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  1. Delayed onset muscle soreness : treatment strategies and performance factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Karoline; Hume, Patria; Maxwell, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a familiar experience for the elite or novice athlete. Symptoms can range from muscle tenderness to severe debilitating pain. The mechanisms, treatment strategies, and impact on athletic performance remain uncertain, despite the high incidence of DOMS. DOMS is most prevalent at the beginning of the sporting season when athletes are returning to training following a period of reduced activity. DOMS is also common when athletes are first introduced to certain types of activities regardless of the time of year. Eccentric activities induce micro-injury at a greater frequency and severity than other types of muscle actions. The intensity and duration of exercise are also important factors in DOMS onset. Up to six hypothesised theories have been proposed for the mechanism of DOMS, namely: lactic acid, muscle spasm, connective tissue damage, muscle damage, inflammation and the enzyme efflux theories. However, an integration of two or more theories is likely to explain muscle soreness. DOMS can affect athletic performance by causing a reduction in joint range of motion, shock attenuation and peak torque. Alterations in muscle sequencing and recruitment patterns may also occur, causing unaccustomed stress to be placed on muscle ligaments and tendons. These compensatory mechanisms may increase the risk of further injury if a premature return to sport is attempted.A number of treatment strategies have been introduced to help alleviate the severity of DOMS and to restore the maximal function of the muscles as rapidly as possible. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have demonstrated dosage-dependent effects that may also be influenced by the time of administration. Similarly, massage has shown varying results that may be attributed to the time of massage application and the type of massage technique used. Cryotherapy, stretching, homeopathy, ultrasound and electrical current modalities have demonstrated no effect on the alleviation of

  2. Laser homeostatics on delayed onset muscle soreness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T C Y; Fu, D R; Liu, X G; Tian, Z X, E-mail: liutcy@scnu.edu.cn [Lab Laser Sports Medicine, South China Normal University, University Town, Guangzhou, GD 510006 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and its photobiomodulation were reviewed from the viewpoint of function-specific homeostasis (FSH) in this paper. FSH is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific fluctuations inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A stressor may destroy a FSH. A stress is a response of a biosystem to a stressor and may also be in stress-specific homeostasis (StSH). A low level light (LLL) is so defined that it has no effects on a function in its FSH or a stress in its StSH, but it modulate a function far from its FSH or a stress far from its StSH. For DOMS recovery, protein metabolism in the Z-line streaming muscular cell is the essential process, but the inflammation, pain and soreness are non-essential processes. For many DOMS phenomena, protein metabolism in the Z-line streaming muscular cell is in protein metabolism-specific homeostasis (PmSH) so that there are no effects of LLL although the inflammation can be inhibited and the pain can be relieved. An athlete or animal in the dysfunctional conditions such as blood flow restriction and exercise exhaustion is far from PmSH and the protein metabolism can be improved with LLL.

  3. Muscle fascicle behavior during eccentric cycling and its relation to muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñailillo, Luis; Blazevich, Anthony J; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2015-04-01

    A single bout of eccentric exercise confers a protective effect against muscle damage and soreness in subsequent eccentric exercise bouts, but the mechanisms underpinning this effect are unclear. This study compared vastus lateralis (VL) muscle-tendon behavior between two eccentric cycling bouts to test the hypothesis that muscle-tendon behavior would be different between bouts and would be associated with the protective effect. Eleven untrained men (27.1 ± 7.0 yr) performed two bouts of eccentric cycling (ECC1 and ECC2) separated by 2 wk for 10 min at 65% of maximal concentric workload (191.9 ± 44.2 W) each. Muscle soreness (by visual analog scale) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) torque of the knee extensors were assessed before and 1-2 d after exercise. Using ultrasonography, VL fascicle length and angle changes during cycling were assessed, and tendinous tissue (TT) length changes were estimated. VL EMG amplitude, crank torque, and knee joint angles were measured during cycling. Soreness was greater (P tendon behavior may be an important mechanism underpinning the protective effect.

  4. [Effects of massage on delayed-onset muscle soreness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakowski, Paweł; Musielak, Bartosz; Sip, Paweł; Biegański, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is the pain or discomfort often felt 12 to 24 hours after exercising and subsides generally within 4 to 6 days. Once thought to be caused by lactic acid buildup, a more recent theory is that it is caused by inflammatory process or tiny tears in the muscle fibers caused by eccentric contraction, or unaccustomed training levels. Exercises that involve many eccentric contractions will result in the most severe DOMS. Fourteen healthy men with no history of upper arm injury and no experience in resistance training were recruited. The mean age, height, and mass of the subjects were 22.8 +/- 1.2 years, 178.3 +/- 10.3 cm, and 75.0 +/- 14.2 kg, respectively. Subjects performed 8 sets of concentric and eccentric actions of the elbow flexors with each arm according to Stay protocol. One arm received 10 minutes of massage 30 minutes after exercise, the contralateral arm received no treatment. Measurements were taken at 9 assessment times: pre-exercise and postexercise at 10 min, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Dependent variables were range of motion, perceived soreness and upper arm circumference. There was noticed difference in perceived soreness across time between groups. The analysis indicated that massage resulted in a 10% to 20% decrease in the severity of soreness, but the differences were not significant. Difference in range of motion and arm circumference was not observed. Massage administered 30 minutes after exercises could have a beneficial influence on DOMS but without influence on muscle swelling and range of motion.

  5. Massage Alleviates Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness after Strenuous Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of massage on alleviating delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS and muscle performance after strenuous exercise.Method: Seven databases consisting of PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang were searched up to December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs were eligible and the outcomes of muscle soreness, performance (including muscle maximal isometric force (MIF and peak torque and creatine kinase (CK were used to assess the effectiveness of massage intervention on DOMS.Results: Eleven articles with a total of 23 data points (involving 504 participants satisfied the inclusion criteria and were pooled in the meta-analysis. The findings demonstrated that muscle soreness rating decreased significantly when the participants received massage intervention compared with no intervention at 24 h (SMD: –0.61, 95% CI: –1.17 to –0.05, P = 0.03, 48 h (SMD: –1.51, 95% CI: –2.24 to –0.77, P < 0.001, 72 h (SMD: –1.46, 95% CI: –2.59 to –0.33, P = 0.01 and in total (SMD: –1.16, 95% CI: –1.60 to –0.72, P < 0.001 after intense exercise. Additionally, massage therapy improved MIF (SMD: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.21–0.90, P = 0.002 and peak torque (SMD: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.04–0.71, P = 0.03 as total effects. Furthermore, the serum CK level was reduced when participants received massage intervention (SMD: –0.64, 95% CI: –1.04 to –0.25, P = 0.001.Conclusion: The current evidence suggests that massage therapy after strenuous exercise could be effective for alleviating DOMS and improving muscle performance.

  6. Antioxidants for preventing and reducing muscle soreness after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Rogerson, David; Soltani, Hora; Costello, Joseph T

    2017-12-14

    Muscle soreness typically occurs after intense exercise, unaccustomed exercise or actions that involve eccentric contractions where the muscle lengthens while under tension. It peaks between 24 and 72 hours after the initial bout of exercise. Many people take antioxidant supplements or antioxidant-enriched foods before and after exercise in the belief that these will prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of antioxidant supplements and antioxidant-enriched foods for preventing and reducing the severity and duration of delayed onset muscle soreness following exercise. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, SPORTDiscus, trial registers, reference lists of articles and conference proceedings up to February 2017. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of all forms of antioxidant supplementation including specific antioxidant supplements (e.g. tablets, powders, concentrates) and antioxidant-enriched foods or diets on preventing or reducing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). We excluded studies where antioxidant supplementation was combined with another supplement. Two review authors independently screened search results, assessed risk of bias and extracted data from included trials using a pre-piloted form. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials, generally using the random-effects model. The outcomes selected for presentation in the 'Summary of findings' table were muscle soreness, collected at times up to 6 hours, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post-exercise, subjective recovery and adverse effects. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Fifty randomised, placebo-controlled trials were included, 12 of which used a cross-over design. Of the 1089 participants, 961 (88.2%) were male and 128 (11.8%) were female. The age range for

  7. Blood flow after contraction and cuff occlusion is reduced in subjects with muscle soreness after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza-Silva, Eduardo; Wittrup Christensen, Steffan; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occur within 1-2 days after eccentric exercise but the mechanism mediating hypersensitivity is unclear. This study hypothesized that eccentric exercise reduces the blood flow response following muscle contractions and cuff occlusion, which may result...... anterior muscle. All measures were done bilaterally at day-0 (pre-exercise), day-2 and day-6 (post-exercise). Subjects scored the muscle soreness on a Likert scale for 6 days. Results: Eccentric exercise increased Likert scores at day-1 and day-2 compared with day-0 (P... in accumulated algesic substances being a part of the sensitization in DOMS. Methods: Twelve healthy subjects (5 women) performed dorsiflexion exercise (5 sets of 10 repeated eccentric contractions) in one leg, while the contralateral leg was the control. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the tibialis...

  8. Delayed onset muscle soreness: No pain, no gain? The truth behind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is muscle pain and stiffness that develops ... limited success in reducing the symptoms.1,4-6 The DOMS phenomenon ... Nutritional supplementation (antioxidants and L-carnitine) shows promise, but ...

  9. Effects of cryotherapy on muscle damage markers and perception of delayed onset muscle soreness after downhill running: A Pilot study

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    M. Rossato

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Use of cryotherapy after exercise with eccentric contractions was effective to reestablish the level of biochemical markers of muscle damage and reduce muscle soreness and pain perception in subjects submitted to downhill running.

  10. Evaluation of the effectiveness of kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of the biceps brachii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available biological regeneration in athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of lymphatic kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of biceps brachii.

  11. ASPECTS REGARDING THE EFFECT OF ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS ON DELAYED ONSET MUSCLE SORENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Honceriu C.; Hagiu B.A.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to investigate the effects of using Diclofenac ointment for delayed onset muscle soreness. The research has been conducted on two groups of junior football players, males, the number of 9 each (control and treated), which has been induced by this type of muscle soreness with specific exercises. The treated group used Diclofenac gel for the relief of musculoskeletal pain. The evaluation of values of muscular strength (Squat Jump, Jump Countermovement, Free Jump,...

  12. The effects of a repeated bout of eccentric exercise on indices of muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddon-Jones, D; Muthalib, M; Jenkins, D

    2000-03-01

    This study examined markers of muscle damage following a repeated bout of maximal isokinetic eccentric exercise performed prior to full recovery from a previous bout. Twenty non-resistance trained volunteers were randomly assigned to a control (CON, n=10) or experimental (EXP, n=10) group. Both groups performed 36 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors of the non-dominant arm (ECC1). The EXP group repeated the same eccentric exercise bout two days later (ECC2). Total work and peak eccentric torque were recorded during each set of ECC1 and ECC2. Isometric torque, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), flexed elbow angle and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured prior to and immediately following ECC1 and ECC2. at 24h intervals for 7 days following ECC1 and finally on day 11. In both groups, all dependent variables changed significantly during the 2 days following ECC1. A further acute post-exercise impairment in isometric torque (30 +/- 5%) and flexed elbow angle (20 +/- 4%) was observed following ECC2 (p0.05). These findings suggest that when maximal isokinetic eccentric exercise is repeated two days after experiencing of contraction-induced muscle damage, the recovery time course is not significantly altered.

  13. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty...... healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours...... later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral...

  14. Treatment of ischial pressure sores with both profunda femoris artery perforator flaps and muscle flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Min; Yun, In Sik; Lee, Dong Won; Lew, Dae Hyun; Rah, Dong Kyun; Lee, Won Jai

    2014-07-01

    Reconstruction of ischial pressure sore defects is challenging due to extensive bursas and high recurrence rates. In this study, we simultaneously applied a muscle flap that covered the exposed ischium and large bursa with sufficient muscular volume and a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap for the management of ischial pressure sores. We retrospectively analyzed data from 14 patients (16 ischial sores) whose ischial defects had been reconstructed using both a profunda femoris artery perforator flap and a muscle flap between January 2006 and February 2014. We compared patient characteristics, operative procedure, and clinical course. All flaps survived the entire follow-up period. Seven patients (50%) had a history of surgery at the site of the ischial pressure sore. The mean age of the patients included was 52.8 years (range, 18-85 years). The mean follow-up period was 27.9 months (range, 3-57 months). In two patients, a biceps femoris muscle flap was used, while a gracilis muscle flap was used in the remaining patients. In four cases (25%), wound dehiscence occurred, but healed without further complication after resuturing. Additionally, congestion occurred in one case (6%), but resolved with conservative treatment. Among 16 cases, there was only one (6%) recurrence at 34 months. The combination of a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap and muscle flap for the treatment of ischial pressure sores provided pliability, adequate bulkiness and few long-term complications. Therefore, this may be used as an alternative treatment method for ischial pressure sores.

  15. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  16. Specific and cross over effects of massage for muscle soreness: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Kenneth; Sundstrup, Emil; Søndergaard, Stine D; Behm, David; Brandt, Mikkel; Særvoll, Charlotte A; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-02-01

    Muscle soreness can negatively interfere with the activities of daily living as well as sports performance. In the working environment, a common problem is muscle tenderness, soreness and pain, especially for workers frequently exposed to unilateral high repetitive movements tasks. The aim of the study is therefore to investigate the acute effect of massage applied using a simple device Thera-band roller Massager on laboratory induced hamstring muscle soreness, and the potential cross over effect to the non-massaged limb. 22 healthy untrained men (Mean age 34 +/- 7 years; mean height 181.7 +/- 6.9 cm; mean weight 80.6 +/- 6.4 kg; BMI: 24.5 +/- 1.3) with no prior history of knee, low back or neck injury or other adverse health issues were recruited. Participants visited the researchers on two separate occasions, separated by 48 hours, each time providing a soreness rating (modified visual analog scale 0-10), and being tested for pressure pain threshold (PPT) and active range of motion (ROM) of the hamstring muscles. During the first visit, delayed onset muscular soreness of the hamstring muscles was induced by 10 x 10 repetitions of the stiff-legged dead-lift. On the second visit participants received either 1) 10 minutes of roller massage on one leg, while the contralateral leg served as a cross over control, or 2) Resting for 10 minutes with no massage at all. Measurement of soreness, PPT and ROM were taken immediately before and at 0, 10, 30 and 60 min. after treatment. There was a significant group by time interaction for soreness (p < 0.0001) and PPT (p = 0.0007), with the massage group experiencing reduced soreness and increasing PPT compared with the control group. There was no group by time interaction for ROM (p = 0.18). At 10 min. post massage there was a significant reduction in soreness of the non-massaged limb in the cross over control group compared to controls but this effect was lost 30 minutes post massage. Massage with a roller device reduces

  17. The Effects of Eccentric Contraction Duration on Muscle Strength, Power Production, Vertical Jump, and Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike, Jonathan N; Cole, Nathan; Herrera, Chris; VanDusseldorp, Trisha; Kravitz, Len; Kerksick, Chad M

    2017-03-01

    Mike, JN, Cole, N, Herrera, C, VanDusseldorp, T, Kravitz, L, and Kerksick, CM. The effects of eccentric contraction duration on muscle strength, power production, vertical jump, and soreness. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 773-786, 2017-Previous research has investigated the effects of either eccentric-only training or comparing eccentric and concentric exercise on changes related to strength and power expression, but no research to date has investigated the impact of altering the duration of either the concentric or the eccentric component on these parameters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the duration of eccentric (i.e., 2-second, 4-second vs. 6-second) muscle contractions and their effect on muscle strength, power production, vertical jump, and soreness using a plate-loaded barbell Smith squat exercise. Thirty college-aged men (23 ± 3.5 years, 178 ± 6.8 cm, 82 ± 12 kg, and 11.6 ± 5.1% fat) with 3.0 ± 1.0 years of resistance training experience and training frequency of 4.3 ± 0.9 days per week were randomized and assigned to 1 of 3 eccentric training groups that incorporated different patterns of contraction. For every repetition, all 3 groups used 2-second concentric contractions and paused for 1 second between the concentric and eccentric phases. The control group (2S) used 2-second eccentric contractions, whereas the 4S group performed 4-second eccentric contractions and the 6S group performed 6-second eccentric contractions. All repetitions were completed using the barbell Smith squat exercise. All participants completed a 4-week training protocol that required them to complete 2 workouts per week using their prescribed contraction routine for 4 sets of 6 repetitions at an intensity of 80-85% one repetition maximum (1RM). For all performance data, significant group × time (G × T) interaction effects were found for average power production across all 3 sets of a squat jump protocol (p = 0.04) while vertical jump did not reach

  18. Sports Mass Age Therapy on the Reduction of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness of the Quadriceps Femoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Massage therapy is one of most commonly applied treatments during athletic training. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of sports massage therapy on reducing post-exercise quadriceps muscle soreness. Methods. A sample of 29 women aged 24-26 years was divided into an experimental group (n = 15 receiving classic sports massage therapy and a control group (n = 14 given no treatment. An exercise session consisting of five sets of deep squat jumps was administered after which lower limb power as assessed via the vertical jump test. Muscle soreness was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS and exercise intensity with the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale. Subsequent measurements of lower limb power and muscle soreness were performed 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the exercise session. Differences between the measurements were assessed by the Friedman and least significant difference tests while between-group comparisons involved the Mann-Whitney U test. Results. The largest decrease in lower limb power was observed between the first measurement after the exercise session and 24 h later (p < 0.01. The smallest decrease in power was observed in the massage group. The highest levels of muscle soreness were noted 24 h post-exercise in the massage group and 48 h post-exercise in the control group. The experimental group showed a decrease in muscle soreness in each subsequent measurement, with the results close to zero on the VAS 96 h postexercise. Conclusions. Massage therapy quickened recovery and improved muscle efficiency post-exercise and may serve as an effective treatment of muscle soreness. The analgesic effect of massage suggests it should be widely applied in sport, physical therapy and rehabilitation.

