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  1. Low intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle regeneration potential

    Tiziana ePietrangelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 days of low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude (598 m a.s.l. improves skeletal muscle regeneration in sedentary adult women.Methods: Satellite cells were obtained from the vastus lateralis skeletal muscle of seven women before and after this exercise training at low altitude. They were investigated for differentiation aspects, superoxide anion production, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial potential variation after a depolarizing insult, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and micro (miRNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206.Results: In these myogenic populations of adult stem cells, those obtained after exercise training, showed increased Fusion Index and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. This exercise training also generally reduced superoxide anion production in cells (by 12% to 67%, although not in two women, where there was an increase of ~15% along with a reduced superoxide dismutase activity. miRNA expression showed an exercise-induced epigenetic transcription profile that was specific according to the reduced or increased superoxide anion production of the cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude improves the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult women. The differentiation of cells was favored by increased intracellular calcium concentration and increased the fusion index. This low-to-moderate training at low altitude also depicted the epigenetic signature of cells.

  2. The improvement of suspension training for trunk muscle power in Sanda athletes

    Xiujie Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether both suspension training (ST and traditional training (TT can improve Sanda athlete's strength quality of trunk muscles and to explore the effect of suspension training on Sanda athletes' trunk muscle power production. Twelve elite Sanda athletes from the Competitive Sports School of Shanghai University of Sport were randomly assigned to experimental group (EG and control group (CG. EG and CG were regularly trained with suspension training and traditional strength training for 40 minutes three times per week. The total duration of training was 10 weeks. The measurements including peak torque (PT, PT/body weight (BW, and rate of force development (RFD were used to assess trunk muscles strength. The results showed that there were significant differences between the two groups' performance when it was tested at the higher velocity of dynamometer (test of muscle power, but less significant differences when the two groups performance was tested at the lower velocity of dynamometer (test of maximum strength. The conclusion of this study is that compared with traditional training methods, suspension training can improve back and trunk flexion muscles strength more effectively. In particular, suspension training can improve the explosive power of trunk extension and flexion muscles.

  3. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen; Sindrup, Søren H; Christiansen, Ingelise; Vissing, John; Andersen, Henning

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exercise after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO 2 -max) and maximal combined isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS) of knee and elbow flexion/extension. VO 2 -max and muscle strength were unchanged during run-in (-4.9% ± 10.3%, P = 0.80 and -3.7% ± 10.1%, P = 0.17, respectively). Aerobic exercise increased VO 2 -max by 11.0% ± 14.7% (P = 0.02). Resistance exercise resulted in an increase of 13.8% ± 16.0% (P = 0.0004) in cIKS. Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training improve fitness and strength in CIDP patients. Muscle Nerve 57: 70-76, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Improved skeletal muscle mass and strength after heavy strength training in very old individuals

    Bechshøft, Rasmus Leidesdorff; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolaj Mølkjær; Gliese, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    , muscle fiber type distribution and size did not differ significantly between groups. We conclude that in protein supplemented very old individuals, heavy resistance training can increase muscle mass and strength, and that the relative improvement in mass is more pronounced when initial muscle mass is low.......Age-related loss of muscle mass and function represents personal and socioeconomic challenges. The purpose of this study was to determine the adaptation of skeletal musculature in very old individuals (83 + years) performing 12 weeks of heavy resistance training (3 ×/week) (HRT) compared to a non....... The increase in CSA is correlated inversely with the baseline level of CSA (R2 = 0.43, P muscle isometric strength, isokinetic peak torque and power increased significantly only in HRT by 10–15%, whereas knee extension one-repetition maximum (1 RM) improved by 91%. Physical functional tests...

  5. Effects of specific muscle imbalance improvement training on the balance ability in elite fencers.

    Kim, Taewhan; Kil, Sekee; Chung, Jinwook; Moon, Jeheon; Oh, Eunyoung

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The lunge Motion that occurs frequently in fencing training and matches results in imbalance of the upper and lower limbs muscles. This research focuses on the improvement of the imbalance that occurs in the national team fencers of the Republic of Korea through specific muscle imbalance improvement training. [Subjects] The subjects of this research were limited to right-handed male fencers. Nine male, right-handed national fencing athletes were selected for this study (4 epee, 5 sabre; age 28.2 ± 2.2 years; height 182.3 ± 4.0 cm; weight 76.5 ± 8.2 kg; experience 12.4 ± 3.0 years). [Methods] The specific muscle imbalance improvement training program was performed for 12 weeks and Pre-Post tests were to evaluate its effect on the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, test of balance, and movement analysis. [Results] After the training program, mediolateral sway of the nondominant lower limb and the balance scale showed statistically significant improvement. [Conclusion] The specific muscle imbalance improvement training program used in this research was proven to be effective for improving the muscle imbalance of elite fencers.

  6. Does Flywheel Paradigm Training Improve Muscle Volume and Force? A Meta-Analysis.

    Nuñez Sanchez, Francisco J; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Núñez Sanchez, FJ and Sáez de Villarreal, E. Does flywheel paradigm training improve muscle volume and force? A meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3177-3186, 2017-Several studies have confirmed the efficacy of flywheel paradigm training for improving or benefiting muscle volume and force. A meta-analysis of 13 studies with a total of 18 effect sizes was performed to analyse the role of various factors on the effectiveness of flywheel paradigm training. The following inclusion criteria were employed for the analysis: (a) randomized studies; (b) high validity and reliability instruments; (c) published in a high quality peer-reviewed journal; (d) healthy participants; (e) studies where the eccentric programme were described; and (f) studies where increases in muscle volume and force were measured before and after training. Increases in muscle volume and force were noted through the use of flywheel systems during short periods of training. The increase in muscle mass appears was not influenced by the existence of eccentric overload during the exercise. The increase in force was significantly higher with the existence of eccentric overload during the exercise. The responses identified in this analysis are essential and should be considered by strength and conditioning professionals regarding the most appropriate dose response trends for flywheel paradigm systems to optimize the increase in muscle volume and force.

  7. Resistance training improves muscle strength and functional capacity in multiple sclerosis

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Jakobsen, J

    2009-01-01

    strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis, the effects persisting after 12 weeks of self-guided physical activity. Level of evidence: The present study provides level III evidence supporting the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training can improve muscle......OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training (PRT) can improve muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate whether the improvements are maintained after the trial. METHODS: The present study was a 2-arm...... and was afterward encouraged to continue training. After the trial, the control group completed the PRT intervention. Both groups were tested before and after 12 weeks of the trial and at 24 weeks (follow-up), where isometric muscle strength of the knee extensors (KE MVC) and functional capacity (FS; combined score...

  8. Respiratory muscle training with enzyme replacement therapy improves muscle strength in late - onset Pompe disease.

    Jevnikar, Mitja; Kodric, Metka; Cantarutti, Fabiana; Cifaldi, Rossella; Longo, Cinzia; Della Porta, Rossana; Bembi, Bruno; Confalonieri, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase. This deficiency leads to glycogen accumulation in the lysosomes of muscle tissue causing progressive muscular weakness particularly of the respiratory system. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has demonstrated efficacy in slowing down disease progression in infants. Despite the large number of studies describing the effects of physical training in juvenile and adult late onset Pompe disease (LOPD). There are very few reports that analyze the benefits of respiratory muscle rehabilitation or training. The effectiveness of respiratory muscle training was investigated using a specific appliance with adjustable resistance (Threshold). The primary endpoint was effect on respiratory muscular strength by measurements of MIP and MEP. Eight late-onset Pompe patients (aged 13 to 58 years; 4 female, 4 male) with respiratory muscle deficiency on functional respiratory tests were studied. All patients received ERT at the dosage of 20 mg/kg/every 2 weeks and underwent training with Threshold at specified pressures for 24 months. A significant increase in MIP was observed during the follow-up of 24 month: 39.6 cm H 2 O (+ 25.0%) at month 3; 39.5 cm H 2 O (+ 24.9%) at month 6; 39.1 cm H 2 O (+ 23.7%) at month 9; 37.3 cm H 2 O (+ 18.2%) at month 12; and 37.3 cm H 2 O (+ 17.8%) at month 24. Median MEP values also showed a significant increase during the first 9 months: 29.8 cm H 2 O, (+ 14.3%) at month 3; 31.0 cm H 2 O (+ 18.6) at month 6; and 29.5 cm H 2 O (+ 12.9) at month 9. MEP was then shown to be decreased at months 12 and 24; median MEP was 27.2 cm H 2 O (+ 4.3%) at 12 months and 26.6 cm H 2 O (+ 1.9%) at 24 months. The FVC remain stable throughout the study. An increase in respiratory muscular strength was demonstrated with Threshold training when used in combination with ERT.

  9. Influences of Fascicle Length During Isometric Training on Improvement of Muscle Strength.

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Ikezoe, Tome; Umehara, Jun; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Umegaki, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Nishishita, Satoru; Fujita, Kosuke; Araki, Kojiro; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2016-11-01

    Tanaka, H, Ikezoe, T, Umehara, J, Nakamura, M, Umegaki, H, Kobayashi, T, Nishishita, S, Fujita, K, Araki, K, and Ichihashi, N. Influences of fascicle length during isometric training on improvement of muscle strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3249-3255, 2016-This study investigated whether low-intensity isometric training would elicit a greater improvement in maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at the same fascicle length, rather than the joint angle, adopted during training. Sixteen healthy women (21.8 ± 1.5 years) were randomly divided into an intervention group and a control group. Before (Pre) and after (Post) training, isometric plantarflexion MVCs were measured every 10° through the range of ankle joint position from 20° dorsiflexion to 30° plantarflexion (i.e., 6 ankle angles). Medial gastrocnemius fascicle length was also measured at each position, using B-mode ultrasound under 3 conditions of muscle activation: at rest, 30%MVC at respective angles, and MVC. Plantarflexion resistance training at an angle of 20° plantarflexion was performed 3 days a week for 4 weeks at 30%MVC using 3 sets of twenty 3-second isometric contractions. Maximum voluntary contraction in the intervention group increased at 0 and 10° plantarflexion (0°; Pre: 81.2 ± 26.5 N·m, Post: 105.0 ± 21.6 N·m, 10°; Pre: 63.0 ± 23.6 N·m, Post: 81.3 ± 20.3 N·m), which was not the angle used in training (20°). However, the fascicle length adopted in training at 20° plantarflexion and 30%MVC was similar to the value at 0 or 10° plantarflexion at MVC. Low-intensity isometric training at a shortened muscle length may be effective for improving MVC at a lengthened muscle length because of specificity of the fascicle length than the joint angle.

  10. Pilates training improves 5-km run performance by changing metabolic cost and muscle activity in trained runners

    Finatto, Paula; Silva, Edson Soares Da; Okamura, Alexandre B.; Almada, Bruna P.; Oliveira, Henrique B.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Strength training improves distance running economy and performance. This finding is based predominantly on maximal and explosive strength programmes applied to locomotor muscles, particularly on the lower limbs. It is not certain whether a minimization of metabolic cost (Cmet) and an improvement in running performance is feasible with strength training of the postural and trunk muscles. Methods Using kinematic, neuromuscular and metabolic measurements of running at two different speeds before and after a 12-week Pilates training programme, we tested the hypothesis that core training might improve the running Cmet and performance of trained runners. Thirty-two individuals were randomly assigned to the control group (CG, n = 16) or the Pilates group (PG, n = 16). Results Confirming our hypothesis, a significant improvement (p<0.05) was observed for running performance in the PG (pre: 25.65±0.4 min; post: 23.23±0.4 min) compared to the CG (pre: 25.33±0.58 min; post: 24.61±0.52 min). Similarly, the PG (4.33±0.07 J.kg-1.m-1) had better responses than the CG (4.71±0.11 J.kg-1.m-1) during post-training for Cmet. These findings were accompanied by decreased electromyographic activity of the postural muscles at submaximal running intensities in the PG. Conclusions Overall, these results provide a rationale for selecting strength training strategies that target adaptations on specific postural and locomotor muscles for trained distance runners. PMID:29561907

  11. Pilates training improves 5-km run performance by changing metabolic cost and muscle activity in trained runners.

    Paula Finatto

    Full Text Available Strength training improves distance running economy and performance. This finding is based predominantly on maximal and explosive strength programmes applied to locomotor muscles, particularly on the lower limbs. It is not certain whether a minimization of metabolic cost (Cmet and an improvement in running performance is feasible with strength training of the postural and trunk muscles.Using kinematic, neuromuscular and metabolic measurements of running at two different speeds before and after a 12-week Pilates training programme, we tested the hypothesis that core training might improve the running Cmet and performance of trained runners. Thirty-two individuals were randomly assigned to the control group (CG, n = 16 or the Pilates group (PG, n = 16.Confirming our hypothesis, a significant improvement (p<0.05 was observed for running performance in the PG (pre: 25.65±0.4 min; post: 23.23±0.4 min compared to the CG (pre: 25.33±0.58 min; post: 24.61±0.52 min. Similarly, the PG (4.33±0.07 J.kg-1.m-1 had better responses than the CG (4.71±0.11 J.kg-1.m-1 during post-training for Cmet. These findings were accompanied by decreased electromyographic activity of the postural muscles at submaximal running intensities in the PG.Overall, these results provide a rationale for selecting strength training strategies that target adaptations on specific postural and locomotor muscles for trained distance runners.

  12. Intense Training as a Means to Improve Running Performance in Trained Runners and the Adaptation of Muscle Tissue

    Skovgaard, Casper

    compositions of intense training on performance, movement economy and muscular adaptations. The findings from the present PhD study suggest that performing intense training, in the form of speed endurance training (SET), for a relatively short period improves short and long-term performance. Both a prolonged...... period of SET as well as a period with increased frequency of SET improves short-term performance further, but a prolonged period does not extrapolate to further improved long-term performance not even if SET frequency is doubled. Short-term performance was better after 16 days of reduced training volume...... the period of increased frequency of SET, the value of combining an overload phase with tapering to improve 10-km performance is low. In line with the literature on "muscle memory", performing a second intervention of SET and a basic volume of aerobic training might have a greater impact on short-term...

  13. Lip muscle training improves obstructive sleep apnea and objective sleep: a case report

    Hiroshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the potential of lip muscle training for improving sleep. A patient with heavy snoring, daytime sleepiness and dry mouth underwent lip muscle training. Lip closure force LCFmax increased by 67.3% and LCFmin by 152% post-training. AHI decreased from 12.2 to 3.9 events/h by reducing hypopneic episodes. TST, sleep stage N3 and REM sleep increased, and WASO, sleep stage N1, and AI decreased. The patient switched from mouth to nose breathing during sleep and stopped snoring. Improved LCF, by moving the tongue into the anterior-superior oral cavity, may increase upper airway space and reduce the hypopnea index.

  14. High-intensity strength training improves function of chronically painful muscles

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study investigates consequences of chronic neck pain on muscle function and the rehabilitating effects of contrasting interventions. METHODS: Women with trapezius myalgia (MYA, n = 42) and healthy controls (CON, n = 20) participated in a case-control study. Subsequently MYA were...... randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training (SST, n = 18), general fitness training (GFT, n = 16), or a reference group without physical training (REF, n = 8). Participants performed tests of 100 consecutive cycles of 2 s isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of shoulder elevation followed...... MYA and CON. In the intervention study, SST improved all force parameters significantly more than the two other groups, to levels comparable to that of CON. This was seen along with muscle fiber hypertrophy and increased capillarization. CONCLUSION: Women with trapezius myalgia have lower strength...

  15. Is inertial flywheel resistance training superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving muscle strength?

    Vicens-Bordas, J; Esteve, E; Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A

    2018-01-01

    -dependent resistance training in improving other muscular adaptations. DESIGN: A systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials with no publication date...

  16. Training Strategies to Improve Muscle Power: Is Olympic-style Weightlifting Relevant?

    Helland, Christian; Hole, Eirik; Iversen, Erik; Olsson, Monica Charlotte; Seynnes, Olivier; Solberg, Paul Andre; Paulsen, Gøran

    2017-04-01

    This efficacy study investigated the effects of 1) Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), 2) motorized strength and power training (MSPT), and 3) free weight strength and power training (FSPT) on muscle power. Thirty-nine young athletes (20 ± 3 yr; ice hockey, volleyball, and badminton) were randomized into the three training groups. All groups participated in two to three sessions per week for 8 wk. The MSPT and FSPT groups trained using squats (two legs and single leg) with high force and high power, whereas the OWL group trained using clean and snatch exercises. MSPT was conducted as slow-speed isokinetic strength training and isotonic power training with augmented eccentric load, controlled by a computerized robotic engine system. FSPT used free weights. The training volume (sum of repetitions × kg) was similar between all three groups. Vertical jumping capabilities were assessed by countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), drop jump (DJ), and loaded CMJ (10-80 kg). Sprinting capacity was assessed in a 30-m sprint. Secondary variables were squat one-repetition maximum (1RM), body composition, quadriceps thickness, and architecture. OWL resulted in trivial improvements and inferior gains compared with FSPT and MSPT for CMJ, SJ, DJ, and 1RM. MSPT demonstrated small but robust effects on SJ, DJ, loaded CMJ, and 1RM (3%-13%). MSPT was superior to FSPT in improving 30-m sprint performance. FSPT and MSPT, but not OWL, demonstrated increased thickness in the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris (4%-7%). MSPT was time-efficient and equally or more effective than FSPT training in improving vertical jumping and sprinting performance. OWL was generally ineffective and inferior to the two other interventions.

  17. A randomized clinical trial comparing pelvic floor muscle training to a Pilates exercise program for improving pelvic muscle strength.

    Culligan, Patrick J; Scherer, Janet; Dyer, Keisha; Priestley, Jennifer L; Guingon-White, Geri; Delvecchio, Donna; Vangeli, Margi

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether a Pilates exercise program and a pelvic floor muscle-training (PFMT) program could provide similar improvements in pelvic muscle strength. Sixty-two women with little or no pelvic floor dysfunction were randomized to Pilates or PFMT. Each group had 24 biweekly 1-h sessions with either a physical therapist or Pilates instructor. Strength was measured via perineometry (cmH(2)O). Two questionnaires--pelvic floor distress inventory (PFDI-20) and pelvic floor impact questionnaire (PFIQ-7)--were also collected. At baseline, the Pilates and PFMT groups measured 14.9 +/- 12.5 and 12.5 +/- 10.4 cmH(2)O, respectively (p = 0.41). Both the Pilates and PFMT groups got stronger (6.2 +/- 7.5 cmH(2)O, p = 0.0002 and 6.6 +/- 7.4 cmH(2)O, p = 0.0002, respectively), with no difference between groups p = 0.85. PFIQ and PFDI scores improved from baseline but not between groups. Further study is required to determine if Pilates can actually treat pelvic floor dysfunction.

  18. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-Based Running Plan Improves Athletic Performance by Improving Muscle Power.

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, Jose C; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-01-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 146-153, 2017-This study aimed to examine the effect of a 5-week high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT)-based running plan on athletic performance and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into 2 groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines, whereas the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period. In both pretest and posttest, the participants performed 4 jumping tests: before the race (baseline), postswim, postcycling, and postrun. Additionally, heart rate was monitored (HRmean), whereas rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate accumulation (BLa) were registered after the race. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between groups were found before HIIT intervention (at pretest). Significant group-by-training interactions were found in vertical jumping ability and athletic performance: the EG improved jumping performance (∼6-9%, p ≤ 0.05, effect size (ES) > 0.7), swimming performance (p = 0.013, ES = 0.438), and running time (p = 0.001, ES = 0.667) during the competition, whereas the CG remained unchanged (p ≥ 0.05, ES HIIT-based running plan combined with the high training volumes of these triathletes in swimming and cycling improved athletic performance during a sprint-distance triathlon. This improvement may be due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved muscle power and work economy.

  19. Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging.

    Jiang, Changhao; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Zhang, Junmei; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the effect of high mental effort training (MET) and conventional strength training (CST) on increasing voluntary muscle strength and brain signal associated with producing maximal muscle force in healthy aging. Twenty-seven older adults (age: 75 ± 7.9 yr, 8 women) were assigned into 1 of 3 groups: MET group-trained with low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) physical exercise combined with MET, CST group-trained with high-intensity muscle contractions, or control (CTRL) group-no training of any kind. MET and CST lasted for 12 weeks (5 sessions/week). The participants' elbow flexion strength of the right arm, electromyography (EMG), and motor activity-related cortical potential (MRCP) directly related to the strength production were measured before and after training. The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.6%, P boarder-line significance level (12.11%, P = 0.061) and that for CTRL group was only 4.9% (P = 0.539). These results suggest that high mental effort training combined with low-intensity physical exercise is an effective method for voluntary muscle strengthening and this approach is especially beneficial for those who are physically weak and have difficulty undergoing conventional strength training.

  20. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary V̇O2 kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age: 26 ± 2; mean ± SD) performed six HIT...

  1. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen

    2018-01-01

    after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO2 -max) and maximal...

  2. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training?

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K

    2017-05-10

    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles. 1 We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (prespiratory muscle aerobic capacity, attenuation of respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, increase in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  3. Exercise training improves blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle of older men via enhanced cGMP signaling

    Piil, Peter Bergmann; Smith Jørgensen, Tue; Egelund, Jon

    2018-01-01

    Physical activity has the potential to offset age-related impairments in the regulation of blood flow and O2 delivery to the exercising muscles; however, the mechanisms underlying this effect of physical activity remain poorly understood. The present study examined the role of cGMP in training...... a period of aerobic high-intensity exercise training. To determine the role of cGMP signaling, pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) was performed. Before training, inhibition of PDE5 increased (P... group; however, these effects of PDE5 inhibition were not detected after training. These findings suggest a role for enhanced cGMP signaling in the training-induced improvement of regulation of blood flow in contracting skeletal muscle of older men....

  4. Exercise training, but not resveratrol, improves metabolic and inflammatory status in skeletal muscle of aged men

    Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse; Biensøe, Rasmus S

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol alone and when combined with exercise training in skeletal muscle of aged human subjects. Material and Methods: Healthy physically inactive men (60-72 year old) were randomized into either 8 weeks of daily intake of 250...... mg resveratrol or placebo or into 8 weeks of high intensity exercise training with 250 mg resveratrol or placebo. Before and after the interventions, resting blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained and a one-leg knee-extensor endurance exercise test (KEE) was performed. Results: Exercise...... with no significant additive or adverse effects of resveratrol on these parameters. Despite an overall ~25% reduction in total acetylation level in skeletal muscle with resveratrol, no exclusive resveratrol-mediated metabolic effects were observed on the investigated parameters. Notably however, resveratrol blunted...

  5. Strength Training Using Elastic Bands: Improvement of Muscle Power and Throwing Performance in Young Female Handball Players.

    Mascarin, Naryana Cristina; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Dos Santos Andrade, Marilia

    2017-05-01

    Imbalance in shoulder-rotator muscles has been considered a risk factor for injuries in handball. Strength training programs (STPs) may play an important preventive role. To verify the effects of an STP using elastic bands on shoulder muscles and ball-throwing speed. Randomized and prospective controlled trial. Exercise physiology laboratory. Thirty-nine female handball players were randomly assigned to an experimental (EG, n = 21, 15.3 ± 1.1 y) or a control (CG, n = 18, 15.0 ± 0.8 y) group. The EG performed the STP with elastic-band progressive exercises for 6 wk before regular handball training, and the CG underwent only their regular training. Before and after the STP, both groups underwent a ball-throwing-speed test and isokinetic test to assess shoulder internal- (IR) and external-rotator muscle performance. Average power values for IR muscles presented a significant group-vs-time interaction effect (F = 3.9, P = .05); EG presented significantly higher values after the STP (P = .03). Ball speed presented higher values in EG after the STP in standing (P = .04) and jumping (P = .03) throws. IR peak-torque values and balance in shoulder-rotator muscles presented no group-vs-time interaction effect. STP using elastic bands performed for 6 wk was effective to improve muscle power and ball speed for young female handball players.

  6. β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation may improve recovery and muscle adaptations after resistance training: a systematic review.

    Silva, Vagner R; Belozo, Felipe L; Micheletti, Thayana O; Conrado, Marcelo; Stout, Jeffrey R; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Gonzalez, Adam M

    2017-09-01

    β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) has been suggested to accelerate the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise and attenuate markers of skeletal muscle damage. Herein a systematic review on the use of HMB-FA supplementation as an ergogenic aid to improve measures of muscle recovery, performance, and hypertrophy after resistance training was conducted. This review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. We included randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials investigating the effects of HMB-FA supplementation in conjunction with resistance exercise in humans. The search was conducted using Medline and Google Scholar databases for the terms beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, HMB free acid, exercise, resistance exercise, strength training, and HMB supplementation. Only research articles published from 1996 to 2016 in English language were considered for the analysis. Nine studies met the criteria for inclusion in the analyses. Most studies included resistance-trained men, and the primary intervention strategy involved administration of 3g of HMB-FA per day. In conjunction with resistance training, HMB-FA supplementation may attenuate markers of muscle damage, augment acute immune and endocrine responses, and enhance training-induced muscle mass and strength. HMB-FA supplementation may also improve markers of aerobic fitness when combined with high-intensity interval training. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to determine the overall efficacy of HMB-FA supplementation as an ergogenic aid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Concurrent speed endurance and resistance training improves performance, running economy and muscle NHE1 in moderately trained runners

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christensen, Peter Møller; Larsen, Sonni

    2014-01-01

    , content of muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump subunits and MCT4 were unaltered. No changes were observed in CON. The present study demonstrates that SET and HRT, when performed in succession, leads to improvements in both short- and long-term running performance together with improved running economy as well...

  8. Combined resistance and endurance exercise training improves arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women.

    Figueroa, Arturo; Park, Song Y; Seo, Dae Y; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Baek, Yeong H

    2011-09-01

    Menopause is associated with increased arterial stiffness and reduced muscle strength. Combined resistance (RE) and endurance (EE) exercise training can decrease brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an index of arterial stiffness, in young men. We tested the hypothesis that combined circuit RE and EE training would improve baPWV, blood pressure (BP), and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. Twenty-four postmenopausal women (age 47-68 y) were randomly assigned to a "no exercise" control (n = 12) or to combined exercise training (EX; n = 12) group. The EX group performed concurrent circuit RE training followed by EE training at 60% of the predicted maximal heart rate (HR) 3 days per week. Brachial systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, baPWV, HR, and dynamic and isometric muscle strength were measured before and after the 12-week study. Mean ± SE baPWV (-0.8 ± 0.2 meters/s), systolic BP (-6.0 ± 1.9 mm Hg), diastolic BP (-4.8 ± 1.7 mm Hg), HR (-4.0 ± 1.0 beats/min), and mean arterial pressure (-5.1 ± 1.6 mm Hg) decreased (P hypertension and frailty in postmenopausal women.

  9. Single muscle fiber adaptations with marathon training.

    Trappe, Scott; Harber, Matthew; Creer, Andrew; Gallagher, Philip; Slivka, Dustin; Minchev, Kiril; Whitsett, David

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of marathon training on single muscle fiber contractile function in a group of recreational runners. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the gastrocnemius muscle of seven individuals (22 +/- 1 yr, 177 +/- 3 cm, and 68 +/- 2 kg) before, after 13 wk of run training, and after 3 wk of taper. Slow-twitch myosin heavy chain [(MHC) I] and fast-twitch (MHC IIa) muscle fibers were analyzed for size, strength (P(o)), speed (V(o)), and power. The run training program led to the successful completion of a marathon (range 3 h 56 min to 5 h 35 min). Oxygen uptake during submaximal running and citrate synthase activity were improved (P training program. Muscle fiber size declined (P training. P(o) was maintained in both fiber types with training and increased (P 60% increase (P training and was unchanged in MHC IIa fibers. Peak power increased (P training with a further increase (P marathon training decreased slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fiber size but that it maintained or improved the functional profile of these fibers. A taper period before the marathon further improved the functional profile of the muscle, which was targeted to the fast-twitch muscle fibers.

  10. Power training using pneumatic machines vs. plate-loaded machines to improve muscle power in older adults.

    Balachandran, Anoop T; Gandia, Kristine; Jacobs, Kevin A; Streiner, David L; Eltoukhy, Moataz; Signorile, Joseph F

    2017-11-01

    Power training has been shown to be more effective than conventional resistance training for improving physical function in older adults; however, most trials have used pneumatic machines during training. Considering that the general public typically has access to plate-loaded machines, the effectiveness and safety of power training using plate-loaded machines compared to pneumatic machines is an important consideration. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of high-velocity training using pneumatic machines (Pn) versus standard plate-loaded machines (PL). Independently-living older adults, 60years or older were randomized into two groups: pneumatic machine (Pn, n=19) and plate-loaded machine (PL, n=17). After 12weeks of high-velocity training twice per week, groups were analyzed using an intention-to-treat approach. Primary outcomes were lower body power measured using a linear transducer and upper body power using medicine ball throw. Secondary outcomes included lower and upper body muscle muscle strength, the Physical Performance Battery (PPB), gallon jug test, the timed up-and-go test, and self-reported function using the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and an online video questionnaire. Outcome assessors were blinded to group membership. Lower body power significantly improved in both groups (Pn: 19%, PL: 31%), with no significant difference between the groups (Cohen's d=0.4, 95% CI (-1.1, 0.3)). Upper body power significantly improved only in the PL group, but showed no significant difference between the groups (Pn: 3%, PL: 6%). For balance, there was a significant difference between the groups favoring the Pn group (d=0.7, 95% CI (0.1, 1.4)); however, there were no statistically significant differences between groups for PPB, gallon jug transfer, muscle muscle strength, timed up-and-go or self-reported function. No serious adverse events were reported in either of the groups. Pneumatic and plate

  11. Slow movement resistance training using body weight improves muscle mass in the elderly: A randomized controlled trial.

    Tsuzuku, S; Kajioka, T; Sakakibara, H; Shimaoka, K

    2018-04-01

    To examine the effect of a 12-week slow movement resistance training using body weight as a load (SRT-BW) on muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution in healthy elderly people. Fifty-three men and 35 women aged 70 years old or older without experience in resistance training participated, and they were randomly assigned to a SRT-BW group or control group. The control group did not receive any intervention, but participants in this group underwent a repeat measurement 12 weeks later. The SRT-BW program consisted of 3 different exercises (squat, tabletop push-up, and sit-up), which were designed to stimulate anterior major muscles. Initially, these exercises were performed by 2 sets of 10 repetitions, and subsequently, the number of repetitions was increased progressively by 2 repetitions every 4 weeks. Participants were instructed to perform each eccentric and concentric phase of movement slowly (spending 4 seconds on each movement), covering the full range of motion. We evaluated muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Changes over 12 weeks were significantly greater in the SRT-BW group than in the control group, with a decrease in waist circumference, hip circumference, and abdominal preperitoneal and subcutaneous fat thickness, and an increase in thigh muscle thickness, knee extension strength, and hip flexion strength. In conclusion, relatively short-term SRT-BW was effective in improving muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution in healthy elderly people. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or glucosamine reduced pain and improved muscle strength with resistance training in a randomized controlled trial of knee osteoarthritis patients

    Petersen, Susanne G; Beyer, Nina; Hansen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Petersen SG, Beyer N, Hansen M, Holm L, Aagaard P, Mackey AL, Kjaer M. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or glucosamine reduced pain and improved muscle strength with resistance training in a randomized controlled trial of knee osteoarthritis patients.......Petersen SG, Beyer N, Hansen M, Holm L, Aagaard P, Mackey AL, Kjaer M. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or glucosamine reduced pain and improved muscle strength with resistance training in a randomized controlled trial of knee osteoarthritis patients....

  13. Virtual Reality-Based Wii Fit Training in Improving Muscle Strength, Sensory Integration Ability, and Walking Abilities in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Control Trial

    Ying-Yi Liao

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: VRWii training is as beneficial as TE in improving walking abilities, sensory integration ability, and muscle strength in patients with PD, and such improvements persisted for at least for 1 month. VRWii training is thus suggested to be implemented in patients with PD.

  14. Interval training in the fed or fasted state improves body composition and muscle oxidative capacity in overweight women.

    Gillen, Jenna B; Percival, Michael E; Ludzki, Alison; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) performed in the fasted (FAST) versus fed (FED) state on body composition, muscle oxidative capacity, and glycemic control in overweight/obese women. Sixteen women (27 ± 8 years, BMI: 29 ± 6 kg/m(2) , VO2peak : 28 ± 3 ml/kg/min) were assigned to either FAST or FED (n = 8 each) and performed 18 sessions of HIT (10× 60-s cycling efforts at ∼90% maximal heart rate, 60-s recovery) over 6 weeks. There was no significant difference between FAST and FED for any measured variable. Body mass was unchanged following training; however, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed lower percent fat in abdominal and leg regions as well as the whole body level (main effects for time, P ≤ 0.05). Fat-free mass increased in leg and gynoid regions (P ≤ 0.05). Resting muscle biopsies revealed a training-induced increase in mitochondrial capacity as evidenced by increased maximal activities of citrate synthase and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (P ≤ 0.05). There was no change in insulin sensitivity, although change in insulin area under the curve was correlated with change in abdominal percent fat (r = 0.54, P ≤ 0.05). Short-term low-volume HIT is a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition and muscle oxidative capacity in overweight/obese women, but fed- versus fasted-state training does not alter this response. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  15. Voluntary muscle activation improves with power training and is associated with changes in gait speed in mobility-limited older adults

    Hvid, Lars G; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Skjødt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete voluntary muscle activation may contribute to impaired muscle mechanical function and physical function in older adults. Exercise interventions have been shown to increase voluntary muscle activation, although the evidence is sparse for mobility-limited older adults, particularly...... in association with physical function. This study examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on outcomes of voluntary muscle activation and gait speed in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 37 older men and women with a usual gait speed...... in TG (r=0.67, pactivation is improved in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of progressive power training, and is associated with improved maximal gait speed. Incomplete voluntary muscle activation should be considered one of the key mechanisms...

  16. Intelligent Physical Exercise Training in a Workplace Setting Improves Muscle Strength and Musculoskeletal Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Tina Dalager

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess effects of 1-year Intelligent Physical Exercise Training (IPET on musculoskeletal health. Methods. Office workers were randomized 1 : 1 to a training group, TG (N=193, or a control group, CG (N=194. TG received 1 h supervised high intensity IPET every week within working hours for 1 year and was recommended to perform 30 min of moderate intensity physical activity for 6 days a week during leisure. The IPET program was based on baseline health measures. Results. No baseline differences were present. An intention-to-treat analysis showed significant between-group effect for muscle strength but not for musculoskeletal pain. However, a per-protocol analysis of those with an adherence of ≥70% demonstrated a significant between-group effect for neck pain during the past three months. Several significant within-group changes were present, where TG and TG ≥ 70% demonstrated clinically relevant pain reductions whereas minimal reductions were seen for CG. Conclusion. IPET and recommendations of moderate intensity physical activity demonstrated significant between-group effect on muscle strength. Interestingly, significant within-group reductions in musculoskeletal pain were seen not only in TG but also in CG. This may underlie the lack of such between-group effect and shows that a possible positive side effect of merely drawing attention can improve musculoskeletal health.

  17. Improved Walking Capacity and Muscle Strength After Functional Power-Training in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy

    van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    Background. Strength training programs for children with cerebral palsy (CP) showed inconclusive evidence for improving walking, despite improvements in strength. Recent studies have suggested that strength training with high movement velocity is more effective for improving walking than traditional

  18. Can pelvic floor muscle training improve sexual function in women with pelvic organ prolapse? A randomized controlled trial.

    Braekken, Ingeborg H; Majida, Memona; Ellström Engh, Marie; Bø, Kari

    2015-02-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) has level 1 evidence of reducing the size and symptoms associated with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). There is scant knowledge, however, regarding whether PFMT has an effect on sexual function. The aim of the trial was to evaluate the effect of PFMT on sexual function in women with POP. In this randomized controlled trial, 50 women were randomized to an intervention group (6 months of PFMT and lifestyle advice) and 59 women were randomized to a control group (lifestyle advice only). Participants completed a validated POP-specific questionnaire to describe frequency and bother of prolapse, bladder, bowel, and sexual symptoms and answered a semi-structured interview. No significant change in number of women being sexually active was reported. There were no significant differences between groups regarding change in satisfaction with frequency of intercourse. Interview data revealed that 19 (39%) of women in the PFMT group experienced improved sexual function vs. two (5%) in the control group (Ppelvic floor, improved self-confidence, sensation of a "tighter" vagina, improved libido and orgasms, resolution of pain with intercourse, and heightened sexual gratification for partners. Women who described improved sexual function demonstrated the greatest increases in pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength (mean 16 ± 10 cmH2 0) and endurance (mean 150 ± 140 cmH2 0s) (P<0.01). PFMT can improve sexual function in some women. Women reporting improvement in sexual function demonstrated the greatest increase in PFM strength and endurance. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Can quality of life be improved by pelvic floor muscle training in women with urinary incontinence after ischemic stroke?

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Jensen, Rigmor; Lindskov, Grethe

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training in women with urinary incontinence after ischemic stroke measured by quality of life (QoL) parameters. Three hundred thirty-nine medical records of stroke patients were searched. Twenty-six subjects were randomised...... to a Treatment Group or a Control Group in a single blinded, randomised study design. The intervention included 12 weeks of standardised pelvic floor muscle training. The outcome was measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey Questionnaire and The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ). Twenty...

  20. COMPARISON OF CONCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC HAMSTRING STRENGTH TRAINING IN IMPROVING MUSCLE STRENGTH AND POWER AMONG FUTSAL PLAYERS A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Arunkumar Nedunchezhiyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamstring injury is a common problem in many sports, especially those involving acceleration and maximal sprints. Hamstring strains are both common and painful. During sprinting the hip flexor and knee extensor torques are frequently produced and is opposed by the hamstring muscles, hence there are numerous studies done on the muscle strength training to prevent the hamstring strain injury as it is statistically stated as the highest rate involved injury in the contact sport. This study has been focused to evaluate the effectiveness of concentric and eccentric exercises in improving hamstring muscle strength and power among futsal players. Method: Thirty recreational futsal players were recruited for the study and were randomly divided into two groups. Each group received either hamstring curl exercise (concentric or Nordic hamstring exercise (eccentric twice a week for 4 weeks. The manual muscle test (MMT and 40-yard dash test was used to evaluate the muscle strength and power respectively by comparing the pretest and posttest values for both groups. Results: Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that there is no statistically significant difference between pre and post test values of MMT (Concentric (right side, z=.317; left side, z=.157, Eccentric (right side, z=.157; left side, z=.317 in both groups. Based on paired 't' test there is a significant difference between the pre and post test on improving muscle power [Concentric group, P=.020; Eccentric Group, P=.000]. Mann–Whitney U test and unpaired 't' test showed that there is no significant difference between both groups of MMT (z=.775 and 40-yard dash test (P=.707 respectively. Conclusion: The concentric strength training and eccentric strength training have a similar effect in improving hamstring muscle power in futsal players.

  1. Can quality of life be improved by pelvic floor muscle training in women with urinary incontinence after ischemic stroke?

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Jensen, Rigmor; Lindskov, Grethe

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training in women with urinary incontinence after ischemic stroke measured by quality of life (QoL) parameters. Three hundred thirty-nine medical records of stroke patients were searched. Twenty-six subjects were randomised...... to a Treatment Group or a Control Group in a single blinded, randomised study design. The intervention included 12 weeks of standardised pelvic floor muscle training. The outcome was measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey Questionnaire and The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ). Twenty....... Development of specific instruments for QoL in stroke patients with urinary incontinence can be recommended....

  2. Respiratory muscle training for cystic fibrosis.

    Hilton, Nathan; Solis-Moya, Arturo

    2018-05-24

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive disease in white populations, and causes respiratory dysfunction in the majority of individuals. Numerous types of respiratory muscle training to improve respiratory function and health-related quality of life in people with cystic fibrosis have been reported in the literature. Hence a systematic review of the literature is needed to establish the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training (either inspiratory or expiratory muscle training) on clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To determine the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training on clinical outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials register comprising of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of most recent search: 17 April 2018.A hand search of the Journal of Cystic Fibrosis and Pediatric Pulmonology was performed, along with an electronic search of online trial databases up until 07 May 2018. Randomised controlled studies comparing respiratory muscle training with a control group in people with cystic fibrosis. Review authors independently selected articles for inclusion, evaluated the methodological quality of the studies, and extracted data. Additional information was sought from trial authors where necessary. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system MAIN RESULTS: Authors identified 19 studies, of which nine studies with 202 participants met the review's inclusion criteria. There was wide variation in the methodological and written quality of the included studies. Four of the nine included studies were published as abstracts only and lacking concise details, thus limiting the information available. Seven studies were parallel studies and two of a cross-over design. Respiratory

  3. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial

    Nils Eckardt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT] on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT and free-weight URT (F-URT, on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Methods Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65–80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength, power (e.g., chair rise test and balance (e.g., functional reach test, carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Results Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Conclusion Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an

  4. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial.

    Eckardt, Nils

    2016-11-24

    It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT]) on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT) and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT) and free-weight URT (F-URT), on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65-80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength), power (e.g., chair rise test) and balance (e.g., functional reach test), carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an effective and safe alternative training program to mitigate

  5. Submaximal exercise training, more than dietary selenium supplementation, improves antioxidant status and ameliorates exercise-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle in young equine athletes.

    White, S H; Warren, L K

    2017-02-01

    Exercise is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as metabolism is upregulated to fuel muscle activity. If antioxidant systems become overwhelmed, ROS can negatively affect health and performance. Adaptation to exercise through regular training has been shown to improve defense against oxidative insult. Given selenium's role as an antioxidant, we hypothesized that increased Se intake would further enhance skeletal muscle adaptations to training. Quarter Horse yearlings (18 ± 0.2 mo; 402 ± 10 kg) were randomly assigned to receive either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM and placed in either an untrained or a trained (30 min walk-trot-canter, 4 d/wk) group for 14 wk. Phase 1 (wk 1 to 8) consisted of 4 treatments: trained and fed 0.1 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (CON-TR; n = 10), trained and fed 0.3 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (HIGH-TR; n = 10), untrained and fed 0.1 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (CON-UN; n = 5), or untrained and fed 0.3 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (HIGH-UN; n = 5). During Phase 2 (wk 9 to 14), dietary Se level in half of the trained horses was reversed, resulting in 6 treatments: CON-TR (n = 5), trained and fed 0.1 mg/kg Se in Phase 1 and then switched to 0.3 mg/kg Se for Phase 2 (ADD-TR; n = 5), trained and fed 0.3 mg/kg Se in Phase 1 and then switched to 0.1 mg/kg Se for Phase 2 (DROP-TR; n = 5), HIGH-TR (n = 5), CON-UN (n = 5), or HIGH-UN (n = 5). All horses underwent a 120-min submaximal exercise test (SET) at the end of Phase 1 (SET 1) and 2 (SET 2). Blood samples and biopsies from the middle gluteal muscle were collected before and after each phase of the study and in response to each SET and analyzed for markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activity. In both phases, serum Se was higher (P creatine kinase (CK) activity was lower in trained horses than in untrained horses (P < 0.0001), indicating less muscle damage, but plasma lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) and muscle GPx and SOD activities were unaffected by training or Se

  6. DANCE, BALANCE AND CORE MUSCLE PERFORMANCE MEASURES ARE IMPROVED FOLLOWING A 9-WEEK CORE STABILIZATION TRAINING PROGRAM AMONG COMPETITIVE COLLEGIATE Dancers.

    Watson, Todd; Graning, Jessica; McPherson, Sue; Carter, Elizabeth; Edwards, Joshuah; Melcher, Isaac; Burgess, Taylor

    2017-02-01

    Dance performance requires not only lower extremity muscle strength and endurance, but also sufficient core stabilization during dynamic dance movements. While previous studies have identified a link between core muscle performance and lower extremity injury risk, what has not been determined is if an extended core stabilization training program will improve specific measures of dance performance. This study examined the impact of a nine-week core stabilization program on indices of dance performance, balance measures, and core muscle performance in competitive collegiate dancers. Within-subject repeated measures design. A convenience sample of 24 female collegiate dance team members (age = 19.7 ± 1.1 years, height = 164.3 ± 5.3 cm, weight 60.3 ± 6.2 kg, BMI = 22.5 ± 3.0) participated. The intervention consisted of a supervised and non-supervised core (trunk musculature) exercise training program designed specifically for dance team participants performed three days/week for nine weeks in addition to routine dance practice. Prior to the program implementation and following initial testing, transversus abdominis (TrA) activation training was completed using the abdominal draw-in maneuver (ADIM) including ultrasound imaging (USI) verification and instructor feedback. Paired t tests were conducted regarding the nine-week core stabilization program on dance performance and balance measures (pirouettes, single leg balance in passe' releve position, and star excursion balance test [SEBT]) and on tests of muscle performance. A repeated measures (RM) ANOVA examined four TrA instruction conditions of activation: resting baseline, self-selected activation, immediately following ADIM training and four days after completion of the core stabilization training program. Alpha was set at 0.05 for all analysis. Statistically significant improvements were seen on single leg balance in passe' releve and bilateral anterior reach for the SEBT (both p ≤ 0

  7. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease.

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise

  8. Restoration of muscle mitochondrial function and metabolic flexibility in type 2 diabetes by exercise training is paralleled by increased myocellular fat storage and improved insulin sensitivity.

    Meex, Ruth C R; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B; Moonen-Kornips, Esther; Schaart, Gert; Mensink, Marco; Phielix, Esther; van de Weijer, Tineke; Sels, Jean-Pierre; Schrauwen, Patrick; Hesselink, Matthijs K C

    2010-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation in skeletal muscle (increased intramyocellular lipid [IMCL]) have been linked to development of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether exercise training could restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eighteen male type 2 diabetic and 20 healthy male control subjects of comparable body weight, BMI, age, and VO2max participated in a 12-week combined progressive training program (three times per week and 45 min per session). In vivo mitochondrial function (assessed via magnetic resonance spectroscopy), insulin sensitivity (clamp), metabolic flexibility (indirect calorimetry), and IMCL content (histochemically) were measured before and after training. Mitochondrial function was lower in type 2 diabetic compared with control subjects (P = 0.03), improved by training in control subjects (28% increase; P = 0.02), and restored to control values in type 2 diabetic subjects (48% increase; P type 2 diabetic subjects (delta Rd 63% increase; P type 2 diabetic subjects was restored (delta respiratory exchange ratio 63% increase; P = 0.01) but was unchanged in control subjects (delta respiratory exchange ratio 7% increase; P = 0.22). Starting with comparable pretraining IMCL levels, training tended to increase IMCL content in type 2 diabetic subjects (27% increase; P = 0.10), especially in type 2 muscle fibers. Exercise training restored in vivo mitochondrial function in type 2 diabetic subjects. Insulin-mediated glucose disposal and metabolic flexibility improved in type 2 diabetic subjects in the face of near-significantly increased IMCL content. This indicates that increased capacity to store IMCL and restoration of improved mitochondrial function contribute to improved muscle insulin sensitivity.

  9. Training-induced adaptation of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscles.

    Korzeniewski, Bernard; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2003-01-01

    Muscle training/conditioning improves the adaptation of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscles to physical exercise. However, the mechanisms underlying this adaptation are still not understood fully. By quantitative analysis of the existing experimental results, we show that training-induced acceleration of oxygen-uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise and improvement of ATP/ADP stability due to physical training are mainly caused by an increase in the amount of mitochondrial protein...

  10. The order of exercise during concurrent training for rehabilitation does not alter acute genetic expression, mitochondrial enzyme activity or improvements in muscle function.

    Lauren G MacNeil

    Full Text Available Concurrent exercise combines different modes of exercise (e.g., aerobic and resistance into one training protocol, providing stimuli meant to increase muscle strength, aerobic capacity and mass. As disuse is associated with decrements in strength, aerobic capacity and muscle size concurrent training is an attractive modality for rehabilitation. However, interference between the signaling pathways may result in preferential improvements for one of the exercise modes. We recruited 18 young adults (10 ♂, 8 ♀ to determine if order of exercise mode during concurrent training would differentially affect gene expression, protein content and measures of strength and aerobic capacity after 2 weeks of knee-brace induced disuse. Concurrent exercise sessions were performed 3x/week for 6 weeks at gradually increasing intensities either with endurance exercise preceding (END>RES or following (RES>END resistance exercise. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before, 3 h after the first exercise bout and 48 h after the end of training. Concurrent exercise altered the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, PRC, PPARγ, hypertrophy (PGC-1α4, REDD2, Rheb and atrophy (MuRF-1, Runx1, increased electron transport chain complex protein content, citrate synthase and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase enzyme activity, muscle mass, maximum isometric strength and VO 2peak. However, the order in which exercise was completed (END>RES or RES>END only affected the protein content of mitochondrial complex II subunit. In conclusion, concurrent exercise training is an effective modality for the rehabilitation of the loss of skeletal muscle mass, maximum strength, and peak aerobic capacity resulting from disuse, regardless of the order in which the modes of exercise are performed.

  11. Respiratory muscle training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Rodillo, E; Noble-Jamieson, C M; Aber, V; Heckmatt, J Z; Muntoni, F; Dubowitz, V

    1989-01-01

    Twenty two boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were entered into a randomised double blind crossover trial to compare respiratory muscle training with a Triflow II inspirometer and 'placebo' training with a mini peak flow meter. Supine posture was associated with significantly impaired lung function, but respiratory muscle training showed no benefit.

  12. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats.

    Scariot, Pedro P M; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia de Barros; Torsoni, Adriana S; Dos Reis, Ivan G M; Beck, Wladimir R; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Because every movement in daily life (i.e., SPA) is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative) and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT). Sixty-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co) in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr) in which rats swam for 40 min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT). We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their home

  13. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats

    Pedro Paulo Menezes Scariot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA. Because every movement in daily life (i.e. SPA is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT. 60-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr in which rats swam for 40min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT. We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their

  14. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke.

    Mehrholz, Jan; Pohl, Marcus; Platz, Thomas; Kugler, Joachim; Elsner, Bernhard

    2015-11-07

    Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation, and may help to improve arm function after stroke. To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength in people after stroke. We also assessed the acceptability and safety of the therapy. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (last searched February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2015), EMBASE (1980 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015), AMED (1985 to March 2015), SPORTDiscus (1949 to March 2015), PEDro (searched April 2015), Compendex (1972 to March 2015), and Inspec (1969 to March 2015). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, checked reference lists, and contacted trialists, experts, and researchers in our field, as well as manufacturers of commercial devices. Randomised controlled trials comparing electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for recovery of arm function with other rehabilitation or placebo interventions, or no treatment, for people after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trialists for additional information. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous variables. We included 34 trials (involving 1160 participants) in this update of our review. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training improved activities of daily living scores (SMD 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.64, P = 0.005, I² = 62%), arm function (SMD 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.51, P arm muscle strength (SMD 0.36, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.70, P = 0.04, I² = 72%), but the quality of the evidence was low to very low

  15. Improvements in exercise performance with high-intensity interval training coincide with an increase in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function

    Jacobs, Robert Acton; Flueck, Daniela; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2013-01-01

    sessions of HIT to determine the mechanisms explaining improvements in exercise performance. Sixteen untrained (43 +/- 6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) subjects completed six sessions of repeated (8-12) 60 s intervals of high-intensity cycling (100% peak power output elicited during incremental maximal exercise test...... (similar to 20 P = 0.026), as assessed by cytochrome c oxidase activity. Skeletal muscle deoxygenation also increased while maximal cardiac output, total hemoglobin, plasma volume, total blood volume, and relative measures of peripheral fatigue resistance were all unaltered with training. These results...

  16. One session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) every 5 days, improves muscle power but not static balance in lifelong sedentary ageing men: A randomized controlled trial.

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Herbert, Peter; Grace, Fergal

    2017-02-01

    Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the efficacy of a low-frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) intervention on peak muscle power (peak power output [PPO]), body composition, and balance in lifelong sedentary but otherwise healthy males. Thirty-three lifelong sedentary ageing men were randomly assigned to either intervention (INT; n = 22, age 62.3 ± 4.1 years) or control (n = 11, age 61.6 ± 5.0 years) who were both assessed at 3 distinct measurement points (phase A), after 6 weeks of conditioning exercise (phase B), and after 6 weeks of HIIT once every 5 days in INT (phase C), where control remained inactive throughout the study. Static balance remained unaffected, and both absolute and relative PPO were not different between groups at phases A or B, but increased significantly in INT after LfHIIT (P < 0.01). Lean body mass displayed a significant interaction (P < 0.01) due to an increase in INT between phases B and C (P < 0.05). 6 weeks of LfHIIT exercise feasible and effective method to induce clinically relevant improvements in absolute and relative PPO, but does not improve static balance in sedentary ageing men.

  17. Muscle oxygenation and fascicle length during passive muscle stretching in ballet-trained subjects.

    Otsuki, A; Fujita, E; Ikegawa, S; Kuno-Mizumura, M

    2011-07-01

    Muscle stretching transiently decreases muscle-blood flow corresponding to a muscle extension. It may disturb a balance between muscular oxygen demand and oxygen supply to muscles and reduce muscle oxygenation. However, muscle-stretching training may improve blood circulatory condition, resulting in the maintained muscle oxygenation during muscle stretching. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in muscle-blood volume (tHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) during muscle stretching determined by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in ballet-trained (BT) and untrained (C) subjects. 11 BT women who regularly perform muscle stretching and 11 C women participated in this study. Fascicle lengths, tHb and TOI in the tibialis anterior muscle were measured during passive plantar flexion from ankle joint angles of 120° (baseline) to 140°, 160°, the maximal comfortable position without pain (CP), and the maximal position (MP). At 160°, the % fascicle-length change from baseline was significantly lower in the BT than the C group, however, for the changes in tHb and TOI the significant interaction effect between the 2 groups was not detected. On the other hand, although the increases in the fascicle length from baseline to CP and MP were greater in BT than C, the tHb and TOI reductions were comparable between groups. We concluded that it appears that BT can extend their muscles without excessive reduction in muscle-blood volume and muscle oxygenation at relatively same but absolutely greater muscle-stretching levels than C. The attenuation in these indices during high-level muscle stretching may be associated with the repetitive muscle stretching of long-term ballet training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Home-Based Virtual Reality-Augmented Training Improves Lower Limb Muscle Strength, Balance, and Functional Mobility following Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury.

    Villiger, Michael; Liviero, Jasmin; Awai, Lea; Stoop, Rahel; Pyk, Pawel; Clijsen, Ron; Curt, Armin; Eng, Kynan; Bolliger, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Key factors positively influencing rehabilitation and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) include training variety, intensive movement repetition, and motivating training tasks. Systems supporting these aspects may provide profound gains in rehabilitation, independent of the subject's treatment location. In the present study, we test the hypotheses that virtual reality (VR)-augmented training at home (i.e., unsupervised) is feasible with subjects with an incomplete SCI (iSCI) and that it improves motor functions such as lower limb muscle strength, balance, and functional mobility. In the study, 12 chronic iSCI subjects used a home-based, mobile version of a lower limb VR training system. The system included motivating training scenarios and combined action observation and execution. Virtual representations of the legs and feet were controlled via movement sensors. The subjects performed home-based training over 4 weeks, with 16-20 sessions of 30-45 min each. The outcome measures assessed were the Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), Spinal Cord Independence Measure mobility, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II, and 10 m and 6 min walking tests. Two pre-treatment assessment time points were chosen for outcome stability: 4 weeks before treatment and immediately before treatment. At post-assessment (i.e., immediately after treatment), high motivation and positive changes were reported by the subjects (adapted Patients' Global Impression of Change). Significant improvements were shown in lower limb muscle strength (LEMS, P  = 0.008), balance (BBS, P  = 0.008), and functional mobility (TUG, P  = 0.007). At follow-up assessment (i.e., 2-3 months after treatment), functional mobility (TUG) remained significantly improved ( P  = 0.005) in contrast to the other outcome measures. In summary, unsupervised exercises at home with the VR training system led to beneficial functional

  19. Home-Based Virtual Reality-Augmented Training Improves Lower Limb Muscle Strength, Balance, and Functional Mobility following Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    Michael Villiger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Key factors positively influencing rehabilitation and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI include training variety, intensive movement repetition, and motivating training tasks. Systems supporting these aspects may provide profound gains in rehabilitation, independent of the subject’s treatment location. In the present study, we test the hypotheses that virtual reality (VR-augmented training at home (i.e., unsupervised is feasible with subjects with an incomplete SCI (iSCI and that it improves motor functions such as lower limb muscle strength, balance, and functional mobility. In the study, 12 chronic iSCI subjects used a home-based, mobile version of a lower limb VR training system. The system included motivating training scenarios and combined action observation and execution. Virtual representations of the legs and feet were controlled via movement sensors. The subjects performed home-based training over 4 weeks, with 16–20 sessions of 30–45 min each. The outcome measures assessed were the Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS, Berg Balance Scale (BBS, Timed Up and Go (TUG, Spinal Cord Independence Measure mobility, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II, and 10 m and 6 min walking tests. Two pre-treatment assessment time points were chosen for outcome stability: 4 weeks before treatment and immediately before treatment. At post-assessment (i.e., immediately after treatment, high motivation and positive changes were reported by the subjects (adapted Patients’ Global Impression of Change. Significant improvements were shown in lower limb muscle strength (LEMS, P = 0.008, balance (BBS, P = 0.008, and functional mobility (TUG, P = 0.007. At follow-up assessment (i.e., 2–3 months after treatment, functional mobility (TUG remained significantly improved (P = 0.005 in contrast to the other outcome measures. In summary, unsupervised exercises at home with the VR training system led to beneficial

  20. Maximal power training induced different improvement in throwing velocity and muscle strength according to playing positions in elite male handball players.

    Cherif, M; Chtourou, H; Souissi, N; Aouidet, A; Chamari, K

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of strength and power training on throwing velocity and muscle strength in handball players according to their playing positions. Twenty-two male handball players were assigned to either an experimental group (n=11) or a control group (n=11) (age: 22.1 ± 3.0 years). They were asked to complete (i) the ball throwing velocity test and (ii) the one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests for the half-back squat, the pull-over, the bench press, the developed neck, and the print exercises before and after 12 weeks of maximal power training. The training was designed to improve strength and power with an intensity of 85-95% of the 1RM. In addition to their usual routine handball training sessions, participants performed two sessions per week. During each session, they performed 3-5 sets of 3-8 repetitions with 3 min of rest in between. Then, they performed specific shots (i.e., 12 to 40). Ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001) was higher after the training period in rear line players (RL). The training programme resulted in an improvement of 1RM bench press (p<0.001), 1RM developed neck (p<0.001) and 1RM print (p<0.001) in both front line (FL) and RL. The control group showed a significant improvement only in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.01) and 1RM bench press (p<0.01) in RL. A significantly greater improvement was found in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001), 1RM bench press (p<0.001), and 1RM half-back squat exercises in players of the central axis (CA) compared to the lateral axis (LA) (p<0.01). The power training programme induced significantly greater increases in ball-throwing velocity and muscle strength in FL than RL and in CA than LA axis players.

