUKET AHMED PALA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Boda RH, Wani BA. 2014. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 173-185. Mushroom can serve as food, tonic, and as medicine thus make people healthier, fitter and happier. They have a cracking potential for generating great socioeconomic impact in human welfare at local, national and international level. With the help of allied mushroom farming we can easily tackle the problem of food for growing world population; reduce environmental pollution by bioconversion of huge organic wastes into mushrooms; recycle huge quantity of organic wastes to mushroom crops, biofertilizers, and biogas; restore damaged environment by mushroom mycelia through mycoforestry, mycoremediation, mycofiltration and mycopesticides in a zero emission fashion. They can be used to degrade radioactive industrial biocide wastes in an eco-friendly fashion. Since mushroom cultivation is an indoor agribusiness, it could have great economic impact by generating employment, income and functional food requirements for rural people especially in developing countries. How far mushroom cultivation can meet the functional food requirements; address the domestic food challenges, rising food prices and crisis vis a vis environmental sustainability will be thrust areas of this communication.

  5. Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

    2002-05-01

    Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw.

  6. Proximate and mineral analysis of some wild edible mushrooms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    israelikk

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... Key words: Edible mushroom, mineral composition, proximate analysis. ... than beef, pork and chicken that contain similar nutrients. .... legumes and meat. In earlier studies, Gruen and Wong. (1982) indicated that edible mushrooms were highly nutritional and compared favourably with meat, egg and milk.

  7. DRYING CHARACTERISTICS OF CAP AND STEM OF MUSHROOM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    mushrooms are not immediately processed. Drying is the most commonly used method of preservation of mushrooms. Dehydrated mush- rooms are used as an important ingredient in several food formulations including instant soups, pasta salads, snack seasonings, stuffing, casseroles, and meat and rice dishes (Tuley,.

  8. analysis of edible mushroom marketing in three villages in central

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    Furthermore, extension agents should monitor beneficiaries of such loans to ensure ... Mushrooms belong to a group of living things ... environment, knowledge of simple and low cost .... =Taxes (naira) ... Inheritance ... Table 7 revealed that Alesi marketers made profit margin of N 60,000.00 per .... Guide to Edible Mushroom.

  9. Yield response of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... 1Mugla University, Faculty of Technical Education, Kotekli, 48000, Mugla, Turkey. 2Mugla University, Mushroom ..... Hayes WA, Shandilya TR (1977). Casing soil and compost substrates used in the artifical culture of Agaricus bisporus, the cultivated mushroom. Indian J. Mycol. Plant Pathol. 7: 5-10. Lambert ...

  10. Indigenous knowledge and utilization of edible mushrooms in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heim and Coprinus disseminatus (Pers.: Fr.) S. F. Gray. Among the local people, names of edible mushrooms are based on the substrates on which they grow, their association with insects, and unrelated taxa are given collective names. Rural people believe mushrooms have medicinal values and can serve as blood tonic, ...

  11. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: patricialandim@ig.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; lilian.Pavanelli@terra.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)

  12. Assessing the potential of mushroom cultivation in improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Faculty of Agriculture, Makerere University, P.O Box ... requires little land space, earns high income, and provides ... mushroom growing is one of the enterprises that would fit .... Children. 2. 3.30. Relative. 3. 5.00. Table 1. Availability of wild mushrooms now and in the past.

  13. of polyphenolic compounds in Ilex Sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwyrzykowska Anna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural compounds are an important source of desired biological activity which help to improve nutritional status, enhance productivity and bring many health benefits. The leaves of the Ilex paraguariensis (Aquifoliaceae are used for preparing a beverage known as yerba mate and represent a proven source of natural polyphenols which are known to foster biological activity with the emphasis on antioxidant properties. In present work we focused on the polyphenolic content of air-dried leaves of Ilex aquifolium L., Ilex aquifolium ‘Argentea Mariginata’, Ilex meserveae ‘Blue Angel’, and a commercially available mate as the reference product. Liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (HPLC and LC-MS and thin layer chromatography (TLC, were used to establish polyphenolic substances content in aqueous methanolic extracts obtained from the biological matter. Up to 20 polyphenolic compounds were identified in the extracts, including rutin, quinic acid and its caffeoyl esters, i.e. chlorogenic acid and its isomers as well as dicaffeoyl derivatives. We took chlorogenic acid and rutin as reference compounds to quantify their levels in the extracts. It was determined that in all tested plants, high levels of these antioxidants were present. This led us to the conclusion that their leaves might serve as valuable food additives.

  14. Polyphenols produced during red wine ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillard, R; George, F; Fougerousse, A

    1997-01-01

    Over the past few years, it has been accepted that a moderate red wine consumption is a factor beneficial to human health. Indeed, people of France and Italy, the two major wine-producing European countries, eat a lot of fatty foods but suffer less from fatal heart strokes than people in North-America or in the northern regions of Europe, where wine is not consumed on a regular basis. For a time, ethanol was thought to be the "good" chemical species hiding behind what is known as the "French paradox". Researchers now have turned their investigations towards a family of natural substances called "polyphenols", which are only found in plants and are abundant in grapes. It is well known that these molecules behave as radical scavengers and antioxidants, and it has been demonstrated that they can protect cholesterol in the LDL species from oxidation, a process thought to be at the origin of many fatal heart attacks. However, taken one by one, it remains difficult to demonstrate which are the best polyphenols as far as their antioxidant activities are concerned. The main obstacle in that kind of research is not the design of the chemical and biological tests themselves, but surprisingly enough, the limited access to chemically pure and structurally elucidated polyphenolic compounds. In this article, particular attention will be paid to polyphenols of red wine made from Vitis vinifera cultivars. With respect to the "French paradox", we address the following question: are wine polyphenolic compounds identical to those found in grapes (skin, pulp and seed), or are there biochemical modifications specifically taking place on the native flavonoids when a wine ages? Indeed, structural changes occur during wine conservation, and one of the most studied of those changes concerns red wine colour evolution, called "wine ageing". As a wine ages, it has been demonstrated that the initially present grape pigments slowly turn into new more stable red pigments. That phenomenon goes on

  15. Anticancer Efficacy of Polyphenols and Their Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Niedzwiecki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, found abundantly in plants, display many anticarcinogenic properties including their inhibitory effects on cancer cell proliferation, tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and inflammation as well as inducing apoptosis. In addition, they can modulate immune system response and protect normal cells against free radicals damage. Most investigations on anticancer mechanisms of polyphenols were conducted with individual compounds. However, several studies, including ours, have indicated that anti-cancer efficacy and scope of action can be further enhanced by combining them synergistically with chemically similar or different compounds. While most studies investigated the anti-cancer effects of combinations of two or three compounds, we used more comprehensive mixtures of specific polyphenols and mixtures of polyphenols with vitamins, amino acids and other micronutrients. The mixture containing quercetin, curcumin, green tea, cruciferex, and resveratrol (PB demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Fanconi anemia head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 secretion, cell migration and invasion through Matrigel. PB was found effective in inhibition of fibrosarcoma HT-1080 and melanoma A2058 cell proliferation, MMP-2 and -9 expression, invasion through Matrigel and inducing apoptosis, important parameters for cancer prevention. A combination of polyphenols (quercetin and green tea extract with vitamin C, amino acids and other micronutrients (EPQ demonstrated significant suppression of ovarian cancer ES-2 xenograft tumor growth and suppression of ovarian tumor growth and lung metastasis from IP injection of ovarian cancer A-2780 cells. The EPQ mixture without quercetin (NM also has shown potent anticancer activity in vivo and in vitro in a few dozen cancer cell lines by inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis, MMP-2 and -9 secretion, invasion

  16. Polyphenol levels in human urine after intake of six different polyphenol-rich beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hideyuki; Gonthier, Marie-Paule; Manach, Claudine; Morand, Christine; Mennen, Louise; Rémésy, Christian; Scalbert, Augustin

    2005-10-01

    Dietary polyphenols are suggested to participate in the prevention of CVD and cancer. It is essential for epidemiological studies to be able to compare intake of the main dietary polyphenols in populations. The present paper describes a fast method suitable for the analysis of polyphenols in urine, selected as potential biomarkers of intake. This method is applied to the estimation of polyphenol recovery after ingestion of six different polyphenol-rich beverages. Fifteen polyphenols including mammalian lignans (enterodiol and enterolactone), several phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, m-coumaric, gallic, and 4-O-methylgallic acids), phloretin and various flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, hesperetin, and naringenin) were simultaneously quantified in human urine by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionisation mass-MS (HPLC-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry) with a run time of 6 min per sample. The method has been validated with regard to linearity, precision, and accuracy in intra- and inter-day assays. It was applied to urine samples collected from nine volunteers in the 24 h following consumption of either green tea, a grape-skin extract, cocoa beverage, coffee, grapefruit juice or orange juice. Levels of urinary excretion suggest that chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, epicatechin, naringenin or hesperetin could be used as specific biomarkers to evaluate the consumption of coffee, wine, tea or cocoa, and citrus juices respectively.

  17. Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species: part I. Problem of trace element toxicity in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Rissmann, Iwona; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn accumulation in six edible mushroom species and to assess their risk and benefits to human consumers. Mushrooms (Leccinium aurantiacum, Xerocomus badius, Lactarius deliciosus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and Suillus luteus) were collected from selected regions of Poland during 1990-2010. The highest diversity between studied mushroom species was observed in terms of Cu and Zn accumulation. Significant differences in the accumulation efficiency were found among the six mushroom species examined. The most efficient were Boletus edulis (Cd and Hg), Suillus luteus (Cu and Sr), and Lactarius deliciosus (Pb and Zn). In the case of Co and Ni, the most effective were Xerocomus badius and Leccinium aurantiacum, respectively. The calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of Cd, Cu, Hg, Sr and Zn were > 1 for all species in this study while Co, Ni and Pb usually were bioexcluded (BCF luteus collected in Poland is safe and this finding largely agrees with results from recent studies by other authors.

  18. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  19. 77 FR 66580 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India. The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2011, through January... Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India...

  20. 77 FR 19620 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). In accordance with section 751(a)(2... mushrooms from the PRC.\\1\\ The antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC therefore...

  1. Exploring flavin-containing carbohydrate oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, Alessandro Renato

    2017-01-01

    Oxidases are enzymes capable of removing one or more electrons from their substrate and transfer them to molecular oxygen, forming hydrogen peroxide. Due to their high regio- and enantioselectivity, their use is preferred over traditional organic chemistry methods. Among the oxidases, flavoprotein

  2. The terminal oxidases of Paracoccus denitrificans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gier, J.-W.; Lübben, M; Reijnders, W N; Tipker, C A; Slotboom, D.J.; van Spanning, R J; Stouthamer, A.H.; van der Oost, J.

    Three distinct types of terminal oxidases participate in the aerobic respiratory pathways of Paracoccus denitrificans. Two alternative genes encoding subunit I of the aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase have been isolated before, namely ctaDI and ctaDII. Each of these genes can be expressed separately to

  3. Influence of growing conditions on heavy metals content in cultivated mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmitene, L.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of growing terms, microclimate conditions and growing medium on the mushroom harvest and quality. Champignons were grown according to the Polish technology. Pleurotus ostreatus was grown in perforate sacks using chopped wheat straw. Mycelium was sowed in different terms. It was established that the harvest of mushrooms, especially their quality, depends not only on growing conditions, but also on the kind of mushrooms, composte quality, mushroom size (diameter of cap), picking of mushrooms, storage time and other conditions. The technology of mushroom growing will be developed after studying all the factors determining the content of heavy metals and radiation in mushrooms

  4. Mushrooms pollution by radioactivity and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delatouche, L.

    2001-01-01

    Some basic notions of radioactivity are recalled first (definition, origin, measurement units, long- and short-term effects..). Then, the pedology of soils and the properties and toxicity of 3 heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury) are presented to better understand the influence of some factors (genre, age, ecological type, pollution, conservation..) on the contamination of macro-mycetes by radioactivity and heavy metals. The role of chemists is to inform the consumers about these chemical and radioactive pollutions and to give some advices about the picking up (quantities, species and places to avoid) and the cooking of mushrooms. (J.S.)

  5. Effect of Edible Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on Type-2 Diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abu Sayeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD like diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD are on the increase globally and predominantly in the South East Asian Region (SEAR. The increasing NCD and its complications burdened the health cost of Bangladesh. The available literatures suggest that edible mushrooms are effective in controlling metabolic risks like hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia. The study addressed the metabolic effects of edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus in diabetic individuals and to assess the undesirable effects of mushroom. A total of 5000 newly registered diabetic women were screened for eligible participants (urban housewives, age 30 – 50y, BMI 22 – 27, FBG 8 – 12 mmol/l; free from complications or systemic illnesses and agreed to adhere to the study for 360 days. The investigations included weight and height for BMI, waist- and hip-girth for WHR, BP, FBG, 2ABF, T-chol, TG, HDL, LDL, ALT and Creatinine starting from the day 0 (baseline and each subsequent follow-up days: 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 for comparison between placebo and mushroom groups and also within group (baseline vs. follow up days, individually for placebo and mushroom. The daily intake of mushroom was 200g for the mushroom group and an equivalent calorie of vegetables for the placebo group. Overall, 73 diabetic housewives (mushroom / placebo = 43 /30 volunteered. The mean (with SEM values of BMI, WHR, BP, FBG, 2ABF, T-chol, TG, HDL, LDL, ALT and Creatinine of the placebo group were compared with the mushroom group. Compared with the placebo, the mushroom group showed significant reductions of FBG (p<0.001, 2ABF (p<0.001, T-chol (p<0.001, TG (p=0.03 and LDL (p<0.001; whereas, no difference was observed for BMI, SBP, DBP, HDL, Hb, creatinine and ALT. The comparison within groups (baseline vs. follow-up there were significant reduction of these variables in mushroom but not in the

  6. Comparison of Different Drying Methods for Recovery of Mushroom DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouxian; Liu, Yu; Xu, Jianping

    2017-06-07

    Several methods have been reported for drying mushroom specimens for population genetic, taxonomic, and phylogenetic studies. However, most methods have not been directly compared for their effectiveness in preserving mushroom DNA. In this study, we compared silica gel drying at ambient temperature and oven drying at seven different temperatures. Two mushroom species representing two types of fruiting bodies were examined: the fleshy button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and the leathery shelf fungus Trametes versicolor. For each species dried with the eight methods, we assessed the mushroom water loss rate, the quality and quantity of extracted DNA, and the effectiveness of using the extracted DNA as a template for PCR amplification of two DNA fragments (ITS and a single copy gene). Dried specimens from all tested methods yielded sufficient DNA for PCR amplification of the two genes in both species. However, differences among the methods for the two species were found in: (i) the time required by different drying methods for the fresh mushroom tissue to reach a stable weight; and (ii) the relative quality and quantity of the extracted genomic DNA. Among these methods, oven drying at 70 °C for 3-4 h seemed the most efficient for preserving field mushroom samples for subsequent molecular work.

  7. Radiopasteurization of sawdust media used in propagation of mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Sato, Tomotaro

    1975-01-01

    In our country, cultivation of mushrooms such as Pleurotus ostreatus, Kuehneromyces nameko, and Lentinus edodes (Cortinellus shiitake) are expanding, and has reached considerable amounts. These mushrooms are cultivated generally on decaying logs of broad leaf trees. Recently, these mushrooms are also cultivated artificially on the sawdust-media containing rice bran and other nutrient in the room of which temperature is controlled. However, these artificial culture media must be germicidated for 2 or 6 hours at 100 to 120 0 C before inoculation of mushroom spawn. In this study, attempts were made to cultivate Pleurotus ostreatus on the sawdust-media pasteurized by ionizing radiation. Inhibition of mushrooms growth were caused mainly by multiplication of Citrobacter and Fusarium, and these organisms were eliminated by a dose of 0.5 Mrad gamma irradiation. A surprising result was that many of sawdust media subjected to 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Mrad increased mycelial growth rates more than heat treatments, and also mushroom yields were enhanced. The multiplication of remaining microorganisms such as Bacillus and yeasts after irradiation with a dose of 0.5 Mrad or 1.0 Mrad did not inhibit the mycelial growth of mushrooms. (auth.)

  8. Radiocaesium and natural gamma emitters in mushrooms collected in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, Antonio; Guillen, Fco. Javier [Department of Physics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain); Hernandez, Santiago [Department of Techniques, Means and Elements of Construction, Polytechnical School, University de Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain); Moreno, Gabriel; Manjon, Jose Luis [Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Alcala, Alcala de Henares, Madrid 28871 (Spain); Pascual, Rosario [Department of Zootechnics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda de la Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain)

    2004-01-05

    Mushrooms can accumulate heavy metals in general, including radionuclides found in the nature. However, little attention has been paid to the radioactive content of mushrooms collected in Spain and the dose for the population due to their ingestion. To address this, we analysed the contents of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 7}Be present in different species of mushrooms, according to their genus and nutritional mechanism. We observed that mycorrhizal mushrooms accumulate {sup 137}Cs more than saprophytes, and vice versa for {sup 7}Be. {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra are accumulated to the same degree by the two groups of mushrooms. We estimated the dose due to ingestion of mushrooms in Spain to be 2 {mu}Sv/year, and the contribution of {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra to be generally greater than that of {sup 137}Cs. The contribution of {sup 137}Cs to the dose was calculated by taking into account the results of an experiment carried out under the controlled laboratory conditions, which showed that approximately 98% of {sup 134}Cs was associated with the readily digestible fraction of the mushrooms.

  9. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, su...

  11. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been ...

  12. Galloylation of polyphenols alters their biological activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, D.; Ulrichová, J.; Valentová, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 223-240 ISSN 0278-6915 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15082; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15084; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/G163 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Polyphenols * Gallic acid * Galloylation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2016

  13. Polyphenols, Antioxidants and the Sympathetic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies. The main mechanisms by which polyphenols are cardioprotective are related to the improvement of vascular function and their anti-atherogenic effect. Furthermore, a blood pressure-lowering effect was consistently demonstrated in randomized controlled trials in humans, when the effect of flavonoid-rich foods, such as tea and chocolate, was tested. More recent studies suggest that inhibition of sympathetic overactivity might be one of the mechanisms by which these substances exert their cardioprotective effects. Indeed, an increased adrenergic traffic to the vasculature is a major mechanism of disease in a number of cardiovascular and extra-cardiac diseases, including hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome and heart failure. A considerable body of evidence, mostly from experimental studies, support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species might exert sympathoexcitatory effects both at the central and at the peripheral level. Accordingly, supplementation with antioxidants might reduce adrenergic overdrive to the vasculature and blunt cardiovascular reactivity to stress. While supplementation with "classical" antioxidants such as ROS-scavengers has many limitations, increasing the intake of polyphenol-rich foods seems to be a promising novel therapeutic

  14. Linhchi mushrooms as biological monitors for 137Cs pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van, L.; Le Duy, T.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactivity of Linhchi mushrooms (Ganoderma Lucidum) cultivated in laboratory and production conditions has been measured in the Environmental Laboratory of Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat, Vietnam. The results showed that Linhchi mushroom has a high radioactive concentration of 137 Cs, which is about 20 Bq kg -1 fresh weight. In addition, the radioactive contents of substrata before and after cultivation were insignificant. This suggested that Linhchi mushroom should only accumulate the 137 Cs radioisotope from the atmosphere, directly. Therefore, it should be considered as a bio-indicator for environmental monitoring. (author) 13 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. Anti-Oxidative Polyphenolic Compounds of Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed F; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Rezaei, Parizad; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different serious chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, etc. Recent research has been focused on the beneficial role of dietary antioxidants against oxidative stress both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Theobroma cacao L. (cacao tree) is an evergreen tree which is native to South America. It is a plant of great economic importance and its seeds are commonly used to produce cocoa powder and chocolate. In addition to its uses in food industry, cocoa is a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. There is a plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies that report cocoa antioxidant capacity. The protective activity of cocoa seems to be due to its phytochemical constituents, especially catechins. However, bioavailability of cocoa polyphenolic constituents following oral administration is very low (nanomolar concentrations). In the present paper, we critically reviewed the available literature on the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of cocoa and its polyphenolic constituents. In addition to these, we provide brief information about cultivation, phytochemistry, bioavailability and clinical impacts of cocoa.

  16. Immobilization of oxidases and their analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasinzai, M.

    2007-01-01

    Immobilized enzymes are replacing their soluble counter-parts in nearly every field of application. These enzyme modifications have evolved from a research curiosity into an entire branch of Biotechnology. An immobilization method for flavin containing oxidases and their use in flow injection system is described. An electrochemical detector for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is assembled which is used effectively for the determination of glucose using more common glucose oxidase and the simultaneous determination of sugars. The combination of oxidases with hydrolases have been used for the determination of maltose and starch. (author)

  17. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R.; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hilden, Kristiina; Kues, Ursula; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wosten, Han A. B.; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Foster, Gary D.; Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P.; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S.; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S.; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Challen, Michael P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Martin, Francis

    2012-04-27

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the button mushroom forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.