  19. The Effects of Pre-Exercise Ginger Supplementation on Muscle Damage and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Melissa D; Zavorsky, Gerald S; Smoliga, James M

    2015-06-01

    Ginger possesses analgesic and pharmacological properties mimicking non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. We aimed to determine if ginger supplementation is efficacious for attenuating muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) following high-intensity resistance exercise. Following a 5-day supplementation period of placebo or 4 g ginger (randomized groups), 20 non-weight trained participants performed a high-intensity elbow flexor eccentric exercise protocol to induce muscle damage. Markers associated with muscle damage and DOMS were repeatedly measured before supplementation and for 4 days following the exercise protocol. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed one repetition maximum lift decreased significantly 24 h post-exercise in both groups (p ginger group (p = 0.002), and improved at 72 (p = 0.021) and 96 h (p = 0.044) only in the placebo group. Blood creatine kinase significantly increased for both groups (p = 0.015) but continued to increase only in the ginger group 72 (p = 0.006) and 96 h (p = 0.027) post-exercise. Visual analog scale of pain was significantly elevated following eccentric exercise (p ginger. In conclusion, 4 g of ginger supplementation may be used to accelerate recovery of muscle strength following intense exercise but does not influence indicators of muscle damage or DOMS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Treatment of Ischial Pressure Sores with Both Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Flaps and Muscle Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Min Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Reconstruction of ischial pressure sore defects is challenging due to extensive bursas and high recurrence rates. In this study, we simultaneously applied a muscle flap that covered the exposed ischium and large bursa with sufficient muscular volume and a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap for the management of ischial pressure sores. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 14 patients (16 ischial sores whose ischial defects had been reconstructed using both a profunda femoris artery perforator flap and a muscle flap between January 2006 and February 2014. We compared patient characteristics, operative procedure, and clinical course. Results All flaps survived the entire follow-up period. Seven patients (50% had a history of surgery at the site of the ischial pressure sore. The mean age of the patients included was 52.8 years (range, 18-85 years. The mean follow-up period was 27.9 months (range, 3-57 months. In two patients, a biceps femoris muscle flap was used, while a gracilis muscle flap was used in the remaining patients. In four cases (25%, wound dehiscence occurred, but healed without further complication after resuturing. Additionally, congestion occurred in one case (6%, but resolved with conservative treatment. Among 16 cases, there was only one (6% recurrence at 34 months. Conclusions The combination of a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap and muscle flap for the treatment of ischial pressure sores provided pliability, adequate bulkiness and few long-term complications. Therefore, this may be used as an alternative treatment method for ischial pressure sores.

  1. Effects of acupuncture on symptoms and muscle function in delayed-onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübscher, Markus; Vogt, Lutz; Bernhörster, Marcus; Rosenhagen, Andreas; Banzer, Winfried

    2008-10-01

    This study was done to investigate the effects of a standardized acupuncture treatment on symptoms and muscle function in exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). A prospective, randomized, controlled, observer and subject-blinded trial was undertaken. Twenty-two (22) healthy subjects (22-30 years; 10 males and 12 females) were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: real acupuncture (deep needling at classic acupuncture points and tender points; n = 7), sham-acupuncture (superficial needling at nonacupuncture points; n = 8), and control (no needling; n = 7). DOMS of the nondominant elbow-flexors was experimentally induced through eccentric contractions until exhaustion. The outcome measures were pain perception (visual analogue scale; VAS; range: 0-10 cm), mechanical pain threshold (MPT; pressure algometer), and maximum isometric voluntary force (MIVF; force transducer). Treatment was applied immediately, 24 and 48 hours after DOMS induction. Measurements of MPT and MIVF were made prior to DOMS induction as well as before and after every treatment session. VAS data were acquired after DOMS induction as well as pre- and post-treatment. Final pain, MPT, and MIVF measurements were performed 72 hours after DOMS induction. Following nonparametric testing, there were no significant differences between groups in outcome measures at baseline. After 72 hours, pain perception (VAS) was significantly lower in the acupuncture group compared to the sham acupuncture and control subjects. However, the mean MPT and MIVF scores were not significantly different between groups. Although acupuncture seemed to have no effects on mechanical pain threshold and muscle function, it proved to reduce perceived pain arising from exercise-induced muscle soreness.

  2. Myocellular enzyme leakage, polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation and delayed onset muscle soreness induced by isokinetic eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croisier, J L; Camus, G; Deby-Dupont, G; Bertrand, F; Lhermerout, C; Crielaard, J M; Juchmès-Ferir, A; Deby, C; Albert, A; Lamy, M

    1996-01-01

    To address the question of whether delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of the arachidonic acid derived product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). 10 healthy male subjects were submitted to eccentric and concentric isokinetic exercises on a Kin Trex device at 60 degrees/s angular velocity. Exercise consisted of 8 stages of 5 maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases. There was an interval of at least 30 days between eccentric and concentric testing, and the order of the two exercise sessions was randomly assigned. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS was evaluated using a visual analogue scale, immediately, following 24 h and 48 h after each test. Five blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein: at rest before exercise, immediately after, after 30 min recovery, 24 h and 48 h after the tests. The magnitude of the acute inflammatory response to exercise was assessed by measuring plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase ([EL]), myeloperoxidase ([MPO]) and PGE2 ([PGE2]). Using two way analysis of variance, it appeared that only eccentric exercise significantly increased [EL] and DOMS, especially of the hamstring muscles. Furthermore, a significant decrease in eccentric peak torque of this muscle group only was observed on day 2 after eccentric work (- 21%; P < 0.002). Serum activity of creatine kinase and serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly 24 and 48 h after both exercise tests. However, these variables reached significantly higher values following eccentric contractions 48 h after exercise. Mean [PGE2] in the two exercise modes remained unchanged over time and were practically equal at each time point. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that the magnitude of polymorphonuclear (PMN) activation, muscle damage, and DOMS are greater after eccentric than after concentric muscle

  3. Evaluation of local muscle soreness treatment with anterior bite splint made of soft putty impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Laksono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local muscle soreness is the most common temporomandibular disorders complaint of patients seeking treatment in the dental clinics. The emergency treatment that can be done in the clinics to manage this disorder is by making anterior bite splint. Anterior bite splint is usually made of acrylic, but currently there is a soft putty impression material that can also be used for making anterior bite splint. The effectiveness of soft putty anterior bite splint in local muscle soreness treatment still has not clear. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of the soft putty impression material as a material used for making anterior bite splint in the treatment of local muscle soreness. Case: Six patients was reported five female patients aged 20-40 years old and one male patient aged 37 years old with local muscle soreness. Four female patients with a “click” sound on TMJ. Case management: Make differential diagnosis with screening history (anamnesis, clinical examination consists of extra oral examination such as muscle and temporomandibular joint palpation, measure the mandibular movement, end-feel, load test, intra oral examination and radiographic evaluation. Record the results and make the diagnosis. Make a soft putty anterior bite splint, adjusted and inserted in the maxillary anterior teeth. Record the results based on signs and symptoms. Conclusion: It can be concluded that anterior bite splint made of soft putty impression material is effective for treatment the local muscle soreness.Latar belakang: Salah satu tipe temporomandibular disorders yang paling sering dijumpai di klinik dokter gigi adalah local muscle soreness. Perawatan yang dapat dengan segera dilakukan di klinik untuk mengelola gangguan tersebut adalah dengan pembuatan anterior bite splint. Biasanya anterior bite splint terbuat dari akrilik, namun saat ini telah ada bahan cetak soft putty yang memungkinkan untuk dipakai sebagai bahan pembuatan anterior bite splint

  4. Interleukin-6 and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Do Not Vary during the Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Morgan E.; Berg, Kris E.; Meendering, Jessica R.; Llewellyn, Tamra L.; French, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Jeremy E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and delayed onset muscles soreness (DOMS) exists in two different phases of the menstrual cycle. Nine runners performed one 75-min high-intensity interval running session during the early follicular (EF) phase and once during the midluteal (ML) phase of the…

  5. Flap surgery for pressure sores: should the underlying muscle be transferred or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Filip E; Andrades, Patricio; Blondeel, Philip N; Hamdi, Moustapha; Roche, Nathalie; Stillaert, Filip; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Monstrey, Stan

    2011-01-01

    Musculocutaneous flaps have become the first choice in the surgical repair of pressure sores, but the indication for including muscle in the transferred flaps still remains poorly defined. This study compares outcomes after muscle and non-muscle flap coverage of pressure sores to investigate whether it is still necessary to incorporate muscle tissue as part of the surgical treatment of these ulcers. A retrospective revision of 94 consecutive patients with ischial or sacral pressure sores operated between 1996 and 2002 was performed. Depending on the inclusion of muscle into the flap, the patients were divided in two groups: musculocutaneous flap group and fasciocutaneous flap group. Charts were reviewed for patient characteristics, ulcer features and reconstructive information. Data between groups were compared with emphasis on early (haematoma or seroma, dehiscence, infections, necrosis and secondary procedures) and late (recurrence) postoperative complications. A total of 37 wounds were covered with muscle and 57 wounds covered without muscle tissue. The groups were comparable in relation to age, gender, ulcer characteristics and timing for surgery. There were no significant differences in early complications between the study groups. The mean follow-up period was 3.10 ± 1.8 years (range: 0.5 to 6.7). There were no statistical differences in ulcer recurrence between the groups. The type of flap used was not associated with postoperative morbidity or recurrence in the univariate and multivariate analyses. The findings of this clinical study indicate that the musculocutaneous flaps are as good as fasciocutaneous flaps in the reconstruction of pressure sores, and they question the long-standing dogma that muscle is needed in the repair of these ulcers. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of protein supplements on muscle damage, soreness and recovery of muscle function and physical performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Lieberman, Harris R; McLellan, Tom M

    2014-05-01

    Protein supplements are frequently consumed by athletes and recreationally-active individuals, although the decision to purchase and consume protein supplements is often based on marketing claims rather than evidence-based research. To provide a systematic and comprehensive analysis of literature examining the hypothesis that protein supplements enhance recovery of muscle function and physical performance by attenuating muscle damage and soreness following a previous bout of exercise. English language articles were searched with PubMed and Google Scholar using protein and supplements together with performance, exercise, competition and muscle, alone or in combination as keywords. Inclusion criteria required studies to recruit healthy adults less than 50 years of age and to evaluate the effects of protein supplements alone or in combination with carbohydrate on performance metrics including time-to-exhaustion, time-trial or isometric or isokinetic muscle strength and markers of muscle damage and soreness. Twenty-seven articles were identified of which 18 dealt exclusively with ingestion of protein supplements to reduce muscle damage and soreness and improve recovery of muscle function following exercise, whereas the remaining 9 articles assessed muscle damage as well as performance metrics during single or repeat bouts of exercise. Papers were evaluated based on experimental design and examined for confounders that explain discrepancies between studies such as dietary control, training state of participants, sample size, direct or surrogate measures of muscle damage, and sensitivity of the performance metric. High quality and consistent data demonstrated there is no apparent relationship between recovery of muscle function and ratings of muscle soreness and surrogate markers of muscle damage when protein supplements are consumed prior to, during or after a bout of endurance or resistance exercise. There also appears to be insufficient experimental data

  7. Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30 km run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baum K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Klaus Baum,1 Richard D Telford,2 Ross B Cunningham,3 1Trainingsinstitut Prof Baum, Köln, Germany; 2College of Medicine, Biology, and Environment, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 3The Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Objective: Runners are prone to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS during long distance training. This especially holds for unaccustomed training volumes at moderate to high intensities. We investigated the effects of a marine oil complex, PCSO-524®, derived from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel (formulated as Lyprinol® and Omega XL® on DOMS after a 30 km training run. Methods: Initially, peak oxygen uptake of 32 distance runners (4 female, 28 male; median age 45 years, range 28–53 was measured on a treadmill with a 1.5 km hour-1 increase every 4 minutes starting from 8.5 km hour-1. At least 1-week after this initial test, they participated in a 30 km road run at a speed corresponding to about 70% of their individual peak oxygen uptake on a flat terrain. Before and after (0, 24, and 48 hours the run, blood concentration of creatine kinase (CK were measured and pain sensation was determined (pain scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = extremely painful. Runners were then matched in pairs based on maximal CK and peak oxygen uptake, and allocated randomly into two different groups. One group was supplemented with 400 mg per day of PCSO-524® for 11 weeks, the other group with an olive oil placebo. After that period, CK and pain sensations were remeasured following a second 30 km run at the same speed and on the same terrain. Results: The general pattern of soreness in the PCSO-524® supplemented group was reduced by 1.1 units (standard error 0.41 compared to the placebo (P < 0.05, the effects being greater in lesser trained runners (P < 0.05. CK levels were positively associated with pain sensation (P < 0.05, but trends toward lower CK in the

  8. Influence of ginger and cinnamon intake on inflammation and muscle soreness endued by exercise in Iranian female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women for six weeks did not show any significant change in the IL-6 level, but showed a decrease in muscle soreness in the cinnamon and ginger groups.

  9. Combined V-Y Fasciocutaneous Advancement and Gluteus Maximus Muscle Rotational Flaps for Treating Sacral Sores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ho Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sacral area is the most common site of pressure sore in bed-ridden patients. Though many treatment methods have been proposed, a musculocutaneous flap using the gluteus muscles or a fasciocutaneous flap is the most popular surgical option. Here, we propose a new method that combines the benefits of these 2 methods: combined V-Y fasciocutaneous advancement and gluteus maximus muscle rotational flaps. A retrospective review was performed for 13 patients who underwent this new procedure from March 2011 to December 2013. Patients’ age, sex, accompanying diseases, follow-up duration, surgical details, complications, and recurrence were documented. Computed tomography was performed postoperatively at 2 to 4 weeks and again at 4 to 6 months to identify the thickness and volume of the rotational muscle portion. After surgery, all patients healed within 1 month; 3 patients experienced minor complications. The average follow-up period was 13.6 months, during which time 1 patient had a recurrence (recurrence rate, 7.7%. Average thickness of the rotated muscle was 9.43 mm at 2 to 4 weeks postoperatively and 9.22 mm at 4 to 6 months postoperatively (p=0.087. Muscle thickness had not decreased, and muscle volume was relatively maintained. This modified method is relatively simple and easy for reconstructing sacral sores, provides sufficient padding, and has little muscle donor-site morbidity.

  10. Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30 km run

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Klaus; Telford, Richard D; Cunningham, Ross B

    2013-01-01

    Klaus Baum,1 Richard D Telford,2 Ross B Cunningham,3 1Trainingsinstitut Prof Baum, Köln, Germany; 2College of Medicine, Biology, and Environment, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 3The Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Objective: Runners are prone to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during long distance training. This especially holds for unaccustomed training volumes at moderate to high int...

  11. Comparison in muscle damage between maximal voluntary and electrically evoked isometric contractions of the elbow flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubeau, Marc; Muthalib, Makii; Millet, Guillaume Y; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2012-02-01

    This study compared between maximal voluntary (VOL) and electrically stimulated (ES) isometric contractions of the elbow flexors for changes in indirect markers of muscle damage to investigate whether ES would induce greater muscle damage than VOL. Twelve non-resistance-trained men (23-39 years) performed VOL with one arm and ES with the contralateral arm separated by 2 weeks in a randomised, counterbalanced order. Both VOL and ES (frequency 75 Hz, pulse duration 250 μs, maximally tolerated intensity) exercises consisted of 50 maximal isometric contractions (4-s on, 15-s off) of the elbow flexors at a long muscle length (160°). Changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (MVC), range of motion, muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before, immediately after and 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following exercise. The average peak torque over the 50 isometric contractions was greater (P < 0.05) for VOL (32.9 ± 9.8 N m) than ES (16.9 ± 6.3 N m). MVC decreased greater and recovered slower (P < 0.05) after ES (15% lower than baseline at 96 h) than VOL (full recovery). Serum CK activity increased (P < 0.05) only after ES, and the muscles became more sore and tender after ES than VOL (P < 0.05). These results showed that ES induced greater muscle damage than VOL despite the lower torque output during ES. It seems likely that higher mechanical stress imposed on the activated muscle fibres, due to the specificity of motor unit recruitment in ES, resulted in greater muscle damage.

  12. Relationship between physical exercise, muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Foschini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physical exercise involving muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS. A literature review of national and international periodicals was carried out. Muscle structures (membranes, Z-line, sarcomeres, T tubules and myofi brils can become damaged as a result of an imposed mechanical overload. Of greatest note are exercises requiring strength, particularly when muscular action is eccentric. Damage to skeletal musculature can be analyzed by direct methods (muscle biopsy or magnetic resonance or by indirect methods (maximum voluntary movement, subjective pain perception scales, analysis of enzyme and protein concentrations in blood. Creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, myosin heavy chain fragments, troponin-I and myoglobin can be used as indirect markers of muscle damage. Both DOMS and muscle damage can be infl uenced by the type of activity, with emphasis on eccentric muscle movements, type of exercise, velocity of the movement, interval period between series, the level of individual fi tness, this last primarily affecting beginners. When myotrauma occurs, muscle damage repair is initiated by leukocytes migrating to the injured area, although, the histamines, prostaglandins, kinins and K+ produced by neutrophils and macrophages stimulate free nerve endings in the muscle, causing the DOMS. Despite this apparent relationship between muscle damage and DOMS, it is not possible toestablish a linear relationship between these two variables, since published data are divergent. RESUMO O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar as relações do exercício físico com o dano muscular e dor muscular de início tardio (DMIT. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão de literatura de periódicos nacionais e internacionais. O dano muscular pode ocorrer em estruturas musculares (membranas, linha Z, sarcolema, túbulos T e miofi brilas em função da sobrecarga mec

  13. Blood flow after contraction and cuff occlusion is reduced in subjects with muscle soreness after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza-Silva, Eduardo; Wittrup Christensen, Steffan; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occur within 1-2 days after eccentric exercise but the mechanism mediating hypersensitivity is unclear. This study hypothesized that eccentric exercise reduces the blood flow response following muscle contractions and cuff occlusion, which may result ...

  14. EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON THE AMOUNT OF PERCEIVED PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND EDEMA AFTER DELAYED MUSCLE SORENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabalaeifar Sara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed onset muscle soreness usually occurs after doing a new unusual physical activity, especially when, associated with repeated eccentric contractions and then it gradually disappears. There is not an extensive agreement in the case of treatment method of soreness signs quick reduction. This research was carried out with the aim of investigation caffeine consumption effect to find a good way in order to reduce the signs of delayed onset muscle soreness. In this semi-experimental with Double-blind design, 16 female volleyball player with an age average of 22.5+2.5 in 2 homogeneous 8 subject control and experimental group were studied. In this research, the effect of caffeine existing in coffee in 5 stages (24h before exercise, 12h before, immediately before exercise, after exercise and 12h after it and 1mg per 1kg of body weight on amount of perceived pain and range of motion of the joint and edema due to delay onset muscle soreness because of 50 jumps and lands of a 1 meter stage was investigated. The results showed that caffeine consumption has a meaningful effect on reduction of all the expressed signs after eccentric contractions. So it is recommended that physio thrapysts, doctors and athletes use this method to reduce delayed onset muscle soreness consequences after the injury.

