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Sample records for musculoskeletal system pathology

  1. Musculoskeletal system pathology in aids patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabala, R.; Oleaga, L.; Garcia Bolado, A.; Grande, D.; Gorrino, O.; Lecumberri, I.

    2003-01-01

    We studied 22 AIDS patients who presented musculoskeletal system pathology. The affected area underwent simple X-ray and MR. The MR study was performed using a 1 Tesla magnet. T1 and T2 weighted echo spin sequences, as well as sequences of short T1 inversion recovery (STIR). In nine cases, intravenous gadolinium was used at a dose of 0.2cc/kg. The study plane was selected depending on the location of the lesion and surface coils were used when appropriate. In those patients showing pathology which was removed from the appendicular skeleton, the principal magnet was used as both transmitter and receiver. In one case, an On-Tine Tomography (CT) was also carried out. The evaluated ata were: a) localization; b) bony erosion; c) soft-tissue mass; d) articular effusion; e) cartilaginous changes; f) and T2 signals, and g) gadolinium enhancement. A diagnosis was made on the basis of biopsy or clinical culture, and evolution. Spinal cord alterations were the most frequent, being found in 13 cases. Twelve were caused by spondylodiscitis, 10 by tuberculosis, one by staphylococcal infection and one by candidiasis. In all cases, there appeared disk damage, as well as bone marrow signal alterations in the affected area and disks soft-tissue. In the mine cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and soft-tissue mass heterogeneously enhanced, demonstrating an abscess with ring enhancement, and a central necrotic area in one case. In one patient, a spinal cord alteration due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was observed. In six cases,there was observed and infectious arthritis two in coxofemoral joints, three in knees and one in a glenohumeral joint. Isolated germs were staphylococcal in three cases one being Mycobacterium tuberculosis, another being M. kansasii and the third identified as. Candida. In all cases, there was observed joint effusion, synovial thickening, joint cartilage damage and bony

  2. Musculoskeletal system pathology in aids patients; Patologia del sistema musculosqueletico en pacientes con sida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabala, R.; Oleaga, L.; Garcia Bolado, A.; Grande, D.; Gorrino, O.; Lecumberri, I. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    We studied 22 AIDS patients who presented musculoskeletal system pathology. The affected area underwent simple X-ray and MR. The MR study was performed using a 1 Tesla magnet. T1 and T2 weighted echo spin sequences, as well as sequences of short T1 inversion recovery (STIR). In nine cases, intravenous gadolinium was used at a dose of 0.2cc/kg. The study plane was selected depending on the location of the lesion and surface coils were used when appropriate. In those patients showing pathology which was removed from the appendicular skeleton, the principal magnet was used as both transmitter and receiver. In one case, an On-Tine Tomography (CT) was also carried out. The evaluated ata were: a) localization; b) bony erosion; c) soft-tissue mass; d) articular effusion; e) cartilaginous changes; f) and T2 signals, and g) gadolinium enhancement. A diagnosis was made on the basis of biopsy or clinical culture, and evolution. Spinal cord alterations were the most frequent, being found in 13 cases. Twelve were caused by spondylodiscitis, 10 by tuberculosis, one by staphylococcal infection and one by candidiasis. In all cases, there appeared disk damage, as well as bone marrow signal alterations in the affected area and disks soft-tissue. In the mine cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and soft-tissue mass heterogeneously enhanced, demonstrating an abscess with ring enhancement, and a central necrotic area in one case. In one patient, a spinal cord alteration due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was observed. In six cases,there was observed and infectious arthritis two in coxofemoral joints, three in knees and one in a glenohumeral joint. Isolated germs were staphylococcal in three cases one being Mycobacterium tuberculosis, another being M. kansasii and the third identified as. Candida. In all cases, there was observed joint effusion, synovial thickening, joint cartilage damage and

  3. [The effect of different types of sports and athletes' age on the pathological changes of the musculoskeletal system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkasov, E E; Puzin, S N; Litvinenko, A S; Kurshev, V V; Bezuglov, E N

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the most common musculoskeletal diseases, depending on the type of sports and athletes' age. The results of examination of 976 athletes aged from 16 to 42 years (average age - 28,9±2,3) with musculoskeletal diseases were analyzed. Medical diagnostic procedures included clinical, laboratory, instrumental (radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound) investigations and functional testing (goniometry, manual muscle testing). Majority of patients were diagnosed to have diseases of the knee (17.9%) and ankle joints (11.3%), the heel bone (12.9%), Achilles tendon (10.2%), post-traumatic musculoskeletal diseases (16.2%), degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the spine (12.8%). In the young age group (16 to 20 years) post-traumatic disorders were most common. In the middle-age group (21 to 30 years) along with post-traumatic disorders diseases of the knee frequently occurred. For athletes over 30 years old, along with diseases of the knee spinal diseases were found to occur 2-3 times more frequently in comparison with other age groups. Injuries which are more common for different types of sports were identified: acute traumas - competitive sports, diseases of the calcaneus - sports with running and jumping (athletics, volleyball, soccer), disease of ankle joints - sport with sharp change in movement direction (hockey, figure skating), disease of the knee - sports with high load of the knee joint (figure skating, gymnastics, volleyball, diseases of bones and joints of the upper extremity - tennis, disease of spine - weightlifting. pathological changes in the musculoskeletal system depend on the type of sports and the age of athletes. The combination of age and risk factors associated with type of sport increases the possibility of development of these diseases of the musculoskeletal system.

  4. Computed tomography of the musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.W.; Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book contain 10 chapters. The chapter titles are: Soft Tissue Masses; Primary Bone Tumors; The Role of CT in the Therapeutic Management of Soft Tissue Sarcomas; Assessment of Musculoskeletal Inflammation; Assessment of Musculoskeletal Trauma; The Foot and Ankle; The Shoulder; Measurement of Bone Mineral for Early Detection of Osteoporosis; MRI of the Musculoskeletal System; and Advances in CT Imaging of Musculoskeletal Pathology

  5. CT Guided biopsies of musculoskeletal lesions, radiological and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzihasanovic, B.; Milisic, L.; Zuban, J.; Mujic, E.; Jahic, E.; Gjikolli, B.; Hasanovic, B.; Lincender-Cvijetic, L.; Jaganjac, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study is to overview our experiences in taking the CT guided biopsies of musculoskeletal lesions during the period of sixteen months, analysis of validity of samples taken and correlation with pathological findings. CT guided biopsies of musculoskeletal lesions were performed in 32 patients during the period of sixteen months (from December 2004 until March 2006). Age range was from 13 to 78 years. Majorities of the biopsies were performed with coaxial cutting needle system (14 G and 16 G) with introducers size 13 and 15 G. Bone biopsies were performed with Yamsidi needles in purpose of taking the bone cylinder. Majorities of the biopsies were performed under local anaesthesia except a thirteen years old child to whom CT guided biopsy of corpus Th 6 was performed under general anaesthesia. Two samples of tissues were sent in formalin solutions to Pathology Institute for pathological verification. In one case of musculoskeletal lesions CT guided biopsies didn't yield a representative tissue sample. We had high level of congruence between radiological and pathological findings; precise presented in the article. CT guided biopsies of musculoskeletal lesions are method of choice for pathologic verification of musculoskeletal lesions proving incomparable less risk compared to 'open' biopsy which requires operating theatre and general anaesthesia. Coaxial needle systems has shown as suitable for yielding representative tissue samples (two samples for each patient), and samples are also appropriate for immunohistochemical analysis

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Nonneoplastic Musculoskeletal Pathologies in the Pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapati, Sindhura; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Komarraju, Aparna; Guidry, Carey; Pandey, Tarun

    2017-06-01

    Musculoskeletal pathologies in the pelvis encompass a wide variety of lesions including femoroacetabular impingement, athletic pubalgia, ischiofemoral impingement, and apophyseal avulsion injuries. Magnetic resonance imaging is the noninvasive imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis and management of these lesions. In this article, the authors discuss the nonneoplastic musculoskeletal lesions in the pelvis, with illustrations and relevant case examples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  8. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  9. Musculoskeletal MRI: dedicated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masciocchi, C.; Barile, A.; Satragno, L.

    2000-01-01

    The ''dedicated'' MRI units have characteristics of high diagnostic accuracy and lower installation and management costs as compared with whole-body systems. The dedicated MRI units are easy to install. The low weight allows their installation also under unfavorable circumstances. In a dedicated system cost-effectiveness and ease of installation must be accompanied by the capability of providing high-quality images. In our experience, the high number of examinations performed, the most part of which provided with the surgical controls, allowed an accurate evaluation of the diagnostic potentialities of the dedicated magnet. We were not able to perform the examinations in only 3 % of cases due to the physical shape of the patient and the clinical condition of the patient which may hinder the correct positioning of the limb. The overlapping of the diagnostic accuracy of the E-scan and Artoscan units in the study of the lower limbs, compared with whole-body units and surgery, prompted us to exploit the potentialities of the E-Scan in the study of the shoulder. We had a good correlation between E-Scan, whole-body units, and surgical findings, which confirmed the high diagnostic accuracy of the dedicated system. In conclusion, in our experience carried out in the musculoskeletal system, the dedicated magnets showed promising results. Their diagnostic reliability and utility was comparable to that obtained from conventional units operating at higher magnetic fields. (orig.)

  10. Dynamic MR imaging of the musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.S.; Hylton, H.; Hentz, V.R.; Schattner, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on dynamic MR imaging which is an MR technique that allows imaging of the musculoskeletal system in motion. Current methods for observing the articulation of muscles and joints are limited to acquisition of stationary images at different spatial orientations. These images are then replayed from computer memory to simulate motion. Unlike stationary acquisition, dynamic MR imaging allows the volume of interest to be subjected to motion and dynamic stress, which is important for detecting stress-induced pathology. To demonstrate the utility of dynamic MR imaging, a system for imaging a moving wrist has been developed. The system consists of apparatus capable of providing simultaneous radialulnar deviation and flexion-extension, and hardware for system control and acquisition gating. The apparatus is mounted on the patient bed and is transferable to a variety of standard clinical MR imaging systems. Images were obtained during motion, and the ability of dynamic MR imaging to accurately image the moving wrist with very little motion artifact was demonstrated

  11. Musculoskeletal System Symptoms in Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Akin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal manifestations in patients with thyroid dysfunction. Methods: One hundred and twenty-three patients (100 female, 23 male who visited the nuclear medicine department for thyroid gland scintigraphy were included in our study. According to thyroid hormone levels, patients were allocated into five categories: hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, euthyroid, subclinical hypothyroidism, and hypothyroidism. Before neurological and musculoskeletal examinations, a standardized symptom questionnaire was completed including questions about sensory symptoms, muscle weakness, restricted joint mobility, musculoskeletal pain. Neurological examination, range of motion of joints, effusion or swelling of joints was assessed. Diagnosis of osteoarthritis was done by the clinical and radiological characteristics. The diagnosis of FMS was made according to criteria of American College of Rheumatology. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, a T-score ≤ -2.5 was classified as osteoporosis, whereas a T-score between -2.5 and -1.0 was classified as osteopenia. Thyroid status was determined by serum TSH levels. Results: Eighty-one percent of the patients were female (100 and 19% were male (23. Mean age of female patients was 49.99±15.27 years (range 20-87 and mean age of male patients was 61.8±12.33 years (range 34-88. When divided according to thyroid status, 21.1% (n=26 had hyperthyroidism, 21.1% (n=26 had subclinical hyperthyroidism, 49.6% (n=61 were euthyroid, 4.9% (n=6 had subclinical hypothyroidism and 3.3% (n=4 were hypothyroid. None of 59% of patients had any musculoskeletal diagnosis. Osteoporosis was the most common problem, affecting 23.7% of patients Conclusion: The presence of musculoskeletal symptoms in patients with goiter should be considered and investigated. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 261-269

  12. Diffusion-weighted imaging of the musculoskeletal system in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Reiser, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the principles of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and recent results in DWI of the musculoskeletal system. The potential of DWI in the diagnosis of pathology of the musculoskeletal system is discussed. DWI is a relatively new MR imaging technique that has already been established in neuroradiology, especially in the early detection of brain ischemia. The random motion of water protons on a molecular basis can be measured with DWI. To date DWI of the abdomen and of the musculoskeletal system has only been employed in scientific studies, but first results indicate that it may also be beneficial in these fields. Different diffusion characteristics have been found in normal tissues such as muscle, fat and bone marrow. Also, pathologic entities such as neoplasms, post-therapeutic soft tissue changes and inflammatory processes can be differentiated. Normal muscle shows significantly higher diffusion values than subcutaneous fat and bone marrow, due to a higher mobility of water protons within muscle. Soft tissue tumors exhibit a significantly lower diffusion value compared with post-therapeutic soft tissue changes and inflammatory processes. Necrotic tumor tissue can be distinguished from viable tumor due to significantly higher diffusion of water protons within necrotic tissue. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic resonance of the musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a review of the principles and techniques of musculoskeletal MRI and its broad range of diagnostic applications. Opening chapters of the book summarize the principles of musculoskeletal MRI, explaining how these principles can be applied to provide optimal tissue contrast and characterization. Step-by-step guidelines are then offered on patient selection, positioning, and coil techniques, with full consideration of how coils, number of averages, matrix size, repetition time, and other factors affect image quality. Patient throughput and the most commonly used pulse sequences are also discussed. The book features coverage of the use of MRI in evaluation of specific diseases: bone and soft tissue tumors;infections;musculoskeletal trauma;spinal disorders;and miscellaneous conditions. The authors' comparisons of MRI with computed tomography, ultrasound, isotopes, and other techniques will assist the physician in determining which clinical problems are best evaluated by MRI. Where MRI is the optimal technique, the text outlines the examination procedure, indicates which sequences provide the most information, and describes the pathologic findings that can be observed in MRI scans

  14. Fetal musculoskeletal malformations with a poor outcome: ultrasonographic, pathologic, and radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2002-01-01

    The early and accurate antenatal diagnosis of fetal musculoskeletal malfomations with a poor outcome has important implications for the management of a pregnancy. Careful ultrasonographic examination of a fetus helps detect such anomalies, and a number of characteristic features may suggest possible differential diagnoses. During the last five years, we have encountered 39 cases of such anomalies, and the typical prenatal ultrasonographic and pathologic findings of a number of those are described in this article

  15. Muscle–Bone Crosstalk: Emerging Opportunities for Novel Therapeutic Approaches to Treat Musculoskeletal Pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Maurel, Delphine B.; Jähn, Katharina; Lara-Castillo, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are age-related musculoskeletal pathologies that often develop in parallel. Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduced bone mass and an increased fracture risk. Sarcopenia describes muscle wasting with an increasing risk of injuries due to falls. The medical treatment of both diseases costs billions in health care per year. With the impact on public health and economy, and considering the increasing life expectancy of populations, more efficient treatment regimens ...

  16. Vitamin D Related Musculoskeletal System Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Sarıfakıoğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effect of vitamin D on bone metabolism has been well known for a long time. Recently, various hormonal and immunity related effects has have been obtained. Additionally, the deficiency of vitamin D is thought to be related with various pain syndromes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the main musculoskeletal symptoms of patients with vitamin D deficiency admitting to physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics. Materials and Methods: The data were retrospectively investigated in patients with myalgia, arthralgia, regional pain, widespread body pain (WBP and in whom vitamin D levels were measured. Patients over 50 years old and with known osteoporosis/osteomalacia diagnosis, endocrinological pathology, and inflammatory rheumatological disease were excluded. Results: The data of 571 patients were investigated and totally 214 of them were included in the study. There were 178 females (83.2%, 36 males (16.8%. The mean age of the patients was 39.19±9.58 years. Of the patients, 100 (46.7% were in severe deficiency, 68 (31.8% were in deficiency, 46 (21.5% were in insufficient group. The symptoms were regional pain in 65 (30.3%, WBP in 63 (29.4%, arthralgia in 49 (23%, and myalgia in 37 (17.3% patients. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency may be encountered as musculoskeletal problems. In the presence of persistent joint-muscle pain, regional pain and fibromiyalgia, vitamin D deficiency should be kept in mind.

  17. Motion control of musculoskeletal systems with redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoo; Durand, Dominique M

    2008-12-01

    Motion control of musculoskeletal systems for functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a challenging problem due to the inherent complexity of the systems. These include being highly nonlinear, strongly coupled, time-varying, time-delayed, and redundant. The redundancy in particular makes it difficult to find an inverse model of the system for control purposes. We have developed a control system for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) redundant musculoskeletal systems with little prior information. The proposed method separates the steady-state properties from the dynamic properties. The dynamic control uses a steady-state inverse model and is implemented with both a PID controller for disturbance rejection and an artificial neural network (ANN) feedforward controller for fast trajectory tracking. A mechanism to control the sum of the muscle excitation levels is also included. To test the performance of the proposed control system, a two degree of freedom ankle-subtalar joint model with eight muscles was used. The simulation results show that separation of steady-state and dynamic control allow small output tracking errors for different reference trajectories such as pseudo-step, sinusoidal and filtered random signals. The proposed control method also demonstrated robustness against system parameter and controller parameter variations. A possible application of this control algorithm is FES control using multiple contact cuff electrodes where mathematical modeling is not feasible and the redundancy makes the control of dynamic movement difficult.

  18. Purinergic signalling in the musculoskeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnstock, Geoffrey; Arnett, Timothy R; Orriss, Isabel R

    2013-12-01

    It is now widely recognised that extracellular nucleotides, signalling via purinergic receptors, participate in numerous biological processes in most tissues. It has become evident that extracellular nucleotides have significant regulatory effects in the musculoskeletal system. In early development, ATP released from motor nerves along with acetylcholine acts as a cotransmitter in neuromuscular transmission; in mature animals, ATP functions as a neuromodulator. Purinergic receptors expressed by skeletal muscle and satellite cells play important pathophysiological roles in their development or repair. In many cell types, expression of purinergic receptors is often dependent on differentiation. For example, sequential expression of P2X5, P2Y1 and P2X2 receptors occurs during muscle regeneration in the mdx model of muscular dystrophy. In bone and cartilage cells, the functional effects of purinergic signalling appear to be largely negative. ATP stimulates the formation and activation of osteoclasts, the bone-destroying cells. Another role appears to be as a potent local inhibitor of mineralisation. In osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells, ATP acts via P2 receptors to limit bone mineralisation by inhibiting alkaline phosphatase expression and activity. Extracellular ATP additionally exerts significant effects on mineralisation via its hydrolysis product, pyrophosphate. Evidence now suggests that purinergic signalling is potentially important in several bone and joint disorders including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and cancers. Strategies for future musculoskeletal therapies might involve modulation of purinergic receptor function or of the ecto-nucleotidases responsible for ATP breakdown or ATP transport inhibitors.

  19. A new imaging 2D and 3D for musculo-skeletal physiology and pathology with low radiation dose and standing position: the EOS system; Une nouvelle imagerie osteo-articulaire basse dose en position debout: le systeme EOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubousset, J. [Academie Nationale de Medecine, et Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Service de Chirurgie Orthopedique, 75 - Paris (France); Charpak, G.; Dorion, I. [Biospace, Instruments, 75 - Paris (France); Skalli, W.; Lavaste, F. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Metiers, 75 - Paris (France); Deguise, J. [Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie Orthopedique, Montreal (Canada); Kalifa, G.; Ferey, S. [Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-06-01

    Very precise combined work between multidisciplinary partners (radiation engineers in physics, engineers in bio-mechanics, medical radiologists and orthopedic pediatric surgeons) lead to the concept and development of a new low dose radiation device named EOS. This device allows 3 main advantages: (1) thanks to the invention of Georges Charpak (Nobel Price 1992) who designed gaseous detectors for X-rays, the reduction of dose necessary to obtain a good image of skeletal system was 8 to 10 times less for 2D imaging, compared to the dose necessary to obtain a 3D reconstruction from CT scan cuts the reduction factor was 800 to 1000. (2) The accuracy of 3D reconstruction obtained is as good as a 3D reconstruction from CT scan cuts. (3) The patient in addition get its imaging in standing functional position thank to the X-rays obtained from head to feet simultaneously AP and lateral. This is a big advantage compared to CT scan used only in lying position. From this simultaneous AP and lateral X-rays of the whole body thanks to the 3D bone external envelop technique, the engineers in bio-mechanics allowed to obtain 3D reconstruction of every level of osteo-articular system in standing position with an acceptable period of time (15 to 30 minutes). This (in spite of the evolution of standing MRI) allows more precise bone reconstruction in orthopedics especially at the level of spine, lower limbs, etc. In addition the fact to study the entire skeleton in standing functional position instead of small segmented studies given by CT scan in lying position produce a real improvement as well for physiology as for pathology of bone and joints disorders and especially for spinal pathology. (author)

  20. Diabetes Mellitus and the Musculoskeletal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monu, Johnny V.J.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease with systemic manifestations. Occurrence is increasing worldwide from 153m to 347m from 1980 to 2011. Traditionally there are two main types: Insulin dependent or juvenile diabetes and non-insulin dependent or Maturity onset or insulin resistant diabetes. Gestational diabetes the second type of diabetes is increasingly seen in young patients and it evolves into insulin dependence. Obesity is causally related to type II diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus affects appendicular and peripheral structures more commonly – ankle and feet. Diabetes in the MSK System effects manifested as congenital problems, Peripheral neuropathy, Peripheral vasculopathy Infections and Connective tissue changes. The disease target Structures like Cardio-vascular system, Central nervous system (brain, eyes) and peripheral nerves, Reticulo-endothelial system, Kidneys and Musculoskeletal system. Osteomyelitis fractures including fragmentation of bones and disorganization of joints – neuropathic changes. Diabetic Myopathy occurs predominantly in long-standing, poorly controlled type 1 diabetics often have other vascular or end organ complications. Etiology related to microvascular disease leads to muscle ischemia and infarction eventual muscle atrophy

  1. Differential diagnostics of the musculoskeletal system in sports medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehrer, S.

    2010-01-01

    The positive effects of sports on the cardiovascular and musculoskeleal systems are widely accepted. Nevertheless, sports also can cause injury and overuse leading to sport-specific problems, which are often a challenge in diagnosing and treatment. The history of the sport-related injury is crucial for further differential diagnosis. Careful inspection, palpation and functional testing can reveal the possible pathology and lead to an effective strategy in the diagnostic assessment using radiographic tools such as sonography, X-ray and MR imaging (MRI). In muscle and tendon injuries sonography can provide ready to use information concerning muscle tears and tendon ruptures or degenerative lesions. Plain X-rays give a good overview on joint conditions regarding the bone and sometimes have to be completed by focused enlargement of the critical structure, especially in stress fractures and small bone lesions. MRT is the gold standard in the evaluation of interarticular and extra-articular sport-related pathologies, however, an exact clinical diagnosis allows a more effective investigation protocol. Profound knowledge of possible sport-specific injury and overuse patterns is necessary to detect lesions of the musculoskeletal system in active athletes and to use the fitting radiographic strategy for confirmation. The exact diagnosis is the prerequisite for initiating the appropriate treatment and a fast sports medical rehabilitation process. (orig.) [de

  2. Systems pathology: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jose

    2012-02-01

    The technological advances of the last twenty years together with the dramatic increase in computational power have injected new life into systems-level thinking in Medicine. This review emphasizes the close relationship of Systems Pathology to Systems Biology and delineates the differences between Systems Pathology and Clinical Systems Pathology. It also suggests an algorithm to support the application of systems-level thinking to clinical research, proposes applying systems-level thinking to the health care systems and forecasts an acceleration of preventive medicine as a result of the coupling of personal genomics with systems pathology. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathological mechanism of musculoskeletal manifestations associated with CRPS type II: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Hideyuki; Arai, Tetsuya; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Urano, Hideki; Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Kato, Shuichi; Yamamoto, Michiro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2014-10-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) often complain of abnormal sensations beyond the affected body part, but causes of this spread of musculoskeletal manifestations into contiguous areas remain unclear. In addition, immobilization can predispose to the development of CRPS. We examined functional, biochemical, and histological alterations in affected parts, including contiguous zones, using an animal model. Ten-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to 5 groups: a normal group receiving no treatment, a sham operation group with surgical exploration, an immobilization group with surgical exploration plus internal knee joint immobilization, a surgical neuropathy group prepared by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) of the left L5 nerve root, and a surgical neuropathy+immobilization group with simultaneous SNL and knee joint immobilization. Mechanical allodynia and knee contracture were compared between groups, and tissues were harvested for histological assessments and gene and protein expression analyses. Neither surgical procedures nor immobilization induced detectable mechanical sensitivity. However, the addition of nerve injury resulted in detectable mechanical allodynia, and immobilization not only accelerated hyperalgesia, but also resulted in muscle fibrosis. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and other mediators of neurogenic inflammation were highly expressed not only in denervated muscles, but also in innervated muscles in contiguous areas, suggesting the spread of NGF production beyond the myotome of the injured nerve. Transforming growth factor β was involved in the development of contracture in CRPS. These findings imply that neuroinflammatory components play major roles in the progression and dispersion of both sensory pathologies and pathologies that are exacerbated by immobilization. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Muscle–Bone Crosstalk: Emerging Opportunities for Novel Therapeutic Approaches to Treat Musculoskeletal Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine B. Maurel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are age-related musculoskeletal pathologies that often develop in parallel. Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduced bone mass and an increased fracture risk. Sarcopenia describes muscle wasting with an increasing risk of injuries due to falls. The medical treatment of both diseases costs billions in health care per year. With the impact on public health and economy, and considering the increasing life expectancy of populations, more efficient treatment regimens are sought. The biomechanical interaction between both tissues with muscle acting on bone is well established. Recently, both tissues were also determined as secretory endocrine organs affecting the function of one another. New exciting discoveries on this front are made each year, with novel signaling molecules being discovered and potential controversies being described. While this review does not claim completeness, it will summarize the current knowledge on both the biomechanical and the biochemical link between muscle and bone. The review will highlight the known secreted molecules by both tissues affecting the other and finish with an outlook on novel therapeutics that could emerge from these discoveries.

  5. Muscle-Bone Crosstalk: Emerging Opportunities for Novel Therapeutic Approaches to Treat Musculoskeletal Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, Delphine B; Jähn, Katharina; Lara-Castillo, Nuria

    2017-10-24

    Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are age-related musculoskeletal pathologies that often develop in parallel. Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduced bone mass and an increased fracture risk. Sarcopenia describes muscle wasting with an increasing risk of injuries due to falls. The medical treatment of both diseases costs billions in health care per year. With the impact on public health and economy, and considering the increasing life expectancy of populations, more efficient treatment regimens are sought. The biomechanical interaction between both tissues with muscle acting on bone is well established. Recently, both tissues were also determined as secretory endocrine organs affecting the function of one another. New exciting discoveries on this front are made each year, with novel signaling molecules being discovered and potential controversies being described. While this review does not claim completeness, it will summarize the current knowledge on both the biomechanical and the biochemical link between muscle and bone. The review will highlight the known secreted molecules by both tissues affecting the other and finish with an outlook on novel therapeutics that could emerge from these discoveries.

  6. A REVIEW ON LOWER APPENDICULAR MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM OF HUMAN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhtaruzzaman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation engineering plays an important role in designing various autonomous robots to provide better therapeutic exercise to disabled patients. Hence it is necessary to study human musculoskeletal system and also needs to be presented in scientific manner in order to describe and analyze the biomechanics of human body motion. This review focuses on lower appendicular musculoskeletal structure of human body to represent joints and links architectures; to identify muscle attachments and functions; and to illustrate muscle groups which are responsible for a particular joint movement. Firstly, human lower skeletal structure, linking systems, joint mechanisms, and their functions are described with a conceptual representation of joint architecture of human skeleton. This section also represents joints and limbs by comparing with mechanical systems. Characteristics of ligaments and their functions to construct skeletal joints are also discussed briefly in this part. Secondly, the study focuses on muscular system of human lower limbs where muscle structure, functions, roles in moving endoskeleton structure, and supporting mechanisms are presented ellaborately. Thirdly, muscle groups are tabulated based on functions that provide mobility to different joints of lower limbs. Finally, for a particular movement action of lower extremity, muscles are also grouped and tabulated to have a better understanding on functions of individual muscle. Basically the study presents an overview of the structure of human lower limbs by characterizing and classifying skeletal and muscular systems.KEYWORDS:   Musculoskeletal system; Human lower limbs; Muscle groups; Joint motion; Biomechatronics; Rehabilitation.

  7. Percutaneous CT-guided biopsy of the musculoskeletal system: Results of 2027 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimondi, Eugenio; Rossi, Giuseppe; Bartalena, Tommaso; Ciminari, Rosanna; Alberghini, Marco; Ruggieri, Pietro; Errani, Costantino; Angelini, Andrea; Calabro, Teresa; Abati, Caterina Novella; Balladelli, Alba; Tranfaglia, Cristina; Mavrogenis, Andreas F.; Vanel, Daniel; Mercuri, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Biopsy of the musculoskeletal system is useful in the management of bone lesions particularly in oncology but they are often challenging procedures with a significant risk of complications. Computed tomography (CT)-guided needle biopsies may decrease these risks but doubts still exist about their diagnostic accuracy. This retrospective analysis of the experience of a single institution with percutaneous CT-guided biopsy of musculoskeletal lesions evaluates the results of these biopsies for bone lesions either in the appendicular skeleton or in the spine, and defines indications. Materials and methods: We reviewed the results of 2027 core needle biopsies performed over the past 18 years at the authors' institution. The results obtained are subject of this paper. Results: In 1567 cases the correct diagnosis was made with the first CT-guided needle biopsy (77.3% accuracy rate), in 408 cases the sample was not diagnostic and in 52 inadequate. Within 30 days these 408 patients underwent another biopsy, which was diagnostic in 340 cases with a final diagnostic accuracy of 94%. Highest accuracy rates were obtained in primary and secondary malignant lesions. Most false negative results were found in cervical lesions and in benign, pseudotumoral, flogistic, and systemic pathologies. There were 22 complications (18 transient paresis, 3 haematomas, 1 retroperitoneal haematoma) which had no influence on the treatment strategy, nor on patient outcome. Conclusion: This technique is reliable and safe and should be considered nowadays the gold standard for biopsies of the musculoskeletal system.

  8. Computed tomography findings of paracoccidiodomycosis in musculoskeletal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Junior, Francisco Valtenor Araujo; Savarese, Leonor Garbin; Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Martinez, Roberto; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique, E-mail: fvaltenor@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina

    2015-01-15

    Objective: to evaluate musculoskeletal involvement in paracoccidioidomycosis at computed tomography. Materials and methods: development of a retrospective study based on a review of radiologic and pathologic reports in the institution database. Patients with histopathologically confirmed musculoskeletal paracoccidioidomycosis and submitted to computed tomography were included in the present study. The imaging findings were consensually described by two radiologists. In order to avoid bias in the analysis, one patient with uncountable bone lesions was excluded from the study. Results: a total of seven patients were included in the present study. A total of 18 bone lesions were counted. The study group consisted of 7 patients. A total number of 18 bone lesions were counted. Osteoarticular lesions were the first manifestation of the disease in four patients (57.14%). Bone lesions were multiple in 42.85% of patients. Appendicular and axial skeleton were affected in 85.71% and 42.85% of cases, respectively. Bone involvement was characterized by well-demarcated osteolytic lesions. Marginal osteosclerosis was identified in 72.22% of the lesions, while lamellar periosteal reaction and soft tissue component were present in 5.55% of them. One patient showed multiple small lesions with bone sequestra. Conclusion: paracoccidioidomycosis can be included in the differential diagnosis of either single or multiple osteolytic lesions in young patients even in the absence of a previous diagnosis of pulmonary or visceral paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  9. Crucial Role of Vitamin D in the Musculoskeletal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Wintermeyer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is well known to exert multiple functions in bone biology, autoimmune diseases, cell growth, inflammation or neuromuscular and other immune functions. It is a fat-soluble vitamin present in many foods. It can be endogenously produced by ultraviolet rays from sunlight when the skin is exposed to initiate vitamin D synthesis. However, since vitamin D is biologically inert when obtained from sun exposure or diet, it must first be activated in human beings before functioning. The kidney and the liver play here a crucial role by hydroxylation of vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the liver and to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the kidney. In the past decades, it has been proven that vitamin D deficiency is involved in many diseases. Due to vitamin D’s central role in the musculoskeletal system and consequently the strong negative impact on bone health in cases of vitamin D deficiency, our aim was to underline its importance in bone physiology by summarizing recent findings on the correlation of vitamin D status and rickets, osteomalacia, osteopenia, primary and secondary osteoporosis as well as sarcopenia and musculoskeletal pain. While these diseases all positively correlate with a vitamin D deficiency, there is a great controversy regarding the appropriate vitamin D supplementation as both positive and negative effects on bone mineral density, musculoskeletal pain and incidence of falls are reported.

  10. MR staging of malignant musculoskeletal tumors: An experimental study on MR and pathologic correlation of rabbit VX-2 carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Chung, Sung Hoon; KIm, Cheol Woo; Kim, Seong Moon; Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability of MR imaging in tissue characterization and depiction of tumor boundaries, we performed MR pathologic correlation using parosteally implanted VX-2 carcinoma in 17 rabbit thighs. T1-weighted, T2-weighted and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted axial images were obtained 10-30 days after tumor implantation. After the animals were killed, frozen and sectioned along the MR imaging planes, and histopathologic examination were done. For accurate MR pathologic correlation, rabbit were fixed on the cardboard plate to minimize position change during the procedure. Tumor boundaries depicted on MR images were larger than those depicted on the specimen. Small tumors were surrounded by capsule-like loose connective tissue. Loose connective tissue became compact with tumor growth. This connective tissue showed high signal intensity on both T2-weighted and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images. Muscle atrophy with fatty tissue accumulation around the tumor also contributed to the high signal intensity on MR images. Peritumoral edema and inflammatory reaction were not remarkable. Six of 8 cases with bone marrow fibrosis were detected on MR images. We concluded that peritumoral loose connective tissue and muscle atrophy exaggerated the size of experimentally induced malignant musculoskeletal tumors on MR images

  11. Radiologically detectable musculoskeletal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, M. M.; Manjon, P.; Diaz de Bustamante, T.; Galindo, M.; Buj, M. J.; Cabezudo, J.

    2000-01-01

    We show a wide spectrum of musculoskeletal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that can be detected by radiological examination. We determined the indications of different imaging techniques in the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease. We reviewed the clinical and radiological histories of 37 patients diagnosed as having SLE on the basis of serological and musculoskeletal criteria. We assessed the personal data of each patient, the association of the disease with autoimmune processes, serology, treatment and radiological findings using plain X ray, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR). Of the 37 cases reviewed, only ten presented changes in one or more of the imaging studies performed. the most common radiological finding was symmetric poly arthritis located at different sites. Other signs included avascular necrosis (late and early), inflammation and tendon and/or ligament rupture, nonerosive deforming arthropathies , soft tissue calcifications and arthritis (staphylococcal and tuberculous). A direct correlation was established between the anticardiolipin antibody titer, steroid doses and avascular necrosis. In SLE, radiologically detectable osteoarticular lesions are uncommon. Symmetric polyarthritis is the earliest lesion and that occurring most frequently. Other signs do not appear as often, with the exception of osteonecrosis, which usually occurs late. It developed early and was unusually aggressive in two youths with elevated anticardiolipin antibody titers and substantial systemic involvement in our series. The contributions of ultrasound and MR in the assessment of musculoskeletal involvement in SLE are especially relevant in the study of inflammations and tendon rupture and in the management of avascular necrosis, respectively. (Author) 17 refs

  12. Automated Radiology-Pathology Module Correlation Using a Novel Report Matching Algorithm by Organ System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Bari; Doshi, Ankur; Gfytopoulos, Soterios; Bhattacharji, Priya; Recht, Michael; Moore, William

    2018-05-01

    Radiology-pathology correlation is time-consuming and is not feasible in most clinical settings, with the notable exception of breast imaging. The purpose of this study was to determine if an automated radiology-pathology report pairing system could accurately match radiology and pathology reports, thus creating a feedback loop allowing for more frequent and timely radiology-pathology correlation. An experienced radiologist created a matching matrix of radiology and pathology reports. These matching rules were then exported to a novel comprehensive radiology-pathology module. All distinct radiology-pathology pairings at our institution from January 1, 2016 to July 1, 2016 were included (n = 8999). The appropriateness of each radiology-pathology report pairing was scored as either "correlative" or "non-correlative." Pathology reports relating to anatomy imaged in the specific imaging study were deemed correlative, whereas pathology reports describing anatomy not imaged with the particular study were denoted non-correlative. Overall, there was 88.3% correlation (accuracy) of the radiology and pathology reports (n = 8999). Subset analysis demonstrated that computed tomography (CT) abdomen/pelvis, CT head/neck/face, CT chest, musculoskeletal CT (excluding spine), mammography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abdomen/pelvis, MRI brain, musculoskeletal MRI (excluding spine), breast MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), breast ultrasound, and head/neck ultrasound all demonstrated greater than 91% correlation. When further stratified by imaging modality, CT, MRI, mammography, and PET demonstrated excellent correlation (greater than 96.3%). Ultrasound and non-PET nuclear medicine studies demonstrated poorer correlation (80%). There is excellent correlation of radiology imaging reports and appropriate pathology reports when matched by organ system. Rapid, appropriate radiology-pathology report pairings provide an excellent opportunity to close feedback loop to the

  13. [Echographic approach to soft tissue musculoskeletal pathologies in urgency: traumatic calf lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A; Zaottini, A

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound is the first step imaging investigation for the evaluation of muscle injuries and pathologies, even better than MRI for repairing processes study and rehabilitation program's assessment. The key sign of a muscular tear is hematoma, whose formation is lasting between 2 and 48 hours from injury. US supports the analysis of its evolving patterns, early detecting complications such as cystic lesions or myositis ossificans too. It also provides dynamic details of muscle fibers, tendons and aponeurosis, that all of the other instrumental investigation can't offer.

  14. Assessment of musculoskeletal system in women with jumping mechanography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Dionyssiotis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Yannis Dionyssiotis1,2, Antonios Galanos1, Georgios Michas1, Georgios Trovas1, Georgios P Lyritis11Laboratory for Research of the Musculoskeletal System, University of Athens, KAT Hospital, Kifissia, Greece; 2Rehabilitation Department, Rhodes General Hospital, Rhodes, GreeceAbstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate and add reference data about the musculoskeletal system in women. The mechanography system of the Leonardo™ platform (Novotec, Germany was used to measure parameters of movement (velocity, force, power in 176 healthy Greek women aged 20–79 years, separated according to age decade in six groups: group 1 (n = 12, 20–29 years; group 2 (n = 14, 30–39 years; group 3 (n = 33, 40–49 years; group 4 (n = 59, 50–59 years including 21 postmenopausal; group 5 (n = 31, 60–69 years including 12 postmenopausal; and group 6 (n = 27, 70–79 years all postmenopausal. This system measures forces applied to the plate over time, calculates through acceleration the vertical velocity of center of gravity and using force and velocity it calculates power of vertical movements. All women performed a counter-movement jump (brief squat before the jump with freely moving arms. Weight was recorded on the platform before the jump and height was measured with a wall-mounted ruler. Body weight and body mass index were gradually increased; on the contrary height and all movement parameters except force (velocity, power were statistically decreased during aging and after menopause.Keywords: biomechanics, ground reaction force, power, women, menopause

  15. Mobilization of endothelial precursor cells: systemic vascular response to musculoskeletal trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, A J

    2012-02-03

    Postnatal vasculogenesis, the process by which vascular committed bone marrow stem cells or endothelial precursor cells (EPC) migrate, differentiate, and incorporate into the nacent endothelium contributing to physiological and pathological neovascularization, has stimulated much interest. Its contribution to tumor nonvascularization, wound healing, and revascularization associated with skeletal and cardiac muscles ischaemia is established. We evaluated the mobilization of EPCs in response to musculoskeletal trauma. Blood from patients (n = 15) following AO type 42a1 closed diaphyseal tibial fractures was analyzed for CD34 and AC133 cell surface marker expression. Immunomagnetically enriched CD34+ mononuclear cell (MNC(CD34+)) populations were cultured and examined for phenotypic and functional vascular endothelial differentiation. Circulating MNC(CD34+) levels increased sevenfold by day 3 postinjury. Circulating MNC(AC133+) increased 2.5-fold. Enriched MNC(CD34+) populations from day 3 samples in culture exhibited cell cluster formation with sprouting spindles. These cells bound UEA-1 and incorporated fluorescent DiI-Ac-LDL intracellularily. Our findings suggest a systemic provascular response is initiated in response to musculoskeletal trauma. Its therapeutic manipulation may have implications for the potential enhancement of fracture healing.

  16. Radiologic manifestations in the musculoskeletal system of miscellaneous endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, F S

    1991-01-01

    The manifestations of endocrine derangements in the musculoskeletal system in infancy and childhood are disturbances in growth and maturation and in adulthood are disturbances in maintenance and metabolism. Hypercortisolism during skeletal immaturity suppresses growth. In the adult, hypercortisolism leads to osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, and muscle wasting. Deficiency of growth hormone during skeletal development results in short stature. An excess of growth hormone in a skeletally immature individual results in gigantism, an excess in a skeletally mature individual results in acromegaly. Patients with gigantism have extreme height with normal body proportions. Musculoskeletal manifestations of acromegaly include soft-tissue thickening, vertebral body enlargement, characteristic hand and foot changes, and enthesal bony proliferation. Hyperthyroidism causes catabolism of protein and loss of connective tissue, which manifest as muscle wasting. Deficient levels of thyroid hormone cause defects in growth and development. Severe growth retardation from congenital hypothyroidism is rare because neonatal screening recognizes the disorder and leads to early treatment. The skeletal manifestation of hypergonadism in children is precocious growth and early skeletal maturation. Although the initial precocious growth spurt results in a tall child, early closure of the growth plates results in a short adult. Hypogonadism in the prepubertal child results in delayed adolescence and delayed skeletal maturation. Diabetes mellitus in childhood results in decreased growth, a phenomenon presumed to be secondary to nutritional abnormalities. Generalized osteoporosis and short stature are common. In the adult, generalized osteoporosis may accompany insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus if obesity is absent. Calcification of interdigital arteries of the foot is common in diabetics and uncommon in other conditions. Additional skeletal manifestations relate to complications of diabetes such as

  17. DIAGNOSTICS OF DISORDERS AND DISEASES OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM IN SCHOOLCHILDREN: APPROACHES, TERMINOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    N.B. Mirskaya; A.N. Kolomenskaya

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an information system for physicians working in general education institutes, which is named «Detection, correction and prophylaxis of musculoskeletal system disorders in students of general education institutes». This system was created for the purpose of improving diagnostics of initial stages of musculoskeletal system in schoolchildren, detecting of risk factors, and for the provision of timely prophylaxis during school education. The system was based on classificati...

  18. Diagnostic imaging of sport related musculoskeletal system injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Schivartche, Vivian

    1998-01-01

    The authors review the literature about musculoskeletal injuries related to sports, emphasizing the main findings with different imaging methods. They also present the specific characteristics of each method. (author)

  19. DIAGNOSTICS OF DISORDERS AND DISEASES OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM IN SCHOOLCHILDREN: APPROACHES, TERMINOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Mirskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an information system for physicians working in general education institutes, which is named «Detection, correction and prophylaxis of musculoskeletal system disorders in students of general education institutes». This system was created for the purpose of improving diagnostics of initial stages of musculoskeletal system in schoolchildren, detecting of risk factors, and for the provision of timely prophylaxis during school education. The system was based on classification of functional disorders and initial stages of diseases of musculoskeletal system in schoolchildren, developed by authors of present article, and methods of medical examination and organization of this work.Key words: schoolchildren, musculoskeletal system, diagnostics, classification, prophylaxis.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(3:10-13

  20. Atlas of anatomic cross sections. Musculoskeletal system; Atlas der Schnittbildanatomie. Muskuloskelettales System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Torsten B.; Reif, Emil [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Dillingen/Saar (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The book is focussed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the musculoskeletal system with high resolution and detailed precision of all relevant structures. The book is based on the practical experience of 25 years work with MRI. The contributions cover the following systems: whole body, temporomandibular joint, spinal column, upper extremities, and lower extremities.

  1. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF AUTOMATED REHABILITATION SYSTEM WITH BIOLOGICAL FEEDBACK FOR REHABILITATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill A. Kalyashin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the efficiency and safety of rehabilitation of musculoskeletal system, the model and the algorithm for patient interaction with automated rehabilitation system with biological feedback was developed, based on registration and management of the second functional parameter, which prevents risks of overwork while intensive exercises.

  2. Novel Musculoskeletal Loading System for Small Exercise Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Meghan; Newby, Nate; Trinh, Tinh; Hanson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight places astronauts at increased risk for muscle strain and bone fracture upon return to a 1-g or partial gravity environment. Functionally limiting decrements in musculoskeletal health are likely during Mars proving-ground and Earth-independent missions given extended transit times and the vehicle limitations for exercise devices (low-mass, small volume, little to no power). This is particularly alarming for exploration missions because astronauts will be required to perform novel and physically demanding tasks (i.e. vehicle egress, exploration, and habitat building activities) on unfamiliar terrain. Accordingly, NASA's exploration roadmap identifies the need for development of small exercise equipment that can prevent musculoskeletal atrophy and has the ability to assess musculoskeletal health at multiple time points during long-duration missions.

  3. Treatment of pathological gambling - integrative systemic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenović, Ivica; Lažetić, Goran; Lečić-Toševski, Dušica; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling was classified under impulse control disorders within the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) (WHO 1992), but the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-V), (APA 2013), has recognized pathological gambling as a first disorder within a new diagnostic category of behavioral addictions - Gambling disorder. Pathological gambling is a disorder in progression, and we hope that our experience in the treatment of pathological gambling in the Daily Hospital for Addictions at The Institute of Mental Health, through the original "Integrative - systemic model" would be of use to colleagues, dealing with this pathology. This model of treatment of pathological gambling is based on multi-systemic approach and it primarily represents an integration of family and cognitive-behavioral therapy, with traces of psychodynamic, existential and pharmacotherapy. The model is based on the book "Pathological gambling - with self-help manual" by Dr Mladenovic and Dr Lazetic, and has been designed in the form of a program that lasts 10 weeks in the intensive phase, and then continues for two years in the form of "extended treatment" ("After care"). The intensive phase is divided into three segments: educational, insight with initial changes and analysis of the achieved changes with the definition of plans and areas that need to be addressed in the extended treatment. "Extended treatment" lasts for two years in the form of group therapy, during which there is a second order change of the identified patient, but also of other family members. Pathological gambling has been treated in the form of systemic-family therapy for more than 10 years at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH), in Belgrade. For second year in a row the treatment is carried out by the modern "Integrative-systemic model". If abstinence from gambling witihin the period of one year after completion of the intensive phase of treatment is taken as the main criterion of

  4. Addressing Neuroplastic Changes in Distributed Areas of the Nervous System Associated With Chronic Musculoskeletal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, René; Higgins, Johanne; Bourbonnais, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Present interventions utilized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation are guided, in large part, by a biomedical model where peripheral structural injury is believed to be the sole driver of the disorder. There are, however, neurophysiological changes across different areas of the peripheral and central nervous systems, including peripheral receptors, dorsal horn of the spinal cord, brain stem, sensorimotor cortical areas, and the mesolimbic and prefrontal areas associated with chronic musculoskeletal disorders, including chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis, and tendon injuries. These neurophysiological changes appear not only to be a consequence of peripheral structural injury but also to play a part in the pathophysiology of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Neurophysiological changes are consistent with a biopsychosocial formulation reflecting the underlying mechanisms associated with sensory and motor findings, psychological traits, and perceptual changes associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions. These changes, therefore, have important implications in the clinical manifestation, pathophysiology, and treatment of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal rehabilitation professionals have at their disposal tools to address these neuroplastic changes, including top-down cognitive-based interventions (eg, education, cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness meditation, motor imagery) and bottom-up physical interventions (eg, motor learning, peripheral sensory stimulation, manual therapy) that induce neuroplastic changes across distributed areas of the nervous system and affect outcomes in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Furthermore, novel approaches such as the use of transcranial direct current stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be utilized to help renormalize neurological function. Comprehensive treatment addressing peripheral structural injury as well as neurophysiological changes occurring across

  5. The benefits of molecular pathology in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal disease. Part I of a two-part review: soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Delaney, David; O'Donnell, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue metabolic and neoplastic diseases are increasingly characterized by their molecular signatures. This has resulted from increased knowledge of the human genome, which has contributed to the unraveling of molecular pathways in health and disease. Exploitation of this information has allowed it to be used for practical diagnostic purposes. The aim of the first part of this two-part review is to provide an up-to-date review of molecular genetic investigations that are available and routinely used by specialist musculoskeletal histopathologists in the diagnosis of neoplastic disease. Herein we focus on the benefits of employing well characterized somatic mutations in soft tissue lesions that are commonly employed in diagnostic pathology today. The second part highlights the known somatic and germline mutations implicated in osteoclast-rich lesions of bone, and the genetic changes that disturb phosphate metabolism and result in a variety of musculoskeletal phenotypes. Finally, a brief practical guide of how to use and provide a molecular pathology service is given. (orig.)

  6. Musculoskeletal ultrasound in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.maurer@i-med.ac.at

    2014-09-15

    Ultrasonography is one of the first line imaging modalities for the evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders in children. This article provides an overview of the most important pathologic entities in which ultrasonography significantly contributes to the diagnostic workup.

  7. Value of computerized tomography in the diagnosis of bone and musculoskeletal system tumors of the pelvis and extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, R.; Langer, M.

    1983-01-01

    49 cases of tumors of the musculoskeletal system of the pelvis and the extremities have been investigated by computerized tomography. The CT was performed only after conventional radiologic methods. The results are discussed and compared with those described in the literature. The advantages and disadvantages of CT of musculoskeletal disorders are discussed. We consider the CT to be of value in disorders of the musculoskeletal system, specially, if operative- or radiotherapy is planned. (orig.) [de

  8. A Mechanical Musculo-Skeletal System for a Human-Shaped Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Koganezawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mechanical system with a similar configuration to a human musculo-skeletal system for use in anthropomorphic robots or as artificial limbs for disabled persons. First, a mechanical module called ANLES (Actuator with Non-Linear Elasticity System is introduced. There are two types of ANLES: the linear-type ANLES and rotary-type ANLES. They can be used as a voluntary muscle in a wide-range of musculo-skeletal structures in which at least double actuators work in an antagonistic setup via some elastic elements. Next, an application of the two types of ANLES to a two-degree-of-freedom (DOF manipulator that has a similar configuration to the human elbow joint is shown. The experimental results of the joint stiffness and joint angle control elucidate that the developed mechanism effectively regulates joint stiffness in the same way as a musculo-skeletal system.

  9. Paediatric obesity, physical activity and the musculoskeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, S P; Anner, J; Hills, A P

    2009-09-01

    The current epidemic of paediatric obesity is consistent with a myriad of health-related comorbid conditions. Despite the higher prevalence of orthopaedic conditions in overweight children, a paucity of published research has considered the influence of these conditions on the ability to undertake physical activity. As physical activity participation is directly related to improvements in physical fitness, skeletal health and metabolic conditions, higher levels of physical activity are encouraged, and exercise is commonly prescribed in the treatment and management of childhood obesity. However, research has not correlated orthopaedic conditions, including the increased joint pain and discomfort that is commonly reported by overweight children, with decreases in physical activity. Research has confirmed that overweight children typically display a slower, more tentative walking pattern with increased forces to the hip, knee and ankle during 'normal' gait. This research, combined with anthropometric data indicating a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal malalignment in overweight children, suggests that such individuals are poorly equipped to undertake certain forms of physical activity. Concomitant increases in obesity and decreases in physical activity level strongly support the need to better understand the musculoskeletal factors associated with the performance of motor tasks by overweight and obese children.

  10. Imaging of systemic lupus erythematosus. Part II: Gastrointestinal, renal, and musculoskeletal manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Y.P.; Naidoo, P.; Ngian, G.-S.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease that has a relapsing and remitting course. It has a wide range of presentations with various organ manifestations. In this review, we have compiled the radiological findings of gastrointestinal, renal, and musculoskeletal manifestations of SLE.

  11. Differential diagnostics of the musculoskeletal system in sports medicine; Differenzialdiagnostische Untersuchung in der Sportmedizin des Bewegungsapparats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehrer, S. [Donau-Universitaet Krems, Department fuer Klinische Medizin und Biotechnologie, Zentrum fuer Regenerative Medizin, Krems (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    The positive effects of sports on the cardiovascular and musculoskeleal systems are widely accepted. Nevertheless, sports also can cause injury and overuse leading to sport-specific problems, which are often a challenge in diagnosing and treatment. The history of the sport-related injury is crucial for further differential diagnosis. Careful inspection, palpation and functional testing can reveal the possible pathology and lead to an effective strategy in the diagnostic assessment using radiographic tools such as sonography, X-ray and MR imaging (MRI). In muscle and tendon injuries sonography can provide ready to use information concerning muscle tears and tendon ruptures or degenerative lesions. Plain X-rays give a good overview on joint conditions regarding the bone and sometimes have to be completed by focused enlargement of the critical structure, especially in stress fractures and small bone lesions. MRT is the gold standard in the evaluation of interarticular and extra-articular sport-related pathologies, however, an exact clinical diagnosis allows a more effective investigation protocol. Profound knowledge of possible sport-specific injury and overuse patterns is necessary to detect lesions of the musculoskeletal system in active athletes and to use the fitting radiographic strategy for confirmation. The exact diagnosis is the prerequisite for initiating the appropriate treatment and a fast sports medical rehabilitation process. (orig.) [German] Die positive Auswirkung von Sport auf das Herz-Kreislauf-System und den Bewegungsapparat ist weitgehend gesichert. Trotzdem kann es bei der Sportausuebung zu sportspezifischen Problemen kommen, die den Sportarzt bei der Abklaerung dieser Schmerzsyndrome oft vor grosse Herausforderungen stellen. Die Ursache von Sportschaeden und Verletzungen sind einerseits akute Traumata, andererseits aber auch Ueberlastungen oder Kombinationen von beiden. Die Erhebung einer Anamnese unter Beruecksichtigung sportspezifischer Aspekte

  12. INFLUENCE OF WORKING CONDITIONS ON THE OCCURRENCE AND PREVALENCE OF DISEASES MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM OF THE WORKERS OF LLC "TOLYATTI TRANSFORMER"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Semina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of working conditions upon the occurrence and (or prevalence of the musculoskeletal system diseases according to the results of the periodical medical examinations of Co. ltd. “TOGLIATTY TRANSFORMATOR” workers is analyzed. The direct influence of work conditions upon the occurrence and (or prevalence of the musculoskeletal system diseases in view of the prevalence of the foregoing diseases among different professions and working processes factors irrespective of age, sex and seniority is shown. Exciting causes of musculoskeletal system diseases are not only overwork due to hard manual labor, but also prolonged stay in a forced position.

  13. Virtual interactive musculoskeletal system (VIMS in orthopaedic research, education and clinical patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Hiroaki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability to combine physiology and engineering analyses with computer sciences has opened the door to the possibility of creating the "Virtual Human" reality. This paper presents a broad foundation for a full-featured biomechanical simulator for the human musculoskeletal system physiology. This simulation technology unites the expertise in biomechanical analysis and graphic modeling to investigate joint and connective tissue mechanics at the structural level and to visualize the results in both static and animated forms together with the model. Adaptable anatomical models including prosthetic implants and fracture fixation devices and a robust computational infrastructure for static, kinematic, kinetic, and stress analyses under varying boundary and loading conditions are incorporated on a common platform, the VIMS (Virtual Interactive Musculoskeletal System. Within this software system, a manageable database containing long bone dimensions, connective tissue material properties and a library of skeletal joint system functional activities and loading conditions are also available and they can easily be modified, updated and expanded. Application software is also available to allow end-users to perform biomechanical analyses interactively. Examples using these models and the computational algorithms in a virtual laboratory environment are used to demonstrate the utility of these unique database and simulation technology. This integrated system, model library and database will impact on orthopaedic education, basic research, device development and application, and clinical patient care related to musculoskeletal joint system reconstruction, trauma management, and rehabilitation.

  14. Virtual Interactive Musculoskeletal System (VIMS) in orthopaedic research, education and clinical patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Edmund Y S; Armiger, Robert S; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Lim, Jonathan; Haraguchi, Naoki

    2007-03-08

    The ability to combine physiology and engineering analyses with computer sciences has opened the door to the possibility of creating the "Virtual Human" reality. This paper presents a broad foundation for a full-featured biomechanical simulator for the human musculoskeletal system physiology. This simulation technology unites the expertise in biomechanical analysis and graphic modeling to investigate joint and connective tissue mechanics at the structural level and to visualize the results in both static and animated forms together with the model. Adaptable anatomical models including prosthetic implants and fracture fixation devices and a robust computational infrastructure for static, kinematic, kinetic, and stress analyses under varying boundary and loading conditions are incorporated on a common platform, the VIMS (Virtual Interactive Musculoskeletal System). Within this software system, a manageable database containing long bone dimensions, connective tissue material properties and a library of skeletal joint system functional activities and loading conditions are also available and they can easily be modified, updated and expanded. Application software is also available to allow end-users to perform biomechanical analyses interactively. Examples using these models and the computational algorithms in a virtual laboratory environment are used to demonstrate the utility of these unique database and simulation technology. This integrated system, model library and database will impact on orthopaedic education, basic research, device development and application, and clinical patient care related to musculoskeletal joint system reconstruction, trauma management, and rehabilitation.

  15. Seeing through Musculoskeletal Tissues: Improving In Situ Imaging of Bone and the Lacunar Canalicular System through Optical Clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Ian M.; Miola, Joseph P.; David, Michael A.; Smith, Melanie K.; Price, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In situ, cells of the musculoskeletal system reside within complex and often interconnected 3-D environments. Key to better understanding how 3-D tissue and cellular environments regulate musculoskeletal physiology, homeostasis, and health is the use of robust methodologies for directly visualizing cell-cell and cell-matrix architecture in situ. However, the use of standard optical imaging techniques is often of limited utility in deep imaging of intact musculoskeletal tissues due to the highly scattering nature of biological tissues. Drawing inspiration from recent developments in the deep-tissue imaging field, we describe the application of immersion based optical clearing techniques, which utilize the principle of refractive index (RI) matching between the clearing/mounting media and tissue under observation, to improve the deep, in situ imaging of musculoskeletal tissues. To date, few optical clearing techniques have been applied specifically to musculoskeletal tissues, and a systematic comparison of the clearing ability of optical clearing agents in musculoskeletal tissues has yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study we tested the ability of eight different aqueous and non-aqueous clearing agents, with RIs ranging from 1.45 to 1.56, to optically clear murine knee joints and cortical bone. We demonstrated and quantified the ability of these optical clearing agents to clear musculoskeletal tissues and improve both macro- and micro-scale imaging of musculoskeletal tissue across several imaging modalities (stereomicroscopy, spectroscopy, and one-, and two-photon confocal microscopy) and investigational techniques (dynamic bone labeling and en bloc tissue staining). Based upon these findings we believe that optical clearing, in combination with advanced imaging techniques, has the potential to complement classical musculoskeletal analysis techniques; opening the door for improved in situ investigation and quantification of musculoskeletal tissues. PMID:26930293

  16. Seeing through Musculoskeletal Tissues: Improving In Situ Imaging of Bone and the Lacunar Canalicular System through Optical Clearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Berke

    Full Text Available In situ, cells of the musculoskeletal system reside within complex and often interconnected 3-D environments. Key to better understanding how 3-D tissue and cellular environments regulate musculoskeletal physiology, homeostasis, and health is the use of robust methodologies for directly visualizing cell-cell and cell-matrix architecture in situ. However, the use of standard optical imaging techniques is often of limited utility in deep imaging of intact musculoskeletal tissues due to the highly scattering nature of biological tissues. Drawing inspiration from recent developments in the deep-tissue imaging field, we describe the application of immersion based optical clearing techniques, which utilize the principle of refractive index (RI matching between the clearing/mounting media and tissue under observation, to improve the deep, in situ imaging of musculoskeletal tissues. To date, few optical clearing techniques have been applied specifically to musculoskeletal tissues, and a systematic comparison of the clearing ability of optical clearing agents in musculoskeletal tissues has yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study we tested the ability of eight different aqueous and non-aqueous clearing agents, with RIs ranging from 1.45 to 1.56, to optically clear murine knee joints and cortical bone. We demonstrated and quantified the ability of these optical clearing agents to clear musculoskeletal tissues and improve both macro- and micro-scale imaging of musculoskeletal tissue across several imaging modalities (stereomicroscopy, spectroscopy, and one-, and two-photon confocal microscopy and investigational techniques (dynamic bone labeling and en bloc tissue staining. Based upon these findings we believe that optical clearing, in combination with advanced imaging techniques, has the potential to complement classical musculoskeletal analysis techniques; opening the door for improved in situ investigation and quantification of musculoskeletal

  17. Musculoskeletal sporotrichosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, A.C.; Destouet, J.M.; Murphy, W.A.