  1. Restoration of Muscle Mitochondrial Function and Metabolic Flexibility in Type 2 Diabetes by Exercise Training Is Paralleled by Increased Myocellular Fat Storage and Improved Insulin Sensitivity

    Meex, R.C.R.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Schaart, G.; Mensink, M.R.; Phielix, E.; Weijer, van de T.; Sels, J.P.; Schrauwen, P.; Hesselink, M.K.C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation in skeletal muscle (increased intramyocellular lipid [IMCL]) have been linked to development of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether exercise training could restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2

  2. One session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) every 5 days, improves muscle power but not static balance in lifelong sedentary ageing men

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.; Herbert, Peter; Grace, Fergal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants. Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the efficacy of a low-frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) intervention on peak muscle power (peak power output [PPO]), body composition, and balance in lifelong sedentary but otherwise healthy males. Methods: Thirty-three lifelong sedentary ageing men were randomly assigned to either intervention (INT; n = 22, age 62.3 ± 4.1 years) or control (n = 11, age 61.6 ± 5.0 years) who were both assessed at 3 distinct measurement points (phase A), after 6 weeks of conditioning exercise (phase B), and after 6 weeks of HIIT once every 5 days in INT (phase C), where control remained inactive throughout the study. Results: Static balance remained unaffected, and both absolute and relative PPO were not different between groups at phases A or B, but increased significantly in INT after LfHIIT (P balance in sedentary ageing men. PMID:28178145

  3. Postoperative inspiratory muscle training in addition to breathing exercises and early mobilization improves oxygenation in high-risk patients after lung cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Brocki, Barbara Cristina; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Langer, Daniel; Souza, Domingos Savio R; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    The aim was to investigate whether 2 weeks of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) could preserve respiratory muscle strength in high-risk patients referred for pulmonary resection on the suspicion of or confirmed lung cancer. Secondarily, we investigated the effect of the intervention on the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. The study was a single-centre, parallel-group, randomized trial with assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. The intervention group (IG, n = 34) underwent 2 weeks of postoperative IMT twice daily with 2 × 30 breaths on a target intensity of 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure, in addition to standard postoperative physiotherapy. Standard physiotherapy in the control group (CG, n = 34) consisted of breathing exercises, coughing techniques and early mobilization. We measured respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure, MIP/MEP), functional performance (6-min walk test), spirometry and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), assessed the day before surgery and again 3-5 days and 2 weeks postoperatively. Postoperative pulmonary complications were evaluated 2 weeks after surgery. The mean age was 70 ± 8 years and 57.5% were males. Thoracotomy was performed in 48.5% (n = 33) of cases. No effect of the intervention was found regarding MIP, MEP, lung volumes or functional performance at any time point. The overall incidence of pneumonia was 13% (n = 9), with no significant difference between groups [IG 6% (n = 2), CG 21% (n = 7), P = 0.14]. An improved SpO2 was found in the IG on the third and fourth postoperative days (Day 3: IG 93.8 ± 3.4 vs CG 91.9 ± 4.1%, P = 0.058; Day 4: IG 93.5 ± 3.5 vs CG 91 ± 3.9%, P = 0.02). We found no association between surgical procedure (thoracotomy versus thoracoscopy) and respiratory muscle strength, which was recovered in both groups 2 weeks after surgery. Two weeks of additional postoperative IMT, compared with standard physiotherapy alone, did not preserve

  4. Changes in muscle coordination with training.

    Carson, Richard G

    2006-11-01

    Three core concepts, activity-dependent coupling, the composition of muscle synergies, and Hebbian adaptation, are discussed with a view to illustrating the nature of the constraints imposed by the organization of the central nervous system on the changes in muscle coordination induced by training. It is argued that training invoked variations in the efficiency with which motor actions can be generated influence the stability of coordination by altering the potential for activity-dependent coupling between the cortical representations of the focal muscles recruited in a movement task and brain circuits that do not contribute directly to the required behavior. The behaviors that can be generated during training are also constrained by the composition of existing intrinsic muscle synergies. In circumstances in which attempts to produce forceful or high velocity movements would otherwise result in the generation of inappropriate actions, training designed to promote the development of control strategies specific to the desired movement outcome may be necessary to compensate for protogenic muscle recruitment patterns. Hebbian adaptation refers to processes whereby, for neurons that release action potentials at the same time, there is an increased probability that synaptic connections will be formed. Neural connectivity induced by the repetition of specific muscle recruitment patterns during training may, however, inhibit the subsequent acquisition of new skills. Consideration is given to the possibility that, in the presence of the appropriate sensory guidance, it is possible to gate Hebbian plasticity and to promote greater subsequent flexibility in the recruitment of the trained muscles in other task contexts.

  5. Training-induced adaptation of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscles.

    Korzeniewski, Bernard; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2003-08-15

    Muscle training/conditioning improves the adaptation of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscles to physical exercise. However, the mechanisms underlying this adaptation are still not understood fully. By quantitative analysis of the existing experimental results, we show that training-induced acceleration of oxygen-uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise and improvement of ATP/ADP stability due to physical training are mainly caused by an increase in the amount of mitochondrial proteins and by an intensification of the parallel activation of ATP usage and ATP supply (increase in direct stimulation of oxidative phosphorylation complexes accompanying stimulation of ATP consumption) during exercise.

  6. Altitude training improves glycemic control.

    Chen, Shu-Man; Lin, Hsueh-Yi; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-08-31

    Under altitude hypoxia condition, energy reliance on anaerobic glycolysis increases to compensate the shortfall caused by reduced fatty acid oxidation. Short-term moderate altitude exposure plus endurance physical activity has been found to improve glucose tolerance (not fasting glucose) in humans, which is associated with the improvement in the whole-body insulin sensitivity. However, most of people cannot accommodate high altitude exposure above 4500 M due to acute mountain sickness and insulin resistance. There is a wide variation among individuals in response to the altitude challenge. In particular, the improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by prolonged altitude hiking activity was not apparent in those individuals with low baseline dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentration. In rats, exercise training recovery under prolonged hypoxia exposure (14-15% oxygen, 8 h per day for 6 weeks) can also improve insulin sensitivity, secondary to an effective suppression of adiposity. After prolonged hypoxia training, obese abnormality in upregulated baseline levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AS160 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle can be reversed. In humans, moderate hypoxia increases postprandial blood distribution towards skeletal muscle during a training recovery. This physiological response plays a role in the redistribution of fuel storage among important energy storage sites and may explain its potent effect on the favorable change in body composition. Altitude training can exert strong impact on our metabolic system, and has the potential to be designed as a non-pharmacological or recreational intervention regimen for correcting metabolic syndromes.

  7. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and

  8. Activation of respiratory muscles during respiratory muscle training.

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Röcker, Kai; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown which respiratory muscles are mainly activated by respiratory muscle training. This study evaluated Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading (IPTL), Inspiratory Flow Resistive Loading (IFRL) and Voluntary Isocapnic Hyperpnea (VIH) with regard to electromyographic (EMG) activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), parasternal muscles (PARA) and the diaphragm (DIA) in randomized order. Surface EMG were analyzed at the end of each training session and normalized using the peak EMG recorded during maximum inspiratory maneuvers (Sniff nasal pressure: SnPna, maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure: PImax). 41 healthy participants were included. Maximal activation was achieved for SCM by SnPna; the PImax activated predominantly PARA and DIA. Activations of SCM and PARA were higher in IPTL and VIH than for IFRL (p<0.05). DIA was higher applying IPTL compared to IFRL or VIH (p<0.05). IPTL, IFRL and VIH differ in activation of inspiratory respiratory muscles. Whereas all methods mainly stimulate accessory respiratory muscles, diaphragm activation was predominant in IPTL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Usefulness of circuit training at home for improving bone mass and muscle mass while losing fat mass in undergraduate female students.

    Takahata, Yoko

    2018-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not circuit training at home affects the calcaneus quantitative ultrasound status as well as other indices of body composition among undergraduate female students. Forty-one adolescents were recruited (18.5 ± 0.6 years old). The stiffness index of the calcaneus, broadband ultrasound attenuation of the calcaneus, speed of sound of the calcaneus, and body frame index. This was a three-month intervention study, so the measurements were conducted at baseline, 2 months later, and 3 months later while the subjects underwent circuit training at home. The subjects were divided into two groups: namely, the exercising group and non-exercising group. In the exercising group, broadband ultrasound attenuation of the calcaneus was higher 2 months later (p = 0.033) as well as 3 months later (p = 0.036), and the speed of sound of the calcaneus was higher 3 months later (p = 0.018). In addition, the muscle mass was strongly positively correlated with the calcaneus QUS-SOS (p = 0.004), while the body fat percentage was a strongly negatively correlated with the calcaneus QUS-BUA (p = 0.043). In the non-exercising group, the stiffness index of the calcaneus was higher 2 months later (p = 0.002) as well as 3 months later (p = 0.002). Furthermore, the body percentage was strongly positively correlated with the calcaneus QUS-SI (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that the calcaneus quantitative ultrasound status and muscle mass while losing fat mass may be improved by means of a simple exercise regimen within a short period among undergraduate female students.

  10. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises.

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

  11. Muscle Damage Indicators after Land and Aquatic Plyometric Training Programmes

    Vlatka Wertheimer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training is an important part of athletic conditioning with many significant benefits, including improved motor abilities and performance, but it can also increase the serum indices of muscle damage, collagen breakdown, muscle swelling, and soreness. Due to the physical characteristics of water, plyometric training in water presents less eccentric contraction, facilitates faster transition from the eccentric to concentric phase of a jump and offers greater resistance during concentric contraction with acute lower indices of muscle damage. To advance our understanding of the long-term effects of an eight-week plyometric training programme on land and in water on muscle damage indicators (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and serum urea (SU, two experimental groups of physically active men (a group on land (EG1 and a group in water (EG2 were tested before and after the first and the last plyometric training to monitor muscle damage indicators and adaptations. The results showed changes in CK activity after both plyometric trainings for EG1 and only after the first training for EG2. Moreover, after the eight-week programme, significant difference was observed in CK activity in comparison with EG2. There were no observed changes in LDH activity while SU showed greater changes for the group on land. The plyometric training programme in water resulted in smaller levels of muscle damage indicators. Although both experimental groups conducted the same plyometric training with the same jump volume, the eccentric and concentric loads were not the same, so it can be concluded that adaptations in muscle damage processes are faster with smaller eccentric loads.

  12. Old women with a recent fall history show improved muscle strength and function sustained for six months after finishing training

    Beyer, Nina; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Restricted physical activity as a consequence of chronic disease or injury is a predictor of functional decline. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a 6- month multidimensional training program would have sustained beneficial effects upon the physiological, functional and psycho...... and psychological condition of old women with a recent history of falls.......Restricted physical activity as a consequence of chronic disease or injury is a predictor of functional decline. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a 6- month multidimensional training program would have sustained beneficial effects upon the physiological, functional...

  13. Training-specific muscle architecture adaptation after 5-wk training in athletes.

    Blazevich, Anthony J; Gill, Nicholas D; Bronks, Roger; Newton, Robert U

    2003-12-01

    This study examined changes in the muscle size, muscle architecture, strength, and sprint/jump performances of concurrently training athletes during 5 wk of "altered" resistance training (RT). Eight female and 15 male athletes performed 4 wk of sprint, jump, and resistance training in addition to their sports training (standardization) before adopting one of three different programs for 5 wk: 1) squat lift training (SQ, N = 8) with sprint/jump training; 2) forward hack squat training (FHS, N = 7) with sprint/jump training; or 3) sprint/jump training only (SJ, N = 8). Muscle size, fascicle angle, and fascicle length of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles (using ultrasound procedures) as well as 20-m sprint run, vertical jump, and strength performance changes were examined. A small increase in VL fascicle angle in SQ and FHS was statistically different to the decrease in SJ subjects (P < 0.05 at distal, P < 0.1 at proximal). VL fascicle length increased for SJ only (P < 0.05 at distal, P < 0.1 at proximal) and increased in RF in SQ subjects (P < 0.05). Muscle thickness of VL and RF increased in all training groups (P < 0.05) but only at proximal sites. There were no between-group differences in squat, forward hack squat, or isokinetic strength performances, or in sprint or jump performances, despite improvements in some of the tests across the groups. Significant muscle size and architectural adaptations can occur in concurrently training athletes in response to a 5-wk training program. These adaptations were possibly associated with the force and velocity characteristics of the training exercises but not the movement patterns. Factors other than, or in addition to, muscle architecture must mediate changes in strength, sprint, and jump performance.

  14. Training Does Not Alter Muscle Ceramide and Diacylglycerol in Offsprings of Type 2 Diabetic Patients Despite Improved Insulin Sensitivity

    Sogaard, Ditte; Ostergard, Torben; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U.

    2016-01-01

    not change in response to the endurance training except for an overall reduction in C22:0-Cer (). Finally, the intervention induced an increase in AKT protein expression (Off: %; Con: %, ). This study showed no relation between insulin sensitivity and ceramide or DAG content suggesting that ceramide and DAG...

  15. Resistance training, insulin sensitivity and muscle function in the elderly

    Dela, Flemming; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a loss in both muscle mass and in the metabolic quality of skeletal muscle. This leads to sarcopenia and reduced daily function, as well as to an increased risk for development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A major part, but not all, of these changes......, and likewise to improve muscle strength in both elderly healthy individuals and in elderly individuals with chronic disease. The increased strength is coupled to improved function and a decreased risk for fall injuries and fractures. Elderly individuals have preserved the capacity to improve muscle strength...... are associated with an age-related decrease in the physical activity level and can be counteracted by increased physical activity of a resistive nature. Strength training has been shown to improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both healthy elderly individuals and patients with manifest diabetes...

  16. Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 -m.......3 ± 0.3 vs. 18.9 ± 0.3 km/h) after than before the intervention. Thus, improved running economy with intense training may be related to changes in expression of proteins linked to energy consuming processes in primarily ST muscle fibers....

  17. Can pelvic floor muscle training improve quality of life in men with mild to moderate post‑stroke and lower urinary tract symptoms?

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gard, Gunvor; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have a significant impact on quality of life (QoL) in post‑stroke patients. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) on QoL parameters in men with post‑stroke LUTS. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled...

  18. Bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles after 6-week biofeedback training in nulliparous continent women.

    Chmielewska, Daria; Stania, Magdalena; Smykla, Agnieszka; Kwaśna, Krystyna; Błaszczak, Edward; Sobota, Grzegorz; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a 6-week sEMG-biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training program on pelvic floor muscle activity in young continent women. Pelvic floor muscle activity was recorded using a vaginal probe during five experimental trials. Biofeedback training was continued for 6 weeks, 3 times a week. Muscle strenghtening and endurance exercises were performed alternately. SEMG (surface electromyography) measurements were recorded on four different occasions: before training started, after the third week of training, after the sixth week of training, and one month after training ended. A 6-week sEMG-biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training program significantly decreased the resting activity of the pelvic floor muscles in supine lying and standing. The ability to relax the pelvic floor muscles after a sustained 60-second contraction improved significantly after the 6-week training in both positions. SEMG-biofeedback training program did not seem to affect the activity of the pelvic floor muscles or muscle fatigue during voluntary pelvic floor muscle contractions. SEMG-biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training might be recommended for physiotherapists to improve the effectiveness of their relaxation techniques.

  19. Exercise and nutritional interventions for improving aging muscle health.

    Forbes, Scott C; Little, Jonathan P; Candow, Darren G

    2012-08-01

    Skeletal muscle mass declines with age (i.e., sarcopenia) resulting in muscle weakness and functional limitations. Sarcopenia has been associated with physiological changes in muscle morphology, protein and hormonal kinetics, insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress. The purpose of this review is to highlight how exercise and nutritional intervention strategies may benefit aging muscle. It is well known that resistance exercise training increases muscle strength and size and evidence also suggests that resistance training can increase mitochondrial content and decrease oxidative stress in older adults. Recent findings suggest that fast-velocity resistance exercise may be an effective intervention for older adults to enhance muscle power and functional capacity. Aerobic exercise training may also benefit aging skeletal muscle by enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics, improving insulin sensitivity, and/or decreasing oxidative stress. In addition to exercise, creatine monohydrate, milk-based proteins, and essential fatty acids all have biological effects which could enhance some of the physiological adaptations from exercise training in older adults. Additional research is needed to determine whether skeletal muscle adaptations to increased activity in older adults are further enhanced with effective nutritional interventions and whether this is due to enhanced muscle protein synthesis, improved mitochondrial function, and/or a reduced inflammatory response.

  20. Training induced adaptation in horse skeletal muscle

    Dam, K.G. van

    2006-01-01

    It appears that the physiological and biochemical adaptation of skeletal muscle to training in equine species shows a lot of similarities with human and rodent physiological adaptation. On the other hand it is becoming increasingly clear that intra-cellular mechanisms of adaptation (substrate

  1. Creatine in combination with resistance training and improvement in muscle strength: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to creatine in combination with resistance training and improvement in muscle strength. The Panel considers that the food constituent, creatine, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that improvement...... substantiation of the claim. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that, overall, the human intervention studies submitted provide evidence for an effect of creatine, consumed at doses of at least 3 g/day in combination with regular resistance training (three times per week for several weeks......) of moderate intensity, on muscle strength in adults over the age of 55, while no such effect was observed when similar doses of creatine on a weekly basis were given on training days only (three times per week). The Panel also took into account the plausible mechanism by which daily consumption of creatine...

  2. Effects of Combined Training with Breathing Resistance and Sustained Physical Exertion to Improve Endurance Capacity and Respiratory Muscle Function in Healthy Young Adults

    Kido, Satoshi; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Miyasaka, Tomoya; Maeda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yu, Wenwei; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Takayanagi, Kiyomi

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, combined training with breathing resistance and sustained physical exertion was carried out to evaluate its physiological effects and its effect on improve endurance capacity. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were nine healthy adults (mean age 20.4, SD ? 1.7?years). The combined training group (n = 5) carried out 6 weeks of combined training using a cycle ergometer, with exercise load tests and respiratory function tests performed before and after the training. The...

  3. Respiratory muscle weakness and respiratory muscle training in severely disabled multiple sclerosis patients.

    Gosselink, R; Kovacs, L; Ketelaer, P; Carton, H; Decramer, M

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate the contribution of respiratory muscle weakness (part 1) and respiratory muscle training (part 2) to pulmonary function, cough efficacy, and functional status in patients with advanced multiple sclerosis (MS). Survey (part 1) and randomized controlled trial (part 2). Rehabilitation center for MS. Twenty-eight bedridden or wheelchair-bound MS patients (part 1); 18 patients were randomly assigned to a training group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 9) (part 2). The training group (part 2) performed three series of 15 contractions against an expiratory resistance (60% maximum expiratory pressure [PEmax]) two times a day, whereas the control group performed breathing exercises to enhance maximal inspirations. Forced vital capacity (FVC), inspiratory, and expiratory muscle strength (PImax and PEmax), neck flexion force (NFF), cough efficacy by means of the Pulmonary Index (PI), and functional status by means of the Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Part 1 revealed a significantly reduced FVC (43% +/- 26% predicted), PEmax (18% +/- 8% predicted), and PImax (27% +/- 11% predicted), whereas NFF was only mildly reduced (93% +/- 26% predicted). The PI (median score, 10) and EDSS (median score, 8.5) were severely reduced. PEmax was significantly correlated to FVC, EDSS, and PI (r = .77, -.79, and -.47, respectively). In stepwise multiple regression analysis. PEmax was the only factor contributing to the explained variance in FVC (R2 = .60), whereas body weight (R2 = .41) was the only factor for the PI. In part 2, changes in PImax and PEmax tended to be higher in the training group (p = .06 and p = .07, respectively). The PI was significantly improved after 3 months of training compared with the control group (p functional status. Expiratory muscle training tended to enhance inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength. In addition, subjectively and objectively rated cough efficacy improved significantly and lasted for 3 months after training cessation.

  4. Respiratory Muscle Training and Exercise Endurance at Altitude.

    Helfer, Samuel; Quackenbush, Joseph; Fletcher, Michael; Pendergast, David R

    2016-08-01

    Climbing and trekking at altitude are common recreational and military activities. Physiological effects of altitude are hypoxia and hyperventilation. The hyperventilatory response to altitude may cause respiratory muscle fatigue and reduce sustained submaximal exercise. Voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea respiratory muscle training (VIHT) improves exercise endurance at sea level and at depth. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that VIHT would improve exercise time at altitude [3600 m (11,811 ft)] compared to control and placebo groups. Subjects pedaled an ergometer until exhaustion at simulated altitude in a hypobaric chamber while noninvasive arterial saturation (Sao2), ventilation (VE), and oxygen consumption (Vo2) were measured. As expected, Sao2 decreased to 88 ± 4% saturation at rest and to 81 ± 2% during exercise, and was not affected by VIHT. VIHT resulted in a 40% increase in maximal training VE compared to pre-VIHT. Exercise endurance significantly increased 44% after VIHT (P = altitude post-VIHT increased more (49%) for longer (21 min) and decreased less (11% at 25.4 ± 6.7 min). VIHT improved exercise time at altitude and sustained VE. This suggests that VIHT reduced respiratory muscle fatigue and would be useful to trekkers and military personnel working at altitude. Helfer S, Quackenbush J, Fletcher M, Pendergast DR. Respiratory muscle training and exercise endurance at altitutde. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(8):704-711.

  5. Inspiratory muscle training in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A systematic review.

    Eidenberger, Margit; Nowotny, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease with rapid involvement of the inspiratory muscles, leading to respiratory insufficiency. Death often occurs by aspiration and pneumonia. Endurance- and strength therapy within ALS are discussed controversially. To review the current literature to assess the efficacy of inspiratory muscle training for ALS. Systematic review, using databases as PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane and Google Scholar. Inspiratory muscle training vs. sham training or inspiratory muscle training alone. Inspiratory muscle strength, dyspnoea, quality of life and survival time. Four studies could be included in this review, two RCT's, one pre-experimental study and one with a historical control group. In total 73 patients underwent inspiratory muscle training. Studies varied in onset of the training, the training protocol and the outcomes measured. At time, there is limited evidence that inspiratory muscle training leads to strengthening of inspiratory muscles in ALS. Improvements made were minor, in only a few parameters and also in control groups. Survival time was significantly longer in the experimental group in one study. Interesting suppositions (diaphragm training vs. other IM training, improvement of chest wall and lung compliance) need to be examined in robustly designed future trials, defining exact therapeutic windows and interventions.

  6. Effects of concurrent training on oxidative capacity in rat gastrocnemius muscle

    Furrer, R.; Bravenboer, N.; Kos, D.; Lips, P.; de Haan, A.; Jaspers, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Training for improvement of oxidative capacity of muscle fibers may be attenuated when concurrently training for peak power. However, because of fiber type-specific recruitment, such attenuation may only account for high-oxidative muscle fibers. Here, we investigate the effects of

  7. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy and strength gain: strategies and mechanisms.

    Ozaki, Hayao; Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Abe, T

    2015-03-01

    Cycle training is widely performed as a major part of any exercise program seeking to improve aerobic capacity and cardiovascular health. However, the effect of cycle training on muscle size and strength gain still requires further insight, even though it is known that professional cyclists display larger muscle size compared to controls. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of cycle training on muscle size and strength of the lower extremity and the possible mechanisms for increasing muscle size with cycle training. It is plausible that cycle training requires a longer period to significantly increase muscle size compared to typical resistance training due to a much slower hypertrophy rate. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy similarly between young and older age groups, while strength gain seems to favor older adults, which suggests that the probability for improving in muscle quality appears to be higher in older adults compared to young adults. For young adults, higher-intensity intermittent cycling may be required to achieve strength gains. It also appears that muscle hypertrophy induced by cycle training results from the positive changes in muscle protein net balance.

  8. Effect of endurance versus resistance training on quadriceps muscle dysfunction in COPD

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Munch, Gregers Druedal Wibe; Rugbjerg, Mette

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exercise is an important countermeasure to limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. The two major training modalities in COPD rehabilitation, endurance training (ET) and resistance training (RT), may both be efficient in improving muscle strength, exercise capacity, and health-related quality...... and after the training intervention to assess muscle morphology and metabolic and angiogenic factors. Symptom burden, exercise capacity (6-minute walking and cycle ergometer tests), and vascular function were also assessed. RESULTS: Both training modalities improved symptom burden and exercise capacity...... with no difference between the two groups. The mean (SD) proportion of glycolytic type IIa muscle fibers was reduced after ET (from 48% [SD 11] to 42% [SD 10], Ptraining modality on muscle...

  9. Effect of sprint cycle training on activities of antioxidant enzymes in human skeletal muscle

    Hellsten, Ylva; Apple, F. S.; Sjödin, B.

    1996-01-01

    (P anaerobic capacity in the trained muscle. The present study demonstrates that intermittent sprint cycle training that induces an enhanced capacity for anaerobic energy generation also improves......The effect of intermittent sprint cycle training on the level of muscle antioxidant enzyme protection was investigated. Resting muscle biopsies, obtained before and after 6 wk of training and 3, 24, and 72 h after the final session of an additional 1 wk of more frequent training, were analyzed...... for activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Activities of several muscle metabolic enzymes were determined to assess the effectiveness of the training. After the first 6-wk training period, no change in GPX, GR, or SOD...

  10. Traditional versus functional strength training: Effects on muscle strength and power in the elderly

    Seiler, Hilde Lohne; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Anderssen, Sigmund A.

    2013-01-01

    Published versiom of an article in the journal:Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Also available from Human Kinetics: http://http://journals.humankinetics.com/japa-back-issues/japa-volume-21-issue-1-january/traditional-versus-functional-strength-training-effects-on-muscle-strength-and-power-in-the-elderly The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderl...

  11. Skeletal muscle architectural adaptations to marathon run training.

    Murach, Kevin; Greever, Cory; Luden, Nicholas D

    2015-01-01

    We assessed lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and vastus lateralis (VL) architecture in 16 recreational runners before and after 12 weeks of marathon training. LG fascicle length decreased 10% while pennation angle increased 17% (p training can modify skeletal muscle architectural features.

  12. The effect of the inspiratory muscle training on functional ability in stroke patients.

    Jung, Nam-Jin; Na, Sang-Su; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Hwangbo, Gak

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] This study was to find out an inspiratory muscle training (IMT) program therapeutic effects on stroke patients' functional ability. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty stroke patients were assigned to one of two groups: inspiratory muscle training (n=10), and control (n=10), randomization. The inspiratory muscle training participants undertook an exercise program for 30 minute per times, 5 times a week for 6 weeks. The investigator measured the patients' trunk impairment scale (TIS) and 6 minute walking test (6MW) for functional ability before and after IMT. [Results] The TIS appeared some significant differences in both groups before and after the training. The 6MW test showed some significant differences in the inspiratory muscle training group, but didn't show any significant difference in the control group. And the differences in both groups after depending the inspiratory muscle training were significantly found in the tests of TIS and 6MW test [Conclusion] The results showed that the inspiratory muscle training in stroke patients are correlated with the trunk stability and locomotion ability, suggesting that physical therapist must take into consideration the inspiratory muscle training, as well as functional training to improve physical function in stroke patients.

  13. Enhancement of Skeletal Muscle in Aged Rats Following High-Intensity Stretch-Shortening Contraction Training.

    Rader, Erik P; Naimo, Marshall A; Layner, Kayla N; Triscuit, Alyssa M; Chetlin, Robert D; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2017-04-01

    Exercise is the most accessible, efficacious, and multifactorial intervention to improve health and treat chronic disease. High-intensity resistance exercise, in particular, also maximizes skeletal muscle size and strength-outcomes crucial at advanced age. However, such training is capable of inducing muscle maladaptation when misapplied at old age. Therefore, characterization of parameters (e.g., mode and frequency) that foster adaptation is an active research area. To address this issue, we utilized a rodent model that allowed training at maximal intensity in terms of muscle activation and tested the hypothesis that muscles of old rats adapt to stretch-shortening contraction (SSC) training, provided the training frequency is sufficiently low. At termination of training, normalized muscle mass (i.e., muscle mass divided by tibia length) and muscle quality (isometric force divided by normalized muscle mass) were determined. For young rats, normalized muscle mass increased by ∼20% regardless of training frequency. No difference was observed for muscle quality values after 2 days versus 3 days per week training (0.65 ± 0.09 N/mg/mm vs. 0.59 ± 0.05 N/mg/mm, respectively). For old rats following 3 days per week training, normalized muscle mass was unaltered and muscle quality was 30% lower than young levels. Following 2 days per week training at old age, normalized muscle mass increased by 17% and muscle quality was restored to young levels. To investigate this enhanced response, oxidative stress was assessed by lipid peroxidation quantification. For young rats, lipid peroxidation levels were unaltered by training. With aging, baseline levels of lipid peroxidation increased by 1.5-fold. For old rats, only 2 days per week training decreased lipid peroxidation to levels indistinguishable from young values. These results imply that, appropriately scheduled high-intensity SSC training at old age is capable of restoring muscle to a younger phenotype in terms

  14. Does respiratory muscle training increase physical performance?

    Sperlich, Billy; Fricke, Hannes; de Marées, Markus; Linville, John W; Mester, Joachim

    2009-09-01

    Special force units and military personnel undergo demanding physical exercise and might benefit from high-intensity respiratory muscle training (RMT) by increasing their endurance performance. This study examined the effects of a 6-week high-intensity RMT on running performance and oxygen uptake (VO2max) in a group of German Special Force Squad members. 17 participants were randomly assigned to a training or control group. Baseline and post-testing included a ramp test, as well as an incremental test on a treadmill, performed to physical exhaustion. VO2, respiratory exchange ratio, and heart rate were measured breath by breath. Furthermore, maximum running speed (V(max)), 4 mmol x 1(-1) lactate threshold (V4) and perception of respiratory effort were determined. During pulmonary testing, sustained maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure (PI(max) and PE(max)) were obtained. RMT was performed daily at approximately 90% PI(max) for 6 weeks with 2 x 30 breath cycles using an Ultrabreathe lung trainer. No statistical differences were detected between the groups for any parameter after RMT. High-intensity RMT did not show any benefits on VO2max and endurance performance and are unlikely to be of benefit to military or paramilitary training programs for an increase in endurance performance.

  15. Effects of plyometric and isometric training on muscle and tendon stiffness in vivo.

    Kubo, Keitaro; Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Ikebukuro, Toshihiro

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric and isometric training on tendon properties during ramp and ballistic contractions and muscle stiffness under passive and active conditions. Eleven subjects completed 12 weeks (3 days/week) of a unilateral training program for the plantar flexors. They performed plyometric training on one side (PLY) and isometric training on the other side (ISO). Active muscle stiffness in the medial gastrocnemius muscle was calculated according to changes in estimated muscle force and fascicle length during fast stretching after submaximal isometric contractions. Passive muscle stiffness was also calculated from estimated passive muscle force and fascicle length during slow passive stretching. Stiffness and hysteresis of tendon structures were measured using ultrasonography during ramp and ballistic contractions. Passive muscle stiffness and tendon hysteresis did not change for PLY or ISO Active muscle stiffness significantly increased for PLY, but not for ISO Tendon stiffness during ramp and ballistic contractions increased significantly for ISO, but not for PLY In addition, tendon elongation values at force production levels beyond 100 N during ballistic contractions increased for PLY These results suggest that plyometric training (but not isometric training) enhances the extensibility of tendon structures during ballistic contractions and active muscle stiffness during fast stretching, and these changes may be related to improved performances during stretch-shortening cycle exercises. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  16. Effects of training and weight support on muscle activation in Parkinson's disease.

    Rose, Martin H; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jensen, Bente R

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity locomotor training on knee extensor and flexor muscle activation and adaptability to increased body-weight (BW) support during walking in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirteen male patients with idiopathic PD and eight healthy participants were included. The PD patients completed an 8-week training program on a lower-body, positive-pressure treadmill. Knee extensor and flexor muscles activation during steady treadmill walking (3 km/h) were measured before, at the mid-point, and after training. Increasing BW support decreased knee extensor muscle activation (normalization) and increased knee flexor muscle activation (abnormal) in PD patients when compared to healthy participants. Training improved flexor peak muscle activation adaptability to increased (BW) support during walking in PD patients. During walking without BW support shorter knee extensor muscle off-activation time and increased relative peak muscle activation was observed in PD patients and did not improve with 8 weeks of training. In conclusion, patients with PD walked with excessive activation of the knee extensor and flexor muscles when compared to healthy participants. Specialized locomotor training may facilitate adaptive processes related to motor control of walking in PD patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Can training improve human performance

    Waylett, W.J. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear industry has made a significant commitment to improve training through the implementation of performance-based training programs. Senior management expects that human performance improvement will result from this significant resource allocation. The author examines this hypothesis and discusses other issues that may interfere with enhancing human performance through training. The integration of quality improvement concepts to support training is also discussed by the author, who was a pioneer facilitator during the development of Florida Power and Light Company's Quality Improvement Program. Critical success factors are proposed based on the author's experience as a plant manager, training manager and quality facilitator

  18. The expression of HSP in human skeletal muscle. Effects of muscle fiber phenotype and training background

    Folkesson, Mattias; Mackey, Abigail L; Langberg, Henning

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Exercise-induced adaptations of skeletal muscle are related to training mode and can be muscle fibre type specific. This study aimed to investigate heat shock protein expression in type I and type II muscle fibres in resting skeletal muscle of subjects with different training backgrounds...... myosin heavy chain I and IIA, αB-crystallin, HSP27, HSP60 and HSP70. RESULTS: In ACT and RES, but not in END, a fibre type specific expression with higher staining intensity in type I than type II fibres was seen for αB-crystallin. The opposite (II>I) was found for HSP27 in subjects from ACT (6 of 12...... HSPs in human skeletal muscle is influenced by muscle fibre phenotype. The fibre type specific expression of HSP70 is influenced by resistance and endurance training whereas those of αB-crystallin and HSP27 are influenced only by endurance training suggesting the existence of a training...

  19. Effects of training and weight support on muscle activation in Parkinson's disease

    Rose, Martin Høyer; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity locomotor training on knee extensor and flexor muscle activation and adaptability to increased body-weight (BW) support during walking in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirteen male patients with idiopathic PD and eight...... healthy participants were included. The PD patients completed an 8-week training program on a lower-body, positive-pressure treadmill. Knee extensor and flexor muscles activation during steady treadmill walking (3km/h) were measured before, at the mid-point, and after training. Increasing BW support...... decreased knee extensor muscle activation (normalization) and increased knee flexor muscle activation (abnormal) in PD patients when compared to healthy participants. Training improved flexor peak muscle activation adaptability to increased (BW) support during walking in PD patients. During walking without...

  20. Endurance training facilitates myoglobin desaturation during muscle contraction in rat skeletal muscle.

    Takakura, Hisashi; Furuichi, Yasuro; Yamada, Tatsuya; Jue, Thomas; Ojino, Minoru; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Iwase, Satoshi; Hojo, Tatsuya; Izawa, Tetsuya; Masuda, Kazumi

    2015-03-24

    At onset of muscle contraction, myoglobin (Mb) immediately releases its bound O2 to the mitochondria. Accordingly, intracellular O2 tension (PmbO2) markedly declines in order to increase muscle O2 uptake (mVO2). However, whether the change in PmbO2 during muscle contraction modulates mVO2 and whether the O2 release rate from Mb increases in endurance-trained muscles remain unclear. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of endurance training on O2 saturation of Mb (SmbO2) and PmbO2 kinetics during muscle contraction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a 4-week swimming training (Tr group; 6 days per week, 30 min × 4 sets per day) with a weight load of 2% body mass. After the training period, deoxygenated Mb kinetics during muscle contraction were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy under hemoglobin-free medium perfusion. In the Tr group, the VmO2peak significantly increased by 32%. Although the PmbO2 during muscle contraction did not affect the increased mVO2 in endurance-trained muscle, the O2 release rate from Mb increased because of the increased Mb concentration and faster decremental rate in SmbO2 at the maximal twitch tension. These results suggest that the Mb dynamics during muscle contraction are contributing factors to faster VO2 kinetics in endurance-trained muscle.

  1. Video game-based neuromuscular electrical stimulation system for calf muscle training: a case study.

    Sayenko, D G; Masani, K; Milosevic, M; Robinson, M F; Vette, A H; McConville, K M V; Popovic, M R

    2011-03-01

    A video game-based training system was designed to integrate neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and visual feedback as a means to improve strength and endurance of the lower leg muscles, and to increase the range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joints. The system allowed the participants to perform isotonic concentric and isometric contractions in both the plantarflexors and dorsiflexors using NMES. In the proposed system, the contractions were performed against exterior resistance, and the angle of the ankle joints was used as the control input to the video game. To test the practicality of the proposed system, an individual with chronic complete spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the study. The system provided a progressive overload for the trained muscles, which is a prerequisite for successful muscle training. The participant indicated that he enjoyed the video game-based training and that he would like to continue the treatment. The results show that the training resulted in a significant improvement of the strength and endurance of the paralyzed lower leg muscles, and in an increased ROM of the ankle joints. Video game-based training programs might be effective in motivating participants to train more frequently and adhere to otherwise tedious training protocols. It is expected that such training will not only improve the properties of their muscles but also decrease the severity and frequency of secondary complications that result from SCI. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  2. Why Process Improvement Training Fails

    Lu, Dawei; Betts, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the underlying reasons why providing process improvement training, by itself, may not be sufficient to achieve the desired outcome of improved processes; and to attempt a conceptual framework of management training for more effective improvement. Design/methodology/approach: Two similar units within…

  3. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, Henning; Hodges, P W

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function...... and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals....

  4. Training-induced changes in muscle CSA,muscle strength, EMG and rate of force development in elderly subjects after long-term unilateral disuse

    Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per; Rosted, Anne

    2004-01-01

    , maximal isometric strength, RFD, and muscle activation in elderly men and women recovering from long-term muscle disuse and subsequent hip surgery. The improvement in both muscle mass and neural function is likely to have important functional implications for elderly individuals........ Thirty subjects completed the trial. In the strength-training group, significant increases were observed in maximal isometric muscle strength (24%, P impulse (27-32%, P

  5. A mixed exercise training programme is feasible and safe and may improve quality of life and muscle strength in multiple myeloma survivors

    Groeneveldt, Lara; Mein, Gill; Garrod, Rachel; Jewell, Andrew P; Someren, Ken Van; Stephens, Richard; D’Sa, Shirley P; Yong, Kwee L

    2013-01-01

    Exercise programmes are beneficial for cancer patients however evidence is limited in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), a cancer that is characterised by osteolytic bone disease, giving rise to high levels of bone morbidity including fractures and bone pain. We conducted a single arm phase 2 study of an exercise programme (EP) as rehabilitation for treated MM patients, to evaluate feasibility, effects on QOL and physiological parameters. Patients were given individualised programmes, comprising stretching, aerobic and resistance exercises, carried out under supervision for 3 months then at home for a further 3 months. Study uptake was high, 60 of 75 (80%) patients approached consented to the study. Screen failures (11, due to fracture risk and disease relapse) and patient withdrawals (12) resulted in a final 37 patients enrolling on the programme. These 37 patients demonstrated high attendance rates in the supervised classes (87%), and high levels of adherence in home exercising (73%). Patients reported better QOL following the EP, with improvement in FACT-G and Fatigue scores over time from baseline (p<0.01 for both, one-way repeated measures ANOVA) to 6 months. Upper and lower limb strength also improved on the EP, from baseline to 6 months (p<0.01 for both). There were no adverse reactions. An EP in MM patients is feasible and safe, with high attendance and adherence. Benefits in QOL, fatigue and muscle strength await confirmation in randomized studies, prompting urgent evaluation of the benefits of EP in the rehabilitation of MM patients

  6. Khmelnitsky NPP personnel training system improvement

    Sapronov, V.G.; Issupov, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant personnel training system improvement is described, including creation of Training center, development of training courses based on SAT methodology, development of training hardware

  7. Limb skeletal muscle adaptation in athletes after training at altitude

    Mizuno, M; Juel, C; Bro-Rasmussen, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Morphological and biochemical characteristics of biopsies obtained from gastrocnemius (GAS) and triceps brachii muscle (TRI), as well as maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) and O2 deficit, were determined in 10 well-trained cross-country skiers before and after a 2-wk stay (2,100 m above sea level......) and training (2,700 m above sea level) at altitude. On return to sea level, VO2 max was the same as the prealtitude value, whereas an increase in O2 deficit (29%) and in short-term running performance (17%) was observed (P less than 0.05). GAS showed maintained capillary supply but a 10% decrease...... increase in buffer capacity of GAS and short-term running time (P less than 0.05). Thus the present study indicates no effect of 2 wk of altitude training on VO2 max but provides evidence to suggest an improvement in short-term exercise performance, which may be the result of an increase in muscle buffer...

  8. Importance of mind-muscle connection during progressive resistance training

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus Due

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluates whether focusing on using specific muscles during bench press can selectively activate these muscles. METHODS: Altogether 18 resistance-trained men participated. Subjects were familiarized with the procedure and performed one-maximum repetition (1RM) test during...... electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded for the triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscles. Subsequently, peak EMG of the filtered signals were normalized to maximum maximorum EMG of each muscle. RESULTS: In both muscles, focusing on using the respective muscles increased muscle activity at relative loads...... between 20 and 60 %, but not at 80 % of 1RM. Overall, a threshold between 60 and 80 % rather than a linear decrease in selective activation with increasing intensity appeared to exist. The increased activity did not occur at the expense of decreased activity of the other muscle, e.g. when focusing...

  9. A mixed exercise training programme is feasible and safe and may improve quality of life and muscle strength in multiple myeloma survivors

    Groeneveldt Lara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise programmes are beneficial for cancer patients however evidence is limited in patients with multiple myeloma (MM, a cancer that is characterised by osteolytic bone disease, giving rise to high levels of bone morbidity including fractures and bone pain. Methods We conducted a single arm phase 2 study of an exercise programme (EP as rehabilitation for treated MM patients, to evaluate feasibility, effects on QOL and physiological parameters. Patients were given individualised programmes, comprising stretching, aerobic and resistance exercises, carried out under supervision for 3 months then at home for a further 3 months. Results Study uptake was high, 60 of 75 (80% patients approached consented to the study. Screen failures (11, due to fracture risk and disease relapse and patient withdrawals (12 resulted in a final 37 patients enrolling on the programme. These 37 patients demonstrated high attendance rates in the supervised classes (87%, and high levels of adherence in home exercising (73%. Patients reported better QOL following the EP, with improvement in FACT-G and Fatigue scores over time from baseline (p Conclusions An EP in MM patients is feasible and safe, with high attendance and adherence. Benefits in QOL, fatigue and muscle strength await confirmation in randomized studies, prompting urgent evaluation of the benefits of EP in the rehabilitation of MM patients.

  10. Effects of high-intensity physical training on muscle fiber characteristics in poststroke patients

    Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Jørgensen, Jørgen R.; Zeeman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. High-intensity physical training can improve muscle strength and gait speed, but adaptive mechanisms at the muscle cellular level are largely unknown. METHODS: Outpatients with poststroke hemiparesis participated in a 3-month...... rehabilitation program combining high-intensity strength and body-weight supported treadmill-training. Biopsies sampled bilaterally from vastus lateralis muscles, before, after, and at 1-year follow-up after intervention, were analyzed for fiber size, type, and capillarization. RESULTS: At baseline, paretic...... lower limbs had smaller muscle fiber size and lower type I and IIA and higher type IIX percentages than nonparetic lower limbs. Paretic lower limbs had increased type IIA fibers after training. At follow-up, no difference between the lower limbs remained. CONCLUSIONS: Although high-intensity training...

  11. Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners.

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter M; Almquist, Nicki W; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 -max): 56.4 ± 4.6 mL/min/kg) completed a 40-day intervention with 10 sessions of speed endurance training (5-10 × 30-sec maximal running) and a reduced (36%) volume of training. Before and after the intervention, a muscle biopsy was obtained at rest, and an incremental running test to exhaustion was performed. In addition, running at 60% vVO 2 -max, and a 10-km run was performed in a normal and a muscle slow twitch (ST) glycogen-depleted condition. After compared to before the intervention, expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) was lower (P economy at 60% vVO 2 -max (11.6 ± 0.2 km/h) and at v10-km (13.7 ± 0.3 km/h) was ~2% better (P economy with intense training may be related to changes in expression of proteins linked to energy consuming processes in primarily ST muscle fibers. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  12. Improvement for BWR operator training

    Kurisu, Takanori; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Harada, Mitsuhiro; Takahashi, Iwao.

    1988-01-01

    BWR Operator Training Center was founded in April, 1971, and in April, 1974, training was begun, since then, 13 years elapsed. During this period, the curriculum and training facilities were strengthened to meet the training needs, and the new training techniques from different viewpoint were developed, thus the improvement of training has been done. In this report, a number of the training techniques which have been developed and adopted recently, and are effective for the improvement of the knowledge and skill of operators are described. Recently Japanese nuclear power stations have been operated at stable high capacity factor, accordingly the chance of experiencing the occurrence of abnormality and the usual start and stop of plants decreased, and the training of operators using simulators becomes more important. The basic concept on training is explained. In the standard training course and the short period fundamental course, the development of the guide for reviewing lessons, the utilization of VTRs and the development of the techniques for diagnosing individual degree of learning were carried out. The problems, the points of improvement and the results of these are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. Inspiratory muscle training in patients with cystic fibrosis

    de Jong, W.; van Aalderen, W.M.C.; Kraan, J.; Koeter, G.H.; van der Schans, C.P.

    Little information is available about the effects of inspiratory muscle training in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study the effects of inspiratory-threshold loading in patients with CF on strength and endurance of the inspiratory muscles, pulmonary function, exercise capacity, dyspnoea

  14. Effect of a step-training program on muscle strength in older women

    Daniela Coelho Zazá

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Step-training is associated with strength improvement of the lower limbs. Muscle strength is a critical component for the maintenance of functional capacity. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of 6 weeks of step-training on work and power of the lower limbs in older women. Thirteen healthy and active women volunteered to participate in the study. All subjects underwent step-training classes three times per week for 60 min. Strength variables of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured with a Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle work and power were assessed at an angular velocity of 60 and 180°/s. A significant difference (p<0.05 in knee flexor muscle work was observed between pre- and post-test at 60 and 180°/s. There was a significant difference (p<0.05 in knee extensor muscle work between pre- and post-test at 60°/s. Significant differences were observed between pre- and post-test values of knee flexor muscle power at 60°/s (p<0.05 and knee extensor muscle power at 60 and 180°/s (p<0.05. In conclusion, step-training can be recommended as an alternative physical activity to increase strength performance (work and power of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in older subjects.

  15. Improvement for BWR operator training

    Tsuchiya, Toshio; Masuda, Hisao; Isono, Tomoyuki; Noji, Kunio; Togo, Toshiki

    1989-01-01

    BWR Operator Training Center Corporation (BTC) was established in April 1971 for the purpose of training the operators from all BWR utilities in Japan. Since April 1974, more than 2600 operators and 1000 shift teams have been trained with the full-scope simulators in BTC up to the end of March 1988. To get the satisfactory results of the training, BTC has been making every effort to improve the facilities, the training materials, the instruction methods and the curricula. In this paper, such a series of recent improvements in the instruction methods and the curricula are presented that are effective to expand the knowledge and to improve the skills of middle or senior class operators. (author)

  16. The effect of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of protein on muscle fiber size and muscle strength

    Andersen, L.L.; Tufekovic, G.; Zebis, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of isoenergetic protein vs carbohydrate supplementation on muscle fiber hypertrophy and mechanical muscle performance. Supplementation was administered before and immediately after each training bout and, in addition, in the morning on nontraining days...

  17. Muscle coordination in healthy subjects during floor walking and stair climbing in robot assisted gait training.

    Hussein, S; Schmidt, H; Volkmar, M; Werner, C; Helmich, I; Piorko, F; Krüger, J; Hesse, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of gait rehabilitation is a restoration of an independent gait and improvement of daily life walking functions. Therefore the specific patterns, that are to be relearned, must be practiced to stimulate the learning process of the central nervous system (CNS). The Walking Simulator HapticWalker allows for the training of arbitrary gait trajectories of daily life. To evaluate the quality of the training a total of 9 subjects were investigated during free floor walking and stair climbing and during the same tasks in two different training modes on the HapticWalker: 1) with and 2) without vertical center of mass (CoM) motion. Electromyograms (EMG) of 8 gait relevant muscles were measured and muscle activation was compared for the various training modes. Besides the muscle activation as an indicator for the quality of rehabilitation training the study investigates if a cancellation of the vertical CoM movement by adaption of the footplate trajectory is feasible i.e. the muscle activation patterns for the two training modes on the HapticWalker agree. Results show no significant differences in activation timing between the training modes. This indicates the feasibility of using a passive patient suspension and emulate the vertical CoM motion by trajectory adaption of the footplates. The muscle activation timing during HapticWalker training shows important characteristics observed in physiological free walking though a few differences can still remain.

  18. Endurance training increases the efficiency of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Koziel, Agnieszka; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Celichowski, Jan; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-10-01

    Endurance training enhances mitochondrial oxidative capacity, but its effect on mitochondria functioning is poorly understood. In the present study, the influence of an 8-week endurance training on the bioenergetic functioning of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria under different assay temperatures (25, 35, and 42 °C) was investigated. The study was performed on 24 adult 4-month-old male Wistar rats, which were randomly assigned to either a treadmill training group (n = 12) or a sedentary control group (n = 12). In skeletal muscles, endurance training stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity. In isolated mitochondria, endurance training increased the phosphorylation rate and elevated levels of coenzyme Q. Moreover, a decrease in mitochondrial uncoupling, including uncoupling protein-mediated proton leak, was observed after training, which could explain the increased reactive oxygen species production (in nonphosphorylating mitochondria) and enhanced oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. At all studied temperatures, endurance training significantly augmented H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in nonphosphorylating mitochondria and decreased H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in phosphorylating mitochondria. Endurance training magnified the hyperthermia-induced increase in oxidative capacity and attenuated the hyperthermia-induced decline in oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and reactive oxygen species formation of nonphosphorylating mitochondria via proton leak enhancement. Thus, endurance training induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in muscle mitochondria that are important for cell signaling as well as for maintaining muscle energy homeostasis, especially at high temperatures.

  19. Inspiratory Muscle Training and Arterial Blood Oxygen Saturation in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Bakhshandeh Bavarsad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the problems of the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the weakness of the respiratory muscles that causes oxygen desaturation at rest and activity and decreases exercise tolerance. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of inspiratory muscle training on arterial oxygen saturation (SPO2. Patients and Methods Forty patients with mild to very severe COPD were recruited for this study, which is a randomized control trail. The patients were randomized to IMT (inspiratory muscle training and control group. Training was performed with Respivol (a kind of inspiratory muscle trainer for 8 weeks (15 min/d for 6 d/week. SPSS software version 16 was used to analyze the data by performing independent t test, paired t test, and Fisher exact test. Results Results showed that, after 8 weeks of inspiratory muscle training, there was a little increase (but not statistically significant improvement in SPO2 (from 92.6 ± 8.71 % to 95.13 ± 7.08 %, with P = 0.06, whereas it remained unchanged in the control group (from 96.0 ± 3.46 % to 96.4 ± 3.35 % with P = 0.51. No statistically significant difference was seen between the two groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions Although inspiratory muscles training can prevent desaturation, which is caused by activity, it fails to improve it.

  20. Muscle triacylglycerol and hormone-sensitive lipase activity in untrained and trained human muscles

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Biba, Taus O; Galbo, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    During exercise, triacylglycerol (TG) is recruited in skeletal muscles. We hypothesized that both muscle hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and TG recruitment would be higher in trained than in untrained subjects in response to prolonged exercise. Healthy male subjects (26 +/- 1 years, body ...

  1. Muscle hypertrophy: a narrative review on training principles for increasing muscle mass

    Howe, Louis; Read, Paul; Waldron, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Developing muscle cross-sectional area has the potential to enhance performance for many athletes. Because emerging evidence challenges traditional beliefs regarding the prescription of hypertrophy-focused training programs, this review provides an overview of the current literature relating, specifically, to programming variables. Evidence-based recommendations are provided for the design of effective resistance-training programs, with the goal of increasing an athlete's skeletal muscle mass.

  2. Skeletal muscle plasticity with marathon training in novice runners.

    Luden, N; Hayes, E; Minchev, K; Louis, E; Raue, U; Conley, T; Trappe, S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate leg muscle adaptation in runners preparing for their first marathon. Soleus and vastus lateralis (VL) biopsies were obtained from six recreational runners (23 ± 1 years, 61 ± 3 kg) before (T1), after 13 weeks of run training (T2), and after 3 weeks of taper and marathon (T3). Single muscle fiber size, contractile function (strength, speed, and power) and oxidative enzyme activity [citrate synthase (CS)] were measured at all three time points, and fiber type distribution was determined before and after the 16-week intervention. Training increased VO(2max) ∼9% (Pmarathon training elicits very specific skeletal muscle adaptations that likely support the ability to perform 42.2 km of continuous running - further strengthening the existing body of evidence for skeletal muscle specificity. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Aerobic exercise training induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and age-dependent adaptations in myofiber function in young and older men

    Konopka, Adam R.; Undem, Miranda K.; Hinkley, James M.; Minchev, Kiril; Kaminsky, Leonard A.; Trappe, Todd A.; Trappe, Scott

    2012-01-01

    To examine potential age-specific adaptations in skeletal muscle size and myofiber contractile physiology in response to aerobic exercise, seven young (YM; 20 ± 1 yr) and six older men (OM; 74 ± 3 yr) performed 12 wk of cycle ergometer training. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis to determine size and contractile properties of isolated slow [myosin heavy chain (MHC) I] and fast (MHC IIa) myofibers, MHC composition, and muscle protein concentration. Aerobic capacity was higher (P 0.05) with training. Training reduced (P aerobic capacity are similar between YM and OM, while adaptations in myofiber contractile function showed a general improvement in OM. Training-related increases in MHC I and MHC IIa peak power reveal that skeletal muscle of OM is responsive to aerobic exercise training and further support the use of aerobic exercise for improving cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health in older individuals. PMID:22984247

  4. Respiratory muscle training for multiple sclerosis

    Rietberg, Marc B.; Veerbeek, Janne M.; Gosselink, Rik; Kwakkel, Gert; van Wegen, Erwin E.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system, affecting approximately 2.5 million people worldwide. People with MS may experience limitations in muscular strength and endurance - including the respiratory muscles, affecting functional performance and

  5. SPRINT-INTERVAL TRAINING INDUCES HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 72 IN RAT SKELETAL MUSCLES

    Yuji Ogura

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that endurance exercise training increases the level of heat shock proteins (HSPs in skeletal muscles. However, little attention has been drawn to the effects of high intensity-short duration exercise, or sprint- interval training (SIT on HSP72 level in rat skeletal muscles. This study performed to test the hypothesis that the SIT would induce the HSP72 in fast and slow skeletal muscles of rats. Young male Wistar rats (8 weeks old were randomly assigned to a control (CON or a SIT group (n = 8/group. Animals in the SIT group were trained (1 min/sprint, 6~10 sets/day and 5~6 days/week on a treadmill for 9 weeks. After the training period, HSP72 levels in the plantaris (fast and soleus (slow muscles were analyzed by Western blotting method. Enzyme activities (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and citrate synthase and histochemical properties (muscle fiber type compositions and cross sectional area in both muscles were also determined. The SIT resulted in significantly (p < 0.05 higher levels of HSP72 in both the plantaris and soleus muscles compared to the CON group, with the plantaris producing a greater HSP72 increase than the soleus (plantaris; 550 ± 116%, soleus; 26 ± 8%, p < 0.05. Further, there were bioenergetic improvements, fast-to-slow shift of muscle fiber composition and hypertrophy in the type IIA fiber only in the plantaris muscle. These findings indicate that the SIT program increases HSP72 level of the rat hindlimb muscles, and the SIT-induced accumulation of HSP72 differs between fast and slow muscles

  6. Skeletal Muscle Response to Endurance Training in IL-6-/- Mice.

    Wojewoda, M; Kmiecik, K; Majerczak, J; Ventura-Clapier, R; Fortin, D; Onopiuk, M; Rog, J; Kaminski, K; Chlopicki, S; Zoladz, J A

    2015-12-01

    We examined effects of moderate-intensity endurance training on muscle COX/CS activities and V'O2max in control WT and IL-6(-/-) mice. Animals were exercised for 10 weeks on treadmill for 1 h, 5 days a week at velocity of 6 m·min(-1) which was increased by 0.5 m·min(-1) every 2 weeks up to 8 m·min(-1) . Training triggered an increase of enzyme activities in soleus muscle of WT mice (COX: 480.3±8.9 U·g(-1) in sedentary group vs. 773.3±62.6 U·g(-1) in trained group, P<0.05 and CS: 374.0±6.0 U·g(-1) in sedentary group vs. 534.2±20.5 U·g(-1) in trained group, P<0.01, respectively) whereas no changes were observed in soleus of IL6(-/-) mice. Moreover, in mixed gastrocnemius muscle of trained IL-6(-/-) mice enzyme activities tended to be lower (COX: 410.7±48.4 U·g(-1) for sedentary vs. 277.0±36.5 U·g(-1) for trained group and CS: 343.8±24.6 U·g(-1) for sedentary vs. 251.7±27.1 U·g(-1) for trained group). No changes in V'O2max were observed in WT and IL-6(-/-) mice after training. Concluding, moderate-velocity endurance training-induced increase in COX and CS activities in muscles of WT mice only which suggests that IL-6 regulates training-induced skeletal muscle responses to exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Mind-muscle connection training principle: influence of muscle strength and training experience during a pushing movement.

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Colado, Juan Carlos; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of different attentional focus conditions on muscle activity during the push-up exercise and to assess the possible influence of muscle strength and training experience. Eighteen resistance-trained men performed 1RM bench press testing and were familiarized with the procedure during the first session. In the second session, three different conditions were randomly performed: regular push-up and push-up focusing on using the pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles, respectively. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded and analyzed (EMG normalized to max; nEMG) for the triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscles. Participants had on average 8 (SD 6) years of training experience and 1RM of 1.25 (SD 0.28) kg per kg bodyweight. Focusing on using pectoralis major increased activity in this muscle by 9% nEMG (95% CI 5-13; Cohen's d 0.60) compared with the regular condition. Triceps activity was not significantly influenced by triceps focus although borderline significant, with a mean difference of 5% nEMG (95% CI 0-10; Cohen's d 0.30). However, years of training experience was positively associated with the ability to selectively activate the triceps (β = 0.41, P = 0.04), but not the pectoralis. Bench press 1RM was not significantly associated with the ability to selectively activate the muscles. Pectoralis activity can be increased when focusing on using this muscle during push-ups, whereas the ability to do this for the triceps is dependent on years of training experience. Maximal muscle strength does not appear to be a decisive factor for the ability to selectively activate these muscles.