  15. Watermelon juice: potential functional drink for sore muscle relief in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona-Díaz, Martha P; Alacid, Fernando; Carrasco, María; Martínez, Ignacio; Aguayo, Encarna

    2013-08-07

    l-Citrulline is an excellent candidate to reduce muscle soreness, and watermelon is a fruit rich in this amino acid. This study investigated the potential of watermelon juice as a functional drink for athletes. An in vitro study of intestinal absorption of l-citrulline in Caco-2 cells was performed using unpasteurized (NW), pasteurized (80 °C for 40 s) watermelon juice (PW) and, as control, a standard of l-citrulline. l-citrulline bioavailability was greater when it was contained in a matrix of watermelon and when no heat treatment was applied. In the in vivo experiment (maximum effort test in a cycloergometer), seven athletes were supplied with 500 mL of natural watermelon juice (1.17 g of l-citrulline), enriched watermelon juice (4.83 g of l-citrulline plus 1.17 g from watermelon), and placebo. Both watermelon juices helped to reduce the recovery heart rate and muscle soreness after 24 h.

  16. Activation of lower back muscles via FES for pressure sores prevention in paraplegia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoncini, M; Holderbaum, W; Andrews, B J

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of the use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the lower back muscles for pressure sores prevention in paraplegia. The hypothesis under study is that FES induces a change in the pressure distribution on the contact area during sitting. Tests were conducted on a paraplegic subject (T5), sitting on a standard wheelchair and cushion. Trunk extensors (mainly the erector spinae) were stimulated using surface electrodes placed on the skin. A pressure mapping system was used to measure the pressure on the sitting surface in four situations: (a) no stimulation; (b) stimulation on one side of the spine only; (c) stimulation on both sides, at different levels; and (d) stimulation at the same level on both sides, during pressure-relief manoeuvres. A session of prolonged stimulation was also conducted. The experimental results show that the stimulation of the erector spinae on one side of the spine can induce a trunk rotation on the sagittal plane, which causes a change in the pressure distribution. A decrease of pressure on the side opposite to the stimulation was recorded. The phenomenon is intensified when different levels of stimulation are applied to the two sides, and such change can be sustained for a considerable time (around 5 minutes). The stimulation did not induce changes during pressure-relief manoeuvres. Finally, from this research we can conclude that the stimulation of the trunk extensors can be a useful tool for pressure sores prevention, and can potentially be used in a routine for pressure sores prevention based on periodical weight shifts.

  17. Foam Rolling for Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness and Recovery of Dynamic Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcey, Gregory E. P.; Bradbury-Squires, David J.; Kawamoto, Jon-Erik; Drinkwater, Eric J.; Behm, David G.; Button, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: After an intense bout of exercise, foam rolling is thought to alleviate muscle fatigue and soreness (ie, delayed-onset muscle soreness [DOMS]) and improve muscular performance. Potentially, foam rolling may be an effective therapeutic modality to reduce DOMS while enhancing the recovery of muscular performance. Objective: To examine the effects of foam rolling as a recovery tool after an intense exercise protocol through assessment of pressure-pain threshold, sprint time, change-of-direction speed, power, and dynamic strength-endurance. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 8 healthy, physically active males (age = 22.1 ± 2.5 years, height = 177.0 ± 7.5 cm, mass = 88.4 ± 11.4 kg) participated. Intervention(s): Participants performed 2 conditions, separated by 4 weeks, involving 10 sets of 10 repetitions of back squats at 60% of their 1-repetition maximum, followed by either no foam rolling or 20 minutes of foam rolling immediately, 24, and 48 hours postexercise. Main Outcome Measure(s): Pressure-pain threshold, sprint speed (30-m sprint time), power (broad-jump distance), change-of-direction speed (T-test), and dynamic strength-endurance. Results: Foam rolling substantially improved quadriceps muscle tenderness by a moderate to large amount in the days after fatigue (Cohen d range, 0.59 to 0.84). Substantial effects ranged from small to large in sprint time (Cohen d range, 0.68 to 0.77), power (Cohen d range, 0.48 to 0.87), and dynamic strength-endurance (Cohen d = 0.54). Conclusions: Foam rolling effectively reduced DOMS and associated decrements in most dynamic performance measures. PMID:25415413

  18. Increased technetium uptake is not equivalent to muscle necrosis: scintigraphic, morphological and intramuscular pressure analyses of sore muscles after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, A. G.; Friden, J.; Hargens, A. R.; Lang, G. H.; Thornell, L. E.

    1993-01-01

    A scintigraphic technique employing technetium pyrophosphate uptake was used to identify the area of skeletal muscle damage in the lower leg of four runners 24 h after an ultramarathon footrace (160 km). Most of the race had been run downhill which incorporated an extensive amount of eccentric work. Soreness was diffuse throughout the posterior region of the lower leg. In order to interpret what increased technetium uptake reflects and to express extreme endurance related damages, a biopsy was taken from the 3-D position of abnormal uptake. In addition, intramuscular pressures were determined in the deep posterior compartment. Scintigraphs revealed increased technetium pyrophosphate uptake in the medial portion of the gastrocnemius muscle. For 3698 fibres analysed, 33 fibres (1%) were necrotic, while a few other fibres were either atrophic or irregular shaped. A cluster of necrotic fibres occurred at the fascicular periphery for one subject and fibre type grouping occurred for another. Ultrastructural analysis revealed Z-line streaming near many capillaries and variously altered subsarcolemmal mitochondria including some with paracrystalline inclusions. The majority of the capillaries included thickened and irregular shaped endothelial cells. Intramuscular pressures of the deep posterior compartment were slightly elevated (12-15 mmHg) for three of the four subjects. Increased technetium uptake following extreme endurance running does not just reflect muscle necrosis but also subtle fibre abnormalities. Collectively, these pathological findings are attributed to relative ischaemia occurring during the race and during pre-race training, whereas, intramuscular pressure elevations associated with muscle soreness are attributed to mechanical stress caused by extensive eccentric work during the race.

  19. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matthew B; Nix, Carrie M; Greenwood, Lori D; Greenwood, Mike C

    2018-03-01

    Cooke, MB, Nix, C, Greenwood, L, and Greenwood, M. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 736-747, 2018-The incidence of muscle injuries is prevalent in elite sport athletes and weekend warriors and strategies that safely and effectively hasten recovery are highly desirable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between 3 recovery methods after eliciting muscle damage in recreationally active men relative to maximal isokinetic contractions, perceived muscle soreness, and psychological mood states. Twenty-five recreationally active men (22.15 ± 3.53 years, 75.75 ± 11.91 kg, 180.52 ± 7.3 cm) were randomly matched by V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak (53.86 ± 6.65 ml·kg·min) and assigned to one of 3 recovery methods: anti-gravity treadmill (G-Trainer) (N = 8), conventional treadmill (N = 8) or static stretching (N = 9). Recovery methods were performed 30 minutes, 24, 48, and 72 hours after a 45-minute downhill run. Following eccentrically biased running, no significant differences were noted in isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque, systemic markers of muscle damage, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation such as serum creatine kinase (CK), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively, and subjective ratings of perceived muscle soreness between recovery methods. The G-Trainer group did however display a higher mood state as indicated by the Profile of Mood State global scores at 24 hours postexercise when compared to the conventional treadmill recovery group (p = 0.035). The improved mood state after the use of the anti-gravity treadmill may provide clinical relevance to other populations.

  20. Twitch interpolation technique in testing of maximal muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim was to study the methodological aspects of the muscle twitch interpolation technique in estimating the maximal force of contraction in the quadriceps muscle utilizing commercial muscle testing equipment. Six healthy subjects participated in seven sets of experiments testing the effects...

  1. Cold-water immersion (cryotherapy for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bleakley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many strategies are in use with the intention of preventing or minimizing delayed onset muscle soreness and fatigue after exercise. Cold-water immersion, in water temperatures of less than 15 °C, is currently one of the most popular interventional strategies used after exercise. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of cold-water immersion in the management of muscle soreness after exercise. SEARCH METHODS: In February 2010, we searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library (2010, Issue 1, Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL, British Nursing Index and archive (BNI, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro. We also searched the reference lists of articles, handsearched journals and conference proceedings and contacted experts. In November 2011, we updated the searches of Central (2011, Issue 4, Medline (up to November Week 3 2011, Embase (to 2011 Week 46 and CINAHL (to 28 November 2011 to check for more recent publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing the effect of using cold-water immersion after exercise with: passive intervention (rest/no intervention, contrast immersion, warm-water immersion, active recovery, compression, or a different duration/dosage of cold-water immersion. Primary outcomes were pain (muscle soreness or tenderness (pain on palpation, and subjective recovery (return to previous activities without signs or symptoms. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three authors independently evaluated study quality and extracted data. Some of the data were obtained following author correspondence or extracted from graphs in the trial reports. Where possible, data were pooled using the fixed-effect model. MAIN RESULTS: Seventeen small trials were included, involving a total of 366 participants. Study quality was low. The temperature, duration and

  2. EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT DOSAGE OF BCAA SUPPLEMENTATION ON SERUM INDICES OF MUSCLE DAMAGE AND SORENESS IN SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Mohamad-Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigation of the effects of two different dose of BCAA supplementation on serum indices of muscle damage and soreness in soccer players. 30 male soccer players (age: 20.2+-0.6 yr participated as subjects in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups (double-blind design. All subjects performed lower- body resistance exercise (6 sets, 10 repetitions, 70% 1RM. The BCAA was given at doses of 200 and 450 mg.kg -1 BW for supplemental groups 1 and 2, respectively, 30 minutes before and after to exercise tests and carbohydrate was given at dose of 200 mg.kg -1 BW for placebo group. To identify enzymes activity (IU/L, venous blood samples were collected 30 min prior to exercise and at 24 and 48 hrs post exercise. Data were statistically analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and Bonfferoni test. Baseline CK, CK-MB and muscle soreness were determined 30 minutes before the exercise test. Baseline serum values for CK, CK-MB and baseline muscle soreness were not different between groups in the 30 minutes before the exercise test (p>0/05. However, there were significant increases between the pre-exercise and post-exercise values for CK, CK-MB and muscle soreness from 24 hrs to 48 hrs post-test (p<0/05, but there were no significant differences between two groups (p< 0.05(. These results suggested that two different dosages of BCAA supplementation did not affect muscle damage and muscle sureness during resistance exercise bout in soccer players.

  3. Muscle mitochondrial capacity exceeds maximal oxygen delivery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Gnaiger, Erich; Calbet, Jose A L

    2011-01-01

    Across a wide range of species and body mass a close matching exists between maximal conductive oxygen delivery and mitochondrial respiratory rate. In this study we investigated in humans how closely in-vivo maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2) max) is matched to state 3 muscle mitochondrial respira...

  4. Effects of winter military training on energy balance, whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Martini, Svein; Spitz, Marissa G; Thrane, Ingjerd; McGraw, Susan M; Blatny, Janet-Martha; Castellani, John W; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Gundersen, Yngvar; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2014-12-01

    Physiological consequences of winter military operations are not well described. This study examined Norwegian soldiers (n = 21 males) participating in a physically demanding winter training program to evaluate whether short-term military training alters energy and whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and performance. Energy expenditure (D2(18)O) and intake were measured daily, and postabsorptive whole-body protein turnover ([(15)N]-glycine), muscle damage, soreness, and performance (vertical jump) were assessed at baseline, following a 4-day, military task training phase (MTT) and after a 3-day, 54-km ski march (SKI). Energy intake (kcal·day(-1)) increased (P balance was lower (P military training provide the basis for future studies to evaluate nutritional strategies that attenuate protein loss and sustain performance during severe energy deficits.

  5. The influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S; Trewartha, G; Kemp, S P T; Michell, R; Stokes, K A

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study investigated the influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite English Premiership Rugby Union players. Time loss (from 39.5 matches) and abrasion (from 27 matches) injury risk was compared between matches played on artificial turf and natural grass. Muscle soreness was reported over the 4 days following one match played on each surface by 95 visiting players (i.e., normally play on natural grass surfaces). There was a likely trivial difference in the overall injury burden relating to time-loss injuries between playing surfaces [rate ratio = 1.01, 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-1.38]. Abrasions were substantially more common on artificial turf (rate ratio = 7.92, 90% CI: 4.39-14.28), although the majority of these were minor and only two resulted in any reported time loss. Muscle soreness was consistently higher over the 4 days following a match on artificial turf in comparison with natural grass, although the magnitude of this effect was small (effect sizes ranging from 0.26 to 0.40). These results suggest that overall injury risk is similar for the two playing surfaces, but further surveillance is required before inferences regarding specific injury diagnoses and smaller differences in overall injury risk can be made. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Influence of fatigue, stress, muscle soreness and sleep on perceived exertion during submaximal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Monoem; Chaouachi, Anis; Wong, Del P; Castagna, Carlo; Hambli, Mourad; Hue, Olivier; Chamari, Karim

    2013-07-02

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the Hooper's Index variations (i.e., self-ratings of fatigue, stress, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and sleep) on rating of perceived exertion during a 10 min submaximal exercise training session (RPE-10 min) and then check the stability and the internal consistency of RPE-10 min. Seventeen junior soccer players took part in this study. The individual Hooper's indices taken before each training session were correlated with RPE-10 min during a constant intensity and duration effort (10 min) using Pearson product moment correlation. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to assess the internal consistency of the RPE-10 min. All individual correlations between RPE-10 min and quality of sleep and quantity of fatigue, stress, and DOMS were non-significant (p>0.05). No significant correlations were resulted between RPE-10 min and Hooper's Index in all athletes. The ICC of RPE-10 min was 0.77 thus demonstrating internal consistency. The results of the present study demonstrated the objectivity and utility of RPE as a psychological tool for monitoring training during traditional soccer training. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep are not major contributors of perceived exertion during traditional soccer training without excessive training loads. It seems that psychobiological factors other than fatigue, stress, DOMS and sleep may have mediated the 10 min exercise perceptual intensity. © 2013.

  7. Herbs and natural supplements in the prevention and treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Meamarbashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  Unaccustomed and intense eccentric exercise is a common cause of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS. There are multiple remedies for the treatment of DOMS, but its clinical and laboratory pieces of evidence are scarce. Currently, the treatments proposed for DOMS are numerous and include pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, stretching, massage, nutritional supplements, and other alternatives. To find a holistic treatment with effective pain relief and minimum side effects, complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal therapies, plays a main role.Methods: In this review, the existing published studies investigating the efficacy of herbal and natural supplementation therapies for the prevention or treatment of side effects, symptoms, and signs of DOMS are summarized.Results: Previous studies have documented the efficacy of herbal therapies to treat pain, inflammation, as well as laboratory and clinical side effects of DOMS.Conclusion: The use of herbs in DOMS seems safer and has lower side effects than pharmacotherapy. However, the potential for side effects and drug interactions should be considered.

  8. A Comparison of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage Following Maximal Eccentric Contractions in Men and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Chariklia K; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Paschalis, Vassilis; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zalavras, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2017-08-01

    Research regarding exercise-induced muscle-damage mainly focuses on adults. The present study examined exercise-induced muscle-damage responses in adults compared with children. Eleven healthy boys (10-12 y) and 15 healthy men (18-45 y) performed 5 sets of 15 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. Range of motion (ROM), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during squat and walking, and peak isometric, concentric and eccentric torque were assessed before, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr postexercise. Creatine kinase (CK) activity was assessed before and 72 hr postexercise. Eccentric exercise resulted in DOMS during squat that persisted for up to 96h in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .05), and DOMS during walking that persisted for up to 72 hr in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .01). The ROM was lower in both age groups 48 hr postexercise (p < .001). Isometric (p < .001), concentric (p < .01) and eccentric (p < .01) force decreased post, and up to 48 hr postexercise in men. Except for a reduction in isometric force immediately after exercise, no other changes occurred in boys' isokinetic force. CK activity increased in men at 72 hr postexercise compared with pre exercise levels (p = .05). Our data provide further confirmation that children are less susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage compared with adults.

  9. Supplementation with a Polyphenol-Rich Extract, TensLess® , Attenuates Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness and Improves Muscle Recovery from Damages After Eccentric Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Cindy; Freitas, Tomás T; Martínez-Noguera, Francisco J; Laurent, Caroline; Gaillet, Sylvie; Chung, Linda H; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Cases, Julien

    2017-11-01

    High-intensity exercises are known to provoke delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Delayed onset muscle soreness typically occurs within the first 24 h, peaks between 24 and 72 h, and can last as long as 5-7 days post-exercise. Delayed onset muscle soreness is a multifactorial process involving both mechanical and biochemical components, associated with clinical features that may limit range of motion, and athletes seek for effective recovery strategies to optimize future training sessions. TensLess ® is a food supplement developed to help manage post-exercise recovery. The supplement has been investigated on 13 recreationally active athletes of both sex, during a randomized, double-blind, and crossover clinical investigation, including a 3-week washout period. The clinical investigation was based on the study of TensLess ® effects for DOMS management and on the reduction of associated muscle damages following an eccentric exercise protocol. Supplementation with TensLess ® induced significant decrease in DOMS perception (-33%; p = 0.008) as of the first 24 h; this was significantly correlated with a lowered release of muscle damage-associated biomarkers, namely myoglobin, creatinine, and creatine kinase, for the whole length of the recovery period. Taken together, these positive results clearly indicate that post-exercise supplementation with TensLess ® may preserve myocytes and reduce soreness following eccentric exercise-induced damages, and, accordingly, significantly shorten muscle recovery. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effect of hydrotherapy on the signs and symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaile, Joanna; Halson, Shona; Gill, Nicholas; Dawson, Brian

    2008-03-01

    This study independently examined the effects of three hydrotherapy interventions on the physiological and functional symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Strength trained males (n = 38) completed two experimental trials separated by 8 months in a randomised crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS, control), the other a specific hydrotherapy protocol for 72 h post-exercise; either: (1) cold water immersion (CWI: n = 12), (2) hot water immersion (HWI: n = 11) or (3) contrast water therapy (CWT: n = 15). For each trial, subjects performed a DOMS-inducing leg press protocol followed by PAS or one of the hydrotherapy interventions for 14 min. Weighted squat jump, isometric squat, perceived pain, thigh girths and blood variables were measured prior to, immediately after, and at 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Squat jump performance and isometric force recovery were significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) at 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise following CWT and at 48 and 72 h post-exercise following CWI when compared to PAS. Isometric force recovery was also greater (P < 0.05) at 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise following HWI when compared to PAS. Perceived pain improved (P < 0.01) following CWT at 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Overall, CWI and CWT were found to be effective in reducing the physiological and functional deficits associated with DOMS, including improved recovery of isometric force and dynamic power and a reduction in localised oedema. While HWI was effective in the recovery of isometric force, it was ineffective for recovery of all other markers compared to PAS.