  18. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagy, Laszlo G; Ohm, Robin A; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L; Bailey, Andrew M; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hildén, Kristiina; Kües, Ursula; Labutti, Kurt M; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A; Lucas, Susan M; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W; Salamov, Asaf A; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wösten, Han A B; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C; Foster, Gary D; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S; Kerrigan, Richard W; Challen, Michael P; Grigoriev, Igor V; Martin, Francis

    2012-10-23

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics.

  19. Radiocesium concentrations in wild mushrooms and characteristics of cesium accumulation by the edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hisashi; Morita, Yohoji; Kato, Fumio

    2000-01-01

    Mushrooms collected from a sub-alpine forest of Mt. Fuji and some other locations in Japan in 1996 were analyzed for radiocesium. The 137 Cs concentrations in 37 mushrooms varied widely from 1.6 to 783 Bqkg -1 fresh wt. The characteristics of Cs accumulation were analyzed by culturing fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1 (P. ostreatus Y-1). The 137 Cs and stable Cs accumulation expressed as the concentration ratio (CR, 137 Cs or Cs concentration in the dried fruiting body/ 137 Cs or Cs concentration in the fresh medium) were in good agreement, indicating similar migration. The CR of Cs grown on medium containing both 0.1% Cs and 0.1% K, 10.2, showed a decrease of about 30 percent as compared with that containing 0.1% Cs only. These CR values suggested that Cs accumulation by the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus Y-1 is affected by the presence of K similarly to previous observations in the mycelia. The 133 Cs-NMR spectra from the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus Y-1 showed two resonance signals, whereas those from the media after harvesting of fruiting bodies showed only one signal. Just before growth of the fruiting bodies, bunches consisting of many mycelia were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No significant differences in the elemental distribution (Cs, K, P and C) were detected in the mycelium surface by SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. (author)

  20. Plant polyphenols and their anti-cariogenic properties: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrazzano, G.F.; Amato, I.; Ingenito, A.; Zarrelli, A.; Pinto, G.; Pollio, A.

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenols constitute one of the most common groups of substances in plants. Polyphenolic compounds have been reported to have a wide range of biological activities, many of which are related to their conventional antioxidant action; however, increasing scientific knowledge has highlighted their potential activity in preventing oral disease, including the prevention of tooth decay. The aim of this review is to show the emerging findings on the anti-cariogenic properties of polyphenols, which...

  1. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Thea Magrone; Matteo Antonio Russo; Emilio Jirillo; Emilio Jirillo

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothe...

  2. The antioxidant properties, cytotoxicity and monoamine oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520, ..... on the inhibition of the catabolism of serotonin, .... Structure of human monoamine oxidase B, a drug target for.

  3. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase, a tasteful biocatalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den R.H.H.; Fraaije, M.W.; Mattevi, A.; Laane, C.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The covalent flavoenzyme vanillyl-alcohol oxidase (VAO) is a versatile biocatalyst. It converts a wide range of phenolic compounds by catalysing oxidation, deamination, demethylation, dehydrogenation and hydroxylation reactions. The production of natural vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, coniferyl

  4. Genetics Home Reference: isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Management Resources (1 link) GeneReview: Isolated Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Surgery and ...

  5. Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasiruddin; Khymenets, Olha; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Monagas, María; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. PMID:24566441

  6. Optimization of extraction of polyphenols from Sorghum Moench ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phenolic acid were assayed using high performance liquid (HPLC). ... quantification of antioxidants and phenolic compounds from Sorghum M, ... Keywords: Response surface methodology, Sorghum moench, Polyphenols, Antioxidants.

  7. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and Bioactivity Relevant to Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Abol Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell–cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity.

  8. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... effects related to their disposal (Mshandete et al., 2008). Cultivation of mushroom can .... The holes facilitated drainage, aeration (free diffusion of gases and .... sium, iron, copper, manganese, zinc and cobalt) were determined.

  9. Evaluating the production of Ganoderma mushroom on corn cobs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... Full Length Research Paper. Evaluating the production ... Key words: Ganoderma, corn cobs, substrate, mushrooms, sawdust, basidiocarp. INTRODUCTION .... those which have high lignin and low cellulose. This is because ...

  10. Application of ionizing radiation to preservation of mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smierzchalska, K.; Gubrynowicz, E.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on prolongation of preservation time and quality of mushrooms is discussed. Some numerical data are cited. The influence of ionizing radiation on growth rate and physiological processes is also presented. (A.S.)

  11. Economic feasibility of small scale button mushroom production in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, A.; Hassan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:- Mushroom is widely cultivated as a proteineous vegetable in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Its cultivation requires less space, care, equipment and cost compared to many other crops and livestock. The present study was conducted in 2010 to estimate the profitability of small scale button mushroom production at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. The cost of production methodology was used for this study. The yield and gross return of mushroom was estimated at 155.6 kg ha and Rs.77,800 ha , respectively. The results indicated the fact that mushroom production is very much remunerative to its producers as it can give maximum net return by reducing their cost of production as its cultivation is dependent on the agricultural raw material which is cheaply available. (author)

  12. Induction and evaluation of beneficial mutations in Volvariella volvacea mushroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borromeo, J.D.

    1976-03-01

    The present strains of Volvariella volvacea are difficult to grow, hence the need for developing a wild-type mushroom that can be grown without the stringent cultural requirements. This would be suitable for backyard or small-scale production. A vigorous white mushroom that responds to the controlled conditions in mushroom houses is appropriate for large-scale or commercial production. The percentages success in getting the ''first flushes'' has been no more than 30%. There was a certain amount of difficulty in recognizing mutants based on their morphological features in laboratory culture. The first irradiation series utilizing 200 and 400 kR and using the box-type method of cultivation in growing the mushroom have given us the needed information in planning the next irradiation series

  13. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  14. Food, medicinal and environmental values of mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Alekseenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the literature review describing food, medicinal and ecological properties of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom. It is shown that the mushroom is adequate foodstuff for human beings. It provides with proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and mineral salts. Protein of the oyster mushrooms’ mycothallus contains 18 amino acids, eight of which were essential (isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine, and valine. Therapeutic value of the mushroom is characterised by a content of water-soluble (thiamine B1, riboflavin B2, niacin, B5, PP, pyridoxine B6, biotin B7, ascorbic and pantothenic acid and liposoluble (calciferol, ergosterol, tocopherol vitamins. The considerable gains from the farm wastes use for the mushrooms raising with subsequent application of the substrate in plant cultivation and animal husbandry are stated.

  15. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Spent Mushroom Substrate Extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Spent Mushroom Substrate Extract on Milk and ... Serum antioxidant activity as well as milk and serum immunoglobulin levels were ... total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and mean serum TAC concentration among ...

  16. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda NAGY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the consumption of mushrooms has significantly increased due to the scientific evidence of their ability to help the organism in the combat and prevention of several diseases (Kalac, 2009. Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are consumed as a delicacy for their texture and flavour, but also for their nutritional properties that makes them even more attractable (Heleno S. 2015. In this paper data were collected from several scientific studies with the aim to characterize the chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds of various mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lactarius piperatus. The chemical composition of 5 wild edible studied mushrooms, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total sugars, crude fat, crude protein and energy were determined according to AOAC procedures.

  17. Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts using supplements of some locally available peats and their mixture with some secondary casing materials.

  18. Cultivation of mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) on banana leaves

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    percentage of the fibre components being degraded. The crude protein ... incubation of the mushroom due probably to the addition of microbial protein. The acid ... a plastic or tent-like construction or bamboo frame stretched with plastic film ...

  19. Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Bratkovich

    1991-01-01

    Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.

  20. Identifying 8-hydroxynaringenin as a suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Te-Sheng; Lin, Meng-Yi; Lin, Hsuan-Jung

    2010-01-01

    A biotransformed metabolite of naringenin was isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus oryzae, fed with naringenin, and identified as 8-hydroxynaringenin based on the mass and (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectral data. The compound showed characteristics of both an irreversible inhibitor and a substrate of mushroom tyrosinase in preincubation and HPLC analysis. These results demonstrate that 8-hydroxynaringenin belongs to a suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase. The partition ratio between the compound's molecules in the formation of product and in the inactivation of the enzyme was determined to be 283 +/- 21. The present study's results, together with our previous findings, which proved that both 8-hydroxydaidzein and 8-hydroxygenistein are suicide substrates of mushroom tyrosinase, show that 7,8,4'-trihydroxyl functional groups on flavonoids' skeletons play important roles in producing suicide substrate properties toward mushroom tyrosinase.

  1. Molecular and Antibacterial Profile of Edible Oyster Mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    2014-09-24

    Sep 24, 2014 ... Phenol/Chloroform DNA extraction protocol and the DNA was ... DNA from oyster mushroom fermentation broth, mycelia or fruiting bodies. .... Sample preparation: The different strains of Pleurotus were obtained in test- tubes.

  2. Modulating effect of new potential antimelanomic agents, spin-labeled triazenes and nitrosoureas on the DOPA-oxidase activity of tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadjeva, V; Zheleva, A; Raikova, E

    1999-07-01

    The modulating effect of newly synthesized alkylating spin labeled triazene and spin labeled nitrosourea derivatives on the DOPA-oxidase activity of mushroom tyrosinase has been investigated by Bumett's spectrophotometric method (Burnett et al., 1967). All spin labeled triazenes have exhibited activating effect on DOPA-oxidase activity of tyrosinase, whereas clinically used triazene (DTIC), which does not contain nitroxide moiety, have showed inhibiting effect. At the same experimental conditions the spin labeled aminoacid nitrosoureas have showed dual effect - activating, in the beginning of the enzyme reaction and inhibiting later on. It is deduced that the activating effect of the spin labeled compounds is due to the nitroxide moiety and the inhibiting effect of all compounds depends on their half-life time. This study might contribute to make more clear the mechanism of action of the new compounds and on the other hand would come in quite useful as a preliminary prognosis for their antimelanomic activity.

  3. Uptake and transfer factors of 137Cs by mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, G.

    1991-01-01

    The 137 Cs content of 118 species (668 samples) of higher fungi collected in the period from August 1984 to October 1989 at three different locations in Styria, Austria, was determined by gamma-spectrometry. The Cs-content of most mushrooms has been increasing since September 1986. In order to find out which factors determine the 137 Cs-contamination of mushrooms and the transfer-value soil to mushroom, the concentration of total and plant-available radiocesium in soils as well as the pH-value, the content of humus, clay, silt, sand, exchangeable cations, the composition of the clay minerals, and the particle size distribution of the soils of two different locations were examined. The higher the 137 Cs contamination of the soil, the thicker the layer of humus and the higher the content of humus, the lower the pH-value, and the lower the amount of essential cations, especially of K + , the higher the amount of 137 Cs plant-available will be. Therefore, the contamination of the mushrooms in the coniferous forest of Koralpenblick (1000 m) is higher than in the mixed forest at the Rosenberg around Graz at approx. 500 m height. Of 26 different species of mushrooms measured at both sites, only 61% show the highest TF-values soil to mushrooms also at the Koralpenblick. In the spruce forest at Koralpenblick there are many species of mushrooms with high 137 Cs-contamination which were not found at the Rosenberg. However, the properties of the species to which a mushroom belongs are more important than environmental conditions and soil properties. The transfer values of 40 K stay within narrow bounds, whereas those of 137 Cs differ widely. (orig.)

  4. Activity of 137Cs in mushrooms from Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.; Novakova, J.; Dvorak, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, activity concentrations of radiocesium in mushrooms from various locations in the Slovak Republic during the year 2001 are presented. The highest activity concentration of 137 Cs measured was 966 Bq/kg, for Suillus luteus from Senica. Mushrooms belonging to Boletaceae which grow in Central Europe are not only bio-indicators of the environmental contamination with radiocesium, but might also represent depending on their actual radiocesium contamination - some risk factor if consumed too extensively. (authors)

  5. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  6. The use of the ITS region in marketable mushrooms authenticity

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Liliana; Oliveira, Ivo; Baptista, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Edible mushrooms, due to their flavour and nutritional characteristics, are very popular in many dishes. Some species are high valuated and reaching high market values. There are frequent reports of adulteration of these kinds of products due to the presence of fungal species less expensive among others with high-value market. This adulteration occurs especially in products in which the flavour is not prominent and in which the mushrooms are difficult to examine. In this work we utilized the ...

  7. Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

    2010-07-01

    Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically.

  8. USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Poyedinok

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is used in greenhouses to increase productivity and quality of agricultural and ornamental plants. Despite the awareness of the fact that light also plays important role in the life of nonhotosynthetic organisms, such as fungi, its using in their biotechnology cultivation is currently limited. Science has quite a large amount information about the influence of artificial light of different nature on morphogenesis, metabolic processes and productivity of more than 100 species of fungi, many of which are valuable producers of biologically active compounds. Themechanisms of photoreactions of various fungi, which is an integral part of a purposeful photoregulation their activity in biotechnological processes are described. The analysis of the researches and of the experience of their practical application allows predicting potential of using artificial light in mushroom growing industry, as well as in creating highly productive, environmentally clean technologies of targeted synthesis of the final product.

  9. Toxic isolectins from the mushroom Boletus venenatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Masashi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Dohra, Hideo; Morita, Tatsuya; Murata, Takeomi; Usui, Taichi; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Kamei, Masugu; Hirabayashi, Jun; Matsuura, Masanori; Yamada, Mina; Saikawa, Yoko; Hashimoto, Kimiko; Nakata, Masaya; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2010-04-01

    Ingestion of the toxic mushroom Boletus venenatus causes a severe gastrointestinal syndrome, such as nausea, repetitive vomiting, diarrhea, and stomachache. A family of isolectins (B. venenatus lectins, BVLs) was isolated as the toxic principles from the mushroom by successive 80% ammonium sulfate-precipitation, Super Q anion-exchange chromatography, and TSK-gel G3000SW gel filtration. Although BVLs showed a single band on SDS-PAGE, they were further divided into eight isolectins (BVL-1 to -8) by BioAssist Q anion-exchange chromatography. All the isolectins showed lectin activity and had very similar molecular weights as detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. Among them, BVL-1 and -3 were further characterized with their complete amino acid sequences of 99 amino acids determined and found to be identical to each other. In the hemagglutination inhibition assay, both proteins failed to bind to any mono- or oligo-saccharides tested and showed the same sugar-binding specificity to glycoproteins. Among the glycoproteins examined, asialo-fetuin was the strongest inhibitor. The sugar-binding specificity of each isolectin was also analyzed by using frontal affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis, indicating that they recognized N-linked sugar chains, especially Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->4Manbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->4GlcNAc (Type II) residues in N-linked sugar chains. BVLs ingestion resulted in fatal toxicity in mice upon intraperitoneal administration and caused diarrhea upon oral administration in rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antifatigue Functions and Mechanisms of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Geng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is the symptom of tiredness caused by physical and/or psychological stresses. As fatigue is becoming a serious problem in the modern society affecting human health, work efficiency, and quality of life, effective antifatigue remedies other than pharmacological drugs or therapies are highly needed. Mushrooms have been widely used as health foods, because of their various bioactive constituents such as polysaccharides, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. This paper reviews the major findings from previous studies on the antifatigue effects, the active components of mushrooms, and the possible mechanisms. Many studies have demonstrated the antifatigue effects of edible and medicinal mushrooms. These mushrooms probably mitigate human fatigue through effects on the functional systems, including the muscular, cardiovascular, hormone, and immune system. The bioactive constituents that contribute to the antifatigue effects of mushrooms may include polysaccharides, peptides, nucleosides, phenolic compounds, and triterpenoids. Further research is still needed to identify the active ingredients and to investigate their mechanism of action on the antifatigue effects. Since most previous studies have been carried out in animal models, more human trials should be performed to verify the antifatigue function of edible and medicinal mushrooms.

  11. Cobweb, a serious pathology in mushroom crops: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, J.; Navarro, M.J.; Gea, F.

    2017-01-01

    Cobweb is a fungal disease of commercially cultivated mushrooms. Several members of the ascomycete genus Cladobotryum sp. have been reported as causal agents. White button mushroom is the most frequently cited host, but a wide range of cultivated edible mushrooms suffer cobweb. The pathology causes production losses and reduces the crop surface available. The parasite produces a great number of harmful conidia that can be released easily and distributed throughout the mushroom farm to generate secondary points of infection. To prevent initial outbreaks, hygiene is of primary importance within the facilities dedicated to mushroom cultivation, while additional measures must be implemented to control and reduce cobweb if there is an outbreak, including chemical and biological methods. This review summarizes and discusses the knowledge available on the historic occurrence of cobweb and its impact on commercial mushroom crops worldwide. Causal agents, disease ecology, including the primary source of infection and the dispersal of harmful conidia are also reviewed. Finally, control treatments to prevent the disease from breaking out are discussed.

  12. Cobweb, a serious pathology in mushroom crops: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, J.; Navarro, M.J.; Gea, F.

    2017-07-01

    Cobweb is a fungal disease of commercially cultivated mushrooms. Several members of the ascomycete genus Cladobotryum sp. have been reported as causal agents. White button mushroom is the most frequently cited host, but a wide range of cultivated edible mushrooms suffer cobweb. The pathology causes production losses and reduces the crop surface available. The parasite produces a great number of harmful conidia that can be released easily and distributed throughout the mushroom farm to generate secondary points of infection. To prevent initial outbreaks, hygiene is of primary importance within the facilities dedicated to mushroom cultivation, while additional measures must be implemented to control and reduce cobweb if there is an outbreak, including chemical and biological methods. This review summarizes and discusses the knowledge available on the historic occurrence of cobweb and its impact on commercial mushroom crops worldwide. Causal agents, disease ecology, including the primary source of infection and the dispersal of harmful conidia are also reviewed. Finally, control treatments to prevent the disease from breaking out are discussed.

  13. Electrical stimulation in white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, I.; Nurfazira, K. M. P.; Fern, C. Shi; Ain, M. S. Nur

    2017-09-01

    White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) is an edible mushroom that gained popularity due to its nutritional values, low production cost and ease of cultivation. There are several research reported on the mushroom fruiting bodies which were actively developed when applying electrical shock treatment. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of different electrical voltages on the growth and yield of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). Five different electrical voltages had been applied during spawning period which were 6V, 9V, 12V, 15V and mushroom bags without any treatment served as control. Treatment at 6V showed the highest rate for mycelium growth while 15V took the shortest time for fruiting body formation. However, no significant different (P>0.05) among all the treatments was observed for the time taken for the mycelium to fill-up the bag and pinhead emergence. The total fresh weight and percentage of biological efficiency for treatment at 9V showed higher values compared to control. Treatment at 9V also showed the largest pileus diameter and the most firm in the pileus texture. Meanwhile, treatment at 6V showed the highest a* value (redness). In addition, different electrical voltage treatments applied did not show any significant effect on substrate utilization efficiency, colour L* and b* values. In conclusion, among all the electrical treatments applied, 9V could be considered as the best treatment to enhance the yield of white oyster mushroom.

  14. Cobweb, a serious pathology in mushroom crops: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carrasco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cobweb is a fungal disease of commercially cultivated mushrooms. Several members of the ascomycete genus Cladobotryum sp. have been reported as causal agents. White button mushroom is the most frequently cited host, but a wide range of cultivated edible mushrooms suffer cobweb. The pathology causes production losses and reduces the crop surface available. The parasite produces a great number of harmful conidia that can be released easily and distributed throughout the mushroom farm to generate secondary points of infection. To prevent initial outbreaks, hygiene is of primary importance within the facilities dedicated to mushroom cultivation, while additional measures must be implemented to control and reduce cobweb if there is an outbreak, including chemical and biological methods. This review summarizes and discusses the knowledge available on the historic occurrence of cobweb and its impact on commercial mushroom crops worldwide. Causal agents, disease ecology, including the primary source of infection and the dispersal of harmful conidia are also reviewed. Finally, control treatments to prevent the disease from breaking out are discussed.

  15. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities of Wild Boletales Mushrooms from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Sylvie; Arnould, Stéphanie; Vitou, Manon; Boudard, Frédéric; Guzman, Caroline; Poucheret, Patrick; Fons, Françoise; Rapior, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    We selected edible and inedible mushrooms growing in the Mediterranean area of France to screen their biological activity: Caloboletus calopus, Rubroboletus lupinus, R. pulchrotinctus, R. satanas, Gyroporus castaneus, Suillus luteus, and Omphalotus olearius. Mushrooms were sequentially extracted using cyclohexane, chloroform, ethanol, and water. The antiproliferative activity against the HCT116 colon adenocarcinoma cell line and the antioxidant properties (DPPH radical scavenging assay, Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of the Boletales extracts were evaluated and compared. Among the 28 mushroom extracts evaluated, 11 presented antiproliferative activity against HCT116 cells. These activities were not linked to antioxidant capacity. Among the antioxidant extracts, most were aqueous extracts in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, whereas the highest values on the Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH assays were noted for chloroform, ethanol, or aqueous extracts, depending on the mushroom species. Further studies are necessary to identify bioactive compounds and to valorize the mushrooms-for edible species, directly as health foods, or, for inedible mushrooms, as ingredients in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  16. Chernobyl is still haunting us. Radionuclides in Estonian mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Vilde, R.; Martin, L.; Aaspollu, J.; Tekko, S.