  8. Respiratory Muscle Training and Cognitive Function Exercising at Altitude.

    Quackenbush, Joseph; Duquin, Aubrey; Helfer, Samuel; Pendergast, David R

    2016-01-01

    Hiking and trekking often occur at altitudes up to 12,000 ft altitude. The hypoxia-induced hyperventilation at altitude paradoxically reduces arterial CO2 (Paco2). A reduction in Paco2 results in vasoconstriction of the blood vessels of the brain and thus in local hypoxia. The local hypoxia likely affects cognitive function, which may result in reduced performance and altitude accidents. Recent publications have demonstrated that voluntary isocapnic hyperventilatory training of the respiratory muscles (VIHT) can markedly enhance exercise endurance as it is associated with reduced ventilation and its energy cost. VIHT may be useful in blunting the altitude-induced hyperventilation leading to higher Paco2 and improved cognitive function. This study examined the effects of VIHT, compared to control (C) and placebo (PVIHT) groups, on selected measures of executive functioning, including working memory and processing speed (i.e., Stroop Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and Digit Span Forward) at simulated altitude up to 12,000 ft. Associated physiological parameters were also measured. The Digit Span Forward Test did not show improvements after VIHT in any group. The VIHT group, but not C or PVIHT groups, improved significantly (17-30%) on the Stroop Test. Similarly the VIHT group, but not the C and PVIHT groups, improved correct responses (26%) and number of attempts (24%) on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. In addition, reaction time was also improved (16%). VIHT improved processing speed and working memory during exercise at altitude.

  9. Resistance Training Using Different Hypoxic Training Strategies: a Basis for Hypertrophy and Muscle Power Development

    Feriche, Bel?n; Garc?a-Ramos, Amador; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J.; Padial, Paulino

    2017-01-01

    The possible muscular strength, hypertrophy, and muscle power benefits of resistance training under environmental conditions of hypoxia are currently being investigated. Nowadays, resistance training in hypoxia constitutes a promising new training strategy for strength and muscle gains. The main mechanisms responsible for these effects seem to be related to increased metabolite accumulation due to hypoxia. However, no data are reported in the literature to describe and compare the efficacy of...

  10. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    Weber, Marc-Andre; Hildebrandt, Wulf; Schroeder, Leif; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krix, Martin; Bachert, Peter; Delorme, Stefan; Essig, Marco; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 ± 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P 2 after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 ± 44 vs. 174 ± 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 ± 53 vs. 174 ± 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 ± 75 vs. 326 ± 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 ± 1.2 vs. 1.1 ± 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 ± 0.44 vs. 0.52 ± 0.74 mm s -1 ). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and β-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest (β-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 ± 0.06 vs. 0.28 ± 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric resistance training occurs without an increase in the in vivo microcirculation of the skeletal muscles at

  11. Concentric resistance training increases muscle strength without affecting microcirculation

    Weber, Marc-Andre [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: MarcAndre.Weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Hildebrandt, Wulf [Immunochemistry, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Schroeder, Leif [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kinscherf, Ralf [Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krix, Martin [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Bachert, Peter [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan; Essig, Marco [Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krakowski-Roosen, Holger [National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: While the evidence is conclusive regarding the positive effects of endurance training, there is still some controversy regarding the effects of resistance training on muscular capillarity. Thus, the purpose was to assess whether resistance strength training influences resting skeletal muscle microcirculation in vivo. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine middle-aged subjects (15 female, 24 male; mean age, 54 {+-} 9 years) were trained twice a week on an isokinetic system (altogether 16 sessions lasting 50 min, intensity 75% of maximum isokinetic and isometric force of knee flexors and extensors). To evaluate success of training, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and its isokinetic and isometric force were quantified. Muscular capillarization was measured in biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle. In vivo, muscular energy and lipid metabolites were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and parameters of muscular microcirculation, such as local blood volume, blood flow and velocity, by contrast-enhanced ultrasound analyzing replenishment kinetics. Results: The significant (P < 0.001) increase in CSA (60 {+-} 16 before vs. 64 {+-} 15 cm{sup 2} after training) and in absolute muscle strength (isometric, 146 {+-} 44 vs. 174 {+-} 50 Nm; isokinetic, 151 {+-} 53 vs. 174 {+-} 62 Nm) demonstrated successful training. Neither capillary density ex vivo (351 {+-} 75 vs. 326 {+-} 62) nor ultrasonographic parameters of resting muscle perfusion were significantly different (blood flow, 1.2 {+-} 1.2 vs. 1.1 {+-} 1.1 ml/min/100 g; blood flow velocity, 0.49 {+-} 0.44 vs. 0.52 {+-} 0.74 mm s{sup -1}). Also, the intensities of high-energy phosphates phosphocreatine and {beta}-adenosintriphosphate were not different after training within the skeletal muscle at rest ({beta}-ATP/phosphocreatine, 0.29 {+-} 0.06 vs. 0.28 {+-} 0.04). Conclusion: The significant increase in muscle size and strength in response to concentric isokinetic and isometric

  12. Does Resistance Training Stimulate Cardiac Muscle Hypertrophy?

    Bloomer, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the left ventricular structural adaptations induced by resistance/strength exercise, focusing on human work, particularly well-trained strength athletes engaged in regular, moderate- to high-intensity resistance training (RT). The article discusses both genders and examines the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in…

  13. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  14. High-intensity stretch-shortening contraction training modifies responsivity of skeletal muscle in old male rats.

    Rader, Erik P; Naimo, Marshall A; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2018-04-01

    Utilization of high-intensity resistance training to counter age-related sarcopenia is currently debated because of the potential for maladaptation when training design is inappropriate. Training design is problematic because the influence of various loading variables (e.g. contraction mode, repetition number, and training frequency) is still not well characterized at old age. To address this in a precisely controlled manner, we developed a rodent model of high-intensity training consisting of maximally-activated stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs), contractions typical during resistance training. With this model, we determined that at old age, high-repetition SSC training (80 SSCs: 8 sets of 10 repetitions) performed frequently (i.e. 3 days per week) for 4.5 weeks induced strength deficits with no muscle mass gain while decreasing frequency to 2 days per week promoted increases in muscle mass and muscle quality (i.e. performance normalized to muscle mass). This finding confirmed the popular notion that decreasing training frequency has a robust effect with age. Meanwhile, the influence of other loading variables remains contentious. The aim of the present study was to assess muscle adaptation following modulation of contraction mode and repetition number during high-intensity SSC training. Muscles of young (3 month old) and old (30 month old) male rats were exposed to 4.5 weeks of low-repetition static training of 4 (i.e. 4 sets of one repetition) isometric (ISO) contractions 3 days per week or a more moderate-repetition dynamic training of 40 SSCs (i.e. 4 sets of 10 repetitions) 3 days per week. For young rats, performance and muscle mass increased regardless of training protocol. For old rats, no muscle mass adaptation was observed for 4 ISO training while 40 SSC training induced muscle mass gain without improvement in muscle quality, an outcome distinct from modulating training frequency. Muscle mass gain for old rats was accompanied by

  15. Does vitamin-D intake during resistance training improve the skeletal muscle hypertrophic and strength response in young and elderly men? – a randomized controlled trial

    Agergaard, Jakob; Trøstrup, Jeanette; Uth, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    analyzed for fiber type morphology changes and mRNA expression of vitamin-D receptor (VDR), cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) and Myostatin. RESULTS: In the vitamin-D groups, serum 25(OH)D concentration increased significantly and at week 12 was significantly different from placebo in both young men (71.6 vs.......0001) with no difference between vitamin-D and placebo groups. Vitamin-D intake and resistance training increased strength/CSA in elderly compared to young (p = 0.008). In the young vitamin-D group, the change in fiber type IIa percentage was greater after 12 weeks training (p = 0.030) and Myostatin mRNA expression lower...

  16. Resistance training for activity limitations in older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits: a systematic review

    Papa EV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evan V Papa,1 Xiaoyang Dong,2 Mahdi Hassan1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA Abstract: Human aging results in a variety of changes to skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Previous research has demonstrated that resistance training can attenuate skeletal muscle function deficits in older adults, however few articles have focused on the effects of resistance training on functional mobility. The purpose of this systematic review was to 1 present the current state of literature regarding the effects of resistance training on functional mobility outcomes for older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits and 2 provide clinicians with practical guidelines that can be used with seniors during resistance training, or to encourage exercise. We set forth evidence that resistance training can attenuate age-related changes in functional mobility, including improvements in gait speed, static and dynamic balance, and fall risk reduction. Older adults should be encouraged to participate in progressive resistance training activities, and should be admonished to move along a continuum of exercise from immobility, toward the recommended daily amounts of activity. Keywords: aging, strength training, sarcopenia, mobility, balance

  17. Systematic Review of Inspiratory Muscle Training After Cerebrovascular Accident.

    Martín-Valero, Rocío; De La Casa Almeida, Maria; Casuso-Holgado, Maria Jesus; Heredia-Madrazo, Alfonso

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review examines levels of evidence and recommendation grades of various therapeutic interventions of inspiratory muscle training in people who have had a stroke. Benefits from different levels of force and resistance in respiratory muscles are shown in this population. This review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) directives and was completed in November 2014. The search limits were studies published in English between 2004 and 2014. Relevant studies were searched for in MEDLINE, PEDro, OAIster, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, DOAJ, Cochrane, Embase, Academic Search Complete, Fuente Académica, and MedicLatina. Initially, 20 articles were identified. After analyzing all primary documents, 14 studies were excluded. Only 6 studies were relevant to this review. Three different types of interventions were found (maximum inspiratory training, controlled training, and nonintervention) in 3 different groups. One specific study compared 3 inspiratory muscle training groups with a group of breathing exercises (diaphragmatic exercises with pursed lips) and a control group. Future long-term studies with larger sample sizes are needed. It is necessary to apply respiratory muscle training as a service of the national health system and to consider its inclusion in the conventional neurological program. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. Effects of exercise training on regulation of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in elderly men

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a muscle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis before and 45 minutes into the OGTT. Blood samples were collected before and up to 120 minutes after glucose intake. RESULTS: Exercise training increased Hexokinase II, GLUT4, Akt2, glycogen synthase (GS), pyruvate......) phosphorylation was increased after exercise training. In the trained state, the PDHa activity was reduced following glucose intake and without changes in phosphorylation level of PDH-E1α. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that exercise training improves glucose regulation in elderly subjects by enhancing......BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind exercise training-induced improvements in glucose regulation in aged subjects. METHODS: Twelve elderly male subjects completed 8 weeks of exercise training. Before and after the training period, the subjects completed an oral...

  19. Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Wu, B J; Willer, Mette

    2001-01-01

    on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. Seven male subjects performed endurance training of the knee extensors of one leg for 4 wk. The other leg served as a control. Before, after 4 days, and after 4 wk, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. After 4 wk......, the phospholipid fatty acid contents of oleic acid 18:1(n-9) and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6(n-3) were significantly higher in the trained (10.9 +/- 0.5% and 3.2 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) than the untrained leg (8.8 +/- 0.5% and 2.6 +/- 0.4%, P fatty acids...... was significantly lower in the trained (11.1 +/- 0.9) than the untrained leg (13.1 +/- 1.2, P fatty acid composition. Citrate synthase activity was increased by 17% in the trained compared with the untrained leg (P

  20. Supervised pelvic floor muscle training versus attention-control massage treatment in patients with faecal incontinence

    Ussing, Anja; Dahn, Inge; Due, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    supplements is recommended as first-line treatment for faecal incontinence. Despite this, the effect of pelvic floor muscle training for faecal incontinence is unclear. No previous trials have investigated the efficacy of supervised pelvic floor muscle training in combination with conservative treatment...... treatment and conservative treatment. The primary outcome is participants' rating of symptom changes after 16 weeks of treatment using the Patient Global Impression of Improvement Scale. Secondary outcomes are the Vaizey Incontinence Score, the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index, the Fecal Incontinence...

  1. Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging - strength training as a countermeasure

    Aagaard, Per; Suetta, Charlotte; Caserotti, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    and size (sarcopenia), resulting in impaired mechanical muscle performance that in turn leads to a reduced functional capacity during everyday tasks. Concurrently, maximum muscle strength, power, and rate of force development are decreased with aging, even in highly trained master athletes. The impairment...... to elicit effective countermeasures in elderly individuals even at a very old age (>80 years) by evoking muscle hypertrophy along with substantial changes in neuromuscular function, respectively. Notably, the training-induced changes in muscle mass and nervous system function leads to an improved functional...

  2. Preventive strength training improves working ergonomics during welding.

    Krüger, Karsten; Petermann, Carmen; Pilat, Christian; Schubert, Emil; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Mooren, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a preventive strength training program on cardiovascular, metabolic and muscular strains during welding. Welders are one of the occupation groups which typically have to work in extended forced postures which are known to be an important reason for musculoskeletal disorders. Subjects (exercise group) accomplished a 12-week strength training program, while another group served as controls (control group). Pre and post training examinations included the measurements of the one repetition maximum and an experimental welding test. Local muscle activities were analysed by surface electromyography. Furthermore, heart rate, blood pressure, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were examined. In the exercise group, strength training lead to a significant increase of one repetition maximum in all examined muscles (pwelding test muscle activities of trunk and shoulder muscles and arm muscles were significantly reduced in the exercise group after intervention (pwelding (p<.05). Effects of strength training can be translated in an improved working ergonomics and tolerance against the exposure to high physical demands at work.

  3. Muscle fibre capillarization is a critical factor in muscle fibre hypertrophy during resistance exercise training in older men.

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; Joanisse, Sophie; Leenders, Marika; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2017-04-01

    Adequate muscle fibre perfusion is critical for the maintenance of muscle mass; it is essential in the rapid delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to the muscle, stimulating muscle fibre growth. Muscle fibre capillarization is known to decrease substantially with advancing age. However, whether (relative) low muscle fibre capillarization negatively impacts the muscle hypertrophic response following resistance exercise training in older adults is unknown. Twenty-two healthy older men (71 ± 1 years) performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance type exercise training. To assess the change in muscle fibre characteristics, percutaneous biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and following 12 and 24 weeks of the intervention programme. A comparison was made between participants who had a relatively low type II muscle fibre capillary-to-fibre perimeter exchange index (CFPE; LOW group) and high type II muscle fibre CFPE (HIGH group) at baseline. Type I and type II muscle fibre size, satellite cell, capillary content and distance between satellite cells to the nearest capillary were determined by immunohistochemistry. Overall, type II muscle fibre size (from 5150 ± 234 to 6719 ± 446 µm 2 , P muscle fibre, P muscle fibre capillarization, whereas muscle fibre size (from 5170 ± 390 to 7133 ± 314 µm 2 , P muscle fibre, P muscle fibre capillarization were observed in response to 12 and 24 weeks of resistance exercise training in both the LOW and HIGH group. Type II muscle fibre capillarization at baseline may be a critical factor for allowing muscle fibre hypertrophy to occur during prolonged resistance exercise training in older men. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  4. Is hypoxia training good for muscles and exercise performance?

    Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Altitude training has become very popular among athletes as a means to further increase exercise performance at sea level or to acclimatize to competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved during the last few decades, with "live high-train low" and "live low-train high" being the most popular. This review focuses on functional, muscular, and practical aspects derived from extensive research on the "live low-train high" approach. According to this, subjects train in hypoxia but remain under normoxia for the rest of the time. It has been reasoned that exercising in hypoxia could increase the training stimulus. Hypoxia training studies published in the past have varied considerably in altitude (2300-5700 m) and training duration (10 days to 8 weeks) and the fitness of the subjects. The evidence from muscle structural, biochemical, and molecular findings point to a specific role of hypoxia in endurance training. However, based on the available performance capacity data such as maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) and (maximal) power output, hypoxia as a supplement to training is not consistently found to be advantageous for performance at sea level. Stronger evidence exists for benefits of hypoxic training on performance at altitude. "Live low-train high" may thus be considered when altitude acclimatization is not an option. In addition, the complex pattern of gene expression adaptations induced by supplemental training in hypoxia, but not normoxia, suggest that muscle tissue specifically responds to hypoxia. Whether and to what degree these gene expression changes translate into significant changes in protein concentrations that are ultimately responsible for observable structural or functional phenotypes remains open. It is conceivable that the global functional markers such as Vo(2)max and (maximal) power output are too coarse to detect more subtle changes that might still be functionally relevant, at least to high-level athletes.

  5. Adaptation of signal transduction and muscle proteome in trained horses

    Ginneken, Mireille Maria Elisabeth van

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the localization and activation of signaling proteins, known from human studies, in equine muscle were investigated under conditions of rest, after an acute bout of exercise and before and after a period of (intensified) training. Proteins of interest (protein kinase C (PKC),

  6. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone administration on recovery from mix-type exercise training-induced muscle damage.

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Liao, Kun-Fu; Kao, Chung-Lan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Ivy, John L; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of DHEA-S in coping against the exercise training mixing aerobic and resistance components. During 5-day successive exercise training, 16 young male participants (19.2 ± 1.2 years) received either a placebo (flour capsule) or DHEA (100 mg/day) in a double-blinded and placebo-controlled design. Oral DHEA supplementation significantly increased circulating DHEA-S by 2.5-fold, but a protracted drop (~35 %) was observed from Day 3 during training. In the Placebo group, only a minimal DHEA-S reduction (~17 %) was observed. Changes in testosterone followed a similar pattern as DHEA-S. Muscle soreness was elevated significantly on Day 2 for both groups to a similar extent. Lower muscle soreness was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group on Day 3 and Day 6. In the Placebo group, training increased circulating creatine kinase (CK) levels by approximately ninefold, while only a threefold increase was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group. This mix-type exercise training improved glucose tolerance in both groups, while lowering the insulin response to the glucose challenge, but no difference between treatments was observed. Our results suggest that DHEA-S may play a role in protecting skeletal muscle from exercise training-induced muscle damage.

  7. Effects of respiratory muscle endurance training on wheelchair racing performance in athletes with paraplegia: a pilot study.

    Muller, G.; Perret, C.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) has been shown to improve both respiratory muscle and cycling exercise endurance in able-bodied subjects. Since effects of RMET on upper extremity exercise performance have not yet been investigated, we evaluated the effects of RMET on 10-km

  8. Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport

    Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P

    2010-01-01

    Training toward improving performance in sports involving high intense exercise can and is done in many different ways based on a mixture of tradition in the specific sport, coaches' experience and scientific recommendations. Strength training is a form of training that now-a-days have found its...... way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...... functional training advises can be made. Thus, more than a review in the traditional context this review should be viewed upon as an attempt to bring sports-physiologists and coaches or others working directly with the athletes together for a mutual discussion on how recently acquired physiological knowledge...

  9. Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport

    Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P

    2010-01-01

    way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties......Training toward improving performance in sports involving high intense exercise can and is done in many different ways based on a mixture of tradition in the specific sport, coaches' experience and scientific recommendations. Strength training is a form of training that now-a-days have found its...... functional training advises can be made. Thus, more than a review in the traditional context this review should be viewed upon as an attempt to bring sports-physiologists and coaches or others working directly with the athletes together for a mutual discussion on how recently acquired physiological knowledge...

  10. A combination of resistance and endurance training increases leg muscle strength in COPD

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Ringbæk, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Resistance training (RT) is thought to be effective in preventing muscle depletion, whereas endurance training (ET) is known to improve exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our objectives were to assess the efficiency...... improvements in HRQoL, walking distance and exercise capacity. However, we found moderate quality evidence of a significant increase in leg muscle strength favouring a combination of RT and ET (standardized mean difference of 0.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.39-0.98). In conclusion, we found significantly...... increased leg muscle strength favouring a combination of RT with ET compared with ET alone. Therefore, we recommend that RT should be incorporated in rehabilitation of COPD together with ET....

  11. Effects of plyometric training on passive stiffness of gastrocnemii muscles and Achilles tendon.

    Fouré, Alexandre; Nordez, Antoine; Cornu, Christophe

    2012-08-01

    Plyometric training is commonly used to improve athletic performance; however, it is unclear how each component of the muscle-tendon complex (MTC) is affected by this intervention. The effects of 14 weeks of plyometric training on the passive stiffness of the gastrocnemii muscles and Achilles tendon was determined simultaneously to assess possible local adaptations of elastic properties. The passive force-length relationship of the gastrocnemii MTC and elongation of the gastrocnemii muscles were determined using ultrasonography during passive cyclic stretching in 19 subjects divided into trained (n = 9) and control (n = 10) groups. An upward trend in stiffness of the gastrocnemii MTC (P = 0.09) and a significant increase in the intrinsic gastrocnemii muscle stiffness were found (P  0.05). Considering the lack of change in gastrocnemii muscle geometry, the change in the gastrocnemii muscle stiffness may be mainly due to a change in the intrinsic mechanical properties of the muscular tissues.

  12. Effects of Plyometric and Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, Explosiveness and Neuromuscular Function in Young Adolescent Soccer Players.

    McKinlay, Brandon John; Wallace, Phillip; Dotan, Raffy; Long, Devon; Tokuno, Craig; Gabriel, David; Falk, Bareket

    2018-01-04

    This study examined the effect of 8-weeks of free-weight-resistance (RT) and plyometric (PLYO) training on maximal strength, explosiveness and jump performance compared with no added training (CON), in young male soccer players. Forty-one 11[FIGURE DASH]13-year-old soccer players were divided into three groups (RT, PLYO, CON). All participants completed isometric and dynamic (240°/s) knee extensions pre- and post-training. Peak torque (pT), peak rate of torque development (pRTD), electromechanical-delay (EMD), rate of muscle activation (Q50), m. vastus-lateralis thickness (VLT), and jump performance were examined. pT, pRTD and jump performance significantly improved in both training groups. Training resulted in significant (pplyometric training resulted in significant improvements in muscle strength and jump performance. Training resulted in similar muscle hypertrophy in the two training modes, with no clear differences in muscle performance. Plyometric training was more effective in improving jump performance, while free-weight resistance training was more advantageous in improving peak torque, where the stretch reflex was not involved.

  13. Bone marrow mesenchymal cells improve muscle function in a skeletal muscle re-injury model.

    Bruno M Andrade

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle injury is the most common problem in orthopedic and sports medicine, and severe injury leads to fibrosis and muscle dysfunction. Conventional treatment for successive muscle injury is currently controversial, although new therapies, like cell therapy, seem to be promise. We developed a model of successive injuries in rat to evaluate the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMC injected directly into the injured muscle. Functional and histological assays were performed 14 and 28 days after the injury protocol by isometric tension recording and picrosirius/Hematoxilin & Eosin staining, respectively. We also evaluated the presence and the fate of BMMC on treated muscles; and muscle fiber regeneration. BMMC treatment increased maximal skeletal muscle contraction 14 and 28 days after muscle injury compared to non-treated group (4.5 ± 1.7 vs 2.5 ± 0.98 N/cm2, p<0.05 and 8.4 ± 2.3 vs. 5.7 ± 1.3 N/cm2, p<0.05 respectively. Furthermore, BMMC treatment increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and the presence of mature muscle fiber 28 days after muscle injury. However, there was no difference in collagen deposition between groups. Immunoassays for cytoskeleton markers of skeletal and smooth muscle cells revealed an apparent integration of the BMMC within the muscle. These data suggest that BMMC transplantation accelerates and improves muscle function recovery in our extensive muscle re-injury model.

  14. Determining the optimal pelvic floor muscle training regimen for women with stress urinary incontinence.

    Dumoulin, Chantale; Glazener, Cathryn; Jenkinson, David

    2011-06-01

    Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training has received Level-A evidence rating in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women, based on meta-analysis of numerous randomized control trials (RCTs) and is recommended in many published guidelines. However, the actual regimen of PFM training used varies widely in these RCTs. Hence, to date, the optimal PFM training regimen for achieving continence remains unknown and the following questions persist: how often should women attend PFM training sessions and how many contractions should they perform for maximal effect? Is a regimen of strengthening exercises better than a motor control strategy or functional retraining? Is it better to administer a PFM training regimen to an individual or are group sessions equally effective, or better? Which is better, PFM training by itself or in combination with biofeedback, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and/or vaginal cones? Should we use improvement or cure as the ultimate outcome to determine which regimen is the best? The questions are endless. As a starting point in our endeavour to identify optimal PFM training regimens, the aim of this study is (a) to review the present evidence in terms of the effectiveness of different PFM training regimens in women with SUI and (b) to discuss the current literature on PFM dysfunction in SUI women, including the up-to-date evidence on skeletal muscle training theory and other factors known to impact on women's participation in and adherence to PFM training. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Training-induced acceleration of oxygen uptake kinetics in skeletal muscle: the underlying mechanisms.

    Zoladz, J A; Korzeniewski, B; Grassi, B

    2006-11-01

    It is well known that the oxygen uptake kinetics during rest-to-work transition (V(O2) on-kinetics) in trained subjects is significantly faster than in untrained individuals. It was recently postulated that the main system variable that determines the transition time (t(1/2)) of the V(O2) on-kinetics in skeletal muscle, at a given moderate ATP usage/work intensity, and under the assumption that creatine kinase reaction works near thermodynamic equilibrium, is the absolute (in mM) decrease in [PCr] during rest-to-work transition. Therefore we postulate that the training-induced acceleration of the V(O2) on-kinetics is a marker of an improvement of absolute metabolic stability in skeletal muscles. The most frequently postulated factor responsible for enhancement of muscle metabolic stability is the training-induced increase in mitochondrial proteins. However, the mechanism proposed by Gollnick and Saltin (1982) can improve absolute metabolic stability only if training leads to a decrease in resting [ADP(free)]. This effect is not observed in many examples of training causing an acceleration of the V(O2) on-kinetics, especially in early stages of training. Additionally, this mechanism cannot account for the significant training-induced increase in the relative (expressed in % or as multiples of the resting values) metabolic stability at low work intensities, condition in which oxidative phosphorylation is not saturated with [ADP(free)]. Finally, it was reported that in the early stage of training, acceleration in the V(O2) on-kinetics and enhancement of muscle metabolic stability may precede adaptive responses in mitochondrial enzymes activities or mitochondria content. We postulate that the training-induced acceleration in the V(O2) on-kinetics and the improvement of the metabolite stability during moderate intensity exercise in the early stage of training is mostly caused by an intensification of the "parallel activation" of ATP consumption and ATP supply pathways

  16. The effect of peculiar complex core balance training on isokinetic muscle functions of the knee and lumbus

    Lee, Myungsun; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of peculiar complex core balance training on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus to provide fundamental data for establishing a training program that focuses on improving the performance and prevention of injury by developing the core and low extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study included a total of ten high school athletes involved in a throwing event for over five years. The subje...

  17. Modeling and Simulation to Muscle Strength Training of Lower Limbs Rehabilitation Robots

    Ke-Yi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the issues of lower limb rehabilitation robots with single control strategies and poor training types, a training method for improving muscle strength was put forward in this paper. Patients’ muscle strength could be achieved by targeted exercises at the end of rehabilitation. This approach could be realized through programming wires’ force. On the one hand, each wires force was measured by tension sensor and force closed loop control was established to control the value of wires’ force which was acted on trainees. On the other hand, the direction of output force was changed by detecting the trainees’ state of motion and the way of putting load to patient was achieved. Finally, the target of enhancing patients’ muscle strength was realized. Dynamic model was built by means of mechanism and training types of robots. Force closed loop control strategy was established based on training pattern. In view of the characteristics of the redundance and economy of wire control, the process for simple wire's load changes was discussed. In order to confirm the characteristics of robot control system, the controller was simulated in Matlab/Simulink. It was verified that command signal could be traced by control system availably and the load during muscle training would be provided effectively.

  18. High-frequency resistance training is not more effective than low-frequency resistance training in increasing muscle mass and strength in well-trained men.

    Gomes, Gederson K; Franco, Cristiane M; Nunes, Paulo Ricardo P; Orsatti, Fábio L

    2018-02-27

    We studied the effects of two different weekly frequency resistance training (RT) protocols over eight weeks on muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy in well-trained men. Twenty-three subjects (age: 26.2±4.2 years; RT experience: 6.9±3.1 years) were randomly allocated into the two groups: low frequency (LFRT, n = 12) or high frequency (HFRT, n = 11). The LFRT performed a split-body routine, training each specific muscle group once a week. The HFRT performed a total-body routine, training all muscle groups every session. Both groups performed the same number of sets (10-15 sets) and exercises (1-2 exercise) per week, 8-12 repetitions maximum (70-80% of 1RM), five times per week. Muscle strength (bench press and squat 1RM) and lean tissue mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were assessed prior to and at the end of the study. Results showed that both groups improved (ptrained subjects when the sets and intensity are equated per week.

  19. Multi-muscle electrical stimulation and stand training: Effects on standing.

    Momeni, Kamyar; Ramanujam, Arvind; Garbarini, Erica L; Forrest, Gail F

    2018-02-15

    To examine the biomechanical and neuromuscular effects of a longitudinal multi-muscle electrical stimulation (submaximal intensities) training of the lower limbs combined with/without activity-based stand training, on the recovery of stability and function for one individual with spinal cord injury (SCI). Single-subject, longitudinal study. Neuroplasticity laboratory. A 34-year-old male, with sensory- and motor-complete SCI (C5/C6). Two consecutive interventions: 61 hours of supine, lower-limb ES (ES-alone) and 51 hours of ES combined with stand training using an overhead body-weight support system (ST + ES). Clinical measures, trunk stability, and muscle activity were assessed and compared across time points. Trunk Stability Limit (TSL) determined improvements in trunk independence. Functional clinical values increased after both interventions, with further increases post ST + ES. Post ES-alone, trunk stability was maintained at 81% body-weight (BW) loading before failure; post ST + ES, BW loading increased to 95%. TSL values decreased post ST + ES (TSL A/P =54.0 kg.cm, TSL M/L =14.5 kg.cm), compared to ES-alone (TSL A/P =8.5 kg.cm, TSL M/L =3.9 kg.cm). Trunk muscle activity decreased post ST + ES training, compared to ES-alone. Neuromuscular and postural trunk control dramatically improved following the multi-muscle ES of the lower limbs with stand training. Multi-muscle ES training paradigm of the lower limb, using traditional parameters, may contribute to the functional recovery of the trunk.

  20. Variability in muscle dysmorphia symptoms: the influence of weight training.

    Thomas, Liam S; Tod, David A; Lavallee, David E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a weight training session on muscle dysmorphia symptoms in young men who regularly weight trained. Using a within-subjects crossover design, 30 men (mean ± SD; 20.93 ± 2.60 years, 86.87 ± 10.59 kg, and 1.76 ± 0.01 m) were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups, and completed the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory twice, once each on 2 separate days. One day 1, group 1 completed the questionnaire after a weight training session and group 2 on a rest day. One day 2, group 1 completed the questionnaire on a rest day and group 2 after a weight training session. The mean score for drive for size was significantly higher on a rest day (18.00) than on a training day (15.87; p = 0.001, d = 1.03). The mean score for appearance intolerance was significantly higher on a rest day (10.10) compared with that on a training day (8.97; p = 0.001, d = 0.69). The mean score for functional impairment was significantly higher on a rest day (10.20) than on a training day (9.47; p = 0.037, d = 0.40). These results provide evidence that muscle dysmorphia symptoms have state-like properties and may be influenced by situational variables. The results may indicate that strength and conditioning specialists and mental health professionals need to observe clients over time and take into account environmental variables before making decisions about the presence or absence of the condition.

  1. Active robotic training improves locomotor function in a stroke survivor

    Krishnan Chandramouli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical outcomes after robotic training are often not superior to conventional therapy. One key factor responsible for this is the use of control strategies that provide substantial guidance. This strategy not only leads to a reduction in volitional physical effort, but also interferes with motor relearning. Methods We tested the feasibility of a novel training approach (active robotic training using a powered gait orthosis (Lokomat in mitigating post-stroke gait impairments of a 52-year-old male stroke survivor. This gait training paradigm combined patient-cooperative robot-aided walking with a target-tracking task. The training lasted for 4-weeks (12 visits, 3 × per week. The subject’s neuromotor performance and recovery were evaluated using biomechanical, neuromuscular and clinical measures recorded at various time-points (pre-training, post-training, and 6-weeks after training. Results Active robotic training resulted in considerable increase in target-tracking accuracy and reduction in the kinematic variability of ankle trajectory during robot-aided treadmill walking. These improvements also transferred to overground walking as characterized by larger propulsive forces and more symmetric ground reaction forces (GRFs. Training also resulted in improvements in muscle coordination, which resembled patterns observed in healthy controls. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in motor cortical excitability (MCE of the vastus medialis, medial hamstrings, and gluteus medius muscles during treadmill walking. Importantly, active robotic training resulted in substantial improvements in several standard clinical and functional parameters. These improvements persisted during the follow-up evaluation at 6 weeks. Conclusions The results indicate that active robotic training appears to be a promising way of facilitating gait and physical function in moderately impaired stroke survivors.

  2. Physical Rehabilitation Improves Muscle Function Following Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    2014-12-19

    synergistic effect of treadmill running on stem -cell transplantation to heal injured skeletal muscle. Tissue Eng Part A 2010, 16(3):839–849. 20. Brutsaert...U:::-’ 0:: 0 Uninjured Injured Figure 7 c E 14 w cu12 • SED * (/) Cll < 10 ~ ~ 8 c 6 Cll Cl 4 z ..!!! ::> 0 2 0::: u 0 Uninjured Injured

  3. Efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises for treating pelvic organ prolapse in women: randomized controlled trial

    Bruno Teixeira Bernardes

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that women with pelvic floor dysfunctions present decreased cross-sectional area (CSA of the levator ani muscle. One way to assess the effects of training programs is to measure the CSA of the muscle, using ultrasonography. The aim here was to evaluate the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises for increasing the CSA of the levator ani muscle in women with pelvic organ prolapse. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective randomized controlled trial at the Urogynecology outpatient clinic of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Fifty-eight women with stage II pelvic organ prolapse were divided into three groups for physiotherapy: a pelvic floor muscle training group (GI; a hypopressive exercise group (GII; and a control group (GIII. The patients underwent transperineal ultrasonographic evaluation using a transducer of frequency 4-9 MHz. The (CSA of the levator ani muscle was measured before physiotherapy and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: The groups were homogeneous regarding age, number of pregnancies, number of vaginal deliveries, body mass index and hormonal status. Statistically significant differences in CSA were found in GI and GII from before to after the treatment (P < 0.001, but not in relation to GIII (P = 0.816. CONCLUSIONS: The CSA of the levator ani muscle increased significantly with physiotherapy among the women with pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises produced similar improvements in the CSA of the levator ani muscle.

  4. The Effect of Electrical Stimulation in Improving Muscle Tone (Clinical)

    Azman, M. F.; Azman, A. W.

    2017-11-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) and also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) involves the use of electrical current to stimulate the nerves or nerve endings that innervate muscle beneath the skin. Electrical stimulation may be applied superficially on the skin (transcutaneously) or directly into a muscle or muscles (intramuscularly) for the primary purpose of enhancing muscle function. The basic theoretical premise is that if the peripheral nerve can be stimulated, the resulting excitation impulse will be transmitted along the nerve to the motor endplates in the muscle, producing a muscle contraction. In this work, the effect of mere electrical stimulation to the muscle bulk and strength are tested. This paper explains how electrical stimulation can affect the muscle bulk, muscle size, muscle tone, muscle atrophy and muscle strength. The experiment and data collection are performed on 5 subjects and the results obtained are analyzed. This research aims to understand the full potential of electrical stimulation and identifying its possible benefits or disadvantages to the muscle properties. The results indicated that electrical stimulation alone able to improve muscle properties but with certain limits and precautions which might be useful in rehabilitation programme.

  5. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, H; Hodges, P W; Bliddal, H; Henriksen, M

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals. Twenty-seven healthy untrained volunteers participated in a randomized controlled trial of quadriceps strengthening (3 times per week for 8 weeks). Participants were randomized to perform resistance training either during pain induced by injections of painful hypertonic saline (pain group, n = 13) or during a nonpainful control condition with injection of isotonic saline (control group, n = 14) into the infrapatellar fat pad. The primary outcome measure was change in maximal isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension/flexion (60, 120, and 180 degrees/second). The group who exercised with pain had a significantly larger improvement in isokinetic muscle strength at all angular velocities of knee extension compared to the control group. In knee flexion there were improvements in isokinetic muscle strength in both groups with no between-group differences. Experimental knee joint pain improved the training-induced gain in muscle strength following 8 weeks of quadriceps training. It remains to be studied whether knee joint pain has a positive effect on strength gain in patients with knee pathology. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Benefits of skeletal-muscle exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension: The WHOLEi+12 trial.

    González-Saiz, Laura; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Quezada-Loaiza, Carlos A; Flox-Camacho, Angela; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Ara, Ignacio; Santalla, Alfredo; Morán, María; Sanz-Ayan, Paz; Escribano-Subías, Pilar; Lucia, Alejandro

    2017-03-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is often associated with skeletal-muscle weakness. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effects of an 8-week intervention combining muscle resistance, aerobic and inspiratory pressure-load exercises on upper/lower-body muscle power and other functional variables in patients with this disease. Participants were allocated to a control (standard care) or intervention (exercise) group (n=20 each, 45±12 and 46±11years, 60% women and 10% patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension per group). The intervention included five, three and six supervised (inhospital) sessions/week of aerobic, resistance and inspiratory muscle training, respectively. The primary endpoint was peak muscle power during bench/leg press; secondary outcomes included N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels, 6-min walking distance, five-repetition sit-to-stand test, maximal inspiratory pressure, cardiopulmonary exercise testing variables (e.g., peak oxygen uptake), health-related quality of life, physical activity levels, and safety. Adherence to training sessions averaged 94±0.5% (aerobic), 98±0.3% (resistance) and 91±1% (inspiratory training). Analysis of variance showed a significant interaction (group×time) effect for leg/bench press (Pexercise group (P0.1). We found a significant interaction effect (Pexercise. An 8-week exercise intervention including aerobic, resistance and specific inspiratory muscle training is safe for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and yields significant improvements in muscle power and other functional variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise training reverses skeletal muscle atrophy in an experimental model of VCP disease.

    Angèle Nalbandian

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effects of exercise resistance and endurance training in the alleviation of muscle hypertrophy/atrophy should be considered in the management of patients with advanced neuromuscular diseases. Patients with progressive neuromuscular diseases often experience muscle weakness, which negatively impact independence and quality of life levels. Mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP gene lead to Inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD and more recently affect 2% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-diagnosed cases.The present investigation was undertaken to examine the effects of uphill and downhill exercise training on muscle histopathology and the autophagy cascade in an experimental VCP mouse model carrying the R155H mutation. Progressive uphill exercise in VCP(R155H/+ mice revealed significant improvement in muscle strength and performance by grip strength and Rotarod analyses when compared to the sedentary mice. In contrast, mice exercised to run downhill did not show any significant improvement. Histologically, the uphill exercised VCP(R155H/+ mice displayed an improvement in muscle atrophy, and decreased expression levels of ubiquitin, P62/SQSTM1, LC3I/II, and TDP-43 autophagy markers, suggesting an alleviation of disease-induced myopathy phenotypes. There was also an improvement in the Paget-like phenotype.Collectively, our data highlights that uphill exercise training in VCP(R155H/+ mice did not have any detrimental value to the function of muscle, and may offer effective therapeutic options for patients with VCP-associated diseases.

  8. Benefits of combining inspiratory muscle with 'whole muscle' training in children with cystic fibrosis: a randomised controlled trial

    Santana-Sosa, Elena; Gonzalez-Saiz, Laura; Groeneveld, Iris F.; Villa-Asensi, José R.; Barrio Gómez de Aguero, María I.; Fleck, Steven J.; López-Mojares, Luis M.; Pérez, Margarita; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study (randomised controlled trial) was to assess the effects of an 8-week combined 'whole muscle' (resistance+aerobic) and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on lung volume, inspiratory muscle strength (PImax) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak) (primary outcomes), and

  9. Do stages of menopause affect the outcomes of pelvic floor muscle training?

    Tosun, Özge Çeliker; Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Tosun, Gökhan; Ergenoğlu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Özgur; Malkoç, Mehtap; Aşkar, Niyazi; İtil, İsmail Mete

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of our study is to determine whether there is a difference in pelvic floor muscle strength attributable to pelvic floor muscle training conducted during different stages of menopause. One hundred twenty-two women with stress urinary incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence were included in this prospective controlled study. The participants included in this study were separated into three groups according to the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop staging system as follows: group 1 (n = 41): stages -3 and -2; group 2 (n = 32): stages +1 and -1; and group 3 (n = 30): stage +2. All three groups were provided an individual home exercise program throughout the 12-week study. Pelvic floor muscle strength before and after the 12-week treatment was measured in all participants (using the PERFECT [power, endurance, number of repetitions, and number of fast (1-s) contractions; every contraction is timed] scheme, perineometry, transabdominal ultrasound, Brink scale, pad test, and stop test). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance. There were no statistically significant differences in pre-exercise training pelvic floor muscle strength parameters among the three groups. After 12 weeks, there were statistically significant increases in PERFECT scheme, Brink scale, perineometry, and ultrasound values. In contrast, there were significant decreases in stop test and 1-hour pad test values observed in the three groups (P = 0.001, dependent t test). In comparison with the other groups, group 1 demonstrated statistically significant improvements in the following postexercise training parameters: power, repetition, speed, Brink vertical displacement, and stop test. The lowest increase was observed in group 2 (P menopause with pelvic floor muscle training, but the rates of increase vary according to the menopausal stage of the participants. Women in the late menopausal transition and early menopause are least responsive to pelvic floor muscle strength training

  10. Morphological changes after pelvic floor muscle training measured by 3-dimensional ultrasonography: a randomized controlled trial.

    Braekken, Ingeborg Hoff; Hoff Braekken, Ingeborg; Majida, Memona; Engh, Marie Ellström; Bø, Kari

    2010-02-01

    To investigate morphological and functional changes after pelvic floor muscle training in women with pelvic organ prolapse. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at a university hospital and a physical therapy clinic. One hundred nine women with pelvic organ prolapse stages I, II, and III were randomly allocated by a computer-generated random number system to pelvic floor muscle training (n=59) or control (n=50). Both groups received lifestyle advice and learned to contract the pelvic floor muscles before and during increases in intraabdominal pressure. In addition the pelvic floor muscle training group did individual strength training with a physical therapist and daily home exercise for 6 months. Primary outcome measures were pelvic floor muscle (pubovisceral muscle) thickness, levator hiatus area, pubovisceral muscle length at rest and Valsalva, and resting position of bladder and rectum, measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography. Seventy-nine percent of women in the pelvic floor muscle training group adhered to at least 80% of the training protocol. Compared with women in the control group, women in the pelvic floor muscle training group increased muscle thickness (difference between groups: 1.9 mm, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.7, Ppelvic floor muscle stiffness. Supervised pelvic floor muscle training can increase muscle volume, close the levator hiatus, shorten muscle length, and elevate the resting position of the bladder and rectum. www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00271297. I.

  11. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: does resistance training help?

    Fernández-del-Valle, Maria; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Morande-Lavin, Gonzalo; Perez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n = 18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout the study (p = 0.011). Significant skeletal muscle mass (SMM) gains were found in the intervention group (p = 0.045, d = 0.6) that correlated to the change in BMI (r = 0.51, p  0.60) with change in BMI in both the groups. Significant relative strength increases (p Anorexia Nervosa Restricting Type (AN-R) AN-R is a psychiatric disorder that has a major impact on muscle mass content and function. However, little or no attention has been paid to muscle recovery. High intensity resistance training is safe for AN-R after hospitalization and enhances the force generating capacity as well as muscle mass gains. Skeletal muscle mass content and muscular function improvements are partially maintained for a short period of time when the exercise program ceases.

  12. Static muscle strength trained and untrained of female students

    Kopanski R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Static muscle strength is one of the defining characteristics of human motor potential. Standard terms and exclude the impact of short-term measurement techniques for motion and strain measurements, hence the widespread use of Mm measurements in the assessment of fitness of both trained and untrained, healthy subjects and patients undergoing a variety of reasons the process of rehabilitation. The paper deals with static muscle strength (dynamometry back of the hand of female students trained (n = 38 and untrained (n = 213. Examined relationships between individual measurements and body weight in both groups, the degree of asymmetry of the palmar and the differences in the level of power (at the level of the absolute and relative terms between the groups. Disclosed according to form the basis of their conclusions.

  13. Improvement for BWR operator training, 3

    Noji, Kunio; Toeda, Susumu; Saito, Genhachi; Suzuki, Koichi

    1990-01-01

    BWR Operator Training Center Corporation (BTC) is conducting training for BWR plant operators using Full-scope Simulators. There are several courses for individual operators and one training course for shift crew (Family Training Course) in BTC. Family Training is carried out by all members of the operating shift-crew. BTC has made efforts to improve the Family Training in order to acquire more effective training results and contribute to up-grade team performance of all crews. This paper describes some items of our efforts towards Family Training improvement. (author)

  14. Noninvasive optical imaging of resistance training adaptations in human muscle

    Warren, Robert V.; Cotter, Joshua; Ganesan, Goutham; Le, Lisa; Agustin, Janelle P.; Duarte, Bridgette; Cutler, Kyle; O'Sullivan, Thomas; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative and dynamic analysis of skeletal muscle structure and function can guide training protocols and optimize interventions for rehabilitation and disease. While technologies exist to measure body composition, techniques are still needed for quantitative, long-term functional imaging of muscle at the bedside. We evaluate whether diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) can be used for long-term assessment of resistance training (RT). DOSI measures of tissue composition were obtained from 12 adults before and after 5 weeks of training and compared to lean mass fraction (LMF) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Significant correlations were detected between DXA LMF and DOSI-measured oxy-hemo/myoglobin, deoxy-hemo/myoglobin, total-hemo/myoglobin, water, and lipid. RT-induced increases of ˜6% in oxy-hemo/myoglobin (3.4±1.0 μM, p=0.00314) and total-hemo/myoglobin (4.9±1.1 μM, p=0.00024) from the medial gastrocnemius were detected with DOSI and accompanied by ˜2% increases in lean soft tissue mass (36.4±12.4 g, p=0.01641) and ˜60% increases in 1 rep-max strength (41.5±6.2 kg, p = 1.9E-05). DOSI measures of vascular and/or muscle changes combined with correlations between DOSI and DXA suggest that quantitative diffuse optical methods can be used to evaluate body composition, provide feedback on long-term interventions, and generate new insight into training-induced muscle adaptations.

  15. Effect of carnitine supplementation on fatigue level in the gastrocnemius muscle of trained and sedentary rats

    Rossana Anelice Gomez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p324 L-carnitine, considered to be of great value in metabolic processes, plays an important role in the mitochondrial β-oxidation process. It may be used to improve athletic performance and to maintain a higher workload during exercise. This study aimed to investigate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on muscle fatigue in sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle preparations in sedentary and trained rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: non-supplemented sedentary (NSS, supplemented sedentary (SS, non-supplemented trained (NST, and supplemented trained (ST rats. The animals were trained in daily 1-h sessions (5 days/week and received chronic oral L-carnitine supplementation (1 mg/mL for 4 weeks. Muscle fatigue was determined by supramaximal tetanic stimulation of the sciatic nerve (50 Hz. Time values for strength reduction were significantly different (p<0.05 between NSS vs. SS and NST vs. ST rats. No significant differences were observed between SS vs. ST and NST vs. NSS rats. These findings demonstrate that L-carnitine lengthen the time required for induction of muscle fatigue.

  16. Inspiratory muscle training in bronchiectasis patients: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    Liaw, Mei-Yun; Wang, Yi-Hsi; Tsai, Yu-Chin; Huang, Kuo-Tung; Chang, Pei-Wen; Chen, Yung-Che; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy and feasibility of home-based inspiratory muscle training in patients with bronchiectasis. A prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled study. Outpatient clinic of a tertiary care medical centre. Twenty-six patients with bronchiectasis were randomly divided into inspiratory muscle training and control groups. In the inspiratory muscle training group (n = 13), the training programme started with an intensity of 30% maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), which was increased by 2 cmH(2)O each week, for 30 minutes daily, 5 days a week for eight weeks. The control group (n = 13) did not receive inspiratory muscle training. Main outcome measures included spirometry, resting oxyhaemoglobin saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO(2)), lowest SpO(2) and Borg Scale during 6-minute walking tests, 6-minute walking distance (6MWD), 6-minute walking work (6M(work)), MIP, maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. There were significant differences in change from baseline in 6MWD (411.9 (133.5) vs. 473.2 (117.2) m, P = 0.021), 6M(work) (21 051.0 (8286.7) vs. 23 915.5 (8343.0) kg-m, P = 0.022), MIP (60.8 (21.8) vs. 84.6 (29.0) cmH(2)O, P = 0.004), and MEP (72.3 (31.1) vs. 104.2 (35.7) cmH(2)O, P = 0.004) in the inspiratory muscle training group. Significant improvements in both MIP (23.8 (25.3) vs. 2.3 (16.4) cmH(2)O, adjusted P-value = 0.005) and MEP (31.9 (30.8) vs. 11.5 (20.8) cmH(2)O, adjusted P-value = 0.038) levels after adjusting for age by linear regression analysis were observed between groups. An eight-week home-based inspiratory muscle training is feasible and effective in improving both inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength, but has no effect on respiratory function and quality of life in patients with bronchiectasis.

  17. Effects of Low- vs. High-Load Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Well-Trained Men.

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Peterson, Mark D; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, Gul T

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of low- versus high-load resistance training (RT) on muscular adaptations in well-trained subjects. Eighteen young men experienced in RT were matched according to baseline strength and then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a low-load RT routine (LL) where 25-35 repetitions were performed per set per exercise (n = 9) or a high-load RT routine (HL) where 8-12 repetitions were performed per set per exercise (n = 9). During each session, subjects in both groups performed 3 sets of 7 different exercises representing all major muscles. Training was performed 3 times per week on nonconsecutive days, for a total of 8 weeks. Both HL and LL conditions produced significant increases in thickness of the elbow flexors (5.3 vs. 8.6%, respectively), elbow extensors (6.0 vs. 5.2%, respectively), and quadriceps femoris (9.3 vs. 9.5%, respectively), with no significant differences noted between groups. Improvements in back squat strength were significantly greater for HL compared with LL (19.6 vs. 8.8%, respectively), and there was a trend for greater increases in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (6.5 vs. 2.0%, respectively). Upper body muscle endurance (assessed by the bench press at 50% 1RM to failure) improved to a greater extent in LL compared with HL (16.6 vs. -1.2%, respectively). These findings indicate that both HL and LL training to failure can elicit significant increases in muscle hypertrophy among well-trained young men; however, HL training is superior for maximizing strength adaptations.

  18. A pilot study on the influence of exercising on unstable training machine on balance control and trunk muscles activity.

    Domeika, Aurelijus; Aleknaite-Dambrauskiene, Ieva; Poskaitis, Vytautas; Zaveckas, Vidmantas; Grigas, Vytautas; Zvironiene, Ausra

    2018-05-16

    The main position of the working population is becoming sitting. Immobile prolonged sedentary time may cause negative effects including reduced intervertebral discs nutrition. Main ways of mitigating them are regular position changes and exercising. To evaluate influence of the short term training on unstable training machine on balance control and trunk muscles activity in patients with lower back pain. Participants (n=16) experiencing lower back pain were trained on an unstable sculling machine "Rehabili". Their balance tested by (Biodex Balance System) and rectus abdominis, externus oblique, transverse abdominis, multifidus and erector spine muscles activity (measured by surface electromyography) while sitting and standing with usual and aligned body postures both before and after six weeks of training (three 15 minutes sessions per week) were compared in between. Balance control improved after the training program. Besides, more symmetrical activation of both sides rectus and transversus abdominis muscles, as well as increased transversus abdominis muscle activation of 19% (p< 0.05), were observed. Six weeks short sessions training on unstable training machine improved balance control and increased trunk muscles activity especially in aligned body posture when standing or sitting on unstable surface.

  19. Effects of multidimensional pelvic floor muscle training in healthy young women.

    Talasz, Helena; Kalchschmid, Elisabeth; Kofler, Markus; Lechleitner, Monika

    2012-03-01

    Cross-sectional and interventional study to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in healthy young nulliparous women and to determine the effects of a 3-month PFM training program with emphasis on co-contraction of PFM and anterolateral abdominal muscles and on correctly performed coughing patterns. PFM function was assessed by digital vaginal palpation in 40 volunteers and graded according to the 6-point Oxford grading scale. The PFM training program was comprised theoretical instruction, as well as verbal feedback during hands-on instruction and repeated training sessions focussing on strengthening PFM and anterolateral abdominal muscle co-contraction during forced expiration and coughing. At baseline, 30 women (75%) were able to perform normal PFM contractions at rest (Oxford scale score ≥ 3); only 4 of them (10%) presented additional involuntary PFM contractions before and during coughing. The remaining 10 women (25%) were unable to perform voluntary or involuntary PFM contractions. Mean Oxford scale score in the whole group was 3.3 ± 1.7. After completing the PFM training program, 29 women (72.5%) performed cough-related PFM contractions and group mean Oxford scale score increased significantly to 4.2 ± 1.0. The study shows that PFM dysfunction may be detected even in healthy young women. Multidimensional training, however, may significantly improve PFM function.

  20. Exercise training normalizes skeletal muscle vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with essential hypertension

    Hansen, Ane Håkansson; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Saltin, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    METHODS: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and capillarization were determined in muscle vastus lateralis biopsy samples in individuals with essential hypertension (n = 10) and normotensive controls (n = 10). The hypertensive individuals performed exercise training for 16 weeks....... Muscle samples as well as muscle microdialysis fluid samples were obtained at rest, during and after an acute exercise bout, performed prior to and after the training period, for the determination of muscle VEGF levels, VEGF release, endothelial cell proliferative effect and capillarization. RESULTS......: Prior to training, the hypertensive individuals had 36% lower levels of VEGF protein and 22% lower capillary density in the muscle compared to controls. Training in the hypertensive group reduced (P

  1. Pelvic floor muscle training decreases hip adductors isometric peak torque in incontinent women: an exploratory study

    Grasiéla Nascimento Correia

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The pelvic floor muscle (PFM training is the most common treatment for urinary incontinence (UI, however many women performed the contraction of PFM with associated contraction of abdominal, gluteus and hip adductors muscles. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of pelvic floor muscle (PFM training on isometric and isokinetic hip adductors peak torque (PT among women suffering from urinary incontinence (UI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a longitudinal and prospective exploratory study. This study included 15 physically active women aged 45 years old and over, who presented complaints of UI. The PFM function (digital evaluation and perineometry, isometric and isokinetic hip adductors PT and one hour pad test were performed before and after treatment. The PFM training was performed in group, one hour once a week for 12 sessions. RESULTS: Significant improvement of PFM function and pressure level (p = 0.003, and significant decrease of hip adductors isometric PT and one-hour pad test, were found post-treatment. Moderate negative correlations between PFM contraction pressure and hip adductors isokinetic PT for dominant side (DS (r = -0.62; p = 0.03 and non-dominant side (NDS (r = -0.64; p = 0.02; and between PFM fast fibers contraction and hip adductors isometric PT for DS (r = -0.60; p = 0.03 and NDS (r = -0.59; p = 0.04 were also found. CONCLUSIONS: The PFM training decreased hip adductors PT and improved PFM functions and UI.

  2. Increasing Muscle Mass Improves Vascular Function in Obese (db/db) Mice

    Qiu, Shuiqing; Mintz, James D.; Salet, Christina D.; Han, Weihong; Giannis, Athanassios; Chen, Feng; Yu, Yanfang; Su, Yunchao; Fulton, David J.; Stepp, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background A sedentary lifestyle is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and exercise has been shown to ameliorate this risk. Inactivity is associated with a loss of muscle mass, which is also reversed with isometric exercise training. The relationship between muscle mass and vascular function is poorly defined. The aims of the current study were to determine whether increasing muscle mass by genetic deletion of myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle growth, can influence vascular function in mesenteric arteries from obese db/db mice. Methods and Results Myostatin expression was elevated in skeletal muscle of obese mice and associated with reduced muscle mass (30% to 50%). Myostatin deletion increased muscle mass in lean (40% to 60%) and obese (80% to 115%) mice through increased muscle fiber size (PMyostatin deletion decreased adipose tissue in lean mice, but not obese mice. Markers of insulin resistance and glucose tolerance were improved in obese myostatin knockout mice. Obese mice demonstrated an impaired endothelial vasodilation, compared to lean mice. This impairment was improved by superoxide dismutase mimic Tempol. Deletion of myostatin improved endothelial vasodilation in mesenteric arteries in obese, but not in lean, mice. This improvement was blunted by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor l‐NG‐nitroarginine methyl ester (l‐NAME). Prostacyclin (PGI2)‐ and endothelium‐derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)‐mediated vasodilation were preserved in obese mice and unaffected by myostatin deletion. Reactive oxygen species) was elevated in the mesenteric endothelium of obese mice and down‐regulated by deletion of myostatin in obese mice. Impaired vasodilation in obese mice was improved by NADPH oxidase inhibitor (GKT136901). Treatment with sepiapterin, which increases levels of tetrahydrobiopterin, improved vasodilation in obese mice, an improvement blocked by l‐NAME. Conclusions Increasing muscle mass by genetic deletion of

  3. Effect of intensified training on muscle ion kinetics, fatigue development and repeated short term performance in endurance trained cyclists

    Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Christensen, Peter Møller; Thomassen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of intensified training in combination with a reduced training volume on muscle ion kinetics, transporters and work capacity were examined. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (12x30-s sprints) 2-3 times per wk and aerobic high...

  4. Skeletal muscle and performance adaptations to high-intensity training in elite male soccer players

    Fransson, Dan; Nielsen, Tobias Schmidt; Olsson, Karl

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the skeletal muscle and performance responses across two different exercise training modalities which are highly applied in soccer training. METHODS: Using an RCT design, 39 well-trained male soccer players were randomized into either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 21...... pronouncedly than small-sided game training, but comparable responses were in muscle ion transporters and antioxidative capacity in well-trained male soccer players....