  11. Comparison between maximal lengthening and shortening contractions for biceps brachii muscle oxygenation and hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Lee, Hoseong; Millet, Guillaume Y; Ferrari, Marco; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2010-09-01

    Eccentric contractions (ECC) require lower systemic oxygen (O2) and induce greater symptoms of muscle damage than concentric contractions (CON); however, it is not known if local muscle oxygenation is lower in ECC than CON during and following exercise. This study compared between ECC and CON for changes in biceps brachii muscle oxygenation [tissue oxygenation index (TOI)] and hemodynamics [total hemoglobin volume (tHb)=oxygenated-Hb+deoxygenated-Hb], determined by near-infrared spectroscopy over 10 sets of 6 maximal contractions of the elbow flexors of 10 healthy subjects. This study also compared between ECC and CON for changes in TOI and tHb during a 10-s sustained and 30-repeated maximal isometric contraction (MVC) task measured immediately before and after and 1-3 days following exercise. The torque integral during ECC was greater (P<0.05) than that during CON by approximately 30%, and the decrease in TOI was smaller (P<0.05) by approximately 50% during ECC than CON. Increases in tHb during the relaxation phases were smaller (P<0.05) by approximately 100% for ECC than CON; however, the decreases in tHb during the contraction phases were not significantly different between sessions. These results suggest that ECC utilizes a lower muscle O2 relative to O2 supply compared with CON. Following exercise, greater (P<0.05) decreases in MVC strength and increases in plasma creatine kinase activity and muscle soreness were evident 1-3 days after ECC than CON. Torque integral, TOI, and tHb during the sustained and repeated MVC tasks decreased (P<0.01) only after ECC, suggesting that muscle O2 demand relative to O2 supply during the isometric tasks was decreased after ECC. This could mainly be due to a lower maximal muscle mass activated as a consequence of muscle damage; however, an increase in O2 supply due to microcirculation dysfunction and/or inflammatory vasodilatory responses after ECC is recognized.

  12. Effects of Light-Emitting Diode Therapy on Muscle Hypertrophy, Gene Expression, Performance, Damage, and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: Case-control Study with a Pair of Identical Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Cleber; Bertucci, Danilo; Schiavinato, Josiane; Reiff, Rodrigo; Araújo, Amélia; Panepucci, Rodrigo; Matheucci, Euclides; Cunha, Anderson Ferreira; Arakelian, Vivian Maria; Hamblin, Michael R; Parizotto, Nivaldo; Bagnato, Vanderlei

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to verify how a pair of monozygotic twins would respond to light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) or placebo combined with a strength-training program during 12 weeks. This case-control study enrolled a pair of male monozygotic twins, allocated randomly to LEDT or placebo therapies. Light-emitting diode therapy or placebo was applied from a flexible light-emitting diode array (λ = 850 nm, total energy = 75 J, t = 15 seconds) to both quadriceps femoris muscles of each twin immediately after each strength training session (3 times/wk for 12 weeks) consisting of leg press and leg extension exercises with load of 80% and 50% of the 1-repetition maximum test, respectively. Muscle biopsies, magnetic resonance imaging, maximal load, and fatigue resistance tests were conducted before and after the training program to assess gene expression, muscle hypertrophy and performance, respectively. Creatine kinase levels in blood and visual analog scale assessed muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness, respectively, during the training program. Compared with placebo, LEDT increased the maximal load in exercise and reduced fatigue, creatine kinase, and visual analog scale. Gene expression analyses showed decreases in markers of inflammation (interleukin 1β) and muscle atrophy (myostatin) with LEDT. Protein synthesis (mammalian target of rapamycin) and oxidative stress defense (SOD2 [mitochondrial superoxide dismutase]) were up-regulated with LEDT, together with increases in thigh muscle hypertrophy. Light-emitting diode therapy can be useful to reduce muscle damage, pain, and atrophy, as well as to increase muscle mass, recovery, and athletic performance in rehabilitation programs and sports medicine.

  13. Quantification and localisation of damage in rat muscles after controlled loading; a new approach to study the aetiology of pressure sores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosboom, E.M.H.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Straaten, van H.W.M.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Kuipers, H.

    2001-01-01

    To obtain more insight in the aetiology of deep pressure sores, an animal model was developed to relate controlled externalloading to local muscle damage. The tibialis anterior muscle (TA) and overlying skin of a rat were compressed between indentorand tibia. Loads of 10, 70 and 250 kPa at skin

  14. The accordion gracilis muscle flap: a new design for coverage of recurrent and complicated ischeal pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed H

    2011-10-01

    Management of patients with large or recurrent pressure ulcerations can be complicated by the lack of available local flap, whether already used or because adjacent lesions make such flap insufficient for complete coverage. In this article, the gracilis muscle was modified to cover large defects without help from its cutaneous territory. Twelve ischeal pressure sores were treated between August 2007 and 2009 with the modified gracilis muscle flap in a single-staged procedure. Five ulcers were recurrent and seven patients have associated pressure ulcers. All reconstructions were successful. Mean patient age was 35 years and nearly all patients had multiple significant comorbidities, including associated ulcers, diabetes and urethrocutaneous fistula. All flaps and donor sites healed uneventfully. There was one complication presented as cellulites at the donor site. Follow-up in some cases extend up to 1·5 years. No recurrence was observed. The accordion gracilis muscle flap is a handy, safe and fast flap for reconstruction of recurrent, difficult ischeal pressure sores. © 2011 The Author. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  15. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility...

  16. Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Joseph T; Baker, Philip R A; Minett, Geoffrey M; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B; Bleakley, Chris

    2015-09-18

    Recovery strategies are often used with the intention of preventing or minimising muscle soreness after exercise. Whole-body cryotherapy, which involves a single or repeated exposure(s) to extremely cold dry air (below -100 °C) in a specialised chamber or cabin for two to four minutes per exposure, is currently being advocated as an effective intervention to reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the British Nursing Index and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. We also searched the reference lists of articles, trial registers and conference proceedings, handsearched journals and contacted experts.The searches were run in August 2015. We aimed to include randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared the use of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) versus a passive or control intervention (rest, no treatment or placebo treatment) or active interventions including cold or contrast water immersion, active recovery and infrared therapy for preventing or treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We also aimed to include randomised trials that compared different durations or dosages of WBC. Our prespecified primary outcomes were muscle soreness, subjective recovery (e.g. tiredness, well-being) and adverse effects. Two review authors independently screened search results, selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted and cross-checked data. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials. The random-effects model was used for pooling where there was substantial heterogeneity. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Four laboratory-based randomised controlled trials were included. These reported results for 64

  17. Force steadiness, muscle activity, and maximal muscle strength in subjects with subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Rasmussen, Lars; Aagaard, Per

    2006-01-01

    physically active in spite of shoulder pain and nine healthy matched controls were examined to determine isometric and isokinetic submaximal shoulder-abduction force steadiness at target forces corresponding to 20%, 27.5%, and 35% of the maximal shoulder abductor torque, and maximal shoulder muscle strength......We investigated the effects of the subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) on shoulder sensory-motor control and maximal shoulder muscle strength. It was hypothesized that both would be impaired due to chronic shoulder pain associated with the syndrome. Nine subjects with unilateral SIS who remained...

  18. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They commonly ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which are ...

  19. Canker sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... under one third inch or 1 centimeter across) Gray color as healing starts Less common symptoms include: ... Aphthous ulcer; Ulcer - aphthous Images Canker sore Mouth anatomy Canker sore (aphthous ulcer) Fever blister References Bope ...

  20. Mouth sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To help cold sores or fever blisters, you can also apply ice to the sore. You may reduce your chance of getting common mouth sores by: Avoiding very hot foods or beverages Reducing stress and practicing relaxation techniques like yoga or meditation ...

  1. Adding Fish Oil to Whey Protein, Leucine, and Carbohydrate Over a Six-Week Supplementation Period Attenuates Muscle Soreness Following Eccentric Exercise in Competitive Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Jordan D; Donnelly, Chris; Walshe, Ian H; MacKinley, Elizabeth E; Dick, James; Galloway, Stuart D R; Tipton, Kevin D; Witard, Oliver C

    2018-01-01

    Soccer players often experience eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage given the physical demands of soccer match-play. Since long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) enhance muscle sensitivity to protein supplementation, dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil-derived n-3PUFA, protein, and carbohydrate may promote exercise recovery. This study examined the influence of adding n-3PUFA to a whey protein, leucine, and carbohydrate containing beverage over a six-week supplementation period on physiological markers of recovery measured over three days following eccentric exercise. Competitive soccer players were assigned to one of three conditions (2 × 200 mL): a fish oil supplement beverage (FO; n = 10) that contained n-3PUFA (1100 mg DHA/EPA-approximately 550 mg DHA, 550 mg EPA), whey protein (15 g), leucine (1.8 g), and carbohydrate (20 g); a protein supplement beverage (PRO; n = 10) that contained whey protein (15 g), leucine (1.8 g), and carbohydrate (20 g); and a carbohydrate supplement beverage (CHO; n = 10) that contained carbohydrate (24 g). Eccentric exercise consisted of unilateral knee extension/flexion contractions on both legs separately. Maximal force production was impaired by 22% during the 72-hour recovery period following eccentric exercise (p recovery, was less in FO (1948 ± 1091 mm × 72 h) than PRO (4640 ± 2654 mm × 72 h, p soccer performance, or blood c-reactive protein concentrations were observed between groups. In conclusion, the addition of n-3PUFA to a beverage containing whey protein, leucine, and carbohydrate ameliorates the increase in muscle soreness and blood concentrations of creatine kinase following eccentric exercise in competitive soccer players.

  2. [Repair of pressure sores over ischial tuberosity with long head of biceps femoris muscle flap combined with semi-V posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Heng-lin; Shen, Chuan-an; Chai, Jia-ke; Li, Hua-tao

    2012-02-01

    To explore the clinical effect of transplantation of the long head of biceps femoris muscle flap in combination with semi-V posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap for repair of pressure sores over ischial tuberosity. Eight patients with 10 deep pressure sores over ischial tuberosity were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital to the PLA General Hospital and the 98th Hospital of PLA from April 2004 to June 2010. The wounds measured from 2 cm × 2 cm to 6 cm × 4 cm were covered with the long head of biceps femoris muscle flap and semi-V posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap (ranged from 10 cm × 6 cm to 13 cm × 8 cm). The condition of flaps was observed and followed up for a long time. All flaps survived. Nine wounds healed by first intention. Subcutaneous accumulation of fluids occurred in one wound with formation of a sinus at drainage site, and it healed after dressing change for 25 days. Patients were followed up for 7 to 34 months. Sore recurred in one patient 9 months after surgery, and it was successfully repaired with the same flap for the second time. Flaps in the other 7 patients appeared satisfactory with soft texture and without ulceration. This combined flap is easy in formation and transfer, and it causes little side injury with good resistance against pressure. It is a new method for repair of pressure sore over sacral region.

  3. Additional effects of taurine on the benefits of BCAA intake for the delayed-onset muscle soreness and muscle damage induced by high-intensity eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Miyazaki, Teruo; Ishikura, Keisuke; Nagayama, Hisashi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Maeda, Seiji; Ito, Masaharu; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ohmori, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Taurine (TAU) has a lot of the biological, physiological, and pharmocological functions including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress. Although previous studies have appreciated the effectiveness of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), consistent finding has not still convinced. The aim of this study was to examine the additional effect of TAU with BCAA on the DOMS and muscle damages after eccentric exercise. Thirty-six untrained male volunteers were equally divided into four groups, and ingested a combination with 2.0 g TAU (or placebo) and 3.2 g BCAA (or placebo), thrice a day, 2 weeks prior to and 4 days after elbow flexion eccentric exercise. Following the period after eccentric exercise, the physiological and blood biochemical markers for DOMS and muscle damage showed improvement in the combination of TAU and BCAA supplementation rather than in the single or placebo supplementations. In conclusion, additional supplement of TAU with BCAA would be a useful way to attenuate DOMS and muscle damages induced by high-intensity exercise.

  4. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Judy Y; Rynders, Sara D; Patrie, James; McKnight, John; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of a proprietary herbal/botanical supplement (StemSport, Stemtech, San Clemente, CA.) suggested to increase circulating stem cells, decrease inflammation, and attenuate exercise induced muscle damage on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Sixteen subjects (male = 7, female = 9; age 23.8 ± 10 years; height 171.9 ± 10 cm, mass 72.2 ± 15 kg) were randomized in a crossover, double-blind, placebo controlled trial to receive a placebo or StemSport supplement (6150 mg/day) for 14 days. DOMS was induced on day 7 for both placebo and active conditions in the non-dominant elbow flexor group with repeated eccentric repetitions. Muscle swelling (biceps girth), elbow flexor isometric strength (hand held dynamometer), muscle pain/tenderness (visual analog scale), range of motion (active elbow flexion and extension), and inflammation (hsCRP, IL6, and TNF-α) were measured at baseline and at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 168 h (1 week) post eccentric exercise. The crossover washout period was ≥14 days. No significant condition-by-time interactions between placebo and StemSport supplementation were observed with regard to measures of pain (p = 0.59), tenderness (p = 0.71), isometric strength (p = 0.32), elbow flexion (p = 0.45), muscle swelling (p = 0.90), or inflammation (p > 0.90). Decrements in elbow extension range of motion 48 h post-exercise were less after StemSport supplementation (Δ elbow extension 48 h post; StemSport, -2.0 deg; placebo, -10 deg; p = 0.003). These data suggest that compared to placebo, StemSport supplementation does not improve outcome measures related to muscle recovery after acute upper-arm induced DOMS.

  5. Antagonist muscle moment is increased in ACL deficient subjects during maximal dynamic knee extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B; Magnusson, S Peter

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Coactivation of the hamstring muscles during dynamic knee extension may compensate for increased knee joint laxity in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient subjects. This study examined if antagonist muscle coactivation during maximal dynamic knee extension was elevated...

  6. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility was evaluated as the distance from the bladder base using ultrasound. [Results] According to exercise method, bridge exercise and abdominal curl-ups led to significantly different pelvic floor mobility. The pelvic floor muscle was elevated during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and descended during maximal expiration. Finally, pelvic floor muscle mobility was greater during abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. [Conclusion] According to these results, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver induced pelvic floor muscle contraction, and pelvic floor muscle contraction was greater during the abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise.

  7. Canker Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth that move, such as the tongue, soft palate, cheeks, and lips. This condition is recurrent because ... week. Most of the time, canker sores are self-limiting. This means that they will go away ...

  8. Sore Throat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as those that cause colds, the flu, and mononucleosis) can lead to a sore throat. Bacteria (such ... to the valves of the heart. What is mononucleosis? Mononucleosis (mono) is a viral infection caused by ...

  9. Cold Sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may reduce how often they return. Symptoms A cold sore usually passes through several stages: Tingling and itching. Many people feel an itching, burning or tingling sensation around their lips for a day or so ...

  10. A New Option for the Reconstruction of Primary or Recurrent Ischial Pressure Sores: Hamstring-Adductor Magnus Muscle Advancement Flap and Direct Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burm, Jin Sik; Hwang, Jungil; Lee, Yung Ki

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the high recurrence rates of ischial pressure sores, surgeons should consider the possibility of future secondary flap surgery during flap selection. The purpose of this article is to present a new surgical option for the reconstruction of primary or recurrent ischial pressure sores using a simple hamstring-adductor magnus advancement flap and direct closure. After horizontal fusiform skin excision, complete bursa excision and ischiectomy were performed. The tenomuscular origin of the adductor magnus and the conjoined tenomuscular origin of the biceps femoris long head and semitendinosus were isolated and completely detached from the inferior border of the ischial tuberosity. They were then advanced in a cephalad direction without detachment of the distal tendon or muscle and securely affixed to the sacrotuberous ligament. The wound was directly closed without further incision or dissection. Twelve ischial pressure sores (6 primary and 6 recurrent; 12 patients) were surgically corrected. The follow-up period was 12 to 65 months. All patients healed successfully without early postoperative complications, such as hematoma, seroma, infection, wound dehiscence, or partial necrosis. Late complications included wound disruption 5 weeks after surgery that spontaneously healed in 1 case and recurrence 3 years later in another case. The new surgical option presented herein, which involves hamstring-adductor magnus advancement flap and direct closure, is a simple and reliable method for providing sufficient muscle bulk to fill the dead space and proper padding to the bone stump while preserving the main vascular perforators and pedicles as well as future surgical options.