    1984-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic, indolent, fungal infection that rarely involves the musculoskeletal system. The etiologic agent, Sporothrix schenckii, is ubiquitous in nature and has been isolated from soil, timber, decaying vegetation, and a variety of foliage. The organism gains entrance to the body through trauma to the skin or, in rare instances, by inhalation. The vast majority of infections in humans is characterized by nodular or ulcerated lesions of the cutaneous tissues and adjacent lymphatics. Osteoarticular involvement may occur either by contiguous spread from a cutaneous focus, through direct inoculation of tissue by the organism, or by hematogenous dissemination. The rarity of musculoskeletal sporotrichosis often causes a delay in diagnosis which leads to inappropriate therapy and permanent deformity in some patients. Three cases which show a spectrum of bone and joint involvement are presented.

  18. Musculoskeletal sporotrichosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.C.; Destouet, J.M.; Murphy, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic, indolent, fungal infection that rarely involves the musculoskeletal system. The etiologic agent, Sporothrix schenckii, is ubiquitous in nature and has been isolated from soil, timber, decaying vegetation, and a variety of foliage. The organism gains entrance to the body through trauma to the skin or, in rare instances, by inhalation. The vast majority of infections in humans is characterized by nodular or ulcerated lesions of the cutaneous tissues and adjacent lymphatics. Osteoarticular involvement may occur either by contiguous spread from a cutaneous focus, through direct inoculation of tissue by the organism, or by hematogenous dissemination. The rarity of musculoskeletal sporotrichosis often causes a delay in diagnosis which leads to inappropriate therapy and permanent deformity in some patients. Three cases which show a spectrum of bone and joint involvement are presented. (orig.)

  19. Analytical review of modern herbal medicines used in musculoskeletal system diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Анна Ігорівна Крюкова; Інна Миколаївна Владимирова

    2015-01-01

    Effective and safe treatment of the musculoskeletal system diseases is one of the main branches of medicine in general and rheumatology in particular. The relevance of this problem is caused mainly by the high incidence in the population, and temporary and permanent work disability status development in patients. The duration of rheumatologic diseases necessitates the optimal regimen selection, providing effective treatment and helping to prevent potential side effects associated with long-te...

  20. The Biphasic Effect of Vitamin D on the Musculoskeletal and Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Zittermann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This narrative review summarizes beneficial and harmful vitamin D effects on the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular system. Special attention is paid to the dose-response relationship of vitamin D with clinical outcomes. In infants and adults, the risk of musculoskeletal diseases is highest at circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD concentrations below 25 nmol/L and is low if 40–60 nmol/L are achieved. However, evidence is also accumulating that in elderly people the risk of falls and fractures increases again at circulating 25OHD levels > 100 nmol/L. Cohort studies report a progressive increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD events at 25OHD levels  100 nmol/L, but the threshold may be influenced by the level of physical activity. In conclusion, dose-response relationships indicate deleterious effects on the musculoskeletal system and probably on the cardiovascular system at circulating 25OHD levels 100 nmol/L. Future studies should focus on populations with 25OHD levels  100 nmol/L.

  1. Knowledge-based personalized search engine for the Web-based Human Musculoskeletal System Resources (HMSR) in biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Tien Tuan; Hoang, Tuan Nha; Ta, Xuan Hien; Tho, Marie Christine Ho Ba

    2013-02-01

    Human musculoskeletal system resources of the human body are valuable for the learning and medical purposes. Internet-based information from conventional search engines such as Google or Yahoo cannot response to the need of useful, accurate, reliable and good-quality human musculoskeletal resources related to medical processes, pathological knowledge and practical expertise. In this present work, an advanced knowledge-based personalized search engine was developed. Our search engine was based on a client-server multi-layer multi-agent architecture and the principle of semantic web services to acquire dynamically accurate and reliable HMSR information by a semantic processing and visualization approach. A security-enhanced mechanism was applied to protect the medical information. A multi-agent crawler was implemented to develop a content-based database of HMSR information. A new semantic-based PageRank score with related mathematical formulas were also defined and implemented. As the results, semantic web service descriptions were presented in OWL, WSDL and OWL-S formats. Operational scenarios with related web-based interfaces for personal computers and mobile devices were presented and analyzed. Functional comparison between our knowledge-based search engine, a conventional search engine and a semantic search engine showed the originality and the robustness of our knowledge-based personalized search engine. In fact, our knowledge-based personalized search engine allows different users such as orthopedic patient and experts or healthcare system managers or medical students to access remotely into useful, accurate, reliable and good-quality HMSR information for their learning and medical purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of Ultrasound Elastography in the Assessment of the Musculoskeletal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paluch, Łukasz; Nawrocka-Laskus, Ewa; Wieczorek, Janusz; Mruk, Bartosz; Frel, Małgorzata; Walecki, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This article presents possible applications of ultrasound elastography in musculoskeletal imaging based on the available literature, as well as the possibility of extending indications for the use of elastography in the future. Ultrasound elastography (EUS) is a new method that shows structural changes in tissues following application of physical stress. Elastography techniques have been widely used to assess muscles and tendons in vitro since the early parts of the twentieth century. Only recently with the advent of new technology and creation of highly specialized ultrasound devices, has elastography gained widespread use in numerous applications. The authors performed a search of the Medline/PubMed databases for original research and reviewed publications on the application of ultrasound elastography for musculoskeletal imaging. All publications demonstrate possible uses of ultrasound elastography in examinations of the musculoskeletal system. The most widely studied areas include the muscles, tendons and rheumatic diseases. There are also reports on the employment in vessel imaging. The main limitation of elastography as a technique is above all the variability of applied pressure during imaging, which is operator-dependent. It would therefore be reasonable to provide clear guidelines on the technique applied, as well as clear indications for performing the test. It is important to develop methods for creating artifact-free, closed-loop, compression-decompression cycles. The main advantages include cost-effectiveness, short duration of the study, non-invasive nature of the procedure, as well as a potentially broader clinical availability. There are no clear guidelines with regard to indications as well as examination techniques. Ultrasound elastography is a new and still poorly researched method. We conclude, however, that it can be widely used in the examinations of musculoskeletal system. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct large, multi-center studies to

  3. Design and validation of a general purpose robotic testing system for musculoskeletal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Lawrence D; Colbrunn, Robb W; Lee, Dong-Gil; van den Bogert, Antonie J; Davis, Brian L

    2010-02-01

    Orthopaedic research on in vitro forces applied to bones, tendons, and ligaments during joint loading has been difficult to perform because of limitations with existing robotic simulators in applying full-physiological loading to the joint under investigation in real time. The objectives of the current work are as follows: (1) describe the design of a musculoskeletal simulator developed to support in vitro testing of cadaveric joint systems, (2) provide component and system-level validation results, and (3) demonstrate the simulator's usefulness for specific applications of the foot-ankle complex and knee. The musculoskeletal simulator allows researchers to simulate a variety of loading conditions on cadaver joints via motorized actuators that simulate muscle forces while simultaneously contacting the joint with an external load applied by a specialized robot. Multiple foot and knee studies have been completed at the Cleveland Clinic to demonstrate the simulator's capabilities. Using a variety of general-use components, experiments can be designed to test other musculoskeletal joints as well (e.g., hip, shoulder, facet joints of the spine). The accuracy of the tendon actuators to generate a target force profile during simulated walking was found to be highly variable and dependent on stance position. Repeatability (the ability of the system to generate the same tendon forces when the same experimental conditions are repeated) results showed that repeat forces were within the measurement accuracy of the system. It was determined that synchronization system accuracy was 6.7+/-2.0 ms and was based on timing measurements from the robot and tendon actuators. The positioning error of the robot ranged from 10 microm to 359 microm, depending on measurement condition (e.g., loaded or unloaded, quasistatic or dynamic motion, centralized movements or extremes of travel, maximum value, or root-mean-square, and x-, y- or z-axis motion). Algorithms and methods for controlling

  4. Analytical review of modern herbal medicines used in musculoskeletal system diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Ігорівна Крюкова

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective and safe treatment of the musculoskeletal system diseases is one of the main branches of medicine in general and rheumatology in particular. The relevance of this problem is caused mainly by the high incidence in the population, and temporary and permanent work disability status development in patients. The duration of rheumatologic diseases necessitates the optimal regimen selection, providing effective treatment and helping to prevent potential side effects associated with long-term use of remedies.Aim of research. The aim of our research was to perform an analytical review of modern herbal products registered in Ukraine and used for musculoskeletal system treatment. The drug analysis was made according to next parameters: producing country, manufacturer, dosage form, and the origin of remedies (natural or synthetic.Methods. Conventional analytical studies of electronic and paper sources were used for realization of the given problem.Results. As a result of the analytical review of modern herbal remedies registered in Ukraine and used for musculoskeletal system treatment, it was found that 20 trade names of drugs, more than 90% of which are homeopathic, are displayed on the pharmaceutical market. Concerning dosage forms, pills (38,5 %, injection solutions and oral drops (23,1 % and 11,5 %, respectively gain the biggest market share.Conclusion. It was found that imported drugs are widely available (80 % on the analyzed market segment, while local remedies gain rather minor market share (about 20 %.Among medicines of this group presented on Ukrainian market, imported homeopathic remedies gain the biggest share. Phytotheurapeutic drugs gain minor market share and have limited composition of natural active ingredients represented by the extracts of Harpagophytum procumbens, Apium graveolens, Salix alba, and Zingiber officinale

  5. Whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system: the value of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gerwin P.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea [University Hospitals Munich/Grosshadern, LMU, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    In clinical practice various modalities are used for whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system, including radiography, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Multislice CT is far more sensitive than radiographs in the assessment of trabecular and cortical bone destruction and allows for evaluation of fracture risk. The introduction of combined PET-CT scanners has markedly increased diagnostic accuracy for the detection of skeletal metastases compared with PET alone. The unique soft-tissue contrast of MRI enables for precise assessment of bone marrow infiltration and adjacent soft tissue structures so that alterations within the bone marrow may be detected before osseous destruction becomes apparent in CT or metabolic changes occur on bone scintigraphy or PET scan. Improvements in hard- and software, including parallel image acquisition acceleration, have made high resolution whole-body MRI clinically feasible. Whole-body MRI has successfully been applied for bone marrow screening of metastasis and systemic primary bone malignancies, like multiple myeloma. Furthermore, it has recently been proposed for the assessment of systemic bone diseases predisposing for malignancy (e.g., multiple cartilaginous exostoses) and muscle disease (e.g., muscle dystrophy). The following article gives an overview on state-of-the-art whole-body imaging of the musculoskeletal system and highlights present and potential future applications, especially in the field of whole-body MRI. (orig.)

  6. Standards to support information systems integration in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Christel; García Rojo, Marcial; Bourquard, Karima; Henin, Dominique; Schrader, Thomas; Della Mea, Vincenzo; Gilbertson, John; Beckwith, Bruce A

    2009-11-01

    Integrating anatomic pathology information- text and images-into electronic health care records is a key challenge for enhancing clinical information exchange between anatomic pathologists and clinicians. The aim of the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) international initiative is precisely to ensure interoperability of clinical information systems by using existing widespread industry standards such as Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (HL7). To define standard-based informatics transactions to integrate anatomic pathology information to the Healthcare Enterprise. We used the methodology of the IHE initiative. Working groups from IHE, HL7, and DICOM, with special interest in anatomic pathology, defined consensual technical solutions to provide end-users with improved access to consistent information across multiple information systems. The IHE anatomic pathology technical framework describes a first integration profile, "Anatomic Pathology Workflow," dedicated to the diagnostic process including basic image acquisition and reporting solutions. This integration profile relies on 10 transactions based on HL7 or DICOM standards. A common specimen model was defined to consistently identify and describe specimens in both HL7 and DICOM transactions. The IHE anatomic pathology working group has defined standard-based informatics transactions to support the basic diagnostic workflow in anatomic pathology laboratories. In further stages, the technical framework will be completed to manage whole-slide images and semantically rich structured reports in the diagnostic workflow and to integrate systems used for patient care and those used for research activities (such as tissue bank databases or tissue microarrayers).

  7. Determination of pain in musculoskeletal system reported by office workers and the pain risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sevim; Celik, Kadir; Dirimese, Elif; Taşdemir, Nurten; Arik, Tarik; Büyükkara, İbrahim

    2018-01-01

    This research was conducted as a cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at determining the existence of pain in the musculoskeletal system among office workers and the reasons for it. The sample consisted of 528 office workers. Collection of data was achieved using a questionnaire prepared by the researchers in line with information from the literature. The male and female office workers most frequently complained of pain in the lower back (55.1%), neck (52.5%) and back (53%). It was seen that out of the variables relating to the work environment, those which had the most significant effect on muscular-skeletal system pain were sitting at the desk for a long time without a break, working sitting on a chair that supported only the lumbar area and the arms, having the computer mouse at a distance from the keyboard, having the head inclined at 45° when working, working holding both forearms above the level of the desk, not taking exercise in daily life, and having a moderate or extremely stressful workplace (p office workers not to suffer musculoskeletal system pain, it is very important that the working environment should be ergonomically arranged and that various measures should be taken to ensure healthy life behavior. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(1):91-111. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. [Prevalence and medical and social importance of disorders and diseases of the musculoskeletal systems in children and adolescents (review of literature)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirskaia, N B; Kolomenskaia, A N; Siniakina, A D

    2015-01-01

    The urgency of the problem of the excess incidence of disorders and diseases of the musculoskeletal system (MSS) in contemporary children and adolescents is determined by its high medical and social significance. However, the poor quality of diagnosis of MSS disorders in children at the polyclinics level, especially at the initial stages, when timely commenced recreational and corrective-measures are most effective, do not allow to carry out remedial work timely, and this in turn is the cause of the high prevalence of violations of the MSS later With the aim of the improvement of the quality of diagnosis of early forms of musculoskeletal pathology in children and adolescents, as well as for the performance of the prevention during learning them in school there is developed an information system for health care workers "Identification, correction and prevention of disorders of the locomotor apparatus in students of educational institutions". The core of the system is formed by developed by authors a classification of functional disorders and initial forms of diseases of the MSS in students, as well as the organization of this work.

  9. Prevention of musculoskeletal disorders within management systems: A scoping review of practices, approaches, and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Amin; Neumann, W Patrick; Imbeau, Daniel; Bigelow, Philip; Pagell, Mark; Wells, Richard

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and summarize the current research evidence on approaches to preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) within Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS). Databases in business, engineering, and health and safety were searched and 718 potentially relevant publications were identified and examined for their relevance. Twenty-one papers met the selection criteria and were subjected to thematic analysis. There was very little literature describing the integration of MSD risk assessment and prevention into management systems. This lack of information may isolate MSD prevention, leading to difficulties in preventing these disorders at an organizational level. The findings of this review argue for further research to integrate MSD prevention into management systems and to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. [Musculoskeletal biopsies in an open 0.5-T-MR system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretzsch, M; Scholz, R; Moche, M; Thomas, M; Tannapfel, A; von Salis-Soglio, G

    2005-01-01

    MR-guided interventions have been successful in different medical disciplines. The aim of this paper is to report our results with the application of MR-guided biopsies of musculoskeletal lesions using an open 0.5-T-MR scanner and further to discuss these results on the basis of the available literature. Between 1998 and 2003 30 patients (average age 44.1 years) underwent a total of 31 biopsies. The interventions were performed in an open 0.5-T MRI system using an active optical localization system as well as a navigation system. For the motion tracking we used T (1)-weighted real-time sequences with 0.25 pictures per second. For the sampling MR-compatible instruments were used that were specially developed for this purpose. The data of this retrospective investigation are based on the evaluation of the patient documents and the radiological findings. On the basis of the histological findings the technical success rate and the histological overall accuracy were determined. In 81 % of the biopsies the histological diagnosis was correct. In cases of suspected inflammation the histological accuracy was smaller (70 %). No differences were observed between skeletal and soft-tissue lesions. The technical success rate amounted to 77.5 %. No procedural or anesthesiological complications occurred. The mean operating time amounted to 65 min including the time for motion tracking. In cases of suspected lesions of the musculoskeletal system, the MR-guided biopsy represents a promising and safe procedure to get a histological diagnosis. In cases of sufficient size of the lesion sampling of a representative probe is possible. On account of the outstanding performance in soft-part contrasting, the sensitive structures surrounding the lesion can be saved. Substantial disadvantages of the procedure are the high costs for personal and material and the long operating time.

  11. CT of the musculoskeletal system: What is left is the days of MRI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, A.T.H.; Marshall, T.J.; Bearcroft, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a central role in the modern imaging of musculoskeletal disorders, due to its ability to produce multiplanar images and characterise soft tissues accurately. However, computed tomography (CT) still has an important role to play, not merely as an alternative to MRI, but as being the preferred imaging investigation in some situations. This article briefly reviews the history of CT technology, the technical factors involved and a number of current applications, as well as looking at future areas where CT may be employed. The advent of ever-increasing numbers of rows of detectors has opened up more possible uses for CT technology. However, diagnostic images may be obtained from CT systems with four rows of detectors or more, and their ability to produce near isotropic voxels and therefore multiplanar reformats. (orig.)

  12. Vocabulary of signs and symptoms of the Musculoskeletal System, Vol. II: Medical imaging signs. Terminology bulletin No. 212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussier, A; Beauregard, G; Dionne, S

    1992-01-01

    This vocabulary is the second of four on the musculoskeletal system. It is compiled from recommended works and deals mainly with radiological aspects. It also includes fractures and diseases, imaging techniques, roentgenographic positions, angles, lines, and indexes. About 500 concepts are listed in English and French with each entry including the main entry term, synonym(s), textual support, and notes.

  13. Effect of push handle height on net moments and forces on the musculoskeletal system during standardized wheelchair pushing tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Woude, L H; Van Koningsbruggen, C M; Kroes, A L; Kingma, I

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the external forces and biomechanical loading on the musculoskeletal system during wheelchair pushing, in relation to different push handle heights. In addition, recommendations for wheelchair pushing in accordance with push handle height are made. Eight

  14. Assessment of functional capacity of the musculoskeletal system in the context of work, daily living, and sport: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Haije; Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to survey methods to assess the functional capacity of the musculoskeletal system within the context of work, daily activities, and sport. The following key words and synonyms were used: functional physical assessment, healthy/disabled subjects, and instruments.

  15. Percutaneous CT-guided interventional procedures in musculoskeletal system (our experience)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, Loukas E-mail: loutharad@yahoo.com; Mylona, Sophia; Kalioras, Vasilios; Pomoni, Maria; Batakis, Nikolaos

    2004-06-01

    Percutaneous interventional procedures include a broad spectrum of minimal invasive techniques, which are a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool. In this study we present our experience in CT-guided percutaneous musculoskeletal biopsies, drainages of musculoskeletal abscesses, facet and sacroiliac joint injection and radiofrequency thermal ablation of painful metastases or osteoid osteomas.

  16. Effect of an emergency department-based electronic system for musculoskeletal consultation on facilitating care for common injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Simon C; Pantle, Hardin A; Bessman, Edward S; Lifchez, Scott D

    2015-05-01

    Access to musculoskeletal consultation in the emergency department (ED) is a nationwide problem. In addition, consultation from a subspecialist may be delayed or may not be available, which can slow down the ED flow and reduce patient satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to review the 1-year results of a change in the authors' institutional practice to reduce subspecialty consultation for select musculoskeletal problems while still ensuring adequate patient follow-up in orthopedic or plastic surgery clinics for patients not seen by these services in the ED. The authors hypothesized that select injuries could be safely managed in the ED by using an electronic system to ensure appropriate follow-up care. Using Kaizen methodology, a multidisciplinary group (including ED staff, orthopedics, plastic surgery, pediatrics, nursing, radiology, therapy, and administration) met to improve care for select musculoskeletal injuries. A system was agreed on in which ED providers managed select musculoskeletal injuries without subspecialist consultation. Follow-up was organized using an electronic system, which facilitated communication between the ED staff and the secretarial staff of the subspecialist departments. Over a 1-year period, 150 patients were treated using this system. Charts and radiographs were reviewed for missed injuries. Radiographic review revealed 2 missed injuries. One patient had additional back pain and a lumbar spine fracture was found during the subspecialist follow-up visit; it was treated nonoperatively. Another patient appeared to have scapholunate widening on the injury radiograph that was not appreciated in the ED. Of the 150 patients, 51 were seen in follow-up by a subspecialist at the authors' institution. An electronic system to organize follow-up with a subspecialist allowed the ED providers to deliver safe and effective care for simple musculoskeletal injuries. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Distinct proteome pathology of circulating microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Tanassi, Julia Tanas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is poorly understood but has been linked to defective clearance of subcellular particulate material from the circulation. This study investigates the origin, formation, and specificity of circulating microparticles (MPs) in patien...... generation of MPs may partake in the pathology of SLE and that new diagnostic, monitoring, and treatment strategies targeting these processes may be advantageous....

  18. Chapter 15. Plant pathology and managing wildland plant disease systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific, reliable knowledge on plant diseases is essential in wildland shrub resource management. However, plant disease is one of the most neglected areas of wildland resources experimental research. This section is a discussion of plant pathology and how to use it in managing plant disease systems.

  19. System for pathology categorization and retrieval in chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Uri; Greenspan, Hayit; Konen, Eli; Sharon, Michal; Goldberger, Jacob

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we present an overview of a system we have been developing for the past several years for efficient image categorization and retrieval in large radiograph archives. The methodology is based on local patch representation of the image content, using a bag of visual words approach and similarity-based categorization with a kernel based SVM classifier. We show an application to pathology-level categorization of chest x-ray data, the most popular examination in radiology. Our study deals with pathology detection and identification of individual pathologies including right and left pleural effusion, enlarged heart and cases of enlarged mediastinum. The input from a radiologist provided a global label for the entire image (healthy/pathology), and the categorization was conducted on the entire image, with no need for segmentation algorithms or any geometrical rules. An automatic diagnostic-level categorization, even on such an elementary level as healthy vs pathological, provides a useful tool for radiologists on this popular and important examination. This is a first step towards similarity-based categorization, which has a major clinical implications for computer-assisted diagnostics.

  20. The pathology milestones and the next accreditation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naritoku, Wesley Y; Alexander, C Bruce; Bennett, Betsy D; Black-Schaffer, W Stephen; Brissette, Mark D; Grimes, Margaret M; Hoffman, Robert D; Hunt, Jennifer L; Iezzoni, Julia C; Johnson, Rebecca; Kozel, Jessica; Mendoza, Ricardo M; Post, Miriam D; Powell, Suzanne Z; Procop, Gary W; Steinberg, Jacob J; Thorsen, Linda M; Nestler, Steven P

    2014-03-01

    In the late 1990s, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education developed the Outcomes Project and the 6 general competencies with the intent to improve the outcome of graduate medical education in the United States. The competencies were used as the basis for developing learning goals and objectives and tools to evaluate residents' performance. By the mid-2000s the stakeholders in resident education and the general public felt that the Outcomes Project had fallen short of expectations. To develop a new evaluation method to track trainee progress throughout residency using benchmarks called milestones. A change in leadership at the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education brought a new vision for the accreditation of training programs and a radically different approach to the evaluation of residents. The Pathology Milestones Working Group reviewed examples of developing milestones in other specialties, the literature, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education program requirements for pathology to develop pathology milestones. The pathology milestones are a set of objective descriptors for measuring progress in the development of competency in patient care, procedural skill sets, medical knowledge, practice-based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, and systems-based practice. The milestones provide a national standard for evaluation that will be used for the assessment of all residents in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited pathology training programs.

  1. Interaction of a physician and a specialist on physical rehabilitation at violations of activity of the musculoskeletal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Hertsyk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the improvement of cooperation and the interaction of an attending physician and a specialist on physical rehabilitation at violations of activity of musculoskeletal system. Material & Methods: physical rehabilitation is considered as a difficult system with the hierarchically-ordered structure. The analysis of references and the system analysis are applied. Results: the modern approaches to coordination of centers of decision-making and the management in hierarchical systems are analyzed. The ways of the interlevel coordination in organizational systems are revealed. The need of coordination of activity of an attending physician and a specialist on physical rehabilitation is proved. The content and the direction of coordination signals for the system of physical rehabilitation at violations of activity of the musculoskeletal system are determined. Conclusions: the coordination of activity of an attending physician and a specialist on physical rehabilitation at violations of activity of the musculoskeletal system has to occur in certain ways: on purposes, on restrictions, in time, on input and output parameters.

  2. Application of multimedia-based exercise programmes focused on improvement of the schoolgirls' musculoskeletal system during breaks between classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendíková, Elena

    2017-11-01

    This pilot study presents theoretical basis related to the purpose and methodology of the presented research the aim of which is to point to the importance of multimedia-based physical activity (exercise programme) done during breaks between classes. The purpose of this programme is to prevent occurrence of functional disorders of the musculoskeletal system among schoolchildren. The experimental and control groups were composed of the female students of the third grade at one secondary school in the town of L. Mikuláš. We obtained the data by means of standardized methods used for assessment of the musculoskeletal system in medical and physical education practice. The obtained qualitative and quantitative data were processed by means of the chi-squared test and the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results significantly (pmuscular system.

  3. Melanocortin-4 receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and integumentary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Kathleen G; Jenny Wu, C-S; Dumont, Laurence M; Wild, J Martin

    2003-12-01

    We determined melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) mRNA ontogeny in the rat using in situ hybridization and a rat MC4-R riboprobe and showed numerous peripheral sites of expression for MC4-R. The developing heart showed MC4-R mRNA expression as early as embryonic day (E) 14. In the lungs of E16-E20 fetuses, the cells surrounding developing bronchi expressed relatively strong in situ signal. Muscles associated with the respiratory system such as diaphragm and intercostal muscle expressed MC4-R mRNA as early as E14. Occipital and tongue muscles, in particular the genioglossus, showed diffuse signal at E15-E20. In the eye, a discrete signal was detected in an outer neuroblastic layer which may correspond to retina or extraocular muscle. Developing limb buds expressed relatively strong signal at E14, whereas skull bone and joint capsules of the paw of the forelimb showed signal at E18-E20. Using RT-PCR and ribonuclease protection assays, we determined that MC4-R mRNA is also expressed in adult rat heart, lung, kidney, and testis. The expression of the MC4-R in cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and integumentary systems supports functional roles for the MC4-R in addition to its roles in appetite, weight control, and regulation of linear growth.

  4. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, E.-L.H.; Strouse, P.J.; Chhem, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    With the development of high-resolution ultrasound transducers, the role of ultrasonography (US) in evaluating the musculoskeletal system has increased. It is now possible to obtain detailed images of bones and soft-tissue structures that were previously unattainable. The advantages of US, when compared with other imaging modalities, are many. It is less expensive than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). It does not expose the patient to ionizing radiation, so US examinations can be repeated without harm to the patient. Furthermore, US is performed in real-time, making it possible to assess the musculoskeletal system dynamically, in multiple planes and with contralateral comparison. In experienced hands, US is a quick, noninvasive and cost-effective way to assess the musculoskeletal system in children. It is used to evaluate soft-tissue masses, joint swelling, infections, lesions involving the chest and abdominal walls, bones, muscles and clubfoot deformity and to locate any foreign bodies. (author)

  5. Magnetic resonance findings in 32 tumors of the nerve sheaths of the musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galant, J.; Marti-Bonmati, L.M.; Soler, R.; Saez, F.

    1996-01-01

    To define the MR features of nerve sheath tumors (NST) located in soft tissue and to evaluate the parameters that aid in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. We have studied retrospectively the clinical features and MR images corresponding to 32 NST of the musculoskeletal system detected in 22 patients. Among the 32 NST, there were 12 neurofibromas, 11 neurilemmonas, 8 malignant tumors and 1 neuropithelioma. All the patients presented palpable mass, with neurological symptoms as the most common accompanying sign. Pain was most frequent in the malignant lesions. Seven lesions were located in subcutis. MR revealed the relationship between tumor and nerve in 11 cases (7 neurilemmomas and 4 neurofibromas). Most of the neurilemmomas were round-shaped tumors that were extrinsic to the nerve, displacing it. The neurofibromas were usually oval or irregularly-shaped and expanded the nerve. NST were generally found to have well-defined margins. They were isointense or slightly hyperintense with respect to muscle in T1-weighted images and hyperintense in T2 images, with heterogeneous frequency. A target-like aspect was observed in 11 lesions, all benign. NST present a number of common features. The presence of pain, the site of the nerve upon which they depend and the target-like appearance are characteristics that help to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. 19 refs

  6. TissueCypher™: A systems biology approach to anatomic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Prichard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current histologic methods for diagnosis are limited by intra- and inter-observer variability. Immunohistochemistry (IHC methods are frequently used to assess biomarkers to aid diagnoses, however, IHC staining is variable and nonlinear and the manual interpretation is subjective. Furthermore, the biomarkers assessed clinically are typically biomarkers of epithelial cell processes. Tumors and premalignant tissues are not composed only of epithelial cells but are interacting systems of multiple cell types, including various stromal cell types that are involved in cancer development. The complex network of the tissue system highlights the need for a systems biology approach to anatomic pathology, in which quantification of system processes is combined with informatics tools to produce actionable scores to aid clinical decision-making. Aims: Here, we describe a quantitative, multiplexed biomarker imaging approach termed TissueCypher™ that applies systems biology to anatomic pathology. Applications of TissueCypher™ in understanding the tissue system of Barrett's esophagus (BE and the potential use as an adjunctive tool in the diagnosis of BE are described. Patients and Methods: The TissueCypher™ Image Analysis Platform was used to assess 14 epithelial and stromal biomarkers with known diagnostic significance in BE in a set of BE biopsies with nondysplastic BE with reactive atypia (RA, n = 22 and Barrett's with high-grade dysplasia (HGD, n = 17. Biomarker and morphology features were extracted and evaluated in the confirmed BE HGD cases versus the nondysplastic BE cases with RA. Results: Multiple image analysis features derived from epithelial and stromal biomarkers, including immune biomarkers and morphology, showed significant differences between HGD and RA. Conclusions: The assessment of epithelial cell abnormalities combined with an assessment of cellular changes in the lamina propria may serve as an adjunct to conventional

  7. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  8. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  9. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong

    2002-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  10. Learned parametrized dynamic movement primitives with shared synergies for controlling robotic and musculoskeletal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar eRückert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A salient feature of human motor skill learning is the ability to exploitsimilarities across related tasks.In biological motor control, it has been hypothesized that muscle synergies,coherent activations of groups of muscles, allow for exploiting shared knowledge.Recent studies have shown that a rich set of complex motor skills can be generated bya combination of a small number of muscle synergies.In robotics, dynamic movement primitives are commonlyused for motor skill learning. This machine learning approach implements a stable attractor systemthat facilitates learning and it can be used in high-dimensional continuous spaces. However, it does not allow for reusing shared knowledge, i.e. for each task an individual set of parameters has to be learned.We propose a novel movement primitive representationthat employs parametrized basis functions, which combines the benefits of muscle synergiesand dynamic movement primitives. For each task asuperposition of synergies modulates a stable attractor system.This approach leads to a compact representation of multiple motor skills andat the same time enables efficient learning in high-dimensional continuous systems.The movement representation supports discrete and rhythmic movements andin particular includes the dynamic movement primitive approach as a special case.We demonstrate the feasibility of the movement representation in three multi-task learning simulated scenarios.First, the characteristics of the proposed representation are illustrated in a point-mass task.Second, in complex humanoid walking experiments,multiple walking patterns with different step heights are learned robustly and efficiently.Finally, in a multi-directional reaching task simulated with a musculoskeletal modelof the human arm, we show how the proposed movement primitives can be used tolearn appropriate muscle excitation patterns and to generalize effectively to new reaching skills.

  11. Synergetic approach of norm and pathology of living system functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asqarov, B.; Oksengendler, B.L.; Turaeva, N.N.; Karimov, Z.; Rafikova, Z.B.

    2011-01-01

    Basing on fundamental idea of dynamical chaos and strict periodicity in living systems the new peculiarities in brain and heart functioning have been reveled. It has been shown that the development of pathological states of brain and heart activities occurs by means of both increase and decrease of chaos components in brain activity and heart rhythm. It has been defined the 'health range' for brain and heart functioning in norm, and the method of recovery of the health range is proposed from the electrocardiograms and electroencephalograms data (authors).

  12. Razvoj skeletno-mišičnega sistema in kože: Embryonic development of the musculoskeletal and integumentary system:

    OpenAIRE

    Legan, Mateja

    2005-01-01

    The author presents embryological development of the musculoskeletal system and the skin. Although they are basically both mesodermal in origin, the article emphasises the ectodermal origin of head bones, certain small smooth muscles and skin epidermis, with accent on the segmental origin of musculoskeletal regions. Development of the dermis and epidermal adnexes is clearly explained. For better understanding, some clinical correlates to developmental problems are shown as well. Avtorica p...

  13. Clinical and Pathological Roles of Ro/SSA Autoantibody System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusuke Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Ro/SSA antibodies are among the most frequently detected autoantibodies against extractable nuclear antigens and have been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and Sjögren's syndrome (SS. Although the presence of these autoantibodies is one of the criteria for the diagnosis and classification of SS, they are also sometimes seen in other systemic autoimmune diseases. In the last few decades, the knowledge of the prevalence of anti-Ro/SSA antibodies in various autoimmune diseases and symptoms has been expanded, and the clinical importance of these antibodies is increasing. Nonetheless, the pathological role of the antibodies is still poorly understood. In this paper, we summarize the milestones of the anti-Ro/SSA autoantibody system and provide new insights into the association between the autoantibodies and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

  14. Competence in the musculoskeletal system: assessing the progression of knowledge through an undergraduate medical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Subhashis; Roberts, Chris; Newble, David I; Snaith, Michael

    2004-12-01

    Professional bodies have expressed concerns that medical students lack appropriate knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine despite its high prevalence of use within the community. Changes in curriculum and teaching strategies may be contributing factors to this. There is little evidence to evaluate the degree to which these concerns are justified. To design and evaluate an assessment procedure that tests the progress of medical students in achieving a core level of knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine during the course. A stratified sample of 136 volunteer students from all 5 years of the medical course at Sheffield University. The progress test concept was adapted to provide a cross-sectional view of student knowledge gain during each year of the course. A test was devised which aimed to provide an assessment of competence set at the standard required of the newly qualified doctor in understanding basic and clinical sciences relevant to musculoskeletal medicine. The test was blueprinted against internal and external guidelines. It comprised 40 multiple-choice and extended matching questions administered by computer. Six musculoskeletal practitioners set the standard using a modified Angoff procedure. Test reliability was 0.6 (Cronbach's alpha). Mean scores of students increased from 41% in Year 1 to 84% by the final year. Data suggest that, from a baseline score in Year 1, there is a disparate experience of learning in Year 2 that evens out in Year 3, with knowledge progression becoming more consistent thereafter. All final year participants scored above the standard predicted by the Angoff procedure. This short computer-based test was a feasible method of estimating student knowledge acquisition in musculoskeletal medicine across the undergraduate curriculum. Tested students appear to have acquired a satisfactory knowledge base by the end of the course. Knowledge gain seemed relatively independent of specialty-specific clinical training. Proposals from specialty

  15. Musculoskeletal Findings in Behcet's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bicer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behcet's disease is a multisystem disease characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, relapsing uveitis, mucocutaneous, articular, gastrointestinal, neurologic, and vascular manifestations. Rheumatologic manifestations may also occur in Behcet's disease, and arthritis and arthralgia are the most common musculoskeletal findings followed by enthesopathy, avascular necrosis, myalgia, and myositis. Although the main pathology of Behcet's disease has been known to be the underlying vasculitis, the etiology and exact pathogenesis of the disease are still unclear. Musculoskeletal findings of Behcet's disease, the relationship between Behcet's disease and spondyloarthropathy disease complex, and the status of bone metabolism in patients with Behcet's disease were discussed in this paper.

  16. The Pathological Spectrum of Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne A. Montes-Mojarro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL represents a group of malignant T-cell lymphoproliferations that share morphological and immunophenotypical features, namely strong CD30 expression and variable loss of T-cell markers, but differ in clinical presentation and prognosis. The recognition of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK fusion proteins as a result of chromosomal translocations or inversions was the starting point for the distinction of different subgroups of ALCL. According to their distinct clinical settings and molecular findings, the 2016 revised World Health Organization (WHO classification recognizes four different entities: systemic ALK-positive ALCL (ALK+ ALCL, systemic ALK-negative ALCL (ALK− ALCL, primary cutaneous ALCL (pC-ALCL, and breast implant-associated ALCL (BI-ALCL, the latter included as a provisional entity. ALK is rearranged in approximately 80% of systemic ALCL cases with one of its partner genes, most commonly NPM1, and is associated with favorable prognosis, whereas systemic ALK− ALCL shows heterogeneous clinical, phenotypical, and genetic features, underlining the different oncogenesis between these two entities. Recognition of the pathological spectrum of ALCL is crucial to understand its pathogenesis and its boundaries with other entities. In this review, we will focus on the morphological, immunophenotypical, and molecular features of systemic ALK+ and ALK− ALCL. In addition, BI-ALCL will be discussed.

  17. Pathology of motivation system – reasons and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Mazanowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define the dysfunction of the motivational process and the presentation accompanying this issue causes and effects. Pathologies of the incentive system in this day and age are quite a frequently occurring phenomenon in Polish companies. This is accompanied by increasing ignorance of employers in the area of motivation, incompetence immediate superiors in the field of personnel management, as well as advancing the level of unemployment. Employees are evaluated through the prism of cheap labour and so they are treated. Lack of motivation and appropriate way to combat forms of harassment or discrimination in the workplace causes subordinates loss of self-esteem and commitment to duties performed. Thus, this could lead to excessive stress or so burnout, and sometimes even the death of the employee.

  18. Septin functions in organ system physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolat, Lee; Hu, Qicong; Spiliotis, Elias T

    2014-02-01

    Human septins comprise a family of 13 genes that encode for >30 protein isoforms with ubiquitous and tissue-specific expressions. Septins are GTP-binding proteins that assemble into higher-order oligomers and filamentous polymers, which associate with cell membranes and the cytoskeleton. In the last decade, much progress has been made in understanding the biochemical properties and cell biological functions of septins. In parallel, a growing number of studies show that septins play important roles for the development and physiology of specific tissues and organs. Here, we review the expression and function of septins in the cardiovascular, immune, nervous, urinary, digestive, respiratory, endocrine, reproductive, and integumentary organ systems. Furthermore, we discuss how the tissue-specific functions of septins relate to the pathology of human diseases that arise from aberrations in septin expression.

  19. Incidence of disability pensions among slaughterhouse workers in Denmark. With special regard to diagnosis of the musculo-skeletal system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N S; Jeune, B

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether slaughterhouse workers (SW) in Denmark have a higher incidence of disability than expected in comparison with the general population and the sub-group of the population that is gainfully employed, especially with regard to pensions awarded...... are calculated on the basis of age-specific incidence rates among all actively employed people. Problems of the study design and selection bias are discussed to facilitate the interpretation of results. A possible deleterious effect of meatpacking on the musculo-skeletal system calls for further investigation....

  20. Musculoskeletal dysfunction in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim A. Larbi and Dmitry Ye. Suyetenkov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the comparative statistics of musculoskeletal system deseases depending on a type of dental method. The practical recommendations on prevention of diseases of joints, ligaments and spine were done.

  1. Radiologically detectable musculoskeletal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus; Afectacion musculoesquelitca con expresion radiologica en el lupus eritematoso sistemico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, M. M.; Manjon, P.; Diaz de Bustamante, T.; Galindo, M.; Buj, M. J.; Cabezudo, J. [Hospital Doce de Octubre de Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    We show a wide spectrum of musculoskeletal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that can be detected by radiological examination. We determined the indications of different imaging techniques in the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease. We reviewed the clinical and radiological histories of 37 patients diagnosed as having SLE on the basis of serological and musculoskeletal criteria. We assessed the personal data of each patient, the association of the disease with autoimmune processes, serology, treatment and radiological findings using plain X ray, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR). Of the 37 cases reviewed, only ten presented changes in one or more of the imaging studies performed. the most common radiological finding was symmetric poly arthritis located at different sites. Other signs included avascular necrosis (late and early), inflammation and tendon and/or ligament rupture, nonerosive deforming arthropathies , soft tissue calcifications and arthritis (staphylococcal and tuberculous). A direct correlation was established between the anticardiolipin antibody titer, steroid doses and avascular necrosis. In SLE, radiologically detectable osteoarticular lesions are uncommon. Symmetric polyarthritis is the earliest lesion and that occurring most frequently. Other signs do not appear as often, with the exception of osteonecrosis, which usually occurs late. It developed early and was unusually aggressive in two youths with elevated anticardiolipin antibody titers and substantial systemic involvement in our series. The contributions of ultrasound and MR in the assessment of musculoskeletal involvement in SLE are especially relevant in the study of inflammations and tendon rupture and in the management of avascular necrosis, respectively. (Author) 17 refs.

  2. Development of a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikaido T

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Takuya Nikaido,1 Shingo Fukuma,2,3 Takafumi Wakita,4 Miho Sekiguchi,1 Shoji Yabuki,1 Yoshihiro Onishi,5 Shunichi Fukuhara,2,3 Shin-ichi Konno1 On behalf of the profile scoring system for multilateral assessment of social factors in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain study group 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 2Department of Healthcare Epidemiology, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine and Public Health, Kyoto, 3Center for Innovative Research for Communities and Clinical Excellence (CIRC2LE, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 4Department of Sociology, Kansai University, Osaka, 5Institute for Health Outcomes and Process Evaluation Research (iHope International, Kyoto, Japan Abstract: Chronic pain is a manifestation of interactions among physical, psychological, and social conditions, but the latter two, that is, the nonphysical correlates of chronic pain, are only rarely measured. This study aimed to develop a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. An expert panel chose social and psychological domains considered to be relevant to patients with chronic pain and wrote questions asking about each of those domains. The questionnaire was completed by 252 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Factor analysis was used to select questionnaire items for each domain. Associations and interactions of pain severity and each domain score with pain-related quality of life (PRQOL were examined using linear regression models. Five domains were chosen: work, family, sleep, mental health, and PRQOL. Then, a total of 17 questions were created for the work, family, and sleep domains. Using the likelihood-ratio test, we found significant interactions with PRQOL in four pairs: severity–family, severity–mental, family–sleep, and work–mental. The association between pain severity and PRQOL was

  3. Biological Stress Systems, Adverse Life Events, and the Improvement of Chronic Multisite Musculoskeletal Pain Across a 6-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generaal, Ellen; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Macfarlane, Gary J; Geenen, Rinie; Smit, Johannes H; de Geus, Eco J C N; Dekker, Joost; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2017-02-01

    Dysfunction of biological stress systems and adverse life events, independently and in interaction, have been hypothesized to predict chronic pain persistence. Conversely, these factors may hamper the improvement of chronic pain. Longitudinal evidence is currently lacking. We examined whether: 1) function of biological stress systems, 2) adverse life events, and 3) their combination predict the improvement of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain. Subjects of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) with chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain at baseline (N = 665) were followed-up 2, 4, and 6 years later. The Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire was used to determine improvement (not meeting the criteria) of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain at follow-up. Baseline assessment of biological stress systems included function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (1-hour cortisol awakening response, evening level, and post dexamethasone level), the immune system (basal and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory markers), the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, pre-ejection period, SD of the normal-to-normal interval, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia). The number of adverse life events were assessed at baseline and 2-year follow-up using the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire. We showed that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune system, and autonomic nervous system functioning and adverse life events were not associated with the improvement of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain, either as a main effect or in interaction. This longitudinal study could not confirm that biological stress system dysfunction and adverse life events affect the course of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain. Biological stress systems and adverse life events are not associated with the improvement of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain over 6 years of follow-up. Other determinants should thus be considered in future research to identify in which

  4. Novel bio-synthetic hybrid materials and coculture systems for musculoskeletal tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeseung Janice

    Tissue Engineering is a truly exciting field of this age, trying to regenerate and repair impaired tissues. Unlike the old artificial implants, tissue engineering aims at making a long-term functional biological replacement. One strategy for such tissue engineering requires the following three components: cells, scaffolds, and soluble factors. Cells are cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold with medium containing various soluble factors. Once a tissue is developed in vitro, then it is implanted in vivo. The overall goal of this thesis was to develop novel bio-synthetic hybrid scaffolds and coculture system for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. The most abundant cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) components are collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG), which are the natural scaffold for chondrocytes. As two different peptides, collagen mimetic peptide (CMP) and hyaluronic acid binding peptide (HABPep) were previously shown to bind to collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA) of GAG, respectively, it was hypothesized that immobilizing CMP and HABP on 3D scaffold would results in an interaction between ECM components and synthetic scaffolds via peptide-ECM bindings. CMP or HABPep-conjugated photopolymerizable poly(ethylene oxide) diacrylate (PEODA) hydrogels were synthesized and shown to retain encapsulated collagen or HA, respectively. This result supported that conjugated CMP and HABPep can interact with collagen and HA, respectively, and can serve as biological linkers in 3D synthetic hydrogels. When chondrocytes or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were seeded, cells in CMP-conjugated scaffolds produced significantly more amount of type II collagen and GAG, compared to those in control scaffolds. Moreover, MSCs cultured in CMP-conjugated scaffolds exhibited lower level of hypertrophic markers, cbfa-1 and type X collagen. These results demonstrated that enhanced interaction between collagen and scaffold via CMP improves chondrogenesis of chondrocytes and MSCs and

  5. Gradient-based optimization with B-splines on sparse grids for solving forward-dynamics simulations of three-dimensional, continuum-mechanical musculoskeletal system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, J; Sprenger, M; Pflüger, D; Röhrle, O

    2018-05-01

    Investigating the interplay between muscular activity and motion is the basis to improve our understanding of healthy or diseased musculoskeletal systems. To be able to analyze the musculoskeletal systems, computational models are used. Albeit some severe modeling assumptions, almost all existing musculoskeletal system simulations appeal to multibody simulation frameworks. Although continuum-mechanical musculoskeletal system models can compensate for some of these limitations, they are essentially not considered because of their computational complexity and cost. The proposed framework is the first activation-driven musculoskeletal system model, in which the exerted skeletal muscle forces are computed using 3-dimensional, continuum-mechanical skeletal muscle models and in which muscle activations are determined based on a constraint optimization problem. Numerical feasibility is achieved by computing sparse grid surrogates with hierarchical B-splines, and adaptive sparse grid refinement further reduces the computational effort. The choice of B-splines allows the use of all existing gradient-based optimization techniques without further numerical approximation. This paper demonstrates that the resulting surrogates have low relative errors (less than 0.76%) and can be used within forward simulations that are subject to constraint optimization. To demonstrate this, we set up several different test scenarios in which an upper limb model consisting of the elbow joint, the biceps and triceps brachii, and an external load is subjected to different optimization criteria. Even though this novel method has only been demonstrated for a 2-muscle system, it can easily be extended to musculoskeletal systems with 3 or more muscles. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A general-purpose framework to simulate musculoskeletal system of human body: using a motion tracking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Hossein; Rostami, Mostafa; Gudarzi, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    Computation of muscle force patterns that produce specified movements of muscle-actuated dynamic models is an important and challenging problem. This problem is an undetermined one, and then a proper optimization is required to calculate muscle forces. The purpose of this paper is to develop a general model for calculating all muscle activation and force patterns in an arbitrary human body movement. For this aim, the equations of a multibody system forward dynamics, which is considered for skeletal system of the human body model, is derived using Lagrange-Euler formulation. Next, muscle contraction dynamics is added to this model and forward dynamics of an arbitrary musculoskeletal system is obtained. For optimization purpose, the obtained model is used in computed muscle control algorithm, and a closed-loop system for tracking desired motions is derived. Finally, a popular sport exercise, biceps curl, is simulated by using this algorithm and the validity of the obtained results is evaluated via EMG signals.

  7. 3D-Pathology: a real-time system for quantitative diagnostic pathology and visualisation in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottrup, Christian; Beckett, Mark G.; Hager, Henrik; Locht, Peter

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents the results of the 3D-Pathology project conducted under the European EC Framework 5. The aim of the project was, through the application of 3D image reconstruction and visualization techniques, to improve the diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of medical personnel when analyzing pathological specimens using transmitted light microscopy. A fully automated, computer-controlled microscope system has been developed to capture 3D images of specimen content. 3D image reconstruction algorithms have been implemented and applied to the acquired volume data in order to facilitate the subsequent 3D visualization of the specimen. Three potential application fields, immunohistology, cromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and cytology, have been tested using the prototype system. For both immunohistology and CISH, use of the system furnished significant additional information to the pathologist.

  8. Analysis of Surgical Site Infection after Musculoskeletal Tumor Surgery: Risk Assessment Using a New Scoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nagano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical site infection (SSI has not been extensively studied in musculoskeletal tumors (MST owing to the rarity of the disease. We analyzed incidence and risk factors of SSI in MST. SSI incidence was evaluated in consecutive 457 MST cases (benign, 310 cases and malignant, 147 cases treated at our institution. A detailed analysis of the clinical background of the patients, pre- and postoperative hematological data, and other factors that might be associated with SSI incidence was performed for malignant MST cases. SSI occurred in 0.32% and 12.2% of benign and malignant MST cases, respectively. The duration of the surgery (P=0.0002 and intraoperative blood loss (P=0.0005 was significantly more in the SSI group than in the non-SSI group. We established the musculoskeletal oncological surgery invasiveness (MOSI index by combining 4 risk factors (blood loss, operation duration, preoperative chemotherapy, and the use of artificial materials. The MOSI index (0–4 points score significantly correlated with the risk of SSI, as demonstrated by an SSI incidence of 38.5% in the group with a high score (3-4 points. The MOSI index score and laboratory data at 1 week after surgery could facilitate risk evaluation and prompt diagnosis of SSI.

  9. Mechanical Stimulation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Functional Tissue Engineering of the Musculoskeletal System via Cyclic Hydrostatic Pressure, Simulated Microgravity, and Cyclic Tensile Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, Rachel C; Bodle, Josie C; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2018-01-01

    It is critical that human adipose stem cell (hASC) tissue-engineering therapies possess appropriate mechanical properties in order to restore function of the load bearing tissues of the musculoskeletal system. In an effort to elucidate the hASC response to mechanical stimulation and develop mechanically robust tissue engineered constructs, recent research has utilized a variety of mechanical loading paradigms including cyclic tensile strain, cyclic hydrostatic pressure, and mechanical unloading in simulated microgravity. This chapter describes methods for applying these mechanical stimuli to hASC to direct differentiation for functional tissue engineering of the musculoskeletal system.

  10. Functional analysis of the musculo-skeletal system of the gill apparatus in Heptranchias perlo (Chondrichthyes: Hexanchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukova, Nadezhda V

    2017-08-01

    Musculo-skeletal morphology is an indispensable source for understanding functional adaptations. Analysis of morphology of the branchial apparatus of Hexanchiform sharks can provide insight into aspects of their respiration that are difficult to observe directly. In this study, I compare the structure of the musculo-skeletal system of the gill apparatus of Heptranchias perlo and Squalus acanthias in respect to their adaptation for one of two respiratory mechanisms known in sharks, namely, the active two-pump (oropharyngeal and parabranchial) ventilation and the ram-jet ventilation. In both species, the oropharyngeal pump possesses two sets of muscles, one for compression and the other for expansion. The parabranchial pump only has constrictors. Expansion of this pump occurs only due to passive elastic recoil of the extrabranchial cartilages. In Squalus acanthias the parabranchial chambers are large and equipped by powerful superficial constrictors. These muscles and the outer walls of the parabranchial chambers are much reduced in Heptranchias perlo, and thus it likely cannot use this pump. However, this reduction allows for vertical elongation of outer gill slits which, along with greater number of gill pouches, likely decreases branchial resistance and, at the same time, increases the gill surface area, and can be regarded as an adaptation for ram ventilation at lower speeds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Development of a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Takuya; Fukuma, Shingo; Wakita, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Miho; Yabuki, Shoji; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Konno, Shin-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is a manifestation of interactions among physical, psychological, and social conditions, but the latter two, that is, the nonphysical correlates of chronic pain, are only rarely measured. This study aimed to develop a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. An expert panel chose social and psychological domains considered to be relevant to patients with chronic pain and wrote questions asking about each of those domains. The questionnaire was completed by 252 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Factor analysis was used to select questionnaire items for each domain. Associations and interactions of pain severity and each domain score with pain-related quality of life (PRQOL) were examined using linear regression models. Five domains were chosen: work, family, sleep, mental health, and PRQOL. Then, a total of 17 questions were created for the work, family, and sleep domains. Using the likelihood-ratio test, we found significant interactions with PRQOL in four pairs: severity–family, severity–mental, family–sleep, and work–mental. The association between pain severity and PRQOL was related to each patient’s social and psychological situation. These results suggest that interventions for patients with chronic pain may be personalized to account for each individual’s psychosocial situation. PMID:28814896

  12. Virtual reality and gaming systems to improve walking and mobility for people with musculoskeletal and neuromuscular conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Judith E

    2009-01-01

    Improving walking for individuals with musculoskeletal and neuromuscular conditions is an important aspect of rehabilitation. The capabilities of clinicians who address these rehabilitation issues could be augmented with innovations such as virtual reality gaming based technologies. The chapter provides an overview of virtual reality gaming based technologies currently being developed and tested to improve motor and cognitive elements required for ambulation and mobility in different patient populations. Included as well is a detailed description of a single VR system, consisting of the rationale for development and iterative refinement of the system based on clinical science. These concepts include: neural plasticity, part-task training, whole task training, task specific training, principles of exercise and motor learning, sensorimotor integration, and visual spatial processing.

  13. Computational Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  14. Combined feedforward and feedback control of a redundant, nonlinear, dynamic musculoskeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blana, Dimitra; Kirsch, Robert F; Chadwick, Edward K

    2009-05-01

    A functional electrical stimulation controller is presented that uses a combination of feedforward and feedback for arm control in high-level injury. The feedforward controller generates the muscle activations nominally required for desired movements, and the feedback controller corrects for errors caused by muscle fatigue and external disturbances. The feedforward controller is an artificial neural network (ANN) which approximates the inverse dynamics of the arm. The feedback loop includes a PID controller in series with a second ANN representing the nonlinear properties and biomechanical interactions of muscles and joints. The controller was designed and tested using a two-joint musculoskeletal model of the arm that includes four mono-articular and two bi-articular muscles. Its performance during goal-oriented movements of varying amplitudes and durations showed a tracking error of less than 4 degrees in ideal conditions, and less than 10 degrees even in the case of considerable fatigue and external disturbances.

  15. Study on user interface of pathology picture archiving and communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dasueran; Kang, Peter; Yun, Jungmin; Park, Sung-Hye; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Park, Peom

    2014-01-01

    It is necessary to improve the pathology workflow. A workflow task analysis was performed using a pathology picture archiving and communication system (pathology PACS) in order to propose a user interface for the Pathology PACS considering user experience. An interface analysis of the Pathology PACS in Seoul National University Hospital and a task analysis of the pathology workflow were performed by observing recorded video. Based on obtained results, a user interface for the Pathology PACS was proposed. Hierarchical task analysis of Pathology PACS was classified into 17 tasks including 1) pre-operation, 2) text, 3) images, 4) medical record viewer, 5) screen transition, 6) pathology identification number input, 7) admission date input, 8) diagnosis doctor, 9) diagnosis code, 10) diagnosis, 11) pathology identification number check box, 12) presence or absence of images, 13) search, 14) clear, 15) Excel save, 16) search results, and 17) re-search. And frequently used menu items were identified and schematized. A user interface for the Pathology PACS considering user experience could be proposed as a preliminary step, and this study may contribute to the development of medical information systems based on user experience and usability.

  16. Diagnostic errors in musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging and how to avoid them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Serafin-Król

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the major challenges related to the principles of the correct technique of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSK US. All the crucial aspects of correct MSK soft tissue diagnosis have been discussed, including equipment settings, use of recent image software innovations and ultrasound standoff pads, and correct transducer positioning. The importance of the fundamental principles of MSK US, facilitating good quality image and limiting the occurrence of artifacts, has been highlighted. The most common artifacts of the musculoskeletal system have been described, including those that diagnostically helpful, such as the presence of echo enhancement deep to a fluidfilled structure, or an acoustic shadow behind a calcification. The presence of acoustic shadow in the context of lesions of a different type has also been discussed. The common anisotropy-related artifacts, frequently leading to diagnosis of a pathological condition where none is present, have been elaborated on. The frequently encountered mirror reflection artifact has been described. Special attention has been paid to the means of either eliminating, or taking advantage of artifacts for the correct diagnosis of musculoskeletal lesions. The possibilities and technique of correct differentiation of hypoechoic or anechoic foci, commonly found in the pathological conditions of the musculoskeletal system, have been analysed. Non-typical ultrasound findings leading to misdiagnosis of given pathological conditions have been discussed.

  17. A Comparative Study of Coping Strategies and the Features of Interpersonal Relations and Life Orientations of People with Congenital and Acquired Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, E. V.; Tolkacheva, O. N.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of a comparative study of the features of the coping strategies, life orientations, and interpersonal relations of disabled people with acquired and congenital diseases of the musculoskeletal system. The authors discovered differences in interpersonal behavior in the area of control, and they revealed factors that…

  18. 77 FR 59941 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Terahertz Scanning Systems for Cancer Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Terahertz Scanning Systems for Cancer Pathology AGENCY: National Institutes of Health... field of use limited to terahertz scanning systems for cancer pathology. Upon the expiration or...

  19. Diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging for pediatric musculoskeletal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, John D.; Gonzalez, Leonardo; Hernandez, Andrea; Ruppert, Kai; Jaramillo, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a powerful tool that has recently been applied to evaluate several pediatric musculoskeletal disorders. DWI probes abnormalities of tissue structure by detecting microscopic changes in water mobility that develop when disease alters the organization of normal tissue. DWI provides tissue characterization at a cellular level beyond what is available with other imaging techniques, and can sometimes identify pathology before gross anatomic alterations manifest. These features of early detection and tissue characterization make DWI particularly appealing for probing diseases that affect the musculoskeletal system. This article focuses on the current and future applications of DWI in the musculoskeletal system, with particular attention paid to pediatric disorders. Although most of the applications are experimental, we have emphasized the current state of knowledge and the main research questions that need to be investigated. (orig.)

  20. The aging musculoskeletal system and obesity-related considerations with exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K; Raiser, Sara N; Vincent, Kevin R

    2012-07-01

    Advancing age and adiposity contribute to musculoskeletal degenerative diseases and the development of sarcopenic obesity. The etiology of muscle loss is multifactorial, and includes inflammation, oxidative stress and hormonal changes, and is worsened by activity avoidance due to fear of pain. The risk for mobility disability and functional impairment rises with severity of obesity in the older adult. Performance measures of walking distance, walking speed, chair rise, stair climb, body transfers and ability to navigate obstacles on a course are adversely affected in this population, and this reflects decline in daily physical functioning. Exercise training is an ideal intervention to counteract the effects of aging and obesity. The 18 randomized controlled trials of exercise studies with or without diet components reviewed here indicate that 3-18 month programs that included aerobic and strengthening exercise (2-3 days per week) with caloric restriction (typically 750 kcal deficit/day), induced the greatest change in functional performance measures compared with exercise or diet alone. Importantly, resistance exercise attenuates muscle mass loss with the interventions. These interventions can also combat factors that invoke sarcopenia, including inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Therefore, regular multimodal exercise coupled with diet appears to be very effective for counteracting sarocpenic obesity and improving mobility and function in the older, obese adult. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical applications of dynamic functional musculoskeletal ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petscavage-Thomas J

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jonelle Petscavage-Thomas Department of Radiology, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA Abstract: There is an increasing trend in medicine to utilize ultrasound for diagnosis of musculoskeletal pathology. Although magnetic resonance imaging provides excellent spatial resolution of musculoskeletal structures in multiple imaging planes and is generally the cross-sectional modality of choice, it does not provide dynamic functional assessment of muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Dynamic maneuvers with ultrasound provide functional data and have been shown to be accurate for diagnosis. Ultrasound is also less expensive, portable, and more readily available. This article will review the common snapping, impingement, and friction syndromes imaged with dynamic ultrasound. It will also discuss future areas of research, including musculoskeletal sonoelastography. Keywords: snapping, dynamic, ultrasound, functional, musculoskeletal

  2. Work load and musculoskeletal complaints during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, J. A.; van Dijk, F. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Many pregnant women have musculoskeletal complaints, the onset and aggravation of which are thought to be associated with their activity or work postures. The purpose of this paper was to obtain more insight into the influence of pregnancy on the load of the musculoskeletal system at work to provide

  3. Occupational musculoskeletal and mental health: Significance of rationalization and opportunities to create sustainable production systems - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgaard, R H; Winkel, J

    2011-01-01

    This literature review aims to identify occupational musculoskeletal and mental health effects of production system rationalization as well as organizational-level measures that may improve health outcome ("modifiers" in this review). A short review of the effect of ergonomic interventions is included as background and rationalization is discussed as a theoretical concept. Indicator variables for occupational musculoskeletal and mental health and related risk factors are presented. Variables with a generalized format were allowed in the literature searches (e.g., job satisfaction and absenteeism were accepted as risk factor and health indicator, respectively), suitable for the research fields of work sociology, organization science, human resource management (HRM) and economics research. One hundred and sixty-two studies of rationalization effects on health and risk factors and 72 organization-level modifier results were accepted into the final database. Entries were sorted by rationalization strategy and work life sector, and trends in outcome (positive, mixed, no effect, or negative effect on health and risk factors) were determined. Rationalizations have a dominant negative effect on health and risk factors (57% negative, 19% positive); the most negative effects were found for downsizing and restructuring rationalizations in general (71 studies negative, 13 positive) and for the health care sector in particular (36 studies negative, 2 positive). The rationalization strategy High Performance Work System (HPWS) was associated with the highest fraction positive outcome studies (6 of 10 studies). Other rationalization strategies (lean practices, parallel vs. serial production and mechanization level) reported intermediate results, in part dependent on work life sector, but also on the year when studies were carried out. Worker participation, resonant management style, information, support, group autonomy and procedural justice were modifiers with favourable

  4. 'Magnetic Resonance Motion Imaging' for functional diagnosis of the musculo-skeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, K.M.