  5. Rapid increases in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks (nine training sessions) of stretch-shortening (drop jump) exercise with constant load alternated with steep increases in load. Physically active men (n = 9, mean age 19.1 years) performed....... Maximal jump height increased by 7.8% ± 6.3% (P training session, respectively. Gains in isometric knee extension MVC (7.9% ± 8.2%) and 100-Hz-evoked torque (9.9% ± 9.6%) (both P ... within 17 days after the end of training. The magnitude of improvement was greater after this protocol than that induced by a continuous constant progression loading pattern with small gradual load increments in each training session. These findings suggest that plyometric training using infrequent...

  6. Back muscle response to sudden trunk loading can be modified by training among healthcare workers

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H.

    2007-01-01

    Study Design. Experimental study of the effect of physical training on the reaction to sudden back loading. Objective. To investigate the effect and sustainability of "on the job training" on the reaction to sudden back loading among employees at a geriatric ward. Summary of Background Data...... of the trunk (stopping time). Data on the possibilities of a training-induced improvement in the reflex response among workers exposed to sudden trunk loading on the job are, however, nonexistent, and there is no evidence of long-term benefits, i.e., the sustainability of a positive training effect. Methods....... Available data suggest that a delayed muscle reflex response to sudden trunk loading may increase the risk of low back injuries. We have previously shown that training may alter the response to sudden trunk loading in healthy subjects and decrease the time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement...

  7. Effects of exercise training on calf muscle oxygen extraction and blood flow in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Baker, Wesley B; Li, Zhe; Schenkel, Steven S; Chandra, Malavika; Busch, David R; Englund, Erin K; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Yodh, Arjun G; Floyd, Thomas F; Mohler, Emile R

    2017-12-01

    We employed near-infrared optical techniques, diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), and frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS) to test the hypothesis that supervised exercise training increases skeletal muscle microvascular blood flow and oxygen extraction in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) who experience claudication. PAD patients ( n = 64) were randomly assigned to exercise and control groups. Patients in the exercise group received 3 mo of supervised exercise training. Calf muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction were optically monitored before, during, and after performance of a graded treadmill protocol at baseline and at 3 mo in both groups. Additionally, measurements of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and peak walking time (PWT) to maximal claudication were made during each patient visit. Supervised exercise training was found to increase the maximal calf muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction levels during treadmill exercise by 29% (13%, 50%) and 8% (1%, 12%), respectively [ P group population were significantly higher than corresponding changes in the control group ( P training also increased PWT by 49% (18%, 101%) ( P = 0.01). However, within statistical error, the ABI, resting calf muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction, and the recovery half-time for hemoglobin\\myoglobin desaturation following cessation of maximal exercise were not altered by exercise training. The concurrent monitoring of both blood flow and oxygen extraction with the hybrid DCS/FD-NIRS instrument revealed enhanced muscle oxidative metabolism during physical activity from exercise training, which could be an underlying mechanism for the observed improvement in PWT. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We report on noninvasive optical measurements of skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction dynamics before/during/after treadmill exercise in peripheral artery disease patients who experience claudication. The measurements tracked the effects of a 3-mo supervised

  8. Agonist muscle adaptation accompanied by antagonist muscle atrophy in the hindlimb of mice following stretch-shortening contraction training.

    Rader, Erik P; Naimo, Marshall A; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2017-02-02

    The vast majority of dynamometer-based animal models for investigation of the response to chronic muscle contraction exposure has been limited to analysis of isometric, lengthening, or shortening contractions in isolation. An exception to this has been the utilization of a rat model to study stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs), a sequence of consecutive isometric, lengthening, and shortening contractions common during daily activity and resistance-type exercise. However, the availability of diverse genetic strains of rats is limited. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop a dynamometer-based SSC training protocol to induce increased muscle mass and performance in plantarflexor muscles of mice. Young (3 months old) C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 1 month of plantarflexion SSC training. Hindlimb muscles were analyzed for muscle mass, quantitative morphology, myogenesis/myopathy relevant gene expression, and fiber type distribution. The main aim of the research was achieved when training induced a 2-fold increase in plantarflexion peak torque output and a 19% increase in muscle mass for the agonist plantaris (PLT) muscle. In establishing this model, several outcomes emerged which raised the value of the model past that of being a mere recapitulation of the rat model. An increase in the number of muscle fibers per transverse muscle section accounted for the PLT muscle mass gain while the antagonist tibialis anterior (TA) muscle atrophied by 30% with preferential atrophy of type IIb and IIx fibers. These alterations were accompanied by distinct gene expression profiles. The findings confirm the development of a stretch-shortening contraction training model for the PLT muscle of mice and demonstrate that increased cross-sectional fiber number can occur following high-intensity SSC training. Furthermore, the TA muscle atrophy provides direct evidence for the concept of muscle imbalance in phasic non-weight bearing muscles, a concept largely

  9. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on respiratory function and repetitive sprint performance in wheelchair basketball players.

    Goosey-Tolfrey, V; Foden, E; Perret, C; Degens, H

    2010-07-01

    There is considerable evidence that respiratory muscle training improves pulmonary function, quality of life and exercise performance in healthy athletic populations. The benefits for wheelchair athletes are less well understood. Therefore, in the present study, influence of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory function and repetitive propulsive sprint performance in wheelchair basketball players was examined. Using a placebo-controlled design, 16 wheelchair athletes were divided to an experimental (IMT; n=8) or placebo (sham-IMT; n=8) group based on selective grouping criteria. 30 dynamic breaths were performed by the IMT group twice daily at a resistance equivalent to 50% maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), and 60 slow breaths were performed by the sham-IMT group once a day at 15% MIP for a period of 6 weeks. In the IMT group, both MIP and maximum expiratory pressure (17% and 23%, respectively; ptraining device suggested "less breathlessness" and "less tightness in the chest during the training". Although there was no improvement in sprint performance, an improved respiratory muscle function and quality of life were reported by participants in both the IMT and sham-IMT groups.

  10. Effect of strength training on regional hypertrophy of the elbow flexor muscles.

    Drummond, Marcos D M; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A; Goulart, Karine N O; Couto, Bruno P

    2016-10-01

    Muscle hypertrophy is the main structural adaptation to strength training. We investigated the chronic effects of strength training on muscle hypertrophy in different regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Eleven untrained men (21.8 ± 1.62 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to determine the proximal, medial, distal, and mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the elbow flexors. The volunteers completed 12 weeks of strength training. The training protocol consisted of 4 sets of 8-10 maximum repetitions of unilateral elbow flexion. The interval between sets was 120 s. The training frequency was 3 sessions per week. The magnetic resonance images verified the presence of significant and similar hypertrophy in the distal, medial, and proximal portions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle hypertrophy may be assessed using only the medial CSA. We should not expect different degrees of hypertrophy among the regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle Nerve 54: 750-755, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The effect of low extremity plyometric training on back muscle power of high school throwing event athletes.

    Park, Gi Duck; Lee, Joong Chul; Lee, Juri

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The physical strength elements required for athletic throwing events include muscle strength, swiftness, agility, speed, flexibility, and physical balance. Although plyometric training and weight training are implemented as representative training methods for improving swiftness and agility, most studies of it have been conducted with players of other sports. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 throwing event athletes attending K physical education high school. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group of five subjects and an experimental group of five subjects. To analyze the body composition, an Inbody 3.0 instrument (Biospace, Korea) was used as experimental equipment to measure heights, weight, body fat percentages, and muscle masses and a Biodex system 4.0 (BIODEX, USA) was used to measure isokinetic muscle-joint and lumbar muscle strengths. The plyometric training consisted of 15 techniques out of the training methods introduced in the 'Power up plyometric training'. The plyometric program was implemented without any training load three times per week during daybreak exercises for the experimental group. The number of times and the number of sets were changed over time as follows: three sets of 10 times in the 1st -4th weeks, three sets of 15 times in the 5th-8th weeks, and five sets of 15 times in the 9th-12th weeks. [Results] According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar extensor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar flexor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. [Conclusion] Plyometric training positively affected high school throwing event athletes. To summarize the study findings, the application of plyometric training with high intensity and loads improved the results of athletes who perform highly intensive exercises at normal times.

  12. Can verbal working memory training improve reading?

    Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether poor verbal working memory is associated with poor word reading accuracy because the former causes the latter, or the latter causes the former. To this end, we tested whether (a) verbal working memory training improves poor verbal working memory or poor word reading accuracy, and whether (b) reading training improves poor reading accuracy or verbal working memory in a case series of four children with poor word reading accuracy and verbal working memory. Each child completed 8 weeks of verbal working memory training and 8 weeks of reading training. Verbal working memory training improved verbal working memory in two of the four children, but did not improve their reading accuracy. Similarly, reading training improved word reading accuracy in all children, but did not improve their verbal working memory. These results suggest that the causal links between verbal working memory and reading accuracy may not be as direct as has been assumed.

  13. Changes in muscle cross-sectional area, muscle force, and jump performance during 6 weeks of progressive whole-body vibration combined with progressive, high intensity resistance training

    Rosenberger, A.; Beijer, Å.; Johannes, B.; Schoenau, E.; Mester, J.; Rittweger, J.; Zange, J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: We hypothesized that progressive whole-body vibration (WBV) superimposed to progressive high intensity resistance training has greater effects on muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle force of leg muscles, and jump performance than progressive high intensity resistance training alone. Methods: Two groups of healthy male subjects performed either 6 weeks of Resistive Vibration Exercise (RVE, squats and heel raises with WBV, n=13) or Resistive Exercise (RE, squats and heel raises without WBV, n=13). Squats under RVE required indispensable weight loading on the forefoot to damp harmful vibrations to the head. Time, intervention, and interaction effects were analyzed. Results: After 6 weeks of training, knee extensor CSA, isometric knee extension force, and counter movement jump height increased equally in both groups (time effect, P<0.001, P≤0.02, and P≤0.03, respectively), whereas only in RVE ankle plantar flexor CSA and isometric ankle plantar flexion force reached significance or a tendency, respectively, (time effect, P=0.015 and P=0.069, respectively; intervention effect also for the latter, P=0.006). Drop jump contact time did significantly more improve in RVE (interaction effect, P=0.042). Conclusions: RVE showed better training effects than RE only in plantar flexor muscles. RVE seems to be suitable in professional sports with a special focus on calf muscles. PMID:28574410

  14. Wnt and β-Catenin Signaling and Skeletal Muscle Myogenesis in Response to Muscle Damage and Resistance Exercise and Training

    Dan Newmire

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The factors that regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy in human adults in response to resistance training (RT has largely focused on endogenous endocrine responses. However, the endocrine response to RT as having an obligatory role in muscle hypertrophy has come under scrutiny, as other mechanisms and pathways seem to also be involved in up-regulating muscle protein synthesis (MPS. Skeletal muscle myogenesis is a multifactorial process of tissue growth and repair in response to resistance training is regulated by many factors.  As a result, satellite cell-fused myogenesis is a possible factor in skeletal muscle regeneration and hypertrophy in response to RT.  The Wnt family ligands interact with various receptors and activate different downstream signaling pathways and have been classified as either canonical (β-catenin dependent or non-canonical (β-catenin independent.  Wnt is secreted from numerous tissues in a paracrine fashion. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a highly-regulated and intricate pathway that is essential to skeletal muscle myogenesis.  The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway may influence satellite cells to myogenic commitment, differentiation, and fusion into muscle fibers in response to injury or trauma, self-renewal, and normal basal turnover.  The current literature has shown that, in response mechanical overload from acute resistance exercise and chronic resistance training, that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is stimulated which may actuate the process of muscle repair and hypertrophy in response to exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this review is to elaborate on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling  pathway, the current literature investigating the relationship of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and its effects on myogenesis is response to muscle damage and resistance exercise and training.      Keywords: skeletal muscle, hypertrophy, myogenesis, cell signaling, protein synthesis, resistance

  15. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on dynamic hyperinflation in patients with COPD

    Petrovic M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Milos Petrovic,1 Michael Reiter,2 Harald Zipko,3 Wolfgang Pohl,1 Theodor Wanke11Pulmonary Department and Karl Landsteiner Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pulmology, Hietzing Hospital, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Otto Wagner Hospital, Vienna, Austria; 3FH Campus Vienna, University of Applied Sciences – Health Department, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: Dynamic hyperinflation has important clinical consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Given that most of these patients have respiratory and peripheral muscle weakness, dyspnea and functional exercise capacity may improve as a result of inspiratory muscle training (IMT. The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of IMT on exercise capacity, dyspnea, and inspiratory fraction (IF during exercise in patients with COPD. Daily inspiratory muscle strength and endurance training was performed for 8 weeks in 10 patients with COPD GOLD II and III. Ten patients with COPD II and III served as a control group. Maximal inspiratory pressure (Pimax and endurance time during resistive breathing maneuvers (tlim served as parameter for inspiratory muscle capacity. Before and after training, the patients performed an incremental symptom limited exercise test to maximum and a constant load test on a cycle ergometer at 75% of the peak work rate obtained in the pretraining incremental test. ET was defined as the duration of loaded pedaling. Following IMT, there was a statistically significant increase in inspiratory muscle performance of the Pimax from 7.75 ± 0.47 to 9.15 ± 0.73 kPa (P < 0.01 and of tlim from 348 ± 54 to 467 ± 58 seconds (P < 0.01. A significant increase in IF, indicating decreased dynamic hyperinflation, was observed during both exercise tests. Further, the ratio of breathing frequency to minute ventilation (bf/V'E decreased significantly, indicating an improved breathing pattern. A significant decrease in

  16. Protein-carbohydrate supplements improve muscle protein balance in muscular dystrophy patients after endurance exercise

    Andersen, Grete; Ørngreen, Mette C; Preisler, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    In healthy individuals, postexercise protein supplementation increases muscle protein anabolism. In patients with muscular dystrophies, aerobic exercise improves muscle function, but the effect of exercise on muscle protein balance is unknown. Therefore, we investigated 1) muscle protein balance...

  17. Inspiratory muscle training in difficult to wean patients: work it harder, make it better, do it faster, makes us stronger.

    Nava, Stefano; Fasano, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation is a complex, time-consuming process that involves the loss of force/generating capacity of the inspiratory muscle. In their study 'Inspiratory muscle strength training improves the outcome in failure to wean patients: a randomized trial', Martin and colleagues showed that the use of an inspiratory muscle strength program increased the maximal inspiratory pressure and improved weaning success compared to a control group. The study was performed mainly in post-surgical patients, however, and the results, therefore, may not be generalizable to other subsets of patients, such as those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or congestive heart failure. Indeed, the study applied so-called 'strength training' and not 'endurance training', which may be more appropriate in certain circumstances.

  18. Effect of endurance training on glucose transport capacity and glucose transporter expression in rat skeletal muscle

    Ploug, T.; Stallknecht, B.M.; Pedersen, O.; Kahn, B.B.; Ohkuwa, T.; Vinten, J.; Galbo, H.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of 10 wk endurance swim training on 3-O-methylglucose (3-MG) uptake (at 40 mM 3-MG) in skeletal muscle was studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Training resulted in an increase of approximately 33% for maximum insulin-stimulated 3-MG transport in fast-twitch red fibers and an increase of approximately 33% for contraction-stimulated transport in slow-twitch red fibers compared with nonexercised sedentary muscle. A fully additive effect of insulin and contractions was observed both in trained and untrained muscle. Compared with transport in control rats subjected to an almost exhaustive single exercise session the day before experiment both maximum insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport rates were increased in all muscle types in trained rats. Accordingly, the increased glucose transport capacity in trained muscle was not due to a residual effect of the last training session. Half-times for reversal of contraction-induced glucose transport were similar in trained and untrained muscles. The concentrations of mRNA for GLUT-1 (the erythrocyte-brain-Hep G2 glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 (the adipocyte-muscle glucose transporter) were increased approximately twofold by training in fast-twitch red muscle fibers. In parallel to this, Western blot demonstrated a approximately 47% increase in GLUT-1 protein and a approximately 31% increase in GLUT-4 protein. This indicates that the increases in maximum velocity for 3-MG transport in trained muscle is due to an increased number of glucose transporters

  19. The effects of whole body vibration combined computerized postural control training on the lower extremity muscle activity and cerebral cortex activity in stroke patients.

    Uhm, Yo-Han; Yang, Dae-Jung

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of computerized postural control training using whole body vibration on lower limb muscle activity and cerebral cortical activation in acute stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients participated and were divided into groups of 10, a group of the computerized postural control training using whole body vibration (Group I), the computerized postural control training combined with aero step (Group II) and computerized postural control training (Group III). MP100 was used to measure lower limb muscle activity, and QEEG-8 was used to measure cerebral cortical activation. [Results] Comparison of muscle activity and cerebral cortical activation before and after intervention between groups showed that Group I had significant differences in lower limb muscle activity and cerebral cortical activation compared to Groups II and III. [Conclusion] This study showed that whole body vibration combined computerized postural control training is effective for improving muscle activity and cerebral cortex activity in stroke patients.

  20. Feasibility of resistance training in adult McArdle patients: clinical outcomes and muscle strength and mass benefits.

    Santalla, Alfredo; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Brea-Alejo, Lidia; Pagola-Aldazábal, Itziar; Díez-Bermejo, Jorge; Fleck, Steven J; Ara, Ignacio; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of a 4-month resistance (weight lifting) training program followed by a 2-month detraining period in 7 adult McArdle patients (5 female) on: muscle mass (assessed by DXA), strength, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and clinical severity. Adherence to training was ≥84% in all patients and no major contraindication or side effect was noted during the training or strength assessment sessions. The training program had a significant impact on total and lower extremities' lean mass (P training by +855 g (95% confidence interval (CI): 30, 1679) and +547 g (95%CI: 116, 978), respectively, and significantly decreasing with detraining. Body fat showed no significant changes over the study period. Bench press and half-squat performance, expressed as the highest value of average muscle power (W) or force (N) in the concentric-repetition phase of both tests showed a consistent increase over the 4-month training period, and decreased with detraining. Yet muscle strength and power detraining values were significantly higher than pre-training values, indicating that a training effect was still present after detraining. Importantly, all the participants, with no exception, showed a clear gain in muscle strength after the 4-month training period, e.g., bench press: +52 W (95% CI: 13, 91); half-squat: +173 W (95% CI: 96, 251). No significant time effect (P > 0.05) was noted for baseline or post strength assessment values of serum CK activity, which remained essentially within the range reported in our laboratory for McArdle patients. All the patients changed to a lower severity class with training, such that none of them were in the highest disease severity class (3) after the intervention and, as such, they did not have fixed muscle weakness after training. Clinical improvements were retained, in all but one patient, after detraining, such that after detraining all patients were classed as class 1 for disease severity.

  1. "Functional" Inspiratory and Core Muscle Training Enhances Running Performance and Economy.

    Tong, Tomas K; McConnell, Alison K; Lin, Hua; Nie, Jinlei; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Jiayuan

    2016-10-01

    Tong, TK, McConnell, AK, Lin, H, Nie, J, Zhang, H, and Wang, J. "Functional" inspiratory and core muscle training enhances running performance and economy. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2942-2951, 2016-We compared the effects of two 6-week high-intensity interval training interventions. Under the control condition (CON), only interval training was undertaken, whereas under the intervention condition (ICT), interval training sessions were followed immediately by core training, which was combined with simultaneous inspiratory muscle training (IMT)-"functional" IMT. Sixteen recreational runners were allocated to either ICT or CON groups. Before the intervention phase, both groups undertook a 4-week program of "foundation" IMT to control for the known ergogenic effect of IMT (30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure [P0] per set, 2 sets per day, 6 days per week). The subsequent 6-week interval running training phase consisted of 3-4 sessions per week. In addition, the ICT group undertook 4 inspiratory-loaded core exercises (10 repetitions per set, 2 sets per day, inspiratory load set at 50% post-IMT P0) immediately after each interval training session. The CON group received neither core training nor functional IMT. After the intervention phase, global inspiratory and core muscle functions increased in both groups (p ≤ 0.05), as evidenced by P0 and a sport-specific endurance plank test (SEPT) performance, respectively. Compared with CON, the ICT group showed larger improvements in SEPT, running economy at the speed of the onset of blood lactate accumulation, and 1-hour running performance (3.04% vs. 1.57%, p ≤ 0.05). The changes in these variables were interindividually correlated (r ≥ 0.57, n = 16, p ≤ 0.05). Such findings suggest that the addition of inspiratory-loaded core conditioning into a high-intensity interval training program augments the influence of the interval program on endurance running performance and that this may be

  2. Effects of long-term football training on the expression profile of genes involved in muscle oxidative metabolism

    Alfieri, A; Martone, D; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2015-01-01

    and a muscle biopsy from the vastus lateralis were collected at T0 (pre intervention) and at T1 (post intervention). Gene expression was measured by RTqPCR on RNA extracted from muscle biopsies. The expression levels of the genes principally involved in energy metabolism (PPARγ, adiponectin, AMPKα1/α2, TFAM...... to improve the expression of muscle molecular biomarkers that are correlated to oxidative metabolism in healthy males....... are directly or indirectly involved in the glucose and lipid oxidative metabolism. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that fat percentage was independently associated with NAMPT, PPARγ and adiponectin expression. In conclusion, long-term recreational football training could be a useful tool...

  3. Muscle ion transporters and antioxidative proteins have different adaptive potential in arm than in leg skeletal muscle with exercise training

    Mohr, Magni; Nielsen, Tobias Schmidt; Weihe, Pál

    2017-01-01

    for 15 weeks, and pre- and postintervention biopsies were obtained from deltoideus and vastus lateralis muscle. Before training, monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), Na(+)/K(+) pump α2, and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) expressions were lower (P ... occurred exclusively in vastus lateralis muscle. The increased (P MCT4 and SOD2 in deltoid muscle after HIS and vastus lateralis muscle after SOC were similar. In conclusion, arm musculature displays lower basal ROS, La(-), K(+) handling capability but higher Na(+)-dependent H...

  4. Effect of endurance training on glucose transport capacity and glucose transporter expression in rat skeletal muscle

    Ploug, T; Stallknecht, B M; Pedersen, O

    1990-01-01

    exhaustive single exercise session the day before experiment both maximum insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport rates were increased in all muscle types in trained rats. Accordingly, the increased glucose transport capacity in trained muscle was not due to a residual effect of the last training...... session. Half-times for reversal of contraction-induced glucose transport were similar in trained and untrained muscles. The concentrations of mRNA for GLUT-1 (the erythrocyte-brain-Hep G2 glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 (the adipocyte-muscle glucose transporter) were increased approximately twofold......The effect of 10 wk endurance swim training on 3-O-methylglucose (3-MG) uptake (at 40 mM 3-MG) in skeletal muscle was studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Training resulted in an increase of approximately 33% for maximum insulin-stimulated 3-MG transport in fast-twitch red fibers...

  5. Ventilatory muscle endurance training in quadriplegia: effects on breathing pattern.

    Loveridge, B; Badour, M; Dubo, H

    1989-10-01

    We examined the effects of ventilatory muscle endurance training on resting breathing pattern in 12 C6-C7 traumatic quadriplegics at least 1 year post-injury. All subjects had complete motor loss below the lesion level. Subjects were randomly assigned to a training (N = 6), or a control group (N = 6). Baseline tests included measurement of resting ventilation and breathing pattern using mercury in rubber strain gauges for 20 minutes in a seated position; maximum inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) at FRC, and sustainable inspiratory mouth pressure for 10 minutes (SIP); lung volumes, and arterial blood gases (ABG's). The training protocol consisted of breathing through an inspiratory resistor equivalent to 85% SIP for 15 minutes twice daily, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Both trainers and controls attended the lab every 2 weeks for reassessment of MIP and SIP and the inspiratory resistance was increased in the training group as SIP increased. At the end of 8 weeks, baseline tests were repeated. All subjects had normal ABG's. There was a significant increase in mean MIP and SIP in both the control group (30% +/- 19% and 31% +/- 18% respectively), and in the training group (42% +/- 24% and 78% +/- 49% respectively). Although the absolute values for both MIP and SIP were greater in the training group than in the control group, the differences were not significant. The alterations in resting breathing pattern were also the same in both groups. Mean frequency decreased significantly in the control group (20.2/minute to 16.9/minute) and, while insignificant, the change in frequency in the training group was the same, 19.4/minute to 16.4/minute. Mean tidal volume (Vt) increased 18.2% of baseline Vt in the control group and 17.0% baseline in the trainers, resulting in no change in minute ventilation. As MIP and SIP increased similarly in both groups, the data from the control and trainers was pooled and timing changes re-evaluated pre- and post-study. A significant decrease in

  6. The effect of Nordic hamstring strength training on muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength.

    Seymore, Kayla D; Domire, Zachary J; DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick M; Kulas, Anthony S

    2017-05-01

    Hamstring strain injury is a frequent and serious injury in competitive and recreational sports. While Nordic hamstring (NH) eccentric strength training is an effective hamstring injury-prevention method, the protective mechanism of this exercise is not understood. Strength training increases muscle strength, but also alters muscle architecture and stiffness; all three factors may be associated with reducing muscle injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of NH eccentric strength training on hamstring muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength. Twenty healthy participants were randomly assigned to an eccentric training group or control group. Control participants performed static stretching, while experimental participants performed static stretching and NH training for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention measurements included: hamstring muscle architecture and stiffness using ultrasound imaging and elastography, and maximal hamstring strength measured on a dynamometer. The experimental group, but not the control group, increased volume (131.5 vs. 145.2 cm 3 , p hamstring strength. The NH intervention was an effective training method for muscle hypertrophy, but, contrary to common literature findings for other modes of eccentric training, did not increase fascicle length. The data suggest that the mechanism behind NH eccentric strength training mitigating hamstring injury risk could be increasing volume rather than increasing muscle length. Future research is, therefore, warranted to determine if muscle hypertrophy induced by NH training lowers future hamstring strain injury risk.

  7. Training the Antifragile Athlete: A Preliminary Analysis of Neuromuscular Training Effects on Muscle Activation Dynamics.

    Kiefer, Adam W; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-10-01

    Athletic injuries typically occur when the stable, emergent coordination between behavioral processes breaks down due to external noise, or variability. A physiological system that operates at an optimal point on a spectrum of rigidity and flexibility may be better prepared to handle extreme external variability, and the purpose of the current experiment was to examine whether targeted neuromuscular training resulted in changes to the rigidity and flexibility of the gluteal muscle tonus signal as measured with electromyography prior to the landing phase of a drop vertical jump task. 10 adolescent female athletes who participated in a targeted 10-week neuromuscular training program and 6 controls participated, and their tonus dynamics were examined with recurrence quantification analysis prior to training and after the 10-week program. The dependent measures, percent laminarity (%LAM) and percent determinism (%DET) were hypothesized to decrease following training, and were submitted to a one tailed mixed-model ANOVA. The training group exhibited a decrease in %LAM and %DET after training compared to pre-training and controls. The present findings indicate increased metaflexibility (i.e., greater intermittency and an increase in internal randomness) in tonus dynamics following neuromuscular training, and have important implications for the prevention of musculoskeletal injury in sport, specifically within the context of external noise and antifragility.

  8. The effects of passive leg press training on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power.

    Liu, Chiang; Chen, Chuan-Shou; Ho, Wei-Hua; Füle, Róbert János; Chung, Pao-Hung; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-06-01

    Passive leg press (PLP) training was developed based on the concepts of the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and the benefits of high muscle contraction velocity. Passive leg press training enables lower limb muscle groups to apply a maximum downward force against a platform moved up and down at high frequency by an electric motor. Thus, these muscle groups accomplished both concentric and eccentric isokinetic contractions in a passive, rapid, and repetitive manner. This study investigates the effects of 10 weeks of PLP training at high and low movement frequencies have on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power. The authors selected 30 college students who had not performed systematic resistance training in the previous 6 months, including traditional resistance training at a squat frequency of 0.5 Hz, PLP training at a low frequency of 0.5 Hz, and PLP training at a high frequency of 2.5 Hz, and randomly divided them into 3 groups (n = 10). The participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, explosive force, and SSC efficiency were tested under the same experimental procedures at pre- and post-training. Results reveal that high-frequency PLP training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, peak power, and SSC efficiency (p training (p training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, and peak power (p training only increased participants' 30-m sprint performance and peak power (p training at high movement frequency. A PLP training machine powered by an electrical motor enables muscles of the lower extremities to contract faster compared with voluntary contraction. Therefore, muscle training with high contraction velocity is one of the main methods of increasing muscle power. Passive leg press training is a unique method for enhancing jump performance, speed, and muscle power.

  9. Training needs analysis for MSMEs: how to improve training effectiveness

    Rohayati, Y.; Wulandari, S.

    2017-12-01

    The study aims to analyze training needs for MSMEs in the area of Kabupaten Bandung by selecting the case of MSMEs joined in Association for Agricultural Product Process, focusing on marketing as the main topic of the training. The needs analysis was required to improve training participation and effectiveness. Both aspects are important to notice since making MSMEs participate in training is not an easy task. Similarly, the needs analysis was carried out to anticipate participants’ thoughts that the training does not give any benefits for them or is ineffective because it does not meet their needs although it was actually to help MSMEs improve their marketing knowledge expected to lead to their success. This research involved 100 MSMEs with business ages starting from less than five years to more than 15 years. Those involved MSMEs were dominated by MSMEs targeting local marketing areas. The data were collected by survey and judgmental sampling technique. By conducting a descriptive analysis, it can be concluded that the needs of SMEs on marketing training materials should focus on improving marketing skills such as product development, sales, and use of marketing media as well as discussing legal aspects such as the need for certification and product brand. The results of the study also concluded that there is a need for training that is supplemented by making visits to more successful SMEs as well as practices with on the job training methods.

  10. Improved glucose tolerance after high-load strength training in patients undergoing dialysis

    Mølsted, Stig; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Eidemak, Inge

    2013-01-01

    glucose tolerance (n = 9). Conclusion: The conducted strength training was associated with a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes undergoing dialysis. The effect was apparently not associated with muscle hypertrophy, whereas the muscle...... a week. Muscle fiber size, composition and capillary density were analyzed in biopsies obtained in the vastus lateralis muscle. Glucose tolerance and the insulin response were measured by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results: All outcome measures remained unchanged during the control period....... After strength training the relative area of type 2X fibers was decreased. Muscle fiber size and capillary density remained unchanged. After the strength training, insulin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes (n = 14) (fasting insulin...

  11. TARGETED RADIOFREQUENCY THERAPY FOR TRAINING INDUCED MUSCLE FATIGUE EFFECTIVE OR NOT

    Ondrej Prouza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Training induced muscle fatigue (hereinafter also referred as TIMF is leading to unwanted consequences among sportsmen and actively sporting people such as decreased muscle strength and additional painful discomfort and mobility issues. The knowledge about the mechanisms of influencing the fatigue induced processes in muscle tissue is not comprehensive. The conventional manual techniques, cold patches and conventional physiotherapy have some effect in improving these conditions, however, finding effective methods to influence these consequences appears beneficial in sports medicine. Such method could be Radiofrequency therapy up to 0.5 MHz, known as Targeted Radiofrequency Therapy (hereinafter also referred as TR-Therapy. Aim of this self-controlled study is to evaluate the effect of the TR-Therapy for over-exertion management including the effect on decreased muscle strength, limited range of motion and possible painful discomfort. Materials: 7 healthy and actively sporting participants underwent through 2 stages (Active stage – including overexertion of the forearm flexors and subsequent TR-Therapy session; and Control stage - including overexertion of the forearm flexors and subsequent resting period. Data for muscle strength in kg, active Range of Motion (ROM in (º and Pain and discomfort perception by 10 point Visual Analog Scale (VAS were obtained and evaluated. Results: 31% increase in the muscle strength during the active stage was observed and respectively 12% during the control stage, with level of significance p0.05. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest TR-Therapy as effective solution for muscle strength restoration after TIMF.

  12. Effects of progressive strength training on muscle mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients determined by computed tomography

    Cauza, E.; Strehblow, C.; Hanusch-Enserer, U.; Fasching, P.; Metz-Schimmerl, S.; Strasser, B.; Kostner, K.; Dunstan, D.; Haber, P.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the effect of a 4-month progressive strength training program on muscle and fat mass assessed by computed tomography (CT) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, and to assess the relationships of changes in muscle cross-section area (CSA) with glycaemic control. Twenty adults (mean age ± SE: 56.4 ± 0.9 a) with T2DM participated in a supervised strength training program for 4 months 3 days/week. Muscle and fat areas of the quadriceps muscle were estimated by CT volumetry before and immediately after the training. Glycaemic (HbA1c) and anthropometric (BMI, skinfolds) measurements were assessed at 0 and 4 months, respectively. After strength training, muscle strength increased significantly in all measured muscle groups. Quadriceps size (CSA of the muscle) was increased by 2.4 % (from 7.99 ± 0.3 cm 3 to 8.18 ± 0.3 cm 3 , p = 0.003) for the right extremity, 3.9 % (from 8.1 ± 0.4 cm 3 to 8.41 ± 0.5 cm 3 , p = 0.04) for the left side. Fat tissue CSA reduced from 0.66 ± 0.1 cm 3 to 0.56 ± 0.12 cm 3 for the right leg (15.3 % reduction) and from 0.58 ± 0.12 cm 3 to 0.37 ± 0.13 cm 3 for the left leg (35.8 % reduction), resulting in a mean fat CSA reduction of 24.8 %. Fat mass assessed by skin folds was significantly reduced and lean body mass was significantly increased. The change in muscle CSA was not correlated with the changes in HbA1c or muscle strength. Strength training significantly improves both muscle mass and the muscle to fat ratio in T2DM. However, changes in muscle observed with computed tomography were not related to changes observed in HbA1c with training. (author) [de

  13. Mathematical models of human paralyzed muscle after long-term training.

    Law, L A Frey; Shields, R K

    2007-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in major musculoskeletal adaptations, including muscle atrophy, faster contractile properties, increased fatigability, and bone loss. The use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) provides a method to prevent paralyzed muscle adaptations in order to sustain force-generating capacity. Mathematical muscle models may be able to predict optimal activation strategies during FES, however muscle properties further adapt with long-term training. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of three muscle models, one linear and two nonlinear, for predicting paralyzed soleus muscle force after exposure to long-term FES training. Further, we contrasted the findings between the trained and untrained limbs. The three models' parameters were best fit to a single force train in the trained soleus muscle (N=4). Nine additional force trains (test trains) were predicted for each subject using the developed models. Model errors between predicted and experimental force trains were determined, including specific muscle force properties. The mean overall error was greatest for the linear model (15.8%) and least for the nonlinear Hill Huxley type model (7.8%). No significant error differences were observed between the trained versus untrained limbs, although model parameter values were significantly altered with training. This study confirmed that nonlinear models most accurately predict both trained and untrained paralyzed muscle force properties. Moreover, the optimized model parameter values were responsive to the relative physiological state of the paralyzed muscle (trained versus untrained). These findings are relevant for the design and control of neuro-prosthetic devices for those with SCI.

  14. Change of muscle architecture following body weight support treadmill training for persons after subacute stroke: evidence from ultrasonography.

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Yanjun; Hu, Huijing; Mao, Yurong; Huang, Dongfeng; Li, Le

    2014-01-01

    Although the body weight support treadmill training (BWSTT) in rehabilitation therapy has been appreciated for a long time, the biomechanical effects of this training on muscular system remain unclear. Ultrasonography has been suggested to be a feasible method to measure muscle morphological changes after neurological diseases such as stroke, which may help to enhance the understanding of the mechanism underlying the impaired motor function. This study investigated the muscle architectural changes of tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius in patients after subacute stroke by ultrasound. As expected, we found the effect of BWSTT on the muscular system. Specifically, the results showed larger pennation angle and muscle thickness of tibialis anterior and longer fascicle length of medial gastrocnemius after the training. The findings of this study suggest that the early rehabilitation training of BWSTT in subacute stage of stroke provides positive changes of the muscle architecture, leading to the potential improvement of the force generation of the muscle. This may not only help us understand changes of subacute stroke in muscular system but also have clinical implications in the evaluation of rehabilitation training after neurological insults.

  15. Feasibility and acceptability of couple counselling and pelvic floor muscle training after operation for prostate cancer

    Karlsen, Randi V; E Bidstrup, Pernille; Hvarness, Helle

    2017-01-01

    Can intervention, which consists of up to six couple counselling sessions, group instruction in pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), up to three individual PFMT sessions and a DVD home training program. We examined its feasibility on the basis of the recruitment rate, adherence to and acceptability...... of the intervention, the response rate and changes in erectile and sexual functioning measured on the International Index of Erectile Function at baseline and at eight and 12 months. RESULTS: The recruitment rate was 14%. One couple withdrew, six couples attended 1-4 counselling sessions, and all patients attended...... PFMT until continence was achieved. The response rate on outcomes was 85% for patients and 71% for partners. The couples reported that counselling improved their sex life but it did not improve their ability to talk openly about sex. Most patients found that the physiotherapist improved...

  16. An Analysis of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Hand Muscle EMG for Improved Pattern Recognition Control.

    Adewuyi, Adenike A; Hargrove, Levi J; Kuiken, Todd A

    2016-04-01

    Pattern recognition control combined with surface electromyography (EMG) from the extrinsic hand muscles has shown great promise for control of multiple prosthetic functions for transradial amputees. There is, however, a need to adapt this control method when implemented for partial-hand amputees, who possess both a functional wrist and information-rich residual intrinsic hand muscles. We demonstrate that combining EMG data from both intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles to classify hand grasps and finger motions allows up to 19 classes of hand grasps and individual finger motions to be decoded, with an accuracy of 96% for non-amputees and 85% for partial-hand amputees. We evaluated real-time pattern recognition control of three hand motions in seven different wrist positions. We found that a system trained with both intrinsic and extrinsic muscle EMG data, collected while statically and dynamically varying wrist position increased completion rates from 73% to 96% for partial-hand amputees and from 88% to 100% for non-amputees when compared to a system trained with only extrinsic muscle EMG data collected in a neutral wrist position. Our study shows that incorporating intrinsic muscle EMG data and wrist motion can significantly improve the robustness of pattern recognition control for application to partial-hand prosthetic control.

  17. Improving the training process of highly skilled bodybuilders in the preparatory period, general preparatory phase

    Olexandr Tyhorskyy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve the method of training highly skilled bodybuilders. Material and Methods: the study involved eight highly skilled athletes, members of the team of Ukraine on bodybuilding. Results: comparative characteristics of the most commonly used methods of training process in bodybuilding. Developed and substantiated the optimal method of training highly skilled bodybuilders during the general preparatory phase of the preparatory period, which can increase body weight through muscle athletes component. Conclusions: dynamic load factor to raise the intensity of training loads allows orientation help to increase volumes shoulder muscles

  18. The Role of Eif6 in Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis Revealed by Endurance Training Co-expression Networks

    Kim Clarke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Regular endurance training improves muscle oxidative capacity and reduces the risk of age-related disorders. Understanding the molecular networks underlying this phenomenon is crucial. Here, by exploiting the power of computational modeling, we show that endurance training induces profound changes in gene regulatory networks linking signaling and selective control of translation to energy metabolism and tissue remodeling. We discovered that knockdown of the mTOR-independent factor Eif6, which we predicted to be a key regulator of this process, affects mitochondrial respiration efficiency, ROS production, and exercise performance. Our work demonstrates the validity of a data-driven approach to understanding muscle homeostasis.

  19. Multimodal high-intensity interval training increases muscle function and metabolic performance in females.

    Buckley, Stephanie; Knapp, Kelly; Lackie, Amy; Lewry, Colin; Horvey, Karla; Benko, Chad; Trinh, Jason; Butcher, Scotty

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient method of improving aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity. In most individuals, however, HIIT using modalities such as cycling, running, and rowing does not typically result in increased muscle strength, power, or endurance. The purpose of this study is to compare the physiological outcomes of traditional HIIT using rowing (Row-HIIT) with a novel multimodal HIIT (MM-HIIT) circuit incorporating multiple modalities, including strength exercises, within an interval. Twenty-eight recreationally active women (age 24.7 ± 5.4 years) completed 6 weeks of either Row-HIIT or MM-HIIT and were tested on multiple fitness parameters. MM-HIIT and Row-HIIT resulted in similar improvements (p HIIT group had significant (p HIIT group had no increase in any muscle performance variable (p values 0.33-0.90). Post-training, 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat (64.2 ± 13.6 vs. 45.8 ± 16.2 kg, p = 0.02), 1RM press (33.2 ± 3.8 vs. 26.0 ± 9.6 kg, p = 0.01), and squat endurance (23.9 ± 12.3 vs. 10.2 ± 5.6 reps, p HIIT group than in the Row-HIIT group. MM-HIIT resulted in similar aerobic and anaerobic adaptations but greater muscle performance increases than Row-HIIT in recreationally active women.

  20. Exercise training during chemotherapy preserves skeletal muscle fiber area, capillarization, and mitochondrial content in patients with breast cancer.

    Mijwel, Sara; Cardinale, Daniele A; Norrbom, Jessica; Chapman, Mark; Ivarsson, Niklas; Wengström, Yvonne; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Rundqvist, Helene

    2018-05-11

    Exercise has been suggested to ameliorate the detrimental effects of chemotherapy on skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different exercise regimens with usual care on skeletal muscle morphology and mitochondrial markers in patients being treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer. Specifically, we compared moderate-intensity aerobic training combined with high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT) and resistance training combined with high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT) with usual care (UC). Resting skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained pre- and postintervention from 23 randomly selected women from the OptiTrain breast cancer trial who underwent RT-HIIT, AT-HIIT, or UC for 16 wk. Over the intervention, citrate synthase activity, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, capillaries per fiber, and myosin heavy chain isoform type I were reduced in UC, whereas RT-HIIT and AT-HIIT were able to counteract these declines. AT-HIIT promoted up-regulation of the electron transport chain protein levels vs. UC. RT-HIIT favored satellite cell count vs. UC and AT-HIIT. There was a significant association between change in citrate synthase activity and self-reported fatigue. AT-HIIT and RT-HIIT maintained or improved markers of skeletal muscle function compared with the declines found in the UC group, indicating a sustained trainability in addition to the preservation of skeletal muscle structural and metabolic characteristics during chemotherapy. These findings highlight the importance of supervised exercise programs for patients with breast cancer during chemotherapy.-Mijwel, S., Cardinale, D. A., Norrbom, J., Chapman, M., Ivarsson, N., Wengström, Y., Sundberg, C. J., Rundqvist, H. Exercise training during chemotherapy preserves skeletal muscle fiber area, capillarization, and mitochondrial content in patients with breast cancer.

  1. Insulin signaling in skeletal muscle of HIV‐infected patients in response to endurance and strength training

    Broholm, Christa; Mathur, Neha; Hvid, Thine

    2013-01-01

    . Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with muscle biopsies were performed before and after the training interventions. Fifteen age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched HIV-negative men served as a sedentary baseline group. Phosphorylation and total protein expression of insulin signaling molecules as well...... hexokinase II (HKII) protein. HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy have decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and defects in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt(thr308). Endurance and strength training increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in these patients......Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy have decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Both endurance and resistance training improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of HIV-infected patients, but the mechanisms are unknown. This study aims...

  2. Skeletal Muscle Contraction Time and Tone Decrease After 8 Weeks of Plyometric Training.

    Zubac, Damir; Šimunič, Boštjan

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether an improvement in jumping performance after 8 weeks of plyometric training (PT) runs in parallel with changes in lower-limb skeletal muscle contractile properties. Using noninvasive tensiomyography (TMG), we assessed contraction time (Tc) and the maximal amplitude of radial displacement (Dm) in 20 subjects (50% men; age 22.4 ± 4.7 years of age), randomly divided in PT group (N = 10; PLYO) and a control group (N = 10; CTRL). The PLYO performed 8 weeks of PT. Tensiomyography was measured in 5 leg skeletal muscles: vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL). Additionally, we evaluated countermovement jump (CMJ) height improvement on a ground force plate. Assessments were repeated before and after PT. After 8 weeks of PT, CMJ height increased by 12.2% in PLYO (p = 0.015), but not in CRTL. Contraction time, which is related to myosin heavy-chain type 1 (MHC-1) proportion, decreased in VL (-8.7%; p muscle tone, decreased in BF (-26.5%; p = 0.032), GM (-14.9%; p = 0.017), GL (-31.5%; p = 0.017), but not in TA (-16.8%; p = 0.113) and VL (-6.0%; p = 0.654). After PT, jumping performance increased, which was paralleled by decreased Tc and decreased muscle tone. Additionally, adaptations to contractile properties were muscle specific, which is important for future studies. It seems that adjustments were dose dependent, being higher in muscles with lower habitual load.

  3. Thigh muscle activity, knee motion, and impact force during side-step pivoting in agility-trained female basketball players.

    Wilderman, Danielle R; Ross, Scott E; Padua, Darin A

    2009-01-01

    Improving neuromuscular control of hamstrings muscles might have implications for decreasing anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females. To examine the effects of a 6-week agility training program on quadriceps and hamstrings muscle activation, knee flexion angles, and peak vertical ground reaction force. Prospective, randomized clinical research trial. Sports medicine research laboratory. Thirty female intramural basketball players with no history of knee injury (age = 21.07 +/- 2.82 years, height = 171.27 +/- 4.66 cm, mass = 66.36 +/- 7.41 kg). Participants were assigned to an agility training group or a control group that did not participate in agility training. Participants in the agility training group trained 4 times per week for 6 weeks. We used surface electromyography to assess muscle activation for the rectus femoris, vastus medialis oblique, medial hamstrings, and lateral hamstrings for 50 milliseconds before initial ground contact and while the foot was in contact with the ground during a side-step pivot maneuver. Knee flexion angles (at initial ground contact, maximum knee flexion, knee flexion displacement) and peak vertical ground reaction force also were assessed during this maneuver. Participants in the training group increased medial hamstrings activation during ground contact after the 6-week agility training program. Both groups decreased their vastus medialis oblique muscle activation during ground contact. Knee flexion angles and peak vertical ground reaction force did not change for either group. Agility training improved medial hamstrings activity in female intramural basketball players during a side-step pivot maneuver. Agility training that improves hamstrings activity might have implications for reducing anterior cruciate ligament sprain injury associated with side-step pivots.

  4. Different Muscle Action Training Protocols on Quadriceps-Hamstrings Neuromuscular Adaptations.

    Ruas, Cassio V; Brown, Lee E; Lima, Camila D; Gregory Haff, G; Pinto, Ronei S

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three specific concentric and eccentric muscle action training protocols on quadriceps-hamstrings neuromuscular adaptations. Forty male volunteers performed 6 weeks of training (two sessions/week) of their dominant and non-dominant legs on an isokinetic dynamometer. They were randomly assigned to one of four groups; concentric quadriceps and concentric hamstrings (CON/CON, n=10), eccentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (ECC/ECC, n=10), concentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstrings (CON/ECC, n=10), or no training (CTRL, n=10). Intensity of training was increased every week by decreasing the angular velocity for concentric and increasing it for eccentric groups in 30°/s increments. Volume of training was increased by adding one set every week. Dominant leg quadriceps and hamstrings muscle thickness, muscle quality, muscle activation, muscle coactivation, and electromechanical delay were tested before and after training. Results revealed that all training groups similarly increased MT of quadriceps and hamstrings compared to control (p0.05). These findings suggest that different short-term muscle action isokinetic training protocols elicit similar muscle size increases in hamstrings and quadriceps, but not for other neuromuscular variables. Nevertheless, effect sizes indicate that CON/ECC and ECC/ECC may elicit the greatest magnitude of change in muscle hypertrophy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Muscle adaptations to plyometric vs. resistance training in untrained young men

    Vissing, Kristian; Brink, Mads; Lønbro, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle strength, power, and morphology induced by conventional strength training vs. plyometric training of equal time and effort requirements. Young, untrained men performed 12 weeks of progressive conventional resistance training (CRT, n = 8......) or plyometric training (PT, n = 7). Tests before and after training included one-repetition maximum (1 RM) incline leg press, 3 RM knee extension, and 1 RM knee flexion, countermovement jumping (CMJ), and ballistic incline leg press. Also, before and after training, magnetic resonance imaging scanning...... was performed for the thigh, and a muscle biopsy was sampled from the vastus lateralis muscle. Muscle strength increased by approximately 20-30% (1-3 RM tests) (p Plyometric training increased maximum CMJ height (10...

  6. Effect of inspiratory muscle training with load compared with sham training on blood pressure in individuals with hypertension: study protocol of a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Posser, Simone Regina; Callegaro, Carine Cristina; Beltrami-Moreira, Marina; Moreira, Leila Beltrami

    2016-08-02

    Hypertension is a complex chronic condition characterized by elevated arterial blood pressure. Management of hypertension includes non-pharmacologic strategies, which may include techniques that effectively reduce autonomic sympathetic activity. Respiratory exercises improve autonomic control over cardiovascular system and attenuate muscle metaboreflex. Because of these effects, respiratory exercises may be useful to lower blood pressure in subjects with hypertension. This randomized, double-blind clinical trial will test the efficacy of inspiratory muscle training in reducing blood pressure in adults with essential hypertension. Subjects are randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. Intervention consists of inspiratory muscle training loaded with 40 % of maximum inspiratory pressure, readjusted weekly. Control sham intervention consists of unloaded exercises. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures are co-primary endpoint measures assessed with 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Secondary outcome measures include cardiovascular autonomic control, inspiratory muscle metaboreflex, cardiopulmonary capacity, and inspiratory muscle strength and endurance. Previously published work suggests that inspiratory muscle training reduces blood pressure in persons with hypertension, but the effectiveness of this intervention is yet to be established. We propose an adequately sized randomized clinical trial to test this hypothesis rigorously. If an effect is found, this study will allow for the investigation of putative mechanisms to mediate this effect, including autonomic cardiovascular control and metaboreflex. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02275377 . Registered on 30 September 2014.

  7. Training for improved neuro-muscular control of balance in middle aged females.

    Anderson, Gregory S; Deluigi, Fabio; Belli, Guido; Tentoni, Claudio; Gaetz, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    This study examined improvements in static balance and muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity following a four week progressive training program in 16 middle aged females (mean age = 46.9 ± 8.7 yrs; height 161.1 ± 6.0 cm; weight 65.4 ± 11.2 kg). Participants trained 3 times per week for 4 weeks, for 50 min per session, progressing base of support, stability, vision, resistance and torque in each of six basic exercises. Pre and post training measures of balance included feet together standing, a tandem stance and a one-leg stand (unsupported leg in the saggital plane) performed with the eyes closed, and a Stork Stand (unsupported leg in the frontal plane) with both eyes open and closed. In each position postural deviations were tallied for each individual while muscle recruitment was determined using root mean squared (RMS) EMG activity for the soleus, biceps femoris, erector spinae, rectus abdominis and internal oblique muscles of the dominant foot side. Balance scores were significantly improved post training in both the Balance Error Score System (p training in all muscles in each condition except the soleus in the tandem position, although not all significantly. Reduced biceps femoris activity suggest that improved core stability allowed participants to move from a hip to an ankle postural control strategy through improved coordination of muscles involved in balance and reduced body sway. The core muscles were able to control body position with less activity post training suggesting improved muscle coordination and efficiency. These results suggest that short term progressive floor to BOSU™ balance training can improve standing balance in middle aged women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrophysiological characteristics of motor units and muscle fibers in trained and untrained young male subjects

    Duez, Lene; Qerama, Erisela; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that the amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and interference pattern analysis (IPA) would be larger in trained subjects compared with untrained subjects, possibly due to hypertrophy of muscle fibers and/or increased central drive. Moreover, we hypothesized...... and untrained subjects in IPA power spectrum and turns per second or amplitude of the CMAPs obtained by DMS. Muscle fiber hypertrophy and/or altered central drive may account for our results, but there was no indication of changes in muscle fiber excitability. Muscle Nerve, 2010....... that the untrained muscle is less excitable compared with the trained muscle. An electromyographic (EMG) needle electrode was used to record the IPA at maximal voluntary effort. The CMAP was obtained by stimulating the musculocutaneous nerve and recording the brachial biceps muscle using surface electrodes. CMAPs...

  9. TRAINING-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE TOPOGRAPHY OF MUSCLE TORQUES AND MAXIMAL MUSCLE TORQUES IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Krzysztof Buśko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to detect changes in the maximal muscle torques in male basketball players during a two-year training cycle. We verified the hypothesis that different workloads applied during the preparation and competition periods would result in changes in the maximal muscle torques of the athletes (increase during the former and decrease or no change during the latter period accompanied by no alteration of the percent muscle topography of all the muscle groups tested. The examinations were conducted on nine senior male basketball players from the Polish national team. Estimations of the muscle torques in static conditions were performed at the end of the preparation (measurements I and III and competition (measurements II and IV periods of a two-year training cycle. Eleven muscle groups were studied including flexors and extensors of the trunk and flexors and extensors of the shoulder, the elbow, the hip, the knee, and the ankle. Muscle torques of the shoulder and the elbow insignificantly decreased except for the muscle torque of the flexors of the shoulder. Muscle torques of the flexors and extensors of the trunk as well as of the flexors and extensors of the hip, the knee, and the ankle increased between measurements I and III and between measurements I and IV with the only exception being the muscle torque of the flexors of the knee (which significantly decreased by 7.4% In the case of the flexors and extensors of the trunk and the flexors and extensors of the hip, the changes appeared to be significant. The sum of the muscle torques of the upper limbs markedly decreased between the preparation (measurement I and competition (measurement IV periods. The sum of the muscle torques of the trunk and the lower limbs and the sum of the muscle torques of the eleven muscle groups significantly increased between measurements I and IV. Percent muscle topography significantly decreased for the flexors and extensors of the shoulder and the

  10. Improved Classification of Mammograms Following Idealized Training

    Hornsby, Adam N.; Love, Bradley C.

    2014-01-01

    People often make decisions by stochastically retrieving a small set of relevant memories. This limited retrieval implies that human performance can be improved by training on idealized category distributions (Giguère & Love, 2013). Here, we evaluate whether the benefits of idealized training extend to categorization of real-world stimuli, namely classifying mammograms as normal or tumorous. Participants in the idealized condition were trained exclusively on items that, according to a norming study, were relatively unambiguous. Participants in the actual condition were trained on a representative range of items. Despite being exclusively trained on easy items, idealized-condition participants were more accurate than those in the actual condition when tested on a range of item types. However, idealized participants experienced difficulties when test items were very dissimilar from training cases. The benefits of idealization, attributable to reducing noise arising from cognitive limitations in memory retrieval, suggest ways to improve real-world decision making. PMID:24955325

  11. Improved Classification of Mammograms Following Idealized Training.

    Hornsby, Adam N; Love, Bradley C

    2014-06-01

    People often make decisions by stochastically retrieving a small set of relevant memories. This limited retrieval implies that human performance can be improved by training on idealized category distributions (Giguère & Love, 2013). Here, we evaluate whether the benefits of idealized training extend to categorization of real-world stimuli, namely classifying mammograms as normal or tumorous. Participants in the idealized condition were trained exclusively on items that, according to a norming study, were relatively unambiguous. Participants in the actual condition were trained on a representative range of items. Despite being exclusively trained on easy items, idealized-condition participants were more accurate than those in the actual condition when tested on a range of item types. However, idealized participants experienced difficulties when test items were very dissimilar from training cases. The benefits of idealization, attributable to reducing noise arising from cognitive limitations in memory retrieval, suggest ways to improve real-world decision making.

  12. Exercise training alters the balance between vasoactive compounds in skeletal muscle of individuals with essential hypertension

    Hansen, Ane Håkansson; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The effects of physical training on the formation of vasodilating and vasoconstricting compounds, as well as on related proteins important for vascular function, were examined in skeletal muscle of individuals with essential hypertension (n=10). Muscle microdialysis samples were obtained from...... subjects with hypertension before and after 16 weeks of physical training. Muscle dialysates were analyzed for thromboxane A(2), prostacyclin, nucleotides, and nitrite/nitrate. Protein levels of thromboxane synthase, prostacyclin synthase, cyclooxygenase 1 and 2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e...

  13. Mathematical models of human paralyzed muscle after long-term training

    Frey Law, L.A.; Shields, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in major musculoskeletal adaptations, including muscle atrophy, faster contractile properties, increased fatigability, and bone loss. The use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) provides a method to prevent paralyzed muscle adaptations in order to sustain force-generating capacity. Mathematical muscle models may be able to predict optimal activation strategies during FES, however muscle properties further adapt with long-term training. The purpose of th...

  14. Exercise and training effects on ceramide metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Saltin, Bengt

    2004-01-01

    in skeletal muscle in untrained and trained subjects before and after prolonged exercise. Healthy male subjects were recruited into an untrained (n = 8, VO2,max 3.8 +/- 0.2 1 min1) and a trained (n = 8, Vo2,max 5.1 +/- 0.1 1 min2) group. Before and after a 3-h exercise bout (58 +/- 1% VO2,max) a muscle biopsy...... was measured using N-[14CH3]-sphingomyelin as a substrate. Prior to exercise, the muscle total ceramide fatty acid content in both groups was similar (201 +/- 18 and 197 +/- 9 nmol g(-1) in the untrained and trained group, respectively) and after exercise a 25% increase in the content was observed in each...... group. At rest, the muscle total sphingomyelin fatty acid content was higher in untrained than in trained subjects (456 +/- 10, 407 +/- 7 nmol g(-1), respectively; P trained subjects. The muscle neutral, Mg...

  15. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and inspiratory muscle training as potential adjunctive rehabilitation options for patients with heart failure.

    Arena, Ross; Pinkstaff, Sherry; Wheeler, Emma; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Guazzi, Marco; Myers, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic and resistance exercise training programs produce an abundance of physiologic and clinical benefits in patients with heart failure (HF). Improved maximal aerobic capacity, submaximal aerobic endurance, muscle force production, perceived quality of life, and skeletal muscle characteristics are among the more established outcomes resulting from these rehabilitation techniques. Moreover, both aerobic and resistance exercise training appear to portend a low risk to patients with HF when appropriate exercise prescription methods are followed. While the aforementioned training techniques will undoubtedly continue to be at the center of a well-formulated rehabilitation program, other adjunctive interventions, which are presently underutilized in clinical practice, may prove beneficial in patients with HF. Specifically, both neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) appear to significantly improve several physiologic, exercise, symptomatologic, and quality-of-life parameters. NMES targets skeletal muscle abnormalities, whereas IMT primarily targets the weakened respiratory musculature, both often encountered in patients with HF. A PubMed search using relevant key words identified 19 original investigations examining the impact of NMES (13 studies) and IMT (6 studies) training programs in patients with HF. The resultant review (1) provides a summary of the original research outcomes of both NMES and IMT in patients with HF; (2) addresses current research gaps, providing a direction for future investigations; and (3) provides clinical scenarios where NMES and IMT may prove to be beneficial during the rehabilitation of patients with HF.