  11. The Effect of Eccentric Exercise-Induced Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness on Positioning Sense and Shooting Percentage in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Serinken

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eccentric exercise is defined as a type of exercise in which the muscle produces power by extending. In contrast to isometric and concentric exercises, eccentric muscle activity is much more effective mechanically; however, it may expose the muscle to soreness. Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS emerges a couple of hours after an eccentric activity, especially in individuals who are not used to this kind of exercise, and causes a temporary decrease in muscle performance, joint movement angle and muscle power, and also a temporary increase in the blood creatine kinase (CK activity. Aims: This study investigates the effect of DOMS on the upper extremities motor performance by conducting an eccentric exercise load on the elbow flexor muscles. Study design: Cross sectional study. Methods: The study included 10 wheelchair basketball players. First, the participants underwent blood CK activity, positioning sense, muscle pain, shooting performance measurements tests at the base, and after 30 minutes and 24 and 48 hours. Then, one week later, the one-repetition-maximums of biceps curls were determined in order to define the intensity of the eccentric exercise. An eccentric exercise protocol which would cause DOMS was applied to all players. All tests were replaced with acute exhaustive eccentric exercise; the same tests were repeated in the same order after the exercise. Blood CK activity was measured by taking an earlobe capillary blood sample. The muscle pain level was measured by using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Positioning sense loss was assessed via goniometer at 30º, 60º and 90º degrees horizontally. Results: The study found a statistically significant increase in blood CK activity and positioning sense loss, and a decrease in the pressure-pain threshold, as well as the shooting percentages in the exercise group when compared with the control. Conclusion: These findings suggest that DOMS negatively affects the upper extremities

  12. Application of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Elastography in Imaging of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS): A Comparative Analysis With 3T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotfiel, Thilo; Kellermann, Marion; Swoboda, Bernd; Wildner, Dane; Golditz, Tobias; Grim, Casper; Raithel, Martin; Uder, Michael; Heiss, Rafael

    2017-05-17

    DOMS is one of the most common reasons for impaired muscle performance in sports and is associated with reduced muscle strength and frequently observed both in professional and recreational athletes. To emphasize the diagnostic value of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) in imaging of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness by comparing findings to high-resolution 3T MRI T2 weighted sequences. Case series. Laboratory environment. Fifteen healthy students (7 female, 8 male, age 24 ± 4 years, height 178 ± 10 cm, body weight 67 ± 12 kg). ARFI values, represented as shear wave velocities (SWV) of the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and soleus muscle (SM), as well as conventional ultrasound, high-resolution 3T MRI, creatine kinase activity, extension range of the ankle joint, calf circumference and muscle soreness were assessed before (baseline) and 60 hours after (post-intervention, PI) a standardized eccentric exercise. ARFI SWV values of the GM revealed a statistically significant decrease of 19.1% between baseline (2.2 ± 0.26 m/s) and PI (1.78 ± 0.24 m/s); p = 0.008. At follow-up, the MRI investigations showed intramuscular oedema for the GM in all participants corresponding to a significant raise in T2 signal intensity (p = 0.001) and in T2-time values (p = 0.004). ARFI elastography seems to be an additional sensitive diagnostic modality in the diagnostic work up of DOMS. Intramuscular SWV could represent an additional imaging marker for the assessment and monitoring of ultrastructural muscle injuries and therefore be helpful for individual training composition in elite sports.

  13. Canker Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lack of vitamins and minerals, hormonal changes or menstrual periods. In some cases the cause is unknown. In most cases, the sores go away by themselves. Some ointments, creams or rinses may help with the pain. Avoiding hot, spicy food while you have a ...

  14. A Review of Maximizing Muscle Building Capabilities with Anabolic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Agbons

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Building muscle at a rate faster than the human body would under normal circumstances is of great importance in skills and activities that require intense muscular effort. Although physical training stands as the backbone of muscle building, physiological variations make it an unfair yardstick in measuring individual efforts. Other methods of muscle building such as specialised nutrition and the use of digestive enzymes in breaking down proteins for quick absorption are also commonly used together with physical training. The use of anabolic substances, however, has proved more successful than any of the aforementioned methods. Nevertheless, with it comes ethical, legal, and clinical issues especially in sports. In spite of this, athletes still find ways of circumventing test protocols which have been a major issue for the World Anti-Doping Agency. However, advancements in science have opened the doorway for anabolic enzymes which are the ultimate muscle growers to be more or less, directly manipulated. One method is gene doping which involves altering gene expressions. The future of muscle building lies in man’s ability to decisively alter the functioning of these enzymes directly.

  15. Glucose clearance in aged trained skeletal muscle during maximal insulin with superimposed exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Mikines, K J; Larsen, J J

    1999-01-01

    Insulin and muscle contractions are major stimuli for glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and have in young healthy people been shown to be additive. We studied the effect of superimposed exercise during a maximal insulin stimulus on glucose uptake and clearance in trained (T) (1-legged bicycle tra...

  16. LONG-LASTING SUPERNORMAL CONDUCTION-VELOCITY AFTER SUSTAINED MAXIMAL ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION IN HUMAN MUSCLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHOEVEN, JH; VANWEERDEN, TW; ZWARTS, MJ

    Local muscle fatigue (1 min maximal voluntary contraction) and recovery were studied by means of surface and invasive EMG on elbow flexors to record the changes in muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV), median power frequency (MPF), integrated EMG (IEMG), and force. The main finding was a

  17. Dexamethasone up-regulates skeletal muscle maximal Na+,K+ pump activity by muscle group specific mechanisms in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Goodmann, Craig; McKenna, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Dexamethasone, a widely clinically used glucocorticoid, increases human skeletal muscle Na+,K+ pump content, but the effects on maximal Na+,K+ pump activity and subunit specific mRNA are unknown. Ten healthy male subjects ingested dexamethasone for 5 days and the effects on Na+,K+ pump content......, maximal activity and subunit specific mRNA level (a1, a2, ß1, ß2, ß3) in deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle were investigated. Before treatment, maximal Na+,K+ pump activity, as well as a1, a2, ß1 and ß2 mRNA levels were higher (P ... increased Na+,K+ pump maximal activity in vastus lateralis and deltoid by 14 ± 7% (P Na+,K+ pump content by 18 ± 9% (P

  18. Preventing Pressure Sores

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    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What is "sepsis," and why is it dangerous? play_arrow How common are pressure sores ... likely to develop pressure sores? play_arrow Is it true that a pressure sore can develop in ...

  19. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a pressure sore required? play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure ... arrow Why do some pressure sores take so long to heal? play_arrow Can a pressure sore ...

  20. Muscle Synergies of Untrained Subjects during 6 min Maximal Rowing on Slides and Fixed Ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazlin Shaharudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The slides ergometer (SE was an improvisation from fixed ergometer (FE to bridge the gap of mechanics between ergometer rowing and on-water rowing. The specific mechanical constraints of these two types of ergometers may affect the pattern of muscle recruitment, coordination and adaptation. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the muscle synergy during 6 minutes maximal rowing on slides (SE and fixed ergometers (FE. The laterality of muscle synergy was also examined. Surface electromyography activity, power output, heart rate, stroke length and stroke rate were analyzed from nine physically active subjects to assess the rowing performance. Physically active subjects, who were not specifically trained in rowing, were chosen to exclude the training effect on muscle synergy. Principal component analysis (PCA with varimax rotation was applied to extract muscle synergy. Three muscle synergies were sufficient to explain the majority of variance in SE (94.4 ± 2.2 % and FE (92.8 ± 1.7 %. Subjects covered more rowing distance, exerted greater power output and attained higher maximal heart rate during rowing on SE than on FE. The results proved the flexibility of muscle synergy to adapt to the mechanical constraints. Rowing on SE emphasized on bi-articular muscles contrary to rowing on FE which relied on cumulative effect of trunk and upper limb muscles during propulsive phase.

  1. TRAINING-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE TOPOGRAPHY OF MUSCLE TORQUES AND MAXIMAL MUSCLE TORQUES IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Buśko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to detect changes in the maximal muscle torques in male basketball players during a two-year training cycle. We verified the hypothesis that different workloads applied during the preparation and competition periods would result in changes in the maximal muscle torques of the athletes (increase during the former and decrease or no change during the latter period accompanied by no alteration of the percent muscle topography of all the muscle groups tested. The examinations were conducted on nine senior male basketball players from the Polish national team. Estimations of the muscle torques in static conditions were performed at the end of the preparation (measurements I and III and competition (measurements II and IV periods of a two-year training cycle. Eleven muscle groups were studied including flexors and extensors of the trunk and flexors and extensors of the shoulder, the elbow, the hip, the knee, and the ankle. Muscle torques of the shoulder and the elbow insignificantly decreased except for the muscle torque of the flexors of the shoulder. Muscle torques of the flexors and extensors of the trunk as well as of the flexors and extensors of the hip, the knee, and the ankle increased between measurements I and III and between measurements I and IV with the only exception being the muscle torque of the flexors of the knee (which significantly decreased by 7.4% In the case of the flexors and extensors of the trunk and the flexors and extensors of the hip, the changes appeared to be significant. The sum of the muscle torques of the upper limbs markedly decreased between the preparation (measurement I and competition (measurement IV periods. The sum of the muscle torques of the trunk and the lower limbs and the sum of the muscle torques of the eleven muscle groups significantly increased between measurements I and IV. Percent muscle topography significantly decreased for the flexors and extensors of the shoulder and the

  2. ATP and phosphocreatine utilization in single human muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output at elevated muscle temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stuart R; Söderlund, Karin; Ferguson, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of muscle temperature (Tm) on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine utilization in single muscle fibres during the development of maximal power output in humans. Six male participants performed a 6-s maximal sprint on a friction-braked cycle ergometer under both normal (Tm = 34.3 degrees C, s = 0.6) and elevated (T(m) = 37.3 degrees C, s = 0.2) muscle temperature conditions. During the elevated condition, muscle temperature of the legs was raised, passively, by hot water immersion followed by wrapping in electrically heated blankets. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before and immediately after exercise. Freeze-dried single fibres were dissected, characterized according to myosin heavy chain composition, and analysed for ATP and phosphocreatine content. Single fibres were classified as: type I, IIA, IIAX25 (1 - 25% IIX isoform), IIAX50 (26 - 50% IIX), IIAX75 (51 - 75% IIX), or IIAX100 (76 - 100% IIX). Maximal power output and pedal rate were both greater (P < 0.05) during the elevated condition by 258 W (s = 110) and 22 rev . min(-1) (s = 6), respectively. In both conditions, phosphocreatine content decreased significantly in all fibre types, with a greater decrease during the elevated condition in type IIA fibres (P < 0.01). Adenosine triphosphate content was also reduced to a greater (P < 0.01) extent in type IIA fibres during the elevated condition. The results of the present study indicate that after passive elevation of muscle temperature, there was a greater decrease in ATP and phosphocreatine content in type IIA fibres than in the normal trial, which contributed to the higher maximal power output.

  3. Leucine elicits myotube hypertrophy and enhances maximal contractile force in tissue engineered skeletal muscle in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neil R W; Turner, Mark C; Farrington, Robert; Player, Darren J; Lewis, Mark P

    2017-10-01

    The amino acid leucine is thought to be important for skeletal muscle growth by virtue of its ability to acutely activate mTORC1 and enhance muscle protein synthesis, yet little data exist regarding its impact on skeletal muscle size and its ability to produce force. We utilized a tissue engineering approach in order to test whether supplementing culture medium with leucine could enhance mTORC1 signaling, myotube growth, and muscle function. Phosphorylation of the mTORC1 target proteins 4EBP-1 and rpS6 and myotube hypertrophy appeared to occur in a dose dependent manner, with 5 and 20 mM of leucine inducing similar effects, which were greater than those seen with 1 mM. Maximal contractile force was also elevated with leucine supplementation; however, although this did not appear to be enhanced with increasing leucine doses, this effect was completely ablated by co-incubation with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, showing that the augmented force production in the presence of leucine was mTOR sensitive. Finally, by using electrical stimulation to induce chronic (24 hr) contraction of engineered skeletal muscle constructs, we were able to show that the effects of leucine and muscle contraction are additive, since the two stimuli had cumulative effects on maximal contractile force production. These results extend our current knowledge of the efficacy of leucine as an anabolic nutritional aid showing for the first time that leucine supplementation may augment skeletal muscle functional capacity, and furthermore validates the use of engineered skeletal muscle for highly-controlled investigations into nutritional regulation of muscle physiology. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by wiley periodicals, Inc.

  4. Femoral Neck Strain during Maximal Contraction of Isolated Hip-Spanning Muscle Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Martelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate femoral neck strain during maximal isometric contraction of the hip-spanning muscles. The musculoskeletal and the femur finite-element models from an elderly white woman were taken from earlier studies. The hip-spanning muscles were grouped by function in six hip-spanning muscle groups. The peak hip and knee moments in the model were matched to corresponding published measurements of the hip and knee moments during maximal isometric exercises about the hip and the knee in elderly participants. The femoral neck strain was calculated using full activation of the agonist muscles at fourteen physiological joint angles. The 5%±0.8% of the femoral neck volume exceeded the 90th percentile of the strain distribution across the 84 studied scenarios. Hip extensors, flexors, and abductors generated the highest tension in the proximal neck (2727 με, tension (986 με and compression (−2818 με in the anterior and posterior neck, and compression (−2069 με in the distal neck, respectively. Hip extensors and flexors generated the highest neck strain per unit of joint moment (63–67 με·m·N−1 at extreme hip angles. Therefore, femoral neck strain is heterogeneous and muscle contraction and posture dependent.

  5. Reliability of surface electromyography activity of gluteal and hamstring muscles during sub-maximal and maximal voluntary isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Melanie D; Aldabe, Daniela; Adhia, Divya; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2018-04-01

    Normalizing to a reference signal is essential when analysing and comparing electromyography signals across or within individuals. However, studies have shown that MVC testing may not be as reliable in persons with acute and chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to compare the test-retest reliability of the muscle activity in the biceps femoris and gluteus maximus between a novel sub-MVC and standard MVC protocols. This study utilized a single individual repeated measures design with 12 participants performing multiple trials of both the sub-MVC and MVC tasks on two separate days. The participant position in the prone leg raise task was standardised with an ultrasonic sensor to improve task precession between trials/days. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the maximal muscle activity was examined using ICC and SEM. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the EMG activity in the BF and GM were high (0.70-0.89) to very high (≥0.90) for both test procedures. %SEM was <5-10% for both tests on a given day but higher in the day-to-day comparisons. The lower amplitude of the sub-MVC is a likely contributor to increased %SEM (8-13%) in the day-to-day comparison. The findings show that the sub-MVC modified prone double leg raise results in GM and BF EMG measures similar in reliability and precision to the standard MVC tasks. Therefore, the modified prone double leg raise may be a useful substitute for traditional MVC testing for normalizing EMG signals of the BF and GM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to strengthen your muscles and improve your overall health. Talk to your doctor if physical activity is hard for you. He or she ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food ...

  7. Evidence-based medicine: pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Carolyn A; Phillips, Linda G

    2013-12-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Cite risk factors for pressure sore development. 2. Detail the pathophysiology of pressure sores. 3. List the types and classification of pressure sores. 4. Consider the various nonsurgical conservative wound management strategies. 5. Describe the appropriate surgical interventions for each pressure sore type. 6. Understand the causes of recurrent pressure sores and methods of avoiding recurrence. Pressure sores are the result of unrelieved pressure, usually over a bony prominence. With an estimated 2.5 million pressure ulcers treated annually in the United States at a cost of $11 billion, pressure sores represent a costly and labor-intensive challenge to the health care system. A comprehensive team approach can address both prevention and treatment of these recalcitrant wounds. Consideration must be given to the patient's medical and socioeconomic condition, as these factors are significantly related to outcomes. Mechanical prophylaxis, nutritional optimization, treatment of underlying infection, and spasm control are essential in management. A variety of pressure sore patterns exist, with surgical approaches directed to maximize future coverage options. A comprehensive approach is detailed in this article to provide the reader with the range of treatment options available.

  8. The slack test does not assess maximal shortening velocity of muscle fascicle in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Robin; Dorel, Sylvain; Nordez, Antoine; Rabita, Giuseppe; Couturier, Antoine; Hauraix, Hugo; Duchateau, Jacques; Guilhem, Gaël

    2018-06-14

    The application of a series of extremely high accelerative motor-driven quick releases while muscles contract isometrically (i.e. slack test) has been proposed to assess unloaded velocity in human muscle. This study aimed to measure gastrocnemius medialis fascicle (V F ) and tendinous tissues shortening velocity during motor-driven quick releases performed at various activation levels to assess the applicability of the slack test method in human. Maximal fascicle shortening velocity and joint velocity recorded during quick releases and during fast contraction without external load (ballistic condition) were compared. Gastrocnemius medialis fascicle behaviour was investigated from 25 participants using high-frame rate ultrasound during quick releases performed at various activation levels (from 0% to 60% of maximal voluntary isometric torque) and ballistic contractions. Unloaded joint velocity calculated using the slack test method increased whereas V F decreased with muscle activation level (P≤0.03). Passive and low-level quick releases elicited higher V F values (≥ 41.4±9.7 cm.s -1 ) compared to ballistic condition (36.3±8.7 cm.s -1 ), while quick releases applied at 60% of maximal voluntary isometric torque produced the lowest V F These findings suggest that initial fascicle length, complex fascicle-tendon interactions, unloading reflex and motor-driven movement pattern strongly influence and limit the shortening velocity achieved during the slack test. Furthermore, V F elicited by quick releases is likely to reflect substantial contributions of passive processes. Therefore, the slack test is not appropriate to assess maximal muscle shortening velocity in vivo. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. [Sacral pressure sores and their treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Marek; Skowroński, Rafał; Skowroński, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Sacral bed sores still present a serious problem in most surgery departments. They occur mainly in elderly patients of limited mobility. The treatment of such sores extends over long periods of time and therefore involves considerable costs. The material consisted of 11 sacral pressure ulcers treated surgically. The sores occurred in 4 severely disabled patients suffering from proximal third femur fractures, 4 patients with traumatic brain injury (treated in the Intensive Care Unit), and 3 patients suffering from bed sores after spinal cord injury. In 6 patients a fasciocutaneous flap was applied to the sores and in 5 cases a pedicled musculocutaneous gluteus maximus flap. The end results were assessed using Seiler's criteria. Complications of the "seroma" type were observed in 3 patients, and in 2 marginal necrosis. In all our patients complete healing was achieved within 2-4 weeks. On analysing our experience to date in surgical treatment of bed sores we are of the opinion that even extensive sacral sores can be covered with unilateral pedicled flaps provided that they are appropriately planned. Deep sores of the 4th degree sometimes with concomitant osteomyelitis require pedicled muscle flaps or in some cases musculocutaneous flaps to improve local circulation. The preparation of the patient for reconstruction surgery is just as important as the operation itself and therefore such preparation should never be neglected.