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: radiological studies of joint and spine function are an important part of the diagnosis and therapy management for musculo-skeletal diseases affecting range-of-motion. The objective of this study was to investigate the integration and developement of the clinical application of currently available MR-tomographic techniques, which can be summarized as 'Magnetic Resonance Motion Imaging (MRMI)'. Material and methods: five healthy volunteers (three women and two men; mean age 21.8?4.4) and ten patients (eight women and two men; mean age 31.4?12.6) took part in the study. A total of 21 examinations with real-time motion-MRI were performed on selected peripheric joints (seven patellofemoral joints, six femorotibial joints, one cervical spine, two wrists, three ankles and two temporomandibular joints) with a 1.0T unit (Philips Intera T10) using T1-weighted gradient-echo and opposed-phase imaging sequences. For the examination of the patellofemoral joint, the femorotibial joint, the wrist and the tmj a dedicated positioning-device was used. Results were correlated with static MR-Images. Results: the quickly parcticable sequence of the examinations was not straining for the patients. The quality of imaging was only insignificantly lower as compared with static gradient-echo sequences. No artifacts were seen which could influence the evaluation. The visualisation of motions was very good. The quantification of the maximum extent of dysfunctions could be judged better with a higher sensitivity in real-time-mode than in static images. Conclusion: from the results of this study a three-step-plan for the radiodiagnostic procedure in cases of functional disorders of selected joints and the spine can be deduced, which uses static MR-imaging as first step. In case of unsolved questions MRMI is done (step 2). To obtain measurements, static MR-Images at different points of the motion range(kinematic MR-Imaging) should be done (step 3). This plan of 'motion-MRI' is well

  5. A health system program to reduce work disability related to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abásolo, Lydia; Blanco, Margarita; Bachiller, Javier; Candelas, Gloria; Collado, Paz; Lajas, Cristina; Revenga, Marcelino; Ricci, Patricia; Lázaro, Pablo; Aguilar, Maria Dolores; Vargas, Emilio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Hernández-García, César; Carmona, Loreto; Jover, Juan A

    2005-09-20

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a frequent cause of work disability, accounting for productivity losses in industrialized societies equivalent to 1.3% of the U.S. gross national product. To evaluate whether a population-based clinical program offered to patients with recent-onset work disability caused by MSDs is cost-effective. Randomized, controlled intervention study. The inclusion and follow-up periods each lasted 12 months. Three health districts in Madrid, Spain. All patients with MSD-related temporary work disability in 1998 and 1999. The control group received standard primary care management, with referral to specialized care if needed. The intervention group received a specific program, administered by rheumatologists, in which care was delivered during regular visits and included 3 main elements: education, protocol-based clinical management, and administrative duties. Efficacy variables were 1) days of temporary work disability and 2) number of patients with permanent work disability. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. 1,077 patients were included in the study, 7805 in the control group and 5272 in the intervention group, generating 16,297 episodes of MSD-related temporary work disability. These episodes were shorter in the intervention group than in the control group (mean, 26 days compared with 41 days; P < 0.001), and the groups had similar numbers of episodes per patient. Fewer patients received long-term disability compensation in the intervention group (n = 38 [0.7%]) than in the control group (n = 99 [1.3%]) (P < 0.005). Direct and indirect costs were lower in the intervention group than in the control group. To save 1 day of temporary work disability, 6.00 dollars had to be invested in the program. Each dollar invested generated a benefit of 11.00 dollars. The program's net benefit was in excess of 5 million dollars. The study was unblinded. Implementation of the program, offered to the general population, improves short

  6. TUBERCULOSIS AS AN INFECTIOUS PATHOLOGY OF IMMUNE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov AV

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of years’ research of the many research groups around the world able to understand the reason why it will be impossible to create really effective vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis infection in the near future. The main reason for the impossibility creating such vaccine is an intracellular nature of tuberculosis. In fact, TB is a pathology of the immune system. Mycobacterium tuberculosis persist within macrophages and thereby inhibit the process of phagocytosis completion and digesting the contents of phagosome. The destruction of the lysosomal membrane inside macrophages is blocked by changing the pH in lysosomes. For the presence of lytic activity for most lysosomal enzymes require need acidic environment. Mycobacteria are also getting into the lysosomes of macrophages start to rapidly hydrolysis for urea by urease to form ammonia. Wherein pH in the medium changes to alkaline, this inactivates enzymes and stabilizes lysosomal membrane. Thus mycobacterium prevent lysosome collapse at inactivated lysosomal enzymes and do not allow them to complete macrophage digestion phase by transition lysosomal to phagosomal stage. Stop phagocytolysis process leads to imbalance of the host immune system. Increasing the number of infected macrophages sensitized to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens, leading to constant hyperfunction of cellular immunity, particularly enhanced immune response to cell wall components of mycobacteria, induction high titers of interferon-gamma in response to a stimulus, a sharp jump IL-2 titers and TNF-α , IFN-γ specific activation CD8 + CTL. Need also focus attention on the main differences from the MBT and human BCG, that is well growth in the human body, persists along host life, but does not cause active TB (except in patients with HIV/AIDS. After MBT cell destruction in the environment gets some additional high allergenic antigens, such as 85B, ESAT6, Rv2660c, HyVaC 4 (Ag85B and TB10.4.. These

  7. The use of macro-ergonomic work system designs to reduce musculoskeletal disorders and injury risk in training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnomo, H.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Training based on competency is a government effort to improve employee candidates’ job competence. The T echnical Implementation Unit of the Technopark Ganesha Sukowati Sragen is a training centre in the Sragen Regency. Ergonomic issues have still not received attention in some training programmes. The work system design is constructed to support the achievement of the agency’s vision and mission, using the macro-ergonomic analysis and design approach (MEAD. Research results show that the key variance is the installation of embroidery hoops, which is difficult and time-consuming. Integration of the work system with ergonomic designs is necessary to create a pleasant training environment and to improve job competence. The new designs include adjustable seats, embroidery hoops tables with a foot rest, improved lighting, facemasks, earplugs, and a drinking water facility. The workshop layout is designed to follow the work process. The trainees also participated in stretching exercises before training began. A t-test was conducted with the same research design and the same subject, and the results showed a reduction of up to 60.39 per cent in musculoskeletal disorders and a reduction of up to 22.2 per cent in the risk of injury.

  8. The Third Eye of the Rheumatologist: Applications of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in Rheumatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hua Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatologists manage patients with rheumatic diseases, which are of a wide range of musculoskeletal pathologies. Without clarification of the exact location of pathologies and the degree of inflammation, rheumatologists may have an incorrect assessment, leading to inappropriate management. In everyday practice, physical examination is limited by its sensitivity and power of assessment. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS is inexpensive, readily available, and allows side-by-side image comparisons. Thus, during the past 10 years, MSUS has become the “third eye” of the rheumatologist, in that it allows more detailed examination of muscles, bones, and joints, just as the stethoscope provides further details about the respiratory and circulatory systems. We briefly introduce how rheumatologists in Taiwan use MSUS for the diagnosis and treatment for rheumatic diseases.

  9. Engineering Musculoskeletal Tissue Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Bayrak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering aims to bring together biomaterials, cells, and signaling molecules within properly designed microenvironments in order to create viable treatment options for the lost or malfunctioning tissues. Design and production of scaffolds and cell-laden grafts that mimic the complex structural and functional features of tissues are among the most important elements of tissue engineering strategy. Although all tissues have their own complex structure, an even more complex case in terms of engineering a proper carrier material is encountered at the tissue interfaces, where two distinct tissues come together. The interfaces in the body can be examined in four categories; cartilage-bone and ligament-bone interfaces at the knee and the spine, tendon-bone interfaces at the shoulder and the feet, and muscle-tendon interface at the skeletal system. These interfaces are seen mainly at the soft-to-hard tissue transitions and they are especially susceptible to injury and tear due to the biomechanical inconsistency between these tissues where high strain fields are present. Therefore, engineering the musculoskeletal tissue interfaces remain a challenge. This review focuses on recent advancements in strategies for musculoskeletal interface engineering using different biomaterial-based platforms and surface modification techniques.

  10. Systems Biology Approaches to Discerning Striated Muscle Pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Mukund, Kavitha

    2016-01-01

    The human muscular system represents nearly 75% of the body mass and encompasses two major muscle forms- striated and smooth. Striated muscle, composed broadly of myofibers, accompanying membrane systems, cytoskeletal networks together with the metabolic and regulatory machinery, have revealed complexities in composition, structure and function. A disruption to any component within this complex system of interactions lead to disorders of the muscle, typically characterized by muscle fiber los...

  11. The value of energy spectral CT in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant soft tissue masses of the musculoskeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Shao, Xiaodong; Chen, Haisong

    2015-06-01

    To explore the value of energy spectral CT in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant tumor of the musculoskeletal system. Energy spectral CT scan was performed on 100 patients with soft tissue mass caused by musculoskeletal tumors found by MRI. Solid areas with homogenous density were chosen as region of interests (ROI), avoiding necrosis, hemorrhage and calcification region. Select the optimal keV on single energy images, and then the keV-CT curve was automatically generated. All 100 cases of tumors proved by histological examination were divided into four groups, 38 cases were in benign group, 10 cases in borderline group, 49 cases in malignant group, and 3 cases of lipoma (that were analyzed separately since its curve was arc shaped, significantly different from other curves). The formula used to calculate the slope of spectral curve was as follows: slope=(Hu40 keV-Hu80 keV)/40. As the slope was steep within the range of 40-80 keV based on preliminary observations, 40 keV and 80 keV were used as the reference points to calculate the slope value of the energy spectral curve. Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was applied for statistical analysis, and Pbenign and malignant group, benign and borderline group were of statistical significance (Pbenign and malignant tumor of the musculoskeletal system. Arc shaped curve is a specific sign for tumors containing abundant fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  13. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, C.L.F.; Griffith, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented

  14. Work load and musculoskeletal complaints during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J A; van Dijk, F J; Frings-Dresen, M H

    1994-06-01

    Many pregnant women have musculoskeletal complaints, the onset and aggravation of which are thought to be associated with their activity or work postures. The purpose of this paper was to obtain more insight into the influence of pregnancy on the load of the musculoskeletal system at work to provide a better basis for preventing complaints. To this end, literature pertinent to a model called "work load of the musculoskeletal system" was reviewed. The model was developed to describe how work contributes to musculoskeletal complaints. It was found that pregnancy causes changes in a worker's characteristics. These changes can lead to changes in the work situation, activity pattern, and postural characteristics and possibly result in a change in work load. In addition, physical changes such as weight gain increase the work load in a given posture. The load-bearing capacity of the musculoskeletal system decreases due to pregnancy. The changes in load and the decrease in load-bearing capacity singly or simultaneously increase the risk of musculoskeletal complaints. The multifactorial cause of musculoskeletal complaints during pregnancy reveals various possibilities for prevention.

  15. Digital imaging and electronic patient records in pathology using an integrated department information system with PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinski, Thomas; Hofmann, Harald; Franke, Dagmar-Sybilla; Roessner, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems have been widely used in radiology thus far. Owing to the progress made in digital photo technology, their use in medicine opens up further opportunities. In the field of pathology, digital imaging offers new possiblities for the documentation of macroscopic and microscopic findings. Digital imaging has the advantage that the data is permanently and readily available, independent of conventional archives. In the past, PACS was a separate entity. Meanwhile, however, PACS has been integrated in DIS, the department information system, which was also run separately in former times. The combination of these two systems makes the administration of patient data, findings and images easier. Moreover, thanks to the introduction of special communication standards, a data exchange between different department information systems and hospital information systems (HIS) is possible. This provides the basis for a communication platform in medicine, constituting an electronic patient record (EPR) that permits an interdisciplinary treatment of patients by providing data of findings and images from clinics treating the same patient. As the pathologic diagnosis represents a central and often therapy-determining component, it is of utmost importance to add pathologic diagnoses to the EPR. Furthermore, the pathologist's work is considerably facilitated when he is able to retrieve additional data from the patient file. In this article, we describe our experience gained with the combined PACS and DIS systems recently installed at the Department of Pathology, University of Magdeburg. Moreover, we evaluate the current situation and future prospects for PACS in pathology.

  16. Would Virchow be a systems biologist? A discourse on the philosophy of science with implications for pathological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzinger, Albrecht; Klauschen, Frederick; Wittschieber, Daniel; Weichert, Wilko; Denkert, Carsten; Dietel, Manfred; Roller, Claudio

    2010-06-01

    Research in pathology spans from merely descriptive work to functional studies, "-omics" approaches and, more recently, systems biology. The work presented here aims at placing pathological research into an epistemological context. Aided by Rudolf Virchow, we give an overview on the philosophy of science including the Wiener Kreis, Popper, Kuhn, Fleck and Rheinberger and demonstrate their implications for routine diagnostics and science in pathology. A focus is on the fields of "-omics" and systems pathology.

  17. Distinct proteome pathology of circulating microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Tanassi, Julia T

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is poorly understood but has been linked to defective clearance of subcellular particulate material from the circulation. This study investigates the origin, formation, and specificity of circulating microparticles (MPs) in patients...

  18. A Collaborative Digital Pathology System for Multi-Touch Mobile and Desktop Computing Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, W.

    2013-06-13

    Collaborative slide image viewing systems are becoming increasingly important in pathology applications such as telepathology and E-learning. Despite rapid advances in computing and imaging technology, current digital pathology systems have limited performance with respect to remote viewing of whole slide images on desktop or mobile computing devices. In this paper we present a novel digital pathology client-server system that supports collaborative viewing of multi-plane whole slide images over standard networks using multi-touch-enabled clients. Our system is built upon a standard HTTP web server and a MySQL database to allow multiple clients to exchange image and metadata concurrently. We introduce a domain-specific image-stack compression method that leverages real-time hardware decoding on mobile devices. It adaptively encodes image stacks in a decorrelated colour space to achieve extremely low bitrates (0.8 bpp) with very low loss of image quality. We evaluate the image quality of our compression method and the performance of our system for diagnosis with an in-depth user study. Collaborative slide image viewing systems are becoming increasingly important in pathology applications such as telepathology and E-learning. Despite rapid advances in computing and imaging technology, current digital pathology systems have limited performance with respect to remote viewing of whole slide images on desktop or mobile computing devices. In this paper we present a novel digital pathology client-server systems that supports collaborative viewing of multi-plane whole slide images over standard networks using multi-touch enabled clients. Our system is built upon a standard HTTP web server and a MySQL database to allow multiple clients to exchange image and metadata concurrently. © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A Collaborative Digital Pathology System for Multi-Touch Mobile and Desktop Computing Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, W.; Schneider, J.; Hansen, A.; Lee, M.; Turney, S. G.; Faulkner-Jones, B. E.; Hecht, J. L.; Najarian, R.; Yee, E.; Lichtman, J. W.; Pfister, H.

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative slide image viewing systems are becoming increasingly important in pathology applications such as telepathology and E-learning. Despite rapid advances in computing and imaging technology, current digital pathology systems have limited performance with respect to remote viewing of whole slide images on desktop or mobile computing devices. In this paper we present a novel digital pathology client-server system that supports collaborative viewing of multi-plane whole slide images over standard networks using multi-touch-enabled clients. Our system is built upon a standard HTTP web server and a MySQL database to allow multiple clients to exchange image and metadata concurrently. We introduce a domain-specific image-stack compression method that leverages real-time hardware decoding on mobile devices. It adaptively encodes image stacks in a decorrelated colour space to achieve extremely low bitrates (0.8 bpp) with very low loss of image quality. We evaluate the image quality of our compression method and the performance of our system for diagnosis with an in-depth user study. Collaborative slide image viewing systems are becoming increasingly important in pathology applications such as telepathology and E-learning. Despite rapid advances in computing and imaging technology, current digital pathology systems have limited performance with respect to remote viewing of whole slide images on desktop or mobile computing devices. In this paper we present a novel digital pathology client-server systems that supports collaborative viewing of multi-plane whole slide images over standard networks using multi-touch enabled clients. Our system is built upon a standard HTTP web server and a MySQL database to allow multiple clients to exchange image and metadata concurrently. © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Occupational medical prophylaxis for the musculoskeletal system: A function-oriented system for physical examination of the locomotor system in occupational medicine (fokus(C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarze Sieglinde

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Occupational physicians are very often confronted with questions as to the fitness of the postural and locomotor systems, especially the spinal column. Occupational medical assessment and advice can be required by patients with acute symptoms, at routine check-ups, by persons who have problems doing certain jobs, and for expert medical reports as to the fitness of persons with chronic disorders or after operations. Therefore, for occupational medical purposes a physical examination must aim primarily to investigate functions and not structures or radiologic evidence. The physical examination should be structured systematically and according to regions of the body and, together with a specific (pain anamnesis should provide a basis for the medical assessment. This paper presents a function-oriented system for physical examination of the locomotor system, named fokus(C (Funktionsorientierte Koerperliche Untersuchungssystematik, also available on DVD. fokus(C has been developed with a view to its relevance for occupational medical practice and does not aim primarily to provide a precise diagnosis. Decisive for an occupational medical assessment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system is rather information about functional disorders and any impairment of performance or mobility which they can cause. The division of the physical examination into a rapid screening phase and a subsequent more intensive functional diagnostic phase has proved its practicability in many years of day-to-day use. Here, in contrast to the very extensive measures recommended for orthopaedic and manual diagnosis, for reasons of efficiency and usability of the system in routine occupational medical examinations the examination is structured according to the findings. So it is reduced to that which is most necessary and feasible.

  1. Musculoskeletal Modelling and the Physiome Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, Justin; Zhang, Ju; Shim, Vickie; Munro, Jacob T.; Sartori, Massimo; Besier, Thor; Lloyd, David G.; Nickerson, David P.; Hunter, Peter; Pivonka, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This chapter presents developments as part of the International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) Physiome Project. Models are multiscale, multispatial and multiphysics, hence, suitable numerical tools and platforms have been developed to address these challenges for the musculoskeletal system.

  2. Molecular pathology of systemic lupus erythematosus in Asians

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Hwa Chia

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease affecting various parts of the body. Polymorphisms in genes involved in toll-like receptor (TLR)/interferon (IFN) signalling pathways have been reported previously to be associated with SLE in many populations. This study aimed to investigate the role of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within TNFAIP3 (rs2230936 and rs3757173), STAT4 (rs7574865, rs10168266, and rs7601754), and IRF5 (rs4728142 and rs729302), that...

  3. Development and validation of a surgical-pathologic staging and scoring system for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Li, Xiong; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Hang; Tang, Fangxu; Jia, Yao; Hu, Ting; Sun, Haiying; Yang, Ru; Chen, Yile; Cheng, Xiaodong; Lv, Weiguo; Wu, Li; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Shaoshuai; Huang, Kecheng; Wang, Lin; Yao, Yuan; Yang, Qifeng; Yang, Xingsheng; Zhang, Qinghua; Han, Xiaobing; Lin, Zhongqiu; Xing, Hui; Qu, Pengpeng; Cai, Hongbing; Song, Xiaojie; Tian, Xiaoyu; Shen, Jian; Xi, Ling; Li, Kezhen; Deng, Dongrui; Wang, Hui; Wang, Changyu; Wu, Mingfu; Zhu, Tao; Chen, Gang; Gao, Qinglei; Wang, Shixuan; Hu, Junbo; Kong, Beihua; Xie, Xing; Ma, Ding

    2016-04-12

    Most cervical cancer patients worldwide receive surgical treatments, and yet the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system do not consider surgical-pathologic data. We propose a more comprehensive and prognostically valuable surgical-pathologic staging and scoring system (SPSs). Records from 4,220 eligible cervical cancer cases (Cohort 1) were screened for surgical-pathologic risk factors. We constructed a surgical-pathologic staging and SPSs, which was subsequently validated in a prospective study of 1,104 cervical cancer patients (Cohort 2). In Cohort 1, seven independent risk factors were associated with patient outcome: lymph node metastasis (LNM), parametrial involvement, histological type, grade, tumor size, stromal invasion, and lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI). The FIGO staging system was revised and expanded into a surgical-pathologic staging system by including additional criteria of LNM, stromal invasion, and LVSI. LNM was subdivided into three categories based on number and location of metastases. Inclusion of all seven prognostic risk factors improves practical applicability. Patients were stratified into three SPSs risk categories: zero-, low-, and high-score with scores of 0, 1 to 3, and ≥4 (P=1.08E-45; P=6.15E-55). In Cohort 2, 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) outcomes decreased with increased SPSs scores (P=9.04E-15; P=3.23E-16), validating the approach. Surgical-pathologic staging and SPSs show greater homogeneity and discriminatory utility than FIGO staging. Surgical-pathologic staging and SPSs improve characterization of tumor severity and disease invasion, which may more accurately predict outcome and guide postoperative therapy.

  4. Musculoskeletal pain in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannini, Suely Nóbrega; Dória-Filho, Ulysses; Damiani, Durval; Silva, Clovis Artur Almeida

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of pain, musculoskeletal syndromes, orthopedic disorders and using computers and playing videogames among obese adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study that investigated 100 consecutive obese adolescents and 100 healthy-weight controls using a confidential, self-report questionnaire covering demographic data, sports participation, painful musculoskeletal system symptoms and using computers and playing videogames. The questionnaire's test-retest reliability was tested. Physical examination covered six musculoskeletal syndromes and seven orthopedic disorders. The kappa index for test-retest was 0.724. Pain and musculoskeletal syndromes were equally prevalent in both groups (44 vs. 56%, p = 0.09; 12 vs. 16%, p = 0.541; respectively). Notwithstanding, orthopedic disorders (98 vs. 76%, p = 0.0001), tight quadriceps (89 vs. 44%, p = 0.0001) and genu valgum (87 vs. 24%, p = 0.0001) were significantly more prevalent in obese adolescents than in controls. Median time spent using a computer the day before, on Saturdays and on Sundays were all lower among the obese subjects (30 vs. 60 minutes, p = 0.0001; 1 vs. 60 minutes, p = 0.001; and 0 vs. 30 minutes, p = 0.02; respectively). Obese adolescents were less likely to play handheld videogames (2 vs. 11%, p = 0.003) and there was no difference in the two groups' use of full-sized videogames (p > 0.05). Comparing obese adolescents with pain to those free from pain revealed that pain was more frequent among females (59 vs. 39%, p = 0.048) and was associated with greater median time spent playing on Sundays [0 (0-720) vs. 0 (0-240) minutes, p = 0.028]. Obesity can cause osteoarticular system damage at the start of adolescence, particularly to the lower limbs. Programs developed specifically for obese female adolescents with musculoskeletal pain are needed.

  5. Disuse of the musculo-skeletal system in space and on earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, M V; de Boer, M D

    2011-03-01

    Muscle mass and strength are well known to decline in response to actual and simulated microgravity exposure. However, despite the considerable knowledge gained on the physiological changes induced by spaceflight, the mechanisms of muscle atrophy and the effectiveness of in-flight countermeasures still need to be fully elucidated. The present review examines the effects and mechanisms of actual and simulated microgravity on single fibre and whole muscle structural and functional properties, protein metabolism, tendon mechanical properties, neural drive and reflex excitability. The effects of inflight countermeasures are also discussed in the light of recent advances in resistive loading techniques, in combined physical, pharmacological and nutritional interventions as well as in the development of artificial gravity systems. Emphasis has been given to the pioneering work of Pietro Enrico di Prampero in the development of artificial gravity systems and in the progress of knowledge on the limits of human muscular performance in space.

  6. Dual-Use Telemedicine Support System for Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    software Baxter Travenol to Sheppard AFB, TX McDonald Douglas to Camp Lejeune, NC 75 SAIC (with VA-DHCP) to Ft Knox, KY Technicon Data Systems (TDS...in a GIF file. KFC ~ieGlFlmageLlst CVoidPtrArray A list of GIE Images derived as CPtrArray<KFCFileGIF~mage>. KFCFilelmage KFCFiIe A generic image file...handler. KFCFiIeJPEG KFCFilelmage A robust JPEG file manager. KFC ~le.JPEGlmage N/A A JPEG Image in a JPEG file. KFCFileJPEGlmageList CVoidPtrArray A

  7. Modelamento Multicorpo do Sistema Musculoesquelético/Multibody modeling of the Musculoskeletal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias Tomazini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vários sistemas podem ser tratados com formalismos multicorpos: mecanismos de máquinas em geral, robôs industriais e manipuladores, estruturas espaciais, motores e, ainda, sistemas biomecânicos. A locomoção ou marcha humana e animal podem ser estudadas através de formalismos multicorpos.Nos últimos anos, diversos trabalhos relacionados à biomecânica, e utilizando formalismos multicorpos, têm sido apresentados. Muitos estudos in vitro e in vivo têm sido realizados, objetivando descrever o potencial de sobrecarga nas articulações do corpo humano e de modelos animais. O objetivo desta revisão foi apresentar estudos envolvendo o modelamento matemático aplicado à bioengenharia, biomecânica e engenharia biomédica. Conclui-se que o modelamento matemático é uma ferramenta muito útil, barata e não invasiva que vem contribuir nos estudos envolvendo o sistema multicorpo mecânico e complexo, que é o corpo humano. Several systems can be treated with multibody formalisms: mechanisms of general machinery, industrial robots and manipulators, space structures, engines, and also biomechanical systems. The locomotion or human gait can be studied using multibody formalisms. Several studies related to biomechanics, and using multibody formalisms, have been presented in recent years. Many studies in vitro and in vivo have been carried out, aiming to describe the potential overload in the joints of the human body and animal models. The aim of this review was to present studies involving mathematical modeling applied to bioengineering, biomechanics and biomedical engineering. We have concluded that mathematical modeling is a useful, inexpensive and noninvasive tool which comes to contribute in studies involving the mechanical and complex multibody system which is the human body.

  8. Tuning pathological brain oscillations with neurofeedback: A systems neuroscience framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas eRos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback is emerging as a promising technique that enables self-regulation of ongoing brain oscillations. However, despite a rise in empirical evidence attesting to its clinical benefits, a solid theoretical basis is still lacking on the manner in which neurofeedback is able to achieve these outcomes. The present work attempts to bring together various concepts from neurobiology, engineering, and dynamical systems so as to propose a contemporary theoretical framework for the mechanistic effects of neurofeedback. The objective is to provide a firmly neurophysiological account of neurofeedback, which goes beyond traditional behaviorist interpretations that attempt to explain psychological processes solely from a descriptive standpoint whilst treating the brain as a ‘black box’. To this end, we interlink evidence from experimental findings that encompass a broad range of intrinsic brain phenomena: starting from ‘bottom-up’ mechanisms of neural synchronization, followed by ‘top-down’ regulation of internal brain states, moving to dynamical systems plus control-theoretic principles, and concluding with activity-dependent as well as homeostatic forms of brain plasticity. In support of our framework, we examine the effects of neurofeedback in several brain disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The central thesis put forward is that neurofeedback tunes brain oscillations toward a homeostatic set-point which maintains optimal network flexibility and stability (i.e. self-organized criticality.

  9. Reprint of: Musculoskeletal system in the old age and the demand for healthy ageing biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Horcajada, Marie Noelle; Moco, Sofia; Franceschi, Claudio; Kussmann, Martin; Offord, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Population ageing has emerged as a major demographic trend worldwide due to improved health and longevity. This global ageing phenomenon will have a major impact on health-care systems worldwide due to increased morbidity and greater needs for hospitalization/institutionalization. As the ageing population increases worldwide, there is an increasing awareness not only of increased longevity but also of the importance of "healthy ageing" and "quality of life". Yet, the age related chronic inflammation is believed to be pathogenic with regards to its contribution to frailty and degenerative disorders. In particular, the frailty syndrome is increasingly being considered as a key risk indicator of adverse health outcomes. In addition, elderly may be also prone to be resistant to anabolic stimuli which is likely a key factor in the loss of skeletal muscle mass with ageing. Vital to understand these key biological processes is the development of biological markers, through system biology approaches, aiding at strategies for tailored therapeutic and personalized nutritional program. Overall aim is to prevent or attenuate decline of key physiological functions required to live an active, independent life. This review focus on core indicators of health and functions in older adults, where nutrition and tailored personalized programs could exhibit preventive roles, and where the aid of metabolomics technologies are increasingly displaying potential in revealing key molecular mechanisms/targets linked to specific ageing and/or healthy ageing processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Musculoskeletal system in the old age and the demand for healthy ageing biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collino, Sebastiano; Martin, François-Pierre; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Horcajada, Marie Noelle; Moco, Sofia; Franceschi, Claudio; Kussmann, Martin; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Population ageing has emerged as a major demographic trend worldwide due to improved health and longevity. This global ageing phenomenon will have a major impact on health-care systems worldwide due to increased morbidity and greater needs for hospitalization/institutionalization. As the ageing population increases worldwide, there is an increasing awareness not only of increased longevity but also of the importance of "healthy ageing" and "quality of life". Yet, the age related chronic inflammation is believed to be pathogenic with regards to its contribution to frailty and degenerative disorders. In particular, the frailty syndrome is increasingly being considered as a key risk indicator of adverse health outcomes. In addition, elderly may be also prone to be resistant to anabolic stimuli which is likely a key factor in the loss of skeletal muscle mass with ageing. Vital to understand these key biological processes is the development of biological markers, through system biology approaches, aiding at strategies for tailored therapeutic and personalized nutritional program. Overall aim is to prevent or attenuate decline of key physiological functions required to live an active, independent life. This review focus on core indicators of health and functions in older adults, where nutrition and tailored personalized programs could exhibit preventive roles, and where the aid of metabolomics technologies are increasingly displaying potential in revealing key molecular mechanisms/targets linked to specific ageing and/or healthy ageing processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Central nervous system tumors: Radiologic pathologic correlation and diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to formulate location-wise radiologic diagnostic algorithms and assess their concordance with the final histopathological diagnosis so as to evaluate their utility in a rural setting where only basic facilities are available. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis to assess the concordance of radiology (primarily MRI with final histopathology report was done. Based on the most common incidence of tumor location and basic radiology findings, diagnostic algorithms were prepared. Results: For supratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location concordance was seen in all high-grade astrocytomas, low- and high-grade oligodendrogliomas, metastatic tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, high-grade ependymomas, neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumors and tumors of hematopoietic system. Lowest concordance was seen in low-grade astrocytomas. In the supratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, agreement was observed in choroid plexus tumors, ependymomas, low-grade astrocytomas and meningiomas; in the supratentorial extraaxial location, except for the lack of concordance in the only case of metastatic tumor, concordance was observed in meningeal tumors, tumors of the sellar region, tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves; the infratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location showed agreement in low- as well as high-grade astrocytomas, metastatic tumors, high-grade ependymoma, embryonal tumors and hematopoietic tumors; in the infratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, except for the lack of concordance in one case of low-grade astrocytoma and two cases of medulloblastomas, agreement was observed in low- and high-grade ependymoma; infratentorial extraaxial tumors showed complete agreement in all tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves, meningiomas, and hematopoietic tumors. Conclusion: A location-based approach to central nervous system (CNS tumors is helpful in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  12. Central nervous system pathology in pediatric AIDS: an autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, D W; Belman, A L; Park, Y D; Wiley, C; Horoupian, D S; Llena, J; Kure, K; Lyman, W D; Morecki, R; Mitsudo, S

    1989-01-01

    The neuropathologic findings of brains and spinal cords removed at autopsy from 26 infants and children with AIDS is described; in two cases, only the spinal cords were available. The most common finding in the brains was dystrophic calcification of blood vessels of all calibers in the basal ganglia and deep cerebral white matter (21 og 24 cases). The next most frequent finding was subacute encephalitis (SE) (15 of 24 cases) with microglial nodules and multinulceated giant cells. Immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization studies showed HIV antigen or genetic sequences only in the brains of cases with SE. Multinucleated giants cells (MGC) were the most frequent cells with reaction products. MGC were labeled with ricinus lectin (RCA), but not with leukocyte common antigen (LCA) or glial fibrillary acidic protein. Many cells in microglial nodules were labeled with RCA, but not LCA; cells in the perivascular compartment were labeled with LCA, but not RCA. Corticospinal tract degeneration was noted in 15 of 20 spinal cords. In six cases tract degeneration was consistent with delayed myelination, and the remaining cases had axonal injury consistent with Wallerian degeneration. Opportunistic infections were rare (three cases). Central nervous system lymphoma occurred in three children and was the most common mass lesion. In two cases lymphoma occurred in the setting of a systemic polyclonal immunoproliferation possibly related to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Cerebrovascular accidents were noted in seven cases. Two cases had hemorrhage associated with immune thrombocytopenia; one hemorrhage was catastrophic. Two children had large vessel arteriopathy with multiple encephalomalacias. Two children had a necrotizing encephalopathy with encephalomalacia and vascular changes suggestive of a mitochondrial cytopathy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The systemic pathology of cerebral malaria in African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Arnold Milner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric cerebral malaria carries a high mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. We present our systematic analysis of the descriptive and quantitative histopathology of all organs sampled from a series of 103 autopsies performed between 1996 and 2010 in Blantyre, Malawi on pediatric cerebral malaria patients and control patients (without coma, or without malaria infection who were clinically well characterized prior to death. We found brain swelling in all cerebral malaria patients and the majority of controls. The histopathology in patients with sequestration of parasites in the brain demonstrated two patterns: a the classic appearance (i.e., ring hemorrhages, dense sequestration, and extra-erythrocytic pigment which was associated with evidence of systemic activation of coagulation and b the sequestration only appearance associated with shorter duration of illness and higher total burden of parasites in all organs including the spleen. Sequestration of parasites was most intense in the gastrointestinal tract in all parasitemic patients (those with cerebral malarial and those without.

  14. The Pathology of T Cells in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Mak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is characterized by the production of a wide array of autoantibodies. Thus, the condition was traditionally classified as a “B-cell disease”. Compelling evidence has however shown that without the assistance of the helper T lymphocytes, it is indeed difficult for the “helpless” B cells to become functional enough to trigger SLE-related inflammation. T cells have been recognized to be crucial in the pathogenicity of SLE through their capabilities to communicate with and offer enormous help to B cells for driving autoantibody production. Recently, a number of phenotypic and functional alterations which increase the propensity to trigger lupus-related inflammation have been identified in lupus T cells. Here, potential mechanisms involving alterations in T-cell receptor expressions, postreceptor downstream signalling, epigenetics, and oxidative stress which favour activation of lupus T cells will be discussed. Additionally, how regulatory CD4+, CD8+, and γδ T cells tune down lupus-related inflammation will be highlighted. Lastly, while currently available outcomes of clinical trials evaluating therapeutic agents which manipulate the T cells such as calcineurin inhibitors indicate that they are at least as efficacious and safe as conventional immunosuppressants in treating lupus glomerulonephritis, larger clinical trials are undoubtedly required to validate these as-yet favourable findings.

  15. An exceptional case of xanthomatous infiltration of the musculoskeletal and integumentary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jae W.; Ersahin, Devrim [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Much, Melissa A. [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Thomson, J.G. [Yale University School of Medicine, Section of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Smitaman, Edward [University of California, San Diego, Teleradiology and Education Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Tendinous and subcutaneous xanthomas are most commonly associated with primary hyperlipidemia. Xanthomatosis caused by cholesterol deposition can be a high risk marker for cardiovascular disease related to premature atherosclerosis; thus, early recognition of this diagnosis may reduce mortality and morbidity. Achilles tendon involvement is most common, followed by the extensor tendons of the hand and elbow. We present an exceptional case of tendinous and tuberous xanthomas, with intraoperative and histologic correlation, in a 34-year-old female manifesting with xanthomatous deposits of nearly all ankle tendons, plantar aponeurosis, extensor tendons of the hands, and various locations within the integumentum. To the authors' knowledge, only four studies to date have focused specifically on imaging findings of multifocal xanthomas. Thus, the radiographic and MR imaging descriptions of xanthomas in this report further add to the existing literature by helping to identify imaging characteristics of this multifocal systemic disease. The diagnosis of this condition should alert the physician to the presence of a dyslipidemia that can be treated with dietary modifications and/or drug therapy. (orig.)

  16. An exceptional case of xanthomatous infiltration of the musculoskeletal and integumentary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jae W.; Ersahin, Devrim; Much, Melissa A.; Thomson, J.G.; Smitaman, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Tendinous and subcutaneous xanthomas are most commonly associated with primary hyperlipidemia. Xanthomatosis caused by cholesterol deposition can be a high risk marker for cardiovascular disease related to premature atherosclerosis; thus, early recognition of this diagnosis may reduce mortality and morbidity. Achilles tendon involvement is most common, followed by the extensor tendons of the hand and elbow. We present an exceptional case of tendinous and tuberous xanthomas, with intraoperative and histologic correlation, in a 34-year-old female manifesting with xanthomatous deposits of nearly all ankle tendons, plantar aponeurosis, extensor tendons of the hands, and various locations within the integumentum. To the authors' knowledge, only four studies to date have focused specifically on imaging findings of multifocal xanthomas. Thus, the radiographic and MR imaging descriptions of xanthomas in this report further add to the existing literature by helping to identify imaging characteristics of this multifocal systemic disease. The diagnosis of this condition should alert the physician to the presence of a dyslipidemia that can be treated with dietary modifications and/or drug therapy. (orig.)

  17. [Personal experience in the use of magnetotherapy in diseases of the musculoskeletal system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlonova, J; Korpas, J

    1999-12-01

    Therapeutic application of pulsatile electromagnetic field in disorders of motility is recently becoming more frequent. Despite this fact information about the effectiveness of this therapy in the literature are rare. The aim of this study was therefore the treatment of 576 patients who suffered from vertebral syndrome, gonarthritis and coxarthritis. For application of pulsatile electromagnetic field MTU 500H Therapy System was used. Pulsatile electromagnetic field had a frequency valve of 4.5 mT in all studied groups and magnetic induction valve 12.5-18.75 mT in the 1st group. In the 2nd group the intensity was 5.8-7.3 mT and in the 3rd group it was 7.6-11.4 mT. The time of inclination/declination in the 1st group was 20/60 ms, in the 2nd group 40/80 ms and in the 3rd group 40/90 ms. The electromagnetic field was applied during 10 days. In the 1st-3rd day during 20 minutes and in the 4th-10th day during 30 minutes. The therapy was repeated in every patient after 3 months with values of intensity higher by 50%. In the time of pulsatile electro-magnetotherapy the patients were without pharmacotherapy or other physiotherapy. The application of pulsatile electromagnetic field is a very effective therapy of vertebral syndrome, gonarthritis and coxarthritis. The results have shown that the therapy was more effective in patients suffering from gonarthrosis, than in patients with vertebral syndrome and least effective in patients with coxarthosis. Owing to regression of oedema and pain relieve the motility of patients improved. (Tab. 3, Ref. 19.)

  18. A dedicated cone-beam CT system for musculoskeletal extremities imaging: Design, optimization, and initial performance characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbijewski, W.; De Jean, P.; Prakash, P.; Ding, Y.; Stayman, J. W.; Packard, N.; Senn, R.; Yang, D.; Yorkston, J.; Machado, A.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on the design and initial imaging performance of a dedicated cone-beam CT (CBCT) system for musculoskeletal (MSK) extremities. The system complements conventional CT and MR and offers a variety of potential clinical and logistical advantages that are likely to be of benefit to diagnosis, treatment planning, and assessment of therapy response in MSK radiology, orthopaedic surgery, and rheumatology. Methods: The scanner design incorporated a host of clinical requirements (e.g., ability to scan the weight-bearing knee in a natural stance) and was guided by theoretical and experimental analysis of image quality and dose. Such criteria identified the following basic scanner components and system configuration: a flat-panel detector (FPD, Varian 3030+, 0.194 mm pixels); and a low-power, fixed anode x-ray source with 0.5 mm focal spot (SourceRay XRS-125-7K-P, 0.875 kW) mounted on a retractable C-arm allowing for two scanning orientations with the capability for side entry, viz. a standing configuration for imaging of weight-bearing lower extremities and a sitting configuration for imaging of tensioned upper extremity and unloaded lower extremity. Theoretical modeling employed cascaded systems analysis of modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) computed as a function of system geometry, kVp and filtration, dose, source power, etc. Physical experimentation utilized an imaging bench simulating the scanner geometry for verification of theoretical results and investigation of other factors, such as antiscatter grid selection and 3D image quality in phantom and cadaver, including qualitative comparison to conventional CT. Results: Theoretical modeling and benchtop experimentation confirmed the basic suitability of the FPD and x-ray source mentioned above. Clinical requirements combined with analysis of MTF and DQE yielded the following system geometry: a ∼55 cm source-to-detector distance; 1.3 magnification; a 20

  19. Activity-based costing for pathology examinations and comparison with the current pricing system in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Ferda A K; Ağirbaş, Ismail; Kuzu, Işınsu

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the real cost data of the pathology examinations by using the activity-based costing method and to contribute to the financial planning of the departments, health managers and also the social security institution. Forty-four examinations selected from the Healthcare Implementation Notification system list and performed at the Ankara University Faculty of Medicine Pathology Department during September 2010 were studied. The analysis and the real cost calculations were done according to the duration of the procedures. Calculated costs were compared with the Healthcare Implementation Notification system and Medicare price lists. The costs of the pathology tests listed within the same pricing levels in the Healthcare Implementation Notification system list showed great differences. The minimum and maximum costs in level 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 15,98-80,15 TL, 15,95-258,59 TL, 42,38- 236,87 TL, and 124,42-406,76 TL, respectively. Medicare price levels were more consistent with the real costs of the examinations compared to the Healthcare Implementation Notification system price list. The prices of the pathology examination listed at different levels in the Healthcare Implementation Notification system lists do not cover the real costs of the work done. The principal parameters of Activity-Based Costing system are more suitable for making the most realistic cost categorization. Although the prices could differ between countries, the Medicare system categories are more realistic than the Healthcare Implementation Notification system. The Healthcare Implementation Notification system list needs to be revised in order to reflect the real costs of the pathology examinations.

  20. Radiology trainer. Musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Erlt-Wagner, B.

    2006-01-01

    This book enables students to simulate examinations. The Radiology Trainer series comprises the whole knowledge of radiology in the form of case studies for self-testing. It is based on the best-sorted German-language collection of radiological examinations of all organ regions. Step by step, radiological knowledge is trained in order to make diagnoses more efficient. The book series ensures optimal preparation for the final medical examinations and is also a valuable tool for practical training. (orig.)

  1. Pathology of the reproductive system and thyroid of women liquidators of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkin, A.A.; Merkulova, I.P.

    2014-01-01

    Data of the annual health follow up of the 100 women-liquidators of the Chernobyl accident performed by Republic centre of medical rehabilitation and balneotherapy have been analyzed. The high frequency of thyroid disease as well as the reproductive system pathology revealed: they were detected in 96% and 87% patients correspondingly. Oncological diseases were detected in 25% of studied cohort. (authors)

  2. The twitcher mouse. Central nervous system pathology after bone marrow transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suzuki, K.; Hoogerbrugge, P. M.; Poorthuis, B. J.; Bekkum, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on the pathology of the central nervous system were evaluated, at light and electron microscope levels, in the homozygous twitcher mouse (twi/twi), an authentic murine model of globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD, Krabbe disease) in humans. In the twitcher

  3. Non-Newtonian flow of pathological bile in the biliary system: experimental investigation and CFD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchumov, Alex G.; Gilev, Valeriy; Popov, Vitaliy; Samartsev, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vasiliy

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents an experimental study of pathological human bile taken from the gallbladder and bile ducts. The flow dependences were obtained for different types of bile from patients with the same pathology, but of different age and sex. The parameters of the Casson's and Carreau's equations were found for bile samples. Results on the hysteretic bile behavior at loading-unloading tests are also presented, which proved that the pathologic bile is a non-Newtonian thixotropic liquid. The viscosity of the gallbladder bile was shown to be higher compared to the duct bile. It was found that at higher shear stress the pathological bile behaves like Newtonian fluid, which is explained by reorientation of structural components. Moreover, some pathological bile flow in the biliary system CFD simulations were performed. The velocity and pressure distributions as well as flow rates in the biliary segments during the gallbladder refilling and emptying phases are obtained. The results of CFD simulations can be used for surgeons to assess the patient's condition and choose an adequate treatment.

  4. Chest pain in focal musculoskeletal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Christensen, Henrik Wulff

    2010-01-01

    overlapping conditions and syndromes of focal disorders, including Tietze syndrome, costochondritis, chest wall syndrome, muscle tenderness, slipping rib, cervical angina, and segmental dysfunction of the cervical and thoracic spine, have been reported to cause pain. For most of these syndromes, evidence......The musculoskeletal system is a recognized source of chest pain. However, despite the apparently benign origin, patients with musculoskeletal chest pain remain under-diagnosed, untreated, and potentially continuously disabled in terms of anxiety, depression, and activities of daily living. Several...... arises mainly from case stories and empiric knowledge. For segmental dysfunction, clinical features of musculoskeletal chest pain have been characterized in a few clinical trials. This article summarizes the most commonly encountered syndromes of focal musculoskeletal disorders in clinical practice....

  5. Radiological diagnostics of malignant tumors of the musculoskeletal system in childhood and adolescence; Radiologische Diagnostik maligner Tumoren des Muskuloskelettalsystems im Kindes- und Adoleszentenalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, S.F.; Krestan, C.R. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinische Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie und muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Wien (Austria); Hojreh, A.; Hoermann, M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinische Abteilung fuer Allgemeine Radiologie und Kinderradiologie, Wien (Austria)

    2008-10-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma are the most common malignant tumors of the musculoskeletal system in childhood and adolescence representing about 10% of newly diagnosed cancers in children and adolescents. In the last two decades the prognosis of patients with such malignancies improved significantly. On the one hand because of the advances in chemotherapy and orthopedic surgery, on the other hand also because of the innovations in radiological diagnostics. The precise pre-therapeutical staging of tumors of the musculoskeletal system provides important prognostic information and has impact on the entire therapy management. During respectively after therapy, imaging is extremely important in the follow-up and in diagnosing a possible recurrent disease. Modern imaging diagnostics of musculoskeletal tumors basically consist of conventional X-ray, of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and of modalities of nuclear medicine such as szintigraphy, positron emission tomography (PET) and PET CT. (orig.) [German] Das Rhabdomyosarkom, das Osteosarkom und das Ewing-Sarkom sind die am haeufigsten auftretenden malignen Tumoren des Muskuloskelettalsystems im Kindes- und Adoleszentenalter. Diese Erkrankungen repraesentieren etwa 10% der bei Kindern und Jugendlichen neu diagnostizierten Tumoren. In den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten hat sich insgesamt die Prognose der Patienten mit solchen Malignomen deutlich gebessert. Einerseits aufgrund der Fortschritte in der Chemotherapie und orthopaedischen Tumorchirurgie, andererseits nicht zuletzt aufgrund der zahlreichen Innovationen der radiologischen Diagnostik. Das praezise praetherapeutische Staging von Tumoren des Muskuloskelettalsystems liefert wichtige prognostische Informationen und beeinflusst das gesamte Therapiemanagement. Waehrend bzw. nach erfolgter Therapie ist die Bildgebung ganz entscheidend im Follow-up und bei der Diagnostik einer moeglichen Rezidiverkrankung. Die moderne

  6. The value of energy spectral CT in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant soft tissue masses of the musculoskeletal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xin [Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Shao, Xiaodong [Department of Radiology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Chen, Haisong, E-mail: chsEJR@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Different types of tissues have different types of spectral curves. • We find that spectral curve is useful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumor of the musculoskeletal system. • Arc shaped curve is a specific sign for tumors containing abundant fat. - Abstract: Objective: To explore the value of energy spectral CT in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant tumor of the musculoskeletal system. Methods: Energy spectral CT scan was performed on 100 patients with soft tissue mass caused by musculoskeletal tumors found by MRI. Solid areas with homogenous density were chosen as region of interests (ROI), avoiding necrosis, hemorrhage and calcification region. Select the optimal keV on single energy images, and then the keV–CT curve was automatically generated. All 100 cases of tumors proved by histological examination were divided into four groups, 38 cases were in benign group, 10 cases in borderline group, 49 cases in malignant group, and 3 cases of lipoma (that were analyzed separately since its curve was arc shaped, significantly different from other curves). The formula used to calculate the slope of spectral curve was as follows: slope = (Hu40 keV − Hu80 keV)/40. As the slope was steep within the range of 40–80 keV based on preliminary observations, 40 keV and 80 keV were used as the reference points to calculate the slope value of the energy spectral curve. Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test was applied for statistical analysis, and P < 0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. Results: The spectral curve of benign group was gradually falling type with a mean slope of 0.75 ± 0.30, that of malignant group was sharply falling type with a mean slope of 1.64 ± 1.00, and that of borderline group was a falling type between the above two groups with a mean slope of 1.34 ± 0.45. The differences of slopes between benign and malignant group, benign and borderline group were of

  7. Processing system of jaws tomograms for pathology identification and surgical guide modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putrik, M. B., E-mail: pmb-88@mail.ru; Ivanov, V. Yu. [Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Lavrentyeva, Yu. E. [Private dental clinic «Uraldent», Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The aim of the study is to create an image processing system, which allows dentists to find pathological resorption and to build surgical guide surface automatically. X-rays images of jaws from cone beam tomography or spiral computed tomography are the initial data for processing. One patient’s examination always includes up to 600 images (or tomograms), that’s why the development of processing system for fast automation search of pathologies is necessary. X-rays images can be useful not for only illness diagnostic but for treatment planning too. We have studied the case of dental implantation – for successful surgical manipulations surgical guides are used. We have created a processing system that automatically builds jaw and teeth boundaries on the x-ray image. After this step, obtained teeth boundaries used for surgical guide surface modeling and jaw boundaries limit the area for further pathologies search. Criterion for the presence of pathological resorption zones inside the limited area is based on statistical investigation. After described actions, it is possible to manufacture surgical guide using 3D printer and apply it in surgical operation.

  8. Processing system of jaws tomograms for pathology identification and surgical guide modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putrik, M. B.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Lavrentyeva, Yu. E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to create an image processing system, which allows dentists to find pathological resorption and to build surgical guide surface automatically. X-rays images of jaws from cone beam tomography or spiral computed tomography are the initial data for processing. One patient’s examination always includes up to 600 images (or tomograms), that’s why the development of processing system for fast automation search of pathologies is necessary. X-rays images can be useful not for only illness diagnostic but for treatment planning too. We have studied the case of dental implantation – for successful surgical manipulations surgical guides are used. We have created a processing system that automatically builds jaw and teeth boundaries on the x-ray image. After this step, obtained teeth boundaries used for surgical guide surface modeling and jaw boundaries limit the area for further pathologies search. Criterion for the presence of pathological resorption zones inside the limited area is based on statistical investigation. After described actions, it is possible to manufacture surgical guide using 3D printer and apply it in surgical operation

  9. Incidental findings in musculoskeletal radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuennemann, F.; Rehnitz, C.; Weber, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing numbers of conventional X-rays, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the inpatient, outpatient and scientific routine leads to an increasing number of incidental findings. The correct interpretation of these incidental findings with respect to the relevance and the evaluation concerning further work-up is an important task of radiologists. Description of common incidental findings in musculoskeletal imaging and their clinical classification. A PubMed literature search was performed using the following terms: incidental findings, population-based imaging, musculoskeletal imaging, non-ossifying fibroma, enchondroma, osteodystrophia deformans, chondrosarcoma, fibrous dysplasia, simple bone cyst, unicameral bone cyst, solitary bone cyst, aneurysmal bone cyst, vertebral hemangioma, bone island, osteopoikilosis, Tarlov cyst and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Incidental findings are observed in up to 40% of imaging procedures. In up to 6% these incidental findings involve the skeletal system. Common incidental findings are discussed and their clinical relevance is explained. (orig.) [de

  10. Involvement of the endosomal-lysosomal system correlates with regional pathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, Gábor G; Gelpi, Ellen; Ströbel, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The endosomal-lysosomal system (ELS) has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine how experimental observations can be translated to human neuropathology and whether alterations of the ELS relate to neuropathologic changes...... correlate with regional pathology. Overloading of this system might impair the function of lysosomal enzymes and thus may mimic some features of lysosomal storage disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jul...

  11. Widespread osteonecrosis of the foot in systemic lupus erythematosus: Radiographic and gross pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnick, D; Pineda, C; Trudell, D

    1985-01-01

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus required an amputation of the foot related to the presence of vascular disease and infection. Radiographs obtained prior to amputation revealed osteonecrosis in virtually every bone of the foot. Radiographic-pathologic correlation documented this widespread osseous involvement. Although ischemic necrosis of bone is a well-known feature of systemic lupus erythematosus, its localization in the small bones of the foot is rare.

  12. Widespread osteonecrosis of the foot in systemic lupus erythematosus: Radiographic and gross pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnick, D.; Pineda, C.; Trudell, D.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla

    1985-01-01

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus required an amputation of the foot related to the presence of vascular disease and infection. Radiographs obtained prior to amputation revealed osteonecrosis in virtually every bone of the foot. Radiographic-pathologic correlation documented this widespread osseous involvement. Although ischemic necrosis of bone is a well-known feature of systemic lupus erythematosus, its localization in the small bones of the foot is rare. (orig.)

  13. 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in patients with bone and musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in all the world countries. Recent studies show the correlation between vitamin D deficiency and musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency prevalence in patients of various ages, who have musculoskeletal disorders, and to reveal the influence of seasonal factors on these conditions. Materials and methods. 3460 patients of the Ukrainian Scientific Medical Center of Osteoporosis Problems, aged 1 to 92 years, who were referred by other specialists to the center for bone state evaluation, were examined. A majority of the patients presented with osteoporosis and its complications, spinal osteochondrosis, knee and hip osteoarthritis (mean age — 52.90 ± 21.10 years. Most of the patients were women (83.5 %. 25(ОНD and parathyroid hormone analyses were performed by means of electrochemiluminescent method (Elecsys 2010 analyzer, Roche Diagnostics, Germany and cobas test-systems. Statistica 6.0 software package (Copyright StatSoft, Inc., 1984–2001 was also used. Results. Among the patients with musculoskeletal pathology, the highest 25(ОНD level was noted in the age group of 1–9 years and the lowest — in the age group of 80 and over. Age negatively influenced 25(ОНD values. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the patients with musculoskeletal pathology was 37.3 %, vitamin D insufficiency — 30.6 %; 32.1 % of patients had normal vitamin D status. Normal 25(OHD level was found in 38.0 % of children, 33.2 % of adults and in 29.6 % of elderly patients. Month of blood sampling had a significant influence on 25(ОНD content (F = 7.49; p < 0.001. The highest significant differences in 25(ОНD levels during the summer vs. winter months were observed in the age groups of 10–19 (18.2 %, 40–49 (17.3 %, 30–39 (16.2 % и 1–9 years (16.1 %. There were no significant seasonal differences observed in the elderly patients (60

  14. A Concise and Comprehensive Description of Shoulder Pathology and Procedures: The 4D Code System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Lafosse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We introduce a novel description system of shoulder pathoanatomy. Its goal is to provide a comprehensive three-dimensional picture, with an additional component of time; thus, we call it the 4D code. Methods. Each line of the code starts with right versus left and a time designation. The pillar components are recorded regardless of pathology; they include subscapularis, long head of biceps tendon, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor. Secondary elements can be added if there is observed pathology, including acromioclavicular joint, glenohumeral joint, labrum, tear configuration, location and extent of partial cuff tear, calcific tendonitis, fatty infiltration, and neuropathy. Results. We provide two illustrative examples of patients which show the ease and effectiveness of the 4D code. With a few simple lines, significant amount of information about patients’ pathology, surgery, and recovery can be easily conveyed. Discussion. We utilize existing validated classification systems for parts of the shoulder and provide a frame work to build a comprehensive picture. The alphanumeric code provides a simple language that is universally understood. The 4D code is concise yet complete. It seeks to improve efficiency and accuracy of the communication, documentation, and visualization of shoulder pathology within individual practices and between providers.

  15. Mustn1: A Developmentally Regulated Pan-Musculoskeletal Cell Marker and Regulatory Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hadjiargyrou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mustn1 gene encodes a small nuclear protein (~9.6 kDa that does not belong to any known family. Its genomic organization consists of three exons interspersed by two introns and it is highly homologous across vertebrate species. Promoter analyses revealed that its expression is regulated by the AP family of transcription factors, especially c-Fos, Fra-2 and JunD. Mustn1 is predominantly expressed in the major tissues of the musculoskeletal system: bone, cartilage, skeletal muscle and tendon. Its expression has been associated with normal embryonic development, postnatal growth, exercise, and regeneration of bone and skeletal muscle. Moreover, its expression has also been detected in various musculoskeletal pathologies, including arthritis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, other skeletal muscle myopathies, clubfoot and diabetes associated muscle pathology. In vitro and in vivo functional perturbation revealed that Mustn1 is a key regulatory molecule in myogenic and chondrogenic lineages. This comprehensive review summarizes our current knowledge of Mustn1 and proposes that it is a new developmentally regulated pan-musculoskeletal marker as well as a key regulatory protein for cell differentiation and tissue growth.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells as therapeutic target of biophysical stimulation for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Marco; Sansone, Valerio; d'Agostino, Maria Cristina; Romeo, Pietro; Perucca Orfei, Carlotta; de Girolamo, Laura

    2016-12-16

    Musculoskeletal disorders are regarded as a major cause of worldwide morbidity and disability, and they result in huge costs for national health care systems. Traditional therapies frequently turned out to be poorly effective in treating bone, cartilage, and tendon disorders or joint degeneration. As a consequence, the development of novel biological therapies that can treat more effectively these conditions should be the highest priority in regenerative medicine. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent one of the most promising tools in musculoskeletal tissue regenerative medicine, thanks to their proliferation and differentiation potential and their immunomodulatory and trophic ability. Indeed, MSC-based approaches have been proposed for the treatment of almost all orthopedic conditions, starting from different cell sources, alone or in combination with scaffolds and growth factors, and in one-step or two-step procedures. While all these approaches would require cell harvesting and transplantation, the possibility to stimulate the endogenous MSCs to enhance their tissue homeostasis activity represents a less-invasive and cost-effective therapeutic strategy. Nowadays, the role of tissue-specific resident stem cells as possible therapeutic target in degenerative pathologies is underinvestigated. Biophysical stimulations, and in particular extracorporeal shock waves treatment and pulsed electromagnetic fields, are able to induce proliferation and support differentiation of MSCs from different origins and affect their paracrine production of growth factors and cytokines. The present review reports the attempts to exploit the resident stem cell potential in musculoskeletal pathologies, highlighting the role of MSCs as therapeutic target of currently applied biophysical treatments.

  17. Musculoskeletal diseases in forestry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slađana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common hazards in the forestry that may induce disorders of the musculoskeletal system are vibrations, unfavorable microclimatic conditions, noise, over-time working hours, work load and long-term repeated movements. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases and its difference among workers engaged in various jobs in the forestry. Two groups of workers were selected: woodcutters operating with chain-saw (N=33 and other loggers (N=32. Selected workers were of the similar age and had similar total length of employment as well as the length of service in the forestry. Both groups of workers employed in the forestry had the high prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases (woodcutters 69.7% and other loggers 62.5%, respectively. Degenerative diseases of spinal column were very frequent, in dependently of the type of activity in the forestry. Non-significantly higher risk of carpal tunnel syndrome was found in woodcutters with chain-saw compared to workers having other jobs in the forestry (OR=3.09; 95%CI=0.64-19.72. The lateral epicondylitis was found only in woodcutters operating with chain-saw with the prevalence of 18.2%.