    1993-01-01

    The disaster that happened at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in 1986 caused a sharp rise in radioactive pollution over an extensive area in the region of the Baltic Sea. To estimate the distribution and the concentration of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in Estonian ecosystems, samples of mushrooms, mosses, lichens and the upper horizons of soil were gathered from 63 test sites during 1991. We were particularly interested in the amounts of radionuclides in mushrooms because these are used as food by people. Dangerously high radionuclide concentrations were found in mushrooms gathered in North-East Estonia. Heightened concentrations were registered here and there all over the territory of Estonia, especially in mushrooms gathered in Central and South-Western Estonia. The Cs-137 content in mushrooms depends on its content in other components of the ecosystems, first and foremost on the concentrations of radiocaesium in mosses and litter, which, therefore, can be used as indicators in prognostication the radioactive pollution of mushrooms in a certain region. As Cs-137 migrates between various ecosystem components, it is necessary to check the radioactivity of the forest products used for food for still a number of years to come. The Sr-90 level was low in all the ecosystem components examined. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs

  17. Effect of complex polyphenols on colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderni, G; Remy, S; Cheynier, V; Morozzi, G; Dolara, P

    1999-06-01

    Complex polyphenols and tannins from wine (WCPT) are being considered increasingly as potential cancer chemopreventive agents, since epidemiological studies suggest that populations consuming a high amount of polyphenols in the diet may have a lower incidence of some types of cancer. We studied the effect of WCPT on a series of parameters related to colon carcinogenesis in rats. WCPT were administered to F344 rats at a dose of 14 or 57 mg/kg/d, mixed with the diet. The higher dose is about ten times the exposure to polyphenols of a moderate drinker of red wine. In rats treated with WCPT, we measured fecal bile acids and long chain fatty acids, colon mucosa cell proliferation, apoptosis and, after administration of colon carcinogens, the number and size of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and nuclear aberrations. Colon mucosa proliferation was not varied by chronic administration (90 d) of WCPT (14 or 57 mg/kg/d). The highest dose of WCPT decreased the number of cells in the colon crypts, but did not increase apoptosis. WCPT (57 mg/kg) administered before or after the administration of azoxymethane (AOM) did not vary the number or multiplicity of ACF in the colon. The number of nuclear aberrations (NA) in colon mucosa was studied after administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo (4,5-f)quinoline (IQ), colon-specific carcinogens which require metabolic activation. The effect of DMH and IQ was not varied by pre-feeding WCPT (57 mg/kg) for 10 d. Similarly, the levels of total, secondary bile acids and long chain fatty acids did not varied significantly in animals fed WCPT for 90 d. WCPT administration does not influence parameters related to colon carcinogenesis in the rat.

  18. [Knowledge of students of tourism and recreation Academy of Physical Education on wild mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Parnicki, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Prophylaxis of acute poisoning with mushrooms is justified because of the relatively high risk of death associated with these intoxications. Mushrooming in Poland has a long tradition and knowledge about mushrooms is usually passed on in families. In recent years the mushrooming becomes an organized form of recreation. Graduates of tourism and recreation should have a minimum of reliable knowledge about mushrooms, to ensure the safety of persons entrusted to their care. The knowledge of wild mushrooms among students of tourism and recreation was tested by means of questionnaire. Mushrooms gathered 108 out of 125 respondents. The primary source of knowledge about mushrooms for 84% of the mushrooms pickers were the parents. Up to 70% of respondents considered at least one of irrational methods useful to distinguish edible mushrooms from the poisonous. Thirteen percent of those polled believed that by simple means mushrooms may be deprived of their toxic properties. Knowledge of the only one deadly poisonous mushrooms growing in Poland was 53%. The tourism and recreation students must pass basic knowledge about mushrooms and identify reliable sources of knowledge in this field.

  19. Impact of polyphenolic extracts on resistance to fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our results lend support of the creation of varieties bean high in polyphenols, which act as natural preservatives and bio-effective agents, and offer an alternative to chemical agents for protection of harvested beans in storage structures. Keywords: Polyphenols, antifungal activity, dry bean. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  20. Polyphenols from cocoa and vascular health-a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbach, Gerald; Melchin, Mona; Moehring, Jennifer; Wagner, Anika E

    2009-11-20

    Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols. In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-atherogenic activity. Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme) have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols. However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in many cell culture studies, are not physiologically achievable. Bioavailability studies indicate that plasma concentrations of cocoa polyphenols following dietary intake are low and in the nanomolar range. Human studies regarding the effect of cocoa polyphenols on vascular health are often underpowered and lack a rigorous study design. If dietary cocoa polyphenol intake is due to chocolate its high energy content needs to be taken into account. In order to determine potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols large scale, long term, randomized, placebo controlled studies, (ideally with a cross-over design) as well as prospective studies are warranted.

  1. Metabolic fate of polyphenols in the human superorganism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duynhoven, J.; Vaughan, E. E.; Jacobs, D.M.; Kemperman, R. A.; van Velzen, E.J.J.; Gross, G.; Roger, L. C.; Possemiers, S.; Smilde, A.K.; Doré, J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; van der Wiele, T.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are components of many foods such as tea, fruit, and vegetables and are associated with several beneficial health effects although, so far, largely based on epidemiological studies. The intact forms of complex dietary polyphenols have limited bioavailability, with low circulating

  2. Effect of fermentation and drying on cocoa polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Barbara; Schoubben, Aurélie; Guarnaccia, Davide; Pinelli, Filippo; Della Vecchia, Mirco; Ricci, Maurizio; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Blasi, Paolo

    2015-11-18

    Cocoa seed polyphenols have demonstrated interesting beneficial effects in humans. Most polyphenols contained in fresh seeds are chemically modified during fermentation, drying, and cocoa powder or chocolate production. The improvement of these procedures to obtain a high-polyphenol-content cocoa is highly desirable. To this aim, a field investigation on the effect of fermentation and natural drying on fine flavor National cocoa (cacao Nacional) was performed. Cocoa seeds were fermented for 6 days and, every day, samples were sun-dried and analyzed for polyphenol content and antioxidant power. During the first 2 days of fermentation, Folin-Ciocalteu and FRAP tests evidenced a significant reduction of polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, respectively. Changes during the following days of fermentation were less significant. Epicatechin, the most studied member of the catechin family, followed a similar pathway of degradation. Data confirmed the high impact of fermentation and drying on cocoa seed polyphenols. Fermentation and drying are, on the one hand, necessary to obtain cocoa flavor and palatability but, on the other hand, are responsible for greatly compromising polyphenol content. To obtain high-polyphenol-content cocoa, the existing fermentation, drying, and manufacturing protocols should be scientifically reviewed to understand and modify the critical steps.

  3. Towards functional effects of polyphenols : modulation of energy metabolism revealed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de V.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables contains high levels of polyphenols (up to 1 gram per day). Epidemiological studies suggest that a high dietary intake of selected polyphenols can be protective against development of cardiovascular heart diseases in humans. In addition, mechanistic studies

  4. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Polyphenol Extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenolic extracts of three wild red wild berry fruit species from Southeast Serbia, viz, European cornel (Cornus mas), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) and wild blackberry (Rubus fruticosus). Methods: Polyphenol content was determined using ...

  5. Population-based nutrikinetic modeling of polyphenol exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, E.J.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Grün, C.H.; Jacobs, D.M.; Eilers, P.H.C.; Mulder, Th.P.; Foltz, M.; Garczarek, U.; Kemperman, R.; Vaughan, E. E.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial health effects of fruits and vegetables have been attributed to their polyphenol content. These compounds undergo many bioconversions in the body. Modeling polyphenol exposure of humans upon intake is a prerequisite for understanding the modulating effect of the food matrix and the

  6. Polyphenols from Cocoa and Vascular Health—A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika E. Wagner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols. In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-atherogenic activity. Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols. However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in many cell culture studies, are not physiologically achievable. Bioavailability studies indicate that plasma concentrations of cocoa polyphenols following dietary intake are low and in the nanomolar range. Human studies regarding the effect of cocoa polyphenols on vascular health are often underpowered and lack a rigorous study design. If dietary cocoa polyphenol intake is due to chocolate its high energy content needs to be taken into account. In order to determine potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols large scale, long term, randomized, placebo controlled studies, (ideally with a cross-over design as well as prospective studies are warranted.

  7. Antioxidant properties of mushroom mycelia obtained by batch cultivation and tocopherol content affected by extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamanu, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the antioxidant potential of lyophilized mushroom mycelia from 5 strains of the species Pleurotus ostreatus and Coprinus comatus (obtained by submerged cultivation in batch system) was analyzed as ethanolic extracts by evaluating ABTS and the hydroxyl scavenging activity, FRAP method, the chelating capacity, the inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. The main compounds present in all extracts were determined by HPLC chromatography. Overall, results demonstrated that the biologically active substances content is modulated by the extraction method used. The most beneficial extract, characterized by determining the EC50 value, was that of C. comatus M8102, followed by P. ostreatus PQMZ91109. Significant amount of α-tocopherol (179.51 ± 1.51 mg/100 g extract) was determined as well as flavones such as rutin and apigenin. In the P. ostreatus PQMZ91109 extract, 4.8 ± 0.05 mg/100 g extract of tocopherol acetate known to play a significant role as an antioxidant in skin protection against oxidative stress generated by UV rays was determined. The various correlations (r (2) = 0.7665-0.9426 for tocopherol content) assessed and the composition of extracts in fluidized bed from the mycelia of the tested species depicted a significant pharmacological potential as well as the possibility of usage in the development of new functional products.

  8. The Evaluation of Pediatric Cases with Mushroom Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Hizel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisonings are intoxications with high mortality. Toxic wild mushrooms usually grow up in spring and autmn and the intoxications of these mushrooms occur mostly in these seasons. The symptoms, the initial time of the symptoms, the arrival time to the hospital, the physical examination findings, laboratory datas, treatments that were applied, the time kept in the hospital and the prognoses of the cases with mushroom intoxication diagnosis in the pediatry department were recorded between 1 October and 31 November 2006. During the time described above, a total of 24 cases with mushroom poisoning were determined. 8 of the cases (33.3 % were refered to another hospital, 16 of them (66.7 % were hospitalizated and observed. Gastrointestinal complaints was the symptom determined in every patient at the application time to the hospital whereas only 3 patients (12.5 % had neurologic symptoms. Symptoms occured within 6 hours of consumption of mushrooms in 7 cases (29.2 %. Elevated liver enzymes was determined in 4 patients (16.6 % whereas renal functions were normal in all of the cases. 16 cases who were hospitalizated, completely recovered and were discharged. However, 2 patients (8.3 % who were refered, died. Mushroom poisoning is an important health problem because of its high mortality and the best treatment is to make the public conscious of this problem. Therefore alerting the public, informing them about the symptoms and making them resort to hospitals with the first detected initial symptoms, by improving and strengthening the public education projects will reduce the mortality. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 341-344

  9. The Evaluation of Pediatric Cases with Mushroom Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Hizel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisonings are intoxications with high mortality. Toxic wild mushrooms usually grow up in spring and autmn and the intoxications of these mushrooms occur mostly in these seasons. The symptoms, the initial time of the symptoms, the arrival time to the hospital, the physical examination findings, laboratory datas, treatments that were applied, the time kept in the hospital and the prognoses of the cases with mushroom intoxication diagnosis in the pediatry department were recorded between 1 October and 31 November 2006. During the time described above, a total of 24 cases with mushroom poisoning were determined. 8 of the cases (33.3 % were refered to another hospital, 16 of them (66.7 % were hospitalizated and observed. Gastrointestinal complaints was the symptom determined in every patient at the application time to the hospital whereas only 3 patients (12.5 % had neurologic symptoms. Symptoms occured within 6 hours of consumption of mushrooms in 7 cases (29.2 %. Elevated liver enzymes was determined in 4 patients (16.6 % whereas renal functions were normal in all of the cases. 16 cases who were hospitalizated, completely recovered and were discharged. However, 2 patients (8.3 % who were refered, died. Mushroom poisoning is an important health problem because of its high mortality and the best treatment is to make the public conscious of this problem. Therefore alerting the public, informing them about the symptoms and making them resort to hospitals with the first detected initial symptoms, by improving and strengthening the public education projects will reduce the mortality. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 341-344

  10. Particularities of Cs-137 accumulation by mushrooms in different zones of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatrova, N.E.; Zarubin, O.L.; Koval', G.N.; Shovkun, N.A.; Ogorodnik, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    The cumulation of Cs-137 by the mushrooms of 30 km zone is more intensively, than on the 'southern' trace. The biggest concentrations are discovered in local mushrooms: Suillus luteus (L.) and Paxillus involutus (Batsch:Fr.)

  11. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In Hee; Kim, Se Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Young-Suk

    2006-08-23

    The characteristic aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry using aroma extract dilution analysis. 1-Octen-3-one (mushroom-like) was the major aroma-active compound in raw pine-mushrooms; this compound had the highest flavor dilution factor, followed by ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (floral and sweet), linalool (citrus-like), methional (boiled potato-like), 3-octanol (mushroom-like and buttery), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like), (E)-2-octen-1-ol (mushroom-like), and 3-octanone (mushroom-like and buttery). By contrast, methional, 2-acetylthiazole (roasted), an unknown compound (chocolate-like), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (buttery), and phenylacetaldehyde (floral and sweet), which could be formed by diverse thermal reactions during the cooking process, together with C8 compounds, were identified as the major aroma-active compounds in cooked pine-mushrooms.

  12. Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Lou

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols represent a wide variety of compounds that occur in fruits,vegetables, wine, tea, extra virgin olive oil, chocolate and other cocoa products. They aremostly derivatives and/or isomers of flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, catechins andphenolic acids, and possess diverse biological properties such as antioxidant, antiapoptosis,anti-aging, anticarcinogen, anti-inflammation, anti-atherosclerosis, cardiovascularprotection, improvement of the endothelial function, as well as inhibition of angiogenesisand cell proliferation activity. Most of these biological actions have been attributed to theirintrinsic reducing capabilities. They may also offer indirect protection by activatingendogenous defense systems and by modulating cellular signaling processes such asnuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB activation, activator protein-1(AP-1 DNA binding,glutathione biosynthesis, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt pathway,mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK proteins [extracellular signal-regulated proteinkinase (ERK, c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and P38 ] activation, and the translocationinto the nucleus of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2. This paper covers themost recent literature on the subject, and describes the biological mechanisms of action andprotective effects of dietary polyphenols.

  13. Polyphenol Compound as a Transcription Factor Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyeon Park

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A target-based approach has been used to develop novel drugs in many therapeutic fields. In the final stage of intracellular signaling, transcription factor–DNA interactions are central to most biological processes and therefore represent a large and important class of targets for human therapeutics. Thus, we focused on the idea that the disruption of protein dimers and cognate DNA complexes could impair the transcriptional activation and cell transformation regulated by these proteins. Historically, natural products have been regarded as providing the primary leading compounds capable of modulating protein–protein or protein-DNA interactions. Although their mechanism of action is not fully defined, polyphenols including flavonoids were found to act mostly as site-directed small molecule inhibitors on signaling. There are many reports in the literature of screening initiatives suggesting improved drugs that can modulate the transcription factor interactions responsible for disease. In this review, we focus on polyphenol compound inhibitors against dimeric forms of transcription factor components of intracellular signaling pathways (for instance, c-jun/c-fos (Activator Protein-1; AP-1, c-myc/max, Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB and β-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf.

  14. Polyphenol Compound as a Transcription Factor Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seyeon

    2015-10-30

    A target-based approach has been used to develop novel drugs in many therapeutic fields. In the final stage of intracellular signaling, transcription factor-DNA interactions are central to most biological processes and therefore represent a large and important class of targets for human therapeutics. Thus, we focused on the idea that the disruption of protein dimers and cognate DNA complexes could impair the transcriptional activation and cell transformation regulated by these proteins. Historically, natural products have been regarded as providing the primary leading compounds capable of modulating protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions. Although their mechanism of action is not fully defined, polyphenols including flavonoids were found to act mostly as site-directed small molecule inhibitors on signaling. There are many reports in the literature of screening initiatives suggesting improved drugs that can modulate the transcription factor interactions responsible for disease. In this review, we focus on polyphenol compound inhibitors against dimeric forms of transcription factor components of intracellular signaling pathways (for instance, c-jun/c-fos (Activator Protein-1; AP-1), c-myc/max, Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and β-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf)).

  15. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  16. Immunomodulating Activity of Aronia melanocarpa Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang T. T. Ho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulating effects of isolated proanthocyanidin-rich fractions, procyanidins C1, B5 and B2 and anthocyanins of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated. In this work, the complement-modulating activities, the inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and effects on cell viability of these polyphenols were studied. Several of the proanthocyanidin-rich fractions, the procyanidins C1, B5 and B2 and the cyanidin aglycone possessed strong complement-fixing activities. Cyanidin 3-glucoside possessed stronger activity than the other anthocyanins. Procyanidins C1, B5 and B2 and proanthocyanidin-rich fractions having an average degree of polymerization (PD of 7 and 34 showed inhibitory activities on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. All, except for the fraction containing proanthocyanidins with PD 34, showed inhibitory effects without affecting cell viability. This study suggests that polyphenolic compounds of A. melanocarpa may have beneficial effects as immunomodulators and anti-inflammatory agents.

  17. Polyphenols as dietary supplements: A double-edged sword

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith R Martin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Keith R Martin, Christy L AppelNutrition Program, Healthy Lifestyles Research Center, College of Nursing and Health Innovation, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ, USAAbstract: Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of chronic disease such as cardiovascular disease, some forms of cancer, and neurodegeneration. Pro-oxidant-induced oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases and, as such, dietary antioxidants can quench and/or retard such processes. Dietary polyphenols, ie, phenolic acids and flavonoids, are a primary source of antioxidants for humans and are derived from plants including fruits, vegetables, spices, and herbs. Based on compelling evidence regarding the health effects of polyphenol-rich foods, new dietary supplements and polyphenol-rich foods are being developed for public use. Consumption of such products can increase dietary polyphenol intake and subsequently plasma concentrations beyond expected levels associated with dietary consumption and potentially confer additional health benefits. Furthermore, bioavailability can be modified to further increase absorption and ultimately plasma concentrations of polyphenols. However, the upper limit for plasma concentrations of polyphenols before the elaboration of adverse effects is unknown for many polyphenols. Moreover, a considerable amount of evidence is accumulating which supports the hypothesis that high-dose polyphenols can mechanistically cause adverse effects through pro-oxidative action. Thus, polyphenol-rich dietary supplements can potentially confer additional benefits but high-doses may elicit toxicity thereby establishing a double-edge sword in supplement use.Keywords: antioxidant, bioavailability, flavonoids, polyphenols, supplement

  18. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Shulgau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the beneficial properties of polyphenols. Standard operating procedures were developed in our laboratories to collect alcohol free concentrate of polyphenols from the Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon collection of grapes. The purpose of the study was to investigate the composition, biological safety, and potential therapeutic effects of the polyphenol concentrate.Methods. The total polyphenol amount was determined using the Enology Analyzer Y15 (BioSystems, Spain. HPLC analysis of the polyphenol composition was performed using Agilent 1290 chromatograph. The polyphenol concentrate was analyzed for the microbiological purity and the presence of the toxic elements. The cytoprotective effect of the polyphenol concentrate was studied in experimental models of diabetes, toxic hepatitis, doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and acute radiation sickness.Results. The total polyphenol amount in one sample was 12,819 mg/l. Polyphenol composition analysis showed presence of the following polyphenols: catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, quercetin, miricetin, 3-glucosylkaempferol, epicatechin gallate, 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic acid, catechin gallate, pitseid, kaempferol, n-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, resveratrol and chlorogenic acid. The concentrate was proven to be biologically safe and acceptable for use as a dietary supplement. The polyphenol concentrate demonstrated high antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals in vitro. It also showed the following impacts on the various

  19. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ...)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade... preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of... mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  20. 77 FR 55808 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC).\\1\\ Based upon our analysis of comments... is listed in the ``Final Results of Review'' section below. \\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From...

  1. 76 FR 67146 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... results of the new shipper reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms.... (Hongda) in the Final Results of New Shipper Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Preserved Mushrooms...