  10. Na+-K+-ATPase in rat skeletal muscle: muscle fiber-specific differences in exercise-induced changes in ion affinity and maximal activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear whether muscle activity reduces or increases Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase maximal in vitro activity in rat skeletal muscle, and it is not known whether muscle activity changes the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase ion affinity. The present study uses quantification of ATP hydrolysis to characterize muscle fiber...... membranes of glycolytic muscle, which abolished the fiber-type difference in Na(+) affinity. K(m) for K(+) (in the presence of Na(+)) was not influenced by running. Running only increased the maximal in vitro activity (V(max)) in total membranes from soleus, whereas V(max) remained constant in the three...... other muscles tested. In conclusion, muscle activity induces fiber type-specific changes both in Na(+) affinity and maximal in vitro activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The underlying mechanisms may involve translocation of subunits and increased association between PLM units and the alphabeta complex...

  11. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores ... sores? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  12. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home ...

  13. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  14. Pharyngitis - sore throat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A streptococcus. Less commonly, bacterial diseases such as gonorrhea and chlamydia can cause sore throat. Most cases ... physical exam alone. A culture for chlamydia or gonorrhea is positive. Sore throat caused by the flu ( ...

  15. Genital sores - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  16. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow ...

  17. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  18. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... especially prone to pressure sores? play_arrow What parts of the body are most likely to develop ... play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure sore? play_arrow Why do ...

  19. A COX-2 inhibitor reduces muscle soreness, but does not influence recovery and adaptation after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, G; Egner, I M; Drange, M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor on the recovery of muscle function, inflammation, regeneration after, and adaptation to, unaccustomed eccentric exercise. Thirty-three young males and females participated in a double-blind, placebo-controll......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor on the recovery of muscle function, inflammation, regeneration after, and adaptation to, unaccustomed eccentric exercise. Thirty-three young males and females participated in a double-blind, placebo...

  20. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation as a method to maximize the beneficial effects of muscle stem cells transplanted into dystrophic skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Distefano

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy is a potential approach to improve the regenerative capacity of damaged or diseased skeletal muscle. However, its clinical use has often been limited by impaired donor cell survival, proliferation and differentiation following transplantation. Additionally, functional improvements after transplantation are all-too-often negligible. Because the host microenvironment plays an important role in the fate of transplanted cells, methods to modulate the microenvironment and guide donor cell behavior are warranted. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES for 1 or 4 weeks following muscle-derived stem cell (MDSC transplantation into dystrophic skeletal muscle can modulate the fate of donor cells and enhance their contribution to muscle regeneration and functional improvements. Animals submitted to 4 weeks of NMES after transplantation demonstrated a 2-fold increase in the number of dystrophin+ myofibers as compared to control transplanted muscles. These findings were concomitant with an increased vascularity in the MDSC+NMES group when compared to non-stimulated counterparts. Additionally, animals subjected to NMES (with or without MDSC transplantation presented an increased maximal specific tetanic force when compared to controls. Although cell transplantation and/or the use of NMES resulted in no changes in fatigue resistance, the combination of both MDSC transplantation and NMES resulted in a faster recovery from fatigue, when compared to non-injected and non-stimulated counterparts. We conclude that NMES is a viable method to improve MDSC engraftment, enhance dystrophic muscle strength, and, in combination with MDSC transplantation, improve recovery from fatigue. These findings suggest that NMES may be a clinically-relevant adjunct approach for cell transplantation into skeletal muscle.

  1. Skeletal muscle ATP turnover and muscle fiber conduction velocity are elevated at higher muscle temperatures during maximal power output development in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stuart R; De Vito, Giuseppe; Nimmo, Myra A; Farina, Dario; Ferguson, Richard A

    2006-02-01

    The effect of temperature on skeletal muscle ATP turnover and muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) was studied during maximal power output development in humans. Eight male subjects performed a 6-s maximal sprint on a mechanically braked cycle ergometer under conditions of normal (N) and elevated muscle temperature (ET). Muscle temperature was passively elevated through the combination of hot water immersion and electric blankets. Anaerobic ATP turnover was calculated from analysis of muscle biopsies obtained before and immediately after exercise. MFCV was measured during exercise using surface electromyography. Preexercise muscle temperature was 34.2 degrees C (SD 0.6) in N and 37.5 degrees C (SD 0.6) in ET. During ET, the rate of ATP turnover for phosphocreatine utilization [temperature coefficient (Q10) = 3.8], glycolysis (Q10 = 1.7), and total anaerobic ATP turnover [Q10 = 2.7; 10.8 (SD 1.9) vs. 14.6 mmol x kg(-1) (dry mass) x s(-1) (SD 2.3)] were greater than during N (P < 0.05). MFCV was also greater in ET than in N [3.79 (SD 0.47) to 5.55 m/s (SD 0.72)]. Maximal power output (Q10 = 2.2) and pedal rate (Q10 = 1.6) were greater in ET compared with N (P < 0.05). The Q10 of maximal and mean power were correlated (P < 0.05; R = 0.82 and 0.85, respectively) with the percentage of myosin heavy chain type IIA. The greater power output obtained with passive heating was achieved through an elevated rate of anaerobic ATP turnover and MFCV, possibly due to a greater effect of temperature on power production of fibers, with a predominance of myosin heavy chain IIA at the contraction frequencies reached.

  2. Effect of BCAA supplement timing on exercise-induced muscle soreness and damage: a pilot placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Miyazaki, Teruo; Kojima, Ryo; Komine, Shoichi; Ishikura, Keisuke; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Honda, Akira; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ohmori, Hajime

    2017-09-22

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation taken before or after exercise on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Fifteen young men (aged 21.5 ± 0.4 years) were given either BCAA (9.6 g·day-1) or placebo before and after exercise (and for 3 days prior to and following the exercise day) in three independent groups: the Control group (placebo before and after exercise), the PRE group (BCAA before exercise and placebo after exercise), and the POST group (placebo before exercise and BCAA after exercise). Participants performed 30 repetitions of eccentric exercise with the non-dominant arm. DOMS, upper arm circumference (CIR), elbow range of motion (ROM), serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aldolase, BCAA, and Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate (3HMB) were measured immediately before and after the exercise and on the following 4 days. Serum BCAA and 3HMB concentrations increased significantly in the PRE group immediately after the exercise, recovering to baseline over the following days. In the days following the exercise day, DOMS, CIR, and ROM were significantly improved in the PRE group compared to the Control group, with weaker effects in the POST group. Serum activities of CK, LDH, and aldolase in the days following the exercise day were significantly suppressed in the PRE group compared to Control group. Present study confirmed that repeated BCAA supplementation before exercise had a more beneficial effect in attenuating DOMS and EIMD induced by eccentric exercise than repeated supplementation after exercise.

  3. Neurodynamic mobilization and foam rolling improved delayed-onset muscle soreness in a healthy adult population: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Romero-Moraleda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Compare the immediate effects of a Neurodynamic Mobilization (NM treatment or foam roller (FR treatment after DOMS. Design Double blind randomised clinical trial. Setting The participants performed 100 drop jumps (5 sets of 20 repetitions, separated by 2 min rests from a 0.5-m high box in a University biomechanics laboratory to induce muscle soreness. The participants were randomly assigned in a counter-balanced fashion to either a FR or NM treatment group. Participants Thirty-two healthy subjects (21 males and 11 females, mean age 22.6 ± 2.2 years were randomly assigned into the NM group (n = 16 or the FR group (n = 16. Main Outcome Measures The numeric pain rating scale (NPRS; 0–10, isometric leg strength with dynamometry, surface electromyography at maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC and muscle peak activation (MPA upon landing after a test jump were measured at baseline, 48 h after baseline before treatment, and immediately after treatment. Results Both groups showed significant reduction in NPRS scores after treatment (NM: 59%, p  .05. The percentage change improvement in the MVIC for the rectus femoris was the only significant difference between the groups (p < 0.05 at post-treatment. After treatment, only the FR group had a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.01 in strength compared to pre-treatment. Conclusion Our results illustrate that both treatments are effective in reducing pain perception after DOMS whereas only FR application showed differences for the MVIC in the rectus femoris and strength.

  4. Estimation of 1RM for knee extension based on the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito; Arai, Tomoaki; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] To create a regression formula in order to estimate 1RM for knee extensors, based on the maximal isometric muscle strength measured using a hand-held dynamometer and data regarding the body composition. [Subjects and Methods] Measurement was performed in 21 healthy males in their twenties to thirties. Single regression analysis was performed, with measurement values representing 1RM and the maximal isometric muscle strength as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, with data regarding the body composition incorporated as another independent variable, in addition to the maximal isometric muscle strength. [Results] Through single regression analysis with the maximal isometric muscle strength as an independent variable, the following regression formula was created: 1RM (kg)=0.714 + 0.783 × maximal isometric muscle strength (kgf). On multiple regression analysis, only the total muscle mass was extracted. [Conclusion] A highly accurate regression formula to estimate 1RM was created based on both the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition. Using a hand-held dynamometer and body composition analyzer, it was possible to measure these items in a short time, and obtain clinically useful results.

  5. Response of slow and fast muscle to hypothyroidism: maximal shortening velocity and myosin isoforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined both the shortening velocity and myosin isoform distribution of slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (plantaris) skeletal muscles under hypothyroid conditions. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 7) or hypothyroid (n = 7). In both muscles, the relative contents of native slow myosin (SM) and type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) increased in response to the hypothyroid treatment. The effects were such that the hypothyroid soleus muscle expressed only the native SM and type I MHC isoforms while repressing native intermediate myosin and type IIA MHC. In the plantaris, the relative content of native SM and type I MHC isoforms increased from 5 to 13% and from 4 to 10% of the total myosin pool, respectively. Maximal shortening velocity of the soleus and plantaris as measured by the slack test decreased by 32 and 19%, respectively, in response to hypothyroidism. In contrast, maximal shortening velocity as estimated by force-velocity data decreased only in the soleus (-19%). No significant change was observed for the plantaris.

  6. Effect of Maximal Versus Supra-Maximal Exhausting Race on Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Activity and Muscle-Damage Biomarkers in Long-Distance and Middle-Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Said; Lamya, Ncir; Hamda, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Exhausting physical exercise increases lipid peroxidation and causes important muscle damages. The human body tries to mitigate these adverse effects by mobilizing its antioxidant defenses. This study aims to investigate the effect of a maximal versus supra-maximal race sustained until exhaustion on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and muscle-damage biomarkers in trained (i.e. long-distance and middle-distance runners) and sedentary subjects. The study has been carried out on 8 middle-distance runners (MDR), 9 long-distance runners (LDR), and 8 sedentary subjects (SS). Each subject has undergone two exhaustive running tests, the first one is an incremental event (VAMEVAL test), the second one is a constant supra-maximal intensity test (limited-time test). Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after each test. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations was observed in SS and MDR after the VAMEVAL test and in LDR after the Limited-Time test. A significant difference was also observed between LDR and the other two groups after the VAMEVAL test, and between LDR and MDR after the Limited-Time test. Significant modifications, notably, in myoglobin, CK, LDH, IL-6, TNF-α, and TAS were likewise noted but depending on the race-type and the sportive specialty. Maximal and supra-maximal races induce a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cause non-negligible inflammation and muscle damage. These effects were relatively related to the physical exercise type and the sportive specialty.

  7. Estimation of 1RM for knee extension based on the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito; Arai, Tomoaki; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To create a regression formula in order to estimate 1RM for knee extensors, based on the maximal isometric muscle strength measured using a hand-held dynamometer and data regarding the body composition. [Subjects and Methods] Measurement was performed in 21 healthy males in their twenties to thirties. Single regression analysis was performed, with measurement values representing 1RM and the maximal isometric muscle strength as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Furth...

  8. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K

    2017-05-10

    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles. 1 We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (prespiratory muscle aerobic capacity, attenuation of respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, increase in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  9. Sustained maximal voluntary contraction produces independent changes in human motor axons and the muscle they innervate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Milder

    Full Text Available The repetitive discharges required to produce a sustained muscle contraction results in activity-dependent hyperpolarization of the motor axons and a reduction in the force-generating capacity of the muscle. We investigated the relationship between these changes in the adductor pollicis muscle and the motor axons of its ulnar nerve supply, and the reproducibility of these changes. Ten subjects performed a 1-min maximal voluntary contraction. Activity-dependent changes in axonal excitability were measured using threshold tracking with electrical stimulation at the wrist; changes in the muscle were assessed as evoked and voluntary electromyography (EMG and isometric force. Separate components of axonal excitability and muscle properties were tested at 5 min intervals after the sustained contraction in 5 separate sessions. The current threshold required to produce the target muscle action potential increased immediately after the contraction by 14.8% (p<0.05, reflecting decreased axonal excitability secondary to hyperpolarization. This was not correlated with the decline in amplitude of muscle force or evoked EMG. A late reversal in threshold current after the initial recovery from hyperpolarization peaked at -5.9% at ∼35 min (p<0.05. This pattern was mirrored by other indices of axonal excitability revealing a previously unreported depolarization of motor axons in the late recovery period. Measures of axonal excitability were relatively stable at rest but less so after sustained activity. The coefficient of variation (CoV for threshold current increase was higher after activity (CoV 0.54, p<0.05 whereas changes in voluntary (CoV 0.12 and evoked twitch (CoV 0.15 force were relatively stable. These results demonstrate that activity-dependent changes in motor axon excitability are unlikely to contribute to concomitant changes in the muscle after sustained activity in healthy people. The variability in axonal excitability after sustained activity

  10. Muscle enzyme release does not predict muscle function impairment after triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, I; Tessier, F; Verdera, F; Bermon, S; Marconnet, P

    1999-06-01

    We sought to determine the effects of a long distance triathlon (4 km swim, 120 km bike-ride, and 30 km run) on the four-day kinetics of the biochemical markers of muscle damage, and whether they were quantitatively linked with muscle function impairment and soreness. Data were collected from 2 days before until 4 days after the completion of the race. Twelve triathletes performed the triathlon and five did not. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), muscle soreness (DOMS) and total serum CK, CK-MB, LDH, AST and ALT activities were assessed. Significant changes after triathlon completion were found for all muscle damage indirect markers over time (p triathlon. Long distance triathlon race caused muscle damage, but extent, as well as muscle recovery cannot be evaluated by the magnitude of changes in serum enzyme activities. Muscle enzyme release cannot be used to predict the magnitude of the muscle function impairment caused by muscle damage.

  11. Headache: an important factor associated with muscle soreness/pain at the two-year follow-up point among patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-I; Liu, Chia-Yih; Yang, Ching-Hui; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    No study has compared the associations of headache, anxiety, and depression at baseline with muscle soreness or pain (MS/P) at baseline and at the two-year follow-up point among outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate the above issue. This study enrolled 155 outpatients with MDD at baseline, and 131 attended a two-year follow-up appointment. At baseline, migraine was diagnosed based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2(nd) edition. MDD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. The visual analog scale was used to evaluate the intensities of headache and MS/P in the neck, shoulder, back, upper limbs, and lower limbs. Depression and anxiety were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Multiple linear regressions were used to compare the associations of these factors with MS/P. Compared with anxiety disorders, migraine was more strongly associated with MS/P in all areas at baseline and in the upper and lower limbs at follow-up. Headache intensity at baseline was the factor most strongly associated with MS/P in all areas at baseline and follow-up after controlling for depression and anxiety. Headache intensity at baseline predicted MS/P at baseline and follow-up. Migraine and headache intensity are important factors related to MS/P at baseline and follow-up among patients with MDD. Integrating depression and headache treatment might be indicated to improve MS/P.

  12. Is Walking Capacity in Subjects with Multiple Sclerosis Primarily Related to Muscle Oxidative Capacity or Maximal Muscle Strength? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Walking capacity is reduced in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS. To develop effective exercise interventions to enhance walking capacity, it is important to determine the impact of factors, modifiable by exercise intervention (maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity, on walking capacity. The purpose of this pilot study is to discriminate between the impact of maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity on walking capacity in subjects with MS. Methods. From 24 patients with MS, muscle oxidative capacity was determined by calculation of exercise-onset oxygen uptake kinetics (mean response time during submaximal exercise bouts. Maximal muscle strength (isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque was assessed on dynamometer. All subjects completed a 6-minute walking test. Relationships between walking capacity (as a percentage of normal value and muscle strength (of knee flexors and extensors versus muscle oxidative capacity were assessed in multivariate regression analyses. Results. The expanded disability status score (EDSS showed a significant univariate correlation (r=-0.70, P<0.004 with walking capacity. In multivariate regression analyses, EDSS and mean response time, but not muscle strength, were independently related to walking capacity (P<0.05. Conclusions. Walking distance is, next to disability level and not taking neurologic symptoms/deficits into account, primarily related to muscle oxidative capacity in subjects with MS. Additional study is needed to further examine/verify these findings.

  13. The effect of topical thiocolchicoside in preventing and reducing the increase of muscle tone, stiffness, and soreness: A real-life study on top-level road cyclists during stage competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Marco; Sisti, Davide; Benelli, Piero; Fernández-Peña, Eneko; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Rocchi, Marco B L; Lanata, Luigi; Bagnasco, Michela; Tonti, Andrea; Vilberto, Stocchi; Sestili, Piero

    2017-07-01

    In professional road cyclists, the majority of overuse injuries affect the lower limbs and are mostly represented by contractures or muscle shortening, characterized by an increase of tone and stiffness and a variation of elasticity. Treatment and prevention of these specific conditions may include physical, supplementary, and pharmacologic support. The aim of this real-life study was to determine: first, the alterations of tone, stiffness, elasticity, and soreness of rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in top class cyclists engaged in 3 multistage races, and second, whether any variable in the management of the athletes may affect the prevention and/or reduction of such alterations.Twenty-three professional cyclists competing in 3 international, cycling stage races were assessed. Athletes could receive, upon the approval of the medical staff, physical, dietary, and/or pharmacological management which could include treatments with topical over-the-counter myorelaxants to prevent and/or reduce muscle contractures. MyotonPro was used to daily measure tone, stiffness, and elasticity in RF and BF in relaxed and contracted state after every stage. In parallel, BF and RF soreness was also assessed with a Likert scale.All athletes received the same general massage management; none of them received dietary supplements; some of the athletes were treated with a topical myorelaxant thiocolchicoside (TCC 0.25%) foam 3 times daily. TCC was identified as the only variable able to affect these muscle parameters in the cyclists. Tone, stiffness (regardless of the state), and soreness significantly increased over time either in BF or RF in all athletes. In the group of athletes that used TCC (n = 11; TCC+) the increase in tone, stiffness, and soreness was significantly lower than in the group not receiving TCC (n = 12; No-TCC). Elasticity varied coherently with tone and stiffness.A very intense and protracted sport activity increases muscular tone, stiffness, and

  14. Test-retest reliability of maximal leg muscle power and functional performance measures in patients with severe osteoarthritis (OA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Roos, Ewa M.; Overgaard, Søren

    Abstract : Purpose To evaluate the reliability of single-joint and multi-joint maximal leg muscle power and functional performance measures in patients with severe OA. Background Muscle power, taking both strength and velocity into account, is a more functional measure of lower extremity muscle...... and scheduled for unilateral total hip (n=9) or knee (n=11) replacement. Patients underwent a test battery on two occasions separated by approximately one week (range 7 to 11 days). Muscle power was measured using: 1. A linear encoder, unilateral lower limb isolated single-joint dynamic movement, e.g. knee...... flexion 2. A leg extension press, unilateral multi-joint knee and hip extension Functional performance was measured using: 1. 20 m walk usual pace 2. 20 m walk maximal pace 3. 5 times chair stands 4. Maximal number of knee bends/30sec Pain was measured on a VAS prior to and after conducting the entire...