  18. Robust Central Nervous System Pathology in Transgenic Mice following Peripheral Injection of α-Synuclein Fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Jacob I; Brooks, Mieu M; Rutherford, Nicola J; Howard, Jasie K; Sorrentino, Zachary A; Riffe, Cara J; Giasson, Benoit I

    2017-01-15

    Misfolded α-synuclein (αS) is hypothesized to spread throughout the central nervous system (CNS) by neuronal connectivity leading to widespread pathology. Increasing evidence indicates that it also has the potential to invade the CNS via peripheral nerves in a prion-like manner. On the basis of the effectiveness following peripheral routes of prion administration, we extend our previous studies of CNS neuroinvasion in M83 αS transgenic mice following hind limb muscle (intramuscular [i.m.]) injection of αS fibrils by comparing various peripheral sites of inoculations with different αS protein preparations. Following intravenous injection in the tail veins of homozygous M83 transgenic (M83 +/+ ) mice, robust αS pathology was observed in the CNS without the development of motor impairments within the time frame examined. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of αS fibrils in hemizygous M83 transgenic (M83 +/- ) mice resulted in CNS αS pathology associated with paralysis. Interestingly, injection with soluble, nonaggregated αS resulted in paralysis and pathology in only a subset of mice, whereas soluble Δ71-82 αS, human βS, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) control proteins induced no symptoms or pathology. Intraperitoneal injection of αS fibrils also induced CNS αS pathology in another αS transgenic mouse line (M20), albeit less robustly in these mice. In comparison, i.m. injection of αS fibrils was more efficient in inducing CNS αS pathology in M83 mice than i.p. or tail vein injections. Furthermore, i.m. injection of soluble, nonaggregated αS in M83 +/- mice also induced paralysis and CNS αS pathology, although less efficiently. These results further demonstrate the prion-like characteristics of αS and reveal its efficiency to invade the CNS via multiple routes of peripheral administration. The misfolding and accumulation of α-synuclein (αS) inclusions are found in a number of neurodegenerative disorders and is a hallmark feature of Parkinson

  19. Human Body Mechanics of Pushing and Pulling: Analyzing the Factors of Task-related Strain on the Musculoskeletal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argubi-Wollesen, Andreas; Wollesen, Bettina; Leitner, Martin; Mattes, Klaus

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to name and describe the important factors of musculoskeletal strain originating from pushing and pulling tasks such as cart handling that are commonly found in industrial contexts. A literature database search was performed using the research platform Web of Science. For a study to be included in this review differences in measured or calculated strain had to be investigated with regard to: (1) cart weight/ load; (2) handle position and design; (3) exerted forces; (4) handling task (push and pull); or (5) task experience. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria and proved to be of adequate methodological quality by the standards of the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. External load or cart weight proved to be the most influential factor of strain. The ideal handle positions ranged from hip to shoulder height and were dependent on the strain factor that was focused on as well as the handling task. Furthermore, task experience and subsequently handling technique were also key to reducing strain. Workplace settings that regularly involve pushing and pulling should be checked for potential improvements with regards to lower weight of the loaded handling device, handle design, and good practice guidelines to further reduce musculoskeletal disease prevalence.

  20. On the Emerging Role of the Taste Receptor Type 1 (T1R Family of Nutrient-Sensors in the Musculoskeletal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Kokabu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The special sense of taste guides and guards food intake and is essential for body maintenance. Salty and sour tastes are sensed via ion channels or gated ion channels while G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs of the taste receptor type 1 (T1R family sense sweet and umami tastes and GPCRs of the taste receptor type 2 (T2R family sense bitter tastes. T1R and T2R receptors share similar downstream signaling pathways that result in the stimulation of phospholipase-C-β2. The T1R family includes three members that form heterodimeric complexes to recognize either amino acids or sweet molecules such as glucose. Although these functions were originally described in gustatory tissue, T1R family members are expressed in numerous non-gustatory tissues and are now viewed as nutrient sensors that play important roles in monitoring global glucose and amino acid status. Here, we highlight emerging evidence detailing the function of T1R family members in the musculoskeletal system and review these findings in the context of the musculoskeletal diseases sarcopenia and osteoporosis, which are major public health problems among the elderly that affect locomotion, activities of daily living, and quality of life. These studies raise the possibility that T1R family member function may be modulated for therapeutic benefit.

  1. A systematic review of definitions and classification systems of adjacent segment pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Paul; Fehlings, Michael G; Hashimoto, Robin; Lee, Michael J; Anderson, Paul A; Chapman, Jens R; Raich, Annie; Norvell, Daniel C

    2012-10-15

    Systematic review. To undertake a systematic review to determine how "adjacent segment degeneration," "adjacent segment disease," or clinical pathological processes that serve as surrogates for adjacent segment pathology are classified and defined in the peer-reviewed literature. Adjacent segment degeneration and adjacent segment disease are terms referring to degenerative changes known to occur after reconstructive spine surgery, most commonly at an immediately adjacent functional spinal unit. These can include disc degeneration, instability, spinal stenosis, facet degeneration, and deformity. The true incidence and clinical impact of degenerative changes at the adjacent segment is unclear because there is lack of a universally accepted classification system that rigorously addresses clinical and radiological issues. A systematic review of the English language literature was undertaken and articles were classified using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. RESULTS.: Seven classification systems of spinal degeneration, including degeneration at the adjacent segment, were identified. None have been evaluated for reliability or validity specific to patients with degeneration at the adjacent segment. The ways in which terms related to adjacent segment "degeneration" or "disease" are defined in the peer-reviewed literature are highly variable. On the basis of the systematic review presented in this article, no formal classification system for either cervical or thoracolumbar adjacent segment disorders currently exists. No recommendations regarding the use of current classification of degeneration at any segments can be made based on the available literature. A new comprehensive definition for adjacent segment pathology (ASP, the now preferred terminology) has been proposed in this Focus Issue, which reflects the diverse pathology observed at functional spinal units adjacent to previous spinal reconstruction and balances

  2. A new pathological scoring system by the Japanese classification to predict renal outcome in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Junichi; Furuichi, Kengo; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Mise, Koki; Sekine, Akinari; Kawada, Masahiro; Sumida, Keiichi; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Hasegawa, Eiko; Hayami, Noriko; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Sawa, Naoki; Hara, Shigeko; Fujii, Takeshi; Ohashi, Kenichi; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Toyama, Tadashi; Shimizu, Miho; Takaichi, Kenmei; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Wada, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    The impact of the newly proposed pathological classification by the Japan Renal Pathology Society (JRPS) on renal outcome is unclear. So we evaluated that impact and created a new pathological scoring to predict outcome using this classification. A multicenter cohort of 493 biopsy-proven Japanese patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) were analyzed. The association between each pathological factor-Tervaert' and JRPS classifications-and renal outcome (dialysis initiation or 50% eGFR decline) was estimated by adjusted Cox regression. The overall pathological risk score (J-score) was calculated, whereupon its predictive ability for 10-year risk of renal outcome was evaluated. The J-scores of diffuse lesion classes 2 or 3, GBM doubling class 3, presence of mesangiolysis, polar vasculosis, and arteriolar hyalinosis were, respectively, 1, 2, 4, 1, and 2. The scores of IFTA classes 1, 2, and 3 were, respectively, 3, 4, and 4, and those of interstitial inflammation classes 1, 2, and 3 were 5, 5, and 4 (J-score range, 0-19). Renal survival curves, when dividing into four J-score grades (0-5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-19), were significantly different from each other (prenal outcome. Ability to predict 10-year renal outcome was improved when the J-score was added to the basic model: c-statistics from 0.661 to 0.685; category-free net reclassification improvement, 0.154 (-0.040, 0.349, p = 0.12); and integrated discrimination improvement, 0.015 (0.003, 0.028, p = 0.02). Mesangiolysis, polar vasculosis, and doubling of GBM-features of the JRPS system-were significantly associated with renal outcome. Prediction of DN patients' renal outcome was better with the J-score than without it.

  3. A computer-aided diagnosis system to detect pathologies in temporal subtraction images of chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looper, Jared; Harrison, Melanie; Armato, Samuel G.

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists often compare sequential radiographs to identify areas of pathologic change; however, this process is prone to error, as human anatomy can obscure the regions of change, causing the radiologists to overlook pathology. Temporal subtraction (TS) images can provide enhanced visualization of regions of change in sequential radiographs and allow radiologists to better detect areas of change in radiographs. Not all areas of change shown in TS images, however, are actual pathology. The purpose of this study was to create a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that identifies which regions of change are caused by pathology and which are caused by misregistration of the radiographs used to create the TS image. The dataset used in this study contained 120 images with 74 pathologic regions on 54 images outlined by an experienced radiologist. High and low ("light" and "dark") gray-level candidate regions were extracted from the images using gray-level thresholding. Then, sampling techniques were used to address the class imbalance problem between "true" and "false" candidate regions. Next, the datasets of light candidate regions, dark candidate regions, and the combined set of light and dark candidate regions were used as training and testing data for classifiers by using five-fold cross validation. Of the classifiers tested (support vector machines, discriminant analyses, logistic regression, and k-nearest neighbors), the support vector machine on the combined candidates using synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) performed best with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.85, a sensitivity of 85%, and a specificity of 84%.

  4. [Outstanding problems of normal and pathological morphology of the diffuse endocrine system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V

    2011-01-01

    The diffuse endocrine system (DES)--a mosaic-cellular endoepithelial gland--is the biggest part of the human endocrine system. Scientists used to consider cells of DES as neuroectodermal. According to modem data cells of DES are different cytogenetic types because they develop from the different embryonic blastophyllum. So that any hormone-active tumors originated from DES of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital system shouldn't be considered as neuroendocrinal tumors. The basic problems of DES morphology and pathology are the creation of scientifically substantiated histogenetic classification of DES tumors.

  5. Replacement of daily load attenuates but does not prevent changes to the musculoskeletal system during bed rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. Cavanagh, PhD DSc

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The dose-response effects of exercise in reduced gravity on musculoskeletal health have not been well documented. It is not known whether or not individualized exercise prescriptions can be effective in preventing the substantial loss in bone mineral density and muscle function that have been observed in space flight and in bed rest. In this study, typical daily loads to the lower extremities were quantified in free-living subjects who were then randomly assigned to control or exercise groups. Subjects were confined to 6-degree head-down bed rest for 84 days. The exercise group performed individually prescribed 1 g loaded locomotor exercise to replace their free-living daily load. Eleven subjects (5 exercise, 6 control completed the protocol. Volumetric bone mineral density results from quantitative computed tomography demonstrated that control subjects lost significant amounts of bone in the intertrochanteric and total hip regions (p  0.0125. Pre-and post-bed rest muscle volumes were calculated from analysis of magnetic resonance imaging data. The exercise group retained a larger percentage of their total quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscle volume (−7.2% ± 5.9, −13.8% ± 6.1, respectively than their control counterparts (−23.3% ± 5.9, −33.0 ± 8.2, respectively; p  0.05. The decline in VO2max was 17% ± 18 in exercising subjects (p  0.05. In summary, the decline in a number of important measures of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health was attenuated but not eliminated by a subject-specific program of locomotor exercise designed to replace daily load accumulated during free living. We conclude that single daily bouts of exposure to locomotor exercise can play a role in a countermeasures program during bed rest, and perhaps space flight, but are not sufficient in their own right to ensure musculoskeletal or cardiovascular health. Keywords: Space flight, Bed rest, Exercise, Biomechanics, Simulation, Gravity

  6. [Systemic inflammation: theoretical and methodological approaches to description of general pathological process model. Part 3. Backgroung for nonsyndromic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, E Yu; Chereshnev, V A

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and methodological approaches to description of systemic inflammation as general pathological process are discussed. It is shown, that there is a need of integration of wide range of types of researches to develop a model of systemic inflammation.

  7. Imaging of musculoskeletal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussel, L.; Marchand, B.; Blineau, N.; Picaud, G.; Emn, M.; Coulon, A.; Pagnon, P.; Rode, A.; Pin-Leveugle, J.; Berthezene, Y.; Pariset, C.; Boibieux, A.; Hermier, M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose and methods. To perform an illustrated and educational review of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Results. As the incidence of musculoskeletal tuberculosis still increases, a review appears justified. The following four main presentations are detailed and illustrated, by emphasizing the value of both CT and MR imaging: a) spine tuberculosis (∼ 50 %/) commonly involves two adjacent vertebral bodies with usual large paravertebral abscesses. The following lesions are highly suggestive of tuberculosis: solitary vertebral involvement, solitary epidural abscess with or without erosive spondylitis; b) osteo-arthritis: peripherally located erosions at synovial insertions with gradual narrowing of the joint space are highly suggestive; c) osteomyelitis: unusual, may involve any bones; d) tenosynovitis and bursitis. Conclusion. Imaging studies are essential for diagnosis and to assess the extent of musculo-skeletal tuberculosis. (author)

  8. Advancing the Assessment of Personality Pathology With the Cognitive-Affective Processing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Nelson, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) is a dynamic and expansive model of personality proposed by Mischel and Shoda (1995) that incorporates dispositional and processing frameworks by considering the interaction of the individual and the situation, and the patterns of variation that result. These patterns of cognition, affect, and behavior are generally defined through the use of if … then statements, and provide a rich understanding of the individual across varying levels of assessment. In this article, we describe the CAPS model and articulate ways in which it can be applied to conceptualizing and assessing personality pathology. We suggest that the CAPS model is an ideal framework that integrates a number of current theories of personality pathology, and simultaneously overcomes a number of limits that have been empirically identified in the past.

  9. PATHOLOGY OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF ENDOCRINOPATHIES. DISORDERS OF HYPOTHALAMOHYPOPHYSIAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F. Litvitskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first lection in the course «Endocrinopathies» discusses main rules of endocrinology, main causes and key stages of endocrine pathology development, etiology and pathogenesis of the most frequent hypophysial disorders with their symptoms and mechanisms, and several types of adenohypophysial pathology. Author gives some tests and situational tasks for the evaluation of the level of knowledge, and the answers to the tests.Key words: endocrinopathy, hypopituitarism, hyperpituitarism, acromegalia, diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inadequate secretion of ADH.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 47–60

  10. A medical software system for volumetric analysis of cerebral pathologies in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Jan; Kappus, Christoph; Freisleben, Bernd; Nimsky, Christopher

    2012-08-01

    In this contribution, a medical software system for volumetric analysis of different cerebral pathologies in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data is presented. The software system is based on a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm and helps to overcome the time-consuming process of volume determination during monitoring of a patient. After imaging, the parameter settings-including a seed point-are set up in the system and an automatic segmentation is performed by a novel graph-based approach. Manually reviewing the result leads to reseeding, adding seed points or an automatic surface mesh generation. The mesh is saved for monitoring the patient and for comparisons with follow-up scans. Based on the mesh, the system performs a voxelization and volume calculation, which leads to diagnosis and therefore further treatment decisions. The overall system has been tested with different cerebral pathologies-glioblastoma multiforme, pituitary adenomas and cerebral aneurysms- and evaluated against manual expert segmentations using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). Additionally, intra-physician segmentations have been performed to provide a quality measure for the presented system.

  11. The Third Eye of the Rheumatologist: Applications of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in Rheumatic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hsin-Hua Chen

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatologists manage patients with rheumatic diseases, which are of a wide range of musculoskeletal pathologies. Without clarification of the exact location of pathologies and the degree of inflammation, rheumatologists may have an incorrect assessment, leading to inappropriate management. In everyday practice, physical examination is limited by its sensitivity and power of assessment. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) is inexpensive, readily available, and allows side-by-side image co...

  12. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  13. Patterns of Musculoskeletal Diseases seen in Zambian Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are a common cause of long-term pain and physical disability affecting many people worldwide and have an enormous economic and social impact on the individual, society and national health systems. Although the burden of disease due to musculoskeletal disorders is said to be ...

  14. A study of the blood flow restriction pressure of a tourniquet system to facilitate development of a system that can prevent musculoskeletal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroyuki; Iwase, Hideaki; Kanda, Akio; Morohashi, Itaru; Kaneko, Kazuo; Maeda, Mutsuhiro; Kakinuma, Yuki; Takei, Yusuke; Amemiya, Shota; Mitsui, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    After an emergency or disaster, subsequent trauma can cause severe bleeding and this can often prove fatal, so promptly stopping that bleeding is crucial to preventing avoidable trauma deaths. A tourniquet is often used to restrict blood flow to an extremity. In operation and hospital, the tourniquet systems currently in use are pneumatically actuated by an air compressor, so they must have a steady power supply. These devices have several drawbacks: they vibrate and are noisy since they are pneumatically actuated and they are far from portable since they are large and heavy. Presumably, the drawbacks of pneumatic tourniquets could be overcome by developing a small, lightweight, vibration-free, quiet, and battery-powered tourniquet system. The current study built a small, vibration-free electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pump and then used that pump to restrict blood flow to the leg of rats in an experiment. This study explored the optimal conditions for effective restriction of blood flow by assessing biochemical and musculoskeletal complications following the restriction of blood flow, and this study also examined whether or not an EHD pump could be used to actuate a tourniquet system. A tourniquet cuff (width 12 mm × length 150 mm, material: polyolefin) was placed on the thigh of Wistar rats and pressure was applied for 2 hours by a device that uses EHD phenomena to generate pressure (an EHD pump). Animals were divided into four groups based on how much compressive pressure was applied with a tourniquet: 40 kPa (300 mm Hg, n = 13), 30 kPa (225 mm Hg, n = 12), 20 kPa (150 mm Hg, n = 15), or 0 kPa (controls, n = 25). Tissue oxygen saturation (regional oxygen saturation, denoted here as rSO 2 ) was measured to assess the restriction of blood flow. To assess behavior once blood flow resumed, animal activity was monitored for third day and the amount of movement was counted with digital counters. Body weight was measured before and after the behavioral experiment, and

  15. On the question of periodization training content and Paralympic athletes with disorders of the musculoskeletal system in the light of the general theory of sports training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Derkach

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To determine theoretically similar trends and differences in the periods of sports training athletes and Paralympic athletes with similar qualifications, without disabilities. Material : analyzed more than 80 references. Results : at present insufficiently developed periodization sports training many years to prepare athletes with disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Also - at the stage of maximum realization of individual empowerment athletes. This applies to the immediate preparation for the main competition. In the first case, periodization can be carried out on the basis of the classical theory. Also on stage, maximizing the individual capabilities. Need to adapt this theory to career achievements of athletes. Also, you must consider the disease. Conclusions : The main factors set differences training tools Paralympic athletes and physically healthy: increased attention to the psychological preparation for the Paralympics, inclusive education and sports training individualization programs already in the first stage of their training.

  16. [Prognostic prediction of the functional capacity and effectiveness of functional improvement program of the musculoskeletal system among users of preventive care service under long-term care insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Toshimasa; Nakaya, Naoki; Tomata, Yasutake; Aida, Jun; Okubo, Ichiro; Ohara, Satoko; Obuchi, Shuichi; Sugiyama, Michiko; Yasumura, Seiji; Suzuki, Takao; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Functional Improvement Program of the Musculoskeletal System among users of Preventive Care Service under Long-Term Care Insurance. A total of 3,073 subjects were analyzed. We used the prediction formula to estimate the predicted value of the Kihon Checklist after one year, and calculated the measured value minus the predicted value. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the measured value minus predicted value tertiles: the lowest and middle tertile (good-to-fair measured value) and the highest tertile (poor measured value). We used a multiple logistic regression model to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the good-to-fair measured values of the Kihon Checklist after one year, according to the Functional Improvement Program of the Musculoskeletal System. In potentially dependent elderly, the multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CI) of the good-to-fair measured values were 2.4 (1.3-4.4) for those who attended the program eight times or more in a month (vs those who attended it three times or less in a month), 1.3 (1.0-1.8) for those who engaged in strength training using machines (vs those who did not train), and 1.4 (1.0-1.9) for those who engaged in endurance training. In this study, among potentially dependent elderly, those who attended the program eight times or more in a month and those who engaged in strength training using machines or endurance training showed a significant improvement of their functional capacity.

  17. In Vivo Neuromechanics: Decoding Causal Motor Neuron Behavior with Resulting Musculoskeletal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Massimo; Yavuz, Utku Ş; Farina, Dario

    2017-10-18

    Human motor function emerges from the interaction between the neuromuscular and the musculoskeletal systems. Despite the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying neural and mechanical functions, there is no relevant understanding of the neuro-mechanical interplay in the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. This currently represents the major challenge to the understanding of human movement. We address this challenge by proposing a paradigm for investigating spinal motor neuron contribution to skeletal joint mechanical function in the intact human in vivo. We employ multi-muscle spatial sampling and deconvolution of high-density fiber electrical activity to decode accurate α-motor neuron discharges across five lumbosacral segments in the human spinal cord. We use complete α-motor neuron discharge series to drive forward subject-specific models of the musculoskeletal system in open-loop with no corrective feedback. We perform validation tests where mechanical moments are estimated with no knowledge of reference data over unseen conditions. This enables accurate blinded estimation of ankle function purely from motor neuron information. Remarkably, this enables observing causal associations between spinal motor neuron activity and joint moment control. We provide a new class of neural data-driven musculoskeletal modeling formulations for bridging between movement neural and mechanical levels in vivo with implications for understanding motor physiology, pathology, and recovery.

  18. Evidences of Polymorphism Associated with Circadian System and Risk of Pathologies: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Valenzuela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The circadian system is a supraphysiological system that modulates different biological functions such as metabolism, sleep-wake, cellular proliferation, and body temperature. Different chronodisruptors have been identified, such as shift work, feeding time, long days, and stress. The environmental changes and our modern lifestyle can alter the circadian system and increase the risk of developing pathologies such as cancer, preeclampsia, diabetes, and mood disorder. This system is organized by transcriptional/tranductional feedback loops of clock genes Clock, Bmal1, Per1–3, and Cry1-2. How molecular components of the clock are able to influence the development of diseases and their risk relation with genetic components of polymorphism of clock genes is unknown. This research describes different genetic variations in the population and how these are associated with risk of cancer, metabolic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemias, and also mood disorders such as depression, bipolar disease, excessive alcohol intake, and infertility. Finally, these findings will need to be implemented and evaluated at the level of genetic interaction and how the environment factors trigger the expression of these pathologies will be examined.

  19. Impact of the cardiovascular system-associated adipose tissue on atherosclerotic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Grechko, Andrey V; Myasoedova, Veronika A; Melnichenko, Alexandra A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances. Adipokine appears to play an important protective role in cardiovascular system. Under chronic inflammation conditions, the repertoire of signaling molecules secreted by cardiac fat can be altered, leading to a higher amount of pro-inflammatory messengers, vasoconstrictors, profibrotic modulators. This further aggravates cardiovascular inflammation and leads to hypertension, induction of the pathological tissue remodeling and cardiac fibrosis. Contemporary imaging techniques showed that epicardial fat thickness correlates with the visceral fat mass, which is an established risk factor and predictor of cardiovascular disease in obese subjects. However, this correlation is no longer present after adjustment for other covariates. Nevertheless, recent studies showed that pericardial fat volume and epicardial fat thickness can probably serve as a better indicator for atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Integration of scanned document management with the anatomic pathology laboratory information system: analysis of benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rodney A; Simmons, Kim; Grimm, Erin E; Middlebrooks, Michael; Changchien, Rosy

    2006-11-01

    Electronic document management systems (EDMSs) have the potential to improve the efficiency of anatomic pathology laboratories. We implemented a novel but simple EDMS for scanned documents as part of our laboratory information system (AP-LIS) and collected cost-benefit data with the intention of discerning the value of such a system in general and whether integration with the AP-LIS is advantageous. We found that the direct financial benefits are modest but the indirect and intangible benefits are large. Benefits of time savings and access to data particularly accrued to pathologists and residents (3.8 h/d saved for 26 pathologists and residents). Integrating the scanned document management system (SDMS) into the AP-LIS has major advantages in terms of workflow and overall simplicity. This simple, integrated SDMS is an excellent value in a practice like ours, and many of the benefits likely apply in other practice settings.

  1. Molecular versus particulate deposition markers for blood flow measurement in the musculo-skeletal system. 131Iodo-DesMethyl-Imipramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromborg, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    The aims of the experiments were to develop and validate a porcine isolated blood perfused myocutaneous flap and tibia model with preserved venous outflow. The stability of the models was tested and washout of microspheres and IDMI was measured. IDMI and microsphere based tissue blood flow measurements were compared after central intracardiac injection into the intact animal. Three experimental series were necessary to develop and validate the models. The organs were perfused with arterial blood by a pulsatile pump and submerged into a tissue bath. All outflow from the models were collected. One experiment was necessary to validate the rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. In three experiments an isolated tibia with preserved venous outflow was developed and validated. Normal flow rate/perfusion pressure relations were reproduced after periods of supra-normal and sub-normal perfusion pressure in the two models. A response to endothelially mediated vasodilation with bradykinin was demonstrated after nine hours of artificial perfusion in the tibia model. IDMI did not influence the local hemodynamics during infusion, whereas microspheres elicited a transitory increase in the perfusion pressure after local injection. IDMI and microsphere based blood flow measurements and recirculation were compared in the in-situ musculo-skeletal tissue corresponding to the two models after central injection of the markers. Recirculation of IDMI was greater (8(1)%) than that of microspheres (2(0)%) after 18 minutes. Microspheres tended to measure higher blood flow values than IDMI at high flow rates and vice versa at low flow values. The 131 Iodo-DesMethyl-Imipramine (IDMI) method is not generally applicable as a deposition marker for blood flow measurement in the musculo-skeletal system. (EHS)

  2. Costs by industry and diagnosis among musculoskeletal claims in a state workers compensation system: 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Kari K; Davis, Kermit G; Cook, Chad; Kotowski, Susan E; Hamrick, Chris; Jewell, Gregory; Lockey, James

    2010-03-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a tremendous burden on industry in the United States. However, there is limited understanding of the unique issues relating to specific industry sectors, specifically the frequency and costs of different MSDs. Claim data from 1999 to 2004 from the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation were analyzed as a function of industry sector (NAICS industry-sector categories) and anatomical region (ICD-9 codes). Almost 50% of the claims were lumbar spine (26.9%) or hand/wrist (21.7%). The majority of claims were from manufacturing (25.1%) and service (32.8%) industries. The industries with the highest average costs per claim were transportation, warehouse, and utilities and construction. Across industries, the highest costs per claim were consistently for the lumbar spine, shoulder, and cervical spine body regions. This study provides insight into the severity (i.e., medical and indemnity costs) of MSDs across multiple industries, providing data for prioritizing of resources for research and interventions. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Pediatric respiratory and systemic effects of chronic air pollution exposure: nose, lung, heart, and brain pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Reed, William

    2007-01-01

    Exposures to particulate matter and gaseous air pollutants have been associated with respiratory tract inflammation, disruption of the nasal respiratory and olfactory barriers, systemic inflammation, production of mediators of inflammation capable of reaching the brain and systemic circulation of particulate matter. Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to significant amounts of ozone, particulate matter and associated lipopolysaccharides. MC dogs exhibit brain inflammation and an acceleration of Alzheimer's-like pathology, suggesting that the brain is adversely affected by air pollutants. MC children, adolescents and adults have a significant upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in olfactory bulb and frontal cortex, as well as neuronal and astrocytic accumulation of the 42 amino acid form of beta -amyloid peptide (Abeta 42), including diffuse amyloid plaques in frontal cortex. The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by brain inflammation and the accumulation of Abeta 42, which precede the appearance of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the pathological hallmarks of AD. Our findings of nasal barrier disruption, systemic inflammation, and the upregulation of COX2 and IL-1beta expression and Abeta 42 accumulation in brain suggests that sustained exposures to significant concentrations of air pollutants such as particulate matter could be a risk factor for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Tinnitus: pathology of synaptic plasticity at the cellular and system levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu J Guitton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite being more and more common, and having a high impact on the quality of life of sufferers, tinnitus does not yet have a cure. This has been mostly the result of limited knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying this adverse pathology. However, the last decade has witnessed tremendous progress in our understanding on the pathophysiology of tinnitus. Animal models have demonstrated that tinnitus is a pathology of neural plasticity, and has two main components: a molecular, peripheral component related to the initiation phase of tinnitus; and a system-level, central component related to the long-term maintenance of tinnitus. Using the most recent experimental data and the molecular/system dichotomy as a framework, we describe here the biological basis of tinnitus. We then discuss these mechanisms from an evolutionary perspective, highlighting similarities with memory. Finally, we consider how these discoveries can translate into therapies, and we suggest operative strategies to design new and effective combined therapeutic solutions using both pharmacological (local and systemic and behavioral tools (e.g., using tele-medicine and virtual reality settings.

  5. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption

  6. Learning musculoskeletal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilanova, Joan C. (eds.) [Girona Univ. (Spain). Clinica Girona; Ribes, Ramon

    2010-07-01

    This introduction to musculoskeletal imaging is a further volume in the Learning Imaging series. Written in a user-friendly format, it takes into account that musculoskeletal radiology is a subspecialty which has widely expanded its scope and imaging capabilities with the advent of ultrasound, MRI, multidetector CT, and PET. The book is divided into ten sections covering: infection and arthritis, tumors, tendons and muscles, bone marrow, spine, shoulder, elbow, hand and wrist, hip and pelvis, knee, and ankle and foot. Each chapter is presented with an introduction and ten case studies with illustrations and comments from anatomical, physiopathological and radiological standpoints along with bibliographic recommendations. Learning Imaging is a unique case-based series for those in professional education in general and for physicians in particular. (orig.)

  7. Learning musculoskeletal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilanova, Joan C.; Ribes, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    This introduction to musculoskeletal imaging is a further volume in the Learning Imaging series. Written in a user-friendly format, it takes into account that musculoskeletal radiology is a subspecialty which has widely expanded its scope and imaging capabilities with the advent of ultrasound, MRI, multidetector CT, and PET. The book is divided into ten sections covering: infection and arthritis, tumors, tendons and muscles, bone marrow, spine, shoulder, elbow, hand and wrist, hip and pelvis, knee, and ankle and foot. Each chapter is presented with an introduction and ten case studies with illustrations and comments from anatomical, physiopathological and radiological standpoints along with bibliographic recommendations. Learning Imaging is a unique case-based series for those in professional education in general and for physicians in particular. (orig.)

  8. 3D printing from diagnostic images: a radiologist's primer with an emphasis on musculoskeletal imaging-putting the 3D printing of pathology into the hands of every physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Tamir; Michalski, Mark; Goodman, T Rob; Brown, J Elliott

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has recently erupted into the medical arena due to decreased costs and increased availability of printers and software tools. Due to lack of detailed information in the medical literature on the methods for 3D printing, we have reviewed the medical and engineering literature on the various methods for 3D printing and compiled them into a practical "how to" format, thereby enabling the novice to start 3D printing with very limited funds. We describe (1) background knowledge, (2) imaging parameters, (3) software, (4) hardware, (5) post-processing, and (6) financial aspects required to cost-effectively reproduce a patient's disease ex vivo so that the patient, engineer and surgeon may hold the anatomy and associated pathology in their hands.

  9. Wnt and lithium: a common destiny in the therapy of nervous system pathologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffre, Delphine; Grenier, Julien; Bernard, Sophie; Courtin, Françoise; Dudev, Todor; Shackleford, Ghjuvan'Ghjacumu; Jafarian-Tehrani, Mehrnaz; Massaad, Charbel

    2014-04-01

    Wnt signaling is required for neurogenesis, the fate of neural progenitors, the formation of neuronal circuits during development, neuron positioning and polarization, axon and dendrite development and finally for synaptogenesis. This signaling pathway is also implicated in the generation and differentiation of glial cells. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of action of Wnt signaling pathways and their implication in the development and correct functioning of the nervous system. We also illustrate how a dysregulated Wnt pathway could lead to psychiatric, neurodegenerative and demyelinating pathologies. Lithium, used for the treatment of bipolar disease, inhibits GSK3β, a central enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Thus, lithium could, to some extent, mimic Wnt pathway. We highlight the possible dialogue between lithium therapy and modulation of Wnt pathway in the treatment of the diseases of the nervous system.

  10. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part I: Infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid; Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon R.; Steinbach, Lynne S.

    2004-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system can be affected by a variety of abnormalities in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although not as common as complications involving other organ systems, such as the pulmonary and the central nervous systems, HIV-associated musculoskeletal disorders are sometimes the initial presentation of the viral illness. Knowledge of the existence and the characteristic appearance of the conditions affecting bone, joint, and muscle in HIV-infected patients is valuable to radiologists for diagnosis and to clinicians for detection and appropriate treatment. We reviewed recent literature to provide a comprehensive assessment of the HIV-associated musculoskeletal disorders, and present radiologic examples from our own collection. This article is divided into two parts. In the first part we review the infectious musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV illness and AIDS, including cellulitis, abscesses, pyomyositis, septic bursitis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and bacillary angiomatosis. We also present a comprehensive spectrum of mycobacterial infections, consisting of tuberculous spondylitis and spondylodiskitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and tenosynovitis, as well as infections caused by atypical mycobacteria. Part II of this review will concentrate on non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions, including rheumatic disorders and neoplasms. (orig.)

  11. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part I: Infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Rt. 140, 101 The City Drive ZC 5005, CA 92868-3298, Orange (United States); Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon R. [College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California (United States); Steinbach, Lynne S. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The musculoskeletal system can be affected by a variety of abnormalities in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although not as common as complications involving other organ systems, such as the pulmonary and the central nervous systems, HIV-associated musculoskeletal disorders are sometimes the initial presentation of the viral illness. Knowledge of the existence and the characteristic appearance of the conditions affecting bone, joint, and muscle in HIV-infected patients is valuable to radiologists for diagnosis and to clinicians for detection and appropriate treatment. We reviewed recent literature to provide a comprehensive assessment of the HIV-associated musculoskeletal disorders, and present radiologic examples from our own collection. This article is divided into two parts. In the first part we review the infectious musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV illness and AIDS, including cellulitis, abscesses, pyomyositis, septic bursitis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and bacillary angiomatosis. We also present a comprehensive spectrum of mycobacterial infections, consisting of tuberculous spondylitis and spondylodiskitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and tenosynovitis, as well as infections caused by atypical mycobacteria. Part II of this review will concentrate on non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions, including rheumatic disorders and neoplasms. (orig.)

  12. A role for the hippocampal serotonergic system in the pathology of schizophrenia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarr, E.; Pavey, G.M.; Copolov, D.L.; Dean, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Theories of a role for serotonin in the pathology of schizophrenia predate the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. More recently, interest in the involvement of serotonin in the disorder is primarily due to the fact that the 'atypical' neuroleptic drugs target the serotonergic system, amongst others. We have previously reported decreases in the 5-HT 2A receptors in hippocampi obtained postmortem from subjects with schizophrenia. In the same cohort of subjects we now report decreases (p 3 H]citalopram binding in the CA1 region (17.5 ± 1.4 vs. 21.7 ± 1.3 fmole/mg ETE) and methiothepin-insensitive [3H]sumatriptan binding in the CA1 (2.85 ± 0.25 vs. 3.90 ± 0.33 fmole/mg ETE), the stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare (4.11 ± 0.32 vs. 5.35 ± 0.46 fmole/mg ETE) and subiculum (3.87 ± 0.26 vs. 5.08 ± 0.39 fmole/mg ETE) from subjects with schizophrenia. No changes were found in [ 3 H]8-OHDPAT or methiothepin-sensitive [ 3 H]sumatriptan binding. These data indicate that there are regionally specific decreases in the densities of hippocampal serotonin transporter and 5-HT 1F receptors which may be involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. Copyright (2002) Australian Neuroscience Society

  13. RecutClub.com: An open source, whole slide image-based pathology education system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Christensen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our institution's pathology unknown conferences provide educational cases for our residents. However, the cases have not been previously available digitally, have not been collated for postconference review, and were not accessible to a wider audience. Our objective was to create an inexpensive whole slide image (WSI education suite to address these limitations and improve the education of pathology trainees. Materials and Methods: We surveyed residents regarding their preference between four unique WSI systems. We then scanned weekly unknown conference cases and study set cases and uploaded them to our custom built WSI viewer located at RecutClub.com. We measured site utilization and conference participation. Results: Residents preferred our OpenLayers WSI implementation to Ventana Virtuoso, Google Maps API, and OpenSlide. Over 16 months, we uploaded 1366 cases from 77 conferences and ten study sets, occupying 793.5 GB of cloud storage. Based on resident evaluations, the interface was easy to use and demonstrated minimal latency. Residents are able to review cases from home and from their mobile devices. Worldwide, 955 unique IP addresses from 52 countries have viewed cases in our site. Conclusions: We implemented a low-cost, publicly available repository of WSI slides for resident education. Our trainees are very satisfied with the freedom to preview either the glass slides or WSI and review the WSI postconference. Both local users and worldwide users actively and repeatedly view cases in our study set.

  14. Techno economic systems and excessive consumption: a political economy of 'pathological' gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Gerda

    2013-12-01

    This article argues that gambling is a paradigmatic form of consumption that captures the intensified logic at the heart of late modern capitalist societies. As well as a site of intensified consumption, it claims that gambling has also become the location of what has been described as a new form of 'social pathology' related to excess play. Drawing on Castells' (1996) notion of techno-economic systems, it explores the ways that intersections between technology, capital and states have generated the conditions for this situation, and critiques the unequal distribution of gambling environments that result. It argues that, while the products of these systems are consumed on a global scale, the risks associated with them tend to be articulated in bio-psychological discourses of 'pathology' which are typical of certain types of knowledge that have salience in neo-liberal societies, and which work to conceal wider structural relationships. We argue that a deeper understanding of the political and cultural economy of gambling environments is necessary, and provide a synoptic overview of the conditions upon which gambling expansion is based. This perspective highlights parallels with the wider global economy of finance capital, as well as the significance of intensified consumption, of which gambling is an exemplary instance. It also reveals the existence of a geo-political dispersal of 'harms', conceived as deteriorations of financial, temporal and social relationships, which disproportionately affect vulnerable social groups. From this, we urge an understanding of commercial gambling based on a critique of the wider social body of gambling environments within techno economic systems, rather than the (flawed) individual bodies within them. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  15. Effect of noisy stimulation on neurobiological sensitization systems and its role for normal and pathological physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Martin; Braun, Hans; Krieg, J.\\:Urgen-Christian

    2004-03-01

    Sensitization is discussed as an important phenomenon playing a role in normal physiology but also with respect to the initiation and progression of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders such as epilepsia, substance-related disorders or recurrent affective disorders. The relevance to understand the dynamics of sensitization phenomena is emphasized by recent findings that even single stimulations can induce longlasting changes in biological systems. To address specific questions associated with the sensitization dynamics, we use a computational approach and develop simple but physiologically-plausible models. In the present study we examine the effect of noisy stimulation on sensitization development in the model. We consider sub- and suprathresold stimulations with varying noise intensities and determine as response measures the (i) absolute number of stimulus-induced sensitzations and (ii) the temporal relsation of stimulus-sensitization coupling. The findings indicate that stochastic effects including stochastic resonance might well contribute to the physiology of sensitization mechanisms under both nomal and pathological conditions.

  16. Pathology of the Nervous System in Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander O. Vortmeyer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is a tumor syndrome that frequently involves the central nervous system (CNS. It is caused by germline mutation of the VHL gene. Subsequent VHL inactivation in selected cells is followed by numerous well-characterized molecular consequences, in particular, activation and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors HIF1 and HIF2. The link between VHL gene inactivation and tumorigenesis remains poorly understood. Hemangioblastomas are the most common manifestation in the CNS; however, CNS invasion by VHL disease-associated endolymphatic sac tumors or metastatic renal cancer also occur, and their differentiation from primary hemangioblastoma may be challenging. Finally, in this review, we present recent morphologic insights on the developmental concept of VHL tumorigenesis which is best explained by pathologic persistence of temporary embryonic progenitor cells. 

  17. Establishment of a general NAFLD scoring system for rodent models and comparison to human liver pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Liang

    Full Text Available The recently developed histological scoring system for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD by the NASH Clinical Research Network (NASH-CRN has been widely used in clinical settings, but is increasingly employed in preclinical research as well. However, it has not been systematically analyzed whether the human scoring system can directly be converted to preclinical rodent models. To analyze this, we systematically compared human NAFLD liver pathology, using human liver biopsies, with liver pathology of several NAFLD mouse models. Based upon the features pertaining to mouse NAFLD, we aimed at establishing a modified generic scoring system that is applicable to broad spectrum of rodent models.The histopathology of NAFLD was analyzed in several different mouse models of NAFLD to define generic criteria for histological assessment (preclinical scoring system. For validation of this scoring system, 36 slides of mouse livers, covering the whole spectrum of NAFLD, were blindly analyzed by ten observers. Additionally, the livers were blindly scored by one observer during two separate assessments longer than 3 months apart.The criteria macrovesicular steatosis, microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular hypertrophy, inflammation and fibrosis were generally applicable to rodent NAFLD. The inter-observer reproducibility (evaluated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient between the ten observers was high for the analysis of macrovesicular steatosis and microvesicular steatosis (ICC = 0.784 and 0.776, all p<0.001, respectively and moderate for the analysis of hypertrophy and inflammation (ICC = 0.685 and 0.650, all p<0.001, respectively. The intra-observer reproducibility between the different observations of one observer was high for the analysis of macrovesicular steatosis, microvesicular steatosis and hypertrophy (ICC = 0.871, 0.871 and 0.896, all p<0.001, respectively and very high for the analysis of inflammation (ICC = 0.931, p

  18. Ultrasound imaging of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.G.; Holsbeek, M.T. van; Gauthier, T.P.; Cook, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Sports-related injuries of the musculoskeletal system affect millions of individuals every year. Integrating high-frequency Tissue Harmonic Imaging ultrasound with MRI and CT gives the greatest opportunity for diagnosing specific injuries. (orig.)

  19. FORECASTING OF SURVIVAL OF CHILDREN WITH THE PRENATALLY DIAGNOSED PATHOLOGY OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Валериевна Дубовая

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective methods for the analysis and prognosis of the survival of newborns with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system are the urgent task of modern medicine. Objective – a neural network model for predicting the survival of children with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system was developed. Materials and methods. To create the artificial neural networks, the method of constructing multifactor mathematical prediction models in the software package Statistica 6.0 was used. The significance level of the factors influencing the survival of children with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system was determined using Wald statistics. When checking statistical hypotheses, the critical level of significance was assumed to be 0,05. Results. A neural network model for the determination of the probability of survival of a child with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system, which has a high prognostic ability of 0,88, sensitivity of the model was 77,6 %, specificity 86,4 %. The value of prognostic survival probability is in the range from 0 to 100 %. With an indicator value of more than 80 %, the probability of survival of a child with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system is estimated as high, ranging from 20 % to 80 % – as an average and less than 20 % – as low. Conclusion. In the algorithm for predicting the survival of children with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system it is necessary to include a combination with other pathology of cardiovascular system, with other organs and systems, with chromosomal abnormalities, with microdeletion and monogenic syndromes.

  20. Increased functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and reward system in pathological gambling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Koehler

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling (PG shares clinical characteristics with substance-use disorders and is thus discussed as a behavioral addiction. Recent neuroimaging studies on PG report functional changes in prefrontal structures and the mesolimbic reward system. While an imbalance between these structures has been related to addictive behavior, whether their dysfunction in PG is reflected in the interaction between them remains unclear. We addressed this question using functional connectivity resting-state fMRI in male subjects with PG and controls. Seed-based functional connectivity was computed using two regions-of-interest, based on the results of a previous voxel-based morphometry study, located in the prefrontal cortex and the mesolimbic reward system (right middle frontal gyrus and right ventral striatum. PG patients demonstrated increased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to the right striatum as compared to controls, which was also positively correlated with nonplanning aspect of impulsiveness, smoking and craving scores in the PG group. Moreover, PG patients demonstrated decreased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to other prefrontal areas as compared to controls. The right ventral striatum demonstrated increased connectivity to the right superior and middle frontal gyrus and left cerebellum in PG patients as compared to controls. The increased connectivity to the cerebellum was positively correlated with smoking in the PG group. Our results provide further evidence for alterations in functional connectivity in PG with increased connectivity between prefrontal regions and the reward system, similar to connectivity changes reported in substance use disorder.

  1. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part II: Non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid; Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon R.; Steinbach, Lynne S.

    2004-01-01

    This section of a two-part series on musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS reviews the non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions. In the first part, the infectious conditions were reviewed. The non-infectious conditions include polymyositis, drug-induced myopathy, myositis ossificans, adhesive capsulitis, avascular necrosis, bone marrow abnormalities, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Inflammatory and reactive arthropathies are more prevalent in HIV-positive individuals, and a separate section is dedicated to these conditions, including Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, HIV-associated arthritis, painful articular syndrome, and acute symmetric polyarthritis. Lastly, we include a discussion of HIV-related neoplastic processes that affect the musculoskeletal system, namely Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  2. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part II: Non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States); Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon R. [College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Steinbach, Lynne S. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (United States)

    2004-06-01

    This section of a two-part series on musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS reviews the non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions. In the first part, the infectious conditions were reviewed. The non-infectious conditions include polymyositis, drug-induced myopathy, myositis ossificans, adhesive capsulitis, avascular necrosis, bone marrow abnormalities, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Inflammatory and reactive arthropathies are more prevalent in HIV-positive individuals, and a separate section is dedicated to these conditions, including Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, HIV-associated arthritis, painful articular syndrome, and acute symmetric polyarthritis. Lastly, we include a discussion of HIV-related neoplastic processes that affect the musculoskeletal system, namely Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  3. Biological stress systems, adverse life events and the onset of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain : a six-year cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Generaal, E.; Vogelzangs, N.; Macfarlane, G.J.; Geenen, R.; de Geus, E.; Smit, J.H.; Penninx, B.W.; Dekker, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dysregulated biological stress systems and adverse life events, both independently and in interaction, have been hypothesized to initiate chronic pain. Objectives We examine whether (i) function of biological stress systems, (ii) adverse life events, and (iii) their combination predict

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of reconstructed ferritin as an iron-induced pathological model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balejcikova, Lucia [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia); Institute of Measurement Science SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia); Strbak, Oliver [Institute of Measurement Science SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia); Biomedical Center Martin, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mala Hora 4, 036 01 Martin (Slovakia); Baciak, Ladislav [Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology STU, Radlinskeho 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kovac, Jozef [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia); Masarova, Marta; Krafcik, Andrej; Frollo, Ivan [Institute of Measurement Science SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia); Dobrota, Dusan [Biomedical Center Martin, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mala Hora 4, 036 01 Martin (Slovakia); Kopcansky, Peter [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia)

    2017-04-01

    Iron, an essential element of the human body, is a significant risk factor, particularly in the case of its concentration increasing above the specific limit. Therefore, iron is stored in the non-toxic form of the globular protein, ferritin, consisting of an apoferritin shell and iron core. Numerous studies confirmed the disruption of homeostasis and accumulation of iron in patients with various diseases (e.g. cancer, cardiovascular or neurological conditions), which is closely related to ferritin metabolism. Such iron imbalance enables the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a sensitive technique for the detection of iron-based aggregates through changes in the relaxation times, followed by the change in the inherent image contrast. For our in vitrostudy, modified ferritins with different iron loadings were prepared by chemical reconstruction of the iron core in an apoferritin shell as pathological model systems. The magnetic properties of samples were studied using SQUID magnetometry, while the size distribution was detected via dynamic light scattering. We have shown that MRI could represent the most advantageous method for distinguishing native ferritin from reconstructed ferritin which, after future standardisation, could then be suitable for the diagnostics of diseases associated with iron accumulation. - Highlights: • MRI is the sensitive technique for detecting iron-based aggregates. • Reconstructed Ferritin is suitable model system of iron-related disorders. • MRI allow distinguish of native ferritin from reconstructed ferritin. • MRI could be useful for diagnostics of diseases associated with iron accumulation.

  5. Targeting the Glutamatergic System to Treat Pathological Gambling: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pettorruso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling or gambling disorder has been defined by the DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction. To date, its pathophysiology is not completely understood and there is no FDA-approved treatment for gambling disorders. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system and it has been recently involved in the pathophysiology of addictive behaviors. In this paper, we review the current literature on a class of drugs that act as modulating glutamate system in PG. A total of 19 studies have been included, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Clinical trial and case series using glutamatergic drugs (N-acetylcysteine, memantine, amantadine, topiramate, acamprosate, baclofen, gabapentin, pregabalin, and modafinil will be presented to elucidate the effectiveness on gambling behaviors and on the related clinical dimensions (craving, withdrawal, and cognitive symptoms in PG patients. The results have been discussed to gain more insight in the pathophysiology and treatment of PG. In conclusion, manipulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to be promising in developing improved therapeutic agents for the treatment of gambling disorders. Further studies are required. Finally, we propose future directions and challenges in this research area.

  6. Cardiovascular and Musculoskeletal Assessment of Elite US Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher K; Dyar, Dan A; Vargas, Lisa A; Grossfeld, Paul D

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems of elite volleyball players, including aortic dimensions. Previous studies have shown that the upper limit of normal aortic sinus diameter for male and female athletes is 4 and 3.4 cm, respectively. Cross-sectional analysis. United States Olympic Volleyball Training Facility and Rady Children's Hospital San Diego. Seventy (37 male) members of the US national volleyball team. Athletes underwent evaluation that included medical and family histories, targeted physical examinations specifically focusing on abnormalities present in Marfan syndrome (MFS), and transthoracic echocardiograms. Cardiac chamber and great artery size, valve function, and coronary artery origins were assessed. Three male athletes (8%) had an aortic sinus diameter ≥4 cm, one of whom also had an ascending aorta >4 cm. Two female athletes (6%) had aortic sinus diameter ≥3.4 cm, and another had an ascending aorta of 3.4 cm. There were no other intracardiac or arterial abnormalities. Individual musculoskeletal characteristics of MFS were common among the athletes but not more frequent or numerous in those with aortic dilation. The prevalence of aortic root dilation in this population of athletes was higher than what has previously been reported in other similar populations. Further study is needed to determine whether these represent pathological changes or normal variations in tall athletes. This study adds to the existing knowledge base of athlete's heart, with specific attention to aortic dimensions in elite volleyball players. The data are relevant to similar athletes' medical care and to preparticipation cardiac screening in general.

  7. Microglial pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Xue, Qing-Shan; Tischer, Jasmin; Bechmann, Ingo

    2014-09-26

    This paper summarizes pathological changes that affect microglial cells in the human brain during aging and in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, primarily Alzheimer's disease (AD). It also provides examples of microglial changes that have been observed in laboratory animals during aging and in some experimentally induced lesions and disease models. Dissimilarities and similarities between humans and rodents are discussed in an attempt to generate a current understanding of microglial pathology and its significance during aging and in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer dementia (AD). The identification of dystrophic (senescent) microglia has created an ostensible conflict with prior work claiming a role for activated microglia and neuroinflammation during normal aging and in AD, and this has raised a basic question: does the brain's immune system become hyperactive (inflamed) or does it become weakened (senescent) in elderly and demented people, and what is the impact on neuronal function and cognition? Here we strive to reconcile these seemingly contradictory notions by arguing that both low-grade neuroinflammation and microglial senescence are the result of aging-associated free radical injury. Both processes are damaging for microglia as they synergistically exhaust this essential cell population to the point where the brain's immune system is effete and unable to support neuronal function.

  8. TREATMENT FOR ACUTE/SUBACUTE MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN, BY USING AN ALGORITHM FOR STEPWISE CHOICE OF ANALGESIC DRUGS AND FOR MONITORING THEIR EFFICACY: PRELIMINARY DATA OF THE ANALGESIC TREATMENT USING SYSTEMIC ALGORITHM (ATUSA PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gontarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize treatment for musculoskeletal pain (MSP is a topical medical and social problem. A meeting of experts was held inMoscowin June 2015 to discuss the possibility of forming an interdisciplinary approach and elaborating a unified MSP treatment algorithm based on the com prehensive pathogenetically justified use of different classes of medicines. The Analgesic Treatment Using a Systemic Algorithm (ATUSA trial is a retrospective observational study of the effectiveness of this approach in clinical practice.Objective: to investigate the efficiency of combination treatment for MSP in real clinical practice.Patients and methods. A study group consisted of 3304 patients (women (54.3% and men (45.7%; mean age 48.9±14.6 years with osteoarthritis, nonspecific back pain, and rheumatic juxta-articular soft tissue pathology who had visited their doctors for acute/subacute MSP. Treatment was performed in accordance with the following algorithm: the first appointment was a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, such as aceclofenac, in case of contraindications, paracetamol and/or tramadol + a topical NSAID, in case of indications, muscle relaxants. The therapeutic efficiency was monitored every 7 days (a total of 4 visits; during each visit, therapy could be changed: switching to another NSAID, local administration of glucocorticoids (GC, as well as antidepressants or anticonvulsants. The dynamics of pain (a 0–10 pain intensity numeric rating scale, the number of patients in whom MSP had been resolved completely, as well as treatment satisfaction were taken into account to assess the results of treatment.Results. The first appointment in 97.5% of the patients was NSAIDs, mainly aceclofenac (93.7%, that was used in combination with a muscle relaxant in 67.7%. By Visit 4, there was a reduction in MSP from 6.9±1.5–2.2±1.3 scores. MSP was completely resolved in 77.0% of the patients. The vast majority (88.4% of the patients rated their

  9. Musculoskeletal manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureldine, M H A; Khamashta, M A; Merashli, M; Sabbouh, T; Hughes, G R V; Uthman, I

    2016-04-01

    The scope of clinical and laboratory manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has increased dramatically since its discovery in 1983, where any organ system can be involved. Musculoskeletal complications are consistently reported in APS patients, not only causing morbidity and mortality, but also affecting their quality of life. We reviewed all English papers on APS involvement in the musculoskeletal system using Google Scholar and Pubmed; all reports are summarized in a table in this review. The spectrum of manifestations includes arthralgia/arthritis, avascular necrosis of bone, bone marrow necrosis, complex regional pain syndrome type-1, muscle infarction, non-traumatic fractures, and osteoporosis. Some of these manifestations were reported in good quality studies, some of which showed an association between aPL-positivity and the occurrence of these manifestations, while others were merely described in case reports. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. The Pathology of Orthopedic Implant Failure Is Mediated by Innate Immune System Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Landgraeber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All of the over 1 million total joint replacements implanted in the US each year are expected to eventually fail after 15–25 years of use, due to slow progressive subtle inflammation at the bone implant interface. This inflammatory disease state is caused by implant debris acting, primarily, on innate immune cells, that is, macrophages. This slow progressive pathological bone loss or “aseptic loosening” is a potentially life-threatening condition due to the serious complications in older people (>75 yrs of total joint replacement revision surgery. In some people implant debris (particles and ions from metals can influence the adaptive immune system as well, giving rise to the concept of metal sensitivity. However, a consensus of studies agrees that the dominant form of this response is due to innate reactivity by macrophages to implant debris where both danger (DAMP and pathogen (PAMP signalling elicit cytokine-based inflammatory responses. This paper discusses implant debris induced release of the cytokines and chemokines due to activation of the innate (and the adaptive immune system and the subsequent formation of osteolysis. Different mechanisms of implant-debris reactivity related to the innate immune system are detailed, for example, danger signalling (e.g., IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33, etc., toll-like receptor activation (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, etc., apoptosis (e.g., caspases 3–9, bone catabolism (e.g., TRAP5b, and hypoxia responses (Hif1-α. Cytokine-based clinical and basic science studies are in progress to provide diagnosis and therapeutic intervention strategies.

  11. The Pathology of Orthopedic Implant Failure Is Mediated by Innate Immune System Cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraeber, Stefan; Jäger, Marcus; Jacobs, Joshua J.; Hallab, Nadim James

    2014-01-01

    All of the over 1 million total joint replacements implanted in the US each year are expected to eventually fail after 15–25 years of use, due to slow progressive subtle inflammation at the bone implant interface. This inflammatory disease state is caused by implant debris acting, primarily, on innate immune cells, that is, macrophages. This slow progressive pathological bone loss or “aseptic loosening” is a potentially life-threatening condition due to the serious complications in older people (>75 yrs) of total joint replacement revision surgery. In some people implant debris (particles and ions from metals) can influence the adaptive immune system as well, giving rise to the concept of metal sensitivity. However, a consensus of studies agrees that the dominant form of this response is due to innate reactivity by macrophages to implant debris where both danger (DAMP) and pathogen (PAMP) signalling elicit cytokine-based inflammatory responses. This paper discusses implant debris induced release of the cytokines and chemokines due to activation of the innate (and the adaptive) immune system and the subsequent formation of osteolysis. Different mechanisms of implant-debris reactivity related to the innate immune system are detailed, for example, danger signalling (e.g., IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33, etc.), toll-like receptor activation (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, etc.), apoptosis (e.g., caspases 3–9), bone catabolism (e.g., TRAP5b), and hypoxia responses (Hif1-α). Cytokine-based clinical and basic science studies are in progress to provide diagnosis and therapeutic intervention strategies. PMID:24891761

  12. Central nervous system lesions in adult T-cell leukaemia: MRI and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, M.; Korogi, Y.; Shigematsu, Y.; Liang, L.; Takahashi, M. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Matsuoka, M. [Second Division of Internal Medicine, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Jhono, M. [Department of Dermatology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Eto, K. [The National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is a T-cell lymphoid neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Radiological findings in central nervous system (CNS) involvement have not been well characterised. We reviewed the MRI of 18 patients with ATL who developed new neurological symptoms or signs, and pathology specimens from a 53-year-old woman who died of ATL. MRI findings were divided into three categories: definite, probable, and other abnormal. Definite and probable findings were defined as ATL-related. The characteristic findings were multiple parenchymal masses with or without contrast enhancement adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaced and the deep grey matter of both cerebral hemispheres, plus leptomeningeal lesion. One patient had both cerebral and spinal cord lesions. Other abnormal findings in eight patients included one case of leukoencephalopathy caused by methotrexate. The histology findings consisted of clusters of tumour cells along perivascular spaces, and scattered infiltration of the parenchyma, with nests of tumour cells. Leptomeningeal infiltration by tumour spread into the parenchyma and secondary degeneration of the neuronal tracts was observed. MRI was useful for detecting CNS invasion by ATL and differentiating it from other abnormalities. The MRI findings seemed to correlate well with the histological changes. (orig.)

  13. Concurrent central nervous system infective pathology in a severely immunocompromised patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thein Swe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge and literature search, concurrent cryptococcal meningitis and neurosyphilis in a patient have rarely been reported. Here, we report a 37-year-old male with HIV infection presented with headache and dizziness for 5 days along with memory difficulty and personality changes for about 1 week. During the hospital stay, cryptococcal meningitis was confirmed with positive cerebral spinal fluid (CSF cryptococcal antigen titer (1:320 and positive CSF culture. Diagnosis of neurosyphilis was made based upon CSF white blood cell count of 85 cells/mL, with CSF total protein of 87 mg/dL, reactive CSF treponemal antibody, and fluorescent treponemal antibody. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, and benzathine penicillin G, and the patient was recovered and discharged. HIV patients are at high risk of developing severe infections of the central nervous system. Awareness should be made not only to single infection but also for dual pathology for a better and life-saving management.

  14. Central nervous system lesions in adult T-cell leukaemia: MRI and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, M.; Korogi, Y.; Shigematsu, Y.; Liang, L.; Takahashi, M.; Matsuoka, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Jhono, M.; Eto, K.

    2002-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is a T-cell lymphoid neoplasm caused by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Radiological findings in central nervous system (CNS) involvement have not been well characterised. We reviewed the MRI of 18 patients with ATL who developed new neurological symptoms or signs, and pathology specimens from a 53-year-old woman who died of ATL. MRI findings were divided into three categories: definite, probable, and other abnormal. Definite and probable findings were defined as ATL-related. The characteristic findings were multiple parenchymal masses with or without contrast enhancement adjacent to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaced and the deep grey matter of both cerebral hemispheres, plus leptomeningeal lesion. One patient had both cerebral and spinal cord lesions. Other abnormal findings in eight patients included one case of leukoencephalopathy caused by methotrexate. The histology findings consisted of clusters of tumour cells along perivascular spaces, and scattered infiltration of the parenchyma, with nests of tumour cells. Leptomeningeal infiltration by tumour spread into the parenchyma and secondary degeneration of the neuronal tracts was observed. MRI was useful for detecting CNS invasion by ATL and differentiating it from other abnormalities. The MRI findings seemed to correlate well with the histological changes. (orig.)

  15. Characterizing Psychological Dimensions in Non-Pathological Subjects through Autonomic Nervous System Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimma eNardelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective assessment of psychological traits of healthy subjects and psychiatric patients has been growing interest in clinical and bioengineering research fields during the last decade. Several experimental evidences strongly suggest that a link between Autonomic Nervous System (ANS dynamics and specific dimensions such as anxiety, social phobia, stress and emotional regulation might exist. Nevertheless, an extensive investigation on a wide range of psycho-cognitive scales and ANS non-invasive markers gathered from standard and nonlinear analysis still needs to be addressed. In this study, we analyzed the discerning and correlation capabilities of a comprehensive set of ANS features and psycho-cognitive scales in 29 non-pathological subjects monitored during resting conditions. In particular, the state of the art of standard and nonlinear analysis was performed on Heart Rate Variability, InterBreath Interval series, and Inter-Beat Respiration series, which were considered as monovariate and multivariate measurements. Experimental results show that each ANS feature is linked to specific psychological traits. Moreover, nonlinear analysis outperforms the psychological assessment with respect to standard analysis. Considering that the current clinical practice relies only on subjective scores from interviews and questionnaires, this study provides objective tools for the assessment of psychological dimensions.

  16. The clinicopathology and pathology of selective toxicoses and storage diseases of the nervous system of ruminants in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugt, Jacob Jan van der

    2002-01-01

    In this study the clinical signs and pathology of five plant poisonings and a mycotoxicosis affecting the nervous system of domestic ruminants in southern Africa are described. For comparative purposes, an inherited storage disease (bèta-mannosidosis) and a drug-induced neurotoxicosis (closantel

  17. A clinico-pathological study of lupus nephritis based on the International Society of Nephrology-Renal Pathology Society 2003 classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, Suchitha; Deka, Pallavi; Shetty, Manjunath Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is a major complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Renal involvement is a major determinant of the prognosis of SLE. The histological classification of LN is a key factor in determining the renal survival of patients with LN. Prompt recognition and treatment of renal disease are important, as early response to therapy is correlated with better outcome and renal biopsy plays an important role in achieving this. The objective of this study was to correlate the clinical and laboratory findings with histopathological classes of LN as per the 2003 International Society of Nephrology-Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) classification system. Fifty-six patients with SLE, undergoing a renal biopsy for renal dysfunction were studied. The comparison of data from multiple groups was made by Pearson's Chi-square test and between two groups by independent samples t -test. The values of P renal biopsy. Since renal morphology may predict long-term prognosis, and no clinical or laboratory feature uniformly predicts prognosis, it is important to study the constellation of features in LN for better patient management.