  16. The effect of peculiar complex core balance training on isokinetic muscle functions of the knee and lumbus.

    Lee, Myungsun; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of peculiar complex core balance training on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus to provide fundamental data for establishing a training program that focuses on improving the performance and prevention of injury by developing the core and low extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study included a total of ten high school athletes involved in a throwing event for over five years. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: The experimental group (N=5) and the control group (N=5). The experimental group underwent peculiar complex core balance training. [Results] According to the analysis of covariance, there was a significant effect of peculiar complex core balance training. Therefore, the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus in the experimental group participating in peculiar complex core balance training was significantly increased compared to the control group. [Conclusion] It is concluded that peculiar complex core balance training had a positive effect on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee and lumbus in throwing event athletes.

  17. Cold-water immersion after training sessions: Effects on fiber type-specific adaptations in muscle K+ transport proteins to sprint-interval training in men.

    Christiansen, Danny; Bishop, David John; Broatch, James R; Bangsbo, Jens; McKenna, Michael John; Murphy, Robyn M

    2018-05-10

    Effects of regular use of cold-water immersion (CWI) on fiber type-specific adaptations in muscle K + transport proteins to intense training, along with their relationship to changes in mRNA levels after the first training session, were investigated in humans. Nineteen recreationally-active men (24{plus minus}6 y, 79.5{plus minus}10.8 kg, 44.6{plus minus}5.8 mL∙kg -1 ∙min -1 ) completed six weeks of sprint-interval cycling either without (passive rest; CON) or with training sessions followed by CWI (15 min at 10{degree sign}C; COLD). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after training to determine abundance of Na + ,K + -ATPase isoforms (α 1-3 , β 1-3 ) and FXYD1, and after recovery treatments (+0h and +3h) on the first day of training to measure mRNA content. Training increased (ptraining (p>0.05). CWI after each session did not influence responses to training (p>0.05). However, α 2 mRNA increased after the first session in COLD (+0h, p0.05). In both conditions, α 1 and β 3 mRNA increased (+3h; p 0.05) after the first session. In summary, Na + ,K + -ATPase isoforms are differently regulated in type I and II muscle fibers by sprint-interval training in humans, which for most isoforms do not associate with changes in mRNA levels after the first training session. CWI neither impairs nor improves protein adaptations to intense training of importance for muscle K + regulation.

  18. Pelvic Floor Muscle Training: Underutilization in the USA.

    Lamin, Eliza; Parrillo, Lisa M; Newman, Diane K; Smith, Ariana L

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are highly prevalent in women of all ages and can greatly impair quality of life. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is a viable treatment option for several pelvic floor conditions including urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. PFMT is a program of therapy initiated by an experienced clinician (e.g., women's health or urology nurse practitioner (NP), physical therapist (PT)) that involves exercises for women with stress urinary incontinence (UI) and exercises combined with behavioral or conservative treatments (lifestyle changes, bladder training with urge suppression) for women with urgency or mixed UI. These exercise programs are more comprehensive than simple Kegel exercises. Despite evidence-based research indicating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness for treatment of urinary incontinence, PFMT is not commonly used as a first-line treatment in clinical practice in the USA (Abrams et al., 2012). This article will review PFMT for the treatment of UI and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and theorize how this conservative therapy can be utilized more effectively in the USA.

  19. Effect of respiratory muscle training on exercise performance in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Illi, Sabine K; Held, Ulrike; Frank, Irène; Spengler, Christina M

    2012-08-01

    Two distinct types of specific respiratory muscle training (RMT), i.e. respiratory muscle strength (resistive/threshold) and endurance (hyperpnoea) training, have been established to improve the endurance performance of healthy individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to determine the factors that affect the change in endurance performance after RMT in healthy subjects. A computerized search was performed without language restriction in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and references of original studies and reviews were searched for further relevant studies. RMT studies with healthy individuals assessing changes in endurance exercise performance by maximal tests (constant load, time trial, intermittent incremental, conventional [non-intermittent] incremental) were screened and abstracted by two independent investigators. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify effects of subjects' fitness, type of RMT (inspiratory or combined inspiratory/expiratory muscle strength training, respiratory muscle endurance training), type of exercise test, test duration and type of sport (rowing, running, swimming, cycling) on changes in performance after RMT. In addition, a meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of RMT on endurance performance in those studies providing the necessary data. The multiple linear regression analysis including 46 original studies revealed that less fit subjects benefit more from RMT than highly trained athletes (6.0% per 10 mL · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹ decrease in maximal oxygen uptake, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8, 10.2%; p = 0.005) and that improvements do not differ significantly between inspiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle endurance training (p = 0.208), while combined inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength training seems to be superior in improving performance, although based on only 6 studies (+12.8% compared with inspiratory muscle strength training, 95% CI 3

  20. The effect of repeated periods of speed endurance training on performance, running economy and muscle adaptations

    Skovgaard, Casper; Almquist, Nicki Winfield; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    sessions during two 40-day periods (P1 and P2) separated by ~80 days of habitual training. Before and after both P1 and P2, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO2 -max and a repeated running test at 90% vVO2 -max to exhaustion (RRT) to determine short-term endurance capacity......, with no change in P1. No changes in muscle expression of Na(+) ,K(+) -ATPase α1, α2 and β1, NHE1, SERCA1 and SERCA2, actin and CamKII were found during neither P1 nor P2. Thus, the present study demonstrates that a second period of intense training leads to improved short-term performance and further improved RE...

  1. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Zeren, Melih; Demir, Rengin; Yigit, Zerrin; Gurses, Hulya N

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. Prospective randomized controlled single-blind study. Cardiology department of a university hospital. A total of 38 patients with permanent atrial fibrillation were randomly allocated to either a treatment group (n = 19; age 66.2 years (8.8)) or a control group (n = 19; age 67.1 years (6.4)). The training group received inspiratory muscle training at 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure for 15 minutes twice a day, 7 days a week, for 12 weeks alongside the standard medical treatment. The control group received standard medical treatment only. Spirometry, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures and 6-minute walking distance was measured at the beginning and end of the study. There was a significant increase in maximal inspiratory pressure (27.94 cmH 2 O (8.90)), maximal expiratory pressure (24.53 cmH 2 O (10.34)), forced vital capacity (10.29% (8.18) predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (13.88% (13.42) predicted), forced expiratory flow 25%-75% (14.82% (12.44) predicted), peak expiratory flow (19.82% (15.62) predicted) and 6-minute walking distance (55.53 m (14.13)) in the training group (p  0.05). Inspiratory muscle training can improve pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Effect of resistance training on muscle strength and rate of force development in healthy older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Guizelini, Pedrode Camargo; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio; Caputo, Fabrizio; Greco, Camila Coelho

    2018-02-01

    Rapid force capacity, identified by rate of rise in contractile force at the onset of contraction, i.e., the rate of force development (RFD), has been considered an important neuromuscular parameter of physical fitness in elderly individuals. Randomized control studies conducted in adults have found that resistance training may elicit different outcomes in terms of RFD and muscle strength. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to review systematically the literature for studies regarding the influence of resistance training on muscle strength and RFD in elderly persons. A literature search was performed in major electronic databases from inception to March 2017. Studies including health individuals with a mean age≥60years, describing the effect of resistance training on RFD and muscle strength were found eligible. The outcomes were calculated as the difference in percentage change between control and experimental groups (% change) and data were presented as mean±95% confidence limits. Meta-analyses were performed using a random-effects model and, in addition, simple and multiple meta-regression analyses were used to identify effects of age, training type, sessions per week and training duration on % change in RFD and muscle strength. Thirteen training effects were collected from 10 studies included in the meta-analysis. The resistance training program had a moderate beneficial effect on both muscle strength (% change=18.40%, 95% CL 13.69-23.30, pchange=26.68, 95% CL 14.41-35.52, pchanges in muscle strength and RFD. It can be concluded that explosive training and heavy strength training are effective resistance training methods aiming to improve both muscle strength and RFD after short-to-medium training period. However, muscle strength and RFD seem to adapt differently to resistance training programs, suggesting caution for their interchangeable use in clinical assessments of the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical workload on neck and shoulder muscles during military helicopter flight - a need for exercise training?

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir

    /shoulder muscles to assess possible overload that may call for exercise training to improve capacity and prevent neck pain. Methods Nine pilots and nine crew members from the Royal Danish Air Force participated in a standardized representative flight sortie encompassing: Patient transportation (A-B flight...... with the flexed and/or rotated positioning of the head may play a role for the high prevalence of neck/shoulder pain among this occupational group. The present exposure-assessment suggests that strengthening exercises for the UNE, lowering the relative load during flights, could potentially alleviate neck pain....

  4. Can visual arts training improve physician performance?

    Katz, Joel T; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts - a subset of medical humanities - into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation.

  5. Can Visual Arts Training Improve Physician Performance?

    Katz, Joel T.; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts — a subset of medical humanities — into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation. PMID:25125749

  6. Changes in muscle strength in elderly women after proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation based training

    Edivã Bernardo da Silva

    Full Text Available Introduction Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF can be used to improve the quality of life of both healthy and diseased subjects, including the elderly, who suffer muscular weakness due to aging, leading to an impairment in functional capacity. Objective Verify the effectiveness of PNF as a tool for functional conditioning. Materials and methods We evaluated a total of ten elderly women aged 60–70 years, clinically healthy and physically active. They had the force of motion of hip flexion with knee extension analyzed by an analog dynamometer. They were then randomly and equally divided into experimental (EG and control group (CG. The GC was instructed to continue with their normal activities while the GE held 15 training sessions in the lower limb (LL based on the diagonal D1 and D2. Finally, a new collection wrench the two groups was performed and the data compared. Results There was a significant increase in the average strength of GE, on the order of 31% (p 0.05. Discussion : The results confirm that the FNP through initial work of readjustment and proprioceptive neuromuscular activation, and after that, conditioning of the muscle fibers (mainly resistive is capable of amplifying the force developed by the muscle. Conclusion The PNF was effective as training to gain muscle strength, should be better analyzed as a tool fitness, not to cause health risks, have low cost and easy application.

  7. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  8. Attenuated Increase in Maximal Force of Rat Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle after Concurrent Peak Power and Endurance Training

    Regula Furrer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of muscle peak power and oxidative capacity are generally presumed to be mutually exclusive. However, this may not be valid by using fibre type-specific recruitment. Since rat medial gastrocnemius muscle (GM is composed of high and low oxidative compartments which are recruited task specifically, we hypothesised that the adaptive responses to peak power training were unaffected by additional endurance training. Thirty rats were subjected to either no training (control, peak power training (PT, or both peak power and endurance training (PET, which was performed on a treadmill 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Maximal running velocity increased 13.5% throughout the training and was similar in both training groups. Only after PT, GM maximal force was 10% higher than that of the control group. In the low oxidative compartment, mRNA levels of myostatin and MuRF-1 were higher after PT as compared to those of control and PET groups, respectively. Phospho-S6 ribosomal protein levels remained unchanged, suggesting that the elevated myostatin levels after PT did not inhibit mTOR signalling. In conclusion, even by using task-specific recruitment of the compartmentalized rat GM, additional endurance training interfered with the adaptive response of peak power training and attenuated the increase in maximal force after power training.

  9. The effect of basketball training on the muscle strength of adults with mental retardation.

    Tsimaras, Vasilios K; Samara, Christina A; Kotzamanidou, Marianna C; Bassa, Eleni I; Fotiadou, Eleni G; Kotzamanidis, Christos M

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of basketball training on the muscle strength of adults with mental retardation (MR). Twenty-four adults with and without MR were separated into 3 groups. Eight adults (mean age 25.4 years) with normal IQ constituted the control group (NIQ). Eight adults (mean age 26.5 years) with MR and all participating in a 4-year systematic basketball exercise program constituted the trained group (MR-T), and 8 adults (mean age 25.3 years) with MR exercised occasionally for recreational reasons formed the MR-R group. Parameters measured were isometric and isokinetic concentric and eccentric muscle strength. All subjects performed a leg strength test on a Cybex Norm isokinetic dynamometer. Analysis of variance was used to examine mean differences between the values of the 3 groups. A significance level of 0.05 was used for all tests. The NIQ group showed a statistically significant difference in all measured values compared to the MR groups. The MR-T group presented higher absolute and relative torque scores for both knee extensors and flexors than the MR-R group, whereas the MR-R group presented statistically higher antagonistic activity for both knee extensors and flexors than the MR-T group. In addition, both MR groups presented statistically higher antagonistic activity for both knee extensors and flexors compared to the NIQ group. Data support participation on a systematic and well-designed basketball training program to improve muscle strength levels of adults with MR. Participation in basketball without necessarily focusing on developing specific fitness components may be an effective training strategy for the promotion of strength of adults with MR.

  10. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Insulin receptor binding and protein kinase activity in muscles of trained rats

    Dohm, G.L.; Sinha, M.K.; Caro, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity, and muscle is quantitatively the most important tissue of insulin action. Since the first step in insulin action is the binding to a membrane receptor, the authors postulated that exercise training would change insulin receptors in muscle and in this study they have investigated this hypothesis. Female rats initially weighing ∼ 100 g were trained by treadmill running for 2 h/day, 6 days/wk for 4 wk at 25 m/min (0 grade). Insulin receptors from vastus intermedius muscles were solubilized by homogenizing in a buffer containing 1% Triton X-100 and then partially purified by passing the soluble extract over a wheat germ agglutinin column. The 4 wk training regimen resulted in a 65% increase in citrate synthase activity in red vastus lateralis muscle, indicating an adaptation to exercise [ 125 I]. Insulin binding by the partially purified receptor preparations was approximately doubled in muscle of trained rats at all insulin concentrations, suggesting an increase in the number of receptors. Training did not alter insulin receptor structure as evidenced by electrophoretic mobility under reducing and nonreducing conditions. Basal insulin receptor protein kinase activity was higher in trained than untrained animals and this was likely due to the greater number of receptors. However, insulin stimulation of the protein kinase activity was depressed by training. These results demonstrate that endurance training does alter receptor number and function in muscle and these changes may be important in increasing insulin sensitivity after exercise training

  12. Increased Muscular 5α-Dihydrotestosterone in Response to Resistance Training Relates to Skeletal Muscle Mass and Glucose Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Naoki Horii

    Full Text Available Regular resistance exercise induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improvement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, a sex steroid hormone precursor, increases 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT synthesis and is associated with improvements in fasting blood glucose level and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether increase in muscle DHT levels, induced by chronic resistance exercise, can contribute to skeletal muscle hypertrophy and concomitant improvement of muscular glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Male 20-week-old type 2 diabetic rats (OLETF were randomly divided into 3 groups: sedentary control, resistance training (3 times a week on alternate days for 8 weeks, or resistance training with continuous infusion of a 5α-reductase inhibitor (n = 8 each group. Age-matched, healthy nondiabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO rats (n = 8 were used as controls. The results indicated that OLETF rats showed significant decrease in muscular DHEA, free testosterone, DHT levels, and protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes, with loss of skeletal muscle mass and hyperglycemia, compared to that of LETO rats. However, 8-week resistance training in OLETF rats significantly increased the levels of muscle sex steroid hormones and protein expression of steroidogenic enzymes with a concomitant increase in skeletal muscle mass, improved fasting glucose level, and insulin sensitivity index. Moreover, resistance training accelerated glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4 translocation and protein kinase B and C-ζ/λ phosphorylation. Administering the 5α-reductase inhibitor in resistance-trained OLETF rats resulted in suppression of the exercise-induced effects on skeletal muscle mass, fasting glucose level, insulin sensitivity index, and GLUT-4 signaling, with a decline in muscular DHT levels. These findings suggest that resistance training

  13. Isometric muscle training of the spine musculature in patients with spinal bony metastases under radiation therapy

    Rief, Harald; Jensen, Alexandra D; Bruckner, Thomas; Herfarth, Klaus; Debus, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Osseous metastatic involvement of the spinal column affects many patients with a primary tumour disease of all entities. The consequences are pain both at rest and under exertion, impairments in going about day-to-day activities, diminished performance, the risk of pathological fractures, and neurological deficits. Palliative percutaneous radiotherapy is one of the therapeutical options available in this connection. The aim of this explorative study is to investigate the feasibility of muscle-training exercises and to evaluate the progression- and fracture-free survival time and the improvement of bone density, as well as to assess other clinical parameters such as pain, quality of life, and fatigue as secondary endpoints. This study is a prospective, randomized, monocentre, controlled explorative intervention study in the parallel-group design to determine the multidimensional effects of a course of exercises at first under physiotherapeutic instruction and subsequently performed by the patients independently for strengthening the paravertebral muscles of patients with metastases of the vertebral column parallel to their percutaneous radiotherapy. On the days of radiation treatment the patients in the control group shall be given physical treatment in the form of respiratory therapy and the so-called 'hot roll'. The patients will be randomized into one of the two groups: differentiated muscle training or physiotherapy with thirty patients in each group. The aim of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of the training programme described here. Progression-free and fracture-free survival, improved response to radiotherapy by means of bone density, and clinical parameters such as pain, quality of life, and fatigue constitute secondary study objectives. ClinicalTrials.gov: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01409720

  14. Endurance training enhances skeletal muscle interleukin-15 in human male subjects

    Rinnov, Anders; Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Regular endurance exercise promotes metabolic and oxidative changes in skeletal muscle. Overexpression of interleukin-15 (IL-15) in mice exerts similar metabolic changes in muscle as seen with endurance exercise. Muscular IL-15 production has been shown to increase in mice after weeks of regular...... endurance running. With the present study we aimed to determine if muscular IL-15 production would increase in human male subjects following 12 weeks of endurance training. In two different studies we obtained plasma and muscle biopsies from young healthy subjects performing: (1) 12 weeks of ergometer...... weeks of regular endurance training induced a 40% increase in basal skeletal muscle IL-15 protein content (p...

  15. Effects of Ibuprofen and Resistance Training on Bone and Muscle: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Older Women.

    Duff, Whitney R D; Chilibeck, Philip D; Candow, Darren G; Gordon, Julianne J; Mason, Riley S; Taylor-Gjevre, Regina; Nair, Bindu; Szafron, Michael; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Zello, Gordon A; Kontulainen, Saija A

    2017-04-01

    Resistance training with ibuprofen supplementation may improve musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of resistance training and ibuprofen supplementation on bone and muscle properties in postmenopausal women. Participants (n = 90, 65.3 ± 4.9 yr) were randomly assigned to: supervised resistance training or stretching (placebo-exercise) with postexercise ibuprofen (400 mg) or placebo supplementation for 3 d·wk (9 months). Baseline and postintervention measurements included distal and shaft scans of the forearm and lower leg using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Distal site outcomes included cross-sectional area, content, and density for total and trabecular bone, as well as estimated bone strength in compression. Shaft site outcomes included total bone area; cortical bone area, content, and density; estimated bone strength in torsion; and muscle area and density. Exercise-supplement-time interactions for total bone content at the distal radius (P = 0.009) and cortical density at the radius shaft (P = 0.038) were significant. Resistance training with ibuprofen decreased total bone content (-1.5%) at the distal radius in comparison to the resistance training (0.6%; P = 0.032) and ibuprofen alone (0.5%; P = 0.050). Change in cortical density at the radius shaft differed between the stretching with placebo and ibuprofen supplementation groups (-1.8% vs 1.1%; P = 0.050). Resistance training preserved muscle density in the lower leg more so than stretching (-3.1% vs -5.4%; P = 0.015). Ibuprofen consumed immediately after resistance training had a deleterious effect on bone mineral content at the distal radius, whereas resistance training or ibuprofen supplementation individually prevented bone loss. Resistance training prevented muscle density decline in the lower leg.

  16. EXERCISE PERFORMANCE AND MUSCLE CONTRACTILE PROPERTIES AFTER CREATINE MONOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION IN AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC TRAINING RATS

    Nickolay Boyadjiev

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on exercise performance and contractile variables in aerobic-anaerobic training rats. Twenty 90-day-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups - creatine (Cr and controls (K. The creatine group received creatine monohydrate as a nutritional supplement, whereas the control group was given placebo. Both groups were trained 5 days a week on a treadmill for 20 days in a mixed (aerobic-anaerobic metabolic working regimen (27 m·min-1, 15% elevation for 40 min. The exercise performance (sprint-test, contractile properties (m. tibialis anterior, oxidative enzyme activity (SDH, LDH, NADH2 in m. soleus and blood hematological and chemical variables were assessed in the groups at the end of the experiment. It was found out that creatine supplementation improved the exercise performance after 20 days of administration in a dose of 60 mg per day on the background of a mixed (aerobic-anaerobic exercise training. At the end of the trial the Cr-group demonstrated better values for the variables which characterize the contractile properties of m. tibialis anterior containing predominantly types IIA and IIB muscle fibers. On the other hand, a higher oxidative capacity was found out in m. soleus (type I muscle fibers as a result of 20-day creatine supplementation. No side effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation were assessed by the hematological and blood biochemical indices measured in this study

  17. INFLUENCE OF STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAM ON ISOMETRIC MUSCLE STRENGTH IN YOUNG ATHLETES

    Dragan Radovanovic

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Strength training, or resistance training, is a form of physical conditioning used to increase the ability to resist force. Since muscular strength is required for success in many sports, it is logical to assume that stronger and more powerful young athletes will achieve better results. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of strength training on young athletes. An eight-week strength training program for developing muscle strength was performed in this study. Training protocol was designed specifically for young adolescent’s athletes. The program consisted of exercises for lower and upper body, abdominal and lower back muscles. The programs did not involve the maximal (1-3 repetitions maximum and other very hard intensity exercises that may had negative effect on young athletes. The results showed that strength training program had positive effects on maximal isometric muscle force (Fmax and motor skill. The increase presents the combined influence of strength training and growth.

  18. Kung fu training improves physical fitness measures in overweight/obese adolescents: the "martial fitness" study.

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael R; Chow, Chin Moi; Fiatarone Singh, Maria Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF) program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC) control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was 46.7 +/- 27.8%. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper (P = .002) and lower (P = .04) body strength, and upper body muscle endurance (P = .02), without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness (P = .03), lower body muscle endurance (P = .28; significant 95% CI: 0.37-2.49), and upper body muscle velocity (P = .03) relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness.

  19. Neural and morphological adaptations of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles to isokinetic eccentric training

    Rodrigo de Azevedo Franke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vastus lateralis (VL and vastus medialis (VM are frequently targeted in conditioning/rehabilitation programs due to their role in patellar stabilization during knee extension. This study assessed neural and muscular adaptations in these two muscles after an isokinetic eccentric training program. Twenty healthy men underwent a four-week control period followed by a 12-week period of isokinetic eccentric training. Ultrasound evaluations of VL and VM muscle thickness at rest and electromyographic evaluations during maximal isometric tests were used to assess the morphological and neural properties, respectively. No morphological and neural changes were found throughout the control period, whereas both muscles showed significant increases in thickness (VL = 6.9%; p .05 post-training. Isokinetic eccentric training produces neural and greater morphological adaptations in VM compared to VL, which shows that synergistic muscles respond differently to an eccentric isokinetic strength training program

  20. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  1. A Comparative Study of Whole Body Vibration Training and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training on Women's Stress Urinary Incontinence: Three- Month Follow- Up

    Azizeh Farzinmehr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether Whole Body Vibration Training (WBVT is effective at improving pelvic floor muscles strength in women with Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI.Materials and methods: The study was designed as a randomized clinical trial. 43 women with SUI were randomly assigned in two groups; WBVT and Pelvic Floor Muscle Training (PFMT and received interventions for four weeks. Pelvic floor muscle (PFM strength, quality of life and incontinence intensity were evaluated. All measurements were conducted pre and post intervention and also after 3 months in all participants. The ANOVA and the independent sample t test were applied respectively to determine the differences in each group and between the groups.Results: This study showed the WBVT protocol in this study was effective in pelvic floor muscles strength similar to PFMT, and also in reducing the severity of incontinence and increasing I-QOL questionnaire score. We found significant differences in each group pre and post intervention (p = 0.0001; but no significant difference in comparison of two groups' outcomes. Also after three-month follow up, there was no significant difference between groups.Conclusion: The findings of this study showed the beneficial effects of WBVT in improving pelvic floor muscles strength and quality of life in patients with urinary incontinence in four-week treatment period and after three months follow up.

  2. Effects of neuromuscular training on the reaction time and electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus muscle.

    Linford, Christena W; Hopkins, J Ty; Schulthies, Shane S; Freland, Brent; Draper, David O; Hunter, Iain

    2006-03-01

    To examine the influence of a 6-week neuromuscular training program on the electromechanical delay and reaction time of the peroneus longus muscle. A 2 x 2 pre-post factorial design. Human performance research center biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-six healthy, physically active, college-age subjects were recruited for this study and 26 completed it. There were 5 men and 8 women in the treatment group (mean age +/- standard deviation, 21.9+/-2.1 y; height, 173.7+/-11.1cm; weight, 67.4+/-17.8 kg) and 6 men and 7 women in the control group (age, 21.8+/-2.3 y; height, 173.7+/-11.9 cm; weight, 70.8+/-19.4 kg). Subjects were not currently experiencing any lower-extremity pathology and had no history of injuries requiring treatment to either lower extremity. Subjects in the treatment group completed a 6-week neuromuscular training program involving various therapeutic exercises. Subjects in the control group were asked to continue their normal physical activity during the 6-week period. The electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus was determined by the onset of force contribution after artificial activation, as measured by electromyographic and forceplate data. Reaction time was measured after a perturbation during walking. Data were analyzed using two 2 x 2 analyses of covariance (covariate pretest score). Group (treatment, control) and sex (male, female) were between-subject factors. Neuromuscular training caused a decrease in reaction time to perturbation during walking compared with controls (F=4.030, P=.029), while there was a trend toward an increase in electromechanical delay (F=4.227, P=.052). There was no significant difference between sexes or the interaction of sex and treatment in either reaction time or electromechanical delay. The 6-week training program significantly reduced reaction time of the peroneus longus muscle in healthy subjects. Neuromuscular training may have a beneficial effect on improving dynamic restraint during activity.

  3. Benefits of short inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, dyspnea, and inspiratory fraction in COPD patients

    Barakat Shahin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Barakat Shahin1, Michele Germain2, Alzahouri Kazem3, Guy Annat41Department of Physiology, University of Claude Bernard Lyon I, Lyon, France; 2Chef of the Service of EFR, Hospital of the Croix-Rousse at Lyon, France; 3Department of Medical Informatics, Hospital of St. Julien, Nancy, France; 4Department of Physiology, UFR Médecine Lyon Grange-Blanche Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, INSERM ESPRI ERI 22, Lyon, FranceAbstract: Static lung hyperinflation has important clinical consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Given that most of these patients have respiratory and peripheral muscle weakness, dyspnea and functional exercise capacity may improve as a result of inspiratory muscle training (IMT. The present study is designed to investigate the benefits of a short outpatient program of IMT on inspiratory muscle performance, exercise capacity, perception of dyspnea, and the inspiratory fraction (IF. Thirty patients (24 males, 6 females with significant COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] = 46.21% ± 6.7% predicted, FEV1 = 33.6% ± 8.04% predicted were recruited for this study and had 3 months of IMT (30 minutes/day for 6 days/week in an outpatient clinic. Following IMT, there was a statistically significant increase in inspiratory muscle performance (an increase of the maximal inspiratory pressure from 59% ± 19.1% to 79% ± 21.85% predicted; p = 0.0342, a decrease in dyspnea (from 5.8 ± 0.78 to 1.9 ± 0.57; p = 0.0001, an increase in the distance walked during the 6 minute walk test, from 245 ± 52.37 m to 302 ± 41.30 m, and finally an increase in the IF (the new prognostic factor in COPD from 27.6 ± 9.7% to 31.4% ± 9.8%. The present study concludes that in patients with significant COPD, IMT results in improvement in performance, exercise capacity, sensation of dyspnea, and moreover an improvement in the IF prognostic factor.Keywords: inspiratory muscle training, dyspnea, inspiratory

  4. [Effects of Reactive Jump Training in Handball Players Regarding Jump Height and Power Development in the Triceps Surae Muscle].

    Rensing, N; Westermann, A; Möller, D; von Piekartz, H

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown changes in the technical and physical demands in modern handball. The game has increased considerably in speed, power and dynamics. Jump training has, therefore, become ever more important in the training of the athletes. These developments contribute to the fact that handball is now one of the most injury-prone types of sport, with the lower extremities being most frequently affected. Reactive jump training is not only used in training by now, but also increasingly in injury prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of reactive jump training with handball players. 21 regional league handball players were randomly divided into an intervention group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 9). The intervention group completed a six-week reactive jump training programme while the control group went through a non-specific training programme. Jump height (squat and counter movement jump), isokinetic and isometric maximum power as well as muscle activity served as measuring parameters. A comparison of the intervention and control groups revealed that the reactive jump training led to significant improvements in jump height. The isometric and isokinetic maximum power measurements and the electromyographic activities of the triceps surae muscle demonstrated an improvement in the values within the intervention group. However, this improvement was not significant compared with the control group. Likewise both jumps correlated with the muscle activity of the soleus muscle as shown by electromyography. A moderate correlation was noticed between the isokinetic maximum power measurement and the electromyographic activity of the soleus and gastrocnemius medialis muscles. Furthermore, the correlations of the isometric and isokinetic maximum power meas-urements resulted in a strong correlation coefficient. This study revealed a significant increase in jump height after reactive jump training. There was no significant difference in

  5. Is Pelvic Floor Muscle Training Effective for Men With Poststroke Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms?

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Gard, Gunvor; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training in men with poststroke lower urinary tract symptoms. Thirty-one poststroke men, median age 68 years, were included in this single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Thirty participants, 15 in each group......, completed the study. The intervention consisted of 3 months (12 weekly sessions) of pelvic floor muscle training in groups and home exercises. The effect was evaluated by the DAN-PSS-1 (Danish Prostate Symptom Score) questionnaire, a voiding diary, and digital anal palpation of the pelvic floor muscle...... that pelvic floor muscle training has an effect for lower urinary tract symptoms, although statistical significance was only seen for pelvic floor muscle....

  6. Effect of strength training on muscle function in elderly hospitalized patients

    Suetta, C; Magnusson, S P; Beyer, N

    2007-01-01

    Immobilization due to hospitalization and major surgery leads to an increased risk of morbidity, disability and a decline in muscle function especially in frail elderly individuals. In fact, many elderly patients fail to regain their level of function and self-care before admission to hospital....... Given that reduced lower limb muscle strength and loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) have been associated with functional impairments and disability with aging, attempts to counteract this process seem highly relevant. In recent years, strength training has emerged as an effective method...... to induce muscle hypertrophy and increase muscle strength and functional performance in frail elderly individuals. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that strength training is an effective method to restore muscle function in post-operative patients and in patients with chronic diseases. Despite this...

  7. Effect of strength training with blood flow restriction on muscle power and submaximal strength in eumenorrheic women.

    Gil, Ana L S; Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Dias, Ingrid; Vianna, Jeferson; Nunes, Rodolfo A M; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2017-03-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training stimulates muscle size and strength by increasing muscle activation, accumulation of metabolites and muscle swelling. This method has been used in different populations, but no studies have evaluated the effects of training on muscle power and submaximal strength (SS) in accounted for the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of strength training (ST) with BFR on the muscle power and SS of upper and lower limbs in eumenorrheic women. Forty untrained women (18-40 years) were divided randomly and proportionally into four groups: (i) high-intensity ST at 80% of 1RM (HI), (ii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM combined with partial blood flow restriction (LI + BFR), (iii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM (LI) and d) control group (CG). Each training group performed eight training sessions. Tests with a medicine ball (MB), horizontal jump (HJ), vertical jump (VJ), biceps curls (BC) and knee extension (KE) were performed during the 1st day follicular phase (FP), 14th day (ovulatory phase) and 26-28th days (luteal phase) of the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference among groups in terms of the MB, HJ, VJ or BC results at any time point (P>0·05). SS in the KE exercise was significantly greater in the LI + BFR group compared to the CG group (P = 0·014) during the LP. Therefore, ST with BFR does not appear to improve the power of upper and lower limbs and may be an alternative to improve the SS of lower limbs of eumenorrheic women. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Influence of Isometric Exercise Training on Quadriceps Muscle Architecture and Strength in Obese Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Waleed S Mahmoud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Obese individuals have reduced quadriceps muscle strength relative to body mass that may increase the rate of progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of isometric exercise training on quadriceps muscle architecture and strength in obese subjects with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Fortyfour obese male subjects aged 40–65 years diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into group A (n=32 and group B (n=12. Group A subjects performed a 12-week isometric exercise program. Group B subjects did not participate in any exercise program and maintained their ordinary activities for the same period. Both groups received the same conventional physical therapy program including hot packs and therapeutic ultrasonic. Muscle thickness, pennation angles and fascicle length of the vastus lateralis (VL muscle of the affected knee were measured at rest by B-mode ultrasonography. Maximal voluntary isometric knee extension torque (MVIC of the affected knee was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Knee pain and function were evaluated using visual analogue pain scale (VAS and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC. All variables were evaluated before and the end of the intervention period for both groups. Results: at the end of the program, group A subjects showed significant improvements compared with group B subjects regarding MVIC and muscle architecture parameters (p<0.05. Also, there was significant improvement in post-test VAS and WOMAC scores in group A subjects compared to group B subjects (p<0.05. Conclusion: A 12-week quadriceps isometric training program improves knee pain and quadriceps muscle strength and architecture in obese subjects with knee OA. These results indicate that isometric training should be regarded as a proper exercise intervention for obese patients with knee OA.

  9. Training in exercises for pelvic floor muscles of patients with an urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy

    P. V. Glybochko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Training of muscles of a pelvic bottom under control of biofeedback is applied at 87 patients with an urinary incontinence after a radical prostatectomy. Biofeedback increases management and control of a pelvic floor. At good ability of management of muscles of a pelvic floor the median of restoration was 4 months. Without opportunity of management of muscles of pelvic floor restoration was 9.4 months.

  10. Training in exercises for pelvic floor muscles of patients with an urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy

    P. V. Glybochko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Training of muscles of a pelvic bottom under control of biofeedback is applied at 87 patients with an urinary incontinence after a radical prostatectomy. Biofeedback increases management and control of a pelvic floor. At good ability of management of muscles of a pelvic floor the median of restoration was 4 months. Without opportunity of management of muscles of pelvic floor restoration was 9.4 months.

  11. Efficiency of deep core muscles training on patients with low back pain

    Povilauskaitė, Ieva

    2017-01-01

    Efficiency of Deep Core Muscles Training on Patients with Low Back Pain Vilnius University Faculty of Medicine Department of Rehabilitation, Physical and Sports Medicine Bachelor Degree of Physiotherapy Efficiency of Deep Core Muscles Strengthening Exercises on Patients with Low Back Pain Physiotherapy Bachelor's Thesis The Author: Ieva Povilauskaitė Academic advisor: Lecturer dr. Ieva Eglė Jamontaitė The aim of research work: measure the efficiency of come muscles strengthening exercises in ...

  12. Locomotor training improves premotoneuronal control after chronic spinal cord injury.

    Knikou, Maria; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya K

    2014-06-01

    Spinal inhibition is significantly reduced after spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. In this work, we examined if locomotor training can improve spinal inhibition exerted at a presynaptic level. Sixteen people with chronic SCI received an average of 45 training sessions, 5 days/wk, 1 h/day. The soleus H-reflex depression in response to low-frequency stimulation, presynaptic inhibition of soleus Ia afferent terminals following stimulation of the common peroneal nerve, and bilateral EMG recovery patterns were assessed before and after locomotor training. The soleus H reflexes evoked at 1.0, 0.33, 0.20, 0.14, and 0.11 Hz were normalized to the H reflex evoked at 0.09 Hz. Conditioned H reflexes were normalized to the associated unconditioned H reflex evoked with subjects seated, while during stepping both H reflexes were normalized to the maximal M wave evoked after the test H reflex at each bin of the step cycle. Locomotor training potentiated homosynaptic depression in all participants regardless the type of the SCI. Presynaptic facilitation of soleus Ia afferents remained unaltered in motor complete SCI patients. In motor incomplete SCIs, locomotor training either reduced presynaptic facilitation or replaced presynaptic facilitation with presynaptic inhibition at rest. During stepping, presynaptic inhibition was modulated in a phase-dependent manner. Locomotor training changed the amplitude of locomotor EMG excitability, promoted intralimb and interlimb coordination, and altered cocontraction between knee and ankle antagonistic muscles differently in the more impaired leg compared with the less impaired leg. The results provide strong evidence that locomotor training improves premotoneuronal control after SCI in humans at rest and during walking. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Training improves oxidative capacity, but not function, in spinal muscular atrophy type III

    Madsen, Karen Lindhardt; Hansen, Regitze Sølling; Preisler, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    max (17 ± 2 to 21 ± 2 ml/kg/min, P sleep in 3 patients, and led to training modifications in 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cycle exercise improves VO2max in SMA III without causing muscle...... a 12-week training program, performing 42 30-minute sessions exercising at 65-70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ). VO2max , muscle strength, functional tests, and self-reported activities of daily living were assessed before and after the training. RESULTS: Training induced a 27 ± 3% increase in VO2...... damage, but it also induces significant fatigue. This warrants study into alternative training methods to improve exercise capacity in SMA III patients....

  14. Effects of menopause and high-intensity training on insulin sensitivity and muscle metabolism

    Mandrup, Camilla M; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael

    2018-01-01

    To investigate peripheral insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and evaluate whether exercise training benefits are maintained after menopause. Sedentary, healthy, normal-weight, late premenopausal (n = 21), and early postmenopausal (n...

  15. Glucose clearance in aged trained skeletal muscle during maximal insulin with superimposed exercise

    Dela, Flemming; Mikines, K J; Larsen, J J

    1999-01-01

    Insulin and muscle contractions are major stimuli for glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and have in young healthy people been shown to be additive. We studied the effect of superimposed exercise during a maximal insulin stimulus on glucose uptake and clearance in trained (T) (1-legged bicycle tra...

  16. Muscle connective tissue content of endurance-trained and inactive individuals

    Mackey, Abigail; Donnelly, A E; Roper, H P

    2005-01-01

    Although it is known that exercise exerts a positive regulatory effect on collagen synthesis, the effects of endurance training on muscle endomysial connective tissue in man are not so well documented. To investigate this, a single muscle biopsy was collected from two groups of volunteers...

  17. Skeletal muscle and hormonal adaptation to physical training in the rat

    Henriksson, J; Svedenhag, J; Richter, Erik

    1985-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that adrenergic stimulation of muscle fibres during exercise is a major stimulus for the training-induced enhancement of skeletal muscle respiratory capacity. Therefore, Sprague-Dawley rats either underwent bilateral surgical ablati...

  18. Skeletal muscle morphology and regulatory signalling in endurance-trained and sedentary individuals

    Mikkelsen, U. R.; Agergaard, J.; Couppe, C.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle mass in humans is inversely associated with circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines, but the interaction between ageing and training on muscle composition and the intra-muscular signalling behind inflammation and contractile protein synthesis and degradation is unknown. We studied 15 ...

  19. Mouse Plantar Flexor Muscle Size and Strength After Inactivity and Training

    2010-07-01

    atrophy and weakness as a function of the intensity of the train- ing ( 15 ). Although the hind limb suspension resulted in loss of muscle mass in...Muscle Biology Laboratory, Department of Health and Kinesiology , Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, and Gordon L. Warren, Ph.D., Division of

  20. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes

    Iaia, F. M.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2010-01-01

    the oxidative capacity and improve intense short-duration/repeated high-intensity exercise performance lasting 30 s to 4 min, as it occurs in a number of sports. When combined with a basic volume of training including some aerobic high-intensity sessions, speed endurance training is also useful in enhancing......The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain...... performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle...

  1. A nurse-led long-term pelvic floor muscle training program in the management of female patients with overactive bladder – A study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Tu-Zhen Xu

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: A nurse-led long-term (6 months pelvic floor muscle training program may alleviate OAB symptoms effectively and improve the quality of life more than a short term (3 months pelvic floor muscle training program combined with solifenacin succinate tablets.

  2. The influence of training status on the drop in muscle strength after acute exercise

    Pingel, Jessica; Moerch, L; Kjaer, M

    2009-01-01

    to running exercise immediately after immobilization, the muscle strength of the triceps-surae muscles dropped even further, but just in the immobilized leg (41%; P importance of determining the muscle endurance when evaluating the effect of immobilization on muscle......Skeletal muscles fatigue after exercise, and reductions in maximal force appear. A difference in training status between the legs was introduced by unilateral immobilization of the calf muscles for 2 weeks in young men, who were randomly assigned to two groups, either a RUN group (n = 8......) that was exposed to prolonged exercise (1-h running: individual pace) or a REST group (n = 12) that did no exercise after immobilization. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps-surae muscles was calculated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the plantar flexors...

  3. Muscular and Systemic Correlates of Resistance Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; Bellamy, Leeann; Parise, Gianni; Baker, Steven K.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. METHODS: Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk....

  4. Virtual reality training improves balance function.

    Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

    2014-09-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function.

  5. Virtual reality training improves balance function

    Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function. PMID:25368651

  6. Therapeutic effects of anti-gravity treadmill (AlterG) training on reflex hyper-excitability, corticospinal tract activities, and muscle stiffness in children with cerebral palsy.

    Parvin, Sh; Taghiloo, A; Irani, A; Mirbagheri, M Mehdi

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to study therapeutic effects of antigravity treadmill (AlterG) training on reflex hyper-excitability, muscle stiffness, and corticospinal tract (CST) function in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Three children received AlterG training 3 days per week for 8 weeks as experimental group. Each session lasted 45 minutes. One child as control group received typical occupational therapy for the same amount of time. We evaluated hyper-excitability of lower limb muscles by H-reflex response. We quantified muscle stiffness by sonoelastography images of the affected muscles. We quantified CST activity by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We performed the evaluations before and after training for both groups. H response latency and maximum M-wave amplitude were improved in experimental group after training compared to control group. Two children of experimental group had TMS response. Major parameters of TMS (i.e. peak-to-peak amplitude of motor evoked potential (MEP), latency of MEP, cortical silent period, and intensity of pulse) improved for both of them. Three parameters of texture analysis of sonoelastography images were improved for experimental group (i.e. contrast, entropy, and shear wave velocity). These findings indicate that AlterG training can improve reflexes, muscle stiffness, and CST activity in children with spastic hemiplegic CP and can be considered as a therapeutic tool to improve neuromuscular abnormalities occurring secondary to CP.

  7. Comparisons of low-intensity versus moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance training on body composition, muscle strength, and functional performance in older women.

    Shiotsu, Yoko; Yanagita, Masahiko

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training into the same session on body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength in healthy older women. Furthermore, this study compared the effects of different (low- vs moderate-) intensity combined training. A total of 60 healthy older women (age 61-81 y) were randomly assigned to five groups that performed aerobic exercise before low-intensity resistance training (AR-L, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-L, n = 12), performed aerobic exercise before moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-M, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-M, n = 12), or nonintervention control conditions (CON, n = 12). Body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength were evaluated before and after the 10-week training. No effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-L vs RA-L, AR-M vs RA-M) were observed in body composition, functional performance, or muscle strength, whereas the effects of training intensity of combined training (AR-L vs AR-M, RA-L vs RA-M) were observed on functional performance. All combined trainings significantly increased muscle strength and gait ability (P Functional reach test significantly increased in the AR-M and RA-M groups (P training increases muscle strength and improves gait ability, regardless of the exercise order. Also, greater improvement in dynamic balance capacity, a risk factor associated with falling, is observed in moderate-intensity combined training.

  8. Changes in muscle activation following balance and technique training and a season of Australian football.

    Donnelly, C J; Elliott, B C; Doyle, T L A; Finch, C F; Dempsey, A R; Lloyd, D G

    2015-05-01

    Determine if balance and technique training implemented adjunct to 1001 male Australian football players' training influenced the activation/strength of the muscles crossing the knee during pre-planned and unplanned sidestepping. Randomized Control Trial. Each Australian football player participated in either 28 weeks of balance and technique training or 'sham' training. Twenty-eight Australian football players (balance and technique training, n=12; 'sham' training, n=16) completed biomechanical testing pre-to-post training. Peak knee moments and directed co-contraction ratios in three degrees of freedom, as well as total muscle activation were calculated during pre-planned and unplanned sidestepping. No significant differences in muscle activation/strength were observed between the 'sham' training and balance and technique training groups. Following a season of Australian football, knee extensor (p=0.023) and semimembranosus (p=0.006) muscle activation increased during both pre-planned sidestepping and unplanned sidestepping. Following a season of Australian football, total muscle activation was 30% lower and peak valgus knee moments 80% greater (p=0.022) during unplanned sidestepping when compared with pre-planned sidestepping. When implemented in a community level training environment, balance and technique training was not effective in changing the activation of the muscles crossing the knee during sidestepping. Following a season of Australian football, players are better able to support both frontal and sagittal plane knee moments. When compared to pre-planned sidestepping, Australian football players may be at increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury during unplanned sidestepping in the latter half of an Australian football season. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exercise Training-Induced Adaptations Associated with Increases in Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Content

    Manabe, Yasuko; Gollisch, Katja S.C.; Holton, Laura; Kim, Young–Bum; Brandauer, Josef; Fujii, Nobuharu L.; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic exercise training results in numerous skeletal muscle adaptations, including increases in insulin sensitivity and glycogen content. To understand the mechanism for increased muscle glycogen, we studied the effects of exercise training on glycogen regulatory proteins in rat skeletal muscle. Female Sprague Dawley rats performed voluntary wheel running for 1, 4, or 7 weeks. After 7 weeks of training, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased in epitrochlearis muscle. Compared to sedentary control rats, muscle glycogen did not change after 1 week of training, but increased significantly after 4 and 7 weeks. The increases in muscle glycogen were accompanied by elevated glycogen synthase activity and protein expression. To assess the regulation of glycogen synthase, we examined its major activator, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and its major deactivator, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Consistent with glycogen synthase activity, PP1 activity was unchanged after 1 week of training but significantly increased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Protein expression of RGL(GM), another regulatory PP1 subunit, significantly decreased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Unlike PP1, GSK3 phosphorylation did not follow the pattern of glycogen synthase activity. The ~40% decrease in GSK-3α phosphorylation after 1 week of exercise training persisted until 7 weeks and may function as a negative feedback to elevated glycogen. Our findings suggest that exercise training-induced increases in muscle glycogen content could be regulated by multiple mechanisms including enhanced insulin sensitivity, glycogen synthase expression, allosteric activation of glycogen synthase and PP1activity. PMID:23206309

  10. The Impact of Endurance Training on Human Skeletal Muscle Memory, Global Isoform Expression and Novel Transcripts.

    Maléne E Lindholm

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regularly performed endurance training has many beneficial effects on health and skeletal muscle function, and can be used to prevent and treat common diseases e.g. cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and obesity. The molecular adaptation mechanisms regulating these effects are incompletely understood. To date, global transcriptome changes in skeletal muscles have been studied at the gene level only. Therefore, global isoform expression changes following exercise training in humans are unknown. Also, the effects of repeated interventions on transcriptional memory or training response have not been studied before. In this study, 23 individuals trained one leg for three months. Nine months later, 12 of the same subjects trained both legs in a second training period. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from both legs before and after both training periods. RNA sequencing analysis of all 119 skeletal muscle biopsies showed that training altered the expression of 3,404 gene isoforms, mainly associated with oxidative ATP production. Fifty-four genes had isoforms that changed in opposite directions. Training altered expression of 34 novel transcripts, all with protein-coding potential. After nine months of detraining, no training-induced transcriptome differences were detected between the previously trained and untrained legs. Although there were several differences in the physiological and transcriptional responses to repeated training, no coherent evidence of an endurance training induced transcriptional skeletal muscle memory was found. This human lifestyle intervention induced differential expression of thousands of isoforms and several transcripts from unannotated regions of the genome. It is likely that the observed isoform expression changes reflect adaptational mechanisms and processes that provide the functional and health benefits of regular physical activity.

  11. Informatics Approach to Improving Surgical Skills Training

    Islam, Gazi

    2013-01-01

    Surgery as a profession requires significant training to improve both clinical decision making and psychomotor proficiency. In the medical knowledge domain, tools have been developed, validated, and accepted for evaluation of surgeons' competencies. However, assessment of the psychomotor skills still relies on the Halstedian model of…

  12. Effect of physical exercise training on muscle strength and body composition, and their association with functional capacity and quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Atrial fibrillation diminishes cardiac function, exercise tolerance and quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine whether exercise training in atrial fibrillation affects muscle strength, body composition, maximal exercise capacity and walking capacity positively......, thus improving quality of life. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Twelve weeks of physical exercise training or control. Patients: Forty-nine patients in permanent atrial fibrillation were randomized to training or control. Methods: Intervention consisted of aerobic training for 1 h 3 times per week...... at 70% of maximal exercise capacity vs control. Muscle strength, exercise capacity, 6-minute walk test, lean body mass, fat percentage, and quality of life were assessed. Results: Muscle strength increased in the training group (p = 0.01), but no change was observed in controls. Lean body mass...

  13. Changes in power and force generation during coupled eccentric-concentric versus concentric muscle contraction with training and aging

    Caserotti, Paolo; Aagaard, Per; Puggaard, Lis

    2008-01-01

    Age-related decline in maximal concentric muscle power is associated with frailty and functional impairments in the elderly. Compared to concentric contraction, mechanical muscle output is generally enhanced when muscles are rapidly pre-stretched (eccentric contraction), albeit less pronounced...... with increasing age. Exercise has been recommended to prevent loss of muscle power and function and recent guidelines indicate training program for increasing muscle power highly relevant for elderly subjects. This study examined the differences in muscle power, force and movement pattern during concentric......) and JH increased in training group (P age-related decline in muscle power and functional performance observed in the control subjects, while substantial gains...

  14. Short-term intense exercise training reduces stress markers and alters the transcriptional response to exercise in skeletal muscle.

    Hinkley, J Matthew; Konopka, Adam R; Suer, Miranda K; Harber, Matthew P

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of short-term intense endurance training on cycling performance, along with the acute and chronic signaling responses of skeletal muscle stress and stability markers. Ten recreationally active subjects (25 ± 2 yr, 79 ± 3 kg, 47 ± 2 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) were studied before and after a 12-day cycling protocol to examine the effects of short-term intense (70-100% V̇o 2max ) exercise training on resting and exercise-induced regulation of molecular factors related to skeletal muscle cellular stress and protein stability. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at rest and 3 h following a 20-km cycle time trial on days 1 and 12 to measure mRNA expression and protein content. Training improved ( P stress. The maintenance in the myocellular environment may be due to synthesis of cytoprotective markers, along with enhanced degradation of damage proteins, as training tended ( P short-term intense training enhances protein stability, creating a cellular environment capable of resistance to exercise-induced stress, which may be favorable for adaptation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Resistance Exercise Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy Was Associated with Reduction of Inflammatory Markers in Elderly Women

    Kishiko Ogawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with low-grade inflammation. The benefits of regular exercise for the elderly are well established, whereas less is known about the impact of low-intensity resistance exercise on low-grade inflammation in the elderly. Twenty-one elderly women (mean age ± SD, 85.0 ± 4.5 years participated in 12 weeks of resistance exercise training. Muscle thickness and circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, heat shock protein (HSP70, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured before and after the exercise training. Training reduced the circulating levels of CRP, SAA (P<.05, HSP70, IGF-I, and insulin (P<.01. The training-induced reductions in CRP and TNF-α were significantly (P<.01, P<.05 associated with increased muscle thickness (r=−0.61, r=−0.54, respectively. None of the results were significant after applying a Bonferroni correction. Resistance training may assist in maintaining or improving muscle volume and reducing low-grade inflammation.

  16. Myogenic response of human skeletal muscle to 12 weeks of resistance training at light loading intensity

    Mackey, Abigail; Holm, L; Reitelseder, S

    2011-01-01

    There is strong evidence for enhanced numbers of satellite cells with heavy resistance training. The satellite cell response to very light muscle loading is, however, unknown. We, therefore, designed a 12-week training protocol where volunteers trained one leg with a high load (H) and the other leg...... with a light load (L). Twelve young healthy men [mean age 25 ± 3 standard deviation (SD) years] volunteered for the study. Muscle biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of both legs before and after the training period and satellite cells were visualized by CD56 immunohistochemistry....... A significant main effect of time was observed (P12 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.05, mean ± SD). The finding that 12 weeks of training skeletal muscle even with very light loads can induce an increase in the number of satellite...

  17. Change of Direction Speed: Toward a Strength Training Approach with Accentuated Eccentric Muscle Actions.

    Chaabene, Helmi; Prieske, Olaf; Negra, Yassine; Granacher, Urs

    2018-03-28

    There is growing evidence that eccentric strength training appears to have benefits over traditional strength training (i.e., strength training with combined concentric and eccentric muscle actions) from muscular, neuromuscular, tendinous, and metabolic perspectives. Eccentric muscle strength is particularly needed to decelerate and stabilize the body during the braking phase of a jump exercise or during rapid changes of direction (CoD) tasks. However, surprisingly little research has been conducted to elucidate the effects of eccentric strength training or strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions on CoD speed performance. In this current opinion article, we present findings from cross-sectional studies on the relationship between measures of eccentric muscle strength and CoD speed performance. In addition, we summarize the few available studies on the effects of strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions on CoD speed performance in athletic populations. Finally, we propose strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions as a promising element in strength and conditioning programs of sports with high CoD speed demands. Our findings from five cross-sectional studies revealed statistically significant moderate- to large-sized correlations (r = 0.45-0.89) between measures of eccentric muscle strength and CoD speed performance in athletic populations. The identified three intervention studies were of limited methodological quality and reported small- to large-sized effects (d = 0.46-1.31) of strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions on CoD speed performance in athletes. With reference to the available but preliminary literature and from a performance-related point of view, we recommend strength and conditioning coaches to include strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions in training routines of sports with high CoD speed demands (e.g., soccer, handball, basketball, hockey) to

  18. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    Fritzen, Andreas M.; Madsen, Agnete B.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Treebak, Jonas T.; Lundsgaard, Anne‐Marie; Jensen, Thomas E.; Richter, Erik A.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Kiens, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Key points Regulation of autophagy in human muscle in many aspects differs from the majority of previous reports based on studies in cell systems and rodent muscle.An acute bout of exercise and insulin stimulation reduce human muscle autophagosome content.An acute bout of exercise regulates autophagy by a local contraction‐induced mechanism.Exercise training increases the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in human muscle.AMPK activation during exercise seems insufficient to regulate autophagosome content in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 probably mediates the autophagy‐inhibiting effect of insulin. Abstract Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one‐legged exercise, one‐legged exercise training and subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non‐exercised human muscle. Acute one‐legged exercise decreased (Pexercise in human muscle. The decrease in LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio did not correlate with activation of 5′AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with 5‐aminoimidazole‐4‐carboxamide riboside (AICAR) in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (Pexercised and non‐exercised leg in humans. This coincided with increased Ser‐757 phosphorylation of Unc51 like kinase 1 (ULK1), which is suggested as a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) target. Accordingly, inhibition of mTOR signalling in mouse muscle prevented the ability of insulin to reduce the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. In response to 3 weeks of one‐legged exercise training, the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio decreased (Pexercise and insulin stimulation reduce muscle autophagosome content, while exercise

  19. Muscle, functional and cognitive adaptations after flywheel resistance training in stroke patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Turon, Marc; Prieto, Cristina; Tesch, Per A; García-Carreira, Maria del Carmen

    2016-04-06

    Resistance exercise (RE) improves neuromuscular function and physical performance after stroke. Yet, the effects of RE emphasizing eccentric (ECC; lengthening) actions on muscle hypertrophy and cognitive function in stroke patients are currently unknown. Thus, this study explored the effects of ECC-overload RE training on skeletal muscle size and function, and cognitive performance in individuals with stroke. Thirty-two individuals with chronic stroke (≥6 months post-stroke) were randomly assigned into a training group (TG; n = 16) performing ECC-overload flywheel RE of the more-affected lower limb (12 weeks, 2 times/week; 4 sets of 7 maximal closed-chain knee extensions; trained (48.2 %), and the less-affected, untrained limb (28.1 %) increased after training. TG showed enhanced balance (8.9 %), gait performance (10.6 %), dual-task performance, executive functions (working memory, verbal fluency tasks), attention, and speed of information processing. CG showed no changes. ECC-overload flywheel resistance exercise comprising 4 min of contractile activity per week offers a powerful aid to regain muscle mass and function, and functional performance in individuals with stroke. While the current intervention improved cognitive functions, the cause-effect relationship, if any, with the concomitant neuromuscular adaptations remains to be explored. Clinical Trials NCT02120846.

  20. The effect of regular strength training on telomere length in human skeletal muscle

    Kadi, F.; Ponsot, Elodie; Piehl-Aulin, Karin

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The length of DNA telomeres is an important parameter of the proliferative potential of tissues. A recent study has reported abnormally short telomeres in skeletal muscle of athletes with exercise-associated fatigue. This important report raises the question of whether long-term practice...... of sports might have deleterious effects on muscle telomeres. Therefore, we aimed to compare telomere length of a group of power lifters (PL; N = 7) who trained for 8 +/- 3 yr against that of a group of healthy, active subjects (C; N = 7) with no history of strength training. METHODS: Muscle biopsies were...

  1. [Progress in isokinetic technology in testing and training for assessment of muscle function].

    Huang, Ting-Ting; Fan, Li-Hua; Gao, Dong; Xia, Qing; Zhang, Min

    2013-02-01

    Isokinetic technology in testing and training is the most advanced practical technique in the evaluation of muscle function. This method is a continuous dynamic test in the full range of the joint motion which has strong pertinence at the aspect of assessing muscle strength, and is an objective and quantitative method for reflecting each point's muscle strength in the range of the joint motion. This article reviews the key concepts, brief history of development and influencing factors of isokinetic technology in testing and training, introduces the progress in the field of rehabilitation medicine and sport science, etc., and discusses the future exploration in forensic science.

  2. Low Volume Aerobic Training Heightens Muscle Deoxygenation in Early Post-Angina Pectoris Patients.

    Takagi, Shun; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low volume aerobic exercise training on muscle O2 dynamics during exercise in early post-angina pectoris (AP) patients, as a pilot study. Seven AP patients (age: 72 ± 6 years) participated in aerobic exercise training for 12 weeks. Training consisted of continuous cycling exercise for 30 min at the individual's estimated lactate threshold, and the subjects trained for 15 ± 5 exercise sessions over 12 weeks. Before and after training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise until exhaustion. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative changes from rest in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (∆Deoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆Total-Hb) were monitored at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy during exercise. The SmO2 was significantly lower and ∆Deoxy-Hb was significantly higher after training than before training, while there were no significant changes in ∆Total-Hb. These results indicated that muscle deoxygenation and muscle O2 extraction were potentially heightened by aerobic exercise training in AP patients, even though the exercise training volume was low.