  15. Taking Care of Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Taking Care of Pressure Sores [Download this pamphlet: "Taking Care of Pressure Sores" - ( ... may not show up right away. Stages of pressure sores and how to care for them: STAGE ONE ...

  16. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cord injuries? play_arrow Why are pressure sores so serious? play_arrow What is "sepsis," and why ... pressure sores? play_arrow Why is pressure relief so important when sitting in a wheelchair? play_arrow ...

  17. ISCHIECTOMY FOR PRESSURE SORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Cozen, Lewis; Aldes, John

    1960-01-01

    Ischiectomy with primary closure was carried out in five paraplegic patients with pressure sores. This operation, less extensive than the wide excision with full thickness graft that is now widely advocated, was successful in four of the five cases. In the fifth case none of the several attempts to heal the sores was in the least successful. PMID:18732351

  18. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  19. Microbiopsies versus Bergström needle for skeletal muscle sampling: impact on maximal mitochondrial respiration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isner-Horobeti, M E; Charton, A; Daussin, F; Geny, B; Dufour, S P; Richard, R

    2014-05-01

    Microbiopsies are increasingly used as an alternative to the standard Bergström technique for skeletal muscle sampling. The potential impact of these two different procedures on mitochondrial respiration rate is unknown. The objective of this work was to compare microbiopsies versus Bergström procedure on mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. 52 vastus lateralis muscle samples were obtained from 13 anesthetized pigs, either with a Bergström [6 gauges (G)] needle or with microbiopsy needles (12, 14, 18G). Maximal mitochondrial respiration (V GM-ADP) was assessed using an oxygraphic method on permeabilized fibers. The weight of the muscle samples and V GM-ADP decreased with the increasing gauge of the needles. A positive nonlinear relationship was observed between the weight of the muscle sample and the level of maximal mitochondrial respiration (r = 0.99, p respiration (r = 0.99, p respiration compared to the standard Bergström needle.Therefore, the higher the gauge (i.e. the smaller the size) of the microbiopsy needle, the lower is the maximal rate of respiration. Microbiopsies of skeletal muscle underestimate the maximal mitochondrial respiration rate, and this finding needs to be highlighted for adequate interpretation and comparison with literature data.

  20. Local depletion of glycogen with supra-maximal exercise in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Kasper Degn; Ørtenblad, Niels; Andersson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    importance to muscle function. The present study was designed to investigate the depletion of these three sub-cellular glycogen compartments during repeated supra-maximal exercise in elite athletes. Ten elite cross-country skiers (age: 25 ± 4 yrs., VO2 max : 65 ± 4 ml kg(-1) min(-1) , mean ± SD) performed...... four ∼4-minute supra-maximal sprint time trials (STT 1-4) with 45 min recovery. The sub-cellular glycogen volumes in m. triceps brachii were quantified from electron microscopy images before and after both STT 1 and STT 4. During STT 1, the depletion of intramyofibrillar glycogen was higher in type I...... fibres (-52% [-89:-15%]) than type 2 fibres (-15% [-52:22%]) (P = 0.02), while the depletion of intermyofibrillar glycogen (main effect: -19% [-33:0], P = 0.006) and subsarcolemmal glycogen (main effect: -35% [-66:0%], P = 0.03) was similar between fibre types. In contrast, only intermyofibrillar...

  1. Skeletal muscle fiber type composition and performance during repeated bouts of maximal, concentric contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, E. B.; Dudley, G. A.; Tesch, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Force output and fatigue and recovery patterns were studied during intermittent short-term exercise. 27 men performed three bouts of 30 maximal unilateral knee extensions on 2 different occasions. Blood flow was maintained or occluded during recovery periods (60 s). Blood flow was restricted by inflating a pneumatic cuff placed around the proximal thigh. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were analyzed for identification of fast twitch (FT) and slow twitch (ST) fibers and relative FT area. Peak torque decreased during each bout of exercise and more when blood flow was restricted during recovery. Initial peak torque (IPT) and average peak torque (APT) decreased over the three exercise bouts. This response was 3 fold greater without than with blood flow during recovery. IPT and APT decreased more in individuals with mainly FT fibers than in those with mainly ST fibers. It is suggested that performance during repeated bouts of maximal concentric contractions differs between individuals with different fiber type composition. Specifically, in high intensity, intermittent exercise with emphasis on anaerobic energy release a high FT composition may not necessarily be advantageous for performance.

  2. Maximal exercise and muscle oxygen extraction in acclimatizing lowlanders and high altitude natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    , and is the focus of the present study. We have studied six lowlanders during maximal exercise at sea level (SL) and with acute (AH) exposure to 4,100 m altitude, and again after 2 (W2) and 8 weeks (W8) of altitude sojourn, where also eight high altitude native (Nat) Aymaras were studied. Fractional arterial muscle...... O(2) extraction at maximal exercise was 90.0+/-1.0% in the Danish lowlanders at sea level, and remained close to this value in all situations. In contrast to this, fractional arterial O(2) extraction was 83.2+/-2.8% in the high altitude natives, and did not change with the induction of normoxia....... The capillary oxygen conductance of the lower extremity, a measure of oxygen diffusing capacity, was decreased in the Danish lowlanders after 8 weeks of acclimatization, but was still higher than the value obtained from the high altitude natives. The values were (in ml min(-1) mmHg(-1)) 55.2+/-3.7 (SL), 48...

  3. Comparison of maximal voluntary isometric contraction and hand-held dynamometry in measuring muscle strength of patients with progressive lower motor neuron syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Mans, E.; de Visser, M.; van den Berg-Vos, R. M.; Franssen, H.; de Jong, J. M. B. V.; van den Berg, L. H.; Wokke, J. H. J.; de Haan, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Context. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction, a method quantitatively assessing muscle strength, has proven to be reliable, accurate and sensitive in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Hand-held dynamometry is less expensive and more quickly applicable than maximal voluntary isometric contraction.

  4. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

  5. Preventing Pressure Sores

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    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What parts of the body are most likely to develop pressure sores? play_arrow Is ... daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the most important things for someone with a spinal cord ...

  6. Preventing Pressure Sores

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    Full Text Available ... Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS ... medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. ...

  7. Preventing Pressure Sores

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    Full Text Available ... Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New ... not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found ...

  8. Preventing Pressure Sores

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    Full Text Available ... hours? play_arrow What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the ... for someone with a spinal cord injury to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow Why is ...

  9. Preventing Pressure Sores

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    Full Text Available ... Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  10. Preventing Pressure Sores

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    Full Text Available ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from ... Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa ...

  11. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  12. Muscular soreness following prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D; Nicholas, C W; Williams, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running on soreness and markers of muscle damage. Sixteen males took part in the study, half of whom were assigned to a running group and half to a resting control group. The exercise protocol involved 90 min of intermittent shuttle running and walking (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: LIST), reflecting the activity pattern found in multiple-sprint sports such as soccer. Immediately after exercise, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and values remained above baseline for 48 h (P < 0.05). Median peak activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase occurred 24 h post-exercise and were 774 and 43 U x l(-1), respectively. The intensity of general muscle soreness, and in the specific muscles investigated, was greater than baseline for 72 h after the shuttle test (P < 0.05), peaking 24-48 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness was not correlated with either creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activity. Soreness was most frequently reported in the hamstrings. Neither soreness nor serum enzyme activity changed in the controls over the 4 day observation period. It appears that unaccustomed performance of prolonged intermittent shuttle running produces a significant increase in both soreness and markers of muscle damage.

  13. Appropriate slice location to assess maximal cross-sectional area of individual rotator cuff muscles in normal adults and athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Dohi, Michiko; Okuwaki, Toru; Tawara, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Niitsu, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    We investigated appropriate slice locations for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging evaluation of the maximal cross-sectional area (CSA) of individual rotator cuff (RC) muscles in normal adults and athletes. We used a 1.5-tesla MR system with body-array and spine coils to obtain oblique sagittal T 1 -weighted shoulder images of 29 normal adults (16 men, 13 women); 6 national-level competitive swimmers (4 men, 2 women); 10 collegiate-level female badminton players; and 7 collegiate-level male rowers. We calculated the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis CSAs at the 0-1 locations on the scapula (dividing scapula width into 11 locations), 0 representing the medial border of the scapula and 1, the glenoid fossa surface. We evaluated the differences in CSAs at relative locations on the scapula for each muscle in normal adults, swimmers, badminton players, and rowers using a one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test (P<0.05). The supraspinatus CSAs were maximal at 0.7 for all groups. The infraspinatus CSAs were maximal at 0.5 for normal men and women and badminton players, 0.4- and 0.5 locations for swimmers, and 0.4 for rowers. The teres minor CSAs were maximal at 0.9 for all groups except the swimmers (1 location). The subscapularis CSAs were maximal at 0.7 in men, swimmers, and badminton players and 0.6 in women and rowers. The appropriate slice locations for evaluating maximal CSAs are slightly lateral to the center of the scapula for the supraspinatus and subscapularis, at approximately the center of the scapula for the infraspinatus, and near the glenoid fossa for the teres minor. These slice locations should be clinically useful for morphological and/or function-related assessments of shoulder RC muscles. (author)

  14. New concepts in the prevention of pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, Kath; Powell, Heather L; Ho, Chester H

    2012-01-01

    Pressure sores are a serious, and costly, complication for many patients with reduced mobility and sensation. Some populations, such as those with spinal cord injury (SCI), remain at high risk throughout their lifetime. Prevention is highly preferable and while the concept is readily definable, it is much more challenging to develop valid preventative measures. Subjective and objective approaches to risk factor assessment before pressure sores develop are reviewed, including risk status scales and emerging techniques to assess deep tissue injury. Devices to prevent pressure sores have traditionally focused on pressure-relieving cushions and mattresses. Technological advances being applied in the development of new pressure sore prevention devices are presented. Clinical evidence-based practice is integral to pressure sore prevention. Comprehensive assessment must include evaluation of systemic diseases, anatomical and physiological factors, together with environmental and psychosocial factors, which can all contribute to pressure sore development. Extrinsic factors need to be considered in conjunction with intrinsic tissue health factors and are reviewed together with an evaluation of currently available clinical practice guidelines. This chapter presents the broad diversity of factors associated with pressure sore development and highlights the need for an interdisciplinary team approach in order to maximize successful prevention of pressure sores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of human ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon interaction and architecture in maximal vertical jumping examined in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Dominic James; Lichtwark, Glen A; Brown, Nicholas A T; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2016-02-01

    Humans utilise elastic tendons of lower limb muscles to store and return energy during walking, running and jumping. Anuran and insect species use skeletal structures and/or dynamics in conjunction with similarly compliant structures to amplify muscle power output during jumping. We sought to examine whether human jumpers use similar mechanisms to aid elastic energy usage in the plantar flexor muscles during maximal vertical jumping. Ten male athletes performed maximal vertical squat jumps. Three-dimensional motion capture and a musculoskeletal model were used to determine lower limb kinematics that were combined with ground reaction force data in an inverse dynamics analysis. B-mode ultrasound imaging of the lateral gastrocnemius (GAS) and soleus (SOL) muscles was used to measure muscle fascicle lengths and pennation angles during jumping. Our results highlighted that both GAS and SOL utilised stretch and recoil of their series elastic elements (SEEs) in a catapult-like fashion, which likely serves to maximise ankle joint power. The resistance of supporting of body weight allowed initial stretch of both GAS and SOL SEEs. A proximal-to-distal sequence of joint moments and decreasing effective mechanical advantage early in the extension phase of the jumping movement were observed. This facilitated a further stretch of the SEE of the biarticular GAS and delayed recoil of the SOL SEE. However, effective mechanical advantage did not increase late in the jump to aid recoil of elastic tissues. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Antibiotics for sore throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Anneliese; Glasziou, Paul P; Del Mar, Chris B

    2013-11-05

    Sore throat is a common reason for people to present for medical care. Although it remits spontaneously, primary care doctors commonly prescribe antibiotics for it. To assess the benefits of antibiotics for sore throat for patients in primary care settings. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 6, MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 1, 2013) and EMBASE (January 1990 to July 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of antibiotics versus control assessing typical sore throat symptoms or complications. Two review authors independently screened studies for inclusion and extracted data. We resolved differences in opinion by discussion. We contacted trial authors from three studies for additional information. We included 27 trials with 12,835 cases of sore throat. We did not identify any new trials in this 2013 update. 1. Symptoms Throat soreness and fever were reduced by about half by using antibiotics. The greatest difference was seen at day three. The number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) to prevent one sore throat at day three was less than six; at week one it was 21. 2. Non-suppurative complications The trend was antibiotics protecting against acute glomerulonephritis but there were too few cases to be sure. Several studies found antibiotics reduced acute rheumatic fever by more than two-thirds within one month (risk ratio (RR) 0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 0.60). 3. Suppurative complications Antibiotics reduced the incidence of acute otitis media within 14 days (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.58); acute sinusitis within 14 days (RR 0.48; 95% CI 0.08 to 2.76); and quinsy within two months (RR 0.15; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.47) compared to those taking placebo. 4. Subgroup analyses of symptom reduction Antibiotics were more effective against symptoms at day three (RR 0.58; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.71) if throat swabs were positive for Streptococcus, compared to RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.97 if negative. Similarly at week one the RR was 0.29 (95% CI 0.12 to 0

  17. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Cold Sores in Children: About the Herpes Simplex Virus Page Content ​A child's toddler and ... Cold sores (also called fever blisters or oral herpes) start as small blisters that form around the ...

  18. The impact of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on recovery after intensive, muscle damaging, maximal speed training in professional team sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Jones, Chris; Bracken, Richard M; Love, Thomas D; Cook, Christian J; Swift, Eamon; Baker, Julien S; Kilduff, Liam P

    2015-05-01

    During congested fixture periods in team sports, limited recovery time and increased travel hinder the implementation of many recovery strategies; thus alternative methods are required. We examined the impact of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device on 24-h recovery from an intensive training session in professional players. Twenty-eight professional rugby and football academy players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study, on 2 occasions, separated by 7 days. After baseline perceived soreness, blood (lactate and creatine kinase) and saliva (testosterone and cortisol) samples were collected, players completed a standardised warm-up and baseline countermovement jumps (jump height). Players then completed 60 m × 50 m maximal sprints, with 5 min recovery between efforts. After completing the sprint session, players wore a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device or remained in normal attire (CON) for 8 h. All measures were repeated immediately, 2 and 24-h post-sprint. Player jump height was reduced from baseline at all time points under both conditions; however, at 24-h neuromuscular electrical stimulation was significantly more recovered (mean±SD; neuromuscular electrical stimulation -3.2±3.2 vs. CON -7.2±3.7%; P0.05). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves recovery from intensive training in professional team sports players. This strategy offers an easily applied recovery strategy which may have particular application during sleep and travel. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the most important ... to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? play_ ...

  20. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the most important thing to do to prevent pressure sores? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By Topic Resources Blog Peer Counseling About Media Donate Contact Us Terms of ...

  1. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow Is it true that a pressure sore can develop in a few hours? play_arrow What's ... play_arrow What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family ...

  2. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cushion? play_arrow What’s important to know about positioning in bed to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ...

  3. Medial circumflex femoral artery flap for ischial pressure sore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanivelu S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new axial pattern flap based on the terminal branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery is described for coverage of ischial pressure sore. Based on the terminal branches of the transverse branch of medial circumflex femoral artery, which exit through the gap between the quadratus femoris muscle above and the upper border of adductor magnus muscle below, this fascio cutaneous flap is much smaller than the posterior thigh flap but extremely useful to cover ischeal pressure sores. The skin redundancy below the gluteal fold allows a primary closure of the donor defect. It can also be used in combination with biceps femoris muscle flap.

  4. Mechanisms underlying enhancements in muscle force and power output during maximal cycle ergometer exercise induced by chronic β2-adrenergic stimulation in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Onslev, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The study was a randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating mechanisms by which chronic β2-adrenergic stimulation enhances muscle force and power output during maximal cycle ergometer exercise in young men. Eighteen trained men were assigned to an experimental group (oral terbutaline 5 mg∙30...... of muscle proteins involved in growth, ion handling, lactate production and clearance increased (P≤0.05) with the intervention in TER compared to PLA, with no change in oxidative enzymes. Our observations suggest that muscle hypertrophy is the primary mechanism underlying enhancements in muscle force...... and peak power during maximal cycling induced by chronic β2-adrenergic stimulation in humans....

  5. Attenuated Increase in Maximal Force of Rat Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle after Concurrent Peak Power and Endurance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regula Furrer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of muscle peak power and oxidative capacity are generally presumed to be mutually exclusive. However, this may not be valid by using fibre type-specific recruitment. Since rat medial gastrocnemius muscle (GM is composed of high and low oxidative compartments which are recruited task specifically, we hypothesised that the adaptive responses to peak power training were unaffected by additional endurance training. Thirty rats were subjected to either no training (control, peak power training (PT, or both peak power and endurance training (PET, which was performed on a treadmill 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Maximal running velocity increased 13.5% throughout the training and was similar in both training groups. Only after PT, GM maximal force was 10% higher than that of the control group. In the low oxidative compartment, mRNA levels of myostatin and MuRF-1 were higher after PT as compared to those of control and PET groups, respectively. Phospho-S6 ribosomal protein levels remained unchanged, suggesting that the elevated myostatin levels after PT did not inhibit mTOR signalling. In conclusion, even by using task-specific recruitment of the compartmentalized rat GM, additional endurance training interfered with the adaptive response of peak power training and attenuated the increase in maximal force after power training.