  18. Fatal musculoskeletal injuries of Quarter Horse racehorses: 314 cases (1990-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafian, Tiffany L; Case, James T; Kinde, Hailu; Daft, Barbara M; Read, Deryck H; Moore, Janet D; Uzal, Francisco A; Stover, Susan M

    2012-10-01

    To determine major causes of death and the anatomic location of musculoskeletal injuries in Quarter Horse racehorses in California. Retrospective case series. 314 Quarter Horse racehorses with musculoskeletal injuries that were necropsied through the California Horse Racing Board Postmortem Program from 1990 to 2007. Postmortem pathology reports were retrospectively reviewed. Musculoskeletal injuries were categorized by anatomic region and described. The number of Quarter Horse starts and starters for the same period of time were obtained from a commercial database for determination of fatal injury incidence. Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 314 of the 443 (71 %) Quarter Horse racehorses that died during the 18-year study period. Fatal musculoskeletal injuries occurred at a rate of 2.0 deaths/1,000 race starts and 18.6 deaths/1,000 horses that started a race. Musculoskeletal injuries occurred predominantly during racing (84%) and in the forelimbs (81%). The most common fatal musculoskeletal injuries were metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joint (fetlock) support injuries (40%) and carpal (24%), vertebral (10%), and scapular (8%) fractures. Proximal interphalangeal (pastern) joint luxations resulted in death of 3% of horses. Fracture configurations of some bones were consistent with those of Thoroughbred racehorses. Evidence of preexisting stress remodeling of bone was reported for some fractures. Knowledge of common locations and types of fatal musculoskeletal injuries in racing Quarter Horses may enhance practitioners' ability to detect mild injuries early, rest horses, and help prevent catastrophic injuries.

  19. Heme oxygenase and the immune system in normal and pathological pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maide eOzen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal pregnancy is an immunotolerant state. Many factors, including environmental, socioeconomic, genetic, and immunologic changes by infection and/or other causes of inflammation, may contribute to inter-individual differences resulting in a normal or pathologic pregnancy. In particular, imbalances in the immune system can cause many pregnancy-related diseases, such as infertility, abortions, pre-eclampsia, and preterm labor, which result in maternal/fetal death, prematurity, or small-for-gestational age newborns. New findings imply that myeloid regulatory cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs may mediate immunotolerance during normal pregnancy. Effector T cells (Teffs have, in contrast, been implicated to cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, feto-maternal tolerance affects the developing fetus. It has been shown that the Treg/Teff balance affects litter size and adoptive transfer of pregnancy-induced Tregs can prevent fetal rejection in the mouse. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 has a protective role in many conditions through its anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antioxidative, and anti-proliferative actions. HO-1 is highly expressed in the placenta and plays a role in angiogenesis and placental vascular development and in regulating vascular tone in pregnancy. In addition, HO-1 is a major regulator of immune homeostasis by mediating crosstalk between innate and adaptive immune systems. Moreover, HO-1 can inhibit inflammation-induced phenotypic maturation of immune effector cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and promote anti-inflammatory cytokine production. HO-1 may also be associated with T-cell activation and can limit immune-based tissue injury by promoting Treg suppression of effector responses. Thus, HO-1 and its byproducts may protect against pregnancy complications by its immunomodulatory effects, and the regulation of HO-1 or its downstream effects has the potential to prevent or treat pregnancy complications and

  20. Preferred names, preferred pronouns, and gender identity in the electronic medical record and laboratory information system: Is pathology ready?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Imborek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic medical records (EMRs and laboratory information systems (LISs commonly utilize patient identifiers such as legal name, sex, medical record number, and date of birth. There have been recommendations from some EMR working groups (e.g., the World Professional Association for Transgender Health to include preferred name, pronoun preference, assigned sex at birth, and gender identity in the EMR. These practices are currently uncommon in the United States. There has been little published on the potential impact of these changes on pathology and LISs. Methods: We review the available literature and guidelines on the use of preferred name and gender identity on pathology, including data on changes in laboratory testing following gender transition treatments. We also describe pathology and clinical laboratory challenges in the implementation of preferred name at our institution. Results: Preferred name, pronoun preference, and gender identity have the most immediate impact on the areas of pathology with direct patient contact such as phlebotomy and transfusion medicine, both in terms of interaction with patients and policies for patient identification. Gender identity affects the regulation and policies within transfusion medicine including blood donor risk assessment and eligibility. There are limited studies on the impact of gender transition treatments on laboratory tests, but multiple studies have demonstrated complex changes in chemistry and hematology tests. A broader challenge is that, even as EMRs add functionality, pathology computer systems (e.g., LIS, middleware, reference laboratory, and outreach interfaces may not have functionality to store or display preferred name and gender identity. Conclusions: Implementation of preferred name, pronoun preference, and gender identity presents multiple challenges and opportunities for pathology.

  1. The Belfast musculoskeletal ultrasound course.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Taggart, Allister J

    2009-09-01

    To conduct a training course in musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) for rheumatologists in Northern Ireland with the aim of equipping the participants with a basic knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of MSUS as they are applied to rheumatology.

  2. Musculoskeletal desmoid tumours: Diagnostic imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Daniel; Perera, Warren; Schlicht, Stephen; Choong, Peter; Slavin, John; Pianta, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to discuss the role medical imaging has on diagnosis of musculoskeletal desmoid tumours and to describe their radiological appearances on various imaging modalities. Imaging of histologically proven cases of desmoid tumours at St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne were obtained via picture archiving communication system (PACS) and then assessed by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Suitable imagings were obtained from PACS. All imaging chosen was de-identified. Desmoid tumours can occur in many areas of the body. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of these tumours and magnetic resonance imaging has been the gold standard for imaging and is the most accurate in terms of assessing tumour margins and involvement of surrounding structure.

  3. Commentary: the importance of musculoskeletal medicine and anatomy in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Charles S; Ahn, Christine S

    2010-03-01

    Medical schools in the United States have continued to demonstrate deficiencies in musculoskeletal education. In response to the findings of numerous studies and to the objectives of the U.S. Bone and Joint Decade (an international collaborative movement sanctioned by the United Nations and the World Health Organization for the purpose of promoting awareness of musculoskeletal disease), several institutions, including Harvard Medical School, have reassessed the preclinical musculoskeletal curriculum at their respective medical schools. A cross-sectional survey at Harvard in 2004 found that students lacked clinical confidence in dealing with the musculoskeletal system. In addition, only one quarter of the graduating class of medical students passed a nationally validated exam in basic musculoskeletal competency. In 2005, 33 total hours of musculoskeletal medicine were added to the musculoskeletal blocks of the preclinical anatomy, pathophysiology, and physical examination courses. Alongside this movement toward more musculoskeletal education, there has been continued debate over the relevance and cost-effectiveness of cadaveric and surface anatomy labs. With the advent of advanced imaging technology, some argue that dissection anatomy is outdated and labor-intensive, whereas three-dimensional images are more accessible and time-effective for today's students. However, knowledge of anatomy is a critical foundation to learning musculoskeletal medicine. Thus, making room for more musculoskeletal curriculum time by cutting out cadaveric anatomy labs may ultimately be counterproductive.

  4. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Musculoskeletal Disease: Common Inflammatory Pathways Suggest a Central Role for Loss of Muscle Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey H. Collins

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation can arise in response to a variety of stimuli, including infectious agents, tissue injury, autoimmune diseases, and obesity. Some of these responses are acute and resolve, while others become chronic and exert a sustained impact on the host, systemically, or locally. Obesity is now recognized as a chronic low-grade, systemic inflammatory state that predisposes to other chronic conditions including metabolic syndrome (MetS. Although obesity has received considerable attention regarding its pathophysiological link to chronic cardiovascular conditions and type 2 diabetes, the musculoskeletal (MSK complications (i.e., muscle, bone, tendon, and joints that result from obesity-associated metabolic disturbances are less frequently interrogated. As musculoskeletal diseases can lead to the worsening of MetS, this underscores the imminent need to understand the cause and effect relations between the two, and the convergence between inflammatory pathways that contribute to MSK damage. Muscle mass is a key predictor of longevity in older adults, and obesity-induced sarcopenia is a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes. Muscle is highly plastic, undergoes regular remodeling, and is responsible for the majority of total body glucose utilization, which when impaired leads to insulin resistance. Furthermore, impaired muscle integrity, defined as persistent muscle loss, intramuscular lipid accumulation, or connective tissue deposition, is a hallmark of metabolic dysfunction. In fact, many common inflammatory pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the interrelated tissues of the musculoskeletal system (e.g., tendinopathy, osteoporosis, and osteoarthritis. Despite these similarities, these diseases are rarely evaluated in a comprehensive manner. The aim of this review is to summarize the common pathways that lead to musculoskeletal damage and disease that result from and contribute to MetS. We propose the overarching

  5. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Musculoskeletal Disease: Common Inflammatory Pathways Suggest a Central Role for Loss of Muscle Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kelsey H; Herzog, Walter; MacDonald, Graham Z; Reimer, Raylene A; Rios, Jaqueline L; Smith, Ian C; Zernicke, Ronald F; Hart, David A

    2018-01-01

    Inflammation can arise in response to a variety of stimuli, including infectious agents, tissue injury, autoimmune diseases, and obesity. Some of these responses are acute and resolve, while others become chronic and exert a sustained impact on the host, systemically, or locally. Obesity is now recognized as a chronic low-grade, systemic inflammatory state that predisposes to other chronic conditions including metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although obesity has received considerable attention regarding its pathophysiological link to chronic cardiovascular conditions and type 2 diabetes, the musculoskeletal (MSK) complications (i.e., muscle, bone, tendon, and joints) that result from obesity-associated metabolic disturbances are less frequently interrogated. As musculoskeletal diseases can lead to the worsening of MetS, this underscores the imminent need to understand the cause and effect relations between the two, and the convergence between inflammatory pathways that contribute to MSK damage. Muscle mass is a key predictor of longevity in older adults, and obesity-induced sarcopenia is a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes. Muscle is highly plastic, undergoes regular remodeling, and is responsible for the majority of total body glucose utilization, which when impaired leads to insulin resistance. Furthermore, impaired muscle integrity, defined as persistent muscle loss, intramuscular lipid accumulation, or connective tissue deposition, is a hallmark of metabolic dysfunction. In fact, many common inflammatory pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the interrelated tissues of the musculoskeletal system (e.g., tendinopathy, osteoporosis, and osteoarthritis). Despite these similarities, these diseases are rarely evaluated in a comprehensive manner. The aim of this review is to summarize the common pathways that lead to musculoskeletal damage and disease that result from and contribute to MetS. We propose the overarching hypothesis that there

  6. System Re-set: High LET Radiation or Transient Musculoskeletal Disuse Cause Lasting Changes in Oxidative Defense Pathways Within Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, A.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Six months post-IR, there were no notable changes in skeletal expression of 84 principal genes in the p53 signaling pathway due to low dose IR (0.5Gy), HU, or both. In contrast, numerous genes relevant to oxidative stress were regulated by the treatments, typically in a direction indicative of increased oxidative stress and impaired defense. IR and HU independently reduced (between 0.46 to 0.88 fold) expression levels of Noxa1, Gpx3, Prdx2, Prdx3, and Zmynd17. Surprisingly, transient HU alone (sham-irradiated) decreased expression of several redox-related genes (Gpx1,Gstk1, Prdx1, Txnrd2), which were not affected significantly by IR alone. Irradiation increased (1.13 fold) expression of a gene responsible for production of superoxides by neutrophils (NCF2). Of interest, only combined treatment with HU and IR led to increased expression levels of Ercc2, (1.19 fold), a DNA excision repair enzyme. Differences in gene expression levels may reflect a change in gene expression on a per cell basis, a shift in the repertoire of specific cell types within the tissue, or both. Serum nitrite/nitrate levels were elevated to comparable levels (1.6-fold) due to IR, HU or both, indicative of elevated systemic nitrosyl stress. CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of changes in skeletal expression of oxidative stress-related genes six months after irradiation and/or transient unloading tended to be relatively modest (0.46-1.15 fold), whereas the p53 pathway was not affected. The finding that many different oxidative stress-related genes differed from controls at this late time point implicates a generalized impairment of oxidative defense within skeletal tissue, which coincides with both profound radiation damage to osteoprogenitors/stem cells in bone marrow and impaired remodeling of mineralized tissue.

  7. Taking responsibility for the early assessment and treatment of patients with musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Nadine E; Hartvigsen, Jan; Croft, Peter R

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Musculoskeletal pain is common across all populations and costly in terms of impact on the individual and, more generally, on society. In most health-care systems, the first person to see the patient with a musculoskeletal problem such as back pain is the general practitioner, and acces......, and underpinning evidence, for reconsidering who should take responsibility for the early assessment and treatment of patients with musculoskeletal problems....

  8. Detection of soft tissue pathology on the blood pool phase of bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondo, A.J.; Turner, H.A.; Kitchener, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: It is important to optimize information obtained from isotope bone scanning in musculoskeletal imaging. Although important at all times, it is especially imperative in the current climate of health services rationalization, capping of imaging expenditure and the promotion of newer modalities that are increasingly versatile and sensitive for imaging the musculoskeletal system. Careful attention must be paid to the blood flow and blood pool images, to visualize soft tissue as well as bony pathology. A series of cases and images will be presented that demonstrated blood pool pathology that was not appreciated on delayed imaging, or where reliance only on the delayed images would have led to an incorrect diagnosis. These include the detection of tendonitis, tenosynovitis, bursitis, muscle tears and soft tissue neoplasms, including neuromas. In cases where the bone scan cannot provide a definitive diagnosis, it will at least direct the referring clinician to the most appropriate confirmatory diagnostic imaging modality, thus reinforcing the value that isotope imaging provides in musculoskeletal medicine

  9. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun

    2003-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

  10. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.

  11. [SIGNIFICANCE OF MAGNESIUM IN PHISIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigus, Ya I; Mikhaylova, O D; Gorbunov A Yu; Vakhrushev, Ya M

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the physiological role of magnesium in the human body and its importance for metabolic processes. The reasons for the development of magnesium deficiency and hypermagnesaemia and its clinical symptoms are shown. The specialties of magnesium metabolism disturbances in gastroenterological pathology are described. Particular attention paid to the correction of magnesium levels with deviations of its content in the organism.

  12. Analytic turnaround time study for integrated reporting of pathology results on electronic medical records using the Illuminate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik O

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Timely pathology results are critical for appropriate diagnosis and management of patients. Yet workflows in laboratories remain ad hoc and involve accessing multiple systems with no direct linkage between patient history and prior or pending pathology records for the case being analyzed. A major hindrance in timely reporting of pathology results is the need to incorporate/interface with multiple electronic health records (EHRs. We evaluated the Illuminate PatientView software (Illuminate integration into pathologist's workflow. Illuminate is a search engine architecture that has a repository of textual information from many hospital systems. Our goal was to develop a comprehensive, user friendly patient summary display to integrate the current fractionated subspecialty specific systems. An analytical time study noting changes in turnaround time (TAT before and after Illuminate implementation was recorded for reviewers, including pathologists, residents and fellows. Reviewers' TAT for 359 cases was recorded (200 cases before and 159 after implementation. The impact of implementing Illuminate on transcriptionists’ workflow was also studied. Average TAT to retrieve EHRs prior to Illuminate was 5:32 min (range 1:35-10:50. That time was significantly reduced to 35 seconds (range 10 sec-1:10 min using Illuminate. Reviewers were very pleased with the ease in accessing information and in eliminating the draft paper documents of the pathology reports, eliminating up to 65 min/day (25-65 min by transcriptionists matching requisition with paperwork. Utilizing Illuminate improved workflow, decreased TAT and minimized cost. Patient care can be improved through a comprehensive patient management system that facilitates communications between isolated information systems.

  13. A Neural Network Based Diagnostic System for Classification of Industrial Carrying Jobs With Respect of Low and High Musculoskeletal Injury Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Sharma; Ranjit Singh

    2012-01-01

    Even with many years of research efforts, Safety professionals and ergonomists have not yetbeen established the occupational exposure limits of different risk factors for development ofMusculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). One of the main problems in setting such guidelines is toaccurately assess the association between exposures and possible occupational disorders ordiseases and predict the outcome of any variable. The task of an industrial ergonomist iscomplicated because the potential risk fac...

  14. Algorithmic Approach With Clinical Pathology Consultation Improves Access to Specialty Care for Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Welsh, Kerry J; Chang, Brian; Kidd, Laura; Kott, Marylee; Zare, Mohammad; Carroll, Kelley; Nguyen, Andy; Wahed, Amer; Tholpady, Ashok; Pung, Norin; McKee, Donna; Risin, Semyon A; Hunter, Robert L

    2016-09-01

    Harris Health System (HHS) is a safety net system providing health care to the underserved of Harris County, Texas. There was a 6-month waiting period for a rheumatologist consult for patients with suspected systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The objective of the intervention was to improve access to specialty care. An algorithmic approach to testing for SLE was implemented initially through the HHS referral center. The algorithm was further offered as a "one-click" order for physicians, with automated reflex testing, interpretation, and case triaging by clinical pathology. Data review revealed that prior to the intervention, 80% of patients did not have complete laboratory workups available at the first rheumatology visit. Implementation of algorithmic testing and triaging of referrals by pathologists resulted in decreasing the waiting time for a rheumatologist by 50%. Clinical pathology intervention and case triaging can improve access to care in a county health care system. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The forgotten foot - an assessment of foot and ankle radiograph pathology in final year medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, P J

    2014-04-27

    It has been shown that doctors in Emergency Departments (EDs) have inconsistent knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. This is most likely due to a deficiency in focused musculoskeletal modules at undergraduate level in medical school. The aims of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of final year medical students on foot anatomy and common foot and ankle pathology as seen on radiographs.

  16. Diversity of imaging and pathological features at different stages of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing LIU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The clinical, imaging and pathological manifestations of one patient at different stages of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL have been analyzed to disclose its pathogenesis. Methods and Results A 29-year-old female patient showed recurrent onsets. On the first onset, the main clinical manifestation was blurred vision and visual field defect. Cranial MRI showed a patchy lesion in the right parietal and occipital lobes without obvious occupying sign. T1WI showed slight low-intensity sign, T2WI and FLAIR showed high-intensity signs. Enhanced scanning showed heterogeneous punctate enhancement. The lesion disappeared gradually after glucocorticoid impact therapy. Headache, vomiting and left limb paralysis were the main clinical manifestations on the second onset, and MRI showed a lesion in the right frontal and parietal lobes with obvious occupying sign and solid enhancement, low-intensity on T1WI, high-intensity on T2WI and FLAIR. The tumor was totally removed under microscope. Histological findings showed large tumor cells, rich cytoplasm, nuclei with various sizes and shapes, conspicuous mitosis, patchy necrosis, and interstitial small vessel hyperplasia. Immunohistochemical staining showed that membrane of tumor cells was positive for CD20, and nuclei were positive for paired box gene 5 (PAX5 and multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1. In a few tumor cells, membrane was positive for CD10 and CD30, and nuclei were positive for cyclin D1. Besides, tumor cells were negative for CD3, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Ki?67 labeling index was about 80%. EBER in situ hybridization (ISH assay showed that mRNA coded by Epstein?Barr (EB virus was negative. The tumor showed angiotropic characteristics, and the walls of involved blood vessels were wrapped and destructed. The final diagnosis was confirmed as diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Conclusions PCNSL has various imaging features, revealing as

  17. MRI of the Musculoskeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headsets so that the child can watch a movie while the scan is being performed. Thus, the ... the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  18. Modelling of pathologies of the nervous system by the example of computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumilov, V. N., E-mail: vnshumilov@rambler.ru; Syryamkin, V. I., E-mail: maximus70sir@gmail.com; Syryamkin, M. V., E-mail: maximus70sir@gmail.com [National Research Tomsk State University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 36 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    formation of connections between neurons in simplest biological objects. Based on the correspondence of function of the created models to function of biological nervous systems we suggest the use of computational and electronic models of the brain for the study of its function under normal and pathological conditions, because operating principles of the models are built on principles imitating the function of biological nervous systems and the brain.

  19. Modelling of pathologies of the nervous system by the example of computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumilov, V. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Syryamkin, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    formation of connections between neurons in simplest biological objects. Based on the correspondence of function of the created models to function of biological nervous systems we suggest the use of computational and electronic models of the brain for the study of its function under normal and pathological conditions, because operating principles of the models are built on principles imitating the function of biological nervous systems and the brain

  20. Twente spine model : A complete and coherent dataset for musculo-skeletal modeling of the thoracic and cervical regions of the human spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayoglu, Riza; Geeraedts, Leo; Groenen, Karlijn H.J.; Verdonschot, Nico; Koopman, Bart; Homminga, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    Musculo-skeletal modeling could play a key role in advancing our understanding of the healthy and pathological spine, but the credibility of such models are strictly dependent on the accuracy of the anatomical data incorporated. In this study, we present a complete and coherent musculo-skeletal

  1. An Improved Pathological Brain Detection System Based on Two-Dimensional PCA and Evolutionary Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Deepak Ranjan; Dash, Ratnakar; Majhi, Banshidhar

    2017-12-07

    Pathological brain detection has made notable stride in the past years, as a consequence many pathological brain detection systems (PBDSs) have been proposed. But, the accuracy of these systems still needs significant improvement in order to meet the necessity of real world diagnostic situations. In this paper, an efficient PBDS based on MR images is proposed that markedly improves the recent results. The proposed system makes use of contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) to enhance the quality of the input MR images. Thereafter, two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) strategy is employed to extract the features and subsequently, a PCA+LDA approach is used to generate a compact and discriminative feature set. Finally, a new learning algorithm called MDE-ELM is suggested that combines modified differential evolution (MDE) and extreme learning machine (ELM) for segregation of MR images as pathological or healthy. The MDE is utilized to optimize the input weights and hidden biases of single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural networks (SLFN), whereas an analytical method is used for determining the output weights. The proposed algorithm performs optimization based on both the root mean squared error (RMSE) and norm of the output weights of SLFNs. The suggested scheme is benchmarked on three standard datasets and the results are compared against other competent schemes. The experimental outcomes show that the proposed scheme offers superior results compared to its counterparts. Further, it has been noticed that the proposed MDE-ELM classifier obtains better accuracy with compact network architecture than conventional algorithms.

  2. The Pathology of Orthopedic Implant Failure Is Mediated by Innate Immune System Cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Landgraeber, Stefan; Jäger, Marcus; Jacobs, Joshua J.; Hallab, Nadim James

    2014-01-01

    All of the over 1 million total joint replacements implanted in the US each year are expected to eventually fail after 15–25 years of use, due to slow progressive subtle inflammation at the bone implant interface. This inflammatory disease state is caused by implant debris acting, primarily, on innate immune cells, that is, macrophages. This slow progressive pathological bone loss or “aseptic loosening” is a potentially life-threatening condition due to the serious complications in older peop...

  3. Lacrimal system pathology in patients with malignant thyroid tumors after radioactive iodine therapy, and its correction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Yu. Beldovskaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Radioactive iodine therapy after thyroidectomy is the standard of differentiated thyroid cancer treatment in the modern world. Main dose-dependent side effects described in the literature include: sialadenitis, xerostomia, taste and/or odor loss, swelling of surrounding tissues. Ophthalmic complications are rarely reported. Aim. To assess the lacrimal system condition in patients after radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid cancer. Material and methods. The study included 17 patients (34 eyes. There were female patients aged 19 to 43 years (mean age was 31 years who underwent a course of radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid cancer. All of them complained of periodic or constant tearing in the period from 2 months to 1 year after therapy course. In four patients, there was a permanent or periodic mucopurulent discharge when pressing on the lacrimal sac area. All patients underwent a standard ophthalmological examination, including visual acuity testing, anterior segment biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, and tear production tests. Dye disappearance test, Jones I and II tests, lacrimal pathways irrigation, and, if necessary, cone-ray computer tomography with preliminary lacrimal pathways contrasting were performed to evaluate the tear outflow abnormalities. Results. Tear production disorders were detected in 20 eyes (58.8% (among them, moderate dry eye syndrome was diagnosed in 3 cases; tear outflow pathology was revealed in 14 eyes (41.2% (namely naso-lacrimal duct obstruction and stenosis, and chronic purulent dacryocystitis. For patients with tear production pathology artificial tears were prescribed, and endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy was performed in cases of tear outflow disturbances. Conclusion. The use of radioactive iodine in doses exceeding 80 mCi leads to the development of lacrimal system pathology: dry eye syndrome of various severity, and tear outflow disorders. Lacrimal system pathology significantly worsens

  4. A Pathological Brain Detection System based on Extreme Learning Machine Optimized by Bat Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Siyuan; Qiu, Xin; Shi, Jianping; Li, Na; Lu, Zhi-Hai; Chen, Peng; Yang, Meng-Meng; Liu, Fang-Yuan; Jia, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Yudong

    2017-01-01

    It is beneficial to classify brain images as healthy or pathological automatically, because 3D brain images can generate so much information which is time consuming and tedious for manual analysis. Among various 3D brain imaging techniques, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most suitable for brain, and it is now widely applied in hospitals, because it is helpful in the four ways of diagnosis, prognosis, pre-surgical, and postsurgical procedures. There are automatic detection methods; however they suffer from low accuracy. Therefore, we proposed a novel approach which employed 2D discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and calculated the entropies of the subbands as features. Then, a bat algorithm optimized extreme learning machine (BA-ELM) was trained to identify pathological brains from healthy controls. A 10x10-fold cross validation was performed to evaluate the out-of-sample performance. The method achieved a sensitivity of 99.04%, a specificity of 93.89%, and an overall accuracy of 98.33% over 132 MR brain images. The experimental results suggest that the proposed approach is accurate and robust in pathological brain detection. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Frequencies of different peripheral nervous system pathologies among Cases of Lumbar Radicular Pain using Electrodiagnostic Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaz, S.; Waheed, A.; Ali, L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to discover the spectrum of diagnoses on nerve conduction studies/ Electromyography in patients with lumbar radicular pain, test preponderance of the commonest pathology and correlate commonest pathology with age > 50 years, gender and unilateral involvement. Study design: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 539 patients. Place and Duration of the study: the department of Electrodiagnostic studies, Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Rawalpindi from January 2012 to December 2012. Material and methods: using non-probability consecutive sampling 539 patients referred with complaints of lumbar radicular pain were subjected to electrodiagnostic evaluation for presence of lumbosacral radiculopathy, polyneuropathy, sciatic nerve injury or a combination of these. The preponderance of commonest pathology was tested statistically. The frequencies were then related statistically to age > 50 years, gender and unilateral or bilateral involvement. Result: A total of 539 patients (age:18-85 years) were registered. 355 (66% ) were males and 261 (48.4%) patients were > 50 years. Nerve conduction studies/Electromyography findings were abnormal in 386 (77.6%) patients. The commonest diagnosis was lumbosacral radiculopathy in 65% followed by polyneuropathy with superimposed lumbosacral radiculopathy in 7%. The preponderance of lumbosacral radiculopathy was statistically found significant (p 50 years. Conclusion: Lumbosacral radiculopathy is highly expected to be found on nerve conduction studies /electromyography in patients who present with lumbar radicular pain. The lumbosacral radiculopathy is more common in individuals of age 50 years and above. (author)

  6. [Intracerebral EEG functioning as a reflexion of the systemic brain organization in norm and pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldyreva, G N; Zhavoronkova, L A; Sharova, E V; Dobronravova, I S

    2003-01-01

    The authors summarized the EEG findings and defined the nature of intercentral EEG relationships in different functional states of healthy subjects and patients with organic cerebral pathology based on coherence analysis. The EEG features typical of healthy subjects were identified: an anterior-posterior gradient of the mean coherence and the character of cortical-subcortical relationships in the anterior cerebral structures. Right- and lefthanded subjects showed the frequency and regional differences in EEG coherence, which reflected, mainly, specific intracortical relationships. Development and regression of pathologic signs in right- and lefthanded patients with organic brain lesions are thought to be determined by these differences. As distinct from cortical pathology, lesions of regulatory structures (diencephalic, brainstem, and limbic) were shown to produce more diffuse changes in intercentral relationships with a tendency to reciprocity. Intercentral relations, including their interhemispheric differences, varied with changes in the functional state of healthy subjects (increase and decrease in the level of functioning). A certain time course of changes in intercentral relationships was also revealed in patients with organic brain lesions during recovery of their consciousness and mental activity. Changes in the dominance of activity of individual regulatory structures are considered to be one of the most important factors that determine the dynamic character of EEG coherence.

  7. Evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis with indium-111 white blood cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, T.J.; Thompson, L.; Grogan, T.J.; Webber, M.M.; Amstutz, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    The detection of musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following joint replacement, continues to be a challenging problem. Often, even with invasive diagnostic evaluation, the diagnosis of infection remains uncertain. This is a report on the first 55 Indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) images performed in 39 patients for the evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis. There were 40 negative and 15 positive Indium-111 WBC images. These were correlated with operative culture and tissue pathology, aspiration culture, and clinical findings. Thirty-eight images were performed for the evaluation of possible total joint sepsis (8 positive and 30 negative images); 17 for the evaluation of nonarthroplasty-related musculoskeletal sepsis (7 positive and 10 negative images). Overall, there were 13 true-positive, 39 true-negative, two false-positive, and one false-negative images. Indium-111 WBC imaging is a sensitive and specific means of evaluating musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following total joint replacement

  8. Imaging review of lipomatous musculoskeletal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burt Ashley M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipomatous lesions are common musculoskeletal lesions that can arise within the soft tissues, bone, neurovascular structures, and synovium. The majority of these lesions are benign, and many of the benign lesions can be diagnosed by radiologic evaluation. However, radiologic differences between benign and malignant lipomatous lesions may be subtle and pathologic correlation is often needed. The use of sonography, computed tomography (CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is useful not only in portraying fat within the lesion, but also for evaluating the presence and extent of soft tissue components. Lipomas make up most soft tissue lipomatous lesions, but careful evaluation must be performed to distinguish these lesions from a low-grade liposarcoma. In addition to the imaging appearance, the location of the lesion and the patient demographics can be utilized to help diagnose other soft tissue lipomatous lesions, such as elastofibroma dorsi, angiolipoma, lipoblastoma, and hibernoma. Osseous lipomatous lesions such as a parosteal lipoma and intraosseous lipoma occur less commonly as their soft tissue counterpart, but are also benign. Neurovascular and synovial lipomatous lesions are much rarer lesions but demonstrate more classic radiologic findings, particularly on MRI. A review of the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics of these lesions is presented.

  9. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in musculoskeletal MRI: a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoo, Michael M.Y.; Tyler, Philippa A.; Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Padhani, Anwar R. [Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Northwood (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the mainstay of diagnosis, staging and follow-up of much musculoskeletal pathology. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is a recent addition to the MR sequences conventionally employed. DWI provides qualitative and quantitative functional information concerning the microscopic movements of water at the cellular level. A number of musculoskeletal disorders have been evaluated by DWI, including vertebral fractures, bone marrow infection, bone marrow malignancy, primary bone and soft tissue tumours; post-treatment follow-up has also been assessed. Differentiation between benign and malignant vertebral fractures by DWI and monitoring of therapy response have shown excellent results. However, in other pathologies, such as primary soft tissue tumours, DWI data have been inconclusive in some cases, contributing little additional information beyond that gained from conventional MR sequences. The aim of this article is to critically review the current literature on the contribution of DWI to musculoskeletal MRI. (orig.)

  10. Pathology Assistant (C - Gamechanger Of Pathology Diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asel Kudaybergenova

    2016-06-01

    When the competition ended, we received many favor- able reviews and we decided to start another project a little bit similar to the competition. Every month we show three interesting and difficult to diagnose cases provided by the leading Russian pathologists. The participants can look through the clinical data and digitized histological slides, and then discuss what they see among their professional society. There are 400  specialists  from  post  USSR countries.  Moreover, we get a few proposal of partnership to start a similar project in EU. And the last product in line is Pathology Assistant. It is a game changer. Pathology Assistant is a Digital Pathology©technology driven application for pathology diagnostics, tool to innovate pathology diagnostics in more simple, proven by analytical algo- rithm, automatically delivering anticipated support way. The service provides vast and structured database of validated cases, intuitive interface, fast and convenient system of analytical search. Pathology Assistant will streamline and simplify pathologist’s way to the right decision. Pathologists from Memorial Sloan Catering and biggest EU labs are working on preparing the con- tent for the project.  

  11. Clinical Evaluation of Iliopsoas Strain with Findings from Diagnostic Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in Agility Performance Canines – 73 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cullen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iliopsoas injury and strain is a commonly diagnosed disease process, especially amongst working and sporting canines. There has been very little published literature regarding iliopsoas injuries and there is no information regarding the ultrasound evaluation of abnormal iliopsoas muscles. This manuscript is intended to describe the ultrasound findings in 73 canine agility athletes who had physical examination findings consistent with iliopsoas discomfort. The population was chosen given the high incidence of these animals for the development of iliopsoas injury; likely due to repetitive stress.Methods: Medical records of 73 agility performance canines that underwent musculoskeletal ultrasound evaluation of bilateral iliopsoas muscle groups were retrospectively reviewed. Data included signalment, previous radiographic findings, and ultrasound findings. A 3-tier grading scheme for acute strains was used while the practitioner also evaluated for evidence of chronic injury and bursitis.Results: The majority of pathologies were localised to the tendon of insertion, with the majority being low grade I-II strains (80.8%. Tendon fibre disruption (71.2% and indistinct hypoechoic lesions (91.8% were the most common of acute changes noted. Hyperechoic chronic changes were noted in 84.9 percent of cases. Acute and chronic changes were commonly seen together (62.8%.Conclusion: Diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound was used to identify lesions of the iliopsoas tendon consistent with acute and chronic injury, as well as identifying the region of pathology. The majority of agility performance dogs had low grade acute strains based on the tiered system, with mixed acute and chronic lesions being noted frequently.Application: Diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound provides a non-invasive diagnostic modality for patients suspected of having an iliopsoas strain.

  12. Forces in the Shoulder Joint : On validation of musculoskeletal shoulder models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi Nikooyan, A.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed information about muscle forces in the human musculoskeletal system are highly demanded for several applications. Unfortunately, the measurement of muscle forces in-vivo is hardly possible. To date, musculoskeletal models are best alternative for the direct measurement of these forces. A

  13. Musculoskeletal MR: knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Glaser, C.; Reiser, M.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive, specific, and accurate noninvasive method for diagnosing internal derangement of the knee. During the past 15 years knowledge of pathologic conditions of the knee had evolved significantly. Beyond the basic principles of imaging knee injuries great impact was made on the understanding of indirect or collateral findings, even in rare diseases. In this article the spectrum of disorders of the knee are reviewed and an overview of the current literature is given. This includes considerations about how to achieve a high-standard MR imaging study of the knee, and principles of imaging anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal tears. A focus is put on distinct diseases including intra-articular and intraosseous ganglion cysts, iliotibial band friction syndrome, transient osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, osteochondritis dissecans, and imaging of the articular cartilage. (orig.)

  14. [Musculoskeletal medicine--strategies towards a "good musculoskeletal consultation"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfsons, Simon

    2011-03-01

    The burden of musculoskeletal disease and disability is huge. The direct costs of diagnosis and treatment are dwarfed by the indirect costs to society comprised of sick leave, early retirement, pension funds and disability allowances. Chronic musculoskeletal pain and dysfunction account for the most common cause for chronic pain and for up to 25% of all consultations to family practitioners in the developed world. It is therefore surprising to find that education and training in musculoskeletal medicine has been given short shrift by medical schools, specialist training programs for family practitioners and post graduate continuing medical education. This has been shown quite comprehensively by Mashov and Tabenkin in this edition of the journal. At the close of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010, as declared by the WHO, it is timely to see what has been achieved in terms of the original goals for this decade. There has been a major effort for increasing awareness both in the health community and the general public towards managing chronic musculoskeletal pain. Much has been written, but far less performed in changing the priorities of medical schools and family practice programs towards teaching and training doctors to adequately recognize and treat patients suffering from chronic musculoskeletal problems. In Israel, it is estimated that the indirect costs through lost productivity amount to up to 1.15 billion shekels a year. Investing time and money in training programs for medical students and doctors, together with building an incentive program for primary care physicians to adequately treat this huge chronically disabled population is not only feasible, but can also make great inroads towards easing suffering while curtailing costs.

  15. Current status of musculoskeletal application of shear wave elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Hanyang University School of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Woo Kyoung [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Ultrasonography (US) is a very powerful diagnostic modality for the musculoskeletal system due to the ability to perform real-time dynamic high-resolution examinations with the Doppler technique. In addition to acquiring morphologic data, we can now obtain biomechanical information by quantifying the elasticity of the musculoskeletal structures with US elastography. The earlier diagnosis of degeneration and the ability to perform follow-up evaluations of healing and the effects of treatment are possible. US elastography enables a transition from US-based inspection to US-based palpation in order to diagnose the characteristics of tissue. Shear wave elastography is considered the most suitable type of US elastography for the musculoskeletal system. It is widely used for tendons, ligaments, and muscles. It is important to understand practice guidelines in order to enhance reproducibility. Incorporating viscoelasticity and overcoming inconsistencies among manufacturers are future tasks for improving the capabilities of US elastography.

  16. Current status of musculoskeletal application of shear wave elastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JeongAh Ryu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography (US is a very powerful diagnostic modality for the musculoskeletal system due to the ability to perform real-time dynamic high-resolution examinations with the Doppler technique. In addition to acquiring morphologic data, we can now obtain biomechanical information by quantifying the elasticity of the musculoskeletal structures with US elastography. The earlier diagnosis of degeneration and the ability to perform follow-up evaluations of healing and the effects of treatment are possible. US elastography enables a transition from US-based inspection to US-based palpation in order to diagnose the characteristics of tissue. Shear wave elastography is considered the most suitable type of US elastography for the musculoskeletal system. It is widely used for tendons, ligaments, and muscles. It is important to understand practice guidelines in order to enhance reproducibility. Incorporating viscoelasticity and overcoming inconsistencies among manufacturers are future tasks for improving the capabilities of US elastography.

  17. Current status of musculoskeletal application of shear wave elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Ah; Jeong, Woo Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is a very powerful diagnostic modality for the musculoskeletal system due to the ability to perform real-time dynamic high-resolution examinations with the Doppler technique. In addition to acquiring morphologic data, we can now obtain biomechanical information by quantifying the elasticity of the musculoskeletal structures with US elastography. The earlier diagnosis of degeneration and the ability to perform follow-up evaluations of healing and the effects of treatment are possible. US elastography enables a transition from US-based inspection to US-based palpation in order to diagnose the characteristics of tissue. Shear wave elastography is considered the most suitable type of US elastography for the musculoskeletal system. It is widely used for tendons, ligaments, and muscles. It is important to understand practice guidelines in order to enhance reproducibility. Incorporating viscoelasticity and overcoming inconsistencies among manufacturers are future tasks for improving the capabilities of US elastography

  18. [The improvement of the abilities to maintain motor coordination and equilibrium in the students presenting with the functional disorders of the musculoskeletal system by introducing the elements of therapeutic physical training into the structure of academic schedule of physical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilevich, L V; Davlet'yarova, K V; Ovchinnikova, N A

    The problem of deterioration of the health status in the university students at present remains as topical as it was before being a major cause of impaired working capacity, disability and/or poor social adaptation of the large number of graduates. It has been proposed to introduce a class of therapeutic physical training (TPT) into the schedule of physical education for the students. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the formation of the skills needed to maintain motor coordination and equilibrium in the students presenting with the functional disorders of the musculoskeletal system (MSS) including scoliosis by the introduction of the elements of therapeutic physical training into their academic schedules. The main study group was comprised of 32 students (men) at the age of 18-19 years presenting with the disorders of the musculoskeletal system (type III scoliosis, osteochondropathy, and osteochondrosis). The students of this group received a curriculum aimed at improving their motor skills with the emphasis laid on the selected elements of therapeutic physical training. The control group was composed of 17 students without disorders of the musculoskeletal system who attended the physical education classes following the traditional program. The coordination abilities and balance skills were evaluated based on the analysis with the use of the Stabilan-1 stabilographic apparatus. In addition, the stability test and the Romberg test with open and closed eyes were performed. The results of the study give evidence that the introduction of the elements of therapeutic physical training into the structure of academic schedule of physical education for the students suffering from diseases of the musculoskeletal system has beneficial effect on the parameters of stability and the general ability to maintain the posture and balance. Specifically, in the beginning of the academic year, the students of the main study group presenting with

  19. In-111 WBC imaging in musculoskeletal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.; Ouzounian, T.J.; Webber, M.M.; Amstutz, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy and utility of the In-111 labeled WBC imaging in a series of patients who were suspected of having musculoskeletal sepsis. The labeling of the WBCs was patterned after a method previously described, in which the WBCs are labeled with In-111 oxine in plasma. The WBCs from 100 ml of blood are separated and incubated with In-111 oxine complex, and then 500 μCi. of the labeled cells were reinjected into the patient. Images of the areas in question were obtained at 24 hrs. In some instances, 48 hour images were also obtained. Images were interpreted using consistent criteria. Forty imaging procedures were done on 39 patients. These included 39 total joint protheses, and 17 other images to evaluate possible osteomyelitis, septic arthritis or deep abscesses. Of these studies, 15 were positive, and 42 negative. The findings were then correlated with operative culture and pathology in 21, aspiration cultures and gram stains in 14, and with clinical findings in the remaining 21. This correlation showed 41 true negatives, 12 true positives, 1 false negative, and 2 false positives. The sensitivity was 92.9% and the specificity was 95.2%l. The false negative occurred in a patient on chronic suppressive antibiotic therapy for an infected total hip replacement. The false positive images occurred in a patient with active rheumatoid arthritis and in a patient imaged one month post operative placement of the prosthesis. These images were very useful in several septic patients who had many possible sites of infection. The authors conclude that In-III imaging is an accurate and useful non-invasive method of evaluating musculoskeletal sepsis

  20. Pain relief after musculoskeletal trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmerhorst, G.T.T.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis showed that, in spite of seemingly similar nociception (pathophysiology), there are substantial cultural differences in experiencing and managing pain after surgery of musculoskeletal trauma. The United States and Canada are in the midst of a crisis of opioid use, misuse, overdose, and

  1. Assessment of musculoskeletal load in refuse collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Jóźwiak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work was to assess the load on the musculoskeletal system and its effects in the collectors of solid refuse. The rationale behind this study was to formulate proposals how to reduce excessive musculoskeletal load in this group of workers. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 15 refuse collectors aged 25 to 50 years. Data about the workplace characteristics and subjective complaints of workers were collected by the free interview and questionnaire. During the survey the photorecording of the workpostures, the distance and velocity by GPS recorders, measurements of forces necessary to move containers, energy expenditure (lung ventilation method, workload estimation using the Firstbeat system and REBA method and stadiometry were done. Results: The distance walked daily by the collectors operating in terms of 2 to 3 in urban areas was about 15 km, and in rural areas about 18 km. The most frequent musculoskeletal complaints concerned the feet (60% subjects, knees, wrists and shoulders (over 40% subjects. After work-shift all examined workers had vertebral column shorter by 10 to 14 mm (11.4 mm mean. Conclusions: The results of our study show that the refuse collectors are subjected to a very high physical load because of the work organization and the way it is performed. To avoid adverse health effects and overload it is necessary to undertake ergonomic interventions, involving training of workers to improve the way of their job performance, active and passive leisure, technical control of the equipment and refuse containers, as well as the renegotiation of contracts with clients, especially those concerning non-standard containers. Med Pr 2013;64(4:507–519

  2. Sextant localization of prostate cancer in peripheral zone by MRI: correlation with systemic biopsy pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Rong; Wang Xiaoying; Li Feiyu; Xu Yufeng; Jiang Xuexiang; He Yunfeng; Liu Pengcheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of sextant localization of prostate cancer (PCa) in PZ (peripheral zone) by MR Imaging. Methods: Fifty-one cases of PCa and 29 cases of benign prostate diseases were enrolled in the study. Each peripheral zone was divided into 6 sections (left/right bottom, middle and tip ) in the same fashion for biopsy and the characteristics of each sextant was evaluated separately. Being blinded to clinical data, 2 radiologists with different subspeciahy experience analyzed MR images of the 480 sections of these 80 cases retrospectively. Each sextant region impression of likelihood for cancer was estimated by the rank of a five-point rating scale (1=definite PCa, 2=probable PCa, 3=possible PCa, 4=probably not PCa, 5=definitely not PCa). If definite PCa was considered, then it was staged furthermore. Each diagnosis of sextant region was compared with the pathological result of corresponding biopsy site. Result: (1) Four hundred and seventy sections (205 cancerous and 265 benign) were proved by biopsy. The diagnosis efficacy was best when cutoff point was 2. There was moderate consistency between the results of MRI and pathology with the kappa value of 0.549-0.560. The total accuracy was 78.1%-78.3% with the sensitivity of 69.3%-76.1% and the specificity of 84.9%-80.0%. The positive predictive value was 78.0%-74.6% and the negative predictive value was 78.1%-81.2%. (2) The ROC analysis demonstrated that Az with total impression recorded by two readers had not significant difference(0.829±0.020 vs. 0.840±0.019, U=-0.3988, P>0.05). Conclusion: MRI may be an elementary way to localize PCa in PZ, but the diagnosis efficacy need to be improved furthermore. (authors)

  3. Augmentation of musculoskeletal regeneration: role for pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevons, Lauren A; Houghton, Franchesca D; Tare, Rahul S

    2018-03-20

    The rise in the incidence of musculoskeletal diseases is attributed to an increasing ageing population. The debilitating effects of musculoskeletal diseases, coupled with a lack of effective therapies, contribute to huge financial strains on healthcare systems. The focus of regenerative medicine has shifted to pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), namely, human embryonic stem cells and human-induced PSCs, due to the limited success of adult stem cell-based interventions. PSCs constitute a valuable cell source for musculoskeletal regeneration due to their capacity for unlimited self-renewal, ability to differentiate into all cell lineages of the three germ layers and perceived immunoprivileged characteristics. This review summarizes methods for chondrogenic, osteogenic, myogenic and adipogenic differentiation of PSCs and their potential for therapeutic applications.

  4. Quantitative techniques for musculoskeletal MRI at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangerter, Neal K; Taylor, Meredith D; Tarbox, Grayson J; Palmer, Antony J; Park, Daniel J

    2016-12-01

    Whole-body 7 Tesla MRI scanners have been approved solely for research since they appeared on the market over 10 years ago, but may soon be approved for selected clinical neurological and musculoskeletal applications in both the EU and the United States. There has been considerable research work on musculoskeletal applications at 7 Tesla over the past decade, including techniques for ultra-high resolution morphological imaging, 3D T2 and T2* mapping, ultra-short TE applications, diffusion tensor imaging of cartilage, and several techniques for assessing proteoglycan content in cartilage. Most of this work has been done in the knee or other extremities, due to technical difficulties associated with scanning areas such as the hip and torso at 7 Tesla. In this manuscript, we first provide some technical context for 7 Tesla imaging, including challenges and potential advantages. We then review the major quantitative MRI techniques being applied to musculoskeletal applications on 7 Tesla whole-body systems.

  5. Clinical pathological characteristics of systemic lupus erythematosus patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital - a single centre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiram, S.A.; Ahmed, M.; Nisar, S.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of clinopathological characteristics of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients presenting to Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at MH Rawalpindi, from Jan 2011 to Dec 2013. Material and Methods: All patients presenting to Rheumatology department, MH Rawalpindi with a diagnosis of SLE were included in this study. Presenting features, clinical profile and laboratory parameters of patients were recorded. Results: A total of 76 patients were included in this study, 70 (92.1%) were females and 6 (7.9%) male patients with female- male ratio of 11.6:1. Mean age at presentation was 33 ± 8.31 years. Seventy two patients (94.7%) were anti nuclear antibody (ANA) positive, 63 (83%) were positive for anti-double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (anti-dsDNA) antibody and 6 (7.9%) were anti Smith positive. Seventy (92.1%) patients had musculoskeletal symptoms, 65 patients (85.5%) had fever, 36 (47.4%) patients had cutaneous symptoms, and 20 patients (26.3%) had oral ulcers. About 13 patients (17.1%) had alopecia and 15 patients (19.7%) had serositis. Forty two patients (55.3%) had nephritis, 20 patients (26.3%) had lupus cerebritis, 57 patients (75%) had hematological involvement, 9 patients (11.83%) had pulmonary involvement, 8 patients (10.5%) had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) factor positive and 7 patients (9.2%) had overlap syndrome. Conclusion: Renal and hematological involvement was more common in this study population while mucocutaneous features and neuropsychiatric features were comparable to many local studies with exception to that of Lahore based study that showed much higher percentage of these features. These results reflect the need to have a high index of suspicion for kidney and hematological involvement in SLE patients. (author)

  6. Development of a mobile device optimized cross platform-compatible oral pathology and radiology spaced repetition system for dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawi, Wisam; Easterling, Lauren; Edwards, Paul C

    2015-04-01

    Combining active recall testing with spaced repetition increases memory retention. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare students' perception and utilization of an electronic spaced repetition oral pathology-radiology system in dental hygiene education and predoctoral dental education. The study employed an open-source suite of applications to create electronic "flashcards" that can be individually adjusted for frequency of repetition, depending on a user's assessment of difficulty. Accessible across multiple platforms (iOS, Android, Linux, OSX, Windows) as well as via any web-based browser, this framework was used to develop an oral radiology-oral pathology database of case-based questions. This system was introduced in two courses: sophomore oral pathology for dental students and sophomore radiology for dental hygiene students. Students were provided free software and/or mobile tablet devices as well as a database of 300 electronic question cards. Study participants were surveyed on frequency and extent of use. Perception-based surveys were used to evaluate their attitudes towards this technology. Of the eligible students, 12 of 22 (54.5%) dental hygiene and 49 of 107 (45.8%) dental students responded to the surveys. Adoption rates and student feedback were compared between the two groups. Among the respondents, acceptance of this technology with respect to educational usefulness was similar for the dental and dental hygiene students (median=5 on a five-point scale; dental hygiene interquartile range (IQR)=0; dental IQR=1). Only a minority of the survey respondents (25% dental, 33% dental hygiene) took advantage of one of the main benefits of this technology: automated spaced repetition.

  7. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

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    Diana Mandelker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program′s core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists.

  8. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E; Platt, Mia Y; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K F; Klepeis, Veronica E; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J; Beckwith, Bruce A; Baron, Jason M; McClintock, David S; Kuo, Frank C; Lebo, Matthew S; Gilbertson, John R

    2014-01-01

    Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists.

  9. Advanced imaging of the musculoskeletal system: Standard, three-dimensional, and contrast-enhanced CT and MR imaging, and quantitative bone densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnick, D.; Sartoris, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This course reviews the application of advanced imaging techniques to a broad spectrum of musculoskeletal disorders. The indications for and utility of standard CT in both the axial and the appendicular skeleton is explored. The combined use of CT with air and contrast arthrography at sites including the hip, knee, and shoulder is discussed. A summary of the proved and potential applications of MR imaging in osseous, articular, bone marrow, and soft-tissue disorders is provided. The utility of intraarticular contrast agents in enhancing the diagnostic capabilities of MR imaging for disorders of hyaline cartilage and and fibrocartilage is demonstrated. The advantages of multiplanar reformation and three-dimensional image reconstruction of cross-sectional imaging data are described in conjunction with the fundamental technological principles of these strategies. Accepted methods as well as investigative techniques for the diagnosis and follow-up of metabolic bone disease are contrasted with regard to relative indications, advantages, and limitations

  10. Property of lysosomal storage disease associated with midbrain pathology in the central nervous system of Lamp-2-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Akiko; Kikuchi, Hisae; Fujita, Hiromi; Yamada, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Yuuki; Kabuta, Tomohiro; Nishino, Ichizo; Wada, Keiji; Uchiyama, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) is the gene responsible for Danon disease, which is characterized by cardiomyopathy, autophagic vacuolar myopathy, and variable mental retardation. To elucidate the function of LAMP-2 in the central nervous system, we investigated the neuropathological changes in Lamp-2-deficient mice. Immunohistochemical observations revealed that Lamp-1 and cathepsin D-positive lysosomal structures increased in the large neurons of the mouse brain. Ubiquitin-immunoreactive aggregates and concanavalin A-positive materials were detected in these neurons. By means of ultrastructural studies, we found various-shaped accumulations, including lipofuscin, glycolipid-like materials, and membranous structures, in the neurons and glial cells of Lamp-2-deficient brains. In deficient mice, glycogen granules accumulated in hepatocyte lysosomes but were not observed in neurons. These pathological features indicate lysosomal storage disease; however, the findings are unlikely a consequence of deficiency of a single lysosomal enzyme. Although previous study results have shown a large amount of autophagic vacuoles in parenchymal cells of the visceral organs, these findings were rarely detected in the brain tissue except for some axons in the substantia nigra, in which abundant activated microglial cells with increased lipid peroxidation were observed. Thus, LAMP-2 in the central nervous system has a possible role in the degradation of the various macromolecules in lysosomes and an additional function concerning protection from oxidative stress, especially in the substantia nigra. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinsky, Yael; Iancu, Iulian; Dannon, Pinhas

    2007-10-01

    Gambling behaviour is well-known for many centuries and is growing in popularity and frequency. Its etiology is multi-factorial and in this paper we review new developments in the field of pathological gambling, both regarding etiology and treatment progress. The aim of this review is to increase the physicians' awareness towards this entity.

  12. Renal biopsy pathology in a cohort of patients from southwest Sydney with clinically diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong JL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Jim LC Yong,1,2 Murray C Killingsworth,1–3 Ken Lai1,21Department of Anatomical Pathology, Sydney South West Pathology Service, 2University of Western Sydney, School of Medicine, 3University of New South Wales, Faculty of Medicine, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaPurpose: The pathological manifestations in the kidneys in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE are commonly known as lupus nephritis. We have studied the pathological changes in renal biopsies from 59 cases of clinically diagnosed SLE obtained over a 15-year period from a racially diverse population in the Sydney metropolitan area. Our aim was to see if there was any regional variation in the morphological changes.Methods: Renal biopsy changes were assessed by routine light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. We used the modified 1974 World Health Organization classification of lupus nephritis to classify cases into six classes. Disease severity was assessed by age, sex, and across racial groups, including Caucasian, Asian, Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, Indian subcontinental, South American, and Pacific Islander.Results: Our analysis showed that cases of lupus nephritis contributed 5.4% of our total renal biopsies examined over a 15-year period. The overall incidence of biopsy-proven cases was 0.49 per 100,000 per year. The ages of our patients ranged from 10 to 79 years, with most below 50 years of age. A female to male ratio was determined to be 4.4:1. There was no relationship to ethnicity, nor was there a relationship between any of these parameters and the class or severity of disease.Conclusion: Renal biopsy with multimodal morphological and immunohistochemical analysis remains the gold standard for diagnosis and determination of the level of disease in lupus nephritis. Based on this approach we have identified an incidence rate for southwest Sydney that is slightly higher but comparable to that found in a similar study from the United Kingdom. We also found that there

  13. Diagnosis of pathologies in bridges of the road system in Brazil

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    Cleovir José MILANI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is an indispensable and decisive requirement for the economic development of a country; it is directly linked to the set of structural economic activities and serves as the foundation for the development of other activities. In this context, the bridges have fundamental importance to the social and economical development of the cities, because the roads are to ensure the entry of inputs on farms, as well as the disposal of products and free movement of populations. The aim of this study is to present a survey of the existing bridges in the south region of Brazil, more specifically in the city of Pato Branco, identifying the most recurrent damages, in order to provide bases to administrators, with the intention of ensuring the correct functioning of the transport infrastructure and in the preservation of public property and security for the users. Data collection was conducted through visits, using the method of visual and photographic records. After the analysis was done, we identified several pathological manifestations, both in concrete and wood bridges, such as moisture stains, cracks, corrosion, erosion, clogging of drains; wood decay, lack of verticality of the pillars and foundation repression, among others. Moreover, there was little or no maintenance on the existing bridges. Similar conditions can be observed in most cities in the south region of the country.

  14. Biopsy in Musculoskeletal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharehdaghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of bone tumors is based on careful evaluation of clinical, imaging and a pathologic findings. So the biopsy of bone and soft tissue sarcomas is the final step in evaluation and a fundamental step in the diagnosis of the lesion. It should not be performed as a shortcut to diagnosis (1. The biopsy should be performed in order to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate among few diagnoses after careful staged studies. Real and artificial changes in imaging studies will be superimposed after performing biopsy, which may alter the interpretation if done after biopsy is taken (1. The correct management of a sarcoma depends on the accurate diagnosis. Inadequate, inapprppriate, or inaccurate non-representative biopsy leads to poorer outcome in terms of survivorship and limb salvage. An incorrect, unplanned incision and biopsy may unnecessarily contaminate uninvolved compartments which may convert a salvageable limb to amputation. Anatomic approach along with the proper biopsy techniques may lead to success or catastrophe. It is clear that in patients with inappropriate biopsy, the chance of the need to change the treatment to more radical than would originally be expected is significantly higher. Also it is more probable to need to  convert curative to palliative treatment and to require adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with inappropriate biopsies. Patients with sarcoma are best served by early referral to a specialized center where staged investigations and biopsy can be performed with minimal morbidity (3. Open biopsy is still considered the gold standard; however, recent studies suggest comparable results with percutaneous core needle biopsy. Our study on 103 consecutive CNB and open biopsy showed comparable results as well. Surgeons need to answer to two questions prior to performing a biopsy: 1-          Where is the best part of the lesion to be biopsied? 2-          What is the safest route without contaminating

  15. Pathology in Undergraduate Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj K.C.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathology is a study of disease which deals with etiology, pathogenesis and morphological features and the associated clinical features. Pathology acts as a bridge that fills the gap between basic sciences and clinical medicine. With proper understanding of pathological processes, one can understand the disease process. In Nepal, since the beginning of medical school teaching, Pathology as a basic science discipline and is a component of the preclinical medical school curriculum.Pathology teaching in 19th century was vague, disorganized and very little, though precious. The lectures used to be conducted by surgeons. At Barts, surgeon Sir James Paget had taught surgical pathology. The real revolution in pathology teaching began in the early 1900s when, spurred on by increasing understanding of disease mechanisms, pathology began to be accepted as a specialty in its own right.During the early and mid of 20th century, pathology teaching was a part of clinical teaching with daily, autopsy demonstration. By the late 1980s, significant change had taken place. In many medical schools, debate started regarding relevance of vigorous preclinical teaching. Then system-based approach was incorporated and traditional preclinical course had been abandoned. With this pathology teaching also began to change with pathologists being involved in teaching histology, often alongside pathology to highlight its clinical relevance. In medical schools the pathology teaching time was cut. Autopsy demonstrations, which had been so popular with generations of medical students, were becoming irregular and less well attended.Though teaching of pathology in blocks to ‘avoid fragmentation’ has disappeared in western countries; it is still practice in Nepal. In western countries there was traditional practice of teaching general pathology in the first two years and systemic pathology in the clinical years. Now pathology teaching is integrated throughout the course. A

  16. Structure, function, and control of the human musculoskeletal network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Murphy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The human body is a complex organism, the gross mechanical properties of which are enabled by an interconnected musculoskeletal network controlled by the nervous system. The nature of musculoskeletal interconnection facilitates stability, voluntary movement, and robustness to injury. However, a fundamental understanding of this network and its control by neural systems has remained elusive. Here we address this gap in knowledge by utilizing medical databases and mathematical modeling to reveal the organizational structure, predicted function, and neural control of the musculoskeletal system. We constructed a highly simplified whole-body musculoskeletal network in which single muscles connect to multiple bones via both origin and insertion points. We demonstrated that, using this simplified model, a muscle's role in this network could offer a theoretical prediction of the susceptibility of surrounding components to secondary injury. Finally, we illustrated that sets of muscles cluster into network communities that mimic the organization of control modules in primary motor cortex. This novel formalism for describing interactions between the muscular and skeletal systems serves as a foundation to develop and test therapeutic responses to injury, inspiring future advances in clinical treatments.