  3. Kinematic and muscle demand similarities between motor-assisted elliptical training and walking: Implications for pediatric gait rehabilitation.

    Burnfield, Judith M; Cesar, Guilherme M; Buster, Thad W; Irons, Sonya L; Nelson, Carl A

    2017-01-01

    Many children with physical disabilities and special health care needs experience barriers to accessing effective therapeutic technologies to improve walking and fitness in healthcare and community environments. The expense of many robotic and exoskeleton technologies hinders widespread use in most clinics, school settings, and fitness facilities. A motor-assisted elliptical trainer that is being used to address walking and fitness deficits in adults was modified to enable children as young as three years of age to access the technology (Pedi-ICARE). We compared children's kinematic and muscle activation patterns during walking and training on the Pedi-ICARE. Eighteen children walked (self-selected comfortable speed), Pedi-ICARE trained with motor-assistance at self-selected comfortable speed (AAC), and trained while over-riding motor-assistance (AAC+). Coefficient of multiple correlations (CMCs) compared lower extremity kinematic profiles during AAC and AAC+ to gait. Repeated measures ANOVAs identified muscle demand differences across conditions. CMCs revealed strong similarities at the hip and knee between each motor-assisted elliptical condition and gait. Ankle CMCs were only moderate. Muscle demands were generally lowest during AAC. Over-riding the motor increased hip and knee muscle demands. The similarity of motion patterns between Pedi-ICARE conditions and walking suggest the device could be used to promote task-specific training to improve walking. The capacity to manipulate muscle demands using different motor-assistance conditions highlights Pedi-ICARE's versatility in addressing a wide range of children's abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Basic models modeling resistance training: an update for basic scientists interested in study skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Cholewa, Jason; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; da Silva Teixeira, Tamiris; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, Xia; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Lodetti, Alice; Cardozo, Mayara Quadros; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-09-01

    Human muscle hypertrophy brought about by voluntary exercise in laboratorial conditions is the most common way to study resistance exercise training, especially because of its reliability, stimulus control and easy application to resistance training exercise sessions at fitness centers. However, because of the complexity of blood factors and organs involved, invasive data is difficult to obtain in human exercise training studies due to the integration of several organs, including adipose tissue, liver, brain and skeletal muscle. In contrast, studying skeletal muscle remodeling in animal models are easier to perform as the organs can be easily obtained after euthanasia; however, not all models of resistance training in animals displays a robust capacity to hypertrophy the desired muscle. Moreover, some models of resistance training rely on voluntary effort, which complicates the results observed when animal models are employed since voluntary capacity is something theoretically impossible to measure in rodents. With this information in mind, we will review the modalities used to simulate resistance training in animals in order to present to investigators the benefits and risks of different animal models capable to provoke skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Our second objective is to help investigators analyze and select the experimental resistance training model that best promotes the research question and desired endpoints. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Carbohydrate supercompensation and muscle glycogen utilization during exhaustive running in highly trained athletes

    Madsen, K; Pedersen, P K; Rose, P

    1990-01-01

    regimen (Norm), the other after a diet and training programme intended to increase muscle glycogen levels (Carb). Muscle glycogen concentration in the gastrocnemius muscle increased by 25% (P less than 0.05) from 581 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 50 to 722 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 34 after Carb. Running time...... (0.92, SEM 0.01 vs 0.89, SEM 0.01; P less than 0.05). Since muscle glycogen utilization was identical in the two tests, the indication of higher utilization of total carbohydrate appears to be related to a higher utilization of liver glycogen. We have concluded that glycogen depletion...

  6. Dietary nitrate does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve muscle mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial myopathy

    Nabben, M.; Schmitz, J.P.J.; Ciapaite, J.; le Clercq, C.M.P.; van Riel, N.A.; Haak, H.R.; Nicolay, K.; de Coo, I.F.M.; Smeets, H.; Praet, S.F.; van Loon, L.J.; Prompers, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle weakness and exercise intol erance negatively affect the quality of life of patients with mitochondrial myopathy. Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise performance and reduce oxygen cost of exercise in healthy humans and trained athletes. We

  7. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Madsen, Agnete Louise Bjerregaard; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one-legged exer......Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one......-legged exercise training as well as in response to subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non-exercised human muscle. Acute one-legged exercise decreased (phuman muscle....... The decrease in LC3-II/LC3-I ratio did not correlate with activation of AMPK trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with AICAR in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (p

  8. Muscular and systemic correlates of resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Bellamy, Leeann; Parise, Gianni; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2013-01-01

    To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and acutely 1 and 5 h after the first training session. Serum hormones and cytokines were measured immediately, 15, 30 and 60 minutes following the first and last training sessions of the study. Mean fiber area increased by 20% (range: -7 to 80%; P<0.001). Protein content of the AR was unchanged with training (fold change = 1.17 ± 0.61; P=0.19); however, there was a significant correlation between the changes in AR content and fiber area (r=0.60, P=0.023). Phosphorylation of p70S6K was elevated 5 hours following exercise, which was correlated with gains in mean fiber area (r=0.54, P=0.007). There was no relationship between the magnitude of the pre- or post-training exercise-induced changes in free testosterone, GH, or IGF-1 concentration and muscle fiber hypertrophy; however, the magnitude of the post exercise IL-6 response was correlated with muscle hypertrophy (r=0.48, P=0.019). Post-exercise increases in circulating hormones are not related to hypertrophy following training. Exercise-induced changes in IL-6 correlated with hypertrophy, but the mechanism for the role of IL-6 in hypertrophy is not known. Acute increases, in p70S6K phosphorylation and changes in muscle AR protein content correlated with muscle hypertrophy implicating intramuscular rather than systemic processes in mediating hypertrophy.

  9. A comparison between stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with pelvic organ prolapse

    Nuriye Özengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with stage 1 and 2 pelvic organ prolapse. Materials and Methods: In a total 38 women with pelvic organ prolapse whose average age was 45.60 years, pelvic floor muscles were evaluated with electromyography, and prolapse with pelvic organ prolapse quantification system, and the quality of life with prolapse quality of life questionnaire. Afterwards, the subjects were divided into two groups; stabilization exercise group (n=19 and pelvic floor muscle training group (n=19. Stabilization exercise group were given training for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Pelvic floor muscle training group were given eight-week home exercises. Each group was assessed before training and after eight weeks. Results: An increase was found in the pelvic muscle activation response in the 2 groups (p≤0.05. There was no difference in EMG activity values between the groups (p>0.05. A difference was found in the values Aa, Ba and C in subjects of each group (p≤0.05, and the TVL, Ap, Bp and D values of subjects in pelvic floor muscle training group (p≤0.05 in the before and after pelvic organ prolapse quantification system assessment, however, no difference was found between the groups (p≤0.05. A positive difference was found in the effect of prolapse sub parameter in each of the two groups, and in general health perception sub parameter in subjects of stabilization exercise group (p<0.05 in the prolapse quality of life questionnaire. Conclusions: It was concluded that both training programs increased the pelvic floor muscle strength, provided a decline in prolapse stages. Stabilization exercise has increased general health perception unlike home training, thus, these exercises can be added to the treatment of women with prolapse.

  10. Type of Ground Surface during Plyometric Training Affects the Severity of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    Hamid Arazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage from a bout of plyometric exercise (PE; 10 × 10 vertical jumps performed in aquatic, sand and firm conditions. Twenty-four healthy college-aged men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Aquatic (AG, n = 8, Sand (SG, n = 8 and Firm (FG, n = 8. The AG performed PE in an aquatic setting with a depth of ~130 cm. The SG performed PE on a dry sand surface at a depth of 20 cm, and the FG performed PE on a 10-cm-thick wooden surface. Plasma creatine kinase (CK activity, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, knee range of motion (KROM, maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC of the knee extensors, vertical jump (VJ and 10-m sprint were measured before and 24, 48 and 72 h after the PE. Compared to baseline values, FG showed significantly (p < 0.05 greater changes in CK, DOMS, and VJ at 24 until 48 h. The MIVC decreased significantly for the SG and FG at 24 until 48 h post-exercise in comparison to the pre-exercise values. There were no significant (p > 0.05 time or group by time interactions in KROM. In the 10-m sprint, all the treatment groups showed significant (p < 0.05 changes compared to pre-exercise values at 24 h, and there were no significant (p > 0.05 differences between groups. The results indicate that PE in an aquatic setting and on a sand surface induces less muscle damage than on a firm surface. Therefore, training in aquatic conditions and on sand may be beneficial for the improvement of performance, with a concurrently lower risk of muscle damage and soreness.

  11. Low-Intensity Sprint Training With Blood Flow Restriction Improves 100-m Dash.

    Behringer, Michael; Behlau, Daniel; Montag, Johannes C K; McCourt, Molly L; Mester, Joachim

    2017-09-01

    Behringer, M, Behlau, D, Montag, JCK, McCourt, ML, and Mester, J. Low-intensity sprint training with blood flow restriction improves 100-m dash. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2462-2472, 2017-We investigated the effects of practical blood flow restriction (pBFR) of leg muscles during sprint training on the 100-m dash time in well-trained sport students. Participants performed 6 × 100-m sprints at 60-70% of their maximal 100-m sprinting speed twice a week for 6 weeks, either with (intervention group [IG]; n = 12) or without pBFR (control group [CG]; n = 12). The 100-m dash time significantly decreased more in the IG (-0.38 ± 0.24 seconds) than in the CG (-0.16 ± 0.17 seconds). The muscle thickness of the rectus femoris increased only in the IG, whereas no group-by-time interactions were found for the muscle thickness of the biceps femoris and the biceps brachii. The maximal isometric force, measured using a leg press, did not change in either group. However, the rate of force development improved in the IG. Growth hormone, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and cortisol concentrations did not significantly differ between both groups at any measurement time point (pre, 1 minute, 20 minutes, 120 minutes, and 24 hours after the 6 all-out sprints of the first training session). The muscle damage marker h-FABP increased significantly more in the CG than in the IG. The pBFR improved the 100-m dash time significantly more than low-intensity sprint interval training alone. Other noted benefits of training with pBFR were a decreased level of muscle damage, a greater increase of the rectus femoris muscle thickness, and a higher rate of force development. However, the tested hormones were unable to explain the additional beneficial effects.

  12. Eccentric exercise training as a countermeasure to non-weight-bearing soleus muscle atrophy

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Ryan, Mirelle J.; Booth, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation tested whether eccentric resistance training could prevent soleus muscle atrophy during non-weight bearing. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to either weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes or non-weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes groups. Electrically stimulated maximal eccentric contractions were performed on anesthetized animals at 48-h intervals during the 10-day experiment. Non-weight bearing significantly reduced soleus muscle wet weight (28-31 percent) and noncollagenous protein content (30-31 percent) compared with controls. Eccentric exercise training during non-weight bearing attenuated but did not prevent the loss of soleus muscle wet weight and noncollagenous protein by 77 and 44 percent, respectively. The potential of eccentric exercise training as an effective and highly efficient counter-measure to non-weight-bearing atrophy is demonstrated in the 44 percent attenuation of soleus muscle noncollagenous protein loss by eccentric exercise during only 0.035 percent of the total non-weight-bearing time period.

  13. Pelvic floor muscle training for overactive bladder symptoms – A prospective study

    Fátima Fitz

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT involves the contraction of the puborectal, anal sphincter and external urethral muscles, inhibiting the detrusor contraction, what justify its use in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB symptoms. Objective: To verify the effects of isolated PFMT on the symptoms of OAB. Method: Prospective clinical trial with 27 women with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI, with predominance of OAB symptoms and loss ≥ 2 g in the pad test. It was evaluated: pelvic floor muscles (PFMs function (digital palpation and manometry; urinary symptoms (nocturia, frequency and urinary loss; degree of discomfort of OAB symptoms; and quality of life (Incontinence Quality-of-Life Questionnaire [I-QoL]. The PFMT program consisted of 24 outpatient sessions (2x/week + home PFMT. The Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests (with a significance level of 5% were used to analyse the data. Results: There was a significant improvement of the urinary symptoms to the pad test (5.8±9.7, p<0.001, urinary loss (0.7±1.1, p=0.005 and nocturia (0.8±0.9, p=0.011. Reduction in the degree of discomfort of urinary symptoms was observed according to OAB-V8 questionnaire (10.0±7.7, p=0.001. There were also significant results in PFMs function: Oxford (3.6±0.9, p=0.001, endurance (5.2±1.8, p<0.001, fast (8.9±1.5, p<0.001 and manometry (26.6±15.8, p=0.003. In addition, quality of life had a significant improvement in the three domains evaluated by I-QoL. Conclusion: The PFMT without any additional guidelines improves the symptomatology, the function of PFMs and the quality of life of women with OAB symptoms.

  14. [Women boxing athletes' EMG of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the training of air striking of straight punch].

    Zhang, Ri-Hui; Kang, Zhi-Xin

    2011-05-01

    To study training effect of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the proceed of air striking of straight punch by analyzing boxing athletes' changes of electromyogram (EMG). We measured EMG of ten women boxing athletes' upper arm biceps (contractor muscle), upper arm triceps (antagonistic muscle), forearm flexor muscle (contractor muscle), forearm extensor muscle (antagonistic muscle), and lumbar muscles by ME6000 (Mega Electronics Ltd.). The stipulated exercise was to do air striking of straight punch with loads of 2.5 kg of dumbbell in the hand until exhausted. In the proceed of exercise-induce exhausted, the descend magnitude and speed of median frequency (MF) in upper limb antagonistic muscle exceeded to contracting muscle, moreover, the work percentage showed that contractor have done a larger percentage of work than antagonistic muscle. Compared with world champion's EMG, the majority of ordinary athletes' lumbar muscles MF revealed non-drop tendency, and the work percentage showed that lumbar muscles had a very little percentage of work. After comparing the EMG test index in upper limb and lumbar muscle of average boxing athletes with that of the world champion, we find the testees lack of the training of upper limb antagonistic muscle and lumbar muscle, and more trainings aimed at these muscles need to be taken.

  15. Effects of Insect Protein Supplementation during Resistance Training on Changes in Muscle Mass and Strength in Young Men

    Mathias T. Vangsoe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During prolonged resistance training, protein supplementation is known to promote morphological changes; however, no previous training studies have tested the effect of insect protein isolate in a human trial. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of insect protein as a dietary supplement to increase muscle hypertrophy and strength gains during prolonged resistance training in young men. Eighteen healthy young men performed resistance training four day/week for eight weeks. Subjects were block randomized into two groups consuming either an insect protein isolate or isocaloric carbohydrate supplementation within 1 h after training and pre-sleep on training days. Strength and body composition were measured before and after intervention to detect adaptions to the resistance training. Three-day weighed dietary records were completed before and during intervention. Fat- and bone- free mass (FBFM improved significantly in both groups (Mean (95% confidence interval (CI, control group (Con: (2.5 kg (1.5, 3.5 p < 0.01, protein group (Pro: (2.7 kg (1.6, 3.8 p < 0.01 from pre- to post-. Leg and bench press one repetition maximum (1 RM improved by Con: (42.0 kg (32.0, 52.0 p < 0.01 and (13.8 kg (10.3, 17.2 p < 0.01, Pro: (36.6 kg (27.3, 45.8 p < 0.01 and (8.1 kg (4.5, 11.8 p < 0.01, respectively. No significant differences in body composition and muscle strength improvements were found between groups. In young healthy men, insect protein supplementation did not improve adaptations to eight weeks of resistance training in comparison to carbohydrate supplementation. A high habitual protein intake in both Con and Pro may partly explain our observation of no superior effect of insect protein supplementation.

  16. Effects of Endurance Training on A12 Acetyl Cholinesterase Activity in Fast and Slow-Twitch Skeletal Muscles of Male Wistar Rats

    Ali Gorzi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endurance training improves the activity of G4 type acetylcholine esterase (AchE in muscle fibres. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of endurance training (ET on activity of A12 type of AchE in Flexor Hallucis Longus (FHL and Soleus (SOL muscles of rats. Materials and Methods: 16 male wistar rats (age: 10 weeks and weight: 172.17±10.080 gr, were randomly divided in 2 groups (control; N=8 and ET; N=8. Training group carried out 8 weeks (5 session/week of endurance training on animal treadmill with speed of 10 m/min for 30 min at the first week which was gradually increased to 30 m/min for 60 min (70-80% of VO2max at the last week. Forty eight hours after last session of training, FHL and Sol muscles of animals were moved out under sterilized situation by cutting on posterio-lateral side of hind limb. For separating AchE subunits, homogenization and electrophoresis (0.06 non-denaturaing polyacrilamide methods were used. AchE activity was measured by Elisa kit.Results: The activity of this protein significantly (p=0.017 increased in SOL muscle of ET group by 119%, but did not changed in FHL. In both groups (ET and Con, FHL muscle had significantly (ET: p=0.028 and Con p=0.01 higher basic levels of AchE activity compared to SOL muscle. This significant increase in AchE of SOL might be indicative of responsiveness of AchE of this muscle following endurance training for improving acetylcholine (Ach cycle in neuromuscular junction.Conclusion: Endurance training might increase the A12 type AchE activity to improve the Ach cycle as part of the adaptation of neuromuscular junction to increased level of physical activity.

  17. Effects of squat lift training and free weight muscle training on maximum lifting load and isolinetic peak torque of young adults without impairments.

    Yeung, S S; Ng, G Y

    2000-06-01

    Manual lifting is a frequent cause of back injury, and there is no evidence as to which training mode can provide the best training effect for lifting performance and muscle force. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a squat lift training and a free weight muscle training program on the maximum lifting load and isokinetic peak torque in subjects without known neuromuscular or musculoskeletal impairments. Thirty-six adults (20 male, 16 female) without known neuromuscular or musculoskeletal impairments participated. The subjects' mean age was 21.25 years (SD=1.16, range=20-24). Subjects were divided into 3 groups. Subjects in group 1 (n=12) performed squat lift training. Subjects in group 2 (n=12) participated in free weight resistance training of their shoulder abductors, elbow flexors, knee extensors and trunk extensors. Subjects in group 3 (n=12) served as controls. The maximum lifting load and isokinetic peak torques of the trunk extensors, knee extensors, elbow flexors, and shoulder abductors of each subject were measured before and after the study. Training was conducted on alternate days for 4 weeks, with an initial load of 80% of each subject's maximum capacity and with the load increased by 5% weekly. All groups were comparable for all measured variables before the study. After 4 weeks, subjects in groups 1 and 2 demonstrated more improvement in maximum lifting load and isokinetic peak torque of the back extensors compared with the subjects in group 3, but the 2 training groups were not different. The findings demonstrate that both squat lift and free weight resistance training are equally effective in improving the lifting load and isokinetic back extension performance of individuals without impairments.

  18. Exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapular muscles do not improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects.

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Proprioception is essential for shoulder neuromuscular control and shoulder stability. Exercise of the rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles is an important part of shoulder rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscle exercises on shoulder joint position sense. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a control or training group. The subjects in the training group received closed-chain and open-chain exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles for four weeks. Shoulder joint position sense errors in elevation, including the humerothoracic, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints, was measured. After four weeks of exercise training, strength increased overall in the training group, which demonstrated the effect of exercise on the muscular system. However, the changes in shoulder joint position sense errors in any individual joint of the subjects in the training group were not different from those of the control subjects. Therefore, exercises specifically targeting individual muscles with low intensity may not be sufficient to improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects. Future work is needed to further investigate which types of exercise are more effective in improving joint position sense, and the mechanisms associated with those changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of physical training on mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species release in skeletal muscle in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Højlund, K; Vind, B F

    2010-01-01

    of obese participants with and without type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic men (n = 13) and control (n = 14) participants matched for age, BMI and physical activity completed 10 weeks of aerobic training. Pre- and post-training muscle biopsies were obtained before a euglycaemic...... in type 2 diabetic participants. Mitochondrial ROS release tended to be higher in participants with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Aerobic training improves muscle respiration and intrinsic mitochondrial respiration in untrained obese participants with and without type 2 diabetes...

  20. Resveratrol modulates the angiogenic response to exercise training in skeletal muscles of aged men.

    Gliemann, Lasse; Olesen, Jesper; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Akerstrom, Thorbjorn; Nyberg, Michael; Lindqvist, Anna; Bangsbo, Jens; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-10-15

    In animal studies, the polyphenol resveratrol has been shown to influence several pathways of importance for angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. The aim of the present study was to examine the angiogenic effect of resveratrol supplementation with parallel exercise training in aged men. Forty-three healthy physically inactive aged men (65 ± 1 yr) were divided into 1) a training group that conducted 8 wk of intense exercise training where half of the subjects received a daily intake of either 250 mg trans-resveratrol (n = 14) and the other half received placebo (n = 13) and 2) a nontraining group that received either 250 mg trans-resveratrol (n = 9) or placebo (n = 7). The group that trained with placebo showed a ~20% increase in the capillary-to-fiber ratio, an increase in muscle protein expression of VEGF, VEGF receptor-2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) but unaltered thrombospodin-1 levels. Muscle interstitial VEGF and thrombospodin-1 protein levels were unchanged after the training period. The group that trained with resveratrol supplementation did not show an increase in the capillary-to-fiber ratio or an increase in muscle VEGF protein. Muscle TIMP-1 protein levels were lower in the training and resveratrol group than in the training and placebo group. Both training groups showed an increase in forkhead box O1 protein. In nontraining groups, TIMP-1 protein was lower in the resveratrol-treated group than the placebo-treated group after 8 wk. In conclusion, these data show that exercise training has a strong angiogenic effect, whereas resveratrol supplementation may limit basal and training-induced angiogenesis. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Improvement in Running Economy after 6 Weeks of Plyometric Training.

    Turner, Amanda M.; Owings, Matt; Schwane, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated whether a 6-week regimen of plyometric training would improve running economy. Data were collected on 18 regular but not highly trained distance runners who participated in either regular running training or plyometric training. Results indicated that 6 weeks of plyometric training improved running economy at selected speeds in this…

  2. Evaluation of muscle activity during a standardized shoulder resistance training bout in novice individuals

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    training bout. The purpose of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during a shoulder resistance training bout with 15 repetitions maximum (RM) loadings in novice individuals. Twelve healthy sedentary women (age = 27-58 years; weight = 54-85 kg; height = 160-178 cm) were recruited for this study...

  3. Effects of the lower extremities muscle activation during muscular strength training on an unstable platform with magneto-rheological dampers

    Piao, YongJun; Choi, YounJung; Kim, JungJa; Kwan, TaeKyu; Kim, Nam-Gyun

    2009-03-01

    Adequate postural balance depends on the spatial and temporal integration of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory information. Especially, the musculoskeletal function (range of joint, flexibility of spine, muscular strength) is essential in maintaining the postural balance. Muscular strength training methods include the use of commercialized devices and repeatable resistance training tools (rubber band, ball, etc). These training systems cost high price and can't control of intensity. Thus we suggest a new training system which can adjust training intensity and indicate the center of pressure of a subject while the training was passively controlled by applying controlled electric current to the Magneto- Rheological damper. And we performed experimental studies on the muscular activities in the lower extremities during maintaining, moving and pushing exercises on an unstable platform with Magneto rheological dampers. A subject executed the maintaining, moving and pushing exercises which were displayed in a monitor. The electromyographic signals of the eight muscles in lower extremities were recorded and analyzed in the time and frequency domain: the muscles of interest were rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tensor fasciae latae, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and soleus. The experimental results showed the difference of muscular activities at the four moving exercises and the nine maintaining exercises. The rate of the increase in the muscular activities was affected by the condition of the unstable platform with MR dampers for the maintaining and moving exercises. The experimental results suggested the choice of different maintaining and moving exercises could selectively train different muscles with varying intensity. Furthermore, the findings also suggested the training using this system can improve the ability of postural balance.

  4. Inspiratory muscle training is used in some intensive care units, but many training methods have uncertain efficacy: a survey of French physiotherapists

    Tristan Bonnevie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Questions: How common is inspiratory muscle training by physiotherapists in the intensive care unit (ICU? Which patients receive the training? What methods are used to administer the training? Is maximal inspiratory pressure used to evaluate the need for the training and the patient's outcome after training? Design: Cross-sectional survey of all ICUs in France. Participants: Two hundred and sixty-five senior physiotherapists. Results: The response rate was 99% among eligible units. Therapist experience in ICU was significantly associated with the use of inspiratory muscle training (p = 0.02. Therapists mainly used inspiratory muscle training either systematically or specifically in patients who failed to wean from mechanical ventilation. The training was used significantly more in non-sedated patients (p < 0.0001. The most commonly nominated technique that respondents claimed to use to apply the training was controlled diaphragmatic breathing (83% of respondents, whereas 13% used evidence-based methods. Among those who applied some form of inspiratory muscle training, 16% assessed maximal inspiratory pressure. Six respondents (2%, 95% CI 1 to 5 used both an evidence-based method to administer inspiratory muscle training and the recommended technique for assessment of inspiratory muscle strength. Conclusion: Most physiotherapists in French ICUs who apply inspiratory muscle training use methods of uncertain efficacy without assessment of maximal inspiratory pressure. Further efforts need to be made in France to disseminate information regarding evidence-based assessment and techniques for inspiratory muscle training in the ICU. The alignment of inspiratory muscle training practice with evidence could be investigated in other regions. [Bonnevie T, Villiot-Danger J-C, Gravier F-E, Dupuis J, Prieur G, Médrinal C (2015 Inspiratory muscle training is used in some intensive care units, but many training methods have uncertain efficacy: a survey of

  5. Inspiratory muscle training in pediatrics: main indications and technical characteristics of the protocols

    Cristhiele Tais Woszezenki

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Inspiratory muscle training (IMT is a resource widely used in pediatrics. However, there is great variability in relation to the characteristics of the protocols used. Objective: To identify the main clinical conditions and IMT protocols used in the pediatric age group. Methods: Integrative review of the literature by searching on Pubmed, Scielo, PEDro and EMBASE databases using the following strategy: threshold OR inspiratory muscle training OR muscle endurance OR muscle resistance OR endurance training OR maximal inspiratory pressure AND respiratory muscle. We have selected clinical trials that performed IMT in children and adolescents (0 to 18 years old, with a clinical diagnosis, and published in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Results: 17 studies were included. From these, 11 underwent IMT in patients with some neuromuscular disorder, being Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy the most common. The selected articles included a total sample of 327 participants. As for the characteristics of the protocols, 7 performed strength training, 5 endurance and 5 strength and endurance. The training load ranged from 30 to 80% of maximal inspiratory pressure. Moreover, 8 studies performed IMT twice daily and the session duration and the training period varied between 10 and 30 minutes, and from 3 weeks to 24 months, respectively. Conclusion: The IMT was used more frequently in patients with some neuromuscular disorder. Although there is no consensus as to the characteristics of the protocols, the choice of the load should take into account the purpose of IMT and the disease severity.

  6. Endurance training-induced changes in the GH-IGF-I axis influence maximal muscle strength in previously untrained men.

    Grandys, Marcin; Majerczak, Joanna; Kuczek, Piotr; Sztefko, Krystyna; Duda, Krzysztof; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2017-02-01

    In this study we have determined the effects of 20weeks of endurance running training on the GH-IGF-I axis changes in the context of the skeletal muscle performance and physical capacity level. Before and after the endurance training program a maximal incremental exercise tests, a 1500m race and a muscle strength measurements were performed and the blood samples were taken to determine both resting as well as end-exercise serum growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth hormone-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth hormone binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations. 20weeks of endurance running training improved power output generated at the end of the maximal incremental test by 24% (P<0.012), 1500m running time by 13% (P<0.012) and maximal muscle strength by 9% (P<0.02). End-exercise IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio was decreased by 22% after the training (P<0.04) and the magnitude of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio decrease (ΔIGF-I/IGFBP-3 ex ) was 2.3 times higher after the training (P<0.04). The magnitude of the exercise-induced changes in IGFBP-3 concentration was also significantly higher (P<0.04) and there was a trend toward lower end-exercise IGF-I concentration (P=0.08) after the training. These changes were accompanied by a significantly higher (30%) end-exercise IL-6 concentration (P<0.01) as well as by a 3.4 times higher magnitude of IL-6 increase (P<0.02) after the training. Moreover, there were strong positive correlations between changes in resting serum IGF-I concentration (ΔIGF-I res ) and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio (ΔIGF-I/IGFBP-3 res ) and changes in muscle strength (ΔMVC) (r=0.95, P=0.0003 and r=0.90, P=0.002, respectively). The training-induced changes in the components of the GH-IGF-I axis may have additive effects on skeletal muscle performance and physical capacity improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of additional speed endurance training on performance and muscle adaptations

    Gunnarsson, Thomas; Christensen, Peter Møller; Holse, Kris

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined the effect of additional speed-endurance training during the season on muscle adaptations and performance of trained soccer players. METHODS: Eighteen sub-elite soccer players performed one session with 6-9 30-s intervals at an intensity of 90-95 % ofmaximal...... intensity (speed endurance training; SET) a week for 5 weeks (SET-intervention). Before and after the SET-intervention the players carried out the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (Yo- Yo IR2) test, a sprint test (10- and 30-m) and an agility test. In addition, seven of the players had a resting muscle...

  8. Alfacalcidol improves muscle power, muscle function and balance in elderly patients with reduced bone mass.

    Schacht, E; Ringe, Johann D

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of daily therapy with 1 mcg alfacalcidol (Doss(®)-TEVA/AWD-pharma) on muscle power, muscle function, balance performance and fear of falls in an open, multi-centered, uncontrolled, prospective study on a cohort of patients with reduced bone mass. Among the 2,097 participants, 87.1% were post-menopausal women and 12.9% were men. Mean age was 74.8 years and mean body mass index (BMI) 26.3 kg/m². A total of 75.3% of the study population had osteoporosis, 81% a diagnosis of "increased risk of falls" and 70.1% had a creatinine clearance (CrCl) of power tests at onset and after 3 and 6 months: the timed up and go test (TUG) and the chair rising test (CRT). At baseline and after 6 months, participants performed the tandem gait test (TGT) and filled out a questionnaire evaluating fear of falling. Successful performance in the muscle tests is associated with a significantly lower risk of falls and non-vertebral fractures in elderly patients (successful test performance: TUG ≤ 10 s (sec), CRT ≤ 10 s, TGT ≥ 8 steps). A significant improvement in the performance of the two muscle tests was proved already after 3 months of treatment with alfacalcidol and further increased by the end of the therapeutic intervention. There were significant increases in the number of participants able to successfully perform the tests: 24.6% at baseline and 46.3% at the end of trial for the TUG (P balance test (TGT) increased from 36.0% at onset to 58.6% at the end of the trial (P power, muscle function and balance and reduces fear of falls. The significant improvement in the three muscle and balance tests and fear of falls may have a preventative effect on falls and fractures. We suggest that the quantitative risk tests used in this study could be reliable surrogate parameters for the risk of falls and fractures in elderly patients.

  9. Improving the training process of highly skilled bodybuilders in the preparatory period, general preparatory phase

    Olexandr Tyhorskyy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve the method of training highly skilled bodybuilders during the general preparatory phase. Material and Methods: the study involved eight highly skilled athletes, members of the team of Ukraine on bodybuilding. Results: comparative characteristics of the most commonly used methods of training process in bodybuilding. Developed and substantiated the optimal method of training highly skilled bodybuilders during the general preparatory phase of the preparatory period, which can increase body weight through muscle athletes component. Conclusions: based on studies, recommended the optimum method of training highly skilled bodybuilders depending on mezotsykles and microcycles general preparatory phase

  10. Low-intensity aerobic exercise training: inhibition of skeletal muscle atrophy in high-fat-diet-induced ovariectomized rats.

    Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Won Jun

    2017-09-30

    Postmenopausal women are highly susceptible to diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, or skeletal muscle atrophy and many people recognize the need for regular physical activity. Aerobic exercise training is known to improve the oxidative capacity and insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscles. This study aimed to investigate the role of low-intensity aerobic exercise training on skeletal muscle protein degradation or synthesis in the plantaris muscles of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized female rats were divided into two groups: a high-fat diet-sedentary group (HFD), and a high-fat diet-aerobic exercise group (HFD+EX). The exercise group exercised aerobically on a treadmill 5 days/week for 8 weeks. The rats progressively ran 30 min/day at 15 m/min, up to 40 min/day at 18 m/min, 0% slope, in the last 4 weeks. Although aerobic exercise led to significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation at Thr172, phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrate Thr389 S6K1 level did not decrease. Additionally, even though Akt activity did not increase at Ser473, the atrogin-1 level significantly decreased in the exercise group compared to the non-exercise group. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that high-fat-induced TSC2 protein expression was eliminated in response to aerobic exercise. These results suggest that aerobic exercise can inhibit skeletal muscle protein degradation, but it cannot increase protein synthesis in the plantaris muscle of high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats. Our findings have implications in understanding skeletal muscle mass maintenance with low intensity aerobic exercise in post-menopausal women. ©2017 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition

  11. Loss of niche-satellite cell interactions in syndecan-3 null mice alters muscle progenitor cell homeostasis improving muscle regeneration.

    Pisconti, Addolorata; Banks, Glen B; Babaeijandaghi, Farshad; Betta, Nicole Dalla; Rossi, Fabio M V; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S; Olwin, Bradley B

    2016-01-01

    The skeletal muscle stem cell niche provides an environment that maintains quiescent satellite cells, required for skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration. Syndecan-3, a transmembrane proteoglycan expressed in satellite cells, supports communication with the niche, providing cell interactions and signals to maintain quiescent satellite cells. Syndecan-3 ablation unexpectedly improves regeneration in repeatedly injured muscle and in dystrophic mice, accompanied by the persistence of sublaminar and interstitial, proliferating myoblasts. Additionally, muscle aging is improved in syndecan-3 null mice. Since syndecan-3 null myofiber-associated satellite cells downregulate Pax7 and migrate away from the niche more readily than wild type cells, syxndecan-3 appears to regulate satellite cell homeostasis and satellite cell homing to the niche. Manipulating syndecan-3 provides a promising target for development of therapies to enhance muscle regeneration in muscular dystrophies and in aged muscle.

  12. Feasibility of resistance training in adult McArdle patients: Clinical outcomes and muscle strength and mass benefits

    Alfredo eSantalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of a 4-month resistance (weight lifting training program followed by a 2-month detraining period in 7 adult McArdle patients (5 female on: muscle mass (assessed by DXA, strength, serum creatine kinase (CK activity and clinical severity. Adherence to training was ≥ 84% in all patients and no major contraindication or side effect was noted during the training or strength assessment sessions. The training program had a significant impact on total and lower extremities’ lean mass (P0.05 was noted for baseline or post strength assessment values of serum CK activity, which remained essentially within the range reported in our laboratory for McArdle patients. All the patients changed to a lower severity class with training, such that none of them were in the highest disease severity class (3 after the intervention and, as such, they did not have fixed muscle weakness after training. Clinical improvements were retained, in all but one patient, after detraining, such that after detraining all patients were classed as class 1 for

  13. The effect of repeated periods of speed endurance training on performance, running economy, and muscle adaptations.

    Skovgaard, C; Almquist, N W; Bangsbo, J

    2018-02-01

    The effect of repeated intense training interventions was investigated in eight trained male runners (maximum oxygen uptake [VO 2 -max]: 59.3±3.2 mL/kg/min, mean±SD) who performed 10 speed endurance training (SET; repeated 30-seconds "all-out" bouts) and 10 aerobic moderate-intensity training sessions during two 40-day periods (P1 and P2) separated by ~80 days of habitual training. Before and after both P1 and P2, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO 2 -max and a repeated running test at 90% vVO 2 -max to exhaustion (RRT) to determine short-term endurance capacity. In addition, running economy (RE) was measured at 60% vVO 2 -max (11.9±0.5 km/h) and v10-km (14.3±0.9 km/h), a 10-km track-running test was performed, and a biopsy from m. vastus lateralis was collected. 10-km performance and VO 2 -max (mL/min) were the same prior to P1 and P2, whereas RE was better (P<.05) before P2 than before P1. During P1 and P2, 10-km performance (2.9% and 2.3%), VO 2 -max (2.1% and 2.6%), and RE (1.9% and 1.8% at 60% vVO 2 -max; 1.6% and 2.0% at v10-km) improved (P<.05) to the same extent, respectively. Performance in RRT was 20% better (P<.05) after compared to before P2, with no change in P1. No changes in muscle expression of Na + ,K + -ATPase α1, α2 and β1, NHE1, SERCA1 and SERCA2, actin, and CaMKII were found during neither P1 nor P2. Thus, the present study demonstrates that a second period of intense training leads to improved short-term performance and further improved RE, whereas 10-km performance and VO 2 -max improve to the same extent as during the first period. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of respiratory muscle training (RMT) in children with infantile-onset Pompe disease and respiratory muscle weakness.

    Jones, Harrison N; Crisp, Kelly D; Moss, Tronda; Strollo, Katherine; Robey, Randy; Sank, Jeffrey; Canfield, Michelle; Case, Laura E; Mahler, Leslie; Kravitz, Richard M; Kishnani, Priya S

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness is a primary therapeutic challenge for patients with infantile Pompe disease. We previously described the clinical implementation of a respiratory muscle training (RMT) regimen in two adults with late-onset Pompe disease; both demonstrated marked increases in inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength in response to RMT. However, the use of RMT in pediatric survivors of infantile Pompe disease has not been previously reported. We report the effects of an intensive RMT program on maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) using A-B-A (baseline-treatment-posttest) single subject experimental design in two pediatric survivors of infantile Pompe disease. Both subjects had persistent respiratory muscle weakness despite long-term treatment with alglucosidase alfa. Subject 1 demonstrated negligible to modest increases in MIP/MEP (6% increase in MIP, d=0.25; 19% increase in MEP, d=0.87), while Subject 2 demonstrated very large increases in MIP/MEP (45% increase in MIP, d=2.38; 81% increase in MEP, d=4.31). Following three-month RMT withdrawal, both subjects maintained these strength increases and demonstrated maximal MIP and MEP values at follow-up. Intensive RMT may be a beneficial treatment for respiratory muscle weakness in pediatric survivors of infantile Pompe disease.

  15. Effects of 5 Weeks of Bench Press Training on Muscle Synergies: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Kristiansen, Mathias; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst A

    2016-07-01

    Kristiansen, M, Samani, A, Madeleine, P, and Hansen, EA. Effects of 5 weeks of bench press training on muscle synergies: A randomized controlled study. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1948-1959, 2016-The ability to perform forceful muscle contractions has important implications in sports performance and in activities of daily living. However, there is a lack of knowledge on adaptations in intermuscular coordination after strength training. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess muscle synergies before and after 5 weeks of bench press training. Thirty untrained male subjects were randomly allocated to a training group (TRA) or a control group (CON). After the pretest, TRA completed 5 weeks of bench press training, before completing a posttest, whereas subjects in CON continued their normal life. During test sessions, surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from 13 different muscles. Muscle synergies were extracted from EMG data using nonnegative matrix factorization. To evaluate differences between pretest and posttest, we performed a cross-correlation analysis and a cross-validation analysis, in which the synergy components extracted in the pretest session were recomputed, using the fixed synergy components from the posttest session. Two muscle synergies accounted for 90% of the total variance and reflected the concentric and eccentric phase, respectively. TRA significantly increased 3 repetition maximum in bench press with 19.0% (25th; 75th percentile, 10.3%; 21.7%) (p < 0.001), whereas no change occurred in CON. No significant differences were observed in synergy components between groups. However, decreases in correlation values for intragroup comparisons in TRA may suggest that the synergy components changed, whereas this was not the case in CON. Strength and conditioning professionals may consider monitoring changes in muscle synergies in training and rehabilitation programs as a way to benchmark changes in intermuscular coordination.

  16. Dual task multimodal physical training in Alzheimer’s disease: effect on cognitive functions and muscle strength

    Bruno Naves Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dual task multimodal physical training (MPT on the cognitive functions and muscle strength in older adults with Alzheimer’s disease. Participants were 19 subjects with AD in the mild and moderate stages, divided into training group (TG and control group (CG. The TG performed dual task MPT for 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated at the pre- and post-intervention moments. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Clock Drawing Test (CDT and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB were used to assess cognition. For muscle strength, the Chair Lift and Sit Test (CLST and Manual Grasp Force (MGF were used. The Wilcoxon test was used to analyze pre and post intragroup moments. The TG showed a significant improvement in FAB and CLST (p≤0.05 and a tendency to improve the MMSE score (p≤0.08. The CG showed significant improvement in CLST (p≤0.05. Dual task MPT improves the frontal cognitive functions and lower limb muscle strength of older adults with AD.

  17. Effect of strength training and short-term detraining on muscle mass in women aged over 50 years old

    Maryam Delshad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The loss of muscle mass is associated with aging. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training and detraining on muscle mass in elderly women. Methods: Twenty post-menopausal women aged ≥50 years old were enrolled. Matching for age, they were randomly assigned into control and resistance training group (RT. The intervention consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions for 10 movements with Thera-Band tubing (based on 80-100% 10-RM, three times a week, for 12 weeks and thereafter, four weeks detraining. Skinfold thickness was determined by caliper. Percentage of body fat was estimated from skinfold thickness (triceps and subscapular by McArdle method. Fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM were calculated. Range of motion for trunk flexion and extension was determined. Results: During 12 weeks of intervention, significant increases were observed in 1-RM of biceps curl, FFM, trunk flexion and extension and significant decreases during four weeks detraining in RT group. The RT group demonstrated significant decreases during resistance training and increases during detraining in skinfold thickness. FFM, trunk flexion, and extension decreased and skinfold thickness, %FM, and weight of body fat increased in the control group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Resistance training with Thera-Band enhanced strength and muscle endurance in elderly women and a 4-week detraining period had an adverse effect on muscle power. This suggests that a strength training program is an effective intervention to prevent functional reductions, and can contribute to improve neuromuscular function in older adults.

  18. Leadership training to improve nurse retention.

    Wallis, Allan; Kennedy, Kathy I

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses findings from an evaluation of a training programme designed to promote collaborative, team-based approaches to improve nurse retention within health care organizations. A year-long leadership training programme was designed and implemented to develop effective teams that could address retention challenges in a diverse set of organizations in Colorado ranging from public, private to non-profit. An evaluation, based on a combination of participant observation, group interviews, and the use of standardized tests measuring individual emotional intelligence and team dynamics was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the training programme. What role do the emotional intelligence of individual members and organizational culture play in team effectiveness? Out of five teams participating in the training programme, two performed exceptionally well, one experienced moderate success and two encountered significant problems. Team dynamics were significantly affected by the emotional intelligence of key members holding supervisory positions and by the existing culture and structure of the participating organizations. Team approaches to retention hold promise but require careful development and are most likely to work where organizations have a collaborative problem-solving environment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Kinematic Mechanisms of How Power Training Improves Healthy Old Adults' Gait Velocity.

    Beijersbergen, Chantal M I; Granacher, Urs; Gäbler, Martijn; Devita, Paul; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Slow gait predicts many adverse clinical outcomes in old adults, but the mechanisms of how power training can minimize the age-related loss of gait velocity is unclear. We examined the effects of 10 wk of lower extremity power training and detraining on healthy old adults' lower extremity muscle power and gait kinematics. As part of the Potsdam Gait Study, participants started with 10 wk of power training followed by 10 wk of detraining (n = 16), and participants started with a 10-wk control period followed by 10 wk of power training (n = 16). We measured gait kinematics (stride characteristic and joint kinematics) and isokinetic power of the ankle plantarflexor (20°·s, 40°·s, and 60°·s) and knee extensor and flexor (60°·s, 120°·s, and 180°·s) muscles at weeks 0, 10, and 20. Power training improved isokinetic muscle power by ~30% (P ≤ 0.001) and fast (5.9%, P kinematics did not correlate with increases in fast gait velocity. The mechanisms that increased fast gait velocity involved higher cadence (r = 0.86, P ≤ 0.001) rather than longer strides (r = 0.49, P = 0.066). Detraining did not reverse the training-induced increases in muscle power and fast gait velocity. Because increases in muscle power and modifications in joint kinematics did not correlate with increases in fast gait velocity, kinematic mechanisms seem to play a minor role in improving healthy old adults' fast gait velocity after power training.

  20. Skeletal muscle neuronal nitric oxide synthase micro protein is reduced in people with impaired glucose homeostasis and is not normalized by exercise training.

    Bradley, Scott J; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Canny, Benedict J; McConell, Glenn K

    2007-10-01

    Skeletal muscle inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) protein is greatly elevated in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas endothelial NOS is at normal levels. Diabetic rat studies suggest that skeletal muscle neuronal NOS (nNOS) micro protein expression may be reduced in human insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein expression is reduced in people with impaired glucose homeostasis and whether exercise training increases nNOSmicro protein expression in these individuals because exercise training increases skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein in rats. Seven people with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) and 7 matched (sex, age, fitness, body mass index, blood pressure, lipid profile) healthy controls aged 36 to 60 years participated in this study. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies for nNOSmicro protein determination were obtained, aerobic fitness was measured (peak pulmonary oxygen uptake [Vo(2) peak]), and glucose tolerance and insulin homeostasis were assessed before and after 1 and 4 weeks of cycling exercise training (60% Vo(2) peak, 50 minutes x 5 d wk(-1)). Skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein was significantly lower (by 32%) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes compared with that in controls before training (17.7 +/- 1.2 vs 26.2 +/- 3.4 arbitrary units, P glucose homeostasis have reduced skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein content. However, because exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without influencing skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein expression, it seems that changes in skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein are not central to the control of insulin sensitivity in humans and therefore may be a consequence rather than a cause of diabetes.

  1. Improving basic life support training for medical students.

    Lami, Mariam; Nair, Pooja; Gadhvi, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    Questions have been raised about basic life support (BLS) training in medical education. This article addresses the research evidence behind why BLS training is inadequate and suggests recommendations for improving BLS training for medical students.

  2. Effect of training on muscle triacylglycerol and structural lipids

    Helge, Jørn W; Dela, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    We studied whether endurance training impacts insulin sensitivity by affecting the structural and storage lipids in humans. Eight male subjects participated (age 25 +/- 1 years, height 178 +/- 3 cm, weight 76 +/- 4 kg [mean +/- SE]). Single-leg training was performed for 30 min/day for 4 weeks...... polyunsaturates, which may indicate that membrane lipids may have a role in the training-induced increase in insulin sensitivity....

  3. Effect of lifelong football training on the expression of muscle molecular markers involved in healthy longevity

    Mancini, A; Vitucci, D; Labruna, G

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated whether lifelong football training affects the expression of healthy longevity-related muscle molecular markers. METHODS: Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of 10 lifelong football-trained men (68.2 ± 3.0 years) and of 10 active untrained healthy men...... the expression of key markers involved in muscle oxidative metabolism, and in the DNA repair and senescence suppression pathways, thus providing the molecular basis for healthy longevity....... (66.7 ± 1.3 years). Gene and protein expression was measured by RTqPCR on RNA and by western blotting on protein extracts from muscle biopsies, respectively. RESULTS: The expression of AMPKα1/α2, NAMPT, TFAM and PGC1α, which are markers of oxidative metabolism, and MyHC β isoform expression was higher...

  4. Aerobic Exercise Training Increases Muscle Water Content in Obese Middle-Age Men

    Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Sanchez-Roncero, Alicia; Fernández-Elías, Valentin Emilio

    2016-01-01

    . Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and cardiometabolic fitness was measured during an incremental cycling test. RESULTS: Body weight and fat mass were reduced -1.9% and -5.4%, respectively (P mass increased with training (1.8%, P = 0.......011), whereas muscle protein concentration decreased 11% (145 ± 15 to 129 ± 13 g·kg⁻¹ ww, P = 0.007). Citrate synthase activity (proxy for mitochondrial density) increased by 31% (17 ± 5 to 22 ± 5 mmol·min⁻¹·kg⁻¹ ww, P = 0.024). Muscle glycogen concentration increased by 14% (22 ± 7 to 25 ± 7 g·kg⁻¹ ww......) although without reaching statistical significance when expressed as per kilogram of wet weight (P = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that aerobic cycling training increases quadriceps muscle water although reduces muscle protein concentration in obese metabolic syndrome men. Reduced protein...

  5. High responders to resistance exercise training demonstrate differential regulation of skeletal muscle microRNA expression

    Davidsen, Peter K; Gallagher, Iain J; Hartman, Joseph W

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA), small noncoding RNA molecules, may regulate protein synthesis, while resistance exercise training (RT) is an efficient strategy for stimulating muscle protein synthesis in vivo. However, RT increases muscle mass, with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. We therefore...... determined the expression level of 21 abundant miRNAs to determine whether variation in these miRNAs was able to explain the variation in RT-induced gains in muscle mass. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained from the top and bottom ~20% of responders from 56 young men who undertook a 5 day/wk RT program...... for 12 wk. Training-induced muscle mass gain was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fiber size was evaluated by histochemistry. The expression level of each miRNA was quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative PCR, with the analysis carried out in a blinded manner. Gene ontology...

  6. Effects of Functional Training Program in Core Muscles in Women with Fibromyalgia

    Iván Darío Pinzón-Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effects of a program of functional muscles core training targeting women with fibromyalgia. Materials and methods: A quasi-experimental type trial was conducted, before and after an intervention, for 20 days, often three days/week, 60 minutes each session. In a single-group of eight women, changes in muscle strength, pain, quality of life related to health and physical activity were evaluated. Results: An increase in repetitions of the test trunk flexion, time on the left and right bridge testing lateral and prone bridge the test were found. All features of pain decreased, and, according to the S-FIQ, a decrease in morning fatigue, stiffness and anxiety was reported. Also Met’s/minute-weeks increased after intervention. Conclusion: These data suggest that functional program core muscle training is effective in increasing muscle strength, pain modulation, functional performance optimization, and increased levels of physical activity in women with fibromyalgia.

  7. Electrostimulation improves muscle perfusion but does not affect either muscle deoxygenation or pulmonary oxygen consumption kinetics during a heavy constant-load exercise.

    Layec, Gwenael; Millet, Grégoire P; Jougla, Aurélie; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Bendahan, David

    2008-02-01

    Electromyostimulation (EMS) is commonly used as part of training programs. However, the exact effects at the muscle level are largely unknown and it has been recently hypothesized that the beneficial effect of EMS could be mediated by an improved muscle perfusion. In the present study, we investigated rates of changes in pulmonary oxygen consumption (VO(2p)) and muscle deoxygenation during a standardized exercise performed after an EMS warm-up session. We aimed at determining whether EMS could modify pulmonary O(2) uptake and muscle deoxygenation as a result of improved oxygen delivery. Nine subjects performed a 6-min heavy constant load cycling exercise bout preceded either by an EMS session (EMS) or under control conditions (CONT). VO(2p) and heart rate (HR) were measured while deoxy-(HHb), oxy-(HbO(2)) and total haemoglobin/myoglobin (Hb(tot)) relative contents were measured using near infrared spectroscopy. EMS significantly increased (P < 0.05) the Hb(tot) resting level illustrating a residual hyperaemia. The EMS priming exercise did not affect either the HHb time constant (17.7 +/- 14.2 s vs. 13.1 +/- 2.3 s under control conditions) or the VO(2p) kinetics (time-constant = 18.2 +/- 5.2 s vs. 15.4 +/- 4.6 s under control conditions). Likewise, the other VO(2p) parameters were unchanged. Our results further indicated that EMS warm-up improved muscle perfusion through a residual hyperaemia. However, neither VO(2p) nor [HHb] kinetics were modified accordingly. These results suggest that improved O(2) delivery by residual hyperaemia induced by EMS does not accelerate the rate of aerobic metabolism during heavy exercise at least in trained subjects.

  8. Efficacy of biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training in ...

    Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim

    2014-07-18

    Jul 18, 2014 ... ized life advice leaflet sheet with instructions.20,21 Standardized proper PFMT instruction .... Unexpectedly, female age and duration of complaint were not predictive factors of .... Chen Gin-Den. Conservative management of ... muscle: comparison of a digital and a manometric techniques. Physiotherapy ...

  9. The effects of Pilates breathing trainings on trunk muscle activation in healthy female subjects: a prospective study.

    Kim, Sung-Tae; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of Pilates breathing on trunk muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy female adults were selected for this study. Participants' trunk muscle activations were measured while they performed curl-ups, chest-head lifts, and lifting tasks. Pilates breathing trainings were performed for 60 minutes per each session, 3 times per week for 2 weeks. Post-training muscle activations were measured by the same methods used for the pre-training muscle activations. [Results] All trunk muscles measured in this study had increased activities after Pilates breathing trainings. All activities of the transversus abdominis/internal abdominal oblique, and multifidus significantly increased. [Conclusion] Pilates breathing increased activities of the trunk stabilizer muscles. Activation of the trunk muscle indicates that practicing Pilates breathing while performing lifting tasks will reduce the risk of trunk injuries.

  10. Oral quercetin supplementation hampers skeletal muscle adaptations in response to exercise training

    Casuso, R A; Martínez-López, E J; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to test exercise-induced adaptations on skeletal muscle when quercetin is supplemented. Four groups of rats were tested: quercetin sedentary, quercetin exercised, placebo sedentary, and placebo exercised. Treadmill exercise training took place 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Quercetin groups ...... status was also quantified by measuring muscle antioxidant enzymatic activity and oxidative damage product, such as protein carbonyl content (PCC). Quercetin supplementation increased oxidative damage in both exercised and sedentary rats by inducing higher amounts of PCC (P ...

  11. Determination of muscle fatigue index for strength training in patients with Duchenne dystrophy

    Adriano Rodrigues Oliveira

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Muscle weakness is the most prominent impairment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and often involves the loss of functional ability as well as other limitations related to daily living. Thus, there is a need to maintain muscle strength in large muscle groups, such as the femoral quadriceps, which is responsible for diverse functional abilities. However, the load and duration of training for such rehabilitation has proven to be a great unknown, mainly due to the undesired appearance of muscle fatigue, which is a severe factor for the injury of muscle fibers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to determine a fatigue index by means of surface electromyography (EMG for the parameterization of muscle strengthening physiotherapy training. METHODS: A cross-sectional study (case series was carried out involving four patients with DMD. Three pairs of surface electrodes were placed on the motor point of the Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis and Vastus medialis of the dominant limb, maintaining the knee at 60º of flexion. The participants were instructed to perform the extension movement of this joint at four strength levels (100%, 80%, 60% and 40% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction. RESULTS: The slope of the linear regression line was used for the determination of the fatigue index, performed by Pearson's test on the median frequency of each strength level. CONCLUSION: Electromyographic measurements of the strength index for muscle training proved to be a simple accessible assessment method, as well as an extremely valuable tool, allowing the design of a muscle strength training program with an individualized load threshold.

  12. Cycle Training Increased GLUT4 and Activation of mTOR in Fast Twitch Muscle Fibers

    Stuart, Charles A.; Howell, Mary E.A.; Baker, Jonathan D.; Dykes, Rhesa J.; Duffourc, Michelle M.; Ramsey, Michael W.; Stone, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine if cycle training of sedentary subjects would increase the expression of the principle muscle glucose transporters, six volunteers completed six weeks of progressively increasing intensity stationary cycle cycling. Methods In vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, changes in expression of GLUT1, GLUT4, GLUT5, and GLUT12 were compared using quantitative immunoblots with specific protein standards. Regulatory pathway components were evaluated by immunoblots of muscle homogenates and immunohistochemistry of microscopic sections. Results GLUT1 was unchanged, GLUT4 increased 66%, GLUT12 increased 104%, and GLUT5 decreased 72%. A mitochondrial marker (cytochrome c) and regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and phospho-AMPK) were unchanged, but the muscle hypertrophy pathway component, phospho-mTOR increased 83% after the exercise program. In baseline biopsies, GLUT4 by immunohistochemical techniques was 37% greater in Type I (slow twitch, red) muscle fibers, but the exercise training increased GLUT4 expression in Type II (fast twitch, white) fibers by 50%, achieving parity with the Type I fibers. Baseline phospho-mTOR expression was 50% higher in Type II fibers and increased more in Type II fibers (62%) with training, but also increased in Type I fibers (34%). Conclusion Progressive intensity stationary cycle training of previously sedentary subjects increased muscle insulin-responsive glucose transporters (GLUT4 and GLUT12) and decreased the fructose transporter (GLUT5). The increase in GLUT4 occurred primarily in Type II muscle fibers and this coincided with activation of the mTOR muscle hypertrophy pathway. There was little impact on Type I fiber GLUT4 expression and no evidence of change in mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:20010125

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation does not affect lower extremity muscle strength training in healthy individuals

    Maeda, Kazuhei; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on lower extremity muscle strength training in 24 healthy participants. In this triple-blind, sham-controlled study, participants were randomly allocated to the anodal tDCS plus muscle strength...... training (anodal tDCS) group or sham tDCS plus muscle strength training (sham tDCS) group. Anodal tDCS (2 mA) was applied to the primary motor cortex of the lower extremity during muscle strength training of the knee extensors and flexors. Training was conducted once every 3 days for 3 weeks (7 sessions......). Knee extensor and flexor peak torques were evaluated before and after the 3 weeks of training. After the 3-week intervention, peak torques of knee extension and flexion changed from 155.9 to 191.1 Nm and from 81.5 to 93.1 Nm in the anodal tDCS group. Peak torques changed from 164.1 to 194.8 Nm...