  2. 78 FR 4126 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... conducting a new shipper review (NSR) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the..., respectively. Scope of the Order The products covered by this order are certain preserved mushrooms, whether...

  3. 76 FR 56732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  4. 78 FR 18315 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms.... (Yinfeng) under the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of... Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

  5. 76 FR 16604 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China... Industry Co., Ltd. (Tongfa). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...

  6. 76 FR 28732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Department) initiated a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from... 31, 2011. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

  7. 76 FR 70112 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  8. 77 FR 32941 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... order on certain preserved mushrooms from India with respect to the above-named companies.\\2\\ \\2\\ See... on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the POR. Therefore, in response to the petitioner's...

  9. 75 FR 17376 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results Pursuant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC for the period... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). EFFECTIVE DATE: April 6, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  10. 78 FR 34037 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period... Review'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...

  11. 75 FR 35769 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India... review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India with respect to these...

  12. 76 FR 43261 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of... order on certain preserved mushrooms from India with respect to the above-named companies. See...

  13. 75 FR 31426 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration (A-560-802) Certain Preserved Mushrooms... ``Opportunity to Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from Indonesia with respect to these companies. See...

  14. 76 FR 17836 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). In accordance with section 751(a)(2... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC. See Notice of Amendment of Final...

  15. 75 FR 62108 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Notice of... Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China, 64 FR 8308 (February 19, 1999). In accordance with...

  16. 75 FR 16075 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Notice of Amendment... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC. See Notice of Amendment of Final...

  17. 78 FR 26319 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India with respect to the...

  18. On the asymmetry of mating in natural populations of the mushroom fungus Schizophyllum commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S.; Nieuwhof, S.; Aanen, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    Before a mycelium of a mushroom-forming basidiomycete develops mushrooms, the monokaryotic mycelium needs to become fertilized. Although the mechanistic details of mating in mushrooms have been studied thoroughly in laboratory research, very little is known on mating patterns in nature. In this

  19. Content of radiocesium in mushrooms from some localities in Czech Republic and Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunova, V; Dvorak, P.; Benova, K.

    2004-01-01

    Interest about content radiocesium remain in mushrooms on actual. Mushrooms are able in bigger rate cumulate 137 Cs. Owing to different natural influence radiocesium all the time discovery, not only in mushrooms, but also in other live organism various kind. In regions, which hit Chernobyl radioactive cloud, we can with distance of several years deal out and funds transcendent permission limits. (authors)

  20. Identification of molecular species of acylglycerols of Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. We successfully cultivated four edible, medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid culture. Recently, we identified the molecular species of acylglycerols in the lipid extract of mushroom G. lucidum NRRL66208. One hundred and three molecular...

  1. Mushroom speleothems: Stromatolites that formed in the absence of phototrophs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontognali, Tomaso; D'Angeli, Ilenia; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano; Gonzales, Esteban; DeWaele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Santa Catalina Cave, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammilaries). More peculiar is the cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) - the constituents of biofilms and microbial mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence of phototrophs) has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on Earth.

  2. Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in packaged fresh mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fandos, E; Olarte, C; Giménez, M; Sanz, S; Simón, A

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Listeria monocytogenes to grow in mushrooms packaged in two different types of PVC films when stored at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C. Mushrooms were packed in two polymeric films (perforated and nonperforated PVC) and stored at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C. The carbon dioxide and oxygen content inside the packages, aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., Listeria monocytogenes, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, anaerobic spores and major sensory factors were determined. The mushrooms packaged in nonperforated film and stored at 4 degrees C had the most desirable quality parameters (texture, development stage and absence of moulds). Listeria monocytogenes was able to grow at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C in inoculated mushrooms packaged in perforated and nonperforated films between 1 and 2 log units during the first 48 h. After 10 d of storage, the populations of L. monocytogenes were higher in mushrooms packaged in nonperforated film and stored at 10 degrees C. MAP followed by storage at 4 degrees C or 10 degrees C extends the shelf life by maintaining an acceptable appearance, but allows the growth and survival of L. monocytogenes. According to this study additional hurdles must be studied in order to prevent the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  3. Utilization following of bioremediation attributes using oyster mushrooms - Pleurotus ostreatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanda, D.; Matel, L.

    2007-01-01

    The mushrooms are not only rich food products, but also a specific component of forest biogeocenoses playing an important role in their functioning, including radionuclide migration. The reason why fungi work as such good indicators for radioactivity and pollution in general is connected to their structure. Using absorption to obtain their nutrition, fungi lack water-conducting organs like stems and roots. They absorb moisture and nutrients from the soil background through surface cells. Dissolved or airborne materials, which include pollutants, move freely through the compartments of hyphae. What is more, radiation released during nuclear testing or accidents is absorbed, especially in areas where it rained heavily shortly after the incident. The present work is devoted to an estimation of the transfer coefficient between reared oyster mushrooms and their support die, which was injected with known activity of 241 Am and 242 Pu. After 2 months when we get the reared mushrooms of cane oyster mushrooms were dried and prepared by liquid extraction with Aliquat 336. The samples were measured by alpha-spectrometry. The results of activity 241 Am and 242 Pu in the mushrooms body and residual activity in the support was detected and calculated (authors)

  4. Mushroom speleothems: Stromatolites that formed in the absence of phototrophs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaso eBontognali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Santa Catalina Cave, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammilaries. More peculiar is the cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS – the constituents of biofilms and microbial mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence of phototrophs has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on Earth.

  5. Advances in Mushroom Research in the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Pan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a lot of progress in mushroom science and biotechnology in the last decade. The optimization of PFGE separation of fungal chromosomes allowed the study of the molecular karyotype of mushrooms and the assignment of genes to chromosomes. There are 115 genes encoded from different species of mushrooms. Cross breeding continues to be the principal method, but it is accompanied by the analyses of RAPD or RFLPs methods. The genetic makers are used and introduced into commercial large hybrids via introgression breeding. The complex traits such as yield, resistance to disease and quality characteristics, and quantitative traits more than one quantitative trait locus (QTL are found and used in practice. The transformants or transgenic mutant strains were obtained by Agrobacterium system or particle bombardment. At least 651 species representing 182 genera of hetero- and homobasidiomycetes mushrooms were researched containing antitumor or immunostimulating polysaccharides. Ergosterol in the lipid fraction was identified as one of the most active constituents. New sesquiterpenoid hydroquinones, steroids, oxalic acid, triterpenes, water-soluble lignins, sulfated polysaccharides, protein-bound polysaccharides are researched intensively as antimicrobial or antiviral agents. Many small molecular mass compounds exhibit cytotoxic activities, such as illudins, leaianafulvene, triterpenes (ganoderic acids, acetoxyscirpenediol, ergosterol peroxide, sterols. There are many other compounds or activities found in the mushrooms, such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic action, anti-inflammatory effect, hepatoprotective compounds, psychoactive compounds and activities.

  6. Biochemical degradation and physical migration of polyphenolic compounds in osmotic dehydrated blueberries with pulsed electric field and thermal pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Jin, Tony Z; Fan, Xuetong; Wu, Jijun

    2018-01-15

    Fresh blueberries were pretreated by pulsed electric fields (PEF) or thermal pretreatment and then were subject to osmotic dehydration. The changes in contents of anthocyanins, predominantly phenolic acids and flavonols, total phenolics, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and antioxidant activity in the blueberry samples during pretreatment and osmotic dehydration were investigated. Biochemical degradation and physical migration of these nutritive compounds from fruits to osmotic solutions were observed during the pretreatments and osmotic dehydration. PEF pretreated samples had the least degradation loss but the most migration loss of these compounds compared to thermally pretreated and control samples. Higher rates of water loss and solid gain during osmotic dehydration were also obtained by PEF pretreatment, reducing the dehydration time from 130 to 48h. PEF pretreated and dehydrated fruits showed superior appearance to thermally pretreated and control samples. Therefore, PEF pretreatment is a preferred technology that balances nutritive quality, appearance, and dehydration rate. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Paleogene radiation of a plant pathogenic mushroom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P A Coetzee

    Full Text Available The global movement and speciation of fungal plant pathogens is important, especially because of the economic losses they cause and the ease with which they are able to spread across large areas. Understanding the biogeography and origin of these plant pathogens can provide insights regarding their dispersal and current day distribution. We tested the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin of the plant pathogenic mushroom genus Armillaria and the currently accepted premise that vicariance accounts for the extant distribution of the species.The phylogeny of a selection of Armillaria species was reconstructed based on Maximum Parsimony (MP, Maximum Likelihood (ML and Bayesian Inference (BI. A timeline was then placed on the divergence of lineages using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach.Phylogenetic analyses of sequenced data for three combined nuclear regions provided strong support for three major geographically defined clades: Holarctic, South American-Australasian and African. Molecular dating placed the initial radiation of the genus at 54 million years ago within the Early Paleogene, postdating the tectonic break-up of Gondwana.The distribution of extant Armillaria species is the result of ancient long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance due to continental drift. As these finding are contrary to most prior vicariance hypotheses for fungi, our results highlight the important role of long-distance dispersal in the radiation of fungal pathogens from the Southern Hemisphere.

  8. Ganoderma Lucidum (Reishi Mushroom) and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Ahmet; Nayir, Erdinc; Kirca, Onder; Ozdogan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Having a long historical past in traditional Chinese medicine, Ganoderma Lucidum (G. Lucidum) is a type of mushroom believed to extend life and promote health. Due to the increasing consumption pattern, it has been cultivated and marketed intensively since the 1970s. It is claimed to be effective in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, and in addition, it exerts anticancer properties. Almost all the data on the benefits of G. Lucidum are based on laboratory and preclinical studies. The few clinical studies conducted are questionable. Nevertheless, when the findings obtained from laboratory studies are considered, it turns that G. Lucidum is likely to have some benefits for cancer patients. What is important at this point is to determine the components that will provide these benefits, and use them in drug development, after testing their reliability. In conclusion, it would be the right approach to abstain from using and incentivizing this product, until its benefits and harms are set out clearly, by considering its potential side effects.

  9. Mushroom bodies regulate habit formation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Björn

    2009-08-25

    To make good decisions, we evaluate past choices to guide later decisions. In most situations, we have the opportunity to simultaneously learn about both the consequences of our choice (i.e., operantly) and the stimuli associated with correct or incorrect choices (i.e., classically). Interestingly, in many species, including humans, these learning processes occasionally lead to irrational decisions. An extreme case is the habitual drug user consistently administering the drug despite the negative consequences, but we all have experience with our own, less severe habits. The standard animal model employs a combination of operant and classical learning components to bring about habit formation in rodents. After extended training, these animals will press a lever even if the outcome associated with lever-pressing is no longer desired. In this study, experiments with wild-type and transgenic flies revealed that a prominent insect neuropil, the mushroom bodies (MBs), regulates habit formation in flies by inhibiting the operant learning system when a predictive stimulus is present. This inhibition enables generalization of the classical memory and prevents premature habit formation. Extended training in wild-type flies produced a phenocopy of MB-impaired flies, such that generalization was abolished and goal-directed actions were transformed into habitual responses.

  10. Guava leaves polyphenolics-rich extract inhibits vital enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Emmanuel Anyachukwu; Agboola, Samson Olalekan; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Shode, Francis O.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Elevated uric acid level, an index of gout resulting from the over-activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), increases the risk of developing hypertension. However, research has shown that plant-derived inhibitors of XO and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE), two enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension, respectively, can prevent or ameliorate both diseases, without noticeable side effects. Hence, this study characterized the polyphenolics composition of guava leaves extract and evaluated its inhibitory effect on XO and ACE in vitro. Materials and Methods: The polyphenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD). The XO, ACE, and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities, and free radicals (2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl [DPPH]* and 2,2´-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic [ABTS]*+) scavenging activities of the extract were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Flavonoids were present in the extract in the order of quercetin > kaempferol > catechin > quercitrin > rutin > luteolin > epicatechin; while phenolic acids were in the order of caffeic acid > chlorogenic acid > gallic acids. The extract effectively inhibited XO, ACE and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner; having half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 38.24 ± 2.32 μg/mL, 21.06 ± 2.04 μg/mL and 27.52 ± 1.72 μg/mL against XO, ACE and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, respectively. The extract also strongly scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+. Conclusion: Guava leaves extract could serve as functional food for managing gout and hypertension and attenuating the oxidative stress associated with both diseases. PMID:27104032

  11. Guava leaves polyphenolics-rich extract inhibits vital enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Emmanuel Anyachukwu; Agboola, Samson Olalekan; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Shode, Francis O

    2016-01-01

    Elevated uric acid level, an index of gout resulting from the over-activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), increases the risk of developing hypertension. However, research has shown that plant-derived inhibitors of XO and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE), two enzymes implicated in gout and hypertension, respectively, can prevent or ameliorate both diseases, without noticeable side effects. Hence, this study characterized the polyphenolics composition of guava leaves extract and evaluated its inhibitory effect on XO and ACE in vitro. The polyphenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD). The XO, ACE, and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities, and free radicals (2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl [DPPH]* and 2,2´-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic [ABTS]*(+)) scavenging activities of the extract were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Flavonoids were present in the extract in the order of quercetin > kaempferol > catechin > quercitrin > rutin > luteolin > epicatechin; while phenolic acids were in the order of caffeic acid > chlorogenic acid > gallic acids. The extract effectively inhibited XO, ACE and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner; having half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 38.24 ± 2.32 μg/mL, 21.06 ± 2.04 μg/mL and 27.52 ± 1.72 μg/mL against XO, ACE and Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation, respectively. The extract also strongly scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*(+). Guava leaves extract could serve as functional food for managing gout and hypertension and attenuating the oxidative stress associated with both diseases.

  12. Polyphenols as Modulators of Aquaporin Family in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Diana; Zambonin, Laura; Dalla Sega, Francesco Vieceli; Hrelia, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols are bioactive molecules widely distributed in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and beverages. Polyphenols in food sources are extensively studied for their role in the maintenance of human health and in the protection against development of chronic/degenerative diseases. Polyphenols act mainly as antioxidant molecules, protecting cell constituents against oxidative damage. The enormous number of polyphenolic compounds leads to huge different mechanisms of action not fully understood. Recently, some evidence is emerging about the role of polyphenols, such as curcumin, pinocembrin, resveratrol, and quercetin, in modulating the activity of some aquaporin (AQP) isoforms. AQPs are integral, small hydrophobic water channel proteins, extensively expressed in many organs and tissues, whose major function is to facilitate the transport of water or glycerol over cell plasma membranes. Here we summarize AQP physiological functions and report emerging evidence on the implication of these proteins in a number of pathophysiological processes. In particular, this review offers an overview about the role of AQPs in brain, eye, skin diseases, and metabolic syndrome, focusing on the ability of polyphenols to modulate AQP expression. This original analysis can contribute to elucidating some peculiar effects exerted by polyphenols and can lead to the development of an innovative potential preventive/therapeutic strategy.

  13. Polyphenols as Modulators of Aquaporin Family in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Fiorentini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are bioactive molecules widely distributed in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and beverages. Polyphenols in food sources are extensively studied for their role in the maintenance of human health and in the protection against development of chronic/degenerative diseases. Polyphenols act mainly as antioxidant molecules, protecting cell constituents against oxidative damage. The enormous number of polyphenolic compounds leads to huge different mechanisms of action not fully understood. Recently, some evidence is emerging about the role of polyphenols, such as curcumin, pinocembrin, resveratrol, and quercetin, in modulating the activity of some aquaporin (AQP isoforms. AQPs are integral, small hydrophobic water channel proteins, extensively expressed in many organs and tissues, whose major function is to facilitate the transport of water or glycerol over cell plasma membranes. Here we summarize AQP physiological functions and report emerging evidence on the implication of these proteins in a number of pathophysiological processes. In particular, this review offers an overview about the role of AQPs in brain, eye, skin diseases, and metabolic syndrome, focusing on the ability of polyphenols to modulate AQP expression. This original analysis can contribute to elucidating some peculiar effects exerted by polyphenols and can lead to the development of an innovative potential preventive/therapeutic strategy.

  14. Polyphenols: Extraction Methods, Antioxidative Action, Bioavailability and Anticarcinogenic Effects

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    Eva Brglez Mojzer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Being secondary plant metabolites, polyphenols represent a large and diverse group of substances abundantly present in a majority of fruits, herbs and vegetables. The current contribution is focused on their bioavailability, antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. An overview of extraction methods is also given, with supercritical fluid extraction highlighted as a promising eco-friendly alternative providing exceptional separation and protection from degradation of unstable polyphenols. The protective role of polyphenols against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, UV light, plant pathogens, parasites and predators results in several beneficial biological activities giving rise to prophylaxis or possibly even to a cure for several prevailing human diseases, especially various cancer types. Omnipresence, specificity of the response and the absence of or low toxicity are crucial advantages of polyphenols as anticancer agents. The main problem represents their low bioavailability and rapid metabolism. One of the promising solutions lies in nanoformulation of polyphenols that prevents their degradation and thus enables significantly higher concentrations to reach the target cells. Another, more practiced, solution is the use of mixtures of various polyphenols that bring synergistic effects, resulting in lowering of the required therapeutic dose and in multitargeted action. The combination of polyphenols with existing drugs and therapies also shows promising results and significantly reduces their toxicity.

  15. Potential Health Benefits of Olive Oil and Plant Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzynik-Debicka, Monika; Przychodzen, Paulina; Cappello, Francesco; Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Knap, Narcyz; Wozniak, Michal; Gorska-Ponikowska, Magdalena

    2018-02-28

    Beneficial effects of natural plant polyphenols on the human body have been evaluated in a number of scientific research projects. Bioactive polyphenols are natural compounds of various chemical structures. Their sources are mostly fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, roots, bark, leaves of different plants, herbs, whole grain products, processed foods (dark chocolate), as well as tea, coffee, and red wine. Polyphenols are believed to reduce morbidity and/or slow down the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases as well as cancer. Biological activity of polyphenols is strongly related to their antioxidant properties. They tend to reduce the pool of reactive oxygen species as well as to neutralize potentially carcinogenic metabolites. A broad spectrum of health-promoting properties of plant polyphenols comprises antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-mutagenic effects. Scientific studies present the ability of polyphenols to modulate the human immune system by affecting the proliferation of white blood cells, and also the production of cytokines or other factors that participate in the immunological defense. The aim of the review is to focus on polyphenols of olive oil in context of their biological activities.

  16. Quantum dots as optical labels for ultrasensitive detection of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshath, Uchangi Satyaprasad; Shubha, Likitha R; Bhatt, Praveena; Thakur, Munna Singh

    2014-07-15

    Considering the fact that polyphenols have versatile activity in-vivo, its detection and quantification is very much important for a healthy diet. Laccase enzyme can convert polyphenols to yield mono/polyquinones which can quench Quantum dots fluorescence. This phenomenon of charge transfer from quinones to QDs was exploited as optical labels to detect polyphenols. CdTe QD may undergo dipolar interaction with quinones as a result of broad spectral absorption due to multiple excitonic states resulting from quantum confinement effects. Thus, "turn-off" fluorescence method was applied for ultrasensitive detection of polyphenols by using laccase. We observed proportionate quenching of QDs fluorescence with respect to polyphenol concentration in the range of 100 µg to 1 ng/mL. Also, quenching of the photoluminescence was highly efficient and stable and could detect individual and total polyphenols with high sensitivity (LOD-1 ng/mL). Moreover, proposed method was highly efficient than any other reported methods in terms of sensitivity, specificity and selectivity. Therefore, a novel optical sensor was developed for the detection of polyphenols at a sensitive level based on the charge transfer mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Interactions between CYP3A4 and Dietary Polyphenols

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    Loai Basheer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s catalyze oxidative reactions of a broad spectrum of substrates and play a critical role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as drugs and dietary compounds. CYP3A4 is known to be the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of drugs and most other xenobiotics. Dietary compounds, of which polyphenolics are the most studied, have been shown to interact with CYP3A4 and alter its expression and activity. Traditionally, the liver was considered the prime site of CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolic extraction, but in vitro and in vivo studies now suggest that the small intestine can be of equal or even greater importance for the metabolism of polyphenolics and drugs. Recent studies have pointed to the role of gut microbiota in the metabolic fate of polyphenolics in human, suggesting their involvement in the complex interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4. Last but not least, all the above suggests that coadministration of drugs and foods that are rich in polyphenols is expected to stimulate undesirable clinical consequences. This review focuses on interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4 as they relate to structural considerations, food-drug interactions, and potential negative consequences of interactions between CYP3A4 and polyphenols.