  17. A Multiple-Plasticity Spiking Neural Network Embedded in a Closed-Loop Control System to Model Cerebellar Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geminiani, Alice; Casellato, Claudia; Antonietti, Alberto; D'Angelo, Egidio; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2018-06-01

    The cerebellum plays a crucial role in sensorimotor control and cerebellar disorders compromise adaptation and learning of motor responses. However, the link between alterations at network level and cerebellar dysfunction is still unclear. In principle, this understanding would benefit of the development of an artificial system embedding the salient neuronal and plastic properties of the cerebellum and operating in closed-loop. To this aim, we have exploited a realistic spiking computational model of the cerebellum to analyze the network correlates of cerebellar impairment. The model was modified to reproduce three different damages of the cerebellar cortex: (i) a loss of the main output neurons (Purkinje Cells), (ii) a lesion to the main cerebellar afferents (Mossy Fibers), and (iii) a damage to a major mechanism of synaptic plasticity (Long Term Depression). The modified network models were challenged with an Eye-Blink Classical Conditioning test, a standard learning paradigm used to evaluate cerebellar impairment, in which the outcome was compared to reference results obtained in human or animal experiments. In all cases, the model reproduced the partial and delayed conditioning typical of the pathologies, indicating that an intact cerebellar cortex functionality is required to accelerate learning by transferring acquired information to the cerebellar nuclei. Interestingly, depending on the type of lesion, the redistribution of synaptic plasticity and response timing varied greatly generating specific adaptation patterns. Thus, not only the present work extends the generalization capabilities of the cerebellar spiking model to pathological cases, but also predicts how changes at the neuronal level are distributed across the network, making it usable to infer cerebellar circuit alterations occurring in cerebellar pathologies.

  18. Musculo-Skeletal Abnormalities in Patients with Marfan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background A leptosomic body type is tall and thin with long hands. Marfanoid features may be familial in nature or pathological, as occurs in congenital contractual arachnodactyly (Beal's syndrome and Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome mimicking some of the changes of Marfan syndrome, although not accompanied by luxation of lens and dissecting aneurysm of aorta. Methods In this article we collected eight patients who were consistent with the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome via phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Results Our patients manifested a constellation of variable presentations of musculo-skeletal abnormalities ranging from developmental dysplasia of the hip, protrusio acetabuli, leg length inequality, patellar instability, scoliosis, to early onset osteoarthritis. Each abnormality has been treated accordingly. Conclusion This is the first paper which includes the diagnosis and the management of the associated musculo-skeletal abnormalities in patients with Marfan syndrome, stressing that patients with Marfan syndrome are exhibiting great variability in the natural history and the severity of musculo-skeletal abnormalities.

  19. Musculoskeletal manifestations of bacterial endocarditis

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    Érika Bevilaqua Rangel

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The incidence of staphylococcal infection has been increasing during the last 20 years. OBJECTIVE: Report a case of staphylococcal endocarditis preceded by musculoskeletal manifestations, which is a rare form of clinical presentation. DESIGN: Case report. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old-man, without addictions and without known previous cardiopathy, was diagnosed as having definitive acute bacterial endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus. Its etiology was community-acquired, arising from a non-apparent primary focus. In addition, the musculoskeletal symptoms preceded the infective endocarditis (IE by about 1 month, which occurred together with other symptoms, e.g. mycotic aneurysms and petechiae. Later, the patient showed perforation of the mitral valve and moderate mitral insufficiency with clinical control.

  20. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestr, Christopher J.; North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY; Love, Charito

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  1. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestr, Christopher J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; E-mail: palestro@lij.edu; Love, Charito [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2007-09-15

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  2. Musculoskeletal ultrasound in pediatric rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özçakar Levent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS has emerged as an indispensible tool among physicians involved in musculoskeletal medicine in the last two decades, only recently has it become more attractive to pediatric rheumatologists. Thereafter, the use of MSUS in pediatric rheumatology has started to increase. Yet, an ever-growing body of literature shows parity and even superiority of MSUS when compared to physical examination and other imaging modalities. MSUS is suitable for examination of children of all ages and it has certain advantages over other imaging modalities; as it is cheaper, mobile, instantly accessible bedside, easy to combine with clinical assessment (interactivity and non-invasive. It does not require sedation, which facilitates repetitive examinations. Assessment of multiple locations is possible during the same session. Agitation is rarely a problem and small children can be seated in their parents' lap or they can even play while being examined.

  3. Radiology of musculoskeletal stress injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    With the new emphasis on physical fitness, musculoskeletal stress injuries are being seen with greater frequency in children and adults, and in locations that are not widely associated with stress injury. Some of the injuries continue to be mistaken for signs of more serious illnesses, such as infection and neoplasm, and this may lead to unnecessary investigative effort. This book covers both the classic stress injuries and the new manifestations

  4. Basal forebrain cholinergic systems in primate brain: Anatomical organization and role in the pathology of aging and dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Cork, L.C.; Hedreen, J.C.; Kitt, C.A.; Struble, R.G.; Walker, L.C.; Whitehouse, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the anatomical organization of the Chl-4 system: evidence implicating this system in the pathology of AD and related disorders; and hypothetical models by which dysfunction and, eventually, death of these cells may account for some of the neurochemical/neuropathological changes observed in the brains of individuals with AD and related dementias. The topography of Chl-4 projections has been analyzed by injecting tritium-amino acids in proximity to cell bodies of the Chl-4 cell group. It is suggested that reductions in cholinergic markers (activites of ChAT and AChE, high-affinity uptake of choline, and synthesis of acetylcholine from C 14-glucose) in the neocortex appear to be the most severe, consistent, and perhaps earliest transmitter specific abnormalities occurring in the amygdala, hippocampus, and neocortex

  5. Sleep, stress, neurocognitive profile and healthrelated quality of life in adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Molina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to measure levels of sleep, stress, and depression, as well as health-related quality of life, and to assess the neurocognitive profiles in a sample of adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: Nineteen adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain and 20 age-matched healthy control subjects were evaluated regarding their levels of sleep and stress, as well as quality of life, and underwent neurocognitive testing. RESULTS: The sample groups consisted predominantly of females (84%, and the socioeconomic status did not differ between the two groups. In addition, the occurrence of depressive symptoms was similar between the two groups; specifically, 26% of the idiopathic musculoskeletal pain patients and 30% of the control subjects had scores indicative of depression. Teenagers in the group with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain reported poorer quality of life and sleep scores than those in the control group. Regarding stress, patients had worse scores than the control group; whereas 79% of the adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain met the criteria for a diagnosis of stress, only 35% of the adolescents in the control group met the criteria. In both groups, we observed scores that classified adolescents as being in the resistance phase (intermediate and exhaustion phase (pathological of distress. However, the idiopathic musculoskeletal pain group more frequently reported symptomatic complaints of physical and emotional distress. The neurocognitive assessment showed no significant impairments in either group. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain did not exhibit cognitive impairments. However, adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain did experience intermediate to advanced psychological distress and lower health-related quality of life, which may increase their risk of cognitive dysfunction in the future.

  6. Imaging in percutaneous musculoskeletal interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangi, Afshin; Guth, Stephane; Guermazi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This is one of the first books to deal specifically with imaging in percutaneous musculoskeletal interventions. The use of different imaging modalities during these procedures is well described. In the first chapter, the basic procedures and different guidance techniques are presented and discussed. The ensuing chapters describe in exhaustive detail the abilities and uses of imaging in guiding procedures ranging from biopsy and joint injection to management of pain and tumors. These procedures are extensively documented in adults as well as in the pediatric population. The third part of the book describes the different indications for vascular interventions in musculoskeletal lesions. The final chapter focuses on ultrasound-guided interventions, as they are more common and tend to be fashionable. The book is well illustrated with carefully chosen and technically excellent images. Each of the 18 chapters is written by an expert of international repute, making this book the most current and complete treatment of the subject available. It should be of great interest to interventional radiologists and also musculoskeletal and general radiologists. (orig.)

  7. System for Informatics in the Molecular Pathology Laboratory: An Open-Source End-to-End Solution for Next-Generation Sequencing Clinical Data Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenjun; Kadri, Sabah; Puranik, Rutika; Wurst, Michelle N; Patil, Sushant A; Mujacic, Ibro; Benhamed, Sonia; Niu, Nifang; Zhen, Chao Jie; Ameti, Bekim; Long, Bradley C; Galbo, Filipo; Montes, David; Iracheta, Crystal; Gamboa, Venessa L; Lopez, Daisy; Yourshaw, Michael; Lawrence, Carolyn A; Aisner, Dara L; Fitzpatrick, Carrie; McNerney, Megan E; Wang, Y Lynn; Andrade, Jorge; Volchenboum, Samuel L; Furtado, Larissa V; Ritterhouse, Lauren L; Segal, Jeremy P

    2018-04-24

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) diagnostic assays increasingly are becoming the standard of care in oncology practice. As the scale of an NGS laboratory grows, management of these assays requires organizing large amounts of information, including patient data, laboratory processes, genomic data, as well as variant interpretation and reporting. Although several Laboratory Information Systems and/or Laboratory Information Management Systems are commercially available, they may not meet all of the needs of a given laboratory, in addition to being frequently cost-prohibitive. Herein, we present the System for Informatics in the Molecular Pathology Laboratory, a free and open-source Laboratory Information System/Laboratory Information Management System for academic and nonprofit molecular pathology NGS laboratories, developed at the Genomic and Molecular Pathology Division at the University of Chicago Medicine. The System for Informatics in the Molecular Pathology Laboratory was designed as a modular end-to-end information system to handle all stages of the NGS laboratory workload from test order to reporting. We describe the features of the system, its clinical validation at the Genomic and Molecular Pathology Division at the University of Chicago Medicine, and its installation and testing within a different academic center laboratory (University of Colorado), and we propose a platform for future community co-development and interlaboratory data sharing. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging scoring system (PsAMRIS): definitions of key pathologies, suggested MRI sequences, and preliminary scoring system for PsA Hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; McQueen, Fiona; Wiell, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary OMERACT psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance image scoring system (PsAMRIS) for evaluation of inflammatory and destructive changes in PsA hands, which was developed by the international OMERACT MRI in inflammatory arthritis group. MRI definitions of important...... pathologies in peripheral PsA and suggestions concerning appropriate MRI sequences for use in PsA hands are also provided....

  9. Ablation of musculoskeletal metastases: pain palliation, fracture risk reduction, and oligometastatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Anil Nicholas; Callstrom, Matthew R

    2013-12-01

    Thermal ablation is an effective, minimally invasive alternative to conventional therapies in the palliation of painful musculoskeletal metastases and an emerging approach to obtain local tumor control in the setting of limited metastatic disease. Various thermal ablation technologies have been applied to bone and soft tissue tumors and may be used in combination with percutaneous cement instillation for skeletal lesions with or at risk for pathologic fracture. This article reviews current practices of percutaneous ablation of musculoskeletal metastases with an emphasis on radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation of painful skeletal metastases. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Dual pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, A

    2008-05-01

    Dual pathology is defined as the association of two potentially epileptogenic lesions, hippocampal (sclerosis, neuronal loss) and extrahippocampal (temporal or extratemporal). Epileptic activity may be generated by either lesion and the relative importance of every lesion's epileptogenicity conditions the surgical strategy adopted. Most frequently associated with hippocampal sclerosis are cortical dysplasias. The common physiopathology of the two lesions is not clearly established. Extrahippocampal lesions may be undetectable on MRI (microdysgenesis, for example) and ictal discharge patterns may vary among dual pathology patients. The surgical strategy depends on the location of the extrahippocampal lesion and its relative role in seizure generation; however, reported surgical results suggest that simultaneous resection of mesial temporal structures along with the extrahippocampal lesion should be performed.

  11. Microglial pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Streit, Wolfgang J; Xue, Qing-Shan; Tischer, Jasmin; Bechmann, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes pathological changes that affect microglial cells in the human brain during aging and in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, primarily Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It also provides examples of microglial changes that have been observed in laboratory animals during aging and in some experimentally induced lesions and disease models. Dissimilarities and similarities between humans and rodents are discussed in an attempt to generate a current understanding of microglial ...

  12. A musculoskeletal foot model for clinical gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Prabhav; Andersen, Michael S; Macwilliams, Bruce A

    2010-06-18

    Several full body musculoskeletal models have been developed for research applications and these models may potentially be developed into useful clinical tools to assess gait pathologies. Existing full-body musculoskeletal models treat the foot as a single segment and ignore the motions of the intrinsic joints of the foot. This assumption limits the use of such models in clinical cases with significant foot deformities. Therefore, a three-segment musculoskeletal model of the foot was developed to match the segmentation of a recently developed multi-segment kinematic foot model. All the muscles and ligaments of the foot spanning the modeled joints were included. Muscle pathways were adjusted with an optimization routine to minimize the difference between the muscle flexion-extension moment arms from the model and moment arms reported in literature. The model was driven by walking data from five normal pediatric subjects (aged 10.6+/-1.57 years) and muscle forces and activation levels required to produce joint motions were calculated using an inverse dynamic analysis approach. Due to the close proximity of markers on the foot, small marker placement error during motion data collection may lead to significant differences in musculoskeletal model outcomes. Therefore, an optimization routine was developed to enforce joint constraints, optimally scale each segment length and adjust marker positions. To evaluate the model outcomes, the muscle activation patterns during walking were compared with electromyography (EMG) activation patterns reported in the literature. Model-generated muscle activation patterns were observed to be similar to the EMG activation patterns. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Neurophysiological changes in the afferent somatosensory system indices in the case of vertebrogenic spine pathology in miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharbanu Battakova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the paper was to prove that job conditions impact the state of the afferent part of the somatosensory system in miners. Materials and Methods: Data analysis of the electrophysiological examination of the syndrome in 148 patients, aged from 28 to 55 years, with a mild, moderate and severe degree of the pain syndrome was performed. The control group included 28 people without any pain symptoms. The method used was that of somatosensory stimulated potential (SSP with the potentials amplitude and latency main components taken into consideration. Results: It was proven that the true decrease of the somatosensory stimulated potential SSP N22 (p < 0.05 component amplitudes by 41%; N30 component amplitude tend to decrease by 26%. This proves that the true N22 (p < 0.01 component latency increase by 63.8% corresponds to afferent excitation wave conductibility under the pain syndrome of vertebral pathology through sensitivity pathways mainly in the posterior spinal cord columns and then, through the parts of the brain stem, involving the cerebral cortex, which is confirmed by the fact that the P38 and P46 components amplitudes tend to decrease. In addition to this, the proven N10–N13 (p < 0.05, N13–N20 (p < 0.05, N10–N20 (p < 0.05 intervals increases by 43.5–41.8–38.7%, respectively, correspond to the nervous impulse conductibility through the peripheral nervous system structures and allow to reveal the subclinical slowdown of impulse conductibility, which indicates that the conducting system is changed even under a mild pain syndrome. Conclusions: It was found that the data obtained allow for the better understanding of how the neuropathological pain syndrome under vertebral spine pathology is formed.

  14. Musculoskeletal manifestations in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Deepti P. Deshmukh; Asmita G. Akarte

    2017-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal complications of diabetes have been generally ignored and poorly treated as compared to other complications. Hence we carried out this study to find the prevalence of musculoskeletal manifestations in type II diabetes mellitus and its correlation with age, BMI, duration of diabetes, and control of diabetes. Methods: 100 consecutive patients of type II diabetes were studied. Duration of diabetes, control of diabetes, and any musculoskeletal complaints were noted....

  15. Navigation concepts for magnetic resonance imaging-guided musculoskeletal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Harald; Kahn, Thomas; Moche, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Image-guided musculoskeletal (MSK) interventions are a widely used alternative to open surgical procedures for various pathological findings in different body regions. They traditionally involve one of the established x-ray imaging techniques (radiography, fluoroscopy, computed tomography) or ultrasound scanning. Over the last decades, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved into one of the most powerful diagnostic tools for nearly the whole body and has therefore been increasingly considered for interventional guidance as well.The strength of MRI for MSK applications is a combination of well-known general advantages, such as multiplanar and functional imaging capabilities, wide choice of tissue contrasts, and absence of ionizing radiation, as well as a number of MSK-specific factors, for example, the excellent depiction of soft-tissue tumors, nonosteolytic bone changes, and bone marrow lesions. On the downside, the magnetic resonance-compatible equipment needed, restricted space in the magnet, longer imaging times, and the more complex workflow have so far limited the number of MSK procedures under MRI guidance.Navigation solutions are generally a natural extension of any interventional imaging system, in particular, because powerful hardware and software for image processing have become routinely available. They help to identify proper access paths, provide accurate feedback on the instrument positions, facilitate the workflow in an MRI environment, and ultimately contribute to procedural safety and success.The purposes of this work were to describe some basic concepts and devices for MRI guidance of MSK procedures and to discuss technical and clinical achievements and challenges for some selected implementations.

  16. Central nervous system tumors and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1988-01-01

    Among the female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of brain or central nervous system tumors. A significant excess did appear, however, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumors outside the brain was observed, and is consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, which are coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. 12 refs., 11 tabs

  17. Central nervous system tumours and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1989-01-01

    Among female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of fatal brain or central nervous system tumours. A significant excess did appear, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumours outside of the brain was observed, consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Excess tumours of the eye, pituitary or pineal did not occur. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. (author)

  18. Criminalization, racialization and pathologization: the origins of the juvenile justice system in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gutierrez Cornelius

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of Chávez-García, Miroslava. States of Delinquency: Race and Science in the Making of California’s Juvenile Justice System. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2012.

  19. Integrating Omics Technologies to Study Pulmonary Physiology and Pathology at the Systems Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Ramesh Pathak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Assimilation and integration of “omics” technologies, including genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics has readily altered the landscape of medical research in the last decade. The vast and complex nature of omics data can only be interpreted by linking molecular information at the organismic level, forming the foundation of systems biology. Research in pulmonary biology/medicine has necessitated integration of omics, network, systems and computational biology data to differentially diagnose, interpret, and prognosticate pulmonary diseases, facilitating improvement in therapy and treatment modalities. This review describes how to leverage this emerging technology in understanding pulmonary diseases at the systems level -called a “systomic” approach. Considering the operational wholeness of cellular and organ systems, diseased genome, proteome, and the metabolome needs to be conceptualized at the systems level to understand disease pathogenesis and progression. Currently available omics technology and resources require a certain degree of training and proficiency in addition to dedicated hardware and applications, making them relatively less user friendly for the pulmonary biologist and clinicians. Herein, we discuss the various strategies, computational tools and approaches required to study pulmonary diseases at the systems level for biomedical scientists and clinical researchers.

  20. Sleep fragmentation exacerbates mechanical hypersensitivity and alters subsequent sleep-wake behavior in a mouse model of musculoskeletal sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Blair C; Opp, Mark R

    2014-03-01

    numbers of sleep-wake state transitions during the light and dark periods; changes in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, and wakefulness; and altered delta power during NREM sleep. These effects persisted for at least 3 weeks postsensitization. Our data demonstrate that sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization exacerbates the physiological and behavioral responses of mice to musculoskeletal sensitization, including mechanical hypersensitivity and sleep-wake behavior. These data contribute to increasing literature demonstrating bidirectional relationships between sleep and pain. The prevalence and incidence of insufficient sleep and pathologies characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain are increasing in the United States. These demographic data underscore the need for research focused on insufficient sleep and chronic pain so that the quality of life for the millions of individuals with these conditions may be improved.

  1. Comparison of Pathologic Response Evaluation Systems after Anthracycline with/without Taxane-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy among Different Subtypes of Breast Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Lee

    Full Text Available Several methods are used to assess the pathologic response of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC to predict clinical outcome. However, the clinical utility of these systems for each molecular subtype of breast cancer is unclear. Therefore, we applied six pathologic response assessment systems to specific subtypes of breast cancer and compared the results.Five hundred and eighty eight breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline with/without taxane-based NAC were retrospectively analyzed, and the ypTNM stage, residual cancer burden (RCB, residual disease in breast and nodes (RDBN, tumor response ratio, Sataloff's classification, and Miller-Payne grading system were evaluated. The results obtained for each assessment system were analyzed in terms of patient survival.In triple-negative tumors, all systems were significantly associated with disease-free survival and Kaplan-Meier survival curves for disease-free survival were clearly separated by all assessment methods. For HR+/HER2- tumors, systems assessing the residual tumor (ypTNM stage, RCB, and RDBN had prognostic significance. However, for HER2+ tumors, the association between patient survival and the pathologic response assessment results varied according to the system used, and none resulted in distinct Kaplan-Meier curves.Most of the currently available pathologic assessment systems used after anthracycline with/without taxane-based NAC effectively classified triple-negative breast cancers into groups showing different prognoses. The pathologic assessment systems evaluating residual tumors only also had prognostic significance in HR+/HER2- tumors. However, new assessment methods are required to effectively evaluate the pathologic response of HR+/HER2+ and HR-/HER2+ tumors to anthracycline with/without taxane-based NAC.

  2. Normal variants and non-pathologic findings of the skeletal system in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaper, J.; Heinen, W.

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge of normal variants of the skeletal system in childhood protects the child from false radiologic diagnosis and the resulting malpractice. In this article we present a survey of common variants of childhood skeletal system. The awareness of these entities, e. g. the benign extraaxial fluid collections of infancy, allows accurate clinical and radiological diagnosis. The most important impact of radiological expertise in normal variations results in avoidance of unneccessary examinations and in omission of unsubstantiated parental and patients fears. Nearly all normal variations with definite radiologic findings should be treated according to the ''leave-me-alone'' principle. (orig.)

  3. Medical Devices; Hematology and Pathology Devices; Classification of a Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Test System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) test system into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the CIN test system's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  4. The National Outcomes Measurement System for Pediatric Speech-Language Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Robert; Schooling, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS) was developed in the late 1990s. The primary purpose was to serve as a source of data for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who found themselves called on to provide empirical evidence of the functional outcomes associated with their…

  5. Musculoskeletal disorders of the lower limb - ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girish, G.; Finlay, K.; Landry, D.; O'Neill, J.; Popowich, T.; Jacobson, J.; Friedman, L.; Jurriaans, E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to familiarize general radiologists and specialists with the sonographic and corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of various musculoskeletal disorders of the lower limb. Technologists and radiologists should be familiar with all imaging techniques for the investigation and evaluation of musculoskeletal abnormalities. The role of high-resolution ultrasound (US) is highlighted, as well as the complimentary relation between both imaging modalities. We also discuss some of the advantages of US over MRI in the investigation of musculoskeletal disorders of the lower limb. The MRI and US appearances of various articular, periarticular, and soft tissue pathologies of the lower limb are compared and reviewed, and where possible, the advantages of each modality are identified. (author)

  6. Neuroprotective Effects of Lipoxin A4 in Central Nervous System Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cadete Martini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases of the central nervous system are characterized and sometimes worsened by an intense inflammatory response in the affected tissue. It is now accepted that resolution of inflammation is an active process mediated by a group of mediators that can act in synchrony to switch the phenotype of cells, from a proinflammatory one to another that favors the return to homeostasis. This new genus of proresolving mediators includes resolvins, protectins, maresins, and lipoxins, the first to be discovered. In this short review we provide an overview of current knowledge into the cellular and molecular interactions of lipoxins in diseases of the central nervous system in which they appear to facilitate the resolution of inflammation, thus exerting a neuroprotective action.

  7. [Inflammatory granulomas in the pathology of the nervous system. General remarks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, M

    1976-01-01

    The "gliogenic" participation in the edification of granulomas may produce peculiar morphological features especially in the central nervous system, and perhaps more than elsewhere, pseudotumoral features. Moreover, the concept of "granuloma" is perhaps not as well defined as in the other tissues. There are also some still unsolved problems concerning the histogenesis of the cells of the "granuloma". Some examples taken among the different etiologies illustrate these notions.

  8. The functional condition of fetoplacental system in pregnant women with thyroid gland autoimmune pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Melikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some kind of specific system: placenta - thyroid gland - is said to be formed during pregnancy. Regulation of thyroid hormone metabolism depends on the state of the fetoplacental complex (FPC. The nature of the relationship of thyroid gland (TG with the FPC affects the course of pregnancy, fetal growth and the formation of his own pituitary-thyroid system. Goal. To study the characteristics of the hormonal function of fetoplacental complex in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease. Materials and methods. The study included 102 pregnant women: group I – 29 women with euthyroid as the outcome of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT, 25 women with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism as a form of AIT were included into the second group, in III group – 23 women with autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The control group consisted of 25 healthy women. Hypophysial and thyroid system hormonal profile and FPK of pregnant women were detected in dynamics. Results. It is revealed that reliable change of hormonal indexes of function of hypophysial and thyroid system leads to weighable changes of indexes of FPK and the AFP level in mother's blood, i.e. to a placentary failure, are result of it: early and late gestosis (54.5 %, chronic fetal hypoxia (21.7 %, discoordination of patrimonial activity (5.2 %, premature births (17.2 %, threat of an abortion (7.4 %. Conclusions. According to our data the most accurate diagnostic criterion for the development of primary placental insufficiency in pregnant women with thyroid conditions can be considered the change in the level of estriol, progesterone, placental lactogen and AFP in the dynamics of gestation. Their determination can be considered as predictor for early treatment and prevention of placental insufficiency.

  9. Strengths and Limitations of Model Systems for the Study of Urinary Tract Infections and Related Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Amelia E.; Norton, J. Paul; Wiles, Travis J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are some of the most common bacterial infections worldwide and are a source of substantial morbidity among otherwise healthy women. UTIs can be caused by a variety of microbes, but the predominant etiologic agent of these infections is uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). An especially troubling feature of UPEC-associated UTIs is their high rate of recurrence. This problem is compounded by the drastic increase in the global incidence of antibiotic-resistant UPEC strains over the past 15 years. The need for more-effective treatments for UTIs is driving research aimed at bettering our understanding of the virulence mechanisms and host-pathogen interactions that occur during the course of these infections. Surrogate models of human infection, including cell culture systems and the use of murine, porcine, avian, teleost (zebrafish), and nematode hosts, are being employed to define host and bacterial factors that modulate the pathogenesis of UTIs. These model systems are revealing how UPEC strains can avoid or overcome host defenses and acquire scarce nutrients while also providing insight into the virulence mechanisms used by UPEC within compromised individuals, such as catheterized patients. Here, we summarize our current understanding of UTI pathogenesis while also giving an overview of the model systems used to study the initiation, persistence, and recurrence of UTIs and life-threatening sequelae like urosepsis. Although we focus on UPEC, the experimental systems described here can also provide valuable insight into the disease processes associated with other bacterial pathogens both within the urinary tract and elsewhere within the host. PMID:26935136

  10. Musculoskeletal Pain in Gynecologic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sonia R.; Hacker, Michele R.; McKinney, Jessica L.; Elkadry, Eman A.; Rosenblatt, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and symptoms in gynecologic surgeons. Design Prospective cross-sectional survey study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Setting Virtual. All study participants were contacted and participated via electronic means. Participants Gynecologic surgeons. Interventions An anonymous, web-based survey was distributed to gynecologic surgeons via electronic newsletters and direct E-mail. Measurements and Main Results There were 495 respondents with complete data. When respondents were queried about their musculoskeletal symptoms in the past 12 months, they reported a high prevalence of lower back (75.6%) and neck (72.9%) pain and a slightly lower prevalence of shoulder (66.6%), upper back (61.6%), and wrist/hand (60.9%) pain. Many respondents believed that performing surgery caused or worsened the pain, ranging from 76.3% to 82.7% in these five anatomic regions. Women are at an approximately twofold risk of pain, with adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–3.2; p 5 .02) in the lower back region, OR 2.6 (95% CI, 1.4–4.8; p 5 .002) in the upper back, and OR 2.9 (95% CI, 1.8–4.6; p 5 .001) in the wrist/hand region. Conclusion Musculoskeletal symptoms are highly prevalent among gynecologic surgeons. Female sex is associated with approximately twofold risk of reported pain in commonly assessed anatomic regions. Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology (2013) 20, 656-660 PMID:23796512

  11. Design and control of a pneumatic musculoskeletal biped robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xizhe; Liu, Yixiang; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Jie

    2016-04-29

    Pneumatic artificial muscles are quite promising actuators for humanoid robots owing to their similar characteristics with human muscles. Moreover, biologically inspired musculoskeletal systems are particularly important for humanoid robots to perform versatile dynamic tasks. This study aims to develop a pneumatic musculoskeletal biped robot, and its controller, to realize human-like walking. According to the simplified musculoskeletal structure of human lower limbs, each leg of the biped robot is driven by nine muscles, including three pairs of monoarticular muscles which are arranged in the flexor-extensor form, as well as three biarticular muscles which span two joints. To lower cost, high-speed on/off solenoid valves rather than proportional valves are used to control the muscles. The joint trajectory tracking controller based on PID control method is designed to achieve the desired motion. Considering the complex characteristics of pneumatic artificial muscles, the control model is obtained through parameter identification experiments. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the biped robot is able to walk with this control strategy. The proposed musculoskeletal structure and control strategy are effective for the biped robot to achieve human-like walking.

  12. Bacteriology laboratories and musculoskeletal tissue banks in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varettas, Kerry

    2012-11-01

    In Australia, there are six Therapeutic Goods Administration-licensed clinical bacteriology laboratories providing bacterial and fungal bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal samples sent from 10 tissue banks. Musculoskeletal swab and/or tissue biopsy samples are collected at the time of allograft retrieval and sent to bacteriology laboratories for bioburden testing, in some cases requiring interstate transport. Bacteria and fungi may be present within the allograft at the time of retrieval or contaminated from an external source. The type of organism recovered will determine if the allograft is rejected for transplant, which may include all allografts from the same donor. Bacteriology staff also provides unpaid support of tissue banks through meeting involvement, consultations, licence-related activities, validations and research funded by their organisation and not part of any contractual agreement. Bacteriology laboratories and tissue banks must be compliant to the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice - Human Blood and Tissues and regulated by the Therapeutic Goods Administration. Clinical bacteriology laboratories also require mandatory accreditation to Standards Australia International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) 15189:2009 medical laboratories - particular requirements for quality and competence, and may also attain Standards Australia/New Zealand Standard ISO 9001:2000 quality management systems certification. Bacteriology laboratories and musculoskeletal tissue banks are integral partners in providing safe allograft musculoskeletal tissue for transplant. © 2012 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Evidence of educational inadequacies in region-specific musculoskeletal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Charles S; Yeh, Albert C

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies suggest US medical schools are not effectively addressing musculoskeletal medicine in their curricula. We examined if there were specific areas of weakness by analyzing students' knowledge of and confidence in examining specific anatomic regions. A cross-sectional survey study of third- and fourth-year students at Harvard Medical School was conducted during the 2005 to 2006 academic year. One hundred sixty-two third-year students (88% response) and 87 fourth-year students (57% response) completed the Freedman and Bernstein cognitive mastery examination in musculoskeletal medicine and a survey eliciting their clinical confidence in examining the shoulder, elbow, hand, back, hip, knee, and foot on a one to five Likert scale. We specifically analyzed examination questions dealing with the upper extremity, lower extremity, back, and others, which included more systemic conditions such as arthritis, metabolic bone diseases, and cancer. Students failed to meet the established passing benchmark of 70% in all subgroups except for the others category. Confidence scores in performing a physical examination and in generating a differential diagnosis indicated students felt below adequate confidence (3.0 of 5) in five of the seven anatomic regions. Our study provides evidence that region-specific musculoskeletal medicine is a potential learning gap that may need to be addressed in the undergraduate musculoskeletal curriculum.

  14. Musculoskeletal pareidolia in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foye, Patrick; Abdelshahed, Dena; Patel, Shounuck

    2014-07-01

    Medical educators use a variety of strategies to help medical students and resident doctors understand and remember complex topics. One teaching tool is matching up radiographic appearances with unrelated, common, non-medical images, in order to help students easily recognise clinical patterns. However, even among medical educators who use this approach, many are not aware of the neuropsychiatric phenomenon they are using, known as pareidolia. We will describe pareidolia (a form of patternicity) and give two examples of its use in the clinical teaching of musculoskeletal imaging abnormalities: the winking owl and the Scottie dog. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Suppression of spleen pathological function by roentgenoendovascular occlussion in some blood systemic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabkin, I.Kh.; Matevosov, A.L.; Gotman, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that REO of splenic artery in thrombocytopenic purpura, hypoplastic and autoimmune hemolytic anemia manifests the same clinical effect as splenectomy. This treatment procedure may substitute splenectomy in a definite group of patients with above-mentioned blood systemic diseases or precede it as a preparation and prognosis stage. Stage-by-stage total embolization of splenic artery is a necessary technical method permitting to attain the necessary medical effect without risk of developing acute spleen infarction. At present REO is used in some blood diseases in patients with high risk of operation, particularly with active hemorrhagic syndrome of adrenal insufficiency, concomitant inflammatory processes

  16. Audit in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M P; Opeskin, K

    2000-09-01

    Autopsy numbers in Australian hospitals have declined markedly during the past decade despite evidence of a relatively static rate of demonstrable clinical misdiagnosis during this time. The reason for this decrease in autopsy numbers is multifactorial and may include a general lack of clinical and pathologic interest in the autopsy with a possible decline in autopsy standard, a lack of clinicopathologic correlation after autopsies, and an increased emphasis on surgical biopsy reporting within hospital pathology departments. Although forensic autopsies are currently maintaining their numbers, it is incumbent on forensic pathologists to demonstrate the wealth of important information a carefully performed postmortem examination can reveal. To this end, the Pathology Division of the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine has instituted a program of minimum standards in varied types of coroner cases and commenced a system of internal and external audit. The minimum standard for a routine, sudden, presumed natural death is presented and the audit system is discussed.

  17. Renal biopsy pathology in a cohort of patients from southwest Sydney with clinically diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jim Lc; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The pathological manifestations in the kidneys in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are commonly known as lupus nephritis. We have studied the pathological changes in renal biopsies from 59 cases of clinically diagnosed SLE obtained over a 15-year period from a racially diverse population in the Sydney metropolitan area. Our aim was to see if there was any regional variation in the morphological changes. Renal biopsy changes were assessed by routine light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. We used the modified 1974 World Health Organization classification of lupus nephritis to classify cases into six classes. Disease severity was assessed by age, sex, and across racial groups, including Caucasian, Asian, Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, Indian subcontinental, South American, and Pacific Islander. Our analysis showed that cases of lupus nephritis contributed 5.4% of our total renal biopsies examined over a 15-year period. The overall incidence of biopsy-proven cases was 0.49 per 100,000 per year. The ages of our patients ranged from 10 to 79 years, with most below 50 years of age. A female to male ratio was determined to be 4.4:1. There was no relationship to ethnicity, nor was there a relationship between any of these parameters and the class or severity of disease. Renal biopsy with multimodal morphological and immunohistochemical analysis remains the gold standard for diagnosis and determination of the level of disease in lupus nephritis. Based on this approach we have identified an incidence rate for southwest Sydney that is slightly higher but comparable to that found in a similar study from the United Kingdom. We also found that there was no relationship between sex, race, or age and severity of disease.

  18. A Tissue Systems Pathology Test Detects Abnormalities Associated with Prevalent High-Grade Dysplasia and Esophageal Cancer in Barrett's Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley-Thorne, Rebecca J; Davison, Jon M; Prichard, Jeffrey W; Reese, Lia M; Zhang, Yi; Repa, Kathleen; Li, Jinhong; Diehl, David L; Jhala, Nirag C; Ginsberg, Gregory G; DeMarshall, Maureen; Foxwell, Tyler; Jobe, Blair A; Zaidi, Ali H; Duits, Lucas C; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; Rustgi, Anil; Falk, Gary W

    2017-02-01

    There is a need for improved tools to detect high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in patients with Barrett's esophagus. In previous work, we demonstrated that a 3-tier classifier predicted risk of incident progression in Barrett's esophagus. Our aim was to determine whether this risk classifier could detect a field effect in nondysplastic (ND), indefinite for dysplasia (IND), or low-grade dysplasia (LGD) biopsies from Barrett's esophagus patients with prevalent HGD/EAC. We performed a multi-institutional case-control study to evaluate a previously developed risk classifier that is based upon quantitative image features derived from 9 biomarkers and morphology, and predicts risk for HGD/EAC in Barrett's esophagus patients. The risk classifier was evaluated in ND, IND, and LGD biopsies from Barrett's esophagus patients diagnosed with HGD/EAC on repeat endoscopy (prevalent cases, n = 30, median time to HGD/EAC diagnosis 140.5 days) and nonprogressors (controls, n = 145, median HGD/EAC-free surveillance time 2,015 days). The risk classifier stratified prevalent cases and non-progressor patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk classes [OR, 46.0; 95% confidence interval, 14.86-169 (high-risk vs. low-risk); P esophagus patients than pathologic variables. The results indicate that molecular and cellular changes associated with malignant transformation in Barrett's esophagus may be detectable as a field effect using the test. A tissue systems pathology test may provide an objective method to facilitate earlier identification of Barrett's esophagus patients requiring therapeutic intervention. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(2); 240-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Diagnostic histochemistry and clinical-pathological testings as molecular pathways to pathogenesis and treatment of the ageing neuromuscular system: a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, W King

    2015-04-01

    Ageing of the neuromuscular system in elderhood ingravescently contributes to slowness, weakness, falling and death, often accompanied by numbness and pain. This article is to put in perspective examples from a half-century of personal and team neuromuscular histochemical-pathological and clinical-pathological research, including a number of lucky and instructive accomplishments identifying new treatments and new diseases. A major focus currently is on some important, still enigmatic, aspects of the ageing neuromuscular system. It is also includes some of the newest references of others on various closely-related aspects of this ageing system. The article may help guide others in their molecular-based endeavors to identify paths leading to discovering new treatments and new pathogenic aspects. These are certainly needed - our ageing and unsteady constituents are steadily increasing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Relationship between Comorbid Health Problems and Musculoskeletal Disorders Resulting in Musculoskeletal Complaints and Musculoskeletal Sickness Absence among Employees in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ji Hye; Kim, Young Sun; Yi, Kwan Hyung

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and comorbid health problems, including depression/anxiety disorder, insomnia/sleep disorder, fatigue, and injury by accident, and to determine whether certain physical and psychological factors reduce comorbid health problems. In total, 29,711 employees were selected from respondents of the Third Korean Working Conditions Survey and categorized into two groups: Musculoskeletal Complaints or Musculoskeletal Sickness Absence. Four self-reported health indicators (overall fatigue, depression/anxiety, insomnia/sleep disorder, and injury by accident) were selected as outcomes, based on their high prevalence in Korea. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the relationship between comorbid health problems, musculoskeletal complaints, and sickness absence. The prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints and musculoskeletal sickness absence due to muscular pain was 32.26% and 0.59%, respectively. Compared to the reference group, depression/anxiety disorder and overall fatigue were 5.2-6.1 times more prevalent in the Musculoskeletal Complaints Group and insomnia/sleep disorder and injury by accident were 7.6-11.0 times more prevalent in the Sickness Absence Group. When adjusted for individual and work-related physical factors, prevalence of all four comorbid health problems were slightly decreased in both groups. Increases in overall fatigue and depression/anxiety disorder were observed in the Musculoskeletal Complaints Group, while increases in insomnia/sleep disorder and injury by accident were observed in the Sickness Absence Group. For management of musculoskeletal complaints and sickness absence in the workplace, differences in health problems between employees with musculoskeletal complaints and those with sickness absence as well as the physical and psychological risk factors should be considered.

  1. Gypsum plasterboard walls: inspection, pathological characterization and statistical survey using an expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaião, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an expert system to support the inspection and diagnosis of partition walls or wall coverings mounted using the Drywall (DW construction method. This system includes a classification of anomalies in DW and their probable causes. This inspection system was used in a field work that included the observation of 121 DWs. This paper includes a statistical analysis of the anomalies observed during these inspections and their probable causes. The correlation between anomalies and causes in the sample is also thoroughly analyzed. Anomalies are also evaluated for area affected, size, repair urgency and aesthetic value of the affected area. The conclusions of the statistical analysis allowed the creation of an inventory of preventive measures to be implemented in the design, execution and use phases in order to lessen the magnitude or eradicate the occurrence of anomalies in DW. These measures could directly help improve the quality of construction.

    Este trabajo presenta un sistema experto de apoyo a la inspección y diagnóstico de tabiques o revestimientos de yeso laminado. Dicho sistema, que permite la clasificación de las anomalías del yeso laminado y sus causas probables, se empleó en un trabajo de campo en el que se estudiaron 121 elementos construidos con este material. El trabajo incluye el análisis estadístico de las anomalías detectadas durante las inspecciones y sus motivos probables. También se analizó en detalle la correlación entre las anomalías y sus causas, evaluándose aquellas en función de la superficie afectada, la urgencia de las reparaciones y el valor estético de la zona implicada. Las conclusiones del análisis estadístico permitieron la elaboración de un inventario de medidas preventivas que deberían implantarse en las fases de proyecto, ejecución y utilización de estos elementos a fin de erradicar la aparición de anomalías en el yeso laminado o reducir su frecuencia. Dichas

  2. Health Outcomes in Individuals with Problem and Pathological Gambling: An Analysis of the 2014 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Survey System (BRFSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Patten, Ryan; Weinstock, Jeremiah; McGrath, Andrew B

    2018-03-01

    Problem and pathological gambling refers to subclinical and clinical levels of maladaptive gambling, respectively, and is associated with specific sociodemographic characteristics as well as a number of poor health outcomes. We examined such demographic, physical health, mental health, and health-related behaviors in a sample of 7045 low-risk gamblers and 244 problem/pathological gamblers. Participants completed the 2014 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System telephone survey. Using the National Opinion Research Center's Diagnostic Screen for Gambling Disorders-CLiP, participants were categorized as either "problem/pathological gamblers" or "low-risk gamblers." Problem/pathological gamblers were younger, more likely to be male, of ethnic minority status, unmarried, and of lower education than low-risk gamblers. No physical health variables differentiated the groups but problem/pathological gamblers reported experiencing significantly more adverse childhood experiences and engaging in significantly more tobacco and alcohol use compared to low-risk gamblers. Moreover, gender moderated relationships between gambling group and several of the alcohol use variables such that male problem/pathological gamblers exhibited greater alcohol use behavior than male low-risk gamblers but no such relationship was present in females. Overall, this study expands the current knowledgebase on disordered gambling and highlights the need to assess disordered gambling in public health samples. Clinical implications are discussed.

  3. Dysbiosis as a determinant factor of systemic and oral pathology: importance of microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; Giovannoni, María Laura; Schemel-Suárez, Mayra

    2017-10-11

    Advances in genetic and epigenetic studies modified some concepts of health and disease that had been kept intact for decades. In this respect, in the last few years, microorganisms that have evolved with superior life forms for millions of years have taken an increased prominence. The genes of organisms and their microbiota constitute a microbiome that intervenes in health maintenance. The oral cavity is inhabited by a variety of microorganisms, their control aids in stabilising oral and systemic disease. The objective of this article is to update some concepts related to oral microbiome and its correlation with general and oral health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Sirenomelia with associated systemic anomalies: an autopsy pathologic illustration of a series of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Mahadevan, Anita; Gosavi, Manasi; Kangle, Ranjit; Anuradha; Shankar, S K

    2014-07-01

    Sirenomelia, a developmental defect involving the caudal region of the body, is associated with several internal visceral anomalies. We report a detailed spectrum of anomalies in an autopsy study of four fetuses with sirenomelia (gestational ages - 20, 21, 22.4, and 22.5 weeks). Three of the fetuses had single umbilical artery, with genitourinary and gastrointestinal anomalies. Central nervous system anomalies were evident in two of the fetuses, with alobar holoprosencephaly in one and lumbar meningomyelocele in another. The most common gastrointestinal anomaly was blind ended gut (imperforate anus), while esophageal atresia and omphalocele were noted in one case each. Renal hypoplasia was seen in two fetuses, renal agenesis in one and cystic renal dysplasia was noted in one case. Literature regarding pathogenesis of this condition is briefly discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. IMMUNOLOGIC INDICES IN GERONTOLOGICAL PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DESEASE AND URINARY SYSTEM PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Korschunov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients of middle and old age with ischemic heart desease and diseases of urinary system (DUS have been examined. Leukocytic index of intoxication (Lll, hematologic parameter of intoxication (HPI, parameter of immunity intensity (Pll have been significantly increased in groups of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, diabetes and DUS. These indices have been directly correlated with content of IL6 and TNFa, and examined autoantibodies (AAb, especially with contents of antibodies to DNA, to collagen, to fiber-regulator of differentiation and migration immature neuroblast S100. Indices of Lll, HPI and Pll have been decreased in group of patients with normal body weight and urolithiasis. In this group the increase of allergization index (Al and content of IL6, TNFa has been noticed. Indices of AAb pointed to metabolic disorders. The increase of cytokines in patients with pyelonephritis has been revealed. Content of AAb has been slightly increased in comparison with normal indices

  6. Radioimmunological functional examination of the adenohypophysis on pathological conditions in the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenocortical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.N.; Luchitskij, E.V.

    1980-01-01

    The corticotropic, thyrotropic and somatotropic functions of the adenohypophysis of patients with Cushing syndrome were examined radioimmunologically. Blood corticotropine and thyrotropine of these patients was characterized by a disturbed 24 hour rhythm. The release of corticotropine and somatotropine was but little increased as response to insulin hypoglycemia. The adenohypophysis responded weakly to the stimulation by thyroliberine. With the clinical remission of Cushing syndrome following treatment with chloditane or with a combined method an increased concentration of adenohypophyseal hormones in the blood could be demonstrated. The response to insulin hypoglycemic stress and to the thyroliberine stimulation was not normalized just as the 24-hour rhythm of the blood level of corticotropine and thyreotropine. Thus it can be concluded that these disturbances are caused by injuries of the central regulatory mechanisms of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal system, and pathogenetic therapeutic methods for the Cushing syndrome must be elaborated

  7. Glutamate system, amyloid β peptides and tau protein: functional interrelationships and relevance to Alzheimer disease pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revett, Timothy J.; Baker, Glen B.; Jhamandas, Jack; Kar, Satyabrata

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is the most prevalent form of dementia globally and is characterized premortem by a gradual memory loss and deterioration of higher cognitive functions and postmortem by neuritic plaques containing amyloid β peptide and neurofibrillary tangles containing phospho-tau protein. Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the brain and is essential to memory formation through processes such as long-term potentiation and so might be pivotal to Alzheimer disease progression. This review discusses how the glutamatergic system is impaired in Alzheimer disease and how interactions of amyloid β and glutamate influence synaptic function, tau phosphorylation and neurodegeneration. Interestingly, glutamate not only influences amyloid β production, but also amyloid β can alter the levels of glutamate at the synapse, indicating that small changes in the concentrations of both molecules could influence Alzheimer disease progression. Finally, we describe how the glutamate receptor antagonist, memantine, has been used in the treatment of individuals with Alzheimer disease and discuss its effectiveness. PMID:22894822

  8. Baggage handler seniority and musculoskeletal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bern, Stine Hvid; Brauer, Charlotte; Møller, Karina Lauenborg

    2013-01-01

    Heavy lifting is associated with musculoskeletal disorders but it is unclear whether it is related to acute reversible effects or to chronic effects from cumulated exposure. The aim of this study was to examine whether musculoskeletal symptoms in Danish airport baggage handlers were associated wi...... with their seniority as baggage handler, indicating chronic effects from cumulated workload....

  9. Epidemiology and clinical profile of common musculoskeletal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiology and clinical profile of common musculoskeletal diseases in patients with diabetes mellitus at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ... or worsening of MSD. Keywords: musculoskeletal complications; diabetic foot; foot care; trigger finger; Dupuytren's contracture; stiff frozen shoulder ...

  10. Selection related to musculoskeletal complaints among employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zwart, B. C.; Broersen, J. P.; van der Beek, A. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H.; van Dijk, F. J.

    1997-01-01

    To (a) describe differences in the outcome of cross sectional and longitudinal analysis on musculoskeletal complaints relative to age and work demands, and (b) to assess the entrance and drop out selection on musculoskeletal complaints among groups of employees relative to age and work demands. A

  11. The prevalence and factors associated with musculoskeletal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a condition characterized by a predominance of haemoglobin S (hbss) in the red blood cells. Musculoskeletal involvement is one of the commonest clinical manifestations of SCA. There is limited information on the prevalence, patterns and factors associated with Musculoskeletal ...

  12. [Pathologic gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespor, K

    1996-01-31

    The author presents a review on pathological gambling. Similarly as in other addictive diseases, early therapeutic intervention is important. The latter may include: 1: Evaluation of the problem 2. Recommendation that the subject should avoid places where the gambling is pursued. He should not have larger financial sums on him. 3. Recommendations pertaining to lifestyle and prevention of excessive stress. 4. Handling of printed material (the author mentions the text issued to his patients). In the paper therapeutic procedures are described, incl. the author's experience such as the foundation of the group of Gamblers anonymous. Prevention is also considered. It is important that gambling should be less readily available and the demand for it should be smaller.

  13. Dissatisfaction with work as a risk factor of musculoskeletal complaints among foresters in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowski, Stanisław; Choina, Piotr; Florek-Łuszczki, Magdalena; Goździewska, Małgorzata; Jezior, Jagoda

    2017-12-23

    Researchers indicate an important relationship between the level of job satisfaction and the state of health of the employees. Some elements of work related with its character, organization, and interpersonal relationships may evoke strong stress, manifested by, among others, an increased musculoskeletal tension which, in turn, may lead to permanent dysfunction of this system. The objective of the study was analysis of the relationship between the level of job satisfaction and occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders among employees of the State Forests. The research material was collected using two instruments: the modified Nordic Questionnaire for assessment of musculoskeletal disorders, and a questionnaire concerning job satisfaction. The study was conducted in a group of 396 employees of the State Forests from 8 regions of Poland. The results of analysis confirmed a significant relationship between job satisfaction and the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. The lower the level of job satisfaction, the more frequent the experiencing of musculoskeletal disorders. Low level of job satisfaction is a risk factor for the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. Shaping of work conditions, which are the source of job satisfaction, should be considered as one of the main elements of prevention of musculoskeletal complaints.

  14. Musculoskeletal trauma services in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddumba, E K

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 2000 lives are lost in Uganda annually through road traffic accidents. In Kampala, they account for 39% of all injuries, primarily in males aged 16-44 years. They are a result of rapid motorization and urbanization in a country with a poor economy. Uganda's population is an estimated 28 million with a growth rate of 3.4% per year. Motorcycles and omnibuses, the main taxi vehicles, are the primary contributors to the accidents. Poor roads and drivers compound the situation. Twenty-three orthopaedic surgeons (one for every 1,300,000 people) provide specialist services that are available only at three regional hospitals and the National Referral Hospital in Kampala. The majority of musculoskeletal injuries are managed nonoperatively by 200 orthopaedic officers distributed at the district, regional and national referral hospitals. Because of the poor economy, 9% of the national budget is allocated to the health sector. Patients with musculoskeletal injuries in Uganda frequently fail to receive immediate care due to inadequate resources and most are treated by traditional bonesetters. Neglected injuries typically result in poor outcomes. Possible solutions include a public health approach for prevention of road traffic injuries, training of adequate human resources, and infrastructure development.

  15. Imaging features of musculoskeletal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuyst, Dimitri De; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Bernaerts, Anja; Gielen, Jan; Schepper, Arthur M. de

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the imaging characteristics of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Skeletal tuberculosis represents one-third of all cases of tuberculosis occurring in extrapulmonary sites. Hematogenous spread from a distant focus elsewhere in the body is the cornerstone in the understanding of imaging features of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. The most common presentations are tuberculous spondylitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and soft tissue involvement. The diagnostic value of the different imaging techniques, which include conventional radiography, CT, and MR imaging, are emphasized. Whereas conventional radiography is the mainstay in the diagnosis of tuberculous arthritis and osteomyelitis, MR imaging may detect associated bone marrow and soft tissue abnormalities. MR imaging is generally accepted as the imaging modality of choice for diagnosis, demonstration of the extent of the disease of tuberculous spondylitis, and soft tissue tuberculosis. Moreover, it may be very helpful in the differential diagnosis with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, as it may easily demonstrate anterior corner destruction, the relative preservation of the intervertebral disk, multilevel involvement with or without skip lesions, and a large soft tissue abscess, as these are all arguments in favor of a tuberculous spondylitis. On the other hand, CT is still superior in the demonstration of calcifications, which are found in chronic tuberculous abscesses. (orig.)

  16. Study of pathological changes in digestive system of domestic pigeons (Columba livia in Mosul city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred diseased cases of pigeons (Columba livia in Mosul city were examined, 67 birds (67% showed pathologicallesions in digestive system. Most of the gross and histopathological lesions occurred in intestine (29.3% followed byoropharynx, liver, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, and pancreas the values (20.8%, 16.6%, 12.5%, 10.4%, 6.2%, 4.2%respectively. Gross lesions of intestine showed severe tape worms infestation with petechial hemorrhage in some cases,histopathologically there were catarrhal enteritis, necrotic and hemorrhagic enteritis were less, and desquamation of mucosawith bacterial colonies. Gross lesions of oropharynx, esophagus and crop in most cases were yellow caseated masses ornecrotic material. In some cases white diphtheritic membrane with thickening of mucosa in esophagus, crop and proventriculuswere founded, petichial hemorrhage on the mucosa of proventriculus were less some cases. Histopathological lesions oforopharynx and esophagus were thickening of mucosa and presence of necrotic caseated foci on the submucosa. In crop therewere epithelial hyperplasia and in some cases infiltration of inflammatory cells with cocobacilli bacteria and desquamation ofepithelial cells were founded. In proventriculus desquamation and necrosis of epithelial cells of mucus glands with infiltrationof inflammatory cells. Gross lesions in liver and pancreas were limited represented by enlargement and congestion, histopathologically coagulative necrosis of hepatic cells with cocobacilli bacteria, pancreas showed two types of inflammationone was non-suppurative and another was suppurative.

  17. Pathologic Changes of the Peripheral Vestibular System Secondary to Chronic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Monsanto, Rafael; Erdil, Mehmet; Pauna, Henrique F; Kwon, Geeyoun; Schachern, Patricia A; Tsuprun, Vladimir; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the histopathologic changes of dark, transitional, and hair cells of the vestibular system in human temporal bones from patients with chronic otitis media. Comparative human temporal bone study. Otopathology laboratory. To compare the density of vestibular dark, transitional, and hair cells in temporal bones with and without chronic otitis media, we used differential interference contrast microscopy. In the chronic otitis media group (as compared with the age-matched control group), the density of type I and type II hair cells was significantly decreased in the lateral semicircular canal, saccule, and utricle (P otitis media group in the posterior semicircular canal (P = .005), but that of type II cells was not (P = .168). The mean number of dark cells was significantly decreased in the chronic otitis media group in the lateral semicircular canal (P = .014) and in the posterior semicircular canal (P = .002). We observed no statistically significant difference in the density of transitional cells between the 2 groups (P > .1). The findings of our study suggest that the decrease in the number of vestibular sensory cells and dark cells could be the cause of the clinical symptoms of imbalance of some patients with chronic otitis media. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  18. A Feature-Free 30-Disease Pathological Brain Detection System by Linear Regression Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Shao, Ying; Yan, Jie; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Qu, Yanwen; Lee, Elizabeth; Wang, Shuihua

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease patients are increasing rapidly every year. Scholars tend to use computer vision methods to develop automatic diagnosis system. (Background) In 2015, Gorji et al. proposed a novel method using pseudo Zernike moment. They tested four classifiers: learning vector quantization neural network, pattern recognition neural network trained by Levenberg-Marquardt, by resilient backpropagation, and by scaled conjugate gradient. This study presents an improved method by introducing a relatively new classifier-linear regression classification. Our method selects one axial slice from 3D brain image, and employed pseudo Zernike moment with maximum order of 15 to extract 256 features from each image. Finally, linear regression classification was harnessed as the classifier. The proposed approach obtains an accuracy of 97.51%, a sensitivity of 96.71%, and a specificity of 97.73%. Our method performs better than Gorji's approach and five other state-of-the-art approaches. Therefore, it can be used to detect Alzheimer's disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Utility of positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging in musculoskeletal imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ammar A Chaudhry; Maryam Gul; Elaine Gould; Mathew Teng; Kevin Baker; Robert Matthews

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) has established itself as one of the key clinical tools in evaluation of musculoskeletal pathology. However, MRI still has several key limitations which require supplemental information from additional modalities to complete evaluation of various disorders. This has led to the development hybrid positron emission tomography(PET)-MRI which is rapidly evolving to address key clinical questions by using the morphological strengths of MRI and functional information of PET imaging. In this article, we aim to review physical principles and techniques of PET-MRI and discuss clinical utility of functional information obtained from PET imaging and structural information obtained from MRI imaging for the evaluation of musculoskeletal pathology. More specifically, this review highlights the role of PET-MRI in musculoskeletal oncology including initial diagnosis and staging, treatment planning and posttreatment follow-up. Also we will review utility of PET-MRI in evaluating musculoskeletal infections(especially in the immunocompromised and diabetics) and inflammatory condition. Additionally, common pitfalls of PET-MRI will be addressed.

  20. Closed-loop EMG-informed model-based analysis of human musculoskeletal mechanics on rough terrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varotto, C.; Sawacha, Z.; Gizzi, L; Farina, D.; Sartori, M.

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at estimating the musculoskeletal forces acting in the human lower extremity during locomotion on rough terrains. We employ computational models of the human neuro-musculoskeletal system that are informed by multi-modal movement data including foot-ground reaction forces, 3D marker

  1. Graphic-based musculoskeletal model for biomechanical analyses and animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Edmund Y S

    2003-04-01

    The ability to combine physiology and engineering analyses with computer sciences has opened the door to the possibility of creating the 'Virtual Human' reality. This paper presents a broad foundation for a full-featured biomechanical simulator for the human musculoskeletal system physiology. This simulation technology unites the expertise in biomechanical analysis and graphic modeling to investigate joint and connective tissue mechanics at the structural level and to visualize the results in both static and animated forms together with the model. Adaptable anatomical models including prosthetic implants and fracture fixation devices and a robust computational infrastructure for static, kinematic, kinetic, and stress analyses under varying boundary and loading conditions are incorporated on a common platform, the VIMS (Virtual Interactive Musculoskeletal System). Within this software system, a manageable database containing long bone dimensions, connective tissue material properties and a library of skeletal joint system functional activities and loading conditions are also available and they can easily be modified, updated and expanded. Application software is also available to allow end-users to perform biomechanical analyses interactively. This paper details the design, capabilities, and features of the VIMS development at Johns Hopkins University, an effort possible only through academic and commercial collaborations. Examples using these models and the computational algorithms in a virtual laboratory environment are used to demonstrate the utility of this unique database and simulation technology. This integrated system will impact on medical education, basic research, device development and application, and clinical patient care related to musculoskeletal diseases, trauma, and rehabilitation.

  2. Next-Generation Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  3. Pathological and Clinical Features and Management of Central Nervous System Hemangioblastomas in von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kanno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS hemangioblastoma is the most common manifestation of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease. It is found in 70-80% of VHL patients. Hemangioblastoma is a rare form of benign vascular tumor of the CNS, accounting for 2.0% of CNS tumors. It can occur sporadically or as a familial syndrome. CNS hemangioblastomas are typically located in the posterior fossa and the spinal cord. VHL patients usually develop a CNS hemangioblastoma at an early age. Therefore, they require a special routine for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. The surgical management of symptomatic tumors depends on many factors such as symptom, location, multiplicity, and progression of the tumor. The management of asymptomatic tumors in VHL patients is controversial since CNS hemangioblastomas grow with intermittent quiescent and rapid-growth phases. Preoperative embolization of large solid hemangioblastomas prevents perioperative hemorrhage but is not necessary in every case. Radiotherapy should be reserved for inoperable tumors. Because of complexities of VHL, a better understanding of the pathological and clinical features of hemangioblastoma in VHL is essential for its proper management.

  4. Human Posture and Movement Prediction based on Musculoskeletal Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Saeed Davoudabadi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis explores an optimization-based formulation, so-called inverse-inverse dynamics, for the prediction of human posture and motion dynamics performing various tasks. It is explained how this technique enables us to predict natural kinematic and kinetic patterns for human posture...... and motion using AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). AMS uses inverse dynamics to analyze musculoskeletal systems and is, therefore, limited by its dependency on input kinematics. We propose to alleviate this dependency by assuming that voluntary postures and movement strategies in humans are guided by a desire...... expenditure, joint forces and other physiological properties derived from the detailed musculoskeletal analysis. Several attempts have been made to uncover the principles underlying motion control strategies in the literature. In case of some movements, like human squat jumping, there is almost no doubt...

  5. Musculoskeletal manifestations of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merashli, M; Chowdhury, T A; Jawad, A S M

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are increasing significantly worldwide. Whilst vascular complications of diabetes are well recognized, and account for principle mortality and morbidity from the condition, musculoskeletal manifestations of diabetes are common and whilst not life threatening, are an important cause of morbidity, pain and disability. Joints affected by diabetes include peripheral joints and the axial skeleton. Charcot neuroarthropathy is an important cause of deformity and amputation associated with peripheral neuropathy. A number of fibrosing conditions of the hands and shoulder are recognized, including carpal tunnel syndrome, adhesive capsulitis, tenosynovitis and limited joint mobility. People with diabetes are more prone to gout and osteoporosis. Management of these conditions requires early recognition and close liaison between diabetes and rheumatology specialists. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Musculoskeletal imaging insight 2015: Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Kathryn J. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Mutiso, Kavulani [Aga Khan University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nairobi (Kenya); Sconfienza, Luca Maria [University of Milan, Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Milan (Italy); IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Unit of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Monu, Johnny [University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Over the past 6 years the International Skeletal Society (ISS) outreach programs have become popular amongst the various radiology organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. So much so that that the ISS outreach is now routinely expected to participate in many of the international radiology conferences in that part of the world. The organizational planning for an outreach visit to Kenya took place over a 3-year period. Eventually a double-headed event; the seventh and eighth sub-Saharan outreach efforts were organized in Nairobi and in Mombasa, Kenya. The Nairobi outreach was an educational course on musculoskeletal imaging at the University of Nairobi and the Aga Khan University in Nairobi from 26 to 28 May 2015. The Mombasa outreach was organized in collaboration with the African Society of Radiology (ASR) at their annual meeting in Mombasa from 30 May to 2 June 2015. (orig.)