  14. Time course for arm and chest muscle thickness changes following bench press training

    Ogasawara, Riki; Thiebaud, Robert S.; Loenneke, Jeremy P.; Loftin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of hypertrophic adaptations in both the upper arm and trunk muscles following high-intensity bench press training. Seven previously untrained young men (aged 25 ± 3 years) performed free-weight bench press training 3 days (Monday, Wednesday and Friday) per week for 24 weeks. Training intensity and volume were set at 75% of one repetition maximum (1-RM) and 30 repetitions (3 sets of 10 repetitions, with 2−3 min of rest between sets), respectively. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound at three sites: the biceps and triceps brachii and the pectoralis major. Measurements were taken a week prior to the start of training, before the training session on every Monday and 3 days after the final training session. Pairwise comparisons from baseline revealed that pectoralis major MTH significantly increased after week-1 (p = 0.002), triceps MTH increased after week-5 (p = 0.001) and 1-RM strength increased after week-3 (p = 0.001) while no changes were observed in the biceps MTH from baseline. Significant muscle hypertrophy was observed earlier in the chest compared to that of the triceps. Our results indicate that the time course of the muscle hypertrophic response differs between the upper arm and chest. PMID:24265879

  15. Imbalance in SOD/CAT activities in rat skeletal muscles submitted to treadmill training exercise.

    Pinho, Ricardo A; Andrades, Michael E; Oliveira, Marcos R; Pirola, Aline C; Zago, Morgana S; Silveira, Paulo C L; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Moreira, José Cláudio F

    2006-10-01

    The association between physical exercise and oxidative damage in the skeletal musculature has been the focus of many studies in literature, but the balance between superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and its relation to oxidative damage is not well established. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between regular treadmill physical exercise, oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in skeletal muscle of rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats (8-12 months) were randomly separated into two groups (trained n=9 and untrained n=6). Trained rats were treadmill-trained for 12 weeks in progressive exercise (velocity, time, and inclination). Training program consisted in a progressive exercise (10 m/min without inclination for 10 min/day). After 1 week the speed, time and inclination were gradually increased until 17 m/min at 10% for 50 min/day. After the training period animals were killed, and gastrocnemius and quadriceps were surgically removed to the determination of biochemical parameters. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, catalase, superoxide dismutase and citrate synthase activities, and muscular glycogen content were measured in the isolated muscles. We demonstrated that there is a different modulation of CAT and SOD in skeletal muscle in trained rats when compared to untrained rats (increased SOD/CAT ratio). TBARS levels were significantly decreased and, in contrast, a significant increase in protein carbonylation was observed. These results suggest a non-described adaptation of skeletal muscle against exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  16. Effects of menopause and high-intensity training on insulin sensitivity and muscle metabolism.

    Mandrup, Camilla M; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael; Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn; Kjær, Andreas; Clemmensen, Andreas E; Christensen, Anders Nymark; Suetta, Charlotte; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Steenberg, Dorte Enggaard; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Hellsten, Ylva; Stallknecht, Bente M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate peripheral insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and evaluate whether exercise training benefits are maintained after menopause. Sedentary, healthy, normal-weight, late premenopausal (n = 21), and early postmenopausal (n = 20) women were included in a 3-month high-intensity exercise training intervention. Body composition was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, whole body glucose disposal rate (GDR) by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (40 mU/m/min), and femoral muscle glucose uptake by positron emission tomography/computed tomography, using the glucose analog fluorodeoxyglucose, expressed as estimated metabolic rate (eMR). Insulin signaling was investigated in muscle biopsies. Age difference between groups was 4.5 years, and no difference was observed in body composition. Training increased lean body mass (estimate [95% confidence interval] 0.5 [0.2-0.9] kg, P training (eMR vastus lateralis muscle: 27.8 [19.6-36.0] μmol/min/kg, P training-induced increases in insulin sensitivity included increased expression of hexokinase (19.2 [5.0-24.7] AU, P = 0.02) and glycogen synthase (32.4 [15.0-49.8] AU, P high-intensity exercise training.

  17. Skeletal Muscle Sorbitol Levels in Diabetic Rats with and without Insulin Therapy and Endurance Exercise Training

    Sánchez, O. A.; Walseth, T. F.; Snow, L. M.; Serfass, R. C.; Thompson, L. V.

    2009-01-01

    Sorbitol accumulation is postulated to play a role in skeletal muscle dysfunction associated with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of insulin and of endurance exercise on skeletal muscle sorbitol levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were assigned to one experimental group (control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary no-insulin). Diabetic rats received daily subcutaneous insulin. The exercise-trained rats ran on a treadmill (1 hour, 5X/wk, for 12 weeks). Skeletal muscle sorbitol levels were the highest in the diabetic sedentary no-insulin group. Diabetic sedentary rats receiving insulin had similar sorbitol levels to control sedentary rats. Endurance exercise did not significantly affect sorbitol levels. These results indicate that insulin treatment lowers sorbitol in skeletal muscle; therefore sorbitol accumulation is probably not related to muscle dysfunction in insulin-treated diabetic individuals. Endurance exercise did not influence intramuscular sorbitol values as strongly as insulin. PMID:20016800

  18. Does plyometric training improve strength performance? A meta-analysis.

    Sáez-Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Requena, Bernardo; Newton, Robert U

    2010-09-01

    Majority of the research suggests plyometric training (PT) improves maximal strength performance as measured by 1RM, isometric MVC or slow velocity isokinetic testing. However, the effectiveness of PT depends upon various factors. A meta-analysis of 15 studies with a total of 31 effect sizes (ES) was carried out to analyse the role of various factors on the effects of PT on strength performance. The inclusion criteria for the analysis were: (a) studies using PT programs for lower limb muscles; (b) studies employing true experimental design and valid and reliable measurements; (c) studies including sufficient data to calculate ES. When subjects can adequately follow plyometric exercises, the training gains are independent of fitness level. Subjects in either good or poor physical condition, benefit equally from plyometric work, also men obtain similar strength results to women following PT. In relation to the variables of program design, training volume of less than 10 weeks and with more than 15 sessions, as well as the implementation of high-intensity programs, with more than 40 jumps per session, were the strategies that seem to maximize the probability to obtain significantly greater improvements in performance (p<0.05). In order to optimise strength enhancement, the combination of different types of plyometrics with weight-training would be recommended, rather than utilizing only one form (p<0.05). The responses identified in this analysis are essential and should be considered by the strength and conditioning professional with regard to the most appropriate dose-response trends for PT to optimise strength gains.

  19. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. METHODS: 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women......, duration of pain 186 day during the previous year) were randomly allocated to 2- or 12 min of daily progressive resistance training with elastic tubing or to a control group receiving weekly information on general health. A blinded assessor took measures at baseline and at 10-week follow-up; participants.......05) for both training groups. Maximal muscle strength increased only ~5-6% [mean and 95% confidence interval for 2- and 12-min groups to control, respectively: 2.5 Nm (0.05-0.73) and 2.2 Nm (0.01-0.70)]. No significant differences between the 2- and 12-min groups were evident. A weak but significant...

  20. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... subsequent to meniscectomy for a degenerative tear. Four years after meniscectomy, 45 patients (29 men, 16 women) were randomized to functional exercise training, supervised by a physical therapist, three times weekly for 4 months or to no intervention. The exercise program comprised of postural stability...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...

  1. A Case Study: Effect of Progressive Resistance and Balance Training on Upper Trunk Muscle Strength of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Mehrnoush Ismailiyan

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion The results of this study showed that 8 weeks of progressive resistance and balance training (in combination has increased muscle strength in children with cerebral palsy. The present research showed that resistance and balanced trainings have significant effects on muscle strength of children with CP. It seems that these practices have been effective, especially for the wrist flexor and elbow flexor muscles. It can be said that the increase in the muscles of children with CP was due to practice principle along with increase in neuronal compatibility. One of the important points in the effectiveness of resistance training is the intensity of training. The results showed that resistance and balanced trainings increase the muscle strength of children with CP. This power could be partly due to increase in muscle volume and partly due to anabolic hormones.

  2. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance...... by lowered mitochondrial UCP3 expression. Furthermore, speed endurance training can maintain muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, and endurance performance in already trained individuals despite significant reduction in the amount of training....

  3. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Behm, David G.; Young, James D.; Whitten, Joseph H. D.; Reid, Jonathan C.; Quigley, Patrick J.; Low, Jonathan; Li, Yimeng; Lima, Camila D.; Hodgson, Daniel D.; Chaouachi, Anis; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral

  4. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    David G. Behm

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics, there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with

  5. Eight Weeks of Phosphatidic Acid Supplementation in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does Not Differentially Affect Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Resistance-Trained Men

    Thomas L. Andre, Joshua J. Gann, Sarah K. McKinley-Barnard, Joon J. Song, Darryn S. Willoughby

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT combined with phosphatidic acid (PA supplementation at a dose of either 250 mg or 375 mg on body composition and muscle size and strength. Twenty-eight resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to ingest 375 mg [PA375 (n = 9] or 250 mg [PA250 (n = 9] of PA or 375 mg of placebo [PLC (n = 10] daily for eight weeks with RT. Supplements were ingested 60 minutes prior to RT and in the morning on non-RT days. Participants’ body composition, muscle size, and lower-body muscle strength were determined before and after training/supplementation. Separate group x time ANOVAs for each criterion variable were used employing an alpha level of ≤ 0.05. Magnitude- based inferences were utilized to determine the likely or unlikely impact of PA on each criterion variable. A significant main effect for time was observed for improvements in total body mass (p = 0.003, lean mass (p = 0.008, rectus femoris cross-sectional area [RF CSA (p = 0.011], and lower-body strength (p 0.05. Collectively, magnitude-based inferences determined both doses of PA to have a likely impact of increasing body mass (74.2%, lean mass (71.3%, RF CSA (92.2%, and very likely impact on increasing lower-body strength (98.1% beneficial. When combined with RT, it appears that PA has a more than likely impact on improving lower-body strength, whereas a likely impact exists for increasing muscle size and lean mass.

  6. FIRST SOUND EVIDENCE OF MUSCLE REGENERATION IN RECOVERY OF FUNCTION OF HUMAN PERMANENT DENERVATED MUSCLES BY A LONG-LASTING FUNCTIONAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION (FES TRAINING: BIOPSY FINDINGS

    Helmut Kern

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to general believe, in one case of 18month cauda equina lesion four-month electrical stimulation of thigh muscles (impulse energy 1.92 Joule increased stimulation frequency from 2 to 20 Hz, i. e., up to tetanic contractions. After 2 years of treatment, CT-cross sectional area of quadriceps improved 58.3% (right and 44.4% (left with increased muscle density. Mean myofiber size was 37.2 ± 24.8 µm (right and 40.5 ±  24.9 µm (left. Improvement of stimulated knee torque, from zero to 12.0 Nm and 10.5 Nm, respectively, enabled to stand up trials. Surviving myofibers undergo re-growth (they show the chess board appearance of normal muscle, and dying myofibers continuously regenerate (up to 3% are embryonic myosin positive 3-year post-FES. Regeneration events are essential components of the FES rehabilitation protocol due to superior excitability of regenerated myofibers in comparison to long-term denervated, degenerated myofibers, which were almost not excitable before FES training.

  7. Effects of low-intensity bench press training with restricted arm muscle blood flow on chest muscle hypertrophy: a pilot study.

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Fujita, Satoshi; Ogasawara, Riki; Sato, Yoshiaki; Abe, Takashi

    2010-09-01

    Single-joint resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) results in significant increases in arm or leg muscle size and single-joint strength. However, the effect of multijoint BFR training on both blood flow restricted limb and non-restricted trunk muscles remain poorly understood. To examine the impact of BFR bench press training on hypertrophic response to non-restricted (chest) and restricted (upper-arm) muscles and multi-joint strength, 10 young men were randomly divided into either BFR training (BFR-T) or non-BFR training (CON-T) groups. They performed 30% of one repetition maximal (1-RM) bench press exercise (four sets, total 75 reps) twice daily, 6 days week(-1) for 2 weeks. During the exercise session, subjects in the BFR-T group placed elastic cuffs proximally on both arms, with incremental increases in external compression starting at 100 mmHg and ending at 160 mmHg. Before and after the training, triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscle thickness (MTH), bench press 1-RM and serum anabolic hormones were measured. Two weeks of training led to a significant increase (Pbench press strength in BFR-T (6%) but not in CON-T (-2%). Triceps and pectoralis major MTH increased 8% and 16% (Pbench press training leads to significant increases in muscle size for upper arm and chest muscles and 1-RM strength.

  8. Muscle function in aged women in response to a water-based exercises program and progressive resistance training.

    Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce; Rodacki, André Luiz Felix

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a water-based exercise program on muscle function compared with regular high-intensity resistance training. Older women (n = 87) were recruited from the local community. The inclusion criteria were, to be aged 60 years or older, able to walk and able to carry out daily living activities independently. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: water-based exercises (WBG), resistance training (RTG) or control (CG). The experimental groups carried out 12 weeks of an excise program performed on water or on land. The dynamic strength, the isometric peak, and rate of torque development for the lower limbs were assessed before and after interventions. The water-based program provided a similar improvement in dynamic strength in comparison with resistance training. The isometric peak torque increased around the hip and ankle joints in the water-based group, and around the knee joint in the resistance-training group (P water-based group around the hip extensors muscles (P Water-based programs constitute an attractive alternative to promote relevant strength gains using moderate loads and fast speed movements, which were also effective to improve the capacity to generate fast torques. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?

    ElShenawy, Eman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.…

  10. The long-term clinical and MRI results following eccentric calf muscle training in chronic Achilles tendinosis

    Gaerdin, Anna; Shalabi, Adel; Movin, Tomas; Svensson, Leif

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term results following eccentric calf-muscle training in patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. A total of 24 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy were included in a study evaluating MRI findings and clinical symptoms before and after 3 months of daily eccentric calf-muscle strength training. Median duration of symptoms was 18 months (range 6-120). Four of the patients did not perform the prescribed treatment for different reasons and were followed for 14 months. The resulting 20 treated patients completed 4.2-year (range 29-58 months) follow up. Tendon volume was evaluated by using 3D seed growing technique and signal abnormalities were visually semi-quantitatively graded. Level of pain and performance was categorized using a questionnaire completed by the patient. In the symptomatic treated patients, median intensity level of pain decreased from moderate/severe at time of inclusion to mild at follow up (p 3 (SD 2.0) at time of inclusion and 6.4 cm 3 (SD 2.0) at follow up (p = 0.18). The four symptomatic non-treated tendons did not improve regarding pain, performance, intratendinous signal or tendon volume. We found decreased pain, improved performance and decreased intratendinous signal both compared to index examination and immediately after the 3 months training regimen in a 4.2-year clinical and MRI follow up, in a group of patients treated with heavy loaded eccentric calf-muscle training for chronic Achilles tendinopathy. The improvements were greater at 4.2-year follow up, despite no further active treatment, than immediately after the treatment. This may indicate a good long-term prognosis for Achilles tendinosis patients. (orig.)

  11. Early remodeling of rat cardiac muscle induced by swimming training

    Verzola R.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of acute swimming training with an anaerobic component on matrix metallopeptidase (MMP activity and myosin heavy chain gene expression in the rat myocardium. Animals (male Wistar rats, weighing approximately 180 g were trained for 6 h/day in 3 sessions of 2 h each for 1 to 5 consecutive days (N = 5 rats per group. Rats swam in basins 47 cm in diameter and 60 cm deep filled with water at 33 to 35ºC. After the training period a significant increase (P < 0.05 was observed in the heart weight normalized to body weight by about 22 and 35% in the groups that trained for 96 and 120 h, respectively. Blood lactate levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05 in all groups after all training sessions, confirming an anaerobic component. However, lactate levels decreased (P < 0.05 with days of training, suggesting that the animals became adapted to this protocol. Myosin heavy chain-ß gene expression, analyzed by real time PCR and normalized with GAPDH gene expression, showed a significant two-fold increase (P < 0.01 after 5 days of training. Zymography analysis of myocardium extracts indicated a single ~60-kDa activity band that was significantly increased (P < 0.05 after 72, 96, and 120 h, indicating an increased expression of MMP-2 and suggesting precocious remodeling. Furthermore, the presence of MMP-2 was confirmed by Western blot analysis, but not the presence of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Taken together, our results indicate that in these training conditions, the rat heart undergoes early biochemical and functional changes required for the adaptation to the new physiological condition by tissue remodeling.

  12. MUSCLE STRENGTH AND DAMAGE FOLLOWING TWO MODES OF VARIABLE RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Saied Jalal Aboodarda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nautilus Machine (NM and Elastic Resistance (ER have gained considerable popularity among athletes and recreational lifters seeking to increase muscle strength. However, there is controversy concerning the use of ER for increasing muscle hypertrophy and strength among healthy-trained individuals. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of repeated near maximal contractions by ER/NM on indicators of muscle damage including: maximal strength decrement (MVIC, rate of muscle soreness (DOMS, concentration of plasma creatine kinase (CK and increased high muscle signal on T2 weighted images using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Nine healthy male subjects completed two modalities of exercise (5 sets × 10RM ER/NM in a counterbalance cross-over study design with three weeks "wash-out" period between experiments. The MVIC was measured and DOMS rated and recorded for 4 consecutive days while blood samples were collected on day 1, 3, 5 and 7. Prior to and forty eight hours after completion of each mode of exercise, subjects underwent MRI scanning. The average of applied forces demonstrated significantly higher value for NM compared with ER (362 ± 34.2 N vs 266.73 ± 44.6 N respectively throughout the 5 sets of dynamic exercise (all p < 0.05. However, the indicators of muscle damage (T2 relaxation time, DOMS, MVIC and serum CK exhibited a very similar response across both modes of training. Plasma CK increased significantly following both modes of training with the peak value on Day 3 (p < 0.05. The time course of muscle soreness reached a significant level after both modes of exercise and showed a peak value on the 2nd day (p < 0.05. The T2 relaxation time demonstrated a statistically significant increase following ER and NM compared with the pre-test value (p < 0.05. The similarity of these responses following both the ER and NM exercise training session suggests that both modes of training provide a similar training stress; despite a considerably

  13. The Effects of Aquatic Plyometric Training on Repeated Jumps, Drop Jumps and Muscle Damage.

    Jurado-Lavanant, A; Alvero-Cruz, J R; Pareja-Blanco, F; Melero-Romero, C; Rodríguez-Rosell, D; Fernandez-Garcia, J C

    2015-09-22

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of land- vs. aquatic based plyometric training programs on the drop jump, repeated jump performance and muscle damage. Sixty-five male students were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: aquatic plyometric training group (APT), plyometric training group (PT) and control group (CG). Both experimental groups trained twice a week for 10 weeks performing the same number of sets and total jumps. The following variables were measured prior to, halfway through and after the training programs: creatine kinase (CK) concentration, maximal height during a drop jump from the height of 30 (DJ30) and 50 cm (DJ50), and mean height during a repeated vertical jump test (RJ). The training program resulted in a significant increase (Pplyometric training, PT produced greater gains on reactive jumps performance than APT. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Changes in myonuclear domain size do not precede muscle hypertrophy during prolonged resistance-type exercise training.

    Snijders, T; Smeets, J S J; van Kranenburg, J; Kies, A K; van Loon, L J C; Verdijk, L B

    2016-02-01

    Muscle fibre hypertrophy is accompanied by an increase in myonuclear number, an increase in myonuclear domain size or both. It has been suggested that increases in myonuclear domain size precede myonuclear accretion and subsequent muscle fibre hypertrophy during prolonged exercise training. In this study, we assessed the changes in muscle fibre size, myonuclear and satellite cell content throughout 12 weeks of resistance-type exercise training in young men. Twenty-two young men (23 ± 1 year) were assigned to a progressive, 12-weeks resistance-type exercise training programme (3 sessions per week). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exercise training. Muscle fibre size, myonuclear content, myonuclear domain size and satellite cell content were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Type I and type II muscle fibre size increased gradually throughout the 12 weeks of training (type I: 18 ± 5%, type II: 41 ± 6%, P muscle fibres. No changes in type I and type II myonuclear domain size were observed at any time point throughout the intervention. Satellite cell content increased significantly over time in both type I and type II muscle fibres (P muscle fibre hypertrophy during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in vivo in humans. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Characterization of the equine skeletal muscle transcriptome identifies novel functional responses to exercise training.

    McGivney, Beatrice A

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Digital gene expression profiling was used to characterize the assembly of genes expressed in equine skeletal muscle and to identify the subset of genes that were differentially expressed following a ten-month period of exercise training. The study cohort comprised seven Thoroughbred racehorses from a single training yard. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected at rest from the gluteus medius at two time points: T(1) - untrained, (9 +\\/- 0.5 months old) and T(2) - trained (20 +\\/- 0.7 months old). RESULTS: The most abundant mRNA transcripts in the muscle transcriptome were those involved in muscle contraction, aerobic respiration and mitochondrial function. A previously unreported over-representation of genes related to RNA processing, the stress response and proteolysis was observed. Following training 92 tags were differentially expressed of which 74 were annotated. Sixteen genes showed increased expression, including the mitochondrial genes ACADVL, MRPS21 and SLC25A29 encoded by the nuclear genome. Among the 58 genes with decreased expression, MSTN, a negative regulator of muscle growth, had the greatest decrease.Functional analysis of all expressed genes using FatiScan revealed an asymmetric distribution of 482 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 18 KEGG pathways. Functional groups displaying highly significant (P < 0.0001) increased expression included mitochondrion, oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism while functional groups with decreased expression were mainly associated with structural genes and included the sarcoplasm, laminin complex and cytoskeleton. CONCLUSION: Exercise training in Thoroughbred racehorses results in coordinate changes in the gene expression of functional groups of genes related to metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and muscle structure.

  16. Effect of Myostatin SNP on muscle fiber properties in male Thoroughbred horses during training period.

    Miyata, Hirofumi; Itoh, Rika; Sato, Fumio; Takebe, Naoya; Hada, Tetsuro; Tozaki, Teruaki

    2017-10-20

    Variants of the Myostatin gene have been shown to have an influence on muscle hypertrophy phenotypes in a wide range of mammalian species. Recently, a Thoroughbred horse with a C-Allele at the g.66493737C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been reported to be suited to short-distance racing. In this study, we examined the effect of the Myostatin SNP on muscle fiber properties in young Thoroughbred horses during a training period. To investigate the effect of the Myostatin SNP on muscle fiber before training, several mRNA expressions were relatively quantified in biopsy samples from the middle gluteal muscle of 27 untrained male Thoroughbred horses (1.5 years old) using real-time RT-PCR analysis. The remaining muscle samples were used for immunohistochemical analysis to determine the population and area of each fiber type. All measurements were revaluated in biopsy samples of the same horses after a 5-month period of conventional training. Although the expressions of Myostatin mRNA decreased in all SNP genotypes, a significant decrease was found in only the C/C genotype after training. While, expression of VEGFa, PGC1α, and SDHa mRNAs, which relate to the biogenesis of mitochondria and capillaries, was significantly higher (54-82%) in the T/T than the C/C genotypes after training. It is suggested that hypertrophy of muscle fiber is directly associated with a decrease in Myostatin mRNA expression in the C/C genotype, and that increased expressions of VEGFa, PGC1α, and SDHa in the T/T genotype might be indirectly caused by the Myostatin SNP.

  17. Effects of resistance training on fast- and slow-twitch muscles in rats

    M Umnova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT on muscle strength, the dependence of that on the fast-twitch (FT and slow-twitch (ST fibers hypertrophy, nuclear domain size, synthesis and degradation rate of contractile proteins and on the expression of myosin isoforms’. 16 weeks old Wistar rats were trained on a vertical treadmill for six days a week during six weeks. The power of exercise increased 4.9% per session. In RT group the mass of studied muscles increased about 10%, hindlimb grip strength increased from 5.20±0.27 N/100g bw to the 6.05±0.29 N/100g bw (p<0.05. Cross-sectional area and number of myonuclei of FT and ST fibers in plantaris (Pla and soleus (Sol muscles increased, myonuclear domain size did not change significantly. RT increased the MyHC IId isoforms relative content and decreased that of IIb and IIa isoforms in Pla muscle, in Sol muscle increased only IIa isoform. In Pla muscle the relative content of myosin light chain (MyLC 1slow and 2slow isoforms decreased and that of MyLC 2fast isoforms increased during RT. MyLC 3 and MyLC 2 ratio did not change significantly in Pla but increased in Sol muscle by 14.3±3.4�0(p<0.01. The rat RT programme caused hypertrophy of FT and ST muscle fibers, increase of myonuclear number via fusion of satellite cells with damaged fibers or formation of new muscle fibers as a result of myoblast fusion and myotubes formation, maintaining myonuclear domain size.

  18. Increases in muscle strength and balance using a resistance training program administered via a telecommunications system in older adults.

    Sparrow, David; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Demolles, Deborah; Fielding, Roger A

    2011-11-01

    Resistance training programs have been found to improve muscle strength, physical function, and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. These programs have typically been provided in clinical facilities, health clubs, and senior centers, which may be inconvenient and/or cost prohibitive for some older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an automated telemedicine intervention that provides real-time guidance and monitoring of resistance training in the home. A randomized clinical trial in 103 middle-aged or older participants. Participants were assigned to use of a theory-driven interactive voice response system designed to promote resistance training (Telephone-Linked Computer-based Long-term Interactive Fitness Trainer; n = 52) or to an attention control (n = 51) for a period of 12 months. Measurements of muscle strength, balance, walk distance, and mood were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. We observed increased strength, improved balance, and fewer depressive symptoms in the intervention group than in the control group. Using generalized estimating equations modeling, group differences were statistically significant for knee flexion strength (p = .035), single-leg stance time (p = .029), and Beck Depression Inventory (p = .030). This computer-based telecommunications exercise intervention led to improvements in participants' strength, balance, and depressive symptoms. Because of their low cost and easy accessibility, computer-based interventions may be a cost-effective way of promoting exercise in the home.

  19. Effect of 2-wk intensified training and inactivity on muscle Na+-K+ pump expression, phospholemman (FXYD1) phosphorylation, and performance in soccer players.

    Thomassen, Martin; Christensen, Peter M; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Nybo, Lars; Bangsbo, Jens

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined muscle adaptations and alterations in performance of highly trained soccer players with intensified training or training cessation. Eighteen elite soccer players were, for a 2-wk period, assigned to either a group that performed high-intensity training with a reduction in the amount of training (HI, n = 7), or an inactivity group without training (IN, n = 11). HI improved (P Na(+)-K(+) pump alpha(2)-isoform was 15% higher (P Na(+)-K(+) pump expression was not changed. In HI, the FXYD1ser68-to-FXYD1 ratio was 27% higher (P Na(+)-K(+) pump alpha(2)-isoform expression, and that cessation of training for 2 wk does not affect the expression of Na(+)-K(+) pump isoforms. Resting phosphorylation status of the Na(+)-K(+) pump is changed by training and inactivity and may play a role in performance during repeated, intense exercise.

  20. Composition and adaptation of human myotendinous junction and neighboring muscle fibers to heavy resistance training

    Jakobsen, Jens R.; Mackey, A L; Knudsen, A B

    2017-01-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a common site of strain injury and yet understanding of its composition and ability to adapt to loading is poor. The main aims of this study were to determine the profile of selected collagens and macrophage density in human MTJ and adjoining muscle fibers...... 4 weeks of training may reflect a training-induced protection against strain injuries in this region....

  1. Effects of resistance training on endurance capacity and muscle fiber composition in young top-level cyclists

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L; Bennekou, M

    2011-01-01

    Equivocal findings exist on the effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on endurance performance and muscle morphology. Further, the influence of concurrent SE training on muscle fiber-type composition, vascularization and endurance capacity remains unknown in top......-level endurance athletes. The present study examined the effect of 16 weeks of concurrent SE training on maximal muscle strength (MVC), contractile rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber morphology and composition, capillarization, aerobic power (VO(2max) ), cycling economy (CE) and long....../short-term endurance capacity in young elite competitive cyclists (n=14). MVC and RFD increased 12-20% with SE (P...

  2. Effects of resistance training on endurance capacity and muscle fiber composition in young top-level cyclists

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L; Bennekou, M

    2011-01-01

    Equivocal findings exist on the effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on endurance performance and muscle morphology. Further, the influence of concurrent SE training on muscle fiber-type composition, vascularization and endurance capacity remains unknown in top......-level endurance athletes. The present study examined the effect of 16 weeks of concurrent SE training on maximal muscle strength (MVC), contractile rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber morphology and composition, capillarization, aerobic power (VO2max), cycling economy (CE) and long/short-term endurance...... capacity in young elite competitive cyclists (n=14). MVC and RFD increased 12-20% with SE (P...

  3. Muscular and systemic correlates of resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Cameron J Mitchell

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH, insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. METHODS: Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and acutely 1 and 5 h after the first training session. Serum hormones and cytokines were measured immediately, 15, 30 and 60 minutes following the first and last training sessions of the study. RESULTS: Mean fiber area increased by 20% (range: -7 to 80%; P<0.001. Protein content of the AR was unchanged with training (fold change = 1.17 ± 0.61; P=0.19; however, there was a significant correlation between the changes in AR content and fiber area (r=0.60, P=0.023. Phosphorylation of p70S6K was elevated 5 hours following exercise, which was correlated with gains in mean fiber area (r=0.54, P=0.007. There was no relationship between the magnitude of the pre- or post-training exercise-induced changes in free testosterone, GH, or IGF-1 concentration and muscle fiber hypertrophy; however, the magnitude of the post exercise IL-6 response was correlated with muscle hypertrophy (r=0.48, P=0.019. CONCLUSION: Post-exercise increases in circulating hormones are not related to hypertrophy following training. Exercise-induced changes in IL-6 correlated with hypertrophy, but the mechanism for the role of IL-6 in hypertrophy is not known. Acute increases, in p70S6K phosphorylation and changes in muscle AR protein content correlated with muscle hypertrophy implicating intramuscular rather than systemic processes in mediating hypertrophy.

  4. Effects of Supervised vs. Unsupervised Training Programs on Balance and Muscle Strength in Older Adults : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Lacroix, Andre; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Beurskens, Rainer; Granacher, Urs

    Background Balance and resistance training can improve healthy older adults' balance and muscle strength. Delivering such exercise programs at home without supervision may facilitate participation for older adults because they do not have to leave their homes. To date, no systematic literature

  5. Effects of Supervised vs. Unsupervised Training Programs on Balance and Muscle Strength in Older Adults : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Lacroix, Andre; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Beurskens, Rainer; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Background Balance and resistance training can improve healthy older adults' balance and muscle strength. Delivering such exercise programs at home without supervision may facilitate participation for older adults because they do not have to leave their homes. To date, no systematic literature

  6. The effects of 52 weeks of soccer or resistance training on body composition and muscle function in +65-year-old healthy males

    Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2016-01-01

    The effects of 52 weeks of soccer or resistance training were investigated in untrained elderly men. The subjects aged 68.1±2.1 yrs were randomised into a soccer (SG; n = 9), a resistance (RG; n = 9) and a control group (CG; n = 8). The subjects in SG and RG, respectively, trained 1.7±0.3 and 1...... expression decreased by 38% (psoccer training reduces BMI and improves anti-oxidative capacity, while long-term resistance training impacts muscle protein enzyme expression and increases lean body mass in elderly men....

  7. PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLE TRAINING IN THE TREATMENT OF URINARY INCONTINENCE AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Yu. L. Demidko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy is 0.8 to 87%. This category of patients has pelvic floor muscle weakness and reduced perineal reflex. The treatment of these patients uses a pelvic floor exercise system that is to enhance muscle tone and to develop strong reflex contraction in response to a sudden rise in intraabdominal pressure. Pelvic floor muscle training belongs to first-line therapy for urinary incontinence occurring within 6 to 12 months after prostatectomy. The ability to control pelvic floor muscle knowingly and to train them allows one not only to increase the closing capability of sphincter mechanisms, but also to suppress involuntary detrusor contractions. We used this method in 9 patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. The duration of pelvic floor muscle training under control was up to 25 weeks. During this period, the symptoms of incontinence were relieved. No contraindications or adverse reactions have put this method in first-line therapy for post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence.

  8. PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLE TRAINING IN THE TREATMENT OF URINARY INCONTINENCE AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Yu. L. Demidko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy is 0.8 to 87%. This category of patients has pelvic floor muscle weakness and reduced perineal reflex. The treatment of these patients uses a pelvic floor exercise system that is to enhance muscle tone and to develop strong reflex contraction in response to a sudden rise in intraabdominal pressure. Pelvic floor muscle training belongs to first-line therapy for urinary incontinence occurring within 6 to 12 months after prostatectomy. The ability to control pelvic floor muscle knowingly and to train them allows one not only to increase the closing capability of sphincter mechanisms, but also to suppress involuntary detrusor contractions. We used this method in 9 patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. The duration of pelvic floor muscle training under control was up to 25 weeks. During this period, the symptoms of incontinence were relieved. No contraindications or adverse reactions have put this method in first-line therapy for post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence.

  9. Effects of core instability strength training on trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults.

    Granacher, Urs; Lacroix, Andre; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Roettger, Katrin; Gollhofer, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Age-related postural misalignment, balance deficits and strength/power losses are associated with impaired functional mobility and an increased risk of falling in seniors. Core instability strength training (CIT) involves exercises that are challenging for both trunk muscles and postural control and may thus have the potential to induce benefits in trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility and balance performance. The objective was to investigate the effects of CIT on measures of trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in seniors. Thirty-two older adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT; n = 16, aged 70.8 ± 4.1 years) that conducted a 9-week progressive CIT or to a control group (n = 16, aged 70.2 ± 4.5 years). Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors/extensors/lateral flexors (right, left)/rotators (right, left) as well as of spinal mobility in the sagittal and the coronal plane was measured before and after the intervention program. Dynamic balance (i.e. walking 10 m on an optoelectric walkway, the Functional Reach test) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test) were additionally tested. Program compliance was excellent with participants of the INT group completing 92% of the training sessions. Significant group × test interactions were found for the maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors (34%, p training-related improvements were found for spinal mobility in the sagittal (11%, p velocity (9%, p velocity (31%, p training regimen could be used as an adjunct or even alternative to traditional balance and/or resistance training. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Effects of Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, Endurance, and Motor Unit According to Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Polymorphism in Male College Students

    Ae-Rim Hong, Sang-Min Hong, Yun-A Shin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in muscle mass and strength across the adult age span are variable and related to the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF genotype. In particular, a single CNTF haplotype (1357 G→A is important for neuronal and muscular developments and may be associated with muscle strength response to resistance training. We examined whether CNTF genotype differentially influences the effect of resistance training on neuromuscular improvement in male college students. Resistance training of the upper extremities comprised 3 sets at 75%–85% intensity per 1 repetition maximum, 3 times a week, for a total of 8 weeks. We measured isokinetic muscle function of the elbow joint with regard to strength (60°/s and endurance (180°/s by using an isokinetic dynamometer. The biceps brachii (BB and brachioradialis muscles were studied using surface electromyography with spike-triggered averaging to assess surface-detected motor unit potential (SMUP area. After resistance training, the SMUP of the BB increased significantly at 60°/s (p < 0.05, but no difference in the CNTF genotype was observed. The SMUP of the BB at 180°/s increased significantly in the GG/AA genotype group compared with that in the GA genotype group (p < 0.05. The average power of the elbow flexor at 180°/s increased significantly after resistance training (p < 0.05, but again, no difference in the CNTF genotype was observed. Thus, improvements in muscle strength and endurance may have resulted directly from resistance training rather than from genetic factors related to nerves in muscle tissue.

  11. Comparison of sensory modes of biofeedback in relaxation training of frontalis muscle.

    Chen, W

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of various sensory modes of EMG biofeedback to relaxation training of the frontalis muscle. 19 male and 29 female subjects were randomly selected from a pool of college volunteers. They were then randomly assigned 12 each to audiofeedback, visual feedback, audiovisual feedback, and no feedback groups. There were 11 20-min. sessions per subject. Subjects in the biofeedback groups were trained to reduce muscle tension voluntarily by utilizing Cyborg J33 EMG portable trainers. The subjects in the three feedback groups exhibited significantly lower muscle tension than did the subjects in the no-feedback control group. There were no significant differences in relaxation among the three feedback groups.

  12. Contribution of respiratory muscle blood flow to exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in trained cyclists

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether the greater degree of exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue previously reported in highly trained athletes in hypoxia (compared with normoxia) could have a contribution from limited respiratory muscle blood flow. Seven trained cyclists completed three constant load 5 min...... exercise tests at inspired O(2) fractions (FIO2) of 0.13, 0.21 and 1.00 in balanced order. Work rates were selected to produce the same tidal volume, breathing frequency and respiratory muscle load at each FIO2 (63 +/- 1, 78 +/- 1 and 87 +/- 1% of normoxic maximal work rate, respectively). Intercostals......(-1) and 95.1 +/- 7.8 ml (100 ml)(-1) min(-1), respectively). Neither IMBF was different across hypoxia, normoxia and hyperoxia (53.6 +/- 8.5, 49.9 +/- 5.9 and 52.9 +/- 5.9 ml (100 ml)(-1) min(-1), respectively). We conclude that when respiratory muscle energy requirement is not different between...

  13. Expression of interleukin-15 and inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscles of STZ-induced diabetic rats: effect of resistance exercise training.

    Molanouri Shamsi, M; Hassan, Z H; Gharakhanlou, R; Quinn, L S; Azadmanesh, K; Baghersad, L; Isanejad, A; Mahdavi, M

    2014-05-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with type-1 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is the source of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that can mediate muscle hypertrophy and atrophy, while resistance exercise can modulate both muscle mass and muscle cytokine expression. This study determined the effects of a 5-week resistance exercise training regimen on the expression of muscle cytokines in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, with special emphasis on interleukin-15 (IL-15), a muscle-derived cytokine proposed to be involved in muscle hypertrophy or responses to stress. Induction of diabetes reduced muscle weight in both the fast flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and slow soleus muscles, while resistance training preserved FHL muscle weight in diabetic rats. IL-15 protein content was increased by training in both FHL and soleus muscles, as well as serum, in normal and diabetic rats. With regard to proinflammatory cytokines, muscle IL-6 levels were increased in diabetic rats, while training decreased muscle IL-6 levels in diabetic rats; training had no effect on FHL muscle IL-6 levels in healthy rats. Also, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-1β levels were increased by diabetes, but not changed by training. In conclusion, we found that in diabetic rats, resistance training increased muscle and serum IL-15 levels, decreased muscle IL-6 levels, and preserved FHL muscle mass.

  14. Feedback or biofeedback to augment pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence in women

    Herderschee, Roselien; Hay-Smith, E. Jean C.; Herbison, G. Peter; Roovers, Jan Paul; Heineman, Maas Jan

    2011-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is an effective treatment for stress urinary incontinence in women. Whilst most of the PFMT trials have been done in women with stress urinary incontinence, there is also some trial evidence that PFMT is effective for urgency urinary incontinence and mixed urinary

  15. Effect of lifelong resveratrol supplementation and exercise training on skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in aging mice

    Ringholm, Stine; Olesen, Jesper; Pedersen, Jesper Thorhauge

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that lifelong resveratrol (RSV) supplementation counteracts an age-associated decrease in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and that RSV combined with lifelong exercise training (ET...

  16. Lifestyle advice with or without pelvic floor muscle training for pelvic organ prolapse

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the effect of adding pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) to a structured lifestyle advice program. METHODS: This was a single-blinded randomized trial of women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) stage ≥ II. Participants were randomized...

  17. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans

    Esmarck, B.; Andersen, J.L.; Olsen, S.

    2001-01-01

    1. Age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength can partly be counteracted by resistance training, causing a net synthesis of muscular proteins. Protein synthesis is influenced synergistically by postexercise amino acid supplementation, but the importance of the timing of protein intake...

  18. Training and muscle ammonia and amino acid metabolism in humans during prolonged exercise

    Graham, T E; Turcotte, L P; Kiens, Bente

    1995-01-01

    We studied the responses of NH3 and amino acids (AA) to prolonged exercise (3 h) in trained (Tr; n = 6) and untrained (Utr; n = 6) men. Each subject exercised the knee extensor muscles of one leg at 60% of maximum capacity. Thigh blood flow and femoral arteriovenous differences (0, 30, 60, 120, 150......, and 180 min) as well as muscle biopsies (0, 120, and 180 min) were taken for NH3 and AA measurements. In both groups, muscle Glu decreased (P ....4 +/- 6.8 mmol/kg wet wt in Tr and Utr, respectively. Tr had greater (P muscle Tau, Phe, Ala, and Glu. Both groups had a large Glu uptake and effluxes of NH3, Gln, and Ala as well as essential AA. The latter implies that there was a net protein catabolism. The efflux of NH3 and Gln was much...

  19. Reducing body fat with altitude hypoxia training in swimmers: role of blood perfusion to skeletal muscles.

    Chia, Michael; Liao, Chin-An; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Wen-Chih; Hou, Chien-Wen; Yu, Szu-Hsien; Harris, M Brennan; Hsu, Tung-Shiung; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-02-28

    Swimmers tend to have greater body fat than athletes from other sports. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in body composition after altitude hypoxia exposure and the role of blood distribution to the skeletal muscle in swimmers. With a constant training volume of 12.3 km/day, young male swimmers (N = 10, 14.8 ± 0.5 years) moved from sea-level to a higher altitude of 2,300 meters. Body composition was measured before and after translocation to altitude using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) along with 8 control male subjects who resided at sea level for the same period of time. To determine the effects of hypoxia on muscle blood perfusion, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) was traced by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the triceps and quadriceps muscles under glucose-ingested and insulin-secreted conditions during hypoxia exposure (16% O2) after training. While no change in body composition was found in the control group, subjects who trained at altitude had unequivocally decreased fat mass (-1.7 ± 0.3 kg, -11.4%) with increased lean mass (+0.8 ± 0.2 kg, +1.5%). Arterial oxygen saturation significantly decreased with increased plasma lactate during hypoxia recovery mimicking 2,300 meters at altitude (~93% versus ~97%). Intriguingly, hypoxia resulted in elevated muscle THC, and sympathetic nervous activities occurred in parallel with greater-percent oxygen saturation in both muscle groups. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that increased blood distribution to the skeletal muscle under postprandial condition may contribute to the reciprocally increased muscle mass and decreased body mass after a 3-week altitude exposure in swimmers.

  20. Adaptive Hierarchical Control for the Muscle Strength Training of Stroke Survivors in Robot-Aided Upper-Limb Rehabilitation

    Guozheng Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength training for stroke patients is of vital importance for helping survivors to progressively restore muscle strength and improve the performance of their activities in daily living (ADL. An adaptive hierarchical therapy control framework which integrates the patient's real biomechanical state estimation with task-performance quantitative evaluation is proposed. Firstly, a high-level progressive resistive supervisory controller is designed to determine the resistive force base for each training session based on the patient's online task-performance evaluation. Then, a low-level adaptive resistive force triggered controller is presented to further regulate the interactive resistive force corresponding to the patient's real-time biomechanical state – characterized by the patient's bio-damping and bio-stiffness in the course of one training session, so that the patient is challenged in a moderate but engaging and motivating way. Finally, a therapeutic robot system using a Barrett WAM™ compliant manipulator is set up. We recruited eighteen inpatient and outpatient stroke participants who were randomly allocated in experimental (robot-aided and control (conventional physical therapy groups and enrolled for sixteen weeks of progressive resistance training. The preliminary results show that the proposed therapy control strategies can enhance the recovery of strength and motor control ability.

  1. Kung Fu Training Improves Physical Fitness Measures in Overweight/Obese Adolescents: The “Martial Fitness” Study

    Tracey W. Tsang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was 46.7±27.8%. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper (P=.002 and lower (P=.04 body strength, and upper body muscle endurance (P=.02, without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness (P=.03, lower body muscle endurance (P=.28; significant 95% CI: 0.37–2.49, and upper body muscle velocity (P=.03 relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness.

  2. Nondestructive Estimation of Muscle Contributions to STS Training with Different Loadings Based on Wearable Sensor System.

    Liu, Kun; Liu, Yong; Yan, Jianchao; Sun, Zhenyuan

    2018-03-25

    Partial body weight support or loading sit-to-stand (STS) rehabilitation can be useful for persons with lower limb dysfunction to achieve movement again based on the internal residual muscle force and external assistance. To explicate how the muscles contribute to the kinetics and kinematics of STS performance by non-invasive in vitro detection and to nondestructively estimate the muscle contributions to STS training with different loadings, a wearable sensor system was developed with ground reaction force (GRF) platforms, motion capture inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) sensors. To estimate the internal moments of hip, knee and ankle joints and quantify the contributions of individual muscle and gravity to STS movement, the inverse dynamics analysis on a simplified STS biomechanical model with external loading is proposed. The functional roles of the lower limb individual muscles (rectus femoris (RF), gluteus maximus (GM), vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GAST)) during STS motion and the mechanism of the muscles' synergies to perform STS-specific subtasks were analyzed. The muscle contributions to the biomechanical STS subtasks of vertical propulsion, anteroposterior (AP) braking and propulsion for body balance in the sagittal plane were quantified by experimental studies with EMG, kinematic and kinetic data.

  3. Resveratrol modulates the angiogenic response to exercise training in skeletal muscle of aged men

    Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse; Olesen, Jesper; Biensø, Rasmus S

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The polyphenol resveratrol has in animal studies been shown to influence several pathways of importance for angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. The aim was to examine the angiogenic effect of resveratrol supplementation with parallel exercise training in aged men. Methods: Forty-three healthy...... physically inactive aged men (65±1 years) were divided into A) a training group that conducted 8 weeks of intense exercise training where half of the subjects received a daily intake of either 250 mg trans resveratrol (n=14) and the other half received placebo (n=13); and B) a non-training group...... show that exercise training has a strong angiogenic effect whereas resveratrol supplementation may limit basal and training-induced angiogenesis....

  4. Visuospatial training improves elementary students' mathematics performance.

    Lowrie, Tom; Logan, Tracy; Ramful, Ajay

    2017-06-01

    Although spatial ability and mathematics performance are highly correlated, there is scant research on the extent to which spatial ability training can improve mathematics performance. This study evaluated the efficacy of a visuospatial intervention programme within classrooms to determine the effect on students' (1) spatial reasoning and (2) mathematics performance as a result of the intervention. The study involved grade six students (ages 10-12) in eight classes. There were five intervention classes (n = 120) and three non-intervention control classes (n = 66). A specifically designed 10-week spatial reasoning programme was developed collaboratively with the participating teachers, with the intervention replacing the standard mathematics curriculum. The five classroom teachers in the intervention programme presented 20 hr of activities aimed at enhancing students' spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial orientation skills. The spatial reasoning programme led to improvements in both spatial ability and mathematics performance relative to the control group who received standard mathematics instruction. Our study is the first to show that a classroom-based spatial reasoning intervention improves elementary school students' mathematics performance. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Functional and Muscle-Size Effects of Flywheel Resistance Training with Eccentric-Overload in Professional Handball Players.

    Maroto-Izquierdo, Sergio; García-López, David; de Paz, José A

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of 6 week (15 sessions) flywheel resistance training with eccentric-overload (FRTEO) on different functional and anatomical variables in professional handball players. Twenty-nine athletes were recruited and randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group (EXP, n = 15) carried out 15 sessions of FRTEO in the leg-press exercise, with 4 sets of 7 repetitions at a maximum-concentric effort. The control group (CON, n = 14) performed the same number of training sessions including 4 sets of 7 maximum repetitions (7RM) using a weight-stack leg-press machine. The results which were measured included maximal dynamic strength (1RM), muscle power at different submaximal loads (PO), vertical jump height (CMJ and SJ), 20 m sprint time (20 m), T-test time (T-test), and Vastus-Lateralis muscle (VL) thickness. The results of the EXP group showed a substantially better improvement (p handball requires repeated short, explosive effort such as accelerations and decelerations during sprints with changes of direction, these results suggest that FRTEO affects functional and anatomical changes in a way which improves performance in well-trained professional handball players.

  6. Safety and efficacy of exercise training in adults with Pompe disease: evalution of endurance, muscle strength and core stability before and after a 12 week training program.

    van den Berg, Linda E M; Favejee, Marein M; Wens, Stephan C A; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; Praet, Stephan F E; Reuser, Arnold J J; Bussmann, Johannes B J; van Doorn, Pieter A; van der Ploeg, Ans T

    2015-07-19

    Pompe disease is a proximal myopathy. We investigated whether exercise training is a safe and useful adjuvant therapy for adult Pompe patients, receiving enzyme replacement therapy. Training comprised 36 sessions of standardized aerobic, resistance and core stability exercises over 12 weeks. Before and after, the primary outcome measures safety, endurance (aerobic exercise capacity and distance walked on the 6 min walk test) and muscle strength, and secondary outcome measures core stability, muscle function and body composition, were evaluated. Of 25 patients enrolled, 23 successfully completed the training. Improvements in endurance were shown by increases in maximum workload capacity (110 W before to 122 W after training, [95 % CI of the difference 6 · 0 to 19 · 7]), maximal oxygen uptake capacity (69 · 4 % and 75 · 9 % of normal, [2 · 5 to 10 · 4]), and maximum walking distance (6 min walk test: 492 meters and 508, [-4 · 4 to 27 · 7] ). There were increases in muscle strength of the hip flexors (156 · 4 N to 180 · 7 N [1 · 6 to 13 · 6) and shoulder abductors (143 · 1 N to 150 · 7 N [13 · 2 to 35 · 2]). As an important finding in secondary outcome measures the number of patients who were able to perform the core stability exercises rose, as did the core stability balancing time (p core stability exercises is feasible, safe and beneficial to adults with Pompe disease.

  7. Reduced skeletal muscle inhibitor of kappaB beta content is associated with insulin resistance in subjects with type 2 diabetes: reversal by exercise training.

    Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Christ-Roberts, Christine; Berria, Rachele; Eagan, Phyllis; Pratipanawatr, Thongchai; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Musi, Nicolas

    2006-03-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. It recently has been hypothesized that excessive activity of the inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB)/nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) inflammatory pathway is a mechanism underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance. However, it is not known whether IkappaB/NFkappaB signaling in muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes is abnormal. We studied IkappaB/NFkappaB signaling in vastus lateralis muscle from six subjects with type 2 diabetes and eight matched control subjects. Muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects was characterized by a 60% decrease in IkappaB beta protein abundance, an indicator of increased activation of the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway. IkappaB beta abundance directly correlated with insulin-mediated glucose disposal (Rd) during a hyperinsulinemic (40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1))-euglycemic clamp (r = 0.63, P = 0.01), indicating that increased IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway activity is associated with muscle insulin resistance. We also investigated whether reversal of this abnormality could be a mechanism by which training improves insulin sensitivity. In control subjects, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training caused a 50% increase in both IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta protein. In subjects with type 2 diabetes, training increased IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta protein to levels comparable with that of control subjects, and these increments were accompanied by a 40% decrease in tumor necrosis factor alpha muscle content and a 37% increase in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In summary, subjects with type 2 diabetes have reduced IkappaB protein abundance in muscle, suggesting excessive activity of the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway. Moreover, this abnormality is reversed by exercise training.

  8. A pilot randomized control trial to evaluate pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence among gynecologic cancer survivors.

    Rutledge, Teresa L; Rogers, Rebecca; Lee, Sang-Joon; Muller, Carolyn Y

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported high rates of urinary incontinence among gynecologic cancer survivors and aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a simple intervention for treatment of urinary incontinence in this population. We recruited 40 gynecologic cancer survivors who reported urinary incontinence on a validated questionnaire. Women were randomized to either pelvic floor muscle training/behavioral therapy (treatment group) or usual care (control group). The primary outcome measure, assessed at 12 weeks post intervention, was a 40% difference in the validated Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) score. Fisher's exact test was used to identify differences between groups for frequency data; two-sample t-test was conducted for continuous measurements. Mean age of this cohort was 57 (range: 37-79). The majority of the survivors had uterine cancer (60%), 18% had received radiation therapy, 95% had received surgical therapy, and 35% had received chemotherapy. At three months, 80% of the treatment and 40% of the control group reported that their urinary incontinence was "much better" or "very much better" as evaluated by the Patient Global Impression of Improvement scale (p=0.02). Brink's scores were significantly improved in the treatment group as compared to those of the controls (pgynecologic cancer survivors, it is often under-assessed and undertreated. We found a simple intervention that included pelvic floor muscle training and behavioral therapy, which significantly improved cancer survivor's urinary incontinence. © 2013.

  9. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

    Howatson Glyn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD decreases muscle function and causes soreness and discomfort. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation has been shown to increase protein synthesis and decrease muscle protein breakdown, however, the effects of BCAAs on recovery from damaging resistance training are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a BCAA supplementation on markers of muscle damage elicited via a sport specific bout of damaging exercise in trained volunteers. Methods Twelve males (mean ± SD age, 23 ± 2 y; stature, 178.3 ± 3.6 cm and body mass, 79.6 ± 8.4 kg were randomly assigned to a supplement (n = 6 or placebo (n = 6 group. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Creatine kinase (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, muscle soreness (DOMS, vertical jump (VJ, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC were measured as markers of muscle damage. All variables were measured immediately before the damaging exercise and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Results A significant time effect was seen for all variables. There were significant group effects showing a reduction in CK efflux and muscle soreness in the BCAA group compared to the placebo (P Conclusion The present study has shown that BCAA administered before and following damaging resistance exercise reduces indices of muscle damage and accelerates recovery in resistance-trained males. It seems likely that BCAA provided greater bioavailablity of substrate to improve protein synthesis and thereby the extent of secondary muscle damage associated with strenuous resistance exercise. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01529281.

  10. Growth hormone enhances effects of endurance training on oxidative muscle metabolism in elderly women

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    by approximately 18% in both groups, whereas the marked increase in muscle citrate synthase activity was 50% larger in the GH group compared with the placebo group. In addition, only the GH group revealed an increase in muscle L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. Body weight remained unchanged in both...... groups, but the GH group showed significant changes in body composition with a decrease in fat mass and an increase in lean body mass. Twenty-four-hour indirect calorimetry performed in four subjects showed a marked increase in energy expenditure with increased relative and absolute fat combustion...... endurance training on a cycle ergometer over 12 wk. rhGH was given in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design in addition to the training program. GH administration resulted in a doubling of serum insulin-like growth factor I levels. With endurance training, peak oxygen uptake increased...

  11. Effect of a combination of whole body vibration exercise and squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly.

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Jun; Yamazaki, Michio; Takakuwa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to clarify the beneficial effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise plus squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly with knee osteoarthritis and/or spondylosis. Of 35 ambulatory patients (14 men and 21 women) who were recruited at our outpatient clinic, 28 (80.0%, 12 men and 16 women) participated in the trial. The subjects (mean age 72.4 years) were randomly divided into two groups (n=14 in each group), ie, a WBV exercise alone group and a WBV exercise plus squat training group. A 4-minute WBV exercise (frequency 20 Hz) was performed 2 days per week in both groups; squat training (20 times per minute) was added during the 4-minute WBV training session in the WBV exercise plus squat training group. The duration of the trial was 6 months. The exercise and training program was safe and well tolerated. WBV exercise alone improved indices of body balance and walking velocity from baseline values. However, WBV exercise plus squat training was more effective for improving tandem gait step number and chair-rising time compared with WBV exercise alone. These results suggest the benefit and safety of WBV exercise plus squat training for improving physical function in terms of body balance and muscle power in the elderly.

  12. To improve training methods in an engine room simulator-based training

    Lin, Chingshin

    2016-01-01

    The simulator based training are used widely in both industry and school education to reduce the accidents nowadays. This study aims to suggest the improved training methods to increase the effectiveness of engine room simulator training. The effectiveness of training in engine room will be performance indicators and the self-evaluation by participants. In the first phase of observation, the aim is to find out the possible shortcomings of current training methods based on train...

  13. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men.

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Suetta, Charlotte; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2016-06-01

    A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD) were assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, while postural balance and vertical jumping performance were evaluated using force plate analysis. Furthermore, functional ability was evaluated by stair-ascent and chair-rising testing. A total of nine, nine and seven participants from FT, ST and CON, respectively, were included in the analysis. Both exercise regimens led to substantial gains in functional ability, evidenced by 24 and 18 % reduced stair-ascent time, and 32 and 21 % increased chair-rising performance in FT and ST, respectively (all P football training mainly resulted in enhanced hamstring strength (18 %, P football training mainly included enhanced strength and rapid force capacity of the hamstring muscles. Gains in functional ability were observed in response to both training regimens, evidenced by reduced stair-ascent time and increased chair-rising performance. Long-term football exercise and strength training both appear to be effective interventional strategies to improve factors of importance for ADL by counteracting the age-related decline in lower

  14. D-aspartic acid supplementation combined with 28 days of heavy resistance training has no effect on body composition, muscle strength, and serum hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in resistance-trained men.

    Willoughby, Darryn S; Leutholtz, Brian

    2013-10-01

    It was hypothesized that D-aspartic acid (D-ASP) supplementation would not increase endogenous testosterone levels or improve muscular performance associated with resistance training. Therefore, body composition, muscle strength, and serum hormone levels associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis were studied after 28 days of resistance training and D-ASP supplementation. Resistance-trained men resistance trained 4 times/wk for 28 days while orally ingesting either 3 g of placebo or 3 g of D-ASP. Data were analyzed with 2 × 2 analysis of variance (P aspartate oxidase (DDO) were determined. Body composition and muscle strength were significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (P .05). Total and free testosterone, luteinizing hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and estradiol were unchanged with resistance training and D-ASP supplementation (P > .05). For serum D-ASP and DDO, D-ASP resulted in a slight increase compared with baseline levels (P > .05). For the D-ASP group, the levels of serum DDO were significantly increased compared with placebo (P < .05). The gonadal hormones were unaffected by 28 days of D-ASP supplementation and not associated with the observed increases in muscle strength and mass. Therefore, at the dose provided, D-ASP supplementation is ineffective in up-regulating the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis and has no anabolic or ergogenic effects in skeletal muscle. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion and exercise training on skeletal muscle in rat.

    Vila, L; Ferrando, A; Voces, J; Cabral de Oliveira, C; Prieto, J G; Alvarez, A I

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of exercise training and chronic ethanol consumption on metabolism, capillarity, and myofibrillar composition in rat limb muscles. Male Wistar rats were treated in separate groups as follows: non exercised-control; ethanol (15%) in animals' drinking water for 12 weeks; exercise training in treadmill and ethanol administration plus exercise for 12 weeks. Ethanol administration decreased capillarity and increased piruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in white gastrocnemius; in plantaris muscle, ethanol increased citrate synthase activity and decreased cross-sectional area of type I, IIa, and IIb fibres. Exercise increased capillarity in all four limb muscles and decreased type I fibre area in plantaris. The decreased capillarity effect induced by ethanol in some muscles, was ameliorated when alcohol was combined with exercise. While alcoholic myopathy affects predominantly type IIb fibres, ethanol administration and aerobic exercise in some cases can affect type I and type IIa fibre areas. The exercise can decrease some harmful effects produced by ethanol in the muscle, including the decrease in the fibre area and capillary density.