  6. Osteomyelitis beneath pressure sores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarman, B.; Hawes, S.; Musher, D.M.; Klima, M.; Young, E.J.; Pircher, F.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-eight pressure sores were evaluated prospectively. Osteomyelitis was reported histologically in nine of 28 bones and pressure-related changes were reported in 14 bones. Roentgenograms suggested the presence of osteomyelitis in four instances of histologically proved osteomyelitis. Technetium Tc 99m medronate bone scans were highly sensitive, showing increased uptake in all cases of osteomyelitis; however, increased uptake also occurred commonly in uninfected bones due to pressure-related changes or other noninfectious causes. Cultures of bone biopsy samples usually disclosed anaerobic bacteria, gram-negative bacilli, or both. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis must be considered if a pressure sore does not respond to local therapy. If the technetium Tc 99m medronate uptake is increased in the involved area, or roentgenographic findings are abnormal, the diagnosis can only be made with certainty by histologic examination of bone. Antibacterial treatment should be selected based on the results of bone culture

  7. Endurance training-induced changes in the GH-IGF-I axis influence maximal muscle strength in previously untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, Marcin; Majerczak, Joanna; Kuczek, Piotr; Sztefko, Krystyna; Duda, Krzysztof; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2017-02-01

    In this study we have determined the effects of 20weeks of endurance running training on the GH-IGF-I axis changes in the context of the skeletal muscle performance and physical capacity level. Before and after the endurance training program a maximal incremental exercise tests, a 1500m race and a muscle strength measurements were performed and the blood samples were taken to determine both resting as well as end-exercise serum growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth hormone-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth hormone binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations. 20weeks of endurance running training improved power output generated at the end of the maximal incremental test by 24% (P<0.012), 1500m running time by 13% (P<0.012) and maximal muscle strength by 9% (P<0.02). End-exercise IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio was decreased by 22% after the training (P<0.04) and the magnitude of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio decrease (ΔIGF-I/IGFBP-3 ex ) was 2.3 times higher after the training (P<0.04). The magnitude of the exercise-induced changes in IGFBP-3 concentration was also significantly higher (P<0.04) and there was a trend toward lower end-exercise IGF-I concentration (P=0.08) after the training. These changes were accompanied by a significantly higher (30%) end-exercise IL-6 concentration (P<0.01) as well as by a 3.4 times higher magnitude of IL-6 increase (P<0.02) after the training. Moreover, there were strong positive correlations between changes in resting serum IGF-I concentration (ΔIGF-I res ) and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio (ΔIGF-I/IGFBP-3 res ) and changes in muscle strength (ΔMVC) (r=0.95, P=0.0003 and r=0.90, P=0.002, respectively). The training-induced changes in the components of the GH-IGF-I axis may have additive effects on skeletal muscle performance and physical capacity improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of pillow size preference on extensor digitorum communis muscle strength and electromyographic activity during maximal contraction in healthy individuals: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Chi Wang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that anatomical body measurements are not good predictors of optimal pillow height. As EDC muscle strength is affected by pillow height preference, maximal EDC muscle strength may be a useful complement for selecting the optimal pillow size.

  9. Using Maximal Isometric Force to Determine the Optimal Load for Measuring Dynamic Muscle Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason R.; Nash, Roxanne E.; Sinka, Joseph; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2009-01-01

    Maximal power output occurs when subjects perform ballistic exercises using loads of 30-50% of one-repetition maximum (1-RM). However, performing 1-RM testing prior to power measurement requires considerable time, especially when testing involves multiple exercises. Maximal isometric force (MIF), which requires substantially less time to measure than 1-RM, might be an acceptable alternative for determining the optimal load for power testing. PURPOSE: To determine the optimal load based on MIF for maximizing dynamic power output during leg press and bench press exercises. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers (12 men and 8 women; mean +/- SD age: 31+/-6 y; body mass: 72 +/- 15 kg) performed isometric leg press and bench press movements, during which MIF was measured using force plates. Subsequently, subjects performed ballistic leg press and bench press exercises using loads corresponding to 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% of MIF presented in randomized order. Maximal instantaneous power was calculated during the ballistic exercise tests using force plates and position transducers. Repeated-measures ANOVA and Fisher LSD post hoc tests were used to determine the load(s) that elicited maximal power output. RESULTS: For the leg press power test, six subjects were unable to be tested at 20% and 30% MIF because these loads were less than the lightest possible load (i.e., the weight of the unloaded leg press sled assembly [31.4 kg]). For the bench press power test, five subjects were unable to be tested at 20% MIF because these loads were less than the weight of the unloaded aluminum bar (i.e., 11.4 kg). Therefore, these loads were excluded from analysis. A trend (p = 0.07) for a main effect of load existed for the leg press exercise, indicating that the 40% MIF load tended to elicit greater power output than the 60% MIF load (effect size = 0.38). A significant (p . 0.05) main effect of load existed for the bench press exercise; post hoc analysis indicated that the effect of

  10. Effect of formoterol, a long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist, on muscle strength and power output, metabolism and fatigue during maximal sprinting in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsen, Anders; Hostrup, Morten; Backer, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the effect of the long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist formoterol on muscle strength and power output, muscle metabolism and phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr(287) and FXYD1 during maximal sprinting. In a double-blind crossover study, thirteen males (VO2max: 45.0±0.2 (mean±SE) m......L min(-1) kg(-1)) performed a 30-s cycle ergometer sprint after inhalation of either 54 µg formoterol (FOR) or placebo (PLA). Before and after the sprint, muscle biopsies were collected from vastus lateralis and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and contractile properties of quadriceps were measured...

  11. How to care for pressure sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000740.htm How to care for pressure sores To use the sharing features on this page, ... Shoulders Back Back of head Caring for a Pressure Sore Stage I or II sores will heal if ...

  12. Contribution of Leg-Muscle Forces to Paddle Force and Kayak Speed During Maximal-Effort Flat-Water Paddling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johnny E; Rosdahl, Hans G

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate the contribution of leg-muscle-generated forces to paddle force and kayak speed during maximal-effort flat-water paddling. Five elite male kayakers at national and international level participated. The participants warmed up at progressively increasing speeds and then performed a maximal-effort, nonrestricted paddling sequence. This was followed after 5 min rest by a maximal-effort paddling sequence with the leg action restricted--the knee joints "locked." Left- and right-side foot-bar and paddle forces were recorded with specially designed force devices. In addition, knee angular displacement of the right and left knees was recorded with electrogoniometric technique, and the kayak speed was calculated from GPS signals sampled at 5 Hz. The results showed that reduction in both push and pull foot-bar forces resulted in a reduction of 21% and 16% in mean paddle-stroke force and mean kayak speed, respectively. Thus, the contribution of foot-bar force from lower-limb action significantly contributes to kayakers' paddling performance.

  13. Does pain in the masseter and anterior temporal muscles influence maximal bite force?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Zuim, Paulo Renato Junqueira; Moreno, Amália; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; de Caxias, Fernanda Pereira; Turcio, Karina Helga Leal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in pain and muscle force, and the relationship between them, in patients with muscle pain and bruxism, prior to and after treatment. Thirty women with bruxism and myofascial pain (Ia) were included in this study. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was made based on clinical diagnostic criteria, and awake bruxism diagnosis was made by patient questionnaires and the presence of tooth wear. The diagnosis of myofascial pain was established according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC-TMD). Dentulous or partially edentulous patients (rehabilitated with conventional fixed prostheses) were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pain treatment protocol included occlusal splints, patient education, and physiotherapy for 30days. Bite force was measured using a dynamometer at the central incisor and the first molar regions on both sides. The exams were performed at baseline, after 7days, and 30days after treatment. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare patient pain level response among the periods analyzed in the study. Bite force data were submitted to two-way repeated-measures ANOVA, followed by the Tukey HSD test (pforce. Results revealed that there was a statistical difference in pain level over time for both muscles and sides (pforce exhibited significantly higher values after 30days of treatment, when compared with the baseline (pforce only for the temporal muscle in all periods analyzed (pforce. Pain level decreased and bite force increased in the molar region after treatment. No strong correlation or dispersion in the relationship between pain levels and bite force was seen in women with myofascial pain and bruxism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of vibration during fatiguing resistance exercise on subsequent muscle activity during maximal voluntary isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jeffrey M; Porcari, John P; Scheunke, Mark D

    2004-11-01

    This investigation was designed to determine if vibration during fatiguing resistance exercise would alter associated patterns of muscle activity. A cross-over design was employed with 8 subjects completing a resistance exercise bout once with a vibrating dumbbell (V) (44 Hz, 3 mm displacement) and once without vibration (NV). For both exercise bouts, 10 sets were performed with a load that induced concentric muscle failure during the 10th repetition. The appropriate load for each set was determined during a pretest. Each testing session was separated by 1 week. Electromyography (EMG) was obtained from the biceps brachii muscle at 12 different time points during a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at a 170 degrees elbow angle after each set of the dumbbell exercise. The time points were as follows: pre (5 minutes before the resistance exercise bout), T1-T10 (immediately following each set of resistance exercise), and post (15 minutes after the resistance exercise bout). EMG was analyzed for median power frequency (MPF) and maximum (mEMG). NV resulted in a significant decrease in MPF at T1-T4 (p recruitment of high threshold motor units during fatiguing contractions. This may indicate the usage of vibration with resistance exercise as an effective tool for strength training athletes.

  15. Maximal isometric muscle strength values obtained By hand-held dynamometry in children between 6 and 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Raul G; Munoz, Karin T; Dominguez, Angelica; Banados, Pamela; Bravo, Maria J

    2017-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the maximal isometric muscle strength of a healthy, normal-weight, pediatric population between 6 and 15 years of age using hand-held dynamometry to establish strength reference values. The secondary objective was determining the relationship between strength and anthropometric parameters. Four hundred normal-weight Chilean children, split into 10 age groups, separated by 1-year intervals, were evaluated. Each age group included between 35 and 55 children. The strength values increased with increasing age and weight, with a correlation of 0.83 for age and 0.82 for weight. The results were similar to those reported in previous studies regarding the relationships among strength, age, and anthropometric parameters, but the reported strength differed. These results provide normal strength parameters for healthy and normal-weight Chilean children between 6 and 15 years of age and highlight the relevance of ethnicity in defining reference values for muscle strength in a pediatric population. Muscle Nerve 55: 16-22, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of acute postexercise chocolate milk consumption during intensive judo training on the recovery of salivary hormones, salivary SIgA, mood state, muscle soreness, and judo-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P; Gleeson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of postexercise chocolate milk (CM) or water (W) consumption during 5 days of intensive judo training with concomitant weight loss on salivary cortisol and testosterone, salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and judo-related performance. Twelve trained male judo athletes engaged in 5 days of intensive judo training followed by a simulated judo competition, on 2 separate training weeks 14 days apart. The athletes consumed 1000 mL of W (week 1) or CM (week 2) immediately post-training. During both weeks, athletes were instructed to "make weight" for the upcoming competition. Performance in timed push-ups and the Special Judo Fitness Test improved by 14.6% and 6.8%, respectively, at the end of the training week with CM consumption (both p mood disturbance (p 0.05). Body mass decreased by 1.9% in the W condition and by 1.1% in the CM condition, with no significant difference between treatments. This study indicates that postexercise CM consumption during short-term intensive judo training enhances aspects of recovery without affecting intentional weight loss.

  17. Neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscle during isometric maximal, submaximal and submaximal fatiguing voluntary contractions in knee osteoarthrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Mau-Moeller

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthrosis (KOA is commonly associated with a dysfunction of the quadriceps muscle which contributes to alterations in motor performance. The underlying neuromuscular mechanisms of muscle dysfunction are not fully understood. The main objective of this study was to analyze how KOA affects neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscle during different contraction intensities.The following parameters were assessed in 20 patients and 20 healthy controls: (i joint position sense, i.e. position control (mean absolute error, MAE at 30° and 50° of knee flexion, (ii simple reaction time task performance, (iii isometric maximal voluntary torque (IMVT and root mean square of the EMG signal (RMS-EMG, (iv torque control, i.e. accuracy (MAE, absolute fluctuation (standard deviation, SD, relative fluctuation (coefficient of variation, CV and periodicity (mean frequency, MNF of the torque signal at 20%, 40% and 60% IMVT, (v EMG-torque relationship at 20%, 40% and 60% IMVT and (vi performance fatigability, i.e. time to task failure (TTF at 40% IMVT.Compared to the control group, the KOA group displayed: (i significantly higher MAE of the angle signal at 30° (99.3%; P = 0.027 and 50° (147.9%; P < 0.001, (ii no significant differences in reaction time, (iii significantly lower IMVT (-41.6%; P = 0.001 and tendentially lower RMS-EMG of the rectus femoris (-33.7%; P = 0.054, (iv tendentially higher MAE of the torque signal at 20% IMVT (65.9%; P = 0.068, significantly lower SD of the torque signal at all three torque levels and greater MNF at 60% IMVT (44.8%; P = 0.018, (v significantly increased RMS-EMG of the vastus lateralis at 20% (70.8%; P = 0.003 and 40% IMVT (33.3%; P = 0.034, significantly lower RMS-EMG of the biceps femoris at 20% (-63.6%; P = 0.044 and 40% IMVT (-41.3%; P = 0.028 and tendentially lower at 60% IMVT (-24.3%; P = 0.075 and (vi significantly shorter TTF (-51.1%; P = 0.049.KOA is not only associated with a deterioration of IMVT

  18. High-dose inhaled terbutaline increases muscle strength and enhances maximal sprint performance in trained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-01-01

    ) participated in a double-blinded randomized crossover study. After administration of inhaled terbutaline (30 × 0.5 mg) or placebo, subjects' maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) of m.quadriceps was measured. After MVC, subjects performed a 30-s Wingate test. Sixty minutes following the Wingate test......, subjects exercised for 10 min at 80 % of [Formula: see text] and completed a 100-kcal time trial. Aerobic contribution was determined during the Wingate test by indirect calorimetry. Furthermore, plasma terbutaline, lactate, glucose, and K(+) were measured. RESULTS: Inhalation of 15 mg terbutaline resulted...... = 0.019) and 3.3 ± 1.0 % (P = 0.009) higher for terbutaline than placebo. Net accumulation of plasma lactate was higher (P = 0.003) for terbutaline than placebo during the Wingate test, whereas [Formula: see text] above baseline was unchanged by terbutaline (P = 0.882). Time-trial performance...

  19. Maximal voluntary contraction force, SR function and glycogen resynthesis during the first 72 h after a high-level competitive soccer game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ørtenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine maximal voluntary knee-extensor contraction force (MVC force), sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and muscle glycogen levels in the days after a high-level soccer game when players ingested an optimised diet. Seven high-level male soccer players had a vastus...... lateralis muscle biopsy and a blood sample collected in a control situation and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after a competitive soccer game. MVC force, SR function, muscle glycogen, muscle soreness and plasma myoglobin were measured. MVC force sustained over 1 s was 11 and 10% lower (P ...

  20. Pressure sores and hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, S; Heinert, G; Parker, M J

    2008-02-01

    Development of pressure sores during hospital admission causes morbidity and distress to the patient, increases strain on nursing resources, delaying discharge and possibly increasing mortality. A hip fracture in elderly patients is a known high-risk factor for development of pressure sores. We aimed to determine the current incidence of pressure sores and identify those factors which were associated with an increased risk of pressure sores. We retrospectively analysed prospectively collected data of 4654 consecutive patients admitted to a single unit. One hundred and seventy-eight (3.8%) of our patients developed pressure sores. Patient factors that increased the risk of pressure sores were increased age, diabetes mellitus, a lower mental test score, a lower mobility score, a higher ASA score, lower admission haemoglobin and an intra-operative drop in blood pressure. The risk was higher in patients with an extracapsular neck of femur fracture and patients with an increased time interval between admission to hospital and surgery. Our studies indicate that while co-morbidities constitute a substantial risk in an elderly population, the increase in incidence of pressure sores can be reduced by minimising delays to surgery.

  1. Influence of experimental interfering occlusal contacts on the activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during submaximal and maximal bite in the intercuspal position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikholeslam, A; Riise, C

    1983-05-01

    The effects of an intercuspal occlusal interference on the pattern of activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during submaximal and maximal bite, were studied in eleven volunteers with complete, natural dentitions. The results show that, during maximal and submaximal bite an occlusal interference (about 0.5 mm) in the intercuspal position is able to disturb the almost symmetric pattern of muscular activity in the anterior temporal and masseter muscles. Further, the level of muscular activity during maximal bite decreased significantly in all muscles studied. In some subjects, the decrease of muscular activity could still be observed one week after insertion of the interfering contact. After eliminating the interference, the muscular co-ordination pattern improved and the level of muscular activity increased significantly.

  2. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Beller, Noah A; Gonzalez, Adam M; Spatz, Gregory E; Hoffman, Jay R; Ross, Ryan E; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects' peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s(-1) [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey's post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key pointsMultiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women.Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press (by

  3. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Beller, Noah A.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Spatz, Gregory E.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Ross, Ryan E.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key points Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women. Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press

  4. Does hip joint positioning affect maximal voluntary contraction in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae and sartorius muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J; Beldame, J; Van Driessche, S; Brunel, H; Poirier, T; Guiffault, P; Matsoukis, J; Billuart, F

    2017-11-01

    Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA) is presumed to provide functional and clinical benefits, whereas in fact the literature reveals that gait and posturographic parameters following THA do not recover values found in the general population. There is a significant disturbance of postural sway in THA patients, regardless of the surgical approach, although with some differences between approaches compared to controls: the anterior and anterolateral minimally invasive approaches seem to be more disruptive of postural parameters than the posterior approach. Electromyographic (EMG) study of the hip muscles involved in surgery [gluteus maximus (GMax), gluteus medius (GMed), tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and sartorius (S)] could shed light, the relevant literature involves discordant methodologies