  7. Musculoskeletal imaging insight 2015: Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Kathryn J.; Mutiso, Kavulani; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Monu, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 6 years the International Skeletal Society (ISS) outreach programs have become popular amongst the various radiology organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. So much so that that the ISS outreach is now routinely expected to participate in many of the international radiology conferences in that part of the world. The organizational planning for an outreach visit to Kenya took place over a 3-year period. Eventually a double-headed event; the seventh and eighth sub-Saharan outreach efforts were organized in Nairobi and in Mombasa, Kenya. The Nairobi outreach was an educational course on musculoskeletal imaging at the University of Nairobi and the Aga Khan University in Nairobi from 26 to 28 May 2015. The Mombasa outreach was organized in collaboration with the African Society of Radiology (ASR) at their annual meeting in Mombasa from 30 May to 2 June 2015. (orig.)

  8. Musculoskeletal pain in Dentistry students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Batista e Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the frequency of musculoskeletal pain in dental students. Methods: A descriptive study of observational and cross-sectional approach in which was used an Ergonomics and Posture Questionnaire for Dentists adapted by the researchers, associated with the Cooler Quiz. The sample comprised 43 students who attended between the 6th, 8th and 10th academic periods. The data were submitted to descriptive analysis and expressed as percentages, means and standard deviations, also maximum and minimum. For the comparative analysis between the variables, we used the chi-square test, chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher exact test, when necessary, considering the significance level of 5%. Results: Among the students surveyed 20 (46.51% were men and 23 (53.5% women with a mean age of 23.14 ± 10.24 years, maximum of 35 years and minimum of 19. It was found that 40 (93.02% reported pain in some part of the body, 23 (53.5% in the upper limbs, 20 (46.5% in the lower limbs and 37 (86% in axial skeleton, with no difference between genders (p = 0.59. Pain intensity was classified as mild 10 (25%, moderate 21(52.5% and severe 7 (17.5%. In the assessment we evidenced the direct correlation between the hours of trainning and the intensity of pain. Conclusions: The results of the survey showed that the students assessed developed high frequency of musculoskeletal pain and that pain was associated with hours of daily training held during graduation at the dental clinic.

  9. Environmental pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottet, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Injury by Ionizing Radiations; Urinary System; Immune System; Chemical Carcinogenesis; The Molecular Basis of Environmental Mutagenesis; and Reproductive Toxicity

  10. Imaging-Assisted Large-Format Breast Pathology: Program Rationale and Development in a Nonprofit Health System in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lee Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern breast imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, provides an increasingly clear depiction of breast cancer extent, often with suboptimal pathologic confirmation. Pathologic findings guide management decisions, and small increments in reported tumor characteristics may rationalize significant changes in therapy and staging. Pathologic techniques to grossly examine resected breast tissue have changed little during this era of improved breast imaging and still rely primarily on the techniques of gross inspection and specimen palpation. Only limited imaging information is typically conveyed to pathologists, typically in the form of wire-localization images from breast-conserving procedures. Conventional techniques of specimen dissection and section submission destroy the three-dimensional integrity of the breast anatomy and tumor distribution. These traditional methods of breast specimen examination impose unnecessary limitations on correlation with imaging studies, measurement of cancer extent, multifocality, and margin distance. Improvements in pathologic diagnosis, reporting, and correlation of breast cancer characteristics can be achieved by integrating breast imagers into the specimen examination process and the use of large-format sections which preserve local anatomy. This paper describes the successful creation of a large-format pathology program to routinely serve all patients in a busy interdisciplinary breast center associated with a community-based nonprofit health system in the United States.

  11. A Comparative Study of Activity-Based Costing vs. Current Pricing System for Pathology Examinations at Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver YARIKKAYA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide real cost data for pathology examinations by using activity-based costing method, in order to provide means to departments, health administrators and the social security institution to achieve improvements in financial planning, quality and cost control. Material and Method: The cost of the histopathological examinations, which were accepted by the Department of Pathology at Okmeydanı Training and Research Hospital during August 2014, was calculated using the activity-based costing method. The costs were compared with the amounts specified in the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff and the conventional volume-based costing. Results: Most pathology examinations listed within a given band in the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff show variations in unit costs. The study found that the costs of 77.4% of the examinations were higher than the prices listed in the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff. Conclusion: The pathology examination tariffs specified in the Healthcare Implementation Notification do not reflect the real costs of the examinations. The costs that are calculated using the activity-based costing system may vary according to the service types and levels of health care institutions. However, the main parameters of the method used in the study reflect the necessity of a more accurate banding of pathology examinations. The banding specified by the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff needs to be revised to reflect the real costs in Turkey.

  12. A Comparative Study of Activity-Based Costing vs. Current Pricing System for Pathology Examinations at Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarikkaya, Enver; Özekinci, Selver; Sargan, Aytül; Durmuş, Şenay Erdoğan; Yildiz, Fetin Rüştü

    2017-01-01

    To provide real cost data for pathology examinations by using activity-based costing method, in order to provide means to departments, health administrators and the social security institution to achieve improvements in financial planning, quality and cost control. The cost of the histopathological examinations, which were accepted by the Department of Pathology at Okmeydanı Training and Research Hospital during August 2014, was calculated using the activity-based costing method. The costs were compared with the amounts specified in the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff and the conventional volume-based costing. Most pathology examinations listed within a given band in the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff show variations in unit costs. The study found that the costs of 77.4% of the examinations were higher than the prices listed in the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff. The pathology examination tariffs specified in the Healthcare Implementation Notification do not reflect the real costs of the examinations. The costs that are calculated using the activity-based costing system may vary according to the service types and levels of health care institutions. However, the main parameters of the method used in the study reflect the necessity of a more accurate banding of pathology examinations. The banding specified by the Healthcare Implementation Notification Tariff needs to be revised to reflect the real costs in Turkey.

  13. NMR imaging of osteoarticular pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frocrain, L.; Duvauferrier, R.; Gagey, N.

    1987-01-01

    NMR imaging is assuming an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of osteo-articular disorders. Semiological descriptions of the mean pathological disorders of the locomotor system are presented. Some investigation strategies are proposed to compare NMR imaging with other imaging techniques in various pathological states [fr

  14. Musculoskeletal disorders in main battle tank personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Guldager, Bernadette; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders of personnel in the main battle tank (MBT) units in the Danish army with those of personnel in other types of army units, and to investigate associations between job function in the tank, military rank, and musculoskeletal problems......, and ankle. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There were only 4 women in the MBT group; as a consequence, female personnel were excluded from the study. The participation rate was 58.0% (n = 184) in the MBT group and 56.3% (n = 333) in the reference group. The pattern of musculoskeletal disorders among personnel...

  15. THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH RISK FACTORS IN AUTO RICKSHAW DRIVERS - A SURVEY IN GUNTUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Shaik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Musculoskeletal disorders represent largest category of work related illness in India. Variety of internal and external factors leads to postural stress in vehicle drivers that affects the functioning of musculoskeletal system. Vibration, studied extensively among various risk factors causing musculoskeletal disorders. Hence, the current study focused on various risk factors. Objectives: To know the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and their association with possible risk factors in auto rickshaw drivers. Investigation Tools: Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMSQ, inch tape, vibrometer. Methodology: NMSQ has been used to document prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in 300 subjects. Vibrometer and inch tape were used to measure risk factors like driver’s seat vibration and work space envelope (shoulder to handle distance, lower cabin space. Associations with risk factors were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: Work experience and working hours per week showed a significant positive association with knee problems (p=0.009, p=0.006 respectively. Shoulder to handle distance on right side showed significant negative association with knee problems (p=0.013. Driver’s seat vibration showed strong significant positive association with low backache (p=0.000. No variable showed significant association with neck troubles. Working experience and lower cabin space are significantly associated with ankle problems (p=0.012, p=0.045 respectively.Age, work experience and shoulder to handle distance on left side showed significant positive association with general musculoskeletal troubles (p=0.029, p= 0.005, p=0.045 respectively. Conclusion: Lower back, knee, neck and ankle troubles are more prevalent in auto rickshaw drivers. Increasing age, work experience, maximum working hours per week, increased left shoulder to handle distance and greater driver’s seat vibrations are increasing the risk of musculoskeletal

  16. Pathological diagnostic criterion of blood and lymphatic vessel invasion in colorectal cancer: a framework for developing an objective pathological diagnostic system using the Delphi method, from the Pathology Working Group of the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Motohiro; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Iwaya, Keiichi; Kage, Masayoshi; Akiba, Jun; Ohkura, Yasuo; Horiguchi, Shinichiro; Shomori, Kohei; Kushima, Ryoji; Ajioka, Yoichi; Nomura, Shogo; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study is to create an objective pathological diagnostic system for blood and lymphatic vessel invasion (BLI). 1450 surgically resected colorectal cancer specimens from eight hospitals were reviewed. Our first step was to compare the current practice of pathology assessment among eight hospitals. Then, H&E stained slides with or without histochemical/immunohistochemical staining were assessed by eight pathologists and concordance of BLI diagnosis was checked. In addition, histological findings associated with BLI having good concordance were reviewed. Based on these results, framework for developing diagnostic criterion was developed, using the Delphi method. The new criterion was evaluated using 40 colorectal cancer specimens. Frequency of BLI diagnoses, number of blocks obtained and stained for assessment of BLI varied among eight hospitals. Concordance was low for BLI diagnosis and was not any better when histochemical/immunohistochemical staining was provided. All histological findings associated with BLI from H&E staining were poor in agreement. However, observation of elastica-stained internal elastic membrane covering more than half of the circumference surrounding the tumour cluster as well as the presence of D2-40-stained endothelial cells covering more than half of the circumference surrounding the tumour cluster showed high concordance. Based on this observation, we developed a framework for pathological diagnostic criterion, using the Delphi method. This criterion was found to be useful in improving concordance of BLI diagnosis. A framework for pathological diagnostic criterion was developed by reviewing concordance and using the Delphi method. The criterion developed may serve as the basis for creating a standardised procedure for pathological diagnosis.

  17. Physio-pathological effects of alcohol on the cardiovascular system: its role in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yuhei

    2010-03-01

    Alcohol has complex effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to review physio-pathological effects of alcohol on cardiovascular and related systems and to describe its role in hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The relationship between alcohol and hypertension is well known, and a reduction in the alcohol intake is widely recommended in the management of hypertension. Moreover, alcohol has both pressor and depressor actions. The latter actions are clear in Oriental subjects, especially in those who show alcohol flush because of the genetic variation in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. Repeated alcohol intake in the evening causes an elevation in daytime and a reduction in nighttime blood pressure (BP), with little change in the average 24-h BP in Japanese men. Thus, the hypertensive effect of alcohol seems to be overestimated by the measurement of casual BP during the day. Heavy alcohol intake seems to increase the risk of several cardiovascular diseases, such as hemorrhagic stroke, arrhythmia and heart failure. On the other hand, alcohol may act to prevent atherosclerosis and to decrease the risk of ischemic heart disease, mainly by increasing HDL cholesterol and inhibiting thrombus formation. A J- or U-shaped relationship has been observed between the level of alcohol intake and risk of cardiovascular mortality and total mortality. It is reasonable to reduce the alcohol intake to less than 30 ml per day for men and 15 ml per day for women in the management of hypertension. As a small amount of alcohol seems to be beneficial, abstinence from alcohol is not recommended to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  18. The rise of governmentality in the Italian National Health System: physiology or pathology of a decentralized and (ongoing) federalist system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lega, Federico; Sargiacomo, Massimo; Ianni, Luca

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the implications and lessons that can be learnt from the ongoing process of federalism affecting the Italian National Health System (INHS). Many countries are currently taking decisions concerning the decentralization or re-centralization of their health-care systems, with several key issues that are illustrated in the recent history of the INHS. The decentralization process of INHS has produced mixed results, as some regions took advantage of it to strengthen their systems, whereas others were not capable of developing an effective steering role. We argue that the mutual reinforcement of the decentralization and recentralization processes is not paradoxical, but is actually an effective way for the State to maintain control over the equity and efficiency of its health-care system while decentralizing at a regional level. In this perspective, we provide evidence backing up some of the assumptions made in previous works as well as new food-for thought - specifically on how governmentality and federalism should meet - to reshape the debate on decentralization in health care.

  19. Prevalence and factors contributing to musculoskeletal disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 9, No 5S (2017) > ... Method used in this study is standard Nordic questionnaire (SNQ) Malay version for 150 garage workers ... Keywords: vehicle maintenance; musculoskeletal disorder; ache, pain, discomfort; prevalence ...

  20. Algorithm of Functional Musculoskeletal Disorders Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra P. Eroshenko

    2012-01-01

    The article scientifically justifies the algorithm of complex diagnostics of functional musculoskeletal disorders during resort treatment, aimed at the optimal application of modern methods of physical rehabilitation (correction programs formation), based on diagnostic methodologies findings

  1. Algorithm of Functional Musculoskeletal Disorders Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra P. Eroshenko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article scientifically justifies the algorithm of complex diagnostics of functional musculoskeletal disorders during resort treatment, aimed at the optimal application of modern methods of physical rehabilitation (correction programs formation, based on diagnostic methodologies findings

  2. injury to presentation delays among musculoskeletal trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Injuries are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world with road traffic ... Methods: All musculoskeletal injury patients presenting to Mulago Hospital were prospectively .... who fell or were injured in sports.

  3. Common running musculoskeletal injuries among recreational half ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    probing the prevalence and nature of running musculoskeletal injuries in the 12 months preceding ... or agony, and which prevented them from physical activity for ..... injuries to professional football players: Developing the UEFA model.

  4. Prevalence of Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 4, No 4 (2014) > ... Background: Work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the common occupational ... of the doctor, duration of practice, working hours per week, physical activity and working environment.

  5. Assessment of Functional and Musculoskeletal Problems, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jibril Mohammed

    services. The questionnaires were administered to 384 elderly consenting individuals (aged 60 years and above) ... musculoskeletal problems had good ADL performance capacity rating. ..... may be that many of them scored high on tasks that.

  6. Psychosocial stressors at work and musculoskeletal problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Objectives - This paper examines the relationship between work stressors and the following health indicators: psychosomatic complaints, health behavior, and musculoskeletal problems. Methods - Secondary analyses were performed on data from the National Work and Living Condition Survey, which

  7. WORK RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: A SURVEY OF PHYSIOTHERAPISTS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Maheshwari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal system disorders are common among health care workers worldwide. They are common causes of severe long-term pain and physical disability. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are defined as “regional impairments of the muscles, tendons, nerves and joints. Physiotherapy can lead to WRMSDs in physiotherapist because of the nature of their profession. Despite of having expert knowledge of musculoskeletal injuries and injury prevention strategies they still report a high incidence of work-related injuries during their professional practice due to their training and continuous professional development Methods: A total of 100 Physiotherapists which included 78 females and 22 males in the age group of 21 to 40 years were recruited in the study. The subjects were taken as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria from Tricity. Results: Pearson’s correlation and Chi square analysis was used to determine correlation and the association of prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms with personal characteristics, job risk factors and coping strategies. The data obtained from this study documents that majority of Physiotherapists have experienced WRMSDs at some time. The prevalence of WRMSDs among Physiotherapists in Tricity is high (91%. The most common risk factors identified in the present study were dealing with an excessive number of patients in one day; continuing to work while injured or hurt; lifting or transferring dependent patients and work scheduling. In present study, the low back and neck regions were the most commonly affected site among physiotherapists (72.5% each followed by upper back (28.6 %, shoulder (20.9%, wrist and hand (17.6%, knee (12.1%, ankle and foot (12.1% and hip (7.70% Conclusions: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are an important health risk within the physiotherapy profession. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the Physiotherapists in Tricity is high that

  8. Musculoskeletal Imaging Findings of Hematologic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Shannon M; Matcuk, George R; Patel, Dakshesh B; Skalski, Matthew; White, Eric A; Tomasian, Anderanik; Schein, Aaron J

    2017-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies comprise a set of prevalent yet clinically diverse diseases that can affect every organ system. Because blood components originate in bone marrow, it is no surprise that bone marrow is a common location for both primary and metastatic hematologic neoplasms. Findings of hematologic malignancy can be seen with most imaging modalities including radiography, computed tomography (CT), technetium 99m ( 99m Tc) methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scanning, fluorine 18 ( 18 F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Because of the diversity of imaging appearances and clinical behavior of this spectrum of disease, diagnosis can be challenging, and profound understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic changes and current treatment modalities can be daunting. The appearance of normal bone marrow at MR imaging and FDG PET/CT is also varied due to dynamic compositional changes with normal aging and in response to hematologic demand or treatment, which can lead to false-positive interpretation of imaging studies. In this article, the authors review the normal maturation and imaging appearance of bone marrow. Focusing on lymphoma, leukemia, and multiple myeloma, they present the spectrum of imaging findings of hematologic malignancy affecting the musculoskeletal system and the current imaging tools available to the radiologist. They discuss the imaging findings of posttreatment bone marrow and review commonly used staging systems and consensus recommendations for appropriate imaging for staging, management, and assessment of clinical remission. © RSNA, 2017.

  9. CT of AIDS-related musculoskeletal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper characterizes musculoskeletal inflammatory diseases in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients and with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). CT, radiographic, and clinical data were reviewed in 10 patients, and patterns and features were compared with those in musculoskeletal infections occurring in non-AIDS patients. Infection was confirmed by means of biopsy or aspiration in eight cases and strongly suggested in the other two by blood cultures, cell counts, and other data

  10. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  11. Automated Cancer Registry Notifications: Validation of a Medical Text Analytics System for Identifying Patients with Cancer from a State-Wide Pathology Repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anthony N; Moore, Julie; O'Dwyer, John; Philpot, Shoni

    2016-01-01

    The paper assesses the utility of Medtex on automating Cancer Registry notifications from narrative histology and cytology reports from the Queensland state-wide pathology information system. A corpus of 45.3 million pathology HL7 messages (including 119,581 histology and cytology reports) from a Queensland pathology repository for the year of 2009 was analysed by Medtex for cancer notification. Reports analysed by Medtex were consolidated at a patient level and compared against patients with notifiable cancers from the Queensland Oncology Repository (QOR). A stratified random sample of 1,000 patients was manually reviewed by a cancer clinical coder to analyse agreements and discrepancies. Sensitivity of 96.5% (95% confidence interval: 94.5-97.8%), specificity of 96.5% (95.3-97.4%) and positive predictive value of 83.7% (79.6-86.8%) were achieved for identifying cancer notifiable patients. Medtex achieved high sensitivity and specificity across the breadth of cancers, report types, pathology laboratories and pathologists throughout the State of Queensland. The high sensitivity also resulted in the identification of cancer patients that were not found in the QOR. High sensitivity was at the expense of positive predictive value; however, these cases may be considered as lower priority to Cancer Registries as they can be quickly reviewed. Error analysis revealed that system errors tended to be tumour stream dependent. Medtex is proving to be a promising medical text analytic system. High value cancer information can be generated through intelligent data classification and extraction on large volumes of unstructured pathology reports.

  12. Improving musculoskeletal health: global issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Girish M; Brooks, Peter M

    2012-04-01

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders are among the leading reasons why patients consult a family or primary health practitioner, take time off work and become disabled. Many of the MSK disorders are more common in the elderly. Thus, as the proportion of the elderly increases all over the world, MSK disorders will make a greater contribution to the global burden of disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that the spectrum of MSK disorders in developing countries is similar to that seen in industrialised countries, but the burden of disease tends to be higher due to a delay in diagnosis or lack of access to adequate health-care facilities for effective treatment. Musculoskeletal pain is very common in the community while fibromyalgia is being recognised as part of a continuum of chronic widespread pain rather than a narrowly defined entity. This will allow research to improve our understanding of pain in a variety of diffuse pain syndromes. The availability of newer more effective therapies has resulted in efforts to initiate therapy at an earlier stage of diseases. The new criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, and the diagnosis of axial and peripheral involvement in spondyloarthritis, permit an earlier diagnosis without having to wait for radiological changes. One of the major health challenges is the global shortage of health workers, and based on current training of health workers and traditional models of care for service delivery, the global situation is unlikely to change in the near future. Thus, new models of care and strategies to train community health-care workers and primary health-care practitioners to detect and initiate the management of patients with MSK disorders at an earlier stage are required. There is also a need for prevention strategies with campaigns to educate and raise awareness among the entire population. Lifestyle interventions such as maintaining an ideal body weight to prevent obesity, regular exercises, avoidance of smoking and alcohol

  13. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Palestro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of "complicating osteomyelitis" such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose.Estudos através de imagens com o uso de radionuclídeos são rotineiramente usadas para avaliar pacientes suspeitos de terem infecção músculo-esquelética. A imagem óssea em tridimensional é facilmente avaliável, relativamente de baixo custo, e muito precisa na localização de alterações ósseas. Imagem com leucócito marcado poderia ser usada nos casos de "osteomielite com complicações" tais como infecção prostética articular. Esse teste também é útil na não suspeita clinica de osteomielite associada ao pé diabético tanto quanto nas junções neuropáticas. É sempre necessário, por outro lado, realizar imagem complementar da medula óssea para aumentar a precisão da imagem com leucócito marcado. Em contraste com outras regiões no esqueleto, imagem com leucócito marcado não é útil para diagnosticar osteomielite da coluna vertebral. Até agora, o gálio é o radionuclídeo preferido para

  14. Infant carrying methods: Correlates and associated musculoskeletal disorders among nursing mothers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojukwu, Chidiebele Petronilla; Anyanwu, Godson Emeka; Anekwu, Emelie Morris; Chukwu, Sylvester Caesar; Fab-Agbo, Chukwubuikem

    2017-10-01

    Infant carrying is an integral part of the mothering occupation. Paucity of data exists on its correlates and associated musculoskeletal injuries. In this study, factors and musculoskeletal injuries associated with infant carrying were investigated in 227 nursing mothers, using a structured questionnaire. 77.1% utilised the back infant carrying methods (ICM). Maternal comfort was the major factor influencing participants' (37.4%) choices of ICMs. Infant's age (p = .000) and transportation means (p = .045) were significantly associated with ICMs. Low back pain (82.8%) and upper back pain (74.9%) were the most reported musculoskeletal discomforts associated with ICMs, especially among women who utilised back ICM. Back ICM is predominantly used by nursing mothers. Impact statement Infant carrying has been associated with increased energy cost and biomechanical changes. Currently, there is a paucity of data on infant carrying-related musculoskeletal injuries. In this study, investigating factors and musculoskeletal injuries associated with infant carrying, the results showed that back infant carrying method is predominantly used by nursing mothers. Age of the infant and mothers' means of transportation were determinant factors of infant carrying methods. Among the several reported infant carrying-related musculoskeletal disorders, low back and upper back pain were the most prevalent, especially among women who utilised the back infant carrying method. There is need for women's health specialists to introduce appropriate ergonomic training and interventions on infant carrying tasks in order to improve maternal musculoskeletal health during the childbearing years and beyond. Further experimental studies on the effects of various infant carrying methods on the musculoskeletal system are recommended.

  15. Mini Treadmill for Musculoskeletal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Because NASA's approach to space exploration calls for long-term extended missions, there is a pressing need to equip astronauts with effective exercise regimens that will maintain musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. ZIN Technologies, Inc., has developed an innovative miniature treadmill for use in both zero-gravity and terrestrial environments. The treadmill offers excellent periodic impact exercise to stimulate cardiovascular activity and bone remodeling as well as resistive capability to encourage full-body muscle maintenance. A novel speed-control algorithm allows users to modulate treadmill speed by adjusting stride, and a new subject load device provides a more Earth-like gravity replacement load. This new and compact treadmill offers a unique approach to managing astronaut health while addressing the inherent and stringent challenges of space flight. The innovation also has the potential to offer numerous terrestrial applications, as a real-time daily load stimulus (DLS) measurement feature provides an effective mechanism to combat or manage osteoporosis, a major public health threat for 55 percent of Americans over the age of 50.

  16. Motor control and the management of musculoskeletal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Paulette M; Heneghan, Nicola R

    2006-08-01

    This paper aims to develop understanding of three important motor control issues--feedforward mechanisms, cortical plasticity and task-specificity and assess the implications for musculoskeletal practice. A model of control for the reach-to-grasp movement illustrates how the central nervous system integrates sensorimotor processes to control complex movements. Feedforward mechanisms, an essential element of motor control, are altered in neurologically intact patients with chronic neck pain and low back pain. In healthy subjects, cortical mapping studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation have demonstrated that neural pathways adapt according to what and how much is practised. Neuroplasticity has also been demonstrated in a number of musculoskeletal conditions, where cortical maps are altered compared to normal. Behavioural and neurophysiological studies indicate that environmental and task constraints such as the goal of the task and an object's shape and size, are determinants of the motor schema for reaching and other movements. Consideration of motor control issues as well as signs and symptoms, may facilitate management of musculoskeletal conditions and improve outcome. Practice of entire everyday tasks at an early stage and systematic variation of the task is recommended. Training should be directed with the aim of re-educating feedforward mechanisms where necessary and the amount of practice should be sufficient to cause changes in cortical activity.

  17. Biological stress systems, adverse life events and the onset of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain: a six-year cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Generaal, E.; Vogelzangs, N.; MacFarlane, G.J.; Geenen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087017571; Smit, J.H.; de Geus, E.J.C.N.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Dekker, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dysregulated biological stress systems and adverse life events, independently and in interaction, have been hypothesised to initiate chronic pain. We examine whether (1) function of biological stress systems, (2) adverse life events, and (3) their combination predict the onset of chronic

  18. Biological stress systems, adverse life events and the improvement of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain across a 6-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Generaal, E.; Vogelzangs, N.; Macfarlane, G.J.; Geenen, R.; Smit, J.H.; de Geus, E.J.C.N.; Dekker, J.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    Dysfunction of biological stress systems and adverse life events, independently and in interaction, have been hypothesized to predict chronic pain persistence. Conversely, these factors may hamper the improvement of chronic pain. Longitudinal evidence is currently lacking. We examined whether: 1)

  19. Biological Stress Systems, Adverse Life Events, and the Improvement of Chronic Multisite Musculoskeletal Pain Across a 6-Year Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Generaal, Ellen; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Macfarlane, Gary J; Geenen, Rinie; Smit, Johannes H; de Geus, Eco J C N; Dekker, Joost; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    Dysfunction of biological stress systems and adverse life events, independently and in interaction, have been hypothesized to predict chronic pain persistence. Conversely, these factors may hamper the improvement of chronic pain. Longitudinal evidence is currently lacking. We examined whether: 1)

  20. Do host genetic traits in the bacterial sensing system play a role in the development of Chlamydia trachomatis-associated tubal pathology in subfertile women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito James I

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In women, Chlamydia (C. trachomatis upper genital tract infection can cause distal tubal damage and occlusion, increasing the risk of tubal factor subfertility and ectopic pregnancy. Variations, like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, in immunologically important host genes are assumed to play a role in the course and outcome of a C. trachomatis infection. We studied whether genetic traits (carrying multiple SNPs in different genes in the bacterial sensing system are associated with an aberrant immune response and subsequently with tubal pathology following a C. trachomatis infection. The genes studied all encode for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs involved in sensing bacterial components. Methods Of 227 subfertile women, serum was available for C. trachomatis IgG antibody testing and genotyping (common versus rare allele of the PRR genes TLR9, TLR4, CD14 and CARD15/NOD2. In all women, a laparoscopy was performed to assess the grade of tubal pathology. Tubal pathology was defined as extensive peri-adnexal adhesions and/or distal occlusion of at least one tube. Results Following a C. trachomatis infection (i.e. C. trachomatis IgG positive, subfertile women carrying two or more SNPs in C. trachomatis PRR genes were at increased risk of tubal pathology compared to women carrying less than two SNPs (73% vs 33% risk. The differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.15, but a trend was observed. Conclusion Carrying multiple SNPs in C. trachomatis PRR genes tends to result in an aberrant immune response and a higher risk of tubal pathology following a C. trachomatis infection. Larger studies are needed to confirm our preliminary findings.

  1. Responsibility for managing musculoskeletal disorders--a cross-sectional postal survey of attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maria E H; Nordholm, Lena A

    2008-08-05

    Musculoskeletal disorders are a major burden on individuals, health systems and social care systems and rehabilitation efforts in these disorders are considerable. Self-care is often considered a cost effective treatment alternative owing to limited health care resources. But what are the expectations and attitudes in this question in the general population? The purpose of this study was to describe general attitudes to responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders and to explore associations between attitudes and background variables. A cross-sectional, postal questionnaire survey was carried out with a random sample of a general adult Swedish population of 1770 persons. Sixty-one percent (n = 1082) responded to the questionnaire and was included for the description of general attitudes towards responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders. For the further analyses of associations to background variables 683-693 individuals could be included. Attitudes were measured by the "Attitudes regarding Responsibility for Musculoskeletal disorders" (ARM) instrument, where responsibility is attributed on four dimensions; to myself, as being out of my hands, to employers or to (medical) professionals. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore associations between attitudes to musculoskeletal disorders and the background variables age, sex, education, physical activity, presence of musculoskeletal disorders, sick leave and whether the person had visited a care provider. A majority of participants had internal views, i.e. showed an attitude of taking personal responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders, and did not place responsibility for the management out of their own hands or to employers. However, attributing shared responsibility between self and medical professionals was also found. The main associations found between attitude towards responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders and investigated background variables were that

  2. Responsibility for managing musculoskeletal disorders – A cross-sectional postal survey of attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Maria EH

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders are a major burden on individuals, health systems and social care systems and rehabilitation efforts in these disorders are considerable. Self-care is often considered a cost effective treatment alternative owing to limited health care resources. But what are the expectations and attitudes in this question in the general population? The purpose of this study was to describe general attitudes to responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders and to explore associations between attitudes and background variables. Methods A cross-sectional, postal questionnaire survey was carried out with a random sample of a general adult Swedish population of 1770 persons. Sixty-one percent (n = 1082 responded to the questionnaire and was included for the description of general attitudes towards responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders. For the further analyses of associations to background variables 683–693 individuals could be included. Attitudes were measured by the "Attitudes regarding Responsibility for Musculoskeletal disorders" (ARM instrument, where responsibility is attributed on four dimensions; to myself, as being out of my hands, to employers or to (medical professionals. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore associations between attitudes to musculoskeletal disorders and the background variables age, sex, education, physical activity, presence of musculoskeletal disorders, sick leave and whether the person had visited a care provider. Results A majority of participants had internal views, i.e. showed an attitude of taking personal responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders, and did not place responsibility for the management out of their own hands or to employers. However, attributing shared responsibility between self and medical professionals was also found. The main associations found between attitude towards responsibility for musculoskeletal

  3. System-based identification of toxicity pathways associated with multi-walled carbon nanotube-induced pathological responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder-Talkington, Brandi N. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Dymacek, Julian [Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6070 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-9300 (United States); Porter, Dale W.; Wolfarth, Michael G.; Mercer, Robert R. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Pacurari, Maricica [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-9300 (United States); Denvir, James [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755 (United States); Castranova, Vincent [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Qian, Yong, E-mail: yaq2@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Guo, Nancy L., E-mail: lguo@hsc.wvu.edu [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-9300 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The fibrous shape and biopersistence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have raised concern over their potential toxicity after pulmonary exposure. As in vivo exposure to MWCNT produced a transient inflammatory and progressive fibrotic response, this study sought to identify significant biological processes associated with lung inflammation and fibrosis pathology data, based upon whole genome mRNA expression, bronchoaveolar lavage scores, and morphometric analysis from C57BL/6J mice exposed by pharyngeal aspiration to 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 μg MWCNT at 1, 7, 28, or 56 days post-exposure. Using a novel computational model employing non-negative matrix factorization and Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulation, significant biological processes with expression similar to MWCNT-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis pathology data in mice were identified. A subset of genes in these processes was determined to be functionally related to either fibrosis or inflammation by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and was used to determine potential significant signaling cascades. Two genes determined to be functionally related to inflammation and fibrosis, vascular endothelial growth factor A (vegfa) and C-C motif chemokine 2 (ccl2), were confirmed by in vitro studies of mRNA and protein expression in small airway epithelial cells exposed to MWCNT as concordant with in vivo expression. This study identified that the novel computational model was sufficient to determine biological processes strongly associated with the pathology of lung inflammation and fibrosis and could identify potential toxicity signaling pathways and mechanisms of MWCNT exposure which could be used for future animal studies to support human risk assessment and intervention efforts. - Highlights: • A novel computational model identified toxicity pathways matching in vivo pathology. • Systematic identification of MWCNT-induced biological processes in mouse lungs • MWCNT-induced functional networks of lung

  4. System-based identification of toxicity pathways associated with multi-walled carbon nanotube-induced pathological responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder-Talkington, Brandi N.; Dymacek, Julian; Porter, Dale W.; Wolfarth, Michael G.; Mercer, Robert R.; Pacurari, Maricica; Denvir, James; Castranova, Vincent; Qian, Yong; Guo, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    The fibrous shape and biopersistence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have raised concern over their potential toxicity after pulmonary exposure. As in vivo exposure to MWCNT produced a transient inflammatory and progressive fibrotic response, this study sought to identify significant biological processes associated with lung inflammation and fibrosis pathology data, based upon whole genome mRNA expression, bronchoaveolar lavage scores, and morphometric analysis from C57BL/6J mice exposed by pharyngeal aspiration to 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 μg MWCNT at 1, 7, 28, or 56 days post-exposure. Using a novel computational model employing non-negative matrix factorization and Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulation, significant biological processes with expression similar to MWCNT-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis pathology data in mice were identified. A subset of genes in these processes was determined to be functionally related to either fibrosis or inflammation by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and was used to determine potential significant signaling cascades. Two genes determined to be functionally related to inflammation and fibrosis, vascular endothelial growth factor A (vegfa) and C-C motif chemokine 2 (ccl2), were confirmed by in vitro studies of mRNA and protein expression in small airway epithelial cells exposed to MWCNT as concordant with in vivo expression. This study identified that the novel computational model was sufficient to determine biological processes strongly associated with the pathology of lung inflammation and fibrosis and could identify potential toxicity signaling pathways and mechanisms of MWCNT exposure which could be used for future animal studies to support human risk assessment and intervention efforts. - Highlights: • A novel computational model identified toxicity pathways matching in vivo pathology. • Systematic identification of MWCNT-induced biological processes in mouse lungs • MWCNT-induced functional networks of lung

  5. Validation of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Computerized Adaptive Tests Against the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score for 6 Common Foot and Ankle Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltsov, Jayme C B; Greenfield, Stephen T; Soukup, Dylan; Do, Huong T; Ellis, Scott J

    2017-08-01

    The field of foot and ankle surgery lacks a widely accepted gold-standard patient-reported outcome instrument. With the changing infrastructure of the medical profession, more efficient patient-reported outcome tools are needed to reduce respondent burden and increase participation while providing consistent and reliable measurement across multiple pathologies and disciplines. The primary purpose of the present study was to validate 3 Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System computer adaptive tests (CATs) most relevant to the foot and ankle discipline against the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the Short Form 12 general health status survey in patients with 6 common foot and ankle pathologies. Patients (n = 240) indicated for operative treatment for 1 of 6 common foot and ankle pathologies completed the CATs, FAOS, and Short Form 12 at their preoperative surgical visits, 1 week subsequently (before surgery), and at 6 months postoperatively. The psychometric properties of the instruments were assessed and compared. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System CATs each took less than 1 minute to complete, whereas the FAOS took 6.5 minutes, and the Short Form 12 took 3 minutes. CAT scores were more normally distributed and had fewer floor and ceiling effects than those on the FAOS, which reached as high as 24%. The CATs were more precise than the FAOS and had similar responsiveness and test-retest reliability. The physical function and mobility CATs correlated strongly with the activities subscale of the FAOS, and the pain interference CAT correlated strongly with the pain subscale of the FAOS. The CATs and FAOS were responsive to changes with operative treatment for 6 common foot and ankle pathologies. The CATs performed as well as or better than the FAOS in all aspects of psychometric validity. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System CATs show tremendous potential for improving the study of patient

  6. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    2011-01-01

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  7. Colorectal cancer and the 7th revision of the TNM staging system: review of changes and suggestions for uniform pathologic reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrocea, F L; Sajin, Maria; Marinescu, Elena Cristina; Stoica, D

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a neoplastic disease with a continuously growing incidence in Romania and throughout the world. Although the surgery remains the first line treatment for most of the cases, newly discovered targeted molecular therapies - effective for some patients, but with various side effects and significant financial burden for the national health systems - requires not only stratification of patients in prognostic groups but also evaluation of some non-anatomic factors with major impact on the prognosis and therapeutic strategy. The AJCC/UICC TNM staging system, in his 7th revision, effective for cases diagnosed on or after January 1, 2010, responds to these needs. On the other hand, the role of the pathologist is increasing in terms of workload and amount of information to be included in the pathology report in order to deliver a personalized diagnosis. There are concerns worldwide regarding relevance, validity and completeness of pathologic reporting of CRC in the absence of a uniform reporting format. Therefore, suggestions for a standardized pathology report of CRC are made, based on TNM 7 and recent, up-to-date conclusive published data.

  8. Development of a networked four-million-pixel pathological and radiological digital image presentation system and its application to medical conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakano, Toshikazu; Furukawa, Isao; Okumura, Akira; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Fujii, Tetsuro; Ono, Sadayasu; Suzuki, Junji; Matsuya, Shoji; Ishihara, Teruo

    2001-08-01

    The wide spread of digital technology in the medical field has led to a demand for the high-quality, high-speed, and user-friendly digital image presentation system in the daily medical conferences. To fulfill this demand, we developed a presentation system for radiological and pathological images. It is composed of a super-high-definition (SHD) imaging system, a radiological image database (R-DB), a pathological image database (P-DB), and the network interconnecting these three. The R-DB consists of a 270GB RAID, a database server workstation, and a film digitizer. The P-DB includes an optical microscope, a four-million-pixel digital camera, a 90GB RAID, and a database server workstation. A 100Mbps Ethernet LAN interconnects all the sub-systems. The Web-based system operation software was developed for easy operation. We installed the whole system in NTT East Kanto Hospital to evaluate it in the weekly case conferences. The SHD system could display digital full-color images of 2048 x 2048 pixels on a 28-inch CRT monitor. The doctors evaluated the image quality and size, and found them applicable to the actual medical diagnosis. They also appreciated short image switching time that contributed to smooth presentation. Thus, we confirmed that its characteristics met the requirements.

  9. Pathologic and Protective Roles for Microglial Subsets and Bone Marrow- and Blood-Derived Myeloid Cells in Central Nervous System Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Cédile, Oriane; Jensen, Kirstine Nolling

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a series of processes designed for eventual clearance of pathogens and repair of damaged tissue. In the context of autoimmune recognition, inflammatory processes are usually considered to be pathological. This is also true for inflammatory responses in the central nervous system...... (CNS). However, as in other tissues, neuroinflammation can have beneficial as well as pathological outcomes. The complex role of encephalitogenic T cells in multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) may derive from heterogeneity of the myeloid cells...... with which these T cells interact within the CNS. Myeloid cells, including resident microglia and infiltrating bone marrow-derived cells, such as dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes/macrophages [bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM)], are highly heterogeneous populations that may be involved in neurotoxicity...

  10. Aquatic exercise & balneotherapy in musculoskeletal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Arianne P; Cardoso, Jefferson R; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2012-06-01

    This is a best-evidence synthesis providing an evidence-based summary on the effectiveness of aquatic exercises and balneotherapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. The most prevalent musculoskeletal conditions addressed in this review include: low back pain, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. Over 30 years of research demonstrates that exercises in general, and specifically aquatic exercises, are beneficial for reducing pain and disability in many musculoskeletal conditions demonstrating small to moderate effect sizes ranging between 0.19 and 0.32. Balneotherapy might be beneficial, but the evidence is yet insufficient to make a definitive statement about its use. High-quality trials are needed on balneotherapy and aquatic exercises research especially in specific patient categories that might benefit most. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Musculoskeletal disorder survey for pond workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryani, A.; Partiwi, S. G.; Dewi, H. N. F.

    2018-04-01

    Mucsuloskeletal disorder will affect worker performance and become serious injury when ignored, so that workers cannot work normally. Therefore, an effective strategy plan is needed to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorder. A pond worker is profession with high risk of physical complain. Four main activities are ponds preparation, seed distribution, pond maintenance, and harvesting. The methods employed in this current musculoskeletal disorder survey are questionnaire and interview. The result from 73 questionnaires shown that most of pond workers were working for 7 days a week. Prevalence physical complain are on neck, shoulders, upper back, lower back, and knees. The level of perceived complaint is moderate pain. However, most of them do not contact therapists or physicians. Therefore it is necessary to improve the working methods to be able to reduce physical complains due to musculoskeletal disorder.

  12. Complementary and alternative treatment of musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazio, Simeon; Balen, Diana

    2011-12-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is high and increasing worldwide. Patients usually use CAM in addition to conventional medicine, mainly to treat pain. In a large number of cases, people use CAM for chronic musculoskeletal pain as in osteoarthritis, back pain, neck pain, or fibromyalgia. Herewith, a review is presented of CAM efficacy in treating musculoskeletal pain for which, however, no scientific research has so far provided evidence solid enough. In some rare cases where adequate pain control cannot be achieved, CAM might be considered in rational and individual approach based on the first general rule in medicine "not to harm" and on the utility theory of each intervention, i.e. according to the presumed mechanism of painful stimulus and with close monitoring of the patient's response. Further high quality studies are warranted to elucidate the efficacy and side effects of CAM methods. Therefore, conventional medicine remains the main mode of treatment for patients with musculoskeletal painful conditions.

  13. Common acute and chronic musculoskeletal injuries among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hip/lower back was the most prevalent anatomical site of chronic musculoskeletal injury. (p<0.001). The intrinsic ..... Musculoskeletal disorders among nursing personnel in Korea. Int J ... Marieb E. Human Anatomy and Physiology. 7th ed.

  14. Physical Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders: What's hot? What's cool?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, A.J. van der; IJmker, S.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses the physical ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorders and summarizes the Triennial International Ergonomics Association (IEA) World Congress 2006-IEA2006-highlights on physical ergonomics and work-related MusculoSkeletal Disorders (MSDs). Two general trends are observed.

  15. THE N.I. PIROGOV'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE SURGERY OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM (ON THE OCCASION OF THE 200-th ANNIVERSARY OF THE BIRTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Tikhilov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the scientific heritage the authors presented the contribution of the great Russian surgeon N.I. Pirogov in the development of surgery of the locomotor system. Discussed in detail next lines of activity of N.I. Pirogov being of interest of trauma and orthopedic surgeons, in particular the: anatomical and physiological approach to studying the issues of surgery of extremities, development of scientific and organizational bases in the domestic military-field surgery, the Pirogov's ideas in the field of reconstructive surgery of the extremities, as well as its contribution to the reforming of surgical education in Russia and improvement of the domestic surgical instruments.

  16. MR imaging of appendicular musculoskeletal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathol, M.H.; Montgomery, W.J.; Yuh, W.T.C.; El-Khoury, G.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty cases of musculoskeletal trauma to the extremities examined by MR imaging have been reviewed retrospectively. Examples of various injuries will be shown, including disruption of ligament and tendon, muscular tear and edema, hemorrhage (local or diffuse), vascular injury, bone marrow contusion, osteocartilaginous fracture, meniscal tear, and joint fluid. Many of these patients were collegiate athletes, and MR was valuable in establishing a rapid, accurate diagnosis influencing not only treatment but also return to competition. Negative examinations allowed resumption of competition with a high degree of confidence. The advantages and disadvantages of MR in musculo-skeletal trauma are discussed

  17. Peripheral Nerve Fibers and Their Neurotransmitters in Osteoarthritis Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grässel, Susanne; Muschter, Dominique

    2017-04-28

    The importance of the nociceptive nervous system for maintaining tissue homeostasis has been known for some time, and it has also been suggested that organogenesis and tissue repair are under neuronal control. Changes in peripheral joint innervation are supposed to be partly responsible for degenerative alterations in joint tissues which contribute to development of osteoarthritis. Various resident cell types of the musculoskeletal system express receptors for sensory and sympathetic neurotransmitters, allowing response to peripheral neuronal stimuli. Among them are mesenchymal stem cells, synovial fibroblasts, bone cells and chondrocytes of different origin, which express distinct subtypes of adrenoceptors (AR), receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Some of these cell types synthesize and secrete neuropeptides such as SP, and they are positive for tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH), the rate limiting enzyme for biosynthesis of catecholamines. Sensory and sympathetic neurotransmitters are involved in the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which manifests mainly in the joints. In addition, they seem to play a role in pathogenesis of priori degenerative joint disorders such as osteoarthritis (OA). Altogether it is evident that sensory and sympathetic neurotransmitters have crucial trophic effects which are critical for joint tissue and bone homeostasis. They modulate articular cartilage, subchondral bone and synovial tissue properties in physiological and pathophysiological conditions, in addition to their classical neurological features.

  18. International spinal cord injury musculoskeletal basic data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Burns, A S; Curt, A

    2012-01-01

    To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Musculoskeletal Basic Data Set as part of the International SCI Data Sets to facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic musculoskeletal findings in the SCI population.Setting:International.......To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Musculoskeletal Basic Data Set as part of the International SCI Data Sets to facilitate consistent collection and reporting of basic musculoskeletal findings in the SCI population.Setting:International....

  19. A comparison of physical examinations with musculoskeletal ultrasound in the diagnosis of biceps long head tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Sheng; Lin, Shu-Hsien; Hsu, Yen-Hsia; Chen, Shih-Ching; Kang, Jiunn-Horng

    2011-09-01

    Provocative tests are useful in diagnosing biceps tendon tendinitis. This is the first study to establish the reliability of these tests by comparing the resuts with musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) findings. This study examined 125 patients (69 women and 56 men) and 143 shoulders with shoulder pain. Yergason's test, Speed's test and a bicipital groove tenderness test were performed and musculoskeletal US findings were used as standard reference. Biceps tendon tendinitis was diagnosed with US in 39.1% of the patients and, of those, 55.3% had coexisting rotator cuff injury. The sensitivity and specificity of Yergason's test were 32% and 78%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of Speed's test were 63% and 58%, respectively. In conclusion, all three tests are limited by poor sensitivity. US can be an image modality choice in diagnosing biceps pathology. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic Musculoskeletal Disabilities following Snake Envenoming in Sri Lanka: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subashini Jayawardana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite is a major public health problem in agricultural communities in the tropics leading to acute local and systemic impairments with resultant disabilities. Snakebite related long-term musculoskeletal disabilities have been a neglected area of research. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study in an agricultural community to describe the chronic musculoskeletal disabilities of snake envenoming.A sample representative of residents of a single district in a region of high incidence of snake envenoming was recruited to identify ever snakebite victims. They were evaluated for chronic musculoskeletal disabilities that had developed immediately or within four weeks after the snakebite and persisted over three months. In-depth interviews, validated musculoskeletal functional assessment criteria and specialists' examinations were utilised. Among the 816 victims, 26 (3.2%, 95% confidence interval: 2.2-4.6% had musculoskeletal disabilities, persisting on average for 13.4 years (SD = 14.4. The disabilities were mostly in lower limbs (61.5% and ranged from swelling (34.6%, muscle wasting (46.1%, reduced motion (61.5%, reduced muscle power (50%, impaired balance (26.9%, chronic non-healing ulcers (3.85%, abnormal gait (3.85%, fixed deformities (19.2% to amputations (15.4%. Based on disability patterns, six snakebite-related musculoskeletal syndromes were recognised. The offending snakes causing disabilities were cobra (30.8%, Russell's viper (26.9% and hump-nosed viper (7.7%. Cobra bites manifested muscle wasting (87.5%, reduced muscle power (87.5%, joint stiffness (62.5% and deformities (37.5% while viper bites manifested impaired balance (42.8%, pain (71.4% and swelling (71.4%.Snakebite envenoming is associated with considerable long-term musculoskeletal disabilities. Facilities for specialized care and rehabilitation need to be established in high risk areas.

  1. Work-organisational and personal factors associated with upper body musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P-C; Rempel, D M; Harrison, R J; Chan, J; Ritz, B R

    2007-12-01

    To assess the contribution of work-organisational and personal factors to the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among garment workers in Los Angeles. This is a cross-sectional study of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms among 520 sewing machine operators from 13 garment industry sewing shops. Detailed information on work-organisational factors, personal factors, and musculoskeletal symptoms were obtained in face-to-face interviews. The outcome of interest, upper body WMSD, was defined as a worker experiencing moderate or severe musculoskeletal pain. Unconditional logistic regression models were adopted to assess the association between both work-organisational factors and personal factors and the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain. The prevalence of moderate or severe musculoskeletal pain in the neck/shoulder region was 24% and for distal upper extremity it was 16%. Elevated prevalence of upper body pain was associated with age less than 30 years, female gender, Hispanic ethnicity, being single, having a diagnosis of a MSD or a systemic illness, working more than 10 years as a sewing machine operator, using a single sewing machine, work in large shops, higher work-rest ratios, high physical exertion, high physical isometric loads, high job demand, and low job satisfaction. Work-organisational and personal factors were associated with increased prevalence of moderate or severe upper body musculoskeletal pain among garment workers. Owners of sewing companies may be able to reduce or prevent WMSDs among employees by adopting rotations between different types of workstations thus increasing task variety; by either shortening work periods or increasing rest periods to reduce the work-rest ratio; and by improving the work-organisation to control psychosocial stressors. The findings may guide prevention efforts in the garment sector and have important public health implications for this workforce of largely immigrant labourers.

  2. Epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries in a population of harness Standardbred racehorses in training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a substantial paucity of studies concerning musculoskeletal injuries in harness Standardbred racehorses. Specifically, little is known about the epidemiology of exercise-related musculoskeletal injuries. Most studies on this subject involve Thoroughbred racehorses, whose biomechanics and racing speed differ from Standardbred, making comparisons difficult. Here, a population of Standardbred racehorses trained at the same racecourse was studied over four years and a classification system for exercise-related musculoskeletal injuries was designed. The incidence rates of musculoskeletal injuries causing horses’ withdrawal from training for 15 days or longer were investigated. A mixed-effects Poisson regression model was used to estimate musculoskeletal injury rates and to describe significance of selected risk factors for exercise-related injuries in this population. Results A total of 356 trotter racehorses from 10 different stables contributed 8961 months at risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Four-hundred-and-twenty-nine injuries were reported and classified into 16 categories, based on their aetiology and anatomical localisation. The overall exercise-related injury rate was 4.79 per 100 horse months. When considering risk factors one by one in separate univariable analyses, we obtained the following results: rates did not differ significantly between genders and classes of age, whereas one driver seemed to cause fewer injuries than the others. Racing speed and racing intensity, as well as recent medical history, seemed to be significant risk factors (p fracture are lower in Standardbreds compared to Thoroughbreds, whereas the opposite is true for tendon and suspensory ligament injuries. In addition to identification of risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries among Standardbred racehorses, results suggest that racing intensity seems to be a protective predictor of risk and recent medical history could be used to identify horses at risk of

  3. A Focused Salivary Gland Infection with attenuated MCMV: An Animal Model with Prevention of Pathology Associated with Systemic MCMV Infection1, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Mark J.; Kasman, Laura; Grewal, Jasvir; Bruorton, Mary E.; Werner, Phil; London, Lucille; London, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    While the salivary gland has been recognized as an important effector site of the common mucosal immune system, a useful model for studying anti-viral salivary gland immune responses in vivo and for exploring the role of the salivary gland within the common mucosal system has been lacking. Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is a beta-herpesvirus that displays a strong tropism for the salivary gland and produces significant morbidity in susceptible mice when introduced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation. This study tested the hypothesis that MCMV morbidity and pathology could be reduced by injecting the virus directly the submandibular salivary gland (intraglandular (i.g.)), using either in vivo derived MCMV or the less virulent, tissue culture-derived MCMV (tcMCMV). Peak salivary gland viral titers were completely unaffected by infection route (i.p vs. i.g.) after inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV. However, i.g. tcMCMV inoculation reduced viremia in all systemic tissues tested compared to i.p. inoculation. Further, systemic organ pathology observed in the liver and spleen after i.p. inoculation with either MCMV or tcMCMV was completely eliminated by i.g. inoculation with tcMCMV. Cellular infiltrates in the salivary glands, after i.p. or i.g. inoculation were composed of both B and T cells, indicating the potential for a local immune response to occur in the salivary gland. These results demonstrate that a focused MCMV infection of the salivary gland without systemic organ pathology is possible using i.g. delivery of tcMCMV. PMID:17320076

  4. Work related musculoskeletal disorders among farm workers: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders among farm workers: A case study of an agricultural college in Zimbabwe. ... hazards, therefore a need for intervention to protect them from musculoskeletal complaints. Improvement in farm work practices through ergonomic training might help reduce musculoskeletal complaints.

  5. Application of the AJCC 7th edition carcinoma of the eyelid staging system: a medical center pathology based, 15-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford CM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Courtney Crawford1, Colby Fernelius2, Paula Young1, Stephen Groo2, Darryl Ainbinder21Blanchfield Army Hospital, Fort Campbell, KY, USA; 2Madigan Army Medical Center, Fort Lewis, WA, USAContext: The purpose of this study was to conduct a quality improvement (QI, applied practical review of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC 7th edition, Carcinoma of the Eyelid staging system. AJCC utilizes a primary tumor, lymph node, metastasis (pTNM cancer staging approach.Objective: We wanted to determine if the AJCC pTNM carcinoma staging system identified patients with highly aggressive carcinoma of the eyelid. We also wanted to determine if there were any unexpected issues in its practical application. Design: We conducted a 15-year, consecutive, retrospective review of all cases of excisional biopsy for carcinoma of the eyelid. We reviewed the original histopathology slides and complete pathology records for each case.Results: Over a 15-year review period, 52 cases of excisional biopsy for carcinoma of the eyelid were identified. The average age of the study population was 72 years. Nodular well-differentiated basal cell carcinoma (BCC was the predominant histology for 85% of cases. Morpheaform/metatypical BCC was the next dominant at 9%. Squamous cell carcinoma and sebaceous carcinoma followed at 4% and 2%, respectively. We were able to assign clear staging to 50 of the 52 cases with the available pathology data. The stage results were as follows: stage 1A 72%, stage 1B 22%, stage II 4%, stage III 2%, with no cases of stage IV metastatic disease.Conclusions: The 7th edition AJCC Carcinoma of the Eyelid chapter proved to be a practical tool for carcinoma staging of the eyelid. The largest tumor dimension remains an effective predictive factor. High-grade pathologic prognostic factors such as tumor necrosis or perineural spread had a 100% association with a final stage of II or greater. Concordance and compliance was 100% for the recommended site

  6. In Vivo Neuromechanics : Decoding Causal Motor Neuron Behavior with Resulting Musculoskeletal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartori, Massimo; Yavuz, Utku; Farina, Dario

    2017-01-01

    Human motor function emerges from the interaction between the neuromuscular and the musculoskeletal systems. Despite the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying neural and mechanical functions, there is no relevant understanding of the neuro-mechanical interplay in the neuro-musculo-skeletal system.

  7. Sex differences in consequences of musculoskeletal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, H. A H; de Vet, Henrica C W; Picavet, H. Susan J

    STUDY DESIGN. Cross-sectional population-based study. OBJECTIVE. To study sex differences in consequences of musculoskeletal pain (MP): limited functioning, work leave or disability, and healthcare use. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. MP is a major public health problem in developed countries due to

  8. Prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries among young squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by young squash players in Malaysia. This study was conducted retrospectively by using. Standardized Nordic Questionnaire (NSQ) during SUKMA 2016 at Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. The questionnaires were distributed to the ...

  9. Smoking expands expected lifetime with musculoskeletal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, Knud

    2003-01-01

    By indirect estimation of mortality from smoking and life table methods we estimated expected lifetime without musculoskeletal diseases among never smokers, ex-smokers, and smokers. We found that although life expectancy of a heavy smoker is 7 years shorter than that of a never smoker, heavy...

  10. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders : prevention report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podniece, Z.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.

    2008-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can interfere with activities at work and can lead to reduced productivity, sickness absence and chronic occupational disability. The aim of this report is to systematic evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at the workplace since 2002 and to

  11. Musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Sumar, B; Dixon, K A

    2014-01-01

    This review seeks to provide a current overview of musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children. Databases searched were Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline, Proquest Health and Medical Complete, Scopus, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss and Trove for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 December 2012. We used a broad definition of children within a 3- to 18-year age range. The search strategy included the following terms: obesity, morbid obesity, overweight, pain, musculoskeletal pain, child, adolescent, chronic pain, back pain, lower back pain, knee pain, hip pain, foot pain and pelvic pain. Two authors independently assessed each record, and any disagreement was resolved by the third author. Data were analysed using a narrative thematic approach owing to the heterogeneity of reported outcome measures. Ninety-seven records were initially identified using a variety of terms associated with children, obesity and musculoskeletal pain. Ten studies were included for thematic analysis when predetermined inclusion criteria were applied. Bone deformity and dysfunction, pain reporting and the impact of children being overweight or obese on physical activity, exercise and quality of life were the three themes identified from the literature. Chronic pain, obesity and a reduction in physical functioning and activity may contribute to a cycle of weight gain that affects a child's quality of life. Future studies are required to examine the sequela of overweight and obese children experiencing chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:24077005

  12. Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among agricultural workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basher, A; Nath, P; Siddique, Z S; Rahman, M H; Rubel, M A; Sayed, M S; Ahmad, S A; Mondol, G D; Bhuiyan, M R

    2015-01-01

    Farming is a large and main industry in Bangladesh. Large numbers of people are directly involved in farming and have very unique exposure compare to other sectors. Musculoskeletal problems among farmer population are not infrequent. This study was carried out among 200 farmers in one selected district. The study revealed that musculoskeletal problems were common among the farmers working in a traditional way. All the respondents were male. The age of all respondents lie between 20-60 years. Among them 22.5% farmers were illiterate, about 45.5% below Class V. About half (42%) of the respondents had reported pain in different parts of the body at least one or more times during working in land. And about two third (65.5%) of the farmers had history of joint pain and stiffness in last 12 month. Most of the farmers who suffered from musculoskeletal symptoms were 41-60 years. Specially who worked more then 20 years (82.6%) and average 6 hours per day (66.7%). The occurrence of musculoskeletal problems in various part of the body included Knee pain - 48.1%, Back pain (back ache) - 22.9%, Waist pain (low back ache) - 13.3%, Neck pain - 18.3% and shoulder pain - 10.7%. Length of work in year and daily average working hours were found significant association with musculoskeletal pain. It was found that musculoskeletal pain were more common among the farmers when they worked in squatting position (52%) and specially during weeding of plants (31%). Among them only 22% also engaged in other business. Most of the farmers complained dull aching pain (40.6%), only 2.3% noticed severe acute pain, but about 86% farmers' temporary stop their work for pain and 80% get relief after discontinue of work. About 75% respondents visited doctors for their pain which was statistically significant (p=0.001). It was found that the rates of musculoskeletal complaints are more among those individuals who worked relatively bad ergonomic condition, such as body position probably play an important

  13. Musculoskeletal Simulation Model Generation from MRI Data Sets and Motion Capture Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Jérôme; Sandholm, Anders; Chung, François; Thalmann, Daniel; Delingette, Hervé; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    Today computer models and computer simulations of the musculoskeletal system are widely used to study the mechanisms behind human gait and its disorders. The common way of creating musculoskeletal models is to use a generic musculoskeletal model based on data derived from anatomical and biomechanical studies of cadaverous specimens. To adapt this generic model to a specific subject, the usual approach is to scale it. This scaling has been reported to introduce several errors because it does not always account for subject-specific anatomical differences. As a result, a novel semi-automatic workflow is proposed that creates subject-specific musculoskeletal models from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets and motion capture data. Based on subject-specific medical data and a model-based automatic segmentation approach, an accurate modeling of the anatomy can be produced while avoiding the scaling operation. This anatomical model coupled with motion capture data, joint kinematics information, and muscle-tendon actuators is finally used to create a subject-specific musculoskeletal model.

  14. Bones, Muscles, and Joints: The Musculoskeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skeletal muscles are called striated (pronounced: STRY-ay-ted) because they are made up of fibers that ... blood through your body. When we smile and talk, muscles are helping us communicate, and when we ...

  15. Dynamic MR imaging in the musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedlund, L.; Vogler, J.; Utz, J.A.; Herfkens, R.J.; Martinez, S.; Urbaniak, J.; Evans, A.