  16. Effect of eccentric training on the plantar flexor muscle-tendon tissue properties.

    Mahieu, Nele Nathalie; McNair, Peter; Cools, Ann; D'Haen, Caroline; Vandermeulen, Katrien; Witvrouw, Erik

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that eccentric training can be effective in the rehabilitation of patients with Achilles tendonopathy. The mechanism behind these results is not clear. However, there is evidence that tendons are able to respond to repeated forces by altering their structure and composition, and, thus, their mechanical properties change. In this regard, the objective of the present study was to investigate whether eccentric training affects the mechanical properties of the plantar flexor's muscle-tendon tissue properties. Seventy-four healthy subjects were randomized into two groups: an eccentric training group and a control group. The eccentric training group performed a 6-wk eccentric training program for the calf muscles. Before and after this period, all subjects were evaluated for dorsiflexion range of motion using universal goniometry, passive resistive torque of the plantar flexors, and stiffness of the Achilles tendon. Passive resistive torque was measured during ankle dorsiflexion on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness of the Achilles tendon was assessed using a dynamometer, in combination with ultrasonography. The results of the study reveal that the dorsiflexion range of motion was significantly increased only in the eccentric training group. The eccentric heel drop program also resulted in a significant decrease of the passive resistive torque of the plantar flexors (from 16.423 +/- 0.827 to 12.651 +/- 0.617 N.m). The stiffness of the Achilles tendon did not change significantly as a result of training. These findings provide evidence that an eccentric training program results in changes to some of the mechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscles. These changes were thought to be associated with modifications to structure rather than to stretch tolerance.

  17. Sensory training with vibration-induced kinesthetic illusions improves proprioceptive integration in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Ribot-Ciscar, Edith; Aimonetti, Jean-Marc; Azulay, Jean-Philippe

    2017-12-15

    The present study investigates whether proprioceptive training, based on kinesthetic illusions, can help in re-educating the processing of muscle proprioceptive input, which is impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The processing of proprioceptive input before and after training was evaluated by determining the error in the amplitude of voluntary dorsiflexion ankle movement (20°), induced by applying a vibration on the tendon of the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle (a vibration-induced movement error). The training consisted of the subjects focusing their attention upon a series of illusory movements of the ankle. Eleven PD patients and eleven age-matched control subjects were tested. Before training, vibration reduced dorsiflexion amplitude in controls by 4.3° (Pkinesthetic illusions, is a simple means for re-educating the processing of muscle proprioceptive input in PD patients. Such complementary training should be included in rehabilitation programs that presently focus on improving balance and motor performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effects of 52 Weeks of Soccer or Resistance Training on Body Composition and Muscle Function in +65-Year-Old Healthy Males – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Krustrup, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The effects of 52 weeks of soccer or resistance training were investigated in untrained elderly men. The subjects aged 68.1±2.1 yrs were randomised into a soccer (SG; n = 9), a resistance (RG; n = 9) and a control group (CG; n = 8). The subjects in SG and RG, respectively, trained 1.7±0.3 and 1.8±0.3 times weekly on average during the intervention period. Muscle function and body composition were determined before and after 16 and 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, BMI was reduced by 1.5% and 3.0% (psoccer training reduces BMI and improves anti-oxidative capacity, while long-term resistance training impacts muscle protein enzyme expression and increases lean body mass in elderly men. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01530035 PMID:26886262

  19. Does combined strength training and local vibration improve isometric maximum force? A pilot study.

    Goebel, Ruben; Haddad, Monoem; Kleinöder, Heinz; Yue, Zengyuan; Heinen, Thomas; Mester, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether a combination of strength training (ST) and local vibration (LV) improved the isometric maximum force of arm flexor muscles. ST was applied to the left arm of the subjects; LV was applied to the right arm of the same subjects. The main aim was to examine the effect of LV during a dumbbell biceps curl (Scott Curl) on isometric maximum force of the opposite muscle among the same subjects. It is hypothesized, that the intervention with LV produces a greater gain in isometric force of the arm flexors than ST. Twenty-seven collegiate students participated in the study. The training load was 70% of the individual 1 RM. Four sets with 12 repetitions were performed three times per week during four weeks. The right arm of all subjects represented the vibration trained body side (VS) and the left arm served as the traditional trained body side (TTS). A significant increase of isometric maximum force in both body sides (Arms) occurred. VS, however, significantly increased isometric maximum force about 43% in contrast to 22% of the TTS. The combined intervention of ST and LC improves isometric maximum force of arm flexor muscles. III.

  20. Creatine supplementation elicits greater muscle hypertrophy in upper than lower limbs and trunk in resistance-trained men.

    Nunes, João Pedro; Ribeiro, Alex S; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Tomeleri, Crisieli M; Avelar, Ademar; Trindade, Michele Cc; Nabuco, Hellen Cg; Cavalcante, Edilaine F; Junior, Paulo Sugihara; Fernandes, Rodrigo R; Carvalho, Ferdinando O; Cyrino, Edilson S

    2017-12-01

    Creatine (Cr) supplementation associated with resistance training produces greater muscular strength improvements in the upper compared with the lower body; however, no study has investigated if such region-specific results are seen with gains in muscle mass. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Cr supplementation in combination with resistance training on lean soft tissue changes in the upper and lower limbs and trunk in resistance-trained young adult men. In a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled design, 43 resistance-trained men (22.7 ± 3.0 years, 72.9 ± 8.7 kg, 177.9 ± 5.7 cm, 23.0 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 ) received either creatine (Cr, n = 22) or placebo (PLA, n = 21) over an 8-week study period. The supplementation protocol included a loading phase (7 days, four doses of 0.3 g/kg per day) and a maintenance phase (7 weeks, single dose of 0.03 g/kg per day). During the same period, subjects performed resistance training four times per week using the following two-way split routine: Monday and Thursday = pectoral, shoulders, triceps, and abdomen, Tuesday and Friday = back, biceps, thighs, and calves. Lean soft tissue of the upper limbs (ULLST), lower limbs (LLLST), and trunk (TLST) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after the intervention. Both groups showed significant ( p hypertrophy (ULLST = 1.6 ± 3.0%; LLLST = 0.7 ± 2.8%; TLST = 0.7 ± 2.8%). Our results suggest that Cr supplementation can positively augment muscle hypertrophy in resistance-trained young adult men, particularly in the upper limbs.

  1. Effects of Resistance Training on Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Skeletal Muscles and Blood Circulation During Aging

    Ivo V. de Sousa Neto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a complex, multifactorial process characterized by the accumulation of deleterious effects, including biochemical adaptations of the extracellular matrix (ECM. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT on metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 activity in skeletal muscles and, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the blood circulation of young and old rats. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7 per group: young sedentary (YS; young trained (YT, old sedentary (OS, and old trained (OT. The stair climbing RT consisted of one training session every 2 other day, with 8–12 dynamic movements per climb. The animals were euthanized 48 h after the end of the experimental period. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity was measured by zymography. There was higher active MMP-2 activity in the lateral gastrocnemius and flexor digitorum profundus muscles in the OT group when compared to the OS, YS, and YT groups (p ≤ 0.001. Moreover, there was higher active MMP-2 activity in the medial gastrocnemius muscle in the OT group when compared to the YS and YT groups (p ≤ 0.001. The YS group presented lower active MMP-2 activity in the soleus muscle than the YT, OS, OT groups (p ≤ 0.001. With respect to active MMP-2/9 activity in the bloodstream, the OT group displayed significantly reduced activity (p ≤ 0.001 when compared to YS and YT groups. In conclusion, RT up-regulates MMP-2 activity in aging muscles, while down-regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the blood circulation, suggesting that it may be a useful tool for the maintenance of ECM remodeling.

  2. [Selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using electrical stimulator for chondromalacia patella].

    Guo, K; Ye, Q; Lin, J; Shen, J; Yang, X

    1996-04-01

    Chondromalacia patella is closely related with subluxation and tilt of patella, as well as with muscular atrophy of quadriceps, especially in vastus medialis muscle. 364 cases of chondromalacia patella were treated with selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using electrical stimulator in our hospital. 211 cases were followed up after treatment from 6 months to 3 years. Among them excellent and good results were seen in 130 cases (62%), fair results were seen in 69 cases (33%) and no change was seen in 12 cases (5%). Significant reduction of CA (P chondromalacia patella.

  3. Strength training improves fatigue resistance and self-rated health in workers with chronic pain

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    of a randomized controlled trial investigates the effect of strength training on muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health among workers with chronic pain. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with chronic upper limb pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training or usual...... (Spearman's rho = -0.40; P = 0.01). In conclusion, specific strength training improves muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health and reduces pain of the hand/wrist in manual workers with chronic upper limb pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671267.......-rated health and pain. Time to fatigue, muscle strength, hand/wrist pain, and self-rated health improved significantly more following strength training than usual care (all P

  4. Effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training on symptoms and uroflowmetry parameters in female patients with overactive bladder.

    Kulaksizoğlu, Haluk; Akand, Murat; Çakmakçi, Evrim; Gül, Murat; Seçkin, Bedreddin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) on symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) as well as uroflowmetry parameters and functional bladder capacity. Fifty-nine female patients with OAB symptoms were included. Patients were assessed by SEAPI-QMM, uroflowmetry, and abdominal ultrasound. A specially designed PFMT program using a Pilates ball was generated for patients. The training period was 1-h sessions twice a week for 6 weeks and aerobic home exercises to be performed at home 4 or 5 times every other day. Following training, subjects were reevaluated for body mass index, SEAPI questionnaire, and uroflowmetry. Initial mean SEAPI score, mean maximum and average flow rates, and mean voided volume were 9.8 ± 7.2, 29.8 ± 16.4 mL/s, 16.3 ± 8.7 mL/s, and 211.6 ± 173.5 mL, respectively. After completion of the training program, SEAPI scores improved significantly to 3.4 ± 6.4 (P < 0.05). Maximum and average flow rate results did not show significant changes, whereas voided volume seemed to have improved in conjunction with patients' symptom scores (Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.86). According to. our results, we think that proper PFMT results in increase of functional bladder capacity as well as improvement in OAB symptoms and can be recommended as first-line therapy or in conjunction with medical therapy in severe cases.

  5. The relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial citrate synthase activity and whole body oxygen uptake adaptations in response to exercise training

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Andersen, Nynne Bjerre; Dela, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity and chan......Citrate synthase (CS) activity is a validated biomarker for mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. CS activity is also used as a biochemical marker of the skeletal muscle oxidative adaptation to a training intervention, and a relationship between changes in whole body aerobic capacity...

  6. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Andersen, Lars Louis; Kirk, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized...... to the maximal EMG activity during maximal voluntary contractions, and a p value 60% of maximal EMG activity). Type of exercise played a significant role...

  7. The reproducibility of 31-phosphorus MRS measures of muscle energetics at 3 Tesla in trained men.

    Lindsay M Edwards

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS provides an exceptional opportunity for the study of in vivo metabolism. MRS is widely used to measure phosphorus metabolites in trained muscle, although there are no published data regarding its reproducibility in this specialized cohort. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of (31P-MRS in trained skeletal muscle. METHODS: We recruited fifteen trained men (VO(2peak = 4.7±0.8 L min(-1/58±8 mL kg(-1 min(-1 and performed duplicate MR experiments during plantar flexion exercise, three weeks apart. RESULTS: Measures of resting phosphorus metabolites were reproducible, with 1.7 mM the smallest detectable difference in phosphocreatine (PCr. Measures of metabolites during exercise were less reliable: exercising PCr had a coefficient of variation (CV of 27% during exercise, compared with 8% at rest. Estimates of mitochondrial function were variable, but experimentally useful. The CV of PCr(1/2t was 40%, yet much of this variance was inter-subject such that differences of <20% were detectable with n = 15, given a significance threshold of p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: 31-phosphorus MRS provides reproducible and experimentally useful measures of phosphorus metabolites and mitochondrial function in trained human skeletal muscle.

  8. A DIGE proteomic analysis for high-intensity exercise-trained rat skeletal muscle.

    Yamaguchi, Wataru; Fujimoto, Eri; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Tabata, Izumi

    2010-09-01

    Exercise training induces various adaptations in skeletal muscles. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we conducted 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis, which has not yet been used for elucidating adaptations of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise training (HIT). For 5 days, rats performed HIT, which consisted of 14 20-s swimming exercise bouts carrying a weight (14% of the body weight), and 10-s pause between bouts. The 2D-DIGE analysis was conducted on epitrochlearis muscles excised 18 h after the final training exercise. Proteomic profiling revealed that out of 800 detected and matched spots, 13 proteins exhibited changed expression by HIT compared with sedentary rats. All proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS. Furthermore, using western immunoblot analyses, significantly changed expressions of NDUFS1 and parvalbumin (PV) were validated in relation to HIT. In conclusion, the proteomic 2D-DIGE analysis following HIT-identified expressions of NDUFS1 and PV, previously unknown to have functions related to exercise-training adaptations.

  9. Arm and leg substrate utilization and muscle adaptation after prolonged low-intensity training

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2010-01-01

    This review will focus on current data where substrate metabolism in arm and leg muscle is investigated and discuss the presence of higher carbohydrate oxidation and lactate release observed during arm compared with leg exercise. Furthermore, a basis for a possible difference in substrate partiti...... at comparable workloads. Finally, the influence and capacity of low-intensity training to influence metabolic fitness in the face of a limited effect on aerobic fitness will be challenged....... partitioning between endogenous and exogenous substrate during arm and leg exercise will be debated. Moreover the review will probe if differences between arm and leg muscle are merely a result of different training status rather than a qualitative difference in limb substrate regulation. Along this line...... the review will address the available studies on low-intensity training performed separately with arm or legs or as whole-body training to evaluate if this leads to different adaptations in arm and leg muscle resulting in different substrate utilization patterns during separate arm or leg exercise...

  10. An Improved Walk Model for Train Movement on Railway Network

    Li Keping; Mao Bohua; Gao Ziyou

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved walk model for simulating the train movement on railway network. In the proposed method, walkers represent trains. The improved walk model is a kind of the network-based simulation analysis model. Using some management rules for walker movement, walker can dynamically determine its departure and arrival times at stations. In order to test the proposed method, we simulate the train movement on a part of railway network. The numerical simulation and analytical results demonstrate that the improved model is an effective tool for simulating the train movement on railway network. Moreover, it can well capture the characteristic behaviors of train scheduling in railway traffic. (general)

  11. Influence of endurance training on skeletal muscle mitophagy regulatory proteins in type 2 diabetic men.

    Brinkmann, Christian; Przyklenk, Axel; Metten, Alexander; Schiffer, Thorsten; Bloch, Wilhelm; Brixius, Klara; Gehlert, Sebastian

    2017-11-01

    Mitophagy is a form of autophagy for the elimination of mitochondria. Mitochondrial content and function are reduced in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Physical training has been shown to restore mitochondrial capacity in T2DM patients, but the role of mitophagy has not been examined in this context. This study analyzes the impact of a 3-month endurance training on important skeletal muscle mitophagy regulatory proteins and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in T2DM patients. Muscle biopsies were obtained from eight overweight/obese T2DM men (61±10 years) at T1 (6 weeks pre-training), T2 (1 week pre-training), and T3 (3 to 4 days post-training). Protein contents were determined by Western blotting. The training increased mitochondrial complex II significantly (T2-T3: +29%, p = 0.037). The protein contents of mitophagy regulatory proteins (phosphorylated form of forkhead box O3A (pFOXO3A), mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin protein ligase-1 (MUL1), Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kD interacting protein-3 (BNIP3), microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3B (the ratio LC3B-II/LC3B-I was determined)) did not differ significantly between T1, T2, and T3. The results imply that training-induced changes in OXPHOS subunits (significant increase in complex II) are not accompanied by changes in mitophagy regulatory proteins in T2DM men. Future studies should elucidate whether acute exercise might affect mitophagic processes in T2DM patients (and whether a transient regulation of mitophagy regulatory proteins is evident) to fully clarify the role of physical activity and mitophagy for mitochondrial health in this particular patient group.

  12. [The effect of EMG level by EMG biofeedback with progressive muscle relaxation training on tension headache].

    Ro, U J; Kim, N C; Kim, H S

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess if EMG biofeedback training with progressive muscle relaxation training is effective in reducing the EMG level in patients with tension headaches. This study which lasted from 23 October to 30 December 1989, was conducted on 10 females who were diagnosed as patients with tension headaches and selected from among volunteers at C. University in Seoul. The process of the study was as follows: First, before the treatment, the baseline was measured for two weeks and the level of EMG was measured five times in five minutes. And then EMG biofeedback training was used for six weeks, 12 sessions in all, and progressive muscle relaxation was done at home by audio tape over eight weeks. Each session was composed of a 5-minute baseline, two 5-minute EMG biofeedback training periods and a 5-minute self-control stage. Each stage was followed by a five minute rest period. So each session took a total of 40 minutes. The EMG level was measured by EMG biofeedback (Autogenic-Cyborg: M 130 EMG module). The results were as follows: 1. The average age of the subjects was 44.1 years and the average history of headache was 10.6 years (range: 6 months-20 years). 2. The level of EMG was lowest between the third and the fourth week of the training except in Cases I and IV. 3. The patients began to show a nonconciliatory attitude at the first session of the fifth week of the training.

  13. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems.

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martín, Fernando F; Rogers, Michael E; Behm, David G; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29) performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation. Key PointsCompared with standard push-ups on the floor, suspended push-ups increase core muscle activation.A one-anchor system with a pulley is the best option to increase TRICEP, TRAPS, LUMB and FEM muscle activity.More stable conditions such as the standard push-up or a parallel band system provide greater increases in DELT and PEC muscle activation.A suspended push-up is an effective method to achieve high muscle activity levels in the ABS.

  14. Effects of feedback-based balance and core resistance training vs. Pilates training on balance and muscle function in older women: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Markovic, Goran; Sarabon, Nejc; Greblo, Zrinka; Krizanic, Valerija

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with decline in physical function that could result in the development of physical impairment and disability. Hence, interventions that simultaneously challenge balance ability, trunk (core) and extremity strength of older adults could be particularly effective in preserving and enhancing these physical functions. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of feedback-based balance and core resistance training utilizing the a special computer-controlled device (Huber®) with the conventional Pilates training on balance ability, neuromuscular function and body composition of healthy older women. Thirty-four older women (age: 70±4 years) were randomly assigned to a Huber group (n=17) or Pilates group (n=17). Both groups trained for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors, extensors, and lateral flexors, leg power, upper-body strength, single- and dual-task static balance, and body composition were measured before and after the intervention programs. Significant group×time interactions and main effects of time (pcore resistance training proved to be more effective in improving single- and dual-task balance ability, trunk muscle strength, leg power, and body composition of healthy older women than the traditional Pilates training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of elastic band-based high-speed power training on cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength in older women with mild cognitive impairment.

    Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kang, Dongheon; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Jin-Soo; Song, Han Sol; Song, Wook

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of resistance training in improving cognitive function in older adults is well demonstrated. In particular, unconventional high-speed resistance training can improve muscle power development. In the present study, the effectiveness of 12 weeks of elastic band-based high-speed power training (HSPT) was examined. Participants were randomly assigned into a HSPT group (n = 14, age 75.0 ± 0.9 years), a low-speed strength training (LSST) group (n = 9, age 76.0 ± 1.3 years) and a control group (CON; n = 7, age 78.0 ± 1.0 years). A 1-h exercise program was provided twice a week for 12 weeks for the HSPT and LSST groups, and balance and tone exercises were carried out by the CON group. Significant increases in levels of cognitive function, physical function, and muscle strength were observed in both the HSPT and LSST groups. In cognitive function, significant improvements in the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment were seen in both the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In physical functions, Short Physical Performance Battery scores were increased significantly in the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In the 12 weeks of elastic band-based training, the HSPT group showed greater improvements in older women with mild cognitive impairment than the LSST group, although both regimens were effective in improving cognitive function, physical function and muscle strength. We conclude that elastic band-based HSPT, as compared with LSST, is more efficient in helping older women with mild cognitive impairment to improve cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 765-772. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training in women with overactive bladder syndrome: a systematic review.

    Monteiro, Silvia; Riccetto, Cassio; Araújo, Angélica; Galo, Laryssa; Brito, Nathália; Botelho, Simone

    2018-04-11

    Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) in reducing overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in women. Searches were performed at MEDLINE, PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Scielo, and Central Cochrane Library PubMed until January 2017. Controlled trials were researched by two independent reviewers. Eligible studies were restricted to random and controlled clinical trials that investigated the effectiveness of PFMT in decreasing OAB symptoms. Qualitative methodology was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Data was analyzed and interpreted qualitatively. The final search retrieved eight studies (n = 1161 women with urgency symptoms), which were published between 2002 and 2016. The methodological scores varied between 4 and 7 in the PEDro scale. PFMT, with the objective of controlling urgent micturition, demonstrated improvements in quality of life in women with OAB. Most data in this revision came from small- to moderate-sized trials, with different and inconsistent outcome measures, which could have impacted the end results. The literature regarding the effectiveness of PFMT in OAB remains heterogeneous and inconclusive.

  17. The effect of pelvic floor muscle training in urinary incontinent elderly women: a sistematic review

    Raquel Henriques Jácomo

    Full Text Available Introduction The International Continence Society (ICS determines that the pelvic floor muscles training (PFMT is the first-choice treatment of urinary symptoms in women. Objective The aim of this study was to systematize randomized controlled clinical trials that address the effects of PFMT in the treatment of urinary symptoms in older women using objective outcome measures. Method Systematic review search was performed eletronic the following databases: Medline, Pubmed, Lilacs, PEDro and manual research conducted in the references of the studies. Were considered eligible women aged over 60 years who performed PFMT in isolation, without the involvement of another technique. The PFMT performed in clinic or at home, with or without the supervision of a therapist and with or without the use of biofeedback as an adjunct. Considered as outcome measures urodynamic studies, voiding diary that assesses daytime urinary frequency, nocturnal urinary frequency, urinary incontinence and exchange absorbent, and, finally, the absorbent test that quantifies loss urinary grams. The assessment of methodological quality of the studies was conducted by PEDro scale. Results Three studies were reviewed in full. Only one trial was rated high methodological quality. There was significant improvement in urinary symptoms after treatment proposed in the three selected studies. Conclusion Considering the studies available so far are weak the evidence for the use of PFMT in the treatment of urinary symptoms in elderly women.

  18. Protein-containing nutrient supplementation following strength training enhances the effect on muscle mass, strength, and bone formation in postmenopausal women

    Holm, Lars; Olesen, Jens L; Matsumoto, Keitaro

    2008-01-01

    .0 +/- 1.4%); nutrient group: 0.953 +/- 0.051 to 0.978 +/- 0.043 g/mm(3) (3.8 +/- 3.4%)] when adjusted for age, body mass index, and BMD at inclusion. Bone formation displayed an interaction (P increased osteocalcin at 24 wk in the nutrient group. In conclusion, we report...... that nutrient supplementation results in superior improvements in muscle mass, muscle strength, femoral neck BMD, and bone formation during 24 wk of strength training. The observed differences following such a short intervention emphasize the significance of postexercise nutrient supply on musculoskeletal......We evaluated the response of various muscle and bone adaptation parameters with 24 wk of strength training in healthy, early postmenopausal women when a nutrient supplement (protein, carbohydrate, calcium, and vitamin D) or a placebo supplement (a minimum of energy) was ingested immediately...

  19. Protein-containing nutrient supplementation following strength training enhances the effect on muscle mass, strength, and bone formation in postmenopausal women

    Holm, Lars; Olesen, J.L.; Matsumoto, K.

    2008-01-01

    .4%); nutrient group: 0.953 ± 0.051 to 0.978 ± 0.043 g/mm3 (3.8 ± 3.4%)] when adjusted for age, body mass index, and BMD at inclusion. Bone formation displayed an interaction (P increased osteocalcin at 24 wk in the nutrient group. In conclusion, we report that nutrient supplementation...... results in superior improvements in muscle mass, muscle strength, femoral neck BMD, and bone formation during 24 wk of strength training. The observed differences following such a short intervention emphasize the significance of postexercise nutrient supply on musculoskeletal maintenance.......We evaluated the response of various muscle and bone adaptation parameters with 24 wk of strength training in healthy, early postmenopausal women when a nutrient supplement (protein, carbohydrate, calcium, and vitamin D) or a placebo supplement (a minimum of energy) was ingested immediately...

  20. Effect of lifelong football training on the expression of muscle molecular markers involved in healthy longevity.

    Mancini, A; Vitucci, D; Labruna, G; Imperlini, E; Randers, M B; Schmidt, J F; Hagman, M; Andersen, T R; Russo, R; Orrù, S; Krustrup, P; Salvatore, F; Buono, P

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether lifelong football training affects the expression of healthy longevity-related muscle molecular markers. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of 10 lifelong football-trained men (68.2 ± 3.0 years) and of 10 active untrained healthy men (66.7 ± 1.3 years). Gene and protein expression was measured by RTqPCR on RNA and by western blotting on protein extracts from muscle biopsies, respectively. The expression of AMPKα1/α2, NAMPT, TFAM and PGC1α, which are markers of oxidative metabolism, and MyHC β isoform expression was higher in the muscle of football-trained men vs untrained men. Also citrate synthase activity was higher in trained than in untrained men (109.3 ± 9.2 vs 75.1 ± 9.2 mU/mg). These findings were associated with a healthier body composition in trained than in untrained men [body weight: 78.2 ± 6.5 vs 91.2 ± 11.2 kg; body mass index BMI: 24.4 ± 1.6 vs 28.8 ± 4.0 kg m -2 ; fat%: 22.6 ± 8.0 vs 31.4 ± 5.0%)] and with a higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max: 34.7 ± 3.8 vs 27.3 ± 4.0 ml/min/kg). Also the expression of proteins involved in DNA repair and in senescence suppression (Erk1/2, Akt and FoxM1) was higher in trained than in untrained men. At BMI- and age-adjusted multiple linear regression analysis, fat percentage was independently associated with Akt protein expression, and VO 2 max was independently associated with TFAM mRNA and with Erk1/2 protein expression. Lifelong football training increases the expression of key markers involved in muscle oxidative metabolism, and in the DNA repair and senescence suppression pathways, thus providing the molecular basis for healthy longevity.

  1. Effects of exercise training on circulating and skeletal muscle renin-angiotensin system in chronic heart failure rats.

    Gomes-Santos, Igor Lucas; Fernandes, Tiago; Couto, Gisele Kruger; Ferreira-Filho, Julio César Ayres; Salemi, Vera Maria Cury; Fernandes, Fernanda Barrinha; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Rossoni, Luciana Venturini; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Negrao, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulated evidence shows that the ACE-AngII-AT1 axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is markedly activated in chronic heart failure (CHF). Recent studies provide information that Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7), a metabolite of AngII, counteracts the effects of AngII. However, this balance between AngII and Ang-(1-7) is still little understood in CHF. We investigated the effects of exercise training on circulating and skeletal muscle RAS in the ischemic model of CHF. Male Wistar rats underwent left coronary artery ligation or a Sham operation. They were divided into four groups: 1) Sedentary Sham (Sham-S), 2) exercise-trained Sham (Sham-Ex), sedentary CHF (CHF-S), and exercise-trained CHF (CHF-Ex). Angiotensin concentrations and ACE and ACE2 activity in the circulation and skeletal muscle (soleus and plantaris) were quantified. Skeletal muscle ACE and ACE2 protein expression, and AT1, AT2, and Mas receptor gene expression were also evaluated. CHF reduced ACE2 serum activity. Exercise training restored ACE2 and reduced ACE activity in CHF. Exercise training reduced plasma AngII concentration in both Sham and CHF rats and increased the Ang-(1-7)/AngII ratio in CHF rats. CHF and exercise training did not change skeletal muscle ACE and ACE2 activity and protein expression. CHF increased AngII levels in both soleus and plantaris muscle, and exercise training normalized them. Exercise training increased Ang-(1-7) in the plantaris muscle of CHF rats. The AT1 receptor was only increased in the soleus muscle of CHF rats, and exercise training normalized it. Exercise training increased the expression of the Mas receptor in the soleus muscle of both exercise-trained groups, and normalized it in plantaris muscle. Exercise training causes a shift in RAS towards the Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis in skeletal muscle, which can be influenced by skeletal muscle metabolic characteristics. The changes in RAS circulation do not necessarily reflect the changes occurring in the RAS of skeletal

  2. Upper Extremity Muscle Volumes and Functional Strength After Resistance Training in Older Adults

    Daly, Melissa; Vidt, Meghan E.; Eggebeen, Joel D.; Simpson, W. Greg; Miller, Michael E.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions. PMID:22952203

  3. Improving core medical training--innovative and feasible ideas to better training.

    Tasker, Fiona; Dacombe, Peter; Goddard, Andrew F; Burr, Bill

    2014-12-01

    A recent survey of UK core medical training (CMT) training conducted jointly by the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and Joint Royal College of Physicians Training Board (JRCPTB) identified that trainees perceived major problems with their training. Service work dominated and compromised training opportunities, and of great concern, almost half the respondents felt that they had not been adequately prepared to take on the role of medical registrar. Importantly, the survey not only gathered CMT trainees' views of their current training, it also asked them for their 'innovative and feasible ways to improve CMT'. This article draws together some of these excellent ideas on how the quality of training and the experience of trainees could be improved. It presents a vision for how CMT trainees, consultant supervisors, training programme directors, clinical directors and managers can work together to implement relevant, feasible and affordable ways to improve training for doctors and deliver the best possible care for patients. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  4. Effects of training on Na, K-ATPase contents in skeletal muscle and K homeostasis of African draught bulls and cows.

    Veeneklaas, R J; Harun, M A S; Backx, A; Mamade, M; Joosten, B J L; Everts, M E

    2004-01-01

    In semiarid parts of Africa animal traction is still one of the most reliable sources for rural work power. However, draught animals have to produce most of their work power at an unfavourable moment of the year that is at the end of the dry season when feedlot is scare. To improve their condition prior to the planting season, a short training could help. The effect of training can be expressed by the changes in contents of Na(+), K(+)-pumps in the muscle cell membrane. After a training period of 15 days all cattle showed a mean increase in Na(+), K(+)-ATPase of 24% (P draught cattle.

  5. Can Interactive Working Memory Training Improve Learning?

    Alloway, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Working memory is linked to learning outcomes and there is emerging evidence that training working memory can yield gains in working memory and fluid intelligence. Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether interactive working memory training would transfer to acquired cognitive skills, such as vocabulary and…

  6. The effect of complex rehabilitation training for 12 weeks on trunk muscle function and spine deformation of patients with SCI.

    Sung, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Seong-Deok; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] It is important for patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) to strengthen their muscle strength and return to the work force one of the ultimate objectives of rehabilitation. This study reports how a single patient with SCI became stabilized in terms of abdominal muscles and back extension muscles, as well as returning the back to the neutral position from spinal deformation, as result of complex exercises performed for 12 weeks. [Subjects] The degree of damage of the subject was rated as C grade. The subject of this study had unstable posture due to paralysis in the lower extremities of the left side after removal of a malignant tumor by surgical operation, and tilting and torsion in the pelvis increased followed by increase of kyphosis in the thoracolumbar spine. The subject was more than two years since diagnosis of incomplete SCI after surgery. [Methods] Using isokinetic lumbar muscle strength measurement equipment, peak torque/weight, total work and average power in flexion and extension of the lumbar region were measured. A trunk measurement system (Formetric 4D, DIERS, Germany), which is a 3D image processing apparatus with high resolution for vertebrae, was used in order to measure 3D vertebrae and pelvis deformation as well as static balance abilities. As an exercise method, a foam roller was used to conduct fascia relaxation massage for warming-up, and postural kyphosis was changed into postural lordosis by lat pull-down using equipment, performed in 5 sets of 15 times preset at 60% intensity of 1RM 4 set of 10 crunch exercises per set using Togu's were done while sitting at the end of Balance pad, and 4 sets of 15 bridge exercises. [Results] All angular speed tests showed a gradual increase in muscle strength. Flexion and extension showed 10% and 3% improvements, respectively. The spine deformation test showed that isokinetic exercise and lat pull-down exercise for 12 weeks resulted in improved spinal shape. [Conclusion] In this study

  7. The effects of high intensity interval training on muscle size and quality in overweight and obese adults.

    Blue, Malia N M; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Trexler, Eric T; Hirsch, Katie R

    2018-02-01

    Despite growing popularity of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving health and fitness, limited data exist identifying the effects of HIIT on muscle characteristics. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 3-week HIIT intervention on muscle size and quality in overweight and obese men and women. Randomized controlled trial. Forty-four overweight and obese men and women (mean±SD; age: 35.4±12.3years; height: 174.9±9.7cm; weight: 94.6±17.0kg; %fat: 32.7±6.5%) completed the current study. During baseline and post testing, muscle cross sectional area (mCSA) and echo intensity (EI) were determined from a panoramic scan of the vastus lateralis obtained by B-mode ultrasonography. Body composition variables were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Participants were randomized into either a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio HIIT group (SIT; n=16), a 2:1 work-to-rest ratio HIIT group (LIT; n=19), or control (CON; n=9). HIIT participants performed five, 2-min bouts (LIT) or 10, 1-min bouts (SIT) at 85-100% VO 2peak for 9 sessions over three weeks. Analysis of covariance demonstrated a significant increase in mCSA for SIT (p=0.038; change (Δ)=3.17±3.36cm 2 ) compared to CON (Δ=-0.34±2.36cm 2 ). There was no significant difference in EI across groups (p=0.672). HIIT may be an effective exercise modality to influence muscle size in overweight and obese individuals. Future studies should investigate muscle characteristics and remodeling in an overweight population following interventions of longer duration and varying work-to-rest protocols. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving basic life support training for medical students

    Lami, Mariam; Nair, Pooja; Gadhvi, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    Mariam Lami, Pooja Nair, Karishma GadhviFaculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, London, UKAbstract: Questions have been raised about basic life support (BLS) training in medical education. This article addresses the research evidence behind why BLS training is inadequate and suggests recommendations for improving BLS training for medical students.Keywords: medical education, basic life support

  9. Undergraduate Medical Academic Performance is Improved by Scientific Training

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chong; Liu, Zhongming; Cai, Yunfei; Cao, Xingguo; He, Yushan; Liu, Guoxiang; Miao, Hongming

    2017-01-01

    The effect of scientific training on course learning in undergraduates is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the academic performance of undergraduate students with and without scientific training. The results show that scientific training improves students' test scores in general medical courses, such as biochemistry and…

  10. Isokinetic eccentric resistance training prevents loss in mechanical muscle function after running

    Oliveira, Anderson S. C.; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    session, subjects performed treadmill running (~35 min) and the previously mentioned measurements were repeated immediately after running. Subsequently, subjects were randomized to training (n = 12) consisting of 24 sessions of maximal IERT knee extensors actions at 180° s(-1), or served as controls (n...... damages. However, IERT may not avoid reductions in explosive muscle actions. In turn, this may allow more intense training sessions to be performed, facilitating the adaptive response to running training.......The aim of the study was to verify whether 8 weeks of resistance training employing maximal isokinetic eccentric (IERT) knee extensor actions would reduce the acute force loss observed after high-intensity treadmill running exercise. It was hypothesized that specific IERT would induce protective...

  11. IL-6, Antioxidant Capacity and Muscle Damage Markers Following High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols

    Cipryan, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate changes of interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and muscle damage markers (creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) in response to three different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols of identical external work. Twelve moderately-trained males participated in the three HIIT trials which consisted of a warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s HIIT sequences with the work/rest ratio...

  12. Do antioxidant supplements interfere with skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise training?

    Ristow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A popular belief is that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced during exercise by the mitochondria and other subcellular compartments ubiquitously cause skeletal muscle damage, fatigue and impair recovery. However, the importance of ROS and RNS as signals in the cellular adaptation process to stress is now evident. In an effort to combat the perceived deleterious effects of ROS and RNS it has become common practice for active individuals to ingest supplements with antioxidant properties, but interfering with ROS/RNS signalling in skeletal muscle during acute exercise may blunt favourable adaptation. There is building evidence that antioxidant supplementation can attenuate endurance training‐induced and ROS/RNS‐mediated enhancements in antioxidant capacity, mitochondrial biogenesis, cellular defence mechanisms and insulin sensitivity. However, this is not a universal finding, potentially indicating that there is redundancy in the mechanisms controlling skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise, meaning that in some circumstances the negative impact of antioxidants on acute exercise response can be overcome by training. Antioxidant supplementation has been more consistently reported to have deleterious effects on the response to overload stress and high‐intensity training, suggesting that remodelling of skeletal muscle following resistance and high‐intensity exercise is more dependent on ROS/RNS signalling. Importantly there is no convincing evidence to suggest that antioxidant supplementation enhances exercise‐training adaptions. Overall, ROS/RNS are likely to exhibit a non‐linear (hormetic) pattern on exercise adaptations, where physiological doses are beneficial and high exposure (which would seldom be achieved during normal exercise training) may be detrimental. PMID:26638792

  13. Muscle adaptations and performance enhancements of soccer training for untrained men

    Krustrup, Peter; Christensen, Jesper F.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2010-01-01

    We examined the physical demands of small-sided soccer games in untrained middle-age males and muscle adaptations and performance effects over 12 weeks of recreational soccer training in comparison with continuous running. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (20-43 years) were randomized into a soccer....... Blood lactate during running at 11 km/h was lowered (p soccer organized as small-sided games stimulates both aerobic and anaerobic...

  14. Effects of a Supervised versus an Unsupervised Combined Balance and Strength Training Program on Balance and Muscle Power in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Lacroix, André; Kressig, Reto W; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gschwind, Yves J; Pfenninger, Barbara; Bruegger, Othmar; Granacher, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Losses in lower extremity muscle strength/power, muscle mass and deficits in static and particularly dynamic balance due to aging are associated with impaired functional performance and an increased fall risk. It has been shown that the combination of balance and strength training (BST) mitigates these age-related deficits. However, it is unresolved whether supervised versus unsupervised BST is equally effective in improving muscle power and balance in older adults. This study examined the impact of a 12-week BST program followed by 12 weeks of detraining on measures of balance and muscle power in healthy older adults enrolled in supervised (SUP) or unsupervised (UNSUP) training. Sixty-six older adults (men: 25, women: 41; age 73 ± 4 years) were randomly assigned to a SUP group (2/week supervised training, 1/week unsupervised training; n = 22), an UNSUP group (3/week unsupervised training; n = 22) or a passive control group (CON; n = 22). Static (i.e., Romberg Test) and dynamic (i.e., 10-meter walk test) steady-state, proactive (i.e., Timed Up and Go Test, Functional Reach Test), and reactive balance (e.g., Push and Release Test), as well as lower extremity muscle power (i.e., Chair Stand Test; Stair Ascent and Descent Test) were tested before and after the active training phase as well as after detraining. Adherence rates to training were 92% for SUP and 97% for UNSUP. BST resulted in significant group × time interactions. Post hoc analyses showed, among others, significant training-related improvements for the Romberg Test, stride velocity, Timed Up and Go Test, and Chair Stand Test in favor of the SUP group. Following detraining, significantly enhanced performances (compared to baseline) were still present in 13 variables for the SUP group and in 10 variables for the UNSUP group. Twelve weeks of BST proved to be safe (no training-related injuries) and feasible (high attendance rates of >90%). Deficits of balance and lower extremity muscle power can be

  15. New partnerships improve eastern European training

    Smith, G.; Zinger, V.; Kumar, A.; Jenkins, T.

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, General Physics International Engineering and Simulation (GPI) won a contract for the first Western-supplied full-scope simulator and training system for a Soviet-designed RBMK. GPI was chosen by the former Soviet Ministry of Nuclear Power and Industry in open competition with other Western simulation companies. The Leningrad power plant near St Petersburg will be the host site for the simulator and training system. The total training system consists of: A full-scope, high fidelity simulator featuring: replica panels; advanced RISC technology computers; a UNIX-based, graphical X-Window, Russian text, instructor station; engineering workstations; GPI simulation software technology; and UNIX simulation development tools. Hardware and software for one analytical simulator, including instructor station, engineering workstations and several remote PC stations. Hardware and software for an interactive graphical training system. Methodology for expert system training. A psychophysiological system. Training facility equipment, including TV monitors, video players and printers. Training in hardware, software and instructor skills. This project will be carried out in co-operation with several Russian partners. Similar co-operative agreements have also been set up with Czechoslovakia and Taiwan. (author)

  16. The effectiveness of combining inspiratory muscle training with manual therapy and a therapeutic exercise program on maximum inspiratory pressure in adults with asthma: a randomized clinical trial.

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Candelas-Fernández, Pablo; de-Diego-Cano, Beatriz; Mínguez-Calzada, Orcález; Del Corral, Tamara

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of manual therapy and therapeutic exercise protocol to inspiratory muscle training was more effective in improving maximum inspiratory pressure than inspiratory muscle training in isolation. This is a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. In total, 43 patients with asthma were included in this study. The patients were allocated into one of the two groups: (1) inspiratory muscle training ( n = 21; 20-minute session) or (2) inspiratory muscle training (20-minute session) combined with a program of manual therapy (15-minute session) and therapeutic exercise (15-minute session; n = 22). All participants received 12 sessions, two days/week, for six weeks and performed the domiciliary exercises protocol. The main measures such as maximum inspiratory pressure, spirometric measures, forward head posture, and thoracic kyphosis were recorded at baseline and after the treatment. For the per-protocol analysis, between-group differences at post-intervention were observed in maximum inspiratory pressure (19.77 cmH 2 O (11.49-28.04), P < .05; F = 22.436; P < .001; η 2 p  = 0.371) and forward head posture (-1.25 cm (-2.32 to -0.19), P < .05; F = 5.662; P = .022; η 2 p  = 0.13). The intention-to-treat analysis showed the same pattern of findings. The inspiratory muscle training combined with a manual therapy and therapeutic exercise program is more effective than its application in isolation for producing short-term maximum inspiratory pressure and forward head posture improvements in patients with asthma.

  17. Visual training improves perceptual grouping based on basic stimulus features.

    Kurylo, Daniel D; Waxman, Richard; Kidron, Rachel; Silverstein, Steven M

    2017-10-01

    Training on visual tasks improves performance on basic and higher order visual capacities. Such improvement has been linked to changes in connectivity among mediating neurons. We investigated whether training effects occur for perceptual grouping. It was hypothesized that repeated engagement of integration mechanisms would enhance grouping processes. Thirty-six participants underwent 15 sessions of training on a visual discrimination task that required perceptual grouping. Participants viewed 20 × 20 arrays of dots or Gabor patches and indicated whether the array appeared grouped as vertical or horizontal lines. Across trials stimuli became progressively disorganized, contingent upon successful discrimination. Four visual dimensions were examined, in which grouping was based on similarity in luminance, color, orientation, and motion. Psychophysical thresholds of grouping were assessed before and after training. Results indicate that performance in all four dimensions improved with training. Training on a control condition, which paralleled the discrimination task but without a grouping component, produced no improvement. In addition, training on only the luminance and orientation dimensions improved performance for those conditions as well as for grouping by color, on which training had not occurred. However, improvement from partial training did not generalize to motion. Results demonstrate that a training protocol emphasizing stimulus integration enhanced perceptual grouping. Results suggest that neural mechanisms mediating grouping by common luminance and/or orientation contribute to those mediating grouping by color but do not share resources for grouping by common motion. Results are consistent with theories of perceptual learning emphasizing plasticity in early visual processing regions.

  18. Residency Training: Quality improvement projects in neurology residency and fellowship: applying DMAIC methodology.

    Kassardjian, Charles D; Williamson, Michelle L; van Buskirk, Dorothy J; Ernste, Floranne C; Hunderfund, Andrea N Leep

    2015-07-14

    Teaching quality improvement (QI) is a priority for residency and fellowship training programs. However, many medical trainees have had little exposure to QI methods. The purpose of this study is to review a rigorous and simple QI methodology (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control [DMAIC]) and demonstrate its use in a fellow-driven QI project aimed at reducing the number of delayed and canceled muscle biopsies at our institution. DMAIC was utilized. The project aim was to reduce the number of delayed muscle biopsies to 10% or less within 24 months. Baseline data were collected for 12 months. These data were analyzed to identify root causes for muscle biopsy delays and cancellations. Interventions were developed to address the most common root causes. Performance was then remeasured for 9 months. Baseline data were collected on 97 of 120 muscle biopsies during 2013. Twenty biopsies (20.6%) were delayed. The most common causes were scheduling too many tests on the same day and lack of fasting. Interventions aimed at patient education and biopsy scheduling were implemented. The effect was to reduce the number of delayed biopsies to 6.6% (6/91) over the next 9 months. Familiarity with QI methodologies such as DMAIC is helpful to ensure valid results and conclusions. Utilizing DMAIC, we were able to implement simple changes and significantly reduce the number of delayed muscle biopsies at our institution. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. 5'AMP activated protein kinase expression in human skeletal muscle: effects of strength training and type 2 diabetes

    Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Frøsig, Christian

    2005-01-01

    adaptations within the AMPK system itself. We investigated the effect of strength training and T2DM on the isoform expression and the heterotrimeric composition of the AMPK in human skeletal muscle. Ten patients with T2DM and seven healthy subjects strength trained (T) one leg for 6 weeks, while the other leg......Strength training enhances insulin sensitivity and represents an alternative to endurance training for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may mediate adaptations in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training; however, little is known about...... remained untrained (UT). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period. Basal AMPK activity and protein/mRNA expression of both catalytic (alpha1 and alpha2) and regulatory (beta1, beta2, gamma1, gamma2a, gamma2b and gamma3) AMPK isoforms were independent of T2DM, whereas the protein...

  20. Chronic β2 -adrenoceptor agonist treatment alters muscle proteome and functional adaptations induced by high intensity training in young men

    Hostrup, Morten; Onslev, Johan; Jacobson, Glenn

    2018-01-01

    Although the effects of training have been studied for decades, data on muscle proteome signature remodelling induced by high intensity training in relation to functional changes in humans remains incomplete. Likewise, β2 -agonists are frequently used to counteract exercise......-induced bronchoconstriction, but the effects β2 -agonist treatment on muscle remodelling and adaptations to training are unknown. In a placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomized 21 trained men to four weeks of high intensity training with (HIT + β2 A) or without (HIT) daily inhalation of β2 -agonist (terbutaline, 4 mg...... (P ≤ 0.01) and exercise performance (11.6 vs. 6.1%, P ≤ 0.05) in HIT + β2 A compared to HIT. These findings indicate that daily β2 -agonist treatment attenuates the beneficial effects of high intensity training on exercise performance and oxidative capacity, and causes remodelling of muscle proteome...

  1. Pro- and anti-angiogenic factors in human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise and training

    Høier, Birgitte; Nordsborg, Nikolai; Andersen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of acute exercise and 4 weeks of aerobic training on skeletal muscle gene and protein expression of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors in 14 young male subjects. Training consisted of 60 min of cycling (~ 60% of VO2 max), 3 times/week. Biopsies were obtained from m. v....... lateralis before and after training. Muscle interstitial fluid was collected during cycling at week 0 and 4. Training increased (P ... to acute exercise increased similarly (>6-fold; P training. Resting protein levels of soluble VEGF receptor-1 in interstitial fluid, and of VEGF, Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in muscle, were unaffected by training, whereas e...

  2. IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF DEEP TRUNK MUSCLE TRAINING ON SWIMMING START PERFORMANCE.

    Iizuka, Satoshi; Imai, Atsushi; Koizumi, Keisuke; Okuno, Keisuke; Kaneoka, Koji

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, deep trunk muscle training has been adopted in various sports, including swimming. This is performed both in everyday training and as part of the warm-up routine before competitive races. It is suggested that trunk stabilization exercises are effective in preventing injury, and aid in improving performance. However, conclusive evidence of the same is yet to be obtained. The time of start phase of swimming is a factor that can significantly influence competition performance in a swimming race. If trunk stabilization exercises can provide instantaneous trunk stability, it is expected that they will lead to performance improvements in the start phase of swimming. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of trunk stabilization exercises on the start phase in swimming. Intervention study. Nine elite male swimmers (mean age 20.2 ± 1.0 years; height 174.4 ± 3.5 cm; weight 68.9 ± 4.1 kg) performed the swimming start movement. The measurement variables studied included flying distance, and the time and velocity of subjects at hands' entry and on reaching five meters. Measurements were taken in trials immediately before and after the trunk stabilization exercises. A comparison between pre- and post-exercise measurements was assessed. The time to reach five meters (T 5m ) decreased significantly after trunk stabilization exercises, by 0.019 s (p = 0.02). Velocity at entry (V entry ) did not demonstrate significant change, while velocity at five meters (V 5m ) increased significantly after the exercises (p = 0.023). In addition, the speed reduction rate calculated from V entry and V 5m significantly decreased by 5.17% after the intervention (p = 0.036). Trunk stabilization exercises may help reduce the time from start to five meters in the start phase in swimming. The results support the hypothesis that these exercises may improve swimming performance. Level 3b.

  3. Working-memory training improves developmental dyslexia in Chinese children★

    Luo, Yan; Wang, Jing; Wu, Hanrong; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Although plasticity in the neural system underlies working memory, and working memory can be improved by training, there is thus far no evidence that children with developmental dyslexia can benefit from working-memory training. In the present study, thirty dyslexic children aged 8–11 years were recruited from an elementary school in Wuhan, China. They received working-memory training, including training in visuospatial memory, verbal memory, and central executive tasks. The difficulty of the...

  4. Can cognitive training improve episodic memory?

    Ranganath, Charan; Flegal, Kristin E.; Kelly, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscience-inspired approaches to train cognitive abilities are bringing about a paradigm shift in the way scientists view the treatment of memory dysfunction, but it can be challenging to prove whether such approaches have significant effects.

  5. Physical training improves cardiopulmonary functional capacity and ...

    the State University of Maringa (LDC/UEM) and Basic Health Units (UBS) in Maringa that ... good prognosis, indicating the protective effect of IL-10 production and the benefits of physical training. .... morning, and outdoors, in a flat and shaded.

  6. Improving efficiency of clinical skills training

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Bjørck, Sebastian; Birkvad Rasmussen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The rising number of medical students and the impact this has on students' learning of clinical skills is a matter of concern. Cooperative learning in pairs, called dyad training, might help address this situation.......The rising number of medical students and the impact this has on students' learning of clinical skills is a matter of concern. Cooperative learning in pairs, called dyad training, might help address this situation....

  7. Rac1 in muscle is dispensable for improved insulin action after exercise in mice

    Sylow, Lykke; Møller, Lisbeth Liliendal Valbjørn; D'Hulst, Gommaar

    2016-01-01

    sensitivity in inducible muscle-specific Rac1 knockout (mKO) and wildtype littermate (WT) mice. Prior exercise enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity by 40% in WT mice and rescued the insulin intolerance in Rac1 mKO mice by improving whole body insulin sensitivity by 230%. In agreement, prior exercise...... significantly improved insulin sensitivity by 20% in WT and by 40% in Rac1 mKO soleus muscles. These findings suggest that muscle Rac1 is dispensable for the insulin sensitizing effect of exercise. Moreover, insulin resistance in Rac1 mKO mice can be completely normalized by prior exercise explaining why......Exercise has a potent insulin-sensitivity enhancing effect on skeletal muscle but the intracellular mechanisms that mediate this effect are not well understood. In muscle, Rac1 regulates both insulin- and contraction-stimulated glucose transport and is dysregulated in insulin resistant muscle...

  8. Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: strength training as a countermeasure

    Aagaard, P; Suetta, C; Caserotti, P

    2010-01-01

    and size (sarcopenia), resulting in impaired mechanical muscle performance that in turn leads to a reduced functional capacity during everyday tasks. Concurrently, maximum muscle strength, power, and rate of force development are decreased with aging, even in highly trained master athletes. The impairment...

  9. Effects of exercise training and exhaustion on 45Ca uptake by rat skeletal muscle mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum

    Bonner, H.W.; Leslie, S.W.; Combs, A.B.; Tate, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticular 45 Ca 2+ uptake and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity were determined in skeletal muscle from exercise trained and non-trained rats at rest or following short-term exhaustive exercise. In trained rats exercised to exhaustion, mitochondrial 45 Ca 2+ uptake was significantly depressed when compared to non-trained rats at rest. Ca 2+ -ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum from trained rats exercised to exhaustion was significantly increased as compared to trained rats at rest. These data suggest that the disruptive influence of Ca 2+ accumulation in mitochondria isolated following exhaustive exercise may be diminished as a result of training

  10. Effects of balance training by knee joint motions on muscle activity in adult men with functional ankle instability.

    Nam, Seung-Min; Kim, Won-Bok; Yun, Chang-Kyo

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of balance training by applying knee joint movements on muscle activity in male adults with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] 28 adults with functional ankle instability, divided randomly into an experimental group, which performed balance training by applying knee joint movements for 20 minutes and ankle joint exercises for 10 minutes, and a control group, which performed ankle joint exercise for 30 minutes. Exercises were completed three times a week for 8 weeks. Electromyographic values of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscles were obtained to compare and analyze muscle activity before and after the experiments in each group. [Results] The experimental group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis increased without significance. The control group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis and lateral gastrocnemius muscles increased without significance. [Conclusion] In conclusion, balance training by applying knee joint movements can be recommended as a treatment method for patients with functional ankle instability.

  11. The Effect of Theraband Training on Position Sense of Internal and External Rotator Muscles in Male Athletes with Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

    Ramin Moharrami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effect of theraband training on Position sense of internal and external rotator muscles in male athletes with shoulder impingement syndrome. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental interventional study 30 cases of men with Shoulder syndrome with age range of 20 to 30 years participated. They were divided in test and control groups, each group including 15 people through non-random and purposeful method Biodex System 3 Made in America was used to measure position sense of internal and external rotator muscles. For data analysis independent 7 paired t-test was used in SPSS software (version 21. Results: The experimental group showed significant improvement after six weeks of theraband training in the internal and external rotator muscles in three 90,45,0 degree angle at a significance level of 0.05 (P=0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that of theraband training resulted in improved position sense of internal and external rotator muscles in male athletes with impingement syndrome thus, the benefits of these exercises can be used widely in team sports and also for easy and quick rehabilitation of patients.

  12. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  13. Exercise training and return to a well-balanced diet activate the neuregulin 1/ErbB pathway in skeletal muscle of obese rats.

    Ennequin, Gaël; Boisseau, Nathalie; Caillaud, Kevin; Chavanelle, Vivien; Gerbaix, Maude; Metz, Lore; Etienne, Monique; Walrand, Stéphane; Masgrau, Aurélie; Guillet, Christelle; Courteix, Daniel; Niu, Airu; Li, Yi-Ping; Capel, Fréderic; Sirvent, Pascal

    2015-06-15

    Some studies suggest that neuregulin 1 (NRG1) could be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle energy metabolism in rodents. Here we assessed whether unbalanced diet is associated with alterations of the NRG1 signalling pathway and whether exercise and diet might restore NRG1 signalling in skeletal muscle of obese rats. We show that diet-induced obesity does not impair NRG1 signalling in rat skeletal muscle. We also report that endurance training and a well-balanced diet activate the NRG1 signalling in skeletal muscle of obese rats, possibly via a new mechanism mediated by the protease ADAM17. These results suggest that some beneficial effects of physical activity and diet in obese rats could be partly explained by stimulation of the NRG1 signalling pathway. Some studies suggest that the signalling pathway of neuregulin 1 (NRG1), a protein involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism, could be altered by nutritional and exercise interventions. We hypothesized that diet-induced obesity could lead to alterations of the NRG1 signalling pathway and that chronic exercise could improve NRG1 signalling in rat skeletal muscle. To test this hypothesis, male Wistar rats received a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet for 16 weeks. At the end of this period, NRG1 and ErbB expression/activity in skeletal muscle was assessed. The obese rats then continued the HF/HS diet or were switched to a well-balanced diet. Moreover, in both groups, half of the animals also performed low intensity treadmill exercise training. After another 8 weeks, NRG1 and ErbB expression/activity in skeletal muscle were tested again. The 16 week HF/HS diet induced obesity, but did not significantly affect the NRG1/ErbB signalling pathway in rat skeletal muscle. Conversely, after the switch to a well-balanced diet, NRG1 cleavage ratio and ErbB4 amount were increased. Chronic exercise training also promoted NRG1 cleavage, resulting in increased ErbB4 phosphorylation. This result was

  14. Cycle ergometer and inspiratory muscle training offer modest benefit compared with cycle ergometer alone: a comprehensive assessment in stable COPD patients

    Wang K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kai Wang,1,* Guang-qiao Zeng,2,* Rui Li,1,* Yu-wen Luo,1 Mei Wang,1 Yu-he Hu,1 Wen-hui Xu,1 Lu-qian Zhou,2 Rong-chang Chen,2 Xin Chen1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, The State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cycle ergometer training (CET has been shown to improve exercise performance of the quadriceps muscles in patients with COPD, and inspiratory muscle training (IMT may improve the pressure-generating capacity of the inspiratory muscles. However, the effects of combined CET and IMT remain unclear and there is a lack of comprehensive assessment.Materials and methods: Eighty-one patients with COPD were randomly allocated to three groups: 28 received 8 weeks of CET + IMT (combined training group, 27 received 8 weeks of CET alone (CET group, and 26 only received 8 weeks of free walking (control group. Comprehensive assessment including respiratory muscle strength, exercise capacity, pulmonary function, dyspnea, quality of life, emotional status, nutritional status, and body mass index, airflow obstruction, and exercise capacity index were measured before and after the pulmonary rehabilitation program.Results: Respiratory muscle strength, exercise capacity, inspiratory capacity, dyspnea, quality of life, depression and anxiety, and nutritional status were all improved in the combined training and CET groups when compared with that in the control group (P<0.05 after pulmonary rehabilitation program. Inspiratory muscle strength increased significantly in the combined training group when compared with that in the CET group (ΔPImax [maximal inspiratory pressure] 5.20±0.89 cmH2O vs 1.32±0.91 cmH2O

  15. Pelvic floor muscle training for female urinary incontinence: Does it work?

    Singh, Nilanjana; Rashid, Mumtaz; Bayliss, Lorna; Graham, Penny

    2016-06-01

    Supervised pelvic floor muscle training in patients of stress and mixed urinary incontinence has been recommended. Our aim was to assess the utilisation and effectiveness of our supervised pelvic floor muscle training service and assess the impact of incontinence scores before physiotherapy on the subsequent results of physiotherapy. All 271 patients referred to physiotherapy for symptoms of incontinence filled out the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire-Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms before starting treatment. Depending on pelvic floor muscle assessment, plans for exercises and follow up were made. If the strength of pelvic floor muscles was poor, electrical stimulation was offered. If awareness of the pelvic floor muscle contraction was poor, bio feedback was offered. Group sessions and vaginal cones were also used. Depending on the response to the treatment; patients were either discharged, referred to Urogynaecology clinic or continued physiotherapy. All patients who were discharged or referred for surgery were given a post treatment questionnaire to fill out. 79 (56 %) of 132 women with stress, 49 (51 %) of 98 with mixed and 27 (66 %) of 41 with urge incontinence reported successful control of symptoms (overall success 54 %). However, 65 % of women with incontinence scores of 0-5 before ph