  18. Evaluation of polyphenol content in different parts of physalis ixocarpa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, J.; Shafi, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study extracts of leaf, stem, fruit and calyx with different polarity was investigated for their phenolic content using high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric assay. Among different parts, stem contain high concentration of total polyphenol and gallic acid. The effect of extraction solvent on polyphenol quantification was observed in both assays. Spectrophotometric analysis of the data regarding polyphenol content indicated that among different extracts from the stem, leaf and fruit tissues; ethyl acetate extracted fraction of stem measured maximum polyphenol content of 110.376 mgGAE/g of dry extract. The ethyl acetate extracted sample of leaf showed high polyphenol (Gallic acid) content of 95 mg GAE/g of dry extract using high performance liquid chromatography assay. The amounts of phenolic content (Gallic acid) extracted from the parts of the plant with the different solvent ranged from 0.0354- 95 mg GAE/g of the dry extract using HPLC, however, spectrophotometric assay indicated total polyphenol ranged from 38-110.37 mgGAE g-1 of the dry extract. The current study suggested that ethyl acetate is an effective solvent for the extraction of polyphenol in different parts of P. ixocarapa. (author)

  19. Polyphenols in Food: Cancer Prevention and Apoptosis Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashita; Kaur, Mandeep; Katnoria, Jatinder Kaur; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur

    2017-10-06

    Polyphenols are group of water-soluble organic compounds, mainly of natural origin. The compounds having about 5-7 aromatic rings and more than 12 phenolic hydroxyl groups are classified as polyphenols. These are the antioxidants which protect the body from oxidative damage. In plants, they are the secondary metabolites produced as a defense mechanism against stress factors. Antioxidant property of polyphenols is suggested to provide protection against many diseases associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), including cancer. Various studies carried out across the world have suggested that polyphenols can inhibit the tumor generation, induce apoptosis in cancer cells and interfere in progression of tumors. This group of wonder compounds is present in surplus in natural plants and food products. Intake of polyphenols through diet can scavenge ROS and thus can help in cancer prevention. The plant derived products can also be used along with conventional chemotherapy to enhance the chemopreventive effects. The present review focuses on various in vitro and in vivo studies carried out to assess the anti-carcinogenic potential of polyphenols present in our food. Also, the pathways involved in cancer chemopreventive effects of various subclasses (flavonoids, lignans, stilbenes and phenolic acids) of polyphenols are discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Potential Health Benefits of Olive Oil and Plant Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gorzynik-Debicka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of natural plant polyphenols on the human body have been evaluated in a number of scientific research projects. Bioactive polyphenols are natural compounds of various chemical structures. Their sources are mostly fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, roots, bark, leaves of different plants, herbs, whole grain products, processed foods (dark chocolate, as well as tea, coffee, and red wine. Polyphenols are believed to reduce morbidity and/or slow down the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases as well as cancer. Biological activity of polyphenols is strongly related to their antioxidant properties. They tend to reduce the pool of reactive oxygen species as well as to neutralize potentially carcinogenic metabolites. A broad spectrum of health-promoting properties of plant polyphenols comprises antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-mutagenic effects. Scientific studies present the ability of polyphenols to modulate the human immune system by affecting the proliferation of white blood cells, and also the production of cytokines or other factors that participate in the immunological defense. The aim of the review is to focus on polyphenols of olive oil in context of their biological activities.

  1. Reducing Breast Cancer Recurrence: The Role of Dietary Polyphenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J. Braakhuis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from numerous observational and clinical studies suggest that polyphenolic phytochemicals such as phenolic acids in olive oil, flavonols in tea, chocolate and grapes, and isoflavones in soy products reduce the risk of breast cancer. A dietary food pattern naturally rich in polyphenols is the Mediterranean diet and evidence suggests those of Mediterranean descent have a lower breast cancer incidence. Whilst dietary polyphenols have been the subject of breast cancer risk-reduction, this review will focus on the clinical effects of polyphenols on reducing recurrence. Overall, we recommend breast cancer patients consume a diet naturally high in flavonol polyphenols including tea, vegetables (onion, broccoli, and fruit (apples, citrus. At least five servings of vegetables and fruit daily appear protective. Moderate soy protein consumption (5–10 g daily and the Mediterranean dietary pattern show the most promise for breast cancer patients. In this review, we present an overview of clinical trials on supplementary polyphenols of dietary patterns rich in polyphenols on breast cancer recurrence, mechanistic data, and novel delivery systems currently being researched.

  2. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  3. The Problems Detected in Mushroom Cultivation in Ankara

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    Mürüvvet Ulusoy Deniz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the cultivated mushroom farming which began to be produced in the 1960s in Turkey, has been more faster in the Mediterranean region than other regions. The development of mushroom cultivation has began to seen Marmara and İç Anadolu regions in recent years. The mushroom production which is very important for human health and nutrition, has been changing year to year (sometimes increase, sometimes decrease in the province of Ankara. The first private mushrrom cultivation company had been established in1963. Up to date, the number of private enterprises has changed over the years in Ankara. This study was carried out by doing a survey with an active 12 enterprises which the annual production capacity of 10-600 ton. The enterprises were visited and problems were determined during the cultivation. As a result of the study, It was observed that there are problems in production and marketing phases and with surface soil material

  4. Visualizing mushroom body response to a conditioned odor in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Till; Menzel, Randolf

    2001-11-01

    Combining differential conditioning with optophysiological recordings of bee brain activity allows the investigation of learning-related changes in complex neural systems. In this study we focused on the mushroom bodies of the bee brain. Presenting different odors to the animal leads to significant activation of the mushroom body lips. After differential conditioning, the rewarded odor leads to stronger activation than it did before training. Activation by the unrewarded odor remains unchanged. These results resemble findings in the bee's antennal lobes, which are the first olfactory relay station in the insect brain. As an integrative neural network, enhanced activation of the mushroom body lip may carry additional information, i.e., for processing odor concentrations.

  5. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  6. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Günç Ergönül

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2. Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids.

  7. Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms

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    Eva Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide.

  8. Extension of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) shelf life by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.

    1994-01-01

    Fresh mushroom sporophores (Agaricus bisporus) were placed in trays and covered with PVC film. Forty-eight of the number of packs were irradiated by a γ-source with a dose of 3 kGy, and the remaining 24 treated as control packs. Both treated and control samples were subsequently stored at 10 ± 2°C and relative humidity of 94 ± 6%. After storage, mushrooms were subjected to quality assessments and taste panel-testing, both raw and when cooked. Irradiated sporophores had an extended shelf-life compared with control samples, with less browning and a delay in cap opening. Desiccation was slowed and stipe elongation reduced so that irradiated mushrooms were still acceptable for consumption 16 days after treatment. Deleterious effects of irradiation at this relatively low level were not observed

  9. Review Paper: Polyphenolic Antioxidants and Neuronal Regeneration

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    Amin Ataie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative stress can induce neuronal damages, modulate intracellular signaling and ultimately leads to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. To review antioxidants preventive effects on oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases we accumulated data from international medical journals and academic informations' sites. According to many studies, antioxidants could reduce toxic neuronal damages and many studies confirmed the efficacy of polyphenol antioxidants in fruits and vegetables to reduce neuronal death and to diminish oxidative stress. This systematic review showed the antioxidant activities of phytochemicals which play as natural neuroprotectives with low adverse effects against some neurodegenerative diseases as Parkinson or Alzheimer diseases.

  10. Review Paper: Polyphenolic Antioxidants and Neuronal Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ataie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative stress can induce neuronal damages, modulate intracellular signaling and ultimately leads to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. To review antioxidants preventive effects on oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases we accumulated data from international medical journals and academic informations' sites. According to many studies, antioxidants could reduce toxic neuronal damages and many studies confirmed the efficacy of polyphenol antioxidants in fruits and vegetables to reduce neuronal death and to diminish oxidative stress. This systematic review showed the antioxidant activities of phytochemicals which play as natural neuroprotectives with low adverse effects against some neurodegenerative diseases as Parkinson or Alzheimer diseases.

  11. Interactions of polyphenols with carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobek, Lidija

    2015-05-15

    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites in plants, investigated intensively because of their potential positive effects on human health. Their bioavailability and mechanism of positive effects have been studied, in vitro and in vivo. Lately, a high number of studies takes into account the interactions of polyphenols with compounds present in foods, like carbohydrates, proteins or lipids, because these food constituents can have significant effects on the activity of phenolic compounds. This paper reviews the interactions between phenolic compounds and lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and their impact on polyphenol activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Consumption of polyphenol plants may slow aging and associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Utku; Seremet, Sila; Lamping, Jeffrey W; Adams, Jerome M; Liu, Deede Y; Swerdlow, Russell H; Aires, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Slowing aging is a widely shared goal. Plant-derived polyphenols, which are found in commonly consumed food plants such as tea, cocoa, blueberry and grape, have been proposed to have many health benefits, including slowing aging. In-vivo studies have demonstrated the lifespan-extending ability of six polyphenol-containing plants. These include five widely consumed foods (tea, blueberry, cocoa, apple, pomegranate) and a flower commonly used as a folk medicine (betony). These and multiple other plant polyphenols have been shown to have beneficial effects on aging-associated changes across a variety of organisms from worm and fly to rodent and human.

  13. Microbial ecology of the Agaricus bisporus mushroom cropping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Conor F

    2018-02-01

    Agaricus bisporus is the most widely cultivated mushroom species in the world. Cultivation is commenced by inoculating beds of semi-pasteurised composted organic substrate with a pure spawn of A. bisporus. The A. bisporus mycelium subsequently colonises the composted substrate by degrading the organic material to release nutrients. A layer of peat, often called "casing soil", is laid upon the surface of the composted substrate to induce the development of the mushroom crop and maintain compost environmental conditions. Extensive research has been conducted investigating the biochemistry and genetics of A. bisporus throughout the cultivation process; however, little is currently known about the wider microbial ecology that co-inhabits the composted substrate and casing layers. The compost and casing microbial communities are known to play important roles in the mushroom production process. Microbial species present in the compost and casing are known for (1) being an important source of nitrogen for the A. bisporus mycelium, (2) releasing sugar residues through the degradation of the wheat straw in the composted substrate, (3) playing a critical role in inducing development of the A. bisporus fruiting bodies and (4) acting as pathogens by parasitising the mushroom mycelium/crop. Despite a long history of research into the mushroom cropping process, an extensive review of the microbial communities present in the compost and casing has not as of yet been undertaken. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the literature investigating the compost and casing microbial communities throughout cultivation of the A. bisporus mushroom crop.

  14. Radical scavenging potential and DNA damage protection of wild edible mushrooms of Kashmir Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsheen Shameem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushrooms Verpa bohemica and Morchella esculenta are locally used for dietary and antioxidant in tribal areas of Kashmir Himalaya. In the present study, sequences of solvents on the basis of their polarity were used for the extraction from selected mushrooms. The comprehensive antioxidant activity of all edible mushroom extracts was evaluated by seven different methods. V. bohemica exhibited significant inhibitory activity of radicals among all the mushrooms while Morchella extracts protected the DNA damage from OH· radicals. This study provides us the substantiation for the use of these mushrooms as antioxidants besides being already eaten as food.

  15. Polyphenol Content, Physicochemical Properties, Enzymatic Activity, Anthocyanin Profiles, and Antioxidant Capacity of Cerasus humilis (Bge. Sok. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwen Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven varieties of Chinese dwarf cherries were evaluated and compared with respect to their weight, diameter, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, color, polyphenol contents, ascorbic acid levels, anthocyanin profiles, enzymatic activity, and antioxidant capacity. The fruits are rich in phenolic content (339.07–770.30 mg/100 g fresh weight. Nine anthocyanins were obtained from fruits after chromatographic separation and their structures analyzed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the major anthocyanin with 50.36–78.39% concentration. Three anthocyanins were reported for the first time in these cherries. They exhibit low polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities, but their superoxide dismutase activity is high (572.75–800.17 U/g FW. The highest amounts of soluble solid content (15.67 Brix %, total titratable acid (1.90%, ascorbic acid (18.47 mg/100 g FW, and total anthocyanin (152.66 mg/100 g FW were observed. Three methods (DPPH-scavenging ability, oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, and cellular antioxidant activity assay were employed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the phenolic extracts of these cherries. Number 5 has the highest values of ORAC and CAA of 205.68 μmol TE/g DM and 99.67 μmol QE/100 g FW, respectively.

  16. Red wine polyphenols prevent metabolic and cardiovascular alterations associated with obesity in Zucker fatty rats (Fa/Fa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelali Agouni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with increased risks for development of cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies report an inverse association between dietary flavonoid consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. We studied the potential beneficial effects of dietary supplementation of red wine polyphenol extract, Provinols, on obesity-associated alterations with respect to metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular functions in Zucker fatty (ZF rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ZF rats or their lean littermates received normal diet or supplemented with Provinols for 8 weeks. Provinols improved glucose metabolism by reducing plasma glucose and fructosamine in ZF rats. Moreover, it reduced circulating triglycerides and total cholesterol as well as LDL-cholesterol in ZF rats. Echocardiography measurements demonstrated that Provinols improved cardiac performance as evidenced by an increase in left ventricular fractional shortening and cardiac output associated with decreased peripheral arterial resistances in ZF rats. Regarding vascular function, Provinols corrected endothelial dysfunction in aortas from ZF rats by improving endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to acetylcholine (Ach. Provinols enhanced NO bioavailability resulting from increased nitric oxide (NO production through enhanced endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS activity and reduced superoxide anion release via decreased expression of NADPH oxidase membrane sub-unit, Nox-1. In small mesenteric arteries, although Provinols did not affect the endothelium-dependent response to Ach; it enhanced the endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor component of the response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Use of red wine polyphenols may be a potential mechanism for prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic alterations associated with obesity.

  17. Mushrooms: significant source of internal contamination by radiocaesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randa, Zdenek; Benada, Jaroslav; Horyna, Jan; Klan, Jaroslav

    1990-01-01

    Various species of mushrooms and soils were analyzed for alkali elements (Rb, K) by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and for radiocaesium by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. There are differences between uptake of non-radioactive Cs and radiocaesium. Concentration factors for radiocaesium were higher than those for non-radioactive Cs. The highest accumulation of radio-caesium was observed in some species of the Boletus genus, Laccaria spp., Paxillus involutus, Cortinarius spp., Tylopilus felleus and in some species of the Lactarius genus. The consumption of some wild-growing mushrooms can be the most significant contribution to the exposure of population from Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  18. A ribonuclease from the wild mushroom Boletus griseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hexiang; Ng, T B

    2006-10-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase) with a molecular mass of 29 kDa and cospecific for poly A and poly U was isolated from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus griseus. Its N-terminal sequence exhibited some similarity to those of RNases from the mushrooms Irpex lacteus and Lentinus edodes. The RNase was adsorbed on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and Affi-gel blue gel and was unadsorbed on CM-cellulose. The enzyme exhibited a temperature optimum between 60 and 70 degrees C and a pH optimum at 3.5.

  19. Mushroom poisoning in children: liver MDCT findings in three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, Banu; Kirbas, Ismail; Cevik, Belma; Teksam, Mehmet; Coskun, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Wild mushroom poisoning occurs quite frequently in Turkey, usually during late summer and autumn when climatic conditions favour fungal growth. We report the MDCT findings of the liver in three children after mushroom poisoning. In all three patients, precontrast MDCT findings showed diffuse reduction of hepatic attenuation compared with the spleen. Contrast-enhanced MDCT images showed homogeneous contrast enhancement of the liver. All three patients recovered after medical treatment. A follow-up precontrast MDCT examination was performed in one patient in whom the density of the liver parenchyma had returned to normal. (orig.)

  20. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Ostergaard, L. H.; Fuglsang, C. C.; Kolenko, Petr; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2009), s. 638-640 ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500500701; GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbohydrate oxidase * crystallization * data processing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.551, year: 2009

  1. Investigation of antihemolytic, xanthine oxidase inhibition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abbreviations: SVEs: Salvia Verbenaca L. aerial part Extracts; CrE: Crud Extract; ChE: Chloroform Extract ; EAE: Ethyl Acetate Extract; AqE : Aqueous Extract ; ROS: Reactive Oxygen Spices; AAPH : 2,2, -Azobis (2-AmidinoPropane) Dihydrochloride ; DPPH: DiPhenyl- Picryl-Hydrazyl; XO: Xanthine Oxidase; Gen: Gentamicin ...

  2. Genetic defects of cytochrome c oxidase assembly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecina, Petr; Houšťková, H.; Hansíková, H.; Zeman, J.; Houštěk, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, Suppl. 1 (2004), s. S213-S223 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/03/0749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : cytochrome c oxidase * mitochondrial disorders Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  3. The antioxidant properties, cytotoxicity and monoamine oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarchonanthus camphoratus (camphor bush) has been widely used for numerous medicinal purposes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties, cytotoxicity and monoamine oxidase inhibition activities of the crude dichloromethane leaf extract of T. camphoratus. The antioxidant activities were ...

  4. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production. Pure culture of oyster mushroom was obtained from Mycology laboratory, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University. The pure culture was inoculated on potato dextrose agar for spawn preparation. Then, the spawn containing sorghum was inoculated with the fungal culture for the formation of fruiting bodies on the agricultural wastes. The oyster mushroom cultivation was undertaken under aseptic conditions, and the growth and development of mushroom were monitored daily. Results of the study revealed that oyster mushroom can grow on cotton seed, paper waste, sawdust and wheat straw, with varying growth performances. The highest biological and economic yield, as well as the highest percentage of biological efficiency of oyster mushroom was obtained from cotton seed, while the least was from sawdust. The study recommends cotton seed, followed by paper waste as suitable substrates for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation on various aspects of oyster mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia to promote the industry.

  5. Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

    2013-08-01

    Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg⁻¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg⁻¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg⁻¹ dw).

  6. Dietary intake of total polyphenol and polyphenol classes and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Cayssials, Valerie; Jenab, Mazda

    2018-01-01

    Polyphenols may play a chemopreventive role in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, epidemiological evidence supporting a role for intake of individual polyphenol classes, other than flavonoids is insufficient. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and individual classes and ...

  7. Haematological and biochemical effects of polyphenolics in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanamani, Arumugam; Sudha, Munusamy; Deepa, G; Sudha, M; Deivanai, K; Sadulla, S

    2008-07-01

    Polyphenols of natural and synthetic origin are exploited in tanning sector to convert putrescible skin/hide to non-putrescible leather. However, only 30-40% of the inputs have been taken up for processing, the remaining is released as unspent. The existing conventional wastewater treatment systems are inefficient in removing or degrading these unspent polyphenols and thus detrimental to ecosystem. The present study demonstrates the evaluation of impact of both synthetic and natural polyphenols on biochemical and haematological properties of blood and serum in animal models. The results reveal that concentrations of polyphenols play a major role. At higher concentrations, irrespective of their nature, there was a marked change in the lipid profile (81% reduction), followed by insignificant change in glucose levels, RBC and WBC counts and other haematological parameters. At lower concentrations, no significant changes in the above said properties were observed.

  8. Polyphenolic chemistry of tea and coffee: a century of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2009-09-23

    Tea and coffee, the most popular beverages in the world, have been consumed for thousands of years for their alluring flavors and health benefits. Polyphenols, particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids, are of great abundance in tea and coffee and contribute a lot to their flavor and health properties. This paper reviews the polyphenol chemistry of tea and coffee, specifically their stability, and scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). During the manufacturing and brewing process, green tea and black tea polyphenols undergo epimerization and oxidation, respectively. Meanwhile, the lactonization and the polymerization of chlorogenic acid are the major causes for the degradation of polyphenols in coffee. Tea catechins, besides having antioxidant properties, have the novel characteristic of trapping reactive carbonyl species. The A ring of the catechins is the binding site for RCS trapping, whereas the B ring is the preferred site for antioxidation.

  9. Antibacterial action of an aqueous grape seed polyphenolic extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... The potential of a polyphenolic grape seed extract for use as a natural antibacterial agent was ... electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry; PBS, phosphate .... The antibacterial tests were carried out by disc diffusion method.

  10. Minerals and Total Polyphenolic Content of Some Vegetal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana E. TUFEANU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The total polyphenolic content and minerals were determined for chia seeds, Psyllium husks and watermelon rind powder. The minerals content was performed by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emissions Spectrometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, technique FIAS-Furnace (for Se. The sample with the highest content of polyphenols was chia (2.69 mg GAE/g s. followed by the watermelon rind powder. Reduced amounts of polyphenols were found in the Psyllium husks. Also, the total polyphenol concentration increased with the increase of the extraction time on the ultrasonic water bath. Minerals analysis indicated that powders obtained from chia seeds and watermelon rind contained large amounts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The most abundant mineral in the Psyllium husks powder was found potassium, followed by calcium. In conclusion, these powders can be used as ingredients for functional food and food supplements production due to the high nutritional content and bioactive properties.

  11. Polyphenol-Rich Lentils and Their Health Promoting Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ganesan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris; Family: Fabaceae is a potential functional dietary ingredient which has polyphenol-rich content. Several studies have demonstrated that the consumption of lentil is immensely connected to the reduction in the incidence of diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancers and cardiovascular diseases due to its bioactive compounds. There has been increasing scientific interest in the study area of lentils as the functional food due to its high nutritive value, polyphenols, and other bioactive compounds. These polyphenols and the bioactive compounds found in lentil play an important role in the prevention of those degenerative diseases in humans. Besides that, it has health-promoting effects. Based on the in vitro, in-vivo and clinical studies, the present review focuses to provide more information on the nutritional compositions, bioactive compounds including polyphenols and health-promoting effects of lentils. Health-promoting information was gathered and orchestrated at a suitable place in the review.

  12. Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Srikram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total phenol content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak. Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat. Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr. S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff. fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr. Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56–13.96%, 11.16–50.29%, 1.43–21.94%, 2.11–38.11% and 9.56–59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

  13. Enhanced anodic Ru(bpy)32+ electrogenerated chemiluminescence by polyphenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Rong; Xu Xiao; Xu Da; Zhu Gang; Li Na; Liu Huwei; Li Kean

    2008-01-01

    Anodic Ru(bpy) 3 2+ electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) can be enhanced by polyphenols in alkaline solution. Spin trapping-electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments verified that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated during the electrolysis of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ in alkaline solution, and oxidation of quercetin enhanced Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL at anodic potential by producing additional ROS. This ECL enhancement can be used to analyze real sample and evaluate antioxidant activity of polyphenols

  14. Analytical techniques for the study of polyphenol-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklar Ulrih, Nataša

    2017-07-03

    This mini review focuses on advances in biophysical techniques to study polyphenol interactions with proteins. Polyphenols have many beneficial pharmacological properties, as a result of which they have been the subject of intensive studies. The most conventional techniques described here can be divided into three groups: (i) methods used for screening (in-situ methods); (ii) methods used to gain insight into the mechanisms of polyphenol-protein interactions; and (iii) methods used to study protein aggregation and precipitation. All of these methods used to study polyphenol-protein interactions are based on modifications to the physicochemical properties of the polyphenols or proteins after binding/complex formation in solution. To date, numerous review articles have been published in the field of polyphenols. This review will give a brief insight in computational methods and biosensors and cell-based methods, spectroscopic methods including fluorescence emission, UV-vis adsorption, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared and mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, and light scattering techniques including small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering, and calorimetric techniques (isothermal titration calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry), microscopy, the techniques which have been successfully used for polyphenol-protein interactions. At the end the new methods based on single molecule detection with high potential to study polyphenol-protein interactions will be presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique will be discussed as well as the thermodynamic, kinetic or structural parameters, which can be obtained. The other relevant biophysical experimental techniques that have proven to be valuable, such electrochemical methods, hydrodynamic techniques and chromatographic techniques will not be described here.

  15. Polyphenol supplementation: benefits for exercise performance or oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Kathryn H

    2014-05-01

    Supplement use among athletes is widespread, including non-traditional and biological compounds. Despite increasing research, a comprehensive and critical review on polyphenol supplementation and exercise is still lacking. This review is relevant for researchers directly involved in the topic, as well as those with a broad interest in athletic performance enhancement and sports nutrition. The purpose of this review is to present background information on groups of polyphenols and their derivatives because their differing chemical structures influence mechanisms of action; to discuss the potential of plant, fruit and vegetable-based biological supplements, high in polyphenol content, to affect exercise performance and biomarkers of oxidative stress and exercise-induced muscle damage; and to critically discuss the exercise studies and biomarkers used. Subjects in the studies reviewed were either sedentary, healthy individuals, or active, recreationally trained or well-trained athletes. Polyphenol supplementation in exercise studies included mainly extracts (multicomponent or purified), juices, infusions or an increased intake of polyphenol-rich foods. This review includes details of supplement doses and exercise test protocols. Many studies considered only the performance or one or two selected biomarkers of antioxidant capacity instead of a comprehensive choice of biomarkers to assess damage to lipids or proteins. Evidence is insufficient to make recommendations for or against the use of polyphenol supplementation (neither specific polyphenols nor specific doses) for either recreational, competitive or elite athletes. Polyphenols have multiple biological effects, and future exercise studies must be designed appropriately and specifically to determine physiological interactions between exercise and the selected supplement, rather than considering performance alone.

  16. A role for NADPH oxidase in antigen presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail J Gardiner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase expressed in phagocytes is a multi-subunit enzyme complex that generates superoxide (O2.-. This radical is an important precursor of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS needed for microbicidal activity during innate immune responses. Inherited defects in NADPH oxidase give rise to chronic granulomatous disease (CGD, a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections and granulomatous inflammation. Interestingly, CGD, CGD carrier status, and oxidase gene polymorphisms have all been associated with autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, suggesting a potential role for NADPH oxidase in regulating adaptive immune responses. Here, NADPH oxidase function in antigen processing and presentation is reviewed. NADPH oxidase influences dendritic cell (DC crosspresentation by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I through regulation of the phagosomal microenvironment, while in B lymphocytes, NADPH oxidase alters epitope selection by major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC-II.

  17. Polyphenol profiles of French cider apple varieties (Malus domestica sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanoner, P; Guyot, S; Marnet, N; Molle, D; Drilleau, J P

    1999-12-01

    The cortex of 14 French apple varieties (12 cider and 2 juice varieties), one English cider variety, and one dessert apple (i.e., Golden Delicious) were studied for their polyphenol composition. Total polyphenols were assayed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the precise polyphenolic composition (monomeric catechins, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and dihydrochalcones) was obtained by HPLC following thiolysis. ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS analyses showed that chlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid were methylated under the conditions of thiolysis. Depending on the variety, the global polyphenol concentration varied from 1 to 7 g per kilogram of fresh cortex. Cider varieties globally showed a higher polyphenol concentration than the dessert apple Golden Delicious, bitter varieties being the more concentrated. The proportion of the polyphenol classes varied greatly from one cultivar to another. For all varieties, procyanidins were always the predominant class. They were mainly constituted of (-)-epicatechin units with a small proportion of (+)-catechin as a terminal unit. The average degree of polymerization ranged between 4.2 and 7.5 depending upon the variety with an exception for the sharp varieties Guillevic and Avrolles which showed significant concentrations of procyanidins with DPn of 40 and 50, respectively.

  18. High nitrogen availability reduces polyphenol content in Sphagnum peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazza, Luca; Freeman, Chris

    2007-05-15

    Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum constitute the bulk of living and dead biomass in bogs. These plants contain peculiar polyphenols which hamper litter peat decomposition through their inhibitory activity on microbial breakdown. In the light of the increasing availability of biologically active nitrogen in natural ecosystems, litter derived from Sphagnum mosses is an ideal substrate to test the potential effects of increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition on polyphenol content in litter peat. To this aim, we measured total nitrogen and soluble polyphenol concentration in Sphagnum litter peat collected in 11 European bogs under a chronic gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results demonstrate that increasing nitrogen concentration in Sphagnum litter, as a consequence of increased exogenous nitrogen availability, is accompanied by a decreasing concentration of polyphenols. This inverse relationship is consistent with reports that in Sphagnum mosses, polyphenol and protein biosynthesis compete for the same precursor. Our observation of modified Sphagnum litter chemistry under chronic nitrogen eutrophication has implications in the context of the global carbon balance, because a lower content of decay-inhibiting polyphenols would accelerate litter peat decomposition.

  19. The Relevance of Dietary Polyphenols in Cardiovascular Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Ana G; Fernandez, Maria L

    2017-01-01

    The chemical structure of polyphenols consisting of aromatic rings, capable of quenching free radicals, makes them ideal candidates to protect against oxidation. Polyphenols are present in a variety of foods including grapes, berries, dark chocolate, coffee and tea to mention a few. A number of studies have shown that dietary polyphenols exert a protective effect against hypertension, dyslipidemias, inflammation, endothelial function and atherosclerosis, conditions associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies indicate that by decreasing cholesterol absorption, polyphenols alter hepatic cholesterol homeostasis resulting in decreases in plasma lipids and reduction in atherogenic lipoproteins thus having a protective effect against atherosclerosis; polyphenols have also been shown to decrease the activity of enzymes involved in the renin-angiotensinaldosterone system and improve blood pressure. Further, they have been recognized to increase nitric oxide production and to improve endothelial function. In this review we will present some of the evidence derived from epidemiological studies, clinical interventions as well as animal and cell studies supporting the cardioprotective effects of dietary polyphenols. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Polyphenol-Rich Lentils and Their Health Promoting Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kumar; Xu, Baojun

    2017-11-10

    Polyphenols are a group of plant metabolites with potent antioxidant properties, which protect against various chronic diseases induced by oxidative stress. Evidence showed that dietary polyphenols have emerged as one of the prominent scientific interests due to their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases in humans. Possible health beneficial effects of polyphenols are measured based on the human consumption and their bioavailability. Lentil ( Lens culinaris ; Family: Fabaceae) is a great source of polyphenol compounds with various health-promoting properties. Polyphenol-rich lentils have a potential effect on human health, possessing properties such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Based on the explorative study, the current comprehensive review aims to give up-to-date information on nutritive compositions, bioactive compounds and the health-promoting effect of polyphenol-rich lentils, which explores their therapeutic values for future clinical studies. All data of in vitro , in vivo and clinical studies of lentils and their impact on human health were collected from a library database and electronic search (Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar). Health-promoting information was gathered and orchestrated in the suitable place in the review.

  1. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R.; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagye, Laszlo G.; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Deakin, Greg; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Floudas, Dimitrios; Grimwood, Jane; Hildén, Kristiina; Kües, Ursula; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Murat, Claude; Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Wösten, Han A. B.; Xu, Jianping; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Foster, Gary D.; Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P.; Lundell, Taina; Hibbett, David S.; Henrissat, Bernard; Burton, Kerry S.; Kerrigan, Richard W.; Challen, Michael P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the “button mushroom” forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation, further defining the critical role such fungi contribute to soil structure and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. Genome sequence will expedite mushroom breeding for improved agronomic characteristics. PMID:23045686

  2. Mushrooms and the radioactivity coming from Tchernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In France, since the accident of Tchernobyl in 1986, the radiation regular monitoring of the food and the environment shows that the mushrooms present cesium 137 content levels upper than all the other agricultural products. This paper presents and explains the today and future situation

  3. Culinary-medicinal mushrooms: must action be taken?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    In the Western world, the mushroom industry suffers from overproduction. Expectations are stronger than reality, and as a result, production is too high and prices are too low. Because bulk production has taken the lead, which not only happens in the West, overproduction occurs regularly. Low

  4. Analysis of Edible Mushroom Marketing in Three Villages in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the marketing of edible mushroom in three villages (Alesi, Ekukunela ... The socio-economic characteristics of sellers, profit margin and marketing ... One hundred and twenty respondents were interviewed at three different markets in three selected ... The concentration of sellers is low while entry is free.

  5. Usage of Edible Mushrooms in Various Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Süfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of edible mushrooms which are generally consumed in houses in dried form is based on mainly instant soup and sauce formulations. Recently, the cultivations of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species have become widespread. Utilization of these cultivated mushrooms in recipes would bring added value to related food products. For this purpose, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species farmed in Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Mushroom House were dried and then pulverized. Firstly, a snack was prepared with Agaricus bisporus powder. Agaricus bisporus powder was substituted for wheat flour at the rates of 5 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 % and thus the potential of food product which had relatively lower carbohydrate and fat level and higher fiber content was investigated. In the second part of the study, either 5 %, 10 % of Agaricus bisporus powder or 5 %, 10 % of Pleurotus ostreatus powder were added into traditional Turkish meatball (beef mince, salt which was cooked in conventional oven, so meat flavor could be replaced by herbal flavor coming from mushroom. This property mat obey the purpose that, the created new product will be consumed fondly especially by children. Sensory and physical (colour and texture analysis were performed in both snack and meatball samples and the results were evaluated statistically.

  6. Fungal and mycotoxin assessment of dried edible mushroom in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Sulyok, M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine whether dried mushrooms are a foodstuff that may be less susceptible to infection by toxigenic molds and consequently to mycotoxin contamination, 34 dried market samples were analyzed. Fungal population was determined in the samples by conventional mycological techniques...

  7. Diseases and pests noxious to Pleurotus spp. mushroom crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettini, Marcelo B; Bellettini, Sebastião; Fiorda, Fernanda A; Pedro, Alessandra C; Bach, Fabiane; Fabela-Morón, Miriam F; Hoffmann-Ribani, Rosemary

    The Pleurotus genus is one of most extensively studied white-rot fungi due to its exceptional ligninolytic properties. It is an edible mushroom that possesses biological effects, as it contains important bioactive molecules. It is a rich source of nutrients, particularly proteins, minerals as well as vitamins B, C and D. In basidiomycete fungi, intensive cultivations of edible mushrooms can often be affected by some bacterial, mold and virus diseases that rather frequently cause dramatic production loss. These infections are facilitated by the particular conditions under which mushroom cultivation is commonly carried out such as warm temperatures, humidity, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels and presence of pests. There is not much bibliographic information related to pests of mushrooms and their substrates. The updated review presents a practical checklist of diseases and pests of the Pleurotus genus, providing useful information that may help different users. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Porosity and Thermal Treatment on Hydration of Mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Boom, R.M.; Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, hydration of mushroom as a porous food material has been studied considering their biphasic character. It consists of a solid phase that consists of intertwined hyphae and having cell walls with a swellable polymeric matrix and a pore phase made up by the space in between the

  9. Effects of spent mushroom compost on quality and productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMC), which is a waste product of mushroom processing through a year, on greenhouse cucumber growth as an organic matter source for the soil. The effects of SMC on several yield related characteristics, such as total yield, fruit width, fruit ...

  10. Performance of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... These mixtures were compressed by pressing down with bottle in transparent poly bags ... The bags were then opened after two weeks and left open for mushroom ..... results of this work are within the range they reported.The.

  11. The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

  12. Evaluating the production of Ganoderma mushroom on corn cobs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corn cobs and saw dust (control) were sterilized, inoculated under aseptic conditions in clear plastic bags and incubated at room temperature. Fruit bodies were observed within 30 to 50 days, results considerably shorter compared to when using saw dust, which can take up to four months before mushrooms are ...

  13. Evaluation on the effects of P. ostreatus spent mushroom compost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Realization in minimizing production cost for in vitro culture had brought to a study on application of P. ostreatus spent mushroom compost (SMC). Sterile nodal explants was inoculated on different treatments with 15 replicates each. Treatments were MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of SMC (1 and 2 ...

  14. Mushrooms as Efficient Solar Steam-Generation Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Hu, Xiaozhen; Xu, Weichao; Li, Xiuqiang; Zhou, Lin; Zhu, Shining; Zhu, Jia

    2017-07-01

    Solar steam generation is emerging as a promising technology, for its potential in harvesting solar energy for various applications such as desalination and sterilization. Recent studies have reported a variety of artificial structures that are designed and fabricated to improve energy conversion efficiencies by enhancing solar absorption, heat localization, water supply, and vapor transportation. Mushrooms, as a kind of living organism, are surprisingly found to be efficient solar steam-generation devices for the first time. Natural and carbonized mushrooms can achieve ≈62% and ≈78% conversion efficiencies under 1 sun illumination, respectively. It is found that this capability of high solar steam generation is attributed to the unique natural structure of mushroom, umbrella-shaped black pileus, porous context, and fibrous stipe with a small cross section. These features not only provide efficient light absorption, water supply, and vapor escape, but also suppress three components of heat losses at the same time. These findings not only reveal the hidden talent of mushrooms as low-cost materials for solar steam generation, but also provide inspiration for the future development of high-performance solar thermal conversion devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Pro- and antioxidative properties of medicinal mushroom extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, W.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Hot water extracts of 2 groups of medicinal mushrooms have been tested from the genera Agaricus, Antrodia, Auricularia, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Hericium, Grifola, Ganoderma, Lentinus, Phellinus, and Trametes for ROS-generating activity in human cells and for DPPH-TEAC antioxidant activity. Group 1

  16. Cultivation of Schizophyllum commune mushroom on different wood substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Dasanayaka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophyllum commune is an edible mushroom grown on wood under natural conditions. Present study focused on cultivation of S.commune on different wood substrates since it is not commercially cultivated. A pure culture of S. commune was obtained by growing a tissue of the mushroom on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium. Spawns were produced by growing the mycelium on paddy grains. Mushroom was cultivated on sawdust of seven different wood substrates. The maximum yield was observed in sawdust of jackfruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus followed by sawdust of rambutan (Nepheliumlappaceum and country almond (Terminaliacatappa. A significant difference was not observed when mango (Mangiferaindica elephant apple (Dilleniaindica, tulip wood tree (Harpulliaarborea and thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust used as substrate. The lowest yield was observed in thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust. Effect of some additives on the yield was studied and significant difference in yield was observed when rice bran and used-tea leaves used as additives. Effect of rice bran on yield was studied using different ratios of sawdust to rice bran and the highest was observed in 2:1 ratio of sawdust to rice bran. The best incubating temperature for mycelial growth on the substrate was 350C. The composition of the mushroom on a dry weight basis was; 71.4% moisture, 23.35% crude protein and 6% ash. Tested wood species are promising substrates for cultivation of S.communeas cottage industry.

  17. Microbial Community Structure of Casing Soil During Mushroom Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Wei-Ming; YAO Huai-Ying; FENG Wei-Lin; JIN Qun-Li; LIU Yue-Yan; LI Nan-Yi; ZHENG Zhong

    2009-01-01

    The culturable bacterial population and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA)profile of casing soil were investigated at different mushroom (Agaricus bisporusI cropping stages.The change in soil bacterial PLFAs was always accompanied by a change in the soil culturable bacterial population in the first flush.Comparatively higher culturable bacterial population and bacterial PLFAs were found in the casing soil at the primordia formation stage of the first flush.There was a significant increase in the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs during mushroom growth.Multivariate analysis of PLFA data demonstrated that the mushroom cropping stage could considerably affect the microbial community structure of the casing soil.The bacterial population increased significantly from casing soil application to the primordia formation stage of the first flush.Casing soil application resulted in an increase in the ratio of gram-negative bacterial PLFAs to gram-positive bacterial PLFAs,suggesting that some gram-negative bacteria might play an important role in mushroom sporophore initiation.

  18. Cultivation and bromatological analysis of the medicinal mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper ... Both treatments were carried out in 10 repetitions, totaling 200 packages. ... The mushrooms showed high levels of ethereal extract, fibers and ... Nowadays, they have a guaranteed market in many ... Residues processing ..... Effect of different.

  19. Mushroom production in the faculty of agriculture teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in the Teaching and Research of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The main objective was to conduct an economic assessment of mushroom production in the farm. The study utilized secondary data generated from the farm record of the farm. Gross margin model was ...

  20. Harm potential of magic mushroom use: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van den Brink, Wim

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Minister of Health of the Netherlands requested the CAM (Coordination point Assessment and Monitoring new drugs) to assess the overall risk of magic mushrooms. The present paper is an updated redraft of the review, written to support the assessment by CAM experts. It summarizes the

  1. Cultivation of mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) using corn cobs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out on the cultivation of mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) using corn cobs and saw dust as the main substrates. Lignocellulosic wastes such as corn cobs and saw dust were packaged inside heat – resistant polythene bags and pasteurized before being seeded with 7.5% w/w millet spawn of ...

  2. Effect of mushroom ( Pleurotus tuber-regium ) inoculums on crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollution of soils by crude oil in Niger-Delta of Nigeria has brought untold hardship to the inhabitants of the region. This study was carried out in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 to determine the effect of Pleurotus tuber-regium (mushroom) inoculums on crude oil polluted soil on stover and grain yields and as well as cob length ...

  3. Nigerian Mushrooms: Underutilized Non-Wood Forest Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    1 University of Benin, Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, P.M.B 1154, ... representation of Nigerian mushroom's diversity, .... Farm wastes: .... animals. Recently, Ganoderma species have been successfully tested in poultry farming for the ... capacity of birds in Nigeria (Ogbe et al., 2008).

  4. Oxidative Stress Type Influences the Properties of Antioxidants Containing Polyphenols in RINm5F Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Auberval

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro methods currently used to screen bioactive compounds focus on the use of a single model of oxidative stress. However, this simplistic view may lead to conflicting results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of two natural extracts (a mix of red wine polyphenols (RWPs and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG with three models of oxidative stress induced with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, a mixture of hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase (HX/XO, or streptozotocin (STZ in RINm5F beta cells. We employed multiple approaches to validate their potential as therapeutic treatment options, including cell viability, reactive oxygen species production, and antioxidant enzymes expression. All three oxidative stresses induced a decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis, whereas the level of ROS production was variable depending on the type of stress. The highest level of ROS was found for the HX/XO-induced stress, an increase that was reflected by higher expression antioxidant enzymes. Further, both antioxidant compounds presented beneficial effects during oxidative stress, but EGCG appeared to be a more efficient antioxidant. These data indicate that the efficiency of natural antioxidants is dependent on both the nature of the compound and the type of oxidative stress generated.

  5. Modification of functional quality of beer by using microencapsulated green tea (Camellia sinensis L. and Ganoderma mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum L. bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belščak-Cvitanović Ana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing interest in production of frequently consumed functional food products has focused the present study on implementation of microencapsulated Ganoderma mushroom and green tea bioactive compounds in beer production. Electrostatic extrusion assisted microencapsulation of green tea and Ganoderma extracts enabled production of particles ranging from 490 to 1000 μm in size, with up to 75% of entrapped total polyphenols. Dried, powdered extracts, as well as microparticles encapsulating Ganoderma and green tea extracts that exhibited the best morphological properties and retarded release of polyphenols (alginate and alginate-chitosan coated, as well as chitosan coated pectin microbeads were implemented in beer production. The addition of Ganoderma microbeads to pilsner beer did not augment its polyphenolic concentration (TPC, as opposed to the addition of green tea encapsulating microbeads to radler, while adding dried Ganoderma and spray dried green tea extracts enabled to increase the TPC for up to 3-fold higher values. Ganoderma dried extract-enriched pilsner beer and spray dried green tea extract-enriched radler were preferred in terms of sensory properties, due to the lowest bitterness intensity and most pronounced herbal aroma of the added adjuncts. Refrigerated storage of Ganoderma hydrogel microbeads-enriched pilsner beer revealed fluctuations of TPC, while green tea hydrogel microbeads-enriched radler exhibited better stability. The established methodology provides a procedure suitable for microencapsulate-enrichment of drink and food products, thus setting a reliable basis for future functional food production by microencapsulate implementation strategies. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 46001, Grant no. 46010 and Grant no. 31020

  6. Relationship between browning and the activities of polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in banana peel during low temperature storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.B.T.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Kluai Khai (Musa AA Group) and Kluai Hom Thong (Musa AAA Group) bananas were stored at 6 and 10 °C. Visible chilling injury (CI) in the peel, mainly browning, occurred at both temperatures, but more so at 6 °C, and without significant differences between the cultivars. At the time of harvest, total

  7. KARAKTERISASI ENZIM POLIFENOL OKSIDASE BIJI KAKAO (Theobroma cacao Linn. Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme of Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Ganda Putra

    2012-05-01

    max equals to 595,24 U/gram (db of cocoa beans and K equals to 0,20 M; result of SDS- PAGE of enzyme shows protein bands at M� of 11,75; 17,80; 27,80; 36,03 and 131,52 kDa; and finally, optimumcondition of enzyme activity is at the temperature of 53,43oC; pH 5,42 and incubation time of 80,91 minutes. ABSTRAK Telah dilakukan penelitian dengan tujuan untuk: (1 mengetahui karakteristik enzim polifenol oksidase dan (2 menen- tukan kondisi (suhu, pH dan waktu inkubasi optimum aktivitas enzim polifenol oksidase, yang diisolasi dari biji kakao kering. Hasil penelitian berupa kondisi (suhu, pH dan waktu inkubasi optimum aktivitas enzim polifenol oksidase akan diaplikasikan untuk perbaikan mutu biji kakao kering melalui teknik rehidrasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan melalui tahapan: (1 isolasi enzim polifenol oksidase dari 10 sampel biji kakao kering di Provinsi Bali, (2 karakterisasi enzim polifenol oksidase (aktivitas, kinetika enzim, BM dan (3 penentuan kondisi suhu, pH dan waktu inkubasi optimum. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa: (1 aktivitas enzim polifenol oksidase rata-rata 157,49 ± 58,03 U/gram (bk biji kakao dengan aktivitas maksimum 258,22 U/gram (bk biji kakao dan minimum 59,01 U/gram (bk biji kakao; maks sebesar 595,24 U/gram (bk biji kakao dan K sebesar 0,20 M; hasil SDS-PAGE enzim menunjukkan pita-pita protein yang terbentuk pada BM 11,75; 17,80; 27,80; 36,03 dan 131,52 kDa; dan (2 kondisi optimum aktivitas enzimadalah suhu 53,43oC; pH 5,42 dan waktu inkubasi 80,91 menit.

  8. Polyphenol oxidases in Physcomitrella: functional PPO1 knockout modulates cytokinin-dependent developmentin the moss Physcomitrella patens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richter, H.; Lieberei, R.; Strnad, Miroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Grúz, Jiří; Rensing, S. A.; von Schwartzenberg, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 14 (2012), s. 5121-5135 ISSN 0022-0957 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cytokinins * gene family * gene replacement Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.242, year: 2012

  9. Wild Mushroom Extracts as Inhibitors of Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Alves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%. Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8% and Mycenas rosea (44.8% presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4% and Russula delica (53.1%. Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition—almost 29%, by Russula delica extract. This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other

  10. Mushroom drying with solar assisted heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şevik, Seyfi; Aktaş, Mustafa; Doğan, Hikmet; Koçak, Saim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system. • Developing of a computer program for a drying system with different scenarios by using PLC. • Obtained less energy input with high coefficients of performance of system and more quality products. • Determination of mushroom drying properties such as moisture content, moisture ratio and drying ratio. - Abstract: In this study, a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system (SAHP) with flat plate collectors and a water source heat pump has been proposed. Mushroom drying was examined experimentally in the drying system. Solar energy (SE) system and heat pump (HP) system can be used separately or together. A computer program has been developed for the system. Drying air temperature, relative humidity, weight of product values, etc. were monitored and controlled with different scenarios by using PLC. This system is cheap, good quality and sustainable and it is modeled for good quality product and increased efficiency. Thus, products could be dried with less energy input and more controlled conditions. Mushrooms were dried at 45 °C and 55 °C drying air temperature and 310 kg/h mass flow rate. Mushrooms were dried from initial moisture content 13.24 g water/g dry matter (dry basis) to final moisture content 0.07 g water/g dry matter (dry basis). Mushrooms were dried by using HP system, SE system and SAHP system respectively at 250–220 min, at 270–165 min and at 230–190 min. The coefficients of performance of system (COP) are calculated in a range from 2.1 to 3.1 with respect to the results of experiments. The energy utilization ratios (EURs) were found to vary between 0.42 and 0.66. Specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) values were found to vary between 0.26 and 0.92 kg/kW h

  11. Mercury in certain boletus mushrooms from Poland and Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Krasińska, Grażyna; Pankavec, Sviatlana; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the study of Hg contents of four species of Boletus mushroom (Boletus reticulatus Schaeff. 1763, B. pinophilus Pilát & Dermek 1973, B. impolitus Fr. 1838 and B. luridus Schaeff. 1774) and the surface soils (0-10 cm layer, ∼100 g) samples beneath the mushrooms from ten forested areas in Poland and Belarus by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ability of the species to bioconcentrate Hg was calculated (as the BCF) while Hg intakes from consumption of these mushroom species were also estimated. The median Hg content of the caps of the species varied between 0.38 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) dm; in stipes between 0.13 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) dm and in the mean Hg contents of soils varied from 0.020 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.17 ± 0.10 mg kg(-1) dm which is considered as "background" Hg level. The median Hg content of caps of B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus were up to 4.7 and 3.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively, and they very efficiently bioaccumulate Hg with median BCF values of up to 130 for caps and 58 for stipes. The caps and stipes of these mushrooms if eaten will expose consumer to elevated dose of total Hg estimated at 1.4 mg for caps of Boletus reticulatus from the Kacze Łęgi site, which is a nature reserve area. Nevertheless, the occasional consumption of the valued B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus mushrooms maybe safe.

  12. Mushroom dehydration in a hybrid-solar dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Alejandro; Mahn, Andrea; Cubillos, Francisco; Huenulaf, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mushrooms (Paris variety) were dehydrated in a hybrid solar dryer. ► Effective diffusivity was estimated by the Constant Diffusivity Model. ► Drying kinetics were adjusted by a semi-theoretical and the empirical Page model. ► Temperature, thickness and air recycle significantly affected critical moisture. ► The input of solar energy resulted in 3.5–12.5% electrical energy saving. - Abstract: Mushrooms (Paris variety) were dehydrated in a hybrid solar dryer (HSD) provided with a 3 m 2 solar panel and electric resistances. Mushrooms were cut in 8 mm or 4 mm thickness slices. At the outlet of the tray dryer 80–90% air was recycled and the air temperature was adjusted to the pre-defined levels (50 or 60 °C). At the outlet of the solar panel the air temperature raised between 2 and 20 °C above the ambient temperature, depending mainly of solar radiation level. Temperature, slices thickness and air recycle level had statistically significant effects on critical moisture content (X c ), as well as on the time necessary to reach a moisture content of 0.1 (wb). The color parameters of dehydrated mushroom indicate a notorious darkening, in all runs. Rehydration assays at 35 °C showed that in less than 30 min rehydrated mushrooms reached a moisture content of 0.8 (wb). Effective diffusivity (D eff ) was estimated by the Simplified Constant Diffusivity Model (SCDM), and it ranged between 6E−10 and 40E−10 m 2 /s, with R 2 higher than 0.98, agreeing with literature. The adjustment of experimental drying kinetics with the empirical Page’s model resulted in R 2 higher than 0.997. Finally, the input of solar energy resulted in 3.5–12.5% energy saving. These values could even be improved by increasing the agro-product load in the HSD

  13. Role of pH in oxidase variability of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, L K; Overman, T L; Otero, R B

    1981-01-01

    Some strains of Aeromonas hydrophila may be oxidase negative or only weakly oxidase positive by the Kovacs method taken from the surface of a differential medium, such as MacConkey agar. Six strains of A. hydrophila, two oxidase variable, one oxidase constant, and three weakly oxidase positive on MacConkey agar, were studied to determine the cause of oxidase variability. The bacteriostatic dyes in MacConkey agar were considered possible inhibitors of the oxidase reaction. The concentration of...

  14. Antioxidative and apoptotic properties of polyphenolic extracts from edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) on cultured rat hepatocytes and on human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccadei, Stefania; Di Venere, Donato; Cardinali, Angela; Romano, Ferdinando; Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Fraioli, Rocco; Mobarhan, Sohrab; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Cultured rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepG2 cells were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichoke (AE). The hepatocytes were exposed to H2O2generated in situ by glucose oxidase and were treated with either AE, or pure chlorogenic acid (ChA) or with the well known antioxidant, N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenilenediamine (DPPD). Addition of glucose oxidase to the culture medium caused depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cultures, as a lipid peroxidation indicator, and cell death. These results demonstrated that AE protected cells from the oxidative stress caused by glucose oxidase, comparable to DPPD. Furthermore, AE, as well as ChA, prevented the loss of total GSH and the accumulation of MDA. Treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h with AE reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, however, ChA had no prominent effects on the cell death rate. Similarly, AE rather than ChA induced apoptosis, measured by flow cytometric analysis of annexin and by activation of caspase-3, in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that AE had a marked antioxidative potential that protects hepatocytes from an oxidative stress. Furthermore, AE reduced cell viability and had an apoptotic activity on a human liver cancer cell line.

  15. Accumulation of radiocesium and trace elements in mushrooms collected from Japanese forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.; Muramatsu, Y.; Ban-Nai, T.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 40 K for 124 mushroom species (284 samples) collected from Japanese forests during 1989 to 1991 were studied. The levels of 137 Cs m mushrooms varied very widely ranging from 40 K were relatively constant. The median concentrations of 137 Cs and 40 K were 53 and 1180 Bq/kg (dry wt), respectively. The 134 Cs discharged through the Chernobyl accident was detected only in 33 mushroom samples. The proportions of 137 Cs originating from the Chernobyl accident m these mushrooms were in the range 137 Cs concentrations in mycorrhizal fungi tended to be higher than those in saprophytes. The concentrations in many mushrooms reflected the layers m which their mycelia were growing. In addition to the radionuclides, many stable elements including stable Cs in mushroom and soil samples were determined. A good correlation between 137 Cs and stable Cs was observed for 33 mushrooms collected from a pine forest on sandy soil near coast in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, indicating that mushroom available Cs is recycling in the pine forest with the constant 137 Cs/stable Cs ratio. Accumulations from soil to mushrooms were observed for Cd, Rb, Zn, Cu. Cs, K, Mg, Mn, Ni and Tl. Through cultivation experiments in flasks using radiotracers, 137 Cs, 65 Zn and 54 Mn were observed to be accumulated in mushrooms. (author)

  16. Plasma diamine oxidase activity in asthmatic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoichiro Toyoshima

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Histamine plays an important role in the development of asthmatic symptoms. Diamine oxidase (DAO histaminase, which inactivates histamine, is located in the intestine and kidney and is released into plasma. Plasma DAO activity in asthmatic children was measured by a recently developed high performance liquid chromatographic method using histamine as the DAO substrate. Diamine oxidase activity was higher in severely asthmatic children than in those with mild asthma. A time course study during the acute exacerbation phase revealed that DAO activity rose during acute asthmatic attacks and then decreased gradually over several days. Although the mechanisms of plasma DAO activity increase during acute asthmatic attacks could not be explained, data showed that plasma DAO activity is an important index of histamine metabolism in asthmatics and may relate to some mechanisms of acute exacerbation of airway inflammation. Consequently, fluctuations in plasma DAO can be used as one of various indices of instability in management of asthma.

  17. Lysyl Oxidase and the Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Hong Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lysyl oxidase (LOX family of oxidases contains a group of extracellular copper-dependent enzymes that catalyze the cross-linking of collagen and elastin by oxidation, thus maintaining the rigidity and structural stability of the extracellular matrix (ECM. Aberrant expression or activation of LOX alters the cellular microenvironment, leading to many diseases, including atherosclerosis, tissue fibrosis, and cancer. Recently, a number of studies have shown that LOX is overexpressed in most cancers and that it is involved in the regulation of tumor progression and metastasis. In contrast, a few reports have also indicated the tumor-suppressing role of LOX. In this short review, we discuss recent research on the correlations between LOX and cancer. Further, the role of LOX in tumor microenvironment remodeling, tumorigenesis, and metastasis and the underlying mechanisms have also been elucidated.

  18. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors from Gentiana lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Kabbash, Amal; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Ishizu, Takashi; Yagi, Akira

    2004-08-01

    Three monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors were isolated from Gentiana lutea. Their structures were elucidated to be 3-3''linked-(2'-hydroxy-4-O-isoprenylchalcone)-(2'''-hydroxy-4''-O-isoprenyldihydrochalcone) (1), 2-methoxy-3-(1,1'-dimethylallyl)-6a,10a-dihydrobenzo(1,2-c)chroman-6-one and 5-hydroxyflavanone. These compounds, and the hydrolysis product of 1, displayed competitive inhibitory properties against MAO-B which was more effective than MAO-A.

  19. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-11-10

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets.

  20. Imaging Monoamine Oxidase in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J. S.; Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G-J.; Logan, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies mapping monoamine oxidase in the human brain have been used to measure the turnover rate for MAO B; to determine the minimum effective dose of a new MAO inhibitor drug lazabemide and to document MAO inhibition by cigarette smoke. These studies illustrate the power of PET and radiotracer chemistry to measure normal biochemical processes and to provide information on the effect of drug exposure on specific molecular targets

  1. Identification of aldehyde oxidase 1 and aldehyde oxidase homologue 1 as dioxin-inducible genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Steven P.; Choi, Hyun Ho; Chapman, Brett; Whitekus, Michael J.; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico; Hankinson, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidases are a family of highly related molybdo-flavoenzymes acting upon a variety of compounds of industrial and medical importance. We have identified aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) inducible gene in the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa-1. AOX1 mRNA levels were not increased by dioxin in mutant derivatives of the Hepa-1 cell line lacking either functional aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) proteins, thus demonstrating that transcriptional induction of AOX1 in response to dioxin occurs through the AHR pathway. Dioxin induction of AOX1 mRNA was also observed in mouse liver. In addition, levels of AOX1 protein as well as those of aldehyde oxidase homologue 1 (AOH1), a recently identified homolog of AOX1, were elevated in mouse liver in response to dioxin. Employing an aldehyde oxidase specific substrate, AOX1/AOH1 activity was shown to be induced by dioxin in mouse liver. This activity was inhibited by a known inhibitor of aldehyde oxidases, and eliminated by including tungstate in the mouse diet, which is known to lead to inactivation of molybdoflavoenzymes, thus confirming that the enzymatic activity was attributable to AOX1/AOH1. Our observations thus identify two additional xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes induced by dioxin

  2. State of polyphenols in the drying process of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, M; Seetharaman, K

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of drying technologies and its impact on the polyphenol content of vegetables and fruits. Polyphenols contribute to many health benefits and can act as antioxidants. Specifically an increased intake of polyphenols has been shown to decrease the incidence of cardiovascular disease; furthermore, it has been shown to help reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Many researchers have reported on the effect of different drying techniques on the polyphenol content in fruits and vegetables. Polyphenol degradation mechanisms proposed in literature and pretreatments that potentially lead to higher retention of polyphenols during drying are also discussed.

  3. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: the collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. METHODS: Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland and the

  4. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: The collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    Background. Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. Methods. Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. Results. From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland

  5. Identification of Urinary Polyphenol Metabolite Patterns Associated with Polyphenol-Rich Food Intake in Adults from Four European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwayoung Noh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We identified urinary polyphenol metabolite patterns by a novel algorithm that combines dimension reduction and variable selection methods to explain polyphenol-rich food intake, and compared their respective performance with that of single biomarkers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. The study included 475 adults from four European countries (Germany, France, Italy, and Greece. Dietary intakes were assessed with 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR and dietary questionnaires (DQ. Thirty-four polyphenols were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS-MS in 24-h urine. Reduced rank regression-based variable importance in projection (RRR-VIP and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO methods were used to select polyphenol metabolites. Reduced rank regression (RRR was then used to identify patterns in these metabolites, maximizing the explained variability in intake of pre-selected polyphenol-rich foods. The performance of RRR models was evaluated using internal cross-validation to control for over-optimistic findings from over-fitting. High performance was observed for explaining recent intake (24-HDR of red wine (r = 0.65; AUC = 89.1%, coffee (r = 0.51; AUC = 89.1%, and olives (r = 0.35; AUC = 82.2%. These metabolite patterns performed better or equally well compared to single polyphenol biomarkers. Neither metabolite patterns nor single biomarkers performed well in explaining habitual intake (as reported in the DQ of polyphenol-rich foods. This proposed strategy of biomarker pattern identification has the potential of expanding the currently still limited list of available dietary intake biomarkers.

  6. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Saric

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies and tea, type not specified (two studies. Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.

  7. Use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Irene; Moro, Carlos; Lozano, Miguel; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Guillamón, Eva; García-Lafuente, Ana; Villares, Ana

    2011-09-01

    Mushrooms have attracted much attention due to their excellent nutritional and sensory properties. However, they are highly perishable and rapidly lose their organoleptic characteristics. Many methods have been employed for mushroom storage, such as packaging, blanching, canning, or freeze drying. Among them, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been widely employed for preserving fresh mushrooms. MAP provides an affordable packaging system that partly avoids enzymatic browning, fermentation and other biochemical processes by maintaining a controlled gas atmosphere. Several factors, including optimum CO2 and O2 partial pressures, permeability, package material, thickness, or product weight, must be considered in order to design a suitable modified atmosphere package for mushrooms. Thus, different strategies are available to preserve mushroom quality after harvest. The article presents some promising patents on use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.

  8. Wild mushrooms in Ethiopia: A review and synthesis for future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejene, T.; Oria-de-Rueda, J.A.; Martín-Pinto, P.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: To review and provide all-purpose information about wild mushrooms in Ethiopia and to create awareness for conservation and use of mycological resources. Area of study: We focused mainly on Ethiopia, where information about wild mushrooms is scanty and their status is unknown under the rampant degradation of the habitats. Main results: We reviewed all relevant references related to wild mushrooms and their ecological niches, cultural practices and species used for cultivation as well as the anthropogenic factors affecting the conservation of fungal diversity. Research highlights: This review summarizes issues related to the diversity of wild mushrooms, the main ecological niches and their associated fungal species, and mushroom cultivation practices in Ethiopia. Moreover, threats and the need for future conservation of wild mushrooms in the country are also reported. This review paper can serve as base line information and indicator for further mycological studies in Ethiopia as well as in other developing countries with similar scenarios.

  9. Wild mushrooms in Ethiopia: A review and synthesis for future perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dejene, T.; Oria-de-Rueda, J.A.; Martín-Pinto, P.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: To review and provide all-purpose information about wild mushrooms in Ethiopia and to create awareness for conservation and use of mycological resources. Area of study: We focused mainly on Ethiopia, where information about wild mushrooms is scanty and their status is unknown under the rampant degradation of the habitats. Main results: We reviewed all relevant references related to wild mushrooms and their ecological niches, cultural practices and species used for cultivation as well as the anthropogenic factors affecting the conservation of fungal diversity. Research highlights: This review summarizes issues related to the diversity of wild mushrooms, the main ecological niches and their associated fungal species, and mushroom cultivation practices in Ethiopia. Moreover, threats and the need for future conservation of wild mushrooms in the country are also reported. This review paper can serve as base line information and indicator for further mycological studies in Ethiopia as well as in other developing countries with similar scenarios.

  10. [The composition of volatile components of cepe (Boletus edulis) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Mukhutdinova, S M; Zharikova, G G; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    The composition of aroma compounds in cooked and canned cepe (Boletus edulis) and in cooked oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) is studied using capillary gas chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is found that unsaturated alcohols and ketones containing eight atoms of carbon determine the aroma of raw mushrooms and take part in the formation of the aroma of cooked mushrooms as well. The content of these compounds was the highest in canned cepes. In oyster mushrooms, the concentration of these alcohols and ketones was lower in comparison with cepes. The content of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes was much higher in oyster mushrooms. Volatile aliphatic and heterocyclic Maillard reaction products and isomeric octenols and octenones formed the aroma of cooked and canned mushrooms.

  11. Segmentation of Mushroom and Cap width Measurement using Modified K-Means Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eser Sert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom is one of the commonly consumed foods. Image processing is one of the effective way for examination of visual features and detecting the size of a mushroom. We developed software for segmentation of a mushroom in a picture and also to measure the cap width of the mushroom. K-Means clustering method is used for the process. K-Means is one of the most successful clustering methods. In our study we customized the algorithm to get the best result and tested the algorithm. In the system, at first mushroom picture is filtered, histograms are balanced and after that segmentation is performed. Results provided that customized algorithm performed better segmentation than classical K-Means algorithm. Tests performed on the designed software showed that segmentation on complex background pictures is performed with high accuracy, and 20 mushrooms caps are measured with 2.281 % relative error.

  12. Wild mushrooms in Ethiopia: A review and synthesis for future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatek Dejene

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To review and provide all-purpose information about wild mushrooms in Ethiopia and to create awareness for conservation and use of mycological resources. Area of study: We focused mainly on Ethiopia, where information about wild mushrooms is scanty and their status is unknown under the rampant degradation of the habitats. Main results: We reviewed all relevant references related to wild mushrooms and their ecological niches, cultural practices and species used for cultivation as well as the anthropogenic factors affecting the conservation of fungal diversity. Research highlights: This review summarizes issues related to the diversity of wild mushrooms, the main ecological niches and their associated fungal species, and mushroom cultivation practices in Ethiopia. Moreover, threats and the need for future conservation of wild mushrooms in the country are also reported. This review paper can serve as base line information and indicator for further mycological studies in Ethiopia as well as in other developing countries with similar scenarios.

  13. Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Anna Marta; Terne, Cindy; Jankowski, Vera

    2014-01-01

    chloride (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. The effect on enzymatic activity of NADPH oxidase was quantified within an incubation time of 120 min. RESULTS: Thirty-nine of the 48 uraemic retention solutes tested had a significant decreasing effect on NADPH oxidase activity. Oxalate has been characterized......BACKGROUND: Uraemia and cardiovascular disease appear to be associated with an increased oxidative burden. One of the key players in the genesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Based on initial experiments demonstrating a decreased...... inhibitory effect on NADPH oxidase activity in the presence of plasma from patients with CKD-5D after dialysis compared with before dialysis, we investigated the effect of 48 known and commercially available uraemic retention solutes on the enzymatic activity of NADPH oxidase. METHODS: Mononuclear leucocytes...

  14. Plant polyphenols and their anti-cariogenic properties: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria F; Amato, Ivana; Ingenito, Aniello; Zarrelli, Armando; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino

    2011-02-11

    Polyphenols constitute one of the most common groups of substances in plants. Polyphenolic compounds have been reported to have a wide range of biological activities, many of which are related to their conventional antioxidant action; however, increasing scientific knowledge has highlighted their potential activity in preventing oral disease, including the prevention of tooth decay. The aim of this review is to show the emerging findings on the anti-cariogenic properties of polyphenols, which have been obtained from several in vitro studies investigating the effects of these bioactive molecules against Streptococcus mutans, as well as in vivo studies. The analysis of the literature supports the anti-bacterial role of polyphenols on cariogenic streptococci, suggesting (1) a direct effect against S. mutans; (2) an interaction with microbial membrane proteins inhibiting the adherence of bacterial cells to the tooth surface; and (3) the inhibition of glucosyl transferase and amylase. However, more studies, particularly in vivo and in situ, are necessary to establish conclusive evidence for the effectiveness and the clinical applications of these compounds in the prevention of dental caries. It is essential to better determine the nature and distribution of these compounds in our diet and to identify which of the hundreds of existing polyphenols are likely to provide the greatest effects.

  15. Content of polyphenol compound in mangrove and macroalga extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarina, N. D.; Patria, M. P.

    2017-07-01

    Polyphenol or phenolic are compounds containing one or more hydroxyl group of the aromatic ring [1]. These compounds have some activities like antibacterial, antiseptic, and antioxidants. Natural resources like mangrove and macroalga were known containing these compounds. The purpose of the research was to investigate polyphenol content in mangrove and macroalga. Materials used in this research were mangrove (Avicennia sp.) leaves and the whole part of macroalga (Caulerpa racemosa). Samples were dried for 5 days then macerated in order to get an extract. Maceration were done using methanol for 48 hours (first) and 24 hours (second) continously. Polyphenol content was determined using phytochemical screening on both extracts. The quantitative test was carried out to determine catechin and tannin as polyphenol compound. The result showed that catechin was observed in both extracts while tannin in mangrove extract only. According to quantitative test, mangrove has a higher content of catechin and tannin which were 12.37-13.44 % compared to macroalga which was 2.57-4.58 %. Those indicated that both materials can be the source of polyphenol compound with higher content on mangrove. Moreover, according to this result, these resources can be utilized for advanced studies and human needs like medical drug.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenols in arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Francesca; Scanu, Anna; Zamudio-Cuevas, Yessica; Punzi, Leonardo; Spinella, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Polyphenols have been extensively investigated with regard to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulant properties in many inflammatory chronic conditions. The aim of this review is to summarise how these compounds can modulate the inflammatory pathways which characterise the most prevalent arthropathies including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and crystal-induced arthritis. Among polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate, carnosol, hydroxytyrosol, curcumin, resveratrol, kaempferol and genistein have been the most widely investigated in arthritis. The most important results of the studies outlined in this article show how polyphenolic compounds are able to inhibit the expression and the release of a number of pro-inflammatory mediators and proteolytic enzymes, the activity of different transcriptional factors and the production of reactive oxygen species in vitro. Studies on animal models of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and gout show interesting results in terms of reduced tissue damage, restored cartilage homeostasis, and decreased levels of uric acid, respectively. Despite the multiple protective effects of polyphenols, there are no dietary recommendations for patients affected by rheumatic diseases. Future studies, including intervention trials, should be conducted to determine the relevance of polyphenols consumption or supplementation in arthritis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Plant Polyphenols and Their Anti-Cariogenic Properties: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Pinto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols constitute one of the most common groups of substances in plants. Polyphenolic compounds have been reported to have a wide range of biological activities, many of which are related to their conventional antioxidant action; however, increasing scientific knowledge has highlighted their potential activity in preventing oral disease, including the prevention of tooth decay. The aim of this review is to show the emerging findings on the anti-cariogenic properties of polyphenols, which have been obtained from several in vitro studies investigating the effects of these bioactive molecules against Streptococcus mutans, as well as in vivo studies. The analysis of the literature supports the anti-bacterial role of polyphenols on cariogenic streptococci, suggesting (1 a direct effect against S. mutans; (2 an interaction with microbial membrane proteins inhibiting the adherence of bacterial cells to the tooth surface; and (3 the inhibition of glucosyl transferase and amylase. However, more studies, particularly in vivo and in situ, are necessary to establish conclusive evidence for the effectiveness and the clinical applications of these compounds in the prevention of dental caries. It is essential to better determine the nature and distribution of these compounds in our diet and to identify which of the hundreds of existing polyphenols are likely to provide the greatest effects.

  18. Chemoenzymatic combination of glucose oxidase with titanium silicalite -1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennestrøm, Peter Nicolai Ravnborg; Taarning, Esben; Christensen, Claus H.

    2010-01-01

    Zeozymes: A proof-of-concept is presented for the chemoenzymatic combination of titanium silicalite-1 zeolite with glucose oxidase. In this combination, glucose is oxidized to gluconic acid and the H2O2 byproduct formed in situ is used for the simultaneous oxidation of chemical substrates. Both...... a soluble glucose oxidase and a truly integrated heterogeneous combination whereby the oxidase enzyme is anchored onto the zeolite surface are reported....

  19. Plasma diamine oxidase levels in pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, M; Duff, G B

    1981-02-01

    Plasma diamine oxidase levels were assayed in 66 patients who presented with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. Levels within the normal range were associated with continuing pregnancies, whereas levels below the normal range were associated with subsequent abortion. Among those patients in whom gestation was greater than eight weeks, 66.6% of diamine oxidase levels correctly predicted the pregnancy outcome. Assay of the diamine oxidase levels at eight weeks of gestation or less gave little useful information.

  20. Plasma diamine oxidase levels in pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion.

    OpenAIRE

    Legge, M; Duff, G B

    1981-01-01

    Plasma diamine oxidase levels were assayed in 66 patients who presented with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. Levels within the normal range were associated with continuing pregnancies, whereas levels below the normal range were associated with subsequent abortion. Among those patients in whom gestation was greater than eight weeks, 66.6% of diamine oxidase levels correctly predicted the pregnancy outcome. Assay of the diamine oxidase levels at eight weeks of gestation or less ga...

  1. Gravity Responsive NADH Oxidase of the Plasma Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing gravity using an NADH oxidase of the plasma membrane which has been found to respond to unit gravity and low centrifugal g forces. The oxidation rate of NADH supplied to the NADH oxidase is measured and translated to represent the relative gravitational force exerted on the protein. The NADH oxidase of the plasma membrane may be obtained from plant or animal sources or may be produced recombinantly.

  2. Gamma irradiation protects oleic acid from oxidation: an experiment in Lactarius deliciosus wild mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Ângela; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers [1]. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation and a particular interest arises for wild species. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully i...

  3. Determination of cesium and selenium in cultivated mushrooms using radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, L.; Bumbalova, A.; Harangozo, M.; Toelgyessy, J.; Tomecek, O.

    2000-01-01

    Cesium and selenium intake of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), with these elements previously added to culture medium, has been examined from the viewpoint of health- and environmental protection. The process of measuring has been carried out by the radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique. Treatments of the elementary substance with Se salt appears to influence the Se content of the mushrooms to a significant extent. Cs intake is of considerable importance, as this element is accumulated by mushrooms. (author)

  4. The pathogenic fungi in mushroom cultivation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange.) Imbach.

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Tekiela

    2012-01-01

    The research was conducted in a mushroom growing facility located near Rzeszów, consisting of three production cycles. The number and composition of microorganisms which accompany the mushroom cultivation depended on the healthiness of: the compost, casing and spawn of Agaricus bisporus. The presence of pathogenic fungi in the cultivation halls at the beginning of the production cycle is a serious threat to the cultivation of common mushroom because their rapid development shortens the span o...

  5. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) ...

  6. Contents of trace elements in meadow mushrooms as results of PIXE, NAA and AAS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, J.; Sieniawski, J.

    1992-01-01

    Contents of heavy elements in mushrooms from the Dresden area and from some parts of Poland, by use of three methods of measurement (PIXE, AAS and NAA) were determined, with the special interest focused on wild growing and cultivated meadow mushrooms. The ability for accumulation of Se, Cu, Ag and Cu was established. In some wild growing mushrooms the values of Cd, Hg, As and Pb exceeded allowed limits for human nutrition. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  7. Nicotine in dried boletus mushrooms - Causes for contamination must be determined

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2009-01-01

    Recently, nicotine has been detected in samples of dried boletus mushrooms. In large doses, nicotine is a strong neurotoxin and natural component of the tobacco plant. Yet food supply plants such as potatoes, tomatoes, aubergines and cauliflower also contain very small amounts of the substance. The cause of nicotine contamination in dried boletus mushrooms has thus far not been determined since nicotine has not been established as a naturally occurring component in mushrooms. Whether the nico...

  8. Identification and Control of Cladobotryum spp., Causal Agents of Cobeweb Disease of Cultivated Mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Potočnik

    2009-01-01

    Cladobotryum spp. are causal agents of cobweb disease, one of the most serious diseases of cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach) in Serbia and worldwide, which affects product quality and yield. The disease symptoms are: cottony fluffy white or yellowish to pink colonies on mushroom casing, rapid colonization of casing surface, covering of host basidiomata by mycelia, and their decay. Prochloraz-Mn has been officially recommended for mushroom cultivation in EU countries. Howe...

  9. The Reciprocal Interactions between Polyphenols and Gut Microbiota and Effects on Bioaccessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdal, Tugba; Sela, David A.; Xiao, Jianbo; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Chen, Fang; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    As of late, polyphenols have increasingly interested the scientific community due to their proposed health benefits. Much of this attention has focused on their bioavailability. Polyphenol–gut microbiota interactions should be considered to understand their biological functions. The dichotomy between the biotransformation of polyphenols into their metabolites by gut microbiota and the modulation of gut microbiota composition by polyphenols contributes to positive health outcomes. Although there are many studies on the in vivo bioavailability of polyphenols, the mutual relationship between polyphenols and gut microbiota is not fully understood. This review focuses on the biotransformation of polyphenols by gut microbiota, modulation of gut microbiota by polyphenols, and the effects of these two-way mutual interactions on polyphenol bioavailability, and ultimately, human health. PMID:26861391

  10. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal plants of Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karou, D.; Dicko, M.H.; Simpore, J.; Traore, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Polyphenols from four medicinal plants of Burkina Faso, Combretum micranthum, Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Sida acuta, were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria. The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and

  11. Interactions of blacktea polyphenols with human gut microbiota: implications for gut and cardiovascular health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Vaughan, E.E.; Dorsten, van F.; Gomez-Roldan, V.; Vos, de R.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Roger, L.; Draijer, R.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have convincingly associated consumption of black tea with reduced cardiovascular risk. Research on the bioactive molecules has traditionally been focused on polyphenols, such as catechins. Black tea polyphenols (BTPs), however, mainly consist of high-molecular-weight species

  12. Plant growth and gas balance in a plant and mushroom cultivation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Tani, A.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.

    1994-11-01

    In order to obtain basic data for construction of a plant cultivation system incorporating a mushroom cultivation subsystem in the CELSS, plant growth and atmospheric CO2 balance in the system were investigated. The plant growth was promoted by a high level of CO2 which resulted from the respiration of the mushroom mycelium in the system. The atmospheric CO2 concentration inside the system changed significantly due to the slight change in the net photosynthetic rate of plants and/or the respiration rate of the mushroom when the plant cultivation system combined directly with the mushroom cultivation subsystem.

  13. Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Popescu, Ion V.; Busuioc, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

  14. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieder, Stephan R.; Brunner, Ivano; Horvat, Milena; Jacobs, Anna; Frey, Beat

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg -1 dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg -1 dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: → Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. → Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. → MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. → Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

  15. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, Stephan R. [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Brunner, Ivano [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Horvat, Milena [Jozef Stefan Institute, 1001 Ljubliana (Slovenia); Jacobs, Anna [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Kassel, 37213 Witzenhausen (Germany); Frey, Beat, E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: > Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. > Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. > MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. > Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

  16. Bioactive Mushroom Polysaccharides: A Review on Monosaccharide Composition, Biosynthesis and Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhenghong; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-06-13

    Mushrooms are widely distributed around the world and are heavily consumed because of their nutritional value and medicinal properties. Polysaccharides (PSs) are an important component of mushrooms, a major factor in their bioactive properties, and have been intensively studied during the past two decades. Monosaccharide composition/combinations are important determinants of PS bioactivities. This review summarizes: (i) monosaccharide composition/combinations in various mushroom PSs, and their relationships with PS bioactivities; (ii) possible biosynthetic pathways of mushroom PSs and effects of key enzymes on monosaccharide composition; (iii) regulation strategies in PS biosynthesis, and prospects for controllable biosynthesis of PSs with enhanced bioactivities.

  17. Genetic diversity of Dahongjun, the commercially important "Big Red Mushroom" from southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In southern China, a wild ectomycorrhizal mushroom commonly called "Dahongjun" or "Big Red Mushroom" by the local residents, has been harvested, consumed, and/or exported as an exotic food for many years. Although ecologically and economically important, very little is known about this mushroom, including its diversity and population structure. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we analyzed 122 samples from five local populations representing the known distribution ranges of this mushroom in southern China. We investigated the genetic diversity and geographic structure of this mushroom using sequences from four DNA fragments. Our analyses identified that this mushroom contained at least three divergent lineages: one corresponds to a recently described species Russula griseocarnosa from southern China and the remaining two likely represent two novel species. While these lineages were prominently structured geographically based on ITS sequences, evidence for ancient and/or recent gene flow was also identified within individual lineages. In addition, a local population from Ailaoshan in central Yunnan Province where 85 of our 122 specimens came from showed clear evidence of recombination. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The ectomycorrhizal mushroom "Dahongjun" from southern China is a species complex with at least three divergent lineages. These lineages are largely geographically structured and there is evidence for recombination in nature. Our results indicate mature Dahongjun mushrooms with abundant basidiospores are important for the reproduction of this mushroom in nature and that individual populations of this species should be managed separately.

  18. Mushroom cultivation, processing and value added products: a patent based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Somya; Rasane, Prasad; Kaur, Sawinder; Garba, Umar; Singh, Jyoti; Raj, Nishant; Gupta, Neeru

    2018-06-03

    Edible mushrooms are an abundant source of carbohydrates, proteins, and multiple antioxidants and phytonutrients. This paper presents a general overview on the edible fungus describing the inventions made in the field of its cultivation, equipment and value added products. To understand and review the innovations and nutraceutical benefits of mushrooms as well as to develop interest regarding the edible mushrooms. Information provided in this review is based on the available research investigations and patents. Mushrooms are an edible source of a wide variety of antioxidants and phytonutrients with a number of nutraceutical properties including anti-tumor and anti-carcinogenic. Thus, several investigations are made for cultivation and improvement of the yield of mushrooms through improvisation of growth substrates and equipment used for mushroom processing. The mushroom has been processed into various products to increase its consumption, providing the health and nutritional benefit to mankind. This paper summarizes the cultivation practices of mushroom, its processing equipments, methods of preservation, value added based products, and its nutraceutical properties. The review also highlights the various scientific feats achieved in terms of patents and research publications promoting mushroom as a wholesome food. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Edible wild mushrooms of the Western Ghats: Data on the ethnic knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namera C. Karun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The edible wild mushrooms are most important in food security of ethnic groups and tribals throughout the world. Various indigenous strategies are followed to trace wild mushrooms suitable for human consumption. Data presented in this article projects ethnic knowledge on 51 edible wild mushrooms (in 23 genera in the Western Ghats region of India. Information collected with support of ethnic groups/tribals pertains to habitats, substrates, mutualistic association, extent of availability, extent of edibility and method of processing of wild mushrooms. Extensive field visits and interactions with ethnic groups were performed to collect the data on each mushroom. Initially, most of these mushrooms were identified based on the indigenous methods and designated with vernacular names (Are-Gowda, Kodava and Tulu. Based on macromorphology (in field and micromorphology (in laboratory, each mushroom was identified with its systematic name. Among the 51 wild mushrooms irrespective of extent of availability, the most preferred include Astraeus hygrometricus, Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Fistulina hepatica, Lentinus sajor-caju, Pleurotus (5 spp. and Scleroderma citrinum and Termitomyces (18 spp.. This data forecasts the importance of documentation of traditional knowledge, protection of habitats, management of resources (tree species and substrates and sustainable exploitation of wild mushrooms.

  20. Polyphenols as potential therapeutical agents against cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curin, Yann; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that polyphenols from fruits, vegetables and beverages such as wine and tea may exert protective effects on the cardiovascular system. Indeed, research in the field of polyphenols points out their antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties, leading to lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and platelet aggregation. These compounds are also able to modulate the generation of nitric oxide (NO) from vascular endothelium and to interfere with the mechanisms leading to inflammation and endothelial apoptosis, contributing to the prevention of the endothelial dysfunction, known to play a central role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. This article reviews the potential targets of polyphenols involved in the complex pathophysiological events occurring in cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and stroke.