    1986-01-01

    Many joint disorders are related to movement, and lack of dynamic imaging has thus far been a limitation of MR imaging. A recently developed dynamic MR imaging technique utilizing a gradient refocused echo (TE = 12 msec, TR = 21 msec) coupled to a physiologic trigger allows dynamic images of the moving joint to be obtained. Controlled joint articulation is produced using an air-driven nonmagnetic device. Imaging of the wrist by this technique demonstrated the dynamic motion of the carpal rows. The method displays cartilage with more sensitivity than does conventional MR imaging; thus, ligamentous and triangular cartilage alignment could be evaluated during motion. In the wrist, potential applications include imaging of carpal instability syndromes, ligamentous interruption, and tears of the triangular cartilage

  16. Sports injury of the pediatric musculoskeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, Karen; Strouse, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Sports related injuries are common in children and adolescents, with a reported incidence of around one in ten children each year. Boys incur more and severer sports injuries than girls, and chance for injury is greater with contact or jumping sports. Sports injuries seen in children under 10-years of age are non-specific, including contusions, mild sprains, and extremity fractures, usually Salter fractures of the physes (growth plate) or plastic fractures. In the very young athlete, sports injury of the ligaments or muscle is rare as are spine or head injuries. With growth and adolescence, the intensity of sports involvement increases. Pre-pubertal children still have open physes that are prone to injury, both acute or due to stress from a repetitive activity. In addition to injury of the physes of the long bones, injuries to the physes of apophyses are common. Ligamentous injury is uncommon before physeal closure, but can occur. After the physes fuse, ligamentous injury is seen with patterns similar to adults. This review will include a description of sports related injuries seen in children and adolescents. We will concentrate on injuries that are specific for the growing skeleton, with a brief mention of those seen after fusion of the physes.

  17. Bones, Muscles, and Joints: The Musculoskeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stabilize it while the bone heals. Muscular dystrophy . Muscular dystrophy is an inherited group of diseases that affect the muscles, causing them to weaken and break down over time. The most common form in childhood is called Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and it most often affects boys. ...

  18. NMR imaging of the musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naegele, M.; Lienemann, A.; Hahn, D.

    1988-01-01

    NMR imaging now allows in vivo imaging of soft tissue hitherto undetectable by non-invasive means. This opens up excellent perspectives with regard to the diagnosis and therapy of various diseases in the field of traumatology and oncology, of which examples are discussed in this paper. (orig.) [de

  19. Stosowanie zabiegów fizjoterapeutycznych u osób uprawiających balet po urazie sportowym oraz przeciążeniach narządu ruchu = The use of physical therapy in people practicing ballet trauma and sports overload the musculoskeletal system

    OpenAIRE

    Michalczak, Magdalena; Bojarczuk, Katarzyna; Smoleń, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Michalczak Magdalena, Bojarczuk Katarzyna, Smoleń Agata. Stosowanie zabiegów fizjoterapeutycznych u osób uprawiających balet po urazie sportowym oraz przeciążeniach narządu ruchu = The use of physical therapy in people practicing ballet trauma and sports overload the musculoskeletal system. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(7):640-651. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.60867 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3783 The j...

  20. nmsBuilder: Freeware to create subject-specific musculoskeletal models for OpenSim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Giordano; Crimi, Gianluigi; Vanella, Nicola; Schileo, Enrico; Taddei, Fulvia

    2017-12-01

    Musculoskeletal modeling and simulations of movement have been increasingly used in orthopedic and neurological scenarios, with increased attention to subject-specific applications. In general, musculoskeletal modeling applications have been facilitated by the development of dedicated software tools; however, subject-specific studies have been limited also by time-consuming modeling workflows and high skilled expertise required. In addition, no reference tools exist to standardize the process of musculoskeletal model creation and make it more efficient. Here we present a freely available software application, nmsBuilder 2.0, to create musculoskeletal models in the file format of OpenSim, a widely-used open-source platform for musculoskeletal modeling and simulation. nmsBuilder 2.0 is the result of a major refactoring of a previous implementation that moved a first step toward an efficient workflow for subject-specific model creation. nmsBuilder includes a graphical user interface that provides access to all functionalities, based on a framework for computer-aided medicine written in C++. The operations implemented can be used in a workflow to create OpenSim musculoskeletal models from 3D surfaces. A first step includes data processing to create supporting objects necessary to create models, e.g. surfaces, anatomical landmarks, reference systems; and a second step includes the creation of OpenSim objects, e.g. bodies, joints, muscles, and the corresponding model. We present a case study using nmsBuilder 2.0: the creation of an MRI-based musculoskeletal model of the lower limb. The model included four rigid bodies, five degrees of freedom and 43 musculotendon actuators, and was created from 3D surfaces of the segmented images of a healthy subject through the modeling workflow implemented in the software application. We have presented nmsBuilder 2.0 for the creation of musculoskeletal OpenSim models from image-based data, and made it freely available via nmsbuilder

  1. Central Hyperexcitability in Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Conceptual Breakthrough with Multiple Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lidbeck

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations of dysfunctional pain processing in the central nervous system have contributed much knowledge about the development of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Many common chronic musculoskeletal pain syndromes - including regional myofascial pain syndromes, whiplash pain syndromes, refractory work-related neck-shoulder pain, certain types of chronic low back pain, fibromyalgia and others - may essentially be explained by abnormalities in central pain modulation. The growing awareness of dysfunctional central pain modulation may be a conceptual breakthrough leading to a better understanding of common chronic pain disorders. A new paradigm will have multiple clinical implications, including re-evaluation of clinical practice routines and rehabilitation methods, and will focus on controversial issues of medicolegal concern. The concept of dysfunctional central pain processing will also necessitate a mechanism-based classification of pain for the selection of individual treatment and rehabilitation programs for subgroups of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain due to different pathophysiological mechanisms.

  2. Enterprise Implementation of Digital Pathology: Feasibility, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, D J; Pantanowitz, L; McHugh, J S; Piccoli, A L; OLeary, M J; Lauro, G R

    2017-10-01

    Digital pathology is becoming technically possible to implement for routine pathology work. At our institution, we have been using digital pathology for second opinion intraoperative consultations for over 10 years. Herein, we describe our experience in converting to a digital pathology platform for primary pathology diagnosis. We implemented an incremental rollout for digital pathology on subspecialty benches, beginning with cases that contained small amounts of tissue (biopsy specimens). We successfully scanned over 40,000 slides through our digital pathology system. Several lessons (both challenges and opportunities) were learned through this implementation. A successful conversion to digital pathology requires pre-imaging adjustments, integrated software and post-imaging evaluations.

  3. Evaluation of the 8th AJCC staging system for pathologically versus clinically staged pancreatic adenocarcinoma: A time to revisit a dogma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Omar

    2018-02-01

    The 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for pancreatic exocrine adenocarcinoma has been released. The current study seeks to assess the 7th and 8th editions among patients registered within the surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER) database. SEER database (2010-2013) has been accessed through SEER*Stat program and AJCC 8th edition stages were reconstructed utilizing the collaborative stage descriptions. Kaplan-Meier analysis of overall survival and pancreatic cancer-specific survival analyses (according to both 7th and 8th editions and according to whether pathological or clinical staging were conducted) has been performed. Multivariate analysis of factors affecting pancreatic cancer-specific survival was also conducted through a Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 18  948 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were identified in the period from 2010-2013. Pancreatic cancer-specific survival among pathologically staged patients and according to the 8th edition showed significant differences for all pair wise comparisons among different stages (P < 0.0001) except for the comparison between stage IA and stage IB (P = 0.307) and the comparison between stage IB and stage IIA (P = 0.116). Moreover, P value for stage IA vs IIA was 0.014; while pancreatic cancer-specific survival according to the 7th edition among pathologically staged patients showed significant differences for all pair wise comparisons among different stages (P < 0.0001) except for the comparison between IA and IB (P = 0.072), the comparison between stage IIA and stage IIB (P = 0.065), the comparison between stage IIA and stage III (P = 0.059) and the comparison between IIB and III (P = 0.595). Among clinically staged patients (i.e. those who did not undergo initial radical surgery), the prognostic performance of both 7th and 8th stages for both overall survival and pancreatic cancer-specific survival was

  4. Design-validation of a hand exoskeleton using musculoskeletal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Gosselin, Florian; Ben Mansour, Khalil; Devos, Pierre; Marin, Frederic

    2018-04-01

    Exoskeletons are progressively reaching homes and workplaces, allowing interaction with virtual environments, remote control of robots, or assisting human operators in carrying heavy loads. Their design is however still a challenge as these robots, being mechanically linked to the operators who wear them, have to meet ergonomic constraints besides usual robotic requirements in terms of workspace, speed, or efforts. They have in particular to fit the anthropometry and mobility of their users. This traditionally results in numerous prototypes which are progressively fitted to each individual person. In this paper, we propose instead to validate the design of a hand exoskeleton in a fully digital environment, without the need for a physical prototype. The purpose of this study is thus to examine whether finger kinematics are altered when using a given hand exoskeleton. Therefore, user specific musculoskeletal models were created and driven by a motion capture system to evaluate the fingers' joint kinematics when performing two industrial related tasks. The kinematic chain of the exoskeleton was added to the musculoskeletal models and its compliance with the hand movements was evaluated. Our results show that the proposed exoskeleton design does not influence fingers' joints angles, the coefficient of determination between the model with and without exoskeleton being consistently high (R 2 ¯=0.93) and the nRMSE consistently low (nRMSE¯ = 5.42°). These results are promising and this approach combining musculoskeletal and robotic modeling driven by motion capture data could be a key factor in the ergonomics validation of the design of orthotic devices and exoskeletons prior to manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injury in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Preston J.; Gerrie, Brayden J.; Varner, Kevin E.; McCulloch, Patrick C.; Lintner, David M.; Harris, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most published studies on injuries in the ballet dancer focus on the lower extremity. The rigors of this activity require special training and care. By understanding prevalence and injury pattern to the musculoskeletal system, targeted prevention and treatment for this population can be developed. Purpose To determine the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in ballet. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A systematic review registered with PROSPERO was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Level 1 through 4 evidence studies reporting incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in male and female ballet dancers were included, with the numbers and types of injuries extracted from each. Injury rates were recorded and calculated based on professional status, sex, and nature of injury. Incidence was defined as number of injuries sustained over a specific time. Prevalence was defined as proportion of subjects with an injury at a given point in time. Results The studies analyzed reported injury incidence or prevalence in more than 1365 amateur and 900 professional dancers. The mean age was 16.2 years among amateur and 27.0 years among professional dancers. The incidence of injury among amateur dancers was 0.99 and 1.09 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively; 75% of injuries were overuse, with similar rates among males and females. In professional dancers, the incidence of injury was 1.06 and 1.46 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively, and 64% of female injuries were overuse, compared with 50% in males (P ballet dancers is 0.97 and 1.24 injuries per 1000 dance hours, respectively. The majority are overuse in both amateur and professional dancers, with amateur ballet dancers showing a higher proportion of overuse injuries than professionals (P < .001). Male professional dancers show a higher proportion of

  6. The evidence base for chiropractic treatment of musculoskeletal conditions in children and adolescents: The emperor's new suit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen

    2010-01-01

    studies were included if they investigated the effect of manual therapy on musculoskeletal disorders in children and/or adolescents. The MEDLINE and MANTIS databases were searched, and studies published in English, Danish, Swedish or Norwegian were included.Only three studies were identified that in some...... way attempted to look at the effectiveness of manual therapy for children or adolescents with spinal problems, and none of these was a randomized controlled clinical trial. As for the rest of the musculoskeletal system, only one study of temporomandibular disorder was identified.With this review, we...... on adult musculoskeletal health. Thus, this is an important part of the chiropractors' scope of practice, and the objective of this review is to assess the evidence base for manual treatment of musculoskeletal disorders in children and adolescents.Randomized, quasi-randomized and non-randomized clinical...

  7. MR imaging of clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma of the soft parts): a multicenter correlative MRI-pathology study of 21 cases and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuckeleer, L.H. de; Schepper, A.M. de; Vandevenne, J.E.; Bloem, J.L.; Davies, A.M.; Oudkerk, M.; Hauben, E.; Marck, E. van; Somville, J.; Vanel, D.; Steinbach, L.S.; Guinebretiere, J.M.; Hogendoorn, P.C.W.; Mooi, W.J.; Verstraete, K.; Zaloudek, C.; Jones, H.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate MR imaging and pathology findings in order to define the characteristic features of clear cell sarcoma of the soft tissues (malignant melanoma of the soft parts).Design and patients. MR examinations of 21 patients with histologically proven clear cell sarcoma of the musculoskeletal system were retrospectively reviewed and assessed for shape, homogeneity, delineation, signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images, contrast enhancement, relationship with adjacent fascia or tendon, secondary bone involvement, and intratumoral necrosis. In 19 cases the pathology findings were available for review and for a comparative MR-pathology study.Results. On T1-weighted images, lesions were isointense (n=3), hypointense (n=7) or slightly hyperintense to muscle (n=11). Immunohistochemical examination was performed in 17 patients. All 17 specimens showed positivity for HMB-45 antibody. In nine of 11 lesions with slightly increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images, a correlative MR imaging-pathology study was possible. All nine were positive to HMB-45 antibody.Conclusions. Clear cell sarcoma of the musculoskeletal system often has a benign-looking appearance on MR images. In up to 52% of patients, this lesion with melanocytic differentiation has slightly increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images compared with muscle. As the presence of this relative higher signal intensity on T1-weighted images is rather specific for tumors displaying melanocytic differentiation, radiologists should familiarize themselves with this rare entity and include it in their differential diagnosis when confronted with a well-defined, homogeneous, strongly enhancing mass with slightly higher signal intensity compared with muscle on native T1-weighted images. (orig.)

  8. Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders in music students-associated musculoskeletal signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, A; Möller, H; Seidel, W; Rigotti, T

    2012-12-01

    Pain and overuse are common problems for musicians. Up to 80% of professional musicians suffer from playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD). The prevalence rate in music students is very high as well. Sufficient data on the underlying musculoskeletal dysfunctions however is scarce. Additionally, the self-assessment of health in musicians seems to differ compared to non-musicians, which might influence their attitudes concerning preventive strategies. Evaluation of frequency of PRMD in music students, investigation of signs and symptoms in music students compared to non-music controls, comparison of self-reported health and well-being between the two groups. Prospective, cross-sectional, case control, non-randomized. Other (University volunteers). Music students in comparison to a non-music control group. Musculoskeletal examination and questionnaire of 36 volunteers of a music university and 19 volunteer students of an university of education were analyzed. The total number of musculoskeletal dysfunctions and differences between the student groups were examined. The personal pain and health self-rating were compared between music and non-music students. Eighty one percent of musicians experienced PRMD. Musicians experienced 6.19 pain regions on average compared to 4.31 of non-musicians. Musicians experiencing PRMD reported significantly (PMusic students presented with nearly the double amount (8.39 versus 4.37) of musculoskeletal dysfunctions per person compared to the non-music control group. Nevertheless, musicians significantly (P<0.05) rated their health more positively than the controls. Musicians presented with more pain regions and a higher amount of musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Further studies evaluating the clinical relevance and their role in the development of PRMD are warranted. Screening of musicians for musculoskeletal dysfunction may identify those musicians at increased risk. Early treatment may prevent PRMD in musicians. Additional

  9. Prognostic Modeling in Pathologic N1 Breast Cancer Without Elective Nodal Irradiation After Current Standard Systemic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Won; Choi, Doo Ho; Huh, Seung Jae; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kil, Won Ho; Im, Young-Hyuck; Ahn, Jin Seok; Park, Yeon Hee; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to establish a prognostic model in patients with pathologic N1 (pN1) breast cancer who have not undergone elective nodal irradiation (ENI) under the current standard management and to suggest possible indications for ENI. We performed a retrospective study with patients with pN1 breast cancer who received the standard local and preferred adjuvant chemotherapy treatment without neoadjuvant chemotherapy and ENI from January 2005 to June 2011. Most of the indicated patients received endocrine and trastuzumab therapy. In 735 enrolled patients, the median follow-up period was 58.4 months (range, 7.2-111.3 months). Overall, 55 recurrences (7.4%) developed, and locoregional recurrence was present in 27 patients (3.8%). Recurrence-free survival was significantly related to lymphovascular invasion (P = .04, hazard ratio [HR], 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.88), histologic grade (P = .03, HR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.05-6.26), and nonluminal A subtype (P = .02, HR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.23-7.49) in multivariate analysis. The prognostic model was established by these 3 prognostic factors. Recurrence-free survival was less than 90% at 5 years in cases with 2 or 3 factors. The prognostic model has stratified risk groups in pN1 breast cancer without ENI. Patients with 2 or more factors should be considered for ENI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. VACCINE IMMUNIZATION FOR PREVENTION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL, HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE AND FLU AMONG SICKLY CHILDREN, WHO OFTEN SUFFER FROM PERSISTENT HETEROSPECIFIC INFECTIOUS PATHOLOGY OF THE BRONCHOPULMONARY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Ilienko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Among serious diseases of the lower respiratory tract a special place is taken by pneumonias and chronic infectious respiratory diseases caused by pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB. The research purpose is to determine the effectiveness of vaccine combined application to treat sickly children, who often suffer from persistent infectious pathology of the respiratory tract, for flu, pneumococcal and HIB disease. 110 children aged between 3 and 12 have been vaccinated. The first part of research implied children vaccination by means of Actahib and Pneumo 23 vaccines (Sanofi Pasteur, France, the second one consisted in immunization of children with the same pathology by means of Pneumo 23, Actahib and Vaxigrip vaccines (Sanofi Pasteur, France. The researches established that within a year after HIB and Pneumo 23 vaccination the frequency of upper and lower respiratory tract acerbations reduced by 2,3 times on average; likewise, the number of system antimicrobial dosage reduced by 7,4 times along with the total duration of dosage; the carrier state of S. pneumoniae reduced by 3,7 times, H. influenzae — by 3,9 times. In the course of application of three vaccines, the frequency of persistent heat erospecific infectious bronchopulmonary pathology acerbations reduced by 3,3 times. The carrier state of S. pneumoniae reduced by 2,5 times, H. influenzae — by 4,1 times. Thus, vaccine immunization to treat for flu, pneumococcal and HIB disease in various combinations may be recoma mended for wider application to reduce the frequency and severity of heat erospecific infectious respiratory diseases among sickly children, who often suffer from various illnesses.Key words: children with recurrent diseases, vaccination, prevention, flu, H. Influenzae, S. pneumoniae.

  11. Shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases and bone consolidation: qualitative analysis of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Kertzman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Shockwave treatment is an option within orthopedics. The exact mechanism through which shockwaves function for treating musculoskeletal diseases is unknown. The aim of this study was to make a qualitative analysis on the effectiveness of shockwave treatment among patients with musculoskeletal pathological conditions and pseudarthrosis. Searches were conducted in the Cochrane Library, Medline and Lilacs databases. Thirty-nine studies that reported using shockwave treatment for musculoskeletal diseases were found. Their results varied greatly, as did the types of protocol used. The studies that evaluated the effectiveness of shockwave treatment for lateral epicondylitis, shoulder tendinopathy, knee osteoarthrosis, femoral head osteonecrosis and trochanteric bursitis reported inconsistent results for most of their patients. Those that evaluated patients with calcifying tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy and pseudarthrosis showed benefits. Shockwave treatment is a safe and non-invasive method for chronic cases in which conventional techniques have been unsatisfactory and should be used in association with other treatment methods for tendinopathy. Further quality studies are needed.

  12. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Stubbs, Alana Y. [Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Graham, Anna R. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Pathology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  13. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F.; Stubbs, Alana Y.; Graham, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  14. Musculoskeletal pain in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Steve J; Henschke, Nicholas; Hestbaek, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain in children and adolescents is responsible for substantial personal impacts and societal costs, but it has not been intensively or systematically researched. This means our understanding of these conditions is limited, and healthcare professionals have litt...... to understand these conditions at a time close to their initial onset may offer a better chance of developing effective prevention and treatment strategies.......Introduction Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain in children and adolescents is responsible for substantial personal impacts and societal costs, but it has not been intensively or systematically researched. This means our understanding of these conditions is limited, and healthcare professionals have little...... empirical evidence to underpin their clinical practice. In this article we summarise the state of the evidence concerning MSK pain in children and adolescents, and offer suggestions for future research. Results Rates of self-reported MSK pain in adolescents are similar to those in adult populations...

  15. Surgeons' musculoskeletal pain in minimally invasive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager, Tina; Søgaard, Karen; Bech (Katrine Tholstrup Pedersen), Katrine Tholstrup

    in surgeons performing MIS is high and derives mainly from static postures. Positioning of monitor, adjustment of table height and instrument design also contribute substantially. Robotic assisted laparoscopy seems less physically demanding for the surgeon compared with conventional laparoscopy. However, some...... put the patients at a higher risk of complications, and on the longer term there is an increasing risk for the surgeon to develop chronic musculoskeletal pain that will disable him/her to perform his/her job. Therefore, surgeons’ musculoskeletal health is of vital importance and must be considered...... alongside patient safety. The present literature study supports the need for a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of an individually designed training program for surgeons performing MIS....

  16. [Musculoskeletal disorders among university student computer users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, A; Bruno, S; L'Abbate, N

    2009-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are a common problem among computer users. Many epidemiological studies have shown that ergonomic factors and aspects of work organization play an important role in the development of these disorders. We carried out a cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among university students using personal computers and to investigate the features of occupational exposure and the prevalence of symptoms throughout the study course. Another objective was to assess the students' level of knowledge of computer ergonomics and the relevant health risks. A questionnaire was distributed to 183 students attending the lectures for second and fourth year courses of the Faculty of Architecture. Data concerning personal characteristics, ergonomic and organizational aspects of computer use, and the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and upper limbs were collected. Exposure to risk factors such as daily duration of computer use, time spent at the computer without breaks, duration of mouse use and poor workstation ergonomics was significantly higher among students of the fourth year course. Neck pain was the most commonly reported symptom (69%), followed by hand/wrist (53%), shoulder (49%) and arm (8%) pain. The prevalence of symptoms in the neck and hand/wrist area was signifcantly higher in the students of the fourth year course. In our survey we found high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among university students using computers for long time periods on a daily basis. Exposure to computer-related ergonomic and organizational risk factors, and the prevalence ofmusculoskeletal symptoms both seem to increase significantly throughout the study course. Furthermore, we found that the level of perception of computer-related health risks among the students was low. Our findings suggest the need for preventive intervention consisting of education in computer ergonomics.

  17. Musculoskeletal symptoms in pharmaceutical sales representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Katherine; Gyi, Diane; Haslam, Cheryl

    2010-03-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a leading cause of work-related ill health. Existing literature indicates that pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) report a high prevalence of MSDs, possibly exacerbated by the nature of work (prolonged driving and manual handling). In addition, they experience difficulty in accessing occupational health services. To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and associated risk factors among PSRs in order to assist their occupational health management through raising risk awareness. A self-completed questionnaire distributed to 205 PSRs within a UK pharmaceutical company was used to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms, psychosocial factors, work tasks undertaken and company car use. To assist understanding of work tasks and organizational factors, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a sample of 12 key personnel. The questionnaire response rate was 68%. PSRs reported high mileage and 100% reported working from the car in a typical day. Forty-seven per cent reported both manual handling for > or = 4 h/day and 'often' or 'sometimes' working from the car. Fifty-seven per cent reported low back symptoms in the last 12 months. Interview data revealed issues relating to car choice, storage in the boot and working from the car, which should be considered when developing priorities for preventive management of MSDs. Musculoskeletal symptoms appear to be a problem for PSRs, with risk factors reported as prolonged driving, sitting in the car, working from the car and manual handling. Interventions to facilitate their occupational health management should focus on raising awareness of the risks of prolonged driving and working from the car.

  18. Cervical Musculoskeletal Impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Armijo-Olivo; David Magee

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The study of cervical muscles and their significance in the development and perpetuation of Temporomandibular Disorders has not been elucidated. Thus this project was designed to investigate the association between cervical musculoskeletal impairments and Temporomandibular Disorders. Material and Methods A sample of 154 subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a series of physical tests and electromyographic assessment (i.e. head and neck posture, maxima...

  19. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Their Associated Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    M Jahangiri; H Rahimi Fard; A.R Choobineh; S Mahmood Khani

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims :Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is high among office workers. Long time seated posture, working with computer, repetitive movements and inappropriate environmental conditions may have causal effects in these disorders. High prevalence rate of MSDs makes ergonomics assessment and working conditions improvement necessary. Designing an assessment checklist and calculating ergonomics indices can be useful in this evaluation. This study was conducted with the ob...

  20. System in biology leading to cell pathology: stable protein-protein interactions after covalent modifications by small molecules or in transgenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Halina Z

    2011-01-19

    The physiological processes in the cell are regulated by reversible, electrostatic protein-protein interactions. Apoptosis is such a regulated process, which is critically important in tissue homeostasis and development and leads to complete disintegration of the cell. Pathological apoptosis, a process similar to apoptosis, is associated with aging and infection. The current study shows that pathological apoptosis is a process caused by the covalent interactions between the signaling proteins, and a characteristic of this pathological network is the covalent binding of calmodulin to regulatory sequences. Small molecules able to bind covalently to the amino group of lysine, histidine, arginine, or glutamine modify the regulatory sequences of the proteins. The present study analyzed the interaction of calmodulin with the BH3 sequence of Bax, and the calmodulin-binding sequence of myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate in the presence of xanthurenic acid in primary retinal epithelium cell cultures and murine epithelial fibroblast cell lines transformed with SV40 (wild type [WT], Bid knockout [Bid-/-], and Bax-/-/Bak-/- double knockout [DKO]). Cell death was observed to be associated with the covalent binding of calmodulin, in parallel, to the regulatory sequences of proteins. Xanthurenic acid is known to activate caspase-3 in primary cell cultures, and the results showed that this activation is also observed in WT and Bid-/- cells, but not in DKO cells. However, DKO cells were not protected against death, but high rates of cell death occurred by detachment. The results showed that small molecules modify the basic amino acids in the regulatory sequences of proteins leading to covalent interactions between the modified sequences (e.g., calmodulin to calmodulin-binding sites). The formation of these polymers (aggregates) leads to an unregulated and, consequently, pathological protein network. The results suggest a mechanism for the involvement of small molecules

  1. The ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Pasteurella multocida B:2 to induce clinical and pathological lesions in the nervous system of buffalo calves following experimental inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Jesse Abdullah, Faez Firdaus; Ahmed, Ihsan Muneer; Teik Chung, Eric Lim; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Alwan, Mohammed Jwaid; Mohd Lila, Mohd Azmi

    2017-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. multocida B:2, a causative agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in cattle and buffaloes, is considered as the main virulence factor and contribute in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent studies provided evidences about the involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS. However, the role of P. multocida B:2 immunogens, especially the LPS is still uncovered. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the role of P. multocida B:2 LPS to induce pathological changes in the nervous system. Nine eight-month-old, clinically healthy buffalo calves were used and distributed into three groups. Calves of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and intravenously with 10 ml of LPS broth extract represent 1 × 10 12  cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while calves of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. Significant differences were found in the mean scores for clinical signs, post mortem and histopathological changes especially in Group 2, which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system, mainly the brain. On the other hand, lower scores have been recorded for clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence about the ability of P. multocida B:2 LPS to cross the blood brain barrier and induce pathological changes in the nervous system of the affected buffalo calves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Coronarography in pathologic morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenberg, V.D.; Nepomnyashchikh, L.M.; Borodin, Yu.I.

    1987-01-01

    Of many years experience of the authors and data in world literature on post mortal coronarography during the most important general pathological processes in heart have been generalized in the monograph. Problems of radioanatomy of coronary artery were considered and data on use of postmortal coronarography in terms of correlation together with selective in-life coronarography are given. Much place takes the description of main coronarography semiotics of obstructive atherosclerosis injuries of the heart coronal system, compensation and decompensation processes of broken coronary circulation. Results of coronarography investigations in geronitogenesis as well as in sudden death are presented. Electrocardiographic-coronarographic and pathomorphologic parallels, clinical-anatomical diagnostical symptomocomplex - syndrom of menocoronary ''robbing'' are elucidated in detail. Technology of different techniques of postmortal coronarography in order to investigate macro-, microhemocirculation heart bed are described in detail as well as techniques of coronarogramm analysis which permits to use the monograph as a manual

  3. An entropy-assisted musculoskeletal shoulder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Lin, Jia-Hua; McGorry, Raymond W

    2017-04-01

    Optimization combined with a musculoskeletal shoulder model has been used to estimate mechanical loading of musculoskeletal elements around the shoulder. Traditionally, the objective function is to minimize the summation of the total activities of the muscles with forces, moments, and stability constraints. Such an objective function, however, tends to neglect the antagonist muscle co-contraction. In this study, an objective function including an entropy term is proposed to address muscle co-contractions. A musculoskeletal shoulder model is developed to apply the proposed objective function. To find the optimal weight for the entropy term, an experiment was conducted. In the experiment, participants generated various 3-D shoulder moments in six shoulder postures. The surface EMG of 8 shoulder muscles was measured and compared with the predicted muscle activities based on the proposed objective function using Bhattacharyya distance and concordance ratio under different weight of the entropy term. The results show that a small weight of the entropy term can improve the predictability of the model in terms of muscle activities. Such a result suggests that the concept of entropy could be helpful for further understanding the mechanism of muscle co-contractions as well as developing a shoulder biomechanical model with greater validity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Office Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valipour Noroozi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Musculoskeletal disorders are among common occupational diseases in the world, which have high prevalence not only among hard and hurtful jobs, but also in office works. Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs among office workers of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods This study carried out intermittently among 392 individuals of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences office workers by Nordic questionnaire from October 2013 to December 2013. Study population included office workers of different departments as well as central organization and library. We use descriptive statistic, t test and chi-square test for data analysis. Results The mean and standard deviation of participants’ age was 35.4 ± 6.7 years and their work experience was 9.7 ± 6.65 years, respectively. Most signs (51% were in back region, which forced 18.9% of individuals to withdraw from daily activities. Statistical analysis also showed 36.7% neck disorders in office workers, which demonstrated significant association with age and work experience (P < 0.001. Conclusions Significant association of work experience and age with musculoskeletal disorders shows that individual’s education and knowledge improvements with regard to ergonomics risk factors and correction of work postures are very important and ought to follow management and technical practices in the organization.

  5. Musculoskeletal injuries among Malaysian badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, A H; George, J; Ramlan, A A

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by Malaysian badminton players. This is a retrospective case notes review of all badminton players who attended the National Sports Institute (NSI) Clinic, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and were diagnosed with musculoskeletal injuries. In a two and a half year period, from January 2005 to June 2007, 469 musculoskeletal injuries were diagnosed among badminton players at the NSI Clinic. The mean age of the players who attended the clinic was 19.2 (range 13-52) years. Approximately 60 percent of the injuries occurred in players younger than 20 years of age. The majority of injuries (91.5 percent) were categorised as mild overuse injury and mostly involved the knee. The majority of the injuries sustained by badminton players in this study were due to overuse, primarily in the knee. The majority of the injuries were diagnosed in younger players and occurred during training/practice sessions. There was no difference in terms of incidence and types of injuries between the genders.

  6. Spectrum of musculo-skeletal disorders in sickle cell disease in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogo Chidiebere N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell anemia (SCA is a common genetic disease in Nigeria. Past studies from West Africa focused on isolated aspects of its medical and surgical presentations. To the best of our knowledge, the musculo-skeletal presentations amongst Nigerians with SCA have not been documented in a single all encompassing study. This work aims to prospectively document the musculo-skeletal disease burden among SCA patients. Methods In a prospective study of 318 consecutive patients with genotype-confirmed SCA at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH, the musculo-skeletal pathologies, anatomic sites, grade of disease, age at presentation and management outcome were recorded over a one-year period. Data obtained were analyzed using Epi-Info software version 6.0. Data are presented as frequencies (% and mean values (SD as appropriate. Results The HbSS genotype occurred in 296 (93.0%, while 22 (7.0% were HbSC. 100 (31.4% patients with average presenting haemoglobin concentration of 8.2 g/100 ml in the study group, presented with 131 musculo-skeletal pathologies in 118 anatomic sites. Osteomyelitis 31 (31% and septic arthritis 19 (19% were most commonly observed in children less than 10 years. Skin ulcers and avascular necrosis (AVN occurred predominantly in the older age groups, with frequencies of 13 (13.0% and 26 (26.0% respectively. 20 (71.5% of diagnosed cases of AVN presented with radiological grade 4 disease. The lower limbs were involved in 84 (71.1% of sites affected. Lesions involving the spine were rare 11 (0.9%. Multiple presentations occurred in 89 (28.0% of patients; 62 (69.7% of which were children below 10 years. Conclusions Musculo-skeletal complications are common features of sickle cell anaemia seen in 31.4%. Infectious aetiologies predominate with long bones and joints of lower limbs more commonly affected by osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. Healthcare providers managing SCA should be aware of the potential

  7. Interrelations between orthostatic postural deviations and subjects' age, sex, malocclusion, and specific signs and symptoms of functional pathologies of the temporomandibular system: a preliminary correlation and regression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Wagner Cesar; Hsing, Wu Tu

    2014-07-01

    Studies on the relationships between postural deviations and the temporomandibular system (TS) functional health are controversial and inconclusive. This study stems from the hypothesis that such inconclusiveness is due to authors considering functional pathologies of the TS (FPTS) as a whole, without taking into account subjects' specific FPTS signs and symptoms. Based on the author and collaborators' previous studies, the present study analyzed data on body posture from a sample of 50 subjects with (30) and without (20) FPTS. Correlation analyses were applied, taking as independent variables age, sex, Helkimo anamnestic, occlusal, and dysfunction indices, as well as FPTS specific signs and symptoms. Postural assessments of the head, cervical spine, shoulders, lumbar spine, and hips were the dependent variables. Linear regression equations were built that proved to partially predict the presence and magnitude of body posture deviations by drawing on subjects' characteristics and specific FPTS symptoms. Determination coefficients for these equations ranged from 0.082 to 0.199 in the univariate, and from 0.121 to 0.502 in the multivariate regression analyses. Results show that factors intrinsic to the subjects or the TS may potentially interfere in results of studies that analyze relationships between FPTS and body posture. Furthermore, a trend to specificity was found, e.g. the degree of cervical lordosis was found to correlate to age and FPTS degree of severity, suggesting that some TS pathological features, or malocclusion, age or sex, may be more strongly correlated than others with specific posture patterns.

  8. Relationships between work-related factors and musculoskeletal health with current and future work ability among male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, J S; Noor, A; Lundström, R; Nilsson, T; Sluiter, J K; Hagberg, M

    2017-08-01

    The purpose was to increase job-specific knowledge about individual and work-related factors and their relationship with current and future work ability (WA). We studied cross-sectional relationships between mental demands, physical exertion during work, grip strength, musculoskeletal pain in the upper extremities and WA and the relationships between these variables and WA 11 years later. We used a dataset of a prospective cohort study (1997-2008) among employees of an engineering plant (n = 157). The cohort was surveyed by means of tests and written questions on work demands, musculoskeletal health, WA score (WAS; 0-10), and mental and physical WA. Spearman correlation coefficients and logistic regression analysis were used. Among manual workers, we found weak correlations between grip strength and current and future physical WA. We did not find predictors for future poor WA among the manual workers. Among the office workers, we found that musculoskeletal pain was moderately and negatively related to current WAS and physical WA. More handgrip strength related to better future WAS and physical WA. Musculoskeletal pain (OR 1.67 p health and work ability depending on occupation. However, the present implies that predicting work ability in the far future based on health surveillance data is rather difficult. Testing the musculoskeletal system (grip strength) and asking workers' about their musculoskeletal health seems relevant when monitoring work ability.

  9. A target field design of open multi-purpose RF coil for musculoskeletal MR imaging at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Diange; Wang, Xiaoying; Huang, Kefu; Zhang, Jue

    2016-10-01

    Musculoskeletal MR imaging under multi-angle situations plays an increasingly important role in assessing joint and muscle tissues system. However, there are still limitations due to the closed structures of most conventional RF coils. In this study, a time-harmonic target-field method was employed to design open multi-purpose coil (OMC) for multi-angle musculoskeletal MR imaging. The phantom imaging results suggested that the proposed OMC could achieve homogeneously distributed magnetic field and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 239.04±0.83 in the region of interest (ROI). The maximum temperature in the heating hazard test was 16°C lower than the standard regulation, which indicated the security of the designed OMC. Furthermore, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed OMC for musculoskeletal MR imaging, especially for multi-angle imaging, a healthy volunteer was examined for MR imaging of elbow, ankle and knee using OMC. The in vivo imaging results showed that the proposed OMC is effective for MR imaging of musculoskeletal tissues at different body parts, with satisfied B1 field homogeneity and SNR. Moreover, the open structure of the OMC could provide a large joint movement region. The proposed open multi-purpose coil is feasible for musculoskeletal MR imaging, and potentially, it is more suitable for the evaluation of musculoskeletal tissues under multi-angle conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The effectiveness of a chair intervention in the workplace to reduce musculoskeletal symptoms. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Niekerk Sjan-Mari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged sitting has been associated with musculoskeletal dysfunction. For desk workers, workstation modifications frequently address the work surface and chair. Chairs which can prevent abnormal strain of the neuromuscular system may aid in preventing musculo-skeletal pain and discomfort. Anecdotally, adjustability of the seat height and the seat pan depth to match the anthropometrics of the user is the most commonly recommended intervention. Within the constraints of the current economic climate, employers demand evidence for the benefits attributed to an investment in altering workstations, however this evidence-base is currently unclear both in terms of the strength of the evidence and the nature of the chair features. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of chair interventions in reducing workplace musculoskeletal symptoms. Methods Pubmed, Cinahl, Pedro, ProQuest, SCOPUS and PhysioFocus were searched. ‘Ergonomic intervention’, ‘chair’, ‘musculoskeletal symptoms’, ‘ergonomics’, ‘seated work’ were used in all the databases. Articles were included if they investigated the influence of chair modifications as an intervention; participants were in predominantly seated occupations; employed a pre/post design (with or without control or randomising and if the outcome measure included neuro-musculoskeletal comfort and/or postural alignment. The risk of bias was assessed using a tool based on The Cochrane Handbook. Results Five studies were included in the review. The number of participants varied from 4 to 293 participants. Three of the five studies were Randomised Controlled Trials, one pre and post-test study was conducted and one single case, multiple baselines (ABAB study was done. Three studies were conducted in a garment factory, one in an office environment and one with university students. All five studies found a reduction in self-reported musculoskeletal pain

  11. Humanized HLA-DR4 mice fed with the protozoan pathogen of oysters Perkinsus marinus (Dermo do not develop noticeable pathology but elicit systemic immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathsala Wijayalath

    Full Text Available Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa is a marine protozoan parasite responsible for "Dermo" disease in oysters, which has caused extensive damage to the shellfish industry and estuarine environment. The infection prevalence has been estimated in some areas to be as high as 100%, often causing death of infected oysters within 1-2 years post-infection. Human consumption of the parasites via infected oysters is thus likely to occur, but to our knowledge the effect of oral consumption of P. marinus has not been investigated in humans or other mammals. To address the question we used humanized mice expressing HLA-DR4 molecules and lacking expression of mouse MHC-class II molecules (DR4.EA(0 in such a way that CD4 T cell responses are solely restricted by the human HLA-DR4 molecule. The DR4.EA(0 mice did not develop diarrhea or any detectable pathology in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs following single or repeated feedings with live P. marinus parasites. Furthermore, lymphocyte populations in the gut associated lymphoid tissue and spleen were unaltered in the parasite-fed mice ruling out local or systemic inflammation. Notably, naïve DR4.EA(0 mice had antibodies (IgM and IgG reacting against P. marinus parasites whereas parasite specific T cell responses were undetectable. Feeding with P. marinus boosted the antibody responses and stimulated specific cellular (IFNγ immunity to the oyster parasite. Our data indicate the ability of P. marinus parasites to induce systemic immunity in DR4.EA(0 mice without causing noticeable pathology, and support rationale grounds for using genetically engineered P. marinus as a new oral vaccine platform to induce systemic immunity against infectious agents.

  12. Pathology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  13. Musculoskeletal applications of magnetic resonance imaging: Council on Scientific Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, S.E.; Fisher, C.F.; Fulmer, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging provides superior contrast, resolution, and multiplanar imaging capability, allowing excellent definition of soft-tissue and bone marrow abnormalities. For these reasons, magnetic resonance imaging has become a major diagnostic imaging method for the evaluation of many musculoskeletal disorders. The applications of magnetic resonance imaging for musculoskeletal diagnosis are summarized and examples of common clinical situations are given. General guidelines are suggested for the musculoskeletal applications of magnetic resonance imaging

  14. Prevalence and predictors of musculoskeletal pain among Danish fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Østergaard, Helle; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    at sea, age, BMI and education were used as predictors for the overall musculoskeletal pain score (multiple linear regression) and for each single pain site (multinomial logistic regression). RESULTS: The prevalence of pain was high for all musculoskeletal locations. Overall, more than 80...... demanding and impacting their musculoskeletal pain. Potential explanation for this unexpected result like increased work pressure and reduced financial attractiveness in small scale commercial fishery needs to be confirmed in future research....

  15. Teaching digital pathology: The international school of digital pathology and proposed syllabus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Della Mea

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital pathology is an interdisciplinary field where competency in pathology, laboratory techniques, informatics, computer science, information systems, engineering, and even biology converge. This implies that teaching students about digital pathology requires coverage, expertise, and hands-on experience in all these disciplines. With this in mind, a syllabus was developed for a digital pathology summer school aimed at professionals in the aforementioned fields, as well as trainees and doctoral students. The aim of this communication is to share the context, rationale, and syllabus for this school of digital pathology.

  16. Automatic Vertebral Fracture Assessment System (AVFAS) for Spinal Pathologies Diagnosis Based on Radiograph X-Ray Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Aouache; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina Abd; Bin Abdul Hamid, Hamzaini; Ariffin, Ahmad Kamal

    Nowadays, medical imaging has become a major tool in many clinical trials. This is because the technology enables rapid diagnosis with visualization and quantitative assessment that facilitate health practitioners or professionals. Since the medical and healthcare sector is a vast industry that is very much related to every citizen's quality of life, the image based medical diagnosis has become one of the important service areas in this sector. As such, a medical diagnostic imaging (MDI) software tool for assessing vertebral fracture is being developed which we have named as AVFAS short for Automatic Vertebral Fracture Assessment System. The developed software system is capable of indexing, detecting and classifying vertebral fractures by measuring the shape and appearance of vertebrae of radiograph x-ray images of the spine. This paper describes the MDI software tool which consists of three main sub-systems known as Medical Image Training & Verification System (MITVS), Medical Image and Measurement & Decision System (MIMDS) and Medical Image Registration System (MIRS) in term of its functionality, performance, ongoing research and outstanding technical issues.

  17. Design Approach of Biologically-Inspired Musculoskeletal Humanoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuto Nakanishi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize more natural and various motions like humans, humanlike musculoskeletal tendon-driven humanoids have been studied. Especially, it is very challenging to design musculoskeletal body structure which consists of complicated bones, redundant powerful and flexible muscles, and large number of distributed sensors. In addition, it is very challenging to reveal humanlike intelligence to manage these complicated musculoskeletal body structure. This paper sums up life-sized musculoskeletal humanoids Kenta, Kotaro, Kenzoh and Kenshiro which we have developed so far, and describes key technologies to develop and control these robots.

  18. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view...

  19. Scaling of musculoskeletal models from static and dynamic trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Morten Enemark; Andersen, Michael Skipper; de Zee, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Subject-specific scaling of cadaver-based musculoskeletal models is important for accurate musculoskeletal analysis within multiple areas such as ergonomics, orthopaedics and occupational health. We present two procedures to scale ‘generic’ musculoskeletal models to match segment lengths and joint...... three scaling methods to an inverse dynamics-based musculoskeletal model and compared predicted knee joint contact forces to those measured with an instrumented prosthesis during gait. Additionally, a Monte Carlo study was used to investigate the sensitivity of the knee joint contact force to random...

  20. An evaluation of musculoskeletal discomfort experience by radiographers performing mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, A.G.; May, J.

    1997-01-01

    work and the design of the mammography units, breast screening radiographers are often subjected to frequent bending and twisting, static working postures, forceful movements and repetitive work. These are factors which have all been related to muscular problems. It is possible that these factors may have a cumulative effect of wear and tear on the musculoskeletal system of radiographers thus possibly aggravating existing or past injuries and paving the way for new ones. It is important therefore that recommendations are proposed to further the ergonomic design of mammography units, the training, the working practices and conditions of the radiographers. Both causal and contributory factors present in the workplace, regardless of whether the original injury was caused in performing breast screening, general radiography or actually outside work should be addressed. Recommendations are made in order to reduce the adoption of poor and awkward postures while breast screening in the future and therefore reduce the amount of musculoskeletal discomfort experienced by radiographers. All changes to the workplace should be initially conducted on a trial basis and monitored to determine their success to ensure that they represent no additional problems

  1. A perceptual map for gait symmetry quantification and pathology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moevus, Antoine; Mignotte, Max; de Guise, Jacques A; Meunier, Jean

    2015-10-29

    The gait movement is an essential process of the human activity and the result of collaborative interactions between the neurological, articular and musculoskeletal systems, working efficiently together. This explains why gait analysis is important and increasingly used nowadays for the diagnosis of many different types (neurological, muscular, orthopedic, etc.) of diseases. This paper introduces a novel method to quickly visualize the different parts of the body related to an asymmetric movement in the human gait of a patient for daily clinical usage. The proposed gait analysis algorithm relies on the fact that the healthy walk has (temporally shift-invariant) symmetry properties in the coronal plane. The goal is to provide an inexpensive and easy-to-use method, exploiting an affordable consumer depth sensor, the Kinect, to measure the gait asymmetry and display results in a perceptual way. We propose a multi-dimensional scaling mapping using a temporally shift invariant distance, allowing us to efficiently visualize (in terms of perceptual color difference) the asymmetric body parts of the gait cycle of a subject. We also propose an index computed from this map and which quantifies locally and globally the degree of asymmetry. The proposed index is proved to be statistically significant and this new, inexpensive, marker-less, non-invasive, easy to set up, gait analysis system offers a readable and flexible tool for clinicians to analyze gait characteristics and to provide a fast diagnostic. This system, which estimates a perceptual color map providing a quick overview of asymmetry existing in the gait cycle of a subject, can be easily exploited for disease progression, recovery cues from post-operative surgery (e.g., to check the healing process or the effect of a treatment or a prosthesis) or might be used for other pathologies where gait asymmetry might be a symptom.

  2. Identification of potential neuromotor mechanisms of manual therapy in patients with musculoskeletal disablement: rationale and description of a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Beth E; Davenport, Todd E; Kulig, Kornelia; Wu, Allan D

    2009-05-21

    Many health care practitioners use a variety of hands-on treatments to improve symptoms and disablement in patients with musculoskeletal pathology.Research to date indirectly suggests a potentially broad effect of manual therapy on the neuromotor processing of functional behavior within the supraspinal central nervous system (CNS) in a manner that may be independent of modification at the level of local spinal circuits. However, the effect of treatment speed, as well as the specific mechanism and locus of CNS changes, remain unclear. We developed a placebo-controlled, randomized study to test the hypothesis that manual therapy procedures directed to the talocrural joint in individuals with post-acute ankle sprain induce a change in corticospinal excitability that is relevant to improve the performance of lower extremity functional behavior. This study is designed to identify potential neuromotor changes associated with manual therapy procedures directed to the appendicular skeleton, compare the relative effect of treatment speed on potential neuromotor effects of manual therapy procedures, and determine the behavioral relevance of potential neuromotor effects of manual therapy procedures. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00847769.

  3. Identification of potential neuromotor mechanisms of manual therapy in patients with musculoskeletal disablement: rationale and description of a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulig Kornelia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many health care practitioners use a variety of hands-on treatments to improve symptoms and disablement in patients with musculoskeletal pathology. Research to date indirectly suggests a potentially broad effect of manual therapy on the neuromotor processing of functional behavior within the supraspinal central nervous system (CNS in a manner that may be independent of modification at the level of local spinal circuits. However, the effect of treatment speed, as well as the specific mechanism and locus of CNS changes, remain unclear. Methods/Design We developed a placebo-controlled, randomized study to test the hypothesis that manual therapy procedures directed to the talocrural joint in individuals with post-acute ankle sprain induce a change in corticospinal excitability that is relevant to improve the performance of lower extremity functional behavior. Discussion This study is designed to identify potential neuromotor changes associated with manual therapy procedures directed to the appendicular skeleton, compare the relative effect of treatment speed on potential neuromotor effects of manual therapy procedures, and determine the behavioral relevance of potential neuromotor effects of manual therapy procedures. Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00847769.

  4. Pathological gambling and criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino, Jorge Oscar; Abait, Patricia Estela

    2009-09-01

    To review research results on the relationship between pathological gambling and criminality, published in 2007 and 2008, in English and in Spanish. An important association between pathological gambling and criminality was confirmed in populations of anonymous gamblers, helpline callers and substance abusers. Helplines provide a timely service to gamblers who have not reached the maximum stages in the development of a pathological gambling pattern. Pathological gambling is associated with violence in couples and dysfunctional families. Inversely, violence is also an antecedent promoting vulnerability toward pathological gambling. Impulsiveness shows diverse relationships with pathological gambling and violence as well. A pathological gambler's involvement in crime is exceptionally considered without responsibility by justice, but it may be an indicator of the disorder severity and the need for special therapeutic tactics. While reviewing the present study, research work was published that contributed to a better understanding of the association between pathological gambling and criminality and went further into their complex relationship and the formulation of explanatory models related to impulsiveness.

  5. Radiographic pathology for technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mace, J.D.; Kowalczyk, N.

    1988-01-01

    This book explains the fundamentals of disease mechanisms and relates this to the practice of radiologic science. Each chapter begins with a discussion of normal anatomy and physiology, then covers pathology and demonstrates how the pathology appears on film. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound are also discussed. Clinical case studies are included

  6. Pathology annual. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Applications of in situ DNA hybridization technology to diagnostic surgical pathology; Neoplasms associated with immune deficiencies; Chronic gastritis: The pathologists's role; Necrosis in lymph nodes; Pathologic changes of osteochondrodysplasia in infancy: A review; and Immunoglobulin light chain nephropathies

  7. Deregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is the predominant molecular pathology in OPMD animal models and patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvar, Seyed Yahya; hoen, Peter Ac; Venema, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    molecular pathways that are consistently associated with OPMD, we performed an integrated high-throughput transcriptome study in affected muscles of OPMD animal models and patients. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) was found to be the most consistently and significantly OPMD-deregulated pathway across...

  8. [Usefulness of the determination of serum and cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulins in the diagnosis of nervous system pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioppoli, C; Consoloni, E; Cioni, M; Amerighi, A

    1980-01-21

    Liquor and serum at the same time were examined in 61 subjects suffering from neurological diseases. Stress is laid on the dosage of IgG and albumina in liquor as well as in serum. The results obtained are considered as useful to the diagnosis in various diseases of the nervous system.

  9. Musculoskeletal injuries in break-dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chul Hyun; Song, Kwang Soon; Min, Byung Woo; Lee, Sung Moon; Chang, Hyuk Won; Eum, Dae Seup

    2009-11-01

    Since no epidemiologic studies have been reported about musculoskeletal injuries in break-dancers, there are no data on the rates and patterns of musculoskeletal injuries in this population that clinicians can use to find ways to decrease injury rate. We believe that the incidence of injuries in break-dancers is higher than assumed and that injury rates and patterns differ between professional and amateur dancers. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Of a total of 42 study subjects, 23 were professional dancers and 19 were amateur dancers. Injury frequency, site and type, along with the presence of supervised training, the use of protective devices and warm-up exercises done were recorded. Of the 42 study subjects, excluding two amateur dancers, 40 (95.2%) had had musculoskeletal injuries at more than one site. The mean number of sites per dancer was 4.60. The frequency of injury depended on the site and was as follows: wrist (69.0%), finger (61.9%), knee (61.9%), shoulder (52.4%), lumbar spine (50.0%), elbow (42.9%), cervical spine (38.1%), ankle (38.1%), foot (28.6%) and hip (16.7%). Sprain, strain and tendinitis were the most common injuries, accounting for the most cases. Of the 42 dancers, 13 (31%) had had fractures or dislocations. Eight (19.1%) learned break-dancing under supervised instruction, 17 (40.5%) used protective devices and 28 (66.7%) performed warm-up exercises before dancing. There were significant differences in age, dance career length, amount of dance training, mean number of injury sites and the presence of supervised training between professionals and amateurs (Pnature of the activities that result in both unusual and common injuries in break-dancers and educate them about safety. Careful screening, instruction and supervised training of break-dancers will help to prevent injuries.

  10. Associations of office workers' objectively assessed occupational sitting, standing and stepping time with musculoskeletal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Pieter; Healy, Genevieve N; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Dunstan, David W; Owen, Neville; Moodie, Marj; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Eakin, Elizabeth A; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Straker, Leon M

    2018-04-22

    We examined the association of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) with workplace sitting, standing and stepping time, as well as sitting and standing time accumulation (i.e. usual bout duration of these activities), measured objectively with the activPAL3 monitor. Using baseline data from the Stand Up Victoria trial (216 office workers, 14 workplaces), cross-sectional associations of occupational activities with self-reported MSS (low-back, upper and lower extremity symptoms in the last three months) were examined using probit regression, correcting for clustering and adjusting for confounders. Sitting bout duration was significantly (p < 0.05) associated, non-linearly, with MSS, such that those in the middle tertile displayed the highest prevalence of upper extremity symptoms. Other associations were non-significant but sometimes involved large differences in symptom prevalence (e.g. 38%) by activity. Though causation is unclear, these non-linear associations suggest that sitting and its alternatives (i.e. standing and stepping) interact with MSS and this should be considered when designing safe work systems. Practitioner summary: We studied associations of objectively assessed occupational activities with musculoskeletal symptoms in office workers. Workers who accumulated longer sitting bouts reported fewer upper extremity symptoms. Total activity duration was not significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms. We underline the importance of considering total volumes and patterns of activity time in musculoskeletal research.

  11. Assessment of musculoskeletal disorders in a manufacturing company using QEC and LUBAmethods and comparison of results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Afsartala

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are the most important causes of workers disabilities, increasing compensations and reducing productivity in developed and developing countries. This study was aimed to determine prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and assessment of them by using QEC and LUBA methods and comparison of results in a manufacturing company in Iran.     Methods   This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 115 operators in 15 working stations by using QEC and LUBA methods. The prevalence of MSDs was obtained by using Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ. The data were analyzed by Spearman correlation coefficients.     Results   According to findings of NMQ, 81.4 percent of operators at least in one of nine parts of musculoskeletal system have pain since 12 months ago. Assessment with QEC and LUBA  revealed that 71.3 and 24.35 percent of operators respectively are in action level four.     Conclusion   According to the analysis, correlation between findings of NMQ and action levels in QEC is higher than LUBA action levels. Whereas LUBA just assess working postures, this method is not a suitable tool for evaluation of working stations that require repetitive carrying of loads, static posture and long time to do.  

  12. QC operator’s nonneutral posture against musculoskeletal disorder’s (MSDs) risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsar, F.; Gustopo, D.; Achmadi, F.

    2018-04-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders refer to a gamut of inflammatory and degenerative disorders aggravated largely by the performance of work. It is the major cause of pain, disability, absenteeism and reduced productivity among workers worldwide. Although it is not fatal, MSDs have the potential to develop into serious injuries in the musculoskeletal system if ignored. QC operators work in nonneutral body posture. This cross-sectional study was condusted in order to investigate correlation between risk assessment results of QEC and body posture calculation of mannequin pro. Statistical analysis was condusted using SPSS version 16.0. Validity test, Reliability test and Regression analysis were conducted to compare the risk assessment output of applied method and nonneutral body posture simulation. All of QEC’s indicator classified as valid and reliable. The result of simple regression anlysis are back (0.3264.32), wrist/hand (4.86 >4.32) and neck (1.298 <4.32). Result of this study shows that there is an influence between nonneutral body posture of the QC operator during work with risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The potential risk of musculoskeletal disorders is in the shoulder/arm and wrist/hand of the QC operator, whereas the back and neck are not affected.

  13. Biomechanical Constraints Underlying Motor Primitives Derived from the Musculoskeletal Anatomy of the Human Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Hardesty, Russell L; Boots, Mathew T; Yakovenko, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    Neural control of movement can only be realized though the interaction between the mechanical properties of the limb and the environment. Thus, a fundamental question is whether anatomy has evolved to simplify neural control by shaping these interactions in a beneficial way. This inductive data-driven study analyzed the patterns of muscle actions across multiple joints using the musculoskeletal model of the human upper limb. This model was used to calculate muscle lengths across the full range of motion of the arm and examined the correlations between these values between all pairs of muscles. Musculoskeletal coupling was quantified using hierarchical clustering analysis. Muscle lengths between multiple pairs of muscles across multiple postures were highly correlated. These correlations broadly formed two proximal and distal groups, where proximal muscles of the arm were correlated with each other and distal muscles of the arm and hand were correlated with each other, but not between groups. Using hierarchical clustering, between 11 and 14 reliable muscle groups were identified. This shows that musculoskeletal anatomy does indeed shape the mechanical interactions by grouping muscles into functional clusters that generally match the functional repertoire of the human arm. Together, these results support the idea that the structure of the musculoskeletal system is tuned to solve movement complexity problem by reducing the dimensionality of available solutions.

  14. Incidental findings in musculoskeletal radiology; Zufallsbefunde in der muskuloskeletalen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuennemann, F.; Rehnitz, C.; Weber, M.A. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Increasing numbers of conventional X-rays, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the inpatient, outpatient and scientific routine leads to an increasing number of incidental findings. The correct interpretation of these incidental findings with respect to the relevance and the evaluation concerning further work-up is an important task of radiologists. Description of common incidental findings in musculoskeletal imaging and their clinical classification. A PubMed literature search was performed using the following terms: incidental findings, population-based imaging, musculoskeletal imaging, non-ossifying fibroma, enchondroma, osteodystrophia deformans, chondrosarcoma, fibrous dysplasia, simple bone cyst, unicameral bone cyst, solitary bone cyst, aneurysmal bone cyst, vertebral hemangioma, bone island, osteopoikilosis, Tarlov cyst and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Incidental findings are observed in up to 40% of imaging procedures. In up to 6% these incidental findings involve the skeletal system. Common incidental findings are discussed and their clinical relevance is explained. (orig.) [German] Mit steigender Menge an konventionellen Roentgen- sowie CT- und MRT-Bildern im stationaeren, ambulanten und wissenschaftlichen Alltag steigt unweigerlich auch die Zahl der Zufallsbefunde. Die korrekte Einordnung bzgl. deren Relevanz, ob eine weitere Abklaerung notwendig ist oder nicht, stellt eine wichtige Aufgabe des Radiologen dar. Vorstellung haeufiger Zufallsbefunde des muskuloskeletalen Systems und deren klinische Einordnung. Pubmed-Literaturrecherche zu den Stichworten ''incidental findings'', ''population-based imaging'', ''musculoskeletal imaging'', ''non-ossifying fibroma'', ''enchondroma'', ''osteodysthrophia deformans'', ''chondrosarcoma'', ''fibrous dysplasia'', &apos

  15. Reduction of metal artefacts in musculoskeletal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, Reto; Dietrich, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Joint replacement and other orthopaedic implants are utilized in many patients with musculoskeletal disorders. While these operations commonly show a good clinical result, a substantial number of patients need to undergo postoperative imaging during follow-up. The presence of orthopaedic implants induces severe metal artefacts at MRI and CT. We review several basic methods and advanced techniques for reducing metal artefacts at MRI and CT in order to enable a diagnostic examination in patients with metal implants. With the use of these techniques, MRI and CT are important and reliable modalities to examine patients with joint replacement and orthopaedic implants.

  16. Various musculoskeletal manifestations of chronic renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.Y.; Ong, K.O.

    2013-01-01

    Musculoskeletal manifestations in chronic renal insufficiency are caused by complex bone metabolism alterations, now described under the umbrella term of chronic kidney disease mineral- and bone-related disorder (CKD-MBD), as well as iatrogenic processes related to renal replacement treatment. Radiological imaging remains the mainstay of disease assessment. This review aims to illustrate the radiological features of CKD-MBD, such as secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, adynamic bone disease, soft-tissue calcifications; as well as features associated with renal replacement therapy, such as aluminium toxicity, secondary amyloidosis, destructive spondyloarthropathy, haemodialysis-related erosive arthropathy, tendon rupture, osteonecrosis, and infection

  17. A disjointed effort: paediatric musculoskeletal examination.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, Irwin

    2012-07-01

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) symptoms are a frequent cause of emergency department attendance for children, and while most often indicative of benign or self-limiting disease, such symptoms can occasionally be the first presentation of serious illness such as leukaemia or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. MSK examination, however, is often not included as part of the routine paediatric examination. The authors aimed to evaluate how often and how thoroughly MSK examination was performed during admissions to the paediatric ward and to compare it with the examination of other symptoms in relation to the presenting complaint and eventual diagnosis.

  18. Neonatal systemic inflammation in rats alters retinal vessel development and simulates pathologic features of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hye Kyoung; Lee, Hyun Ju; Ko, Jung Hwa; Park, Ji Hyun; Park, Ji Yeon; Choi, Chang Won; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Ahn, Seong Joon; Park, Kyu Hyung; Woo, Se Joon; Oh, Joo Youn

    2014-05-15

    Alteration of retinal angiogenesis during development leads to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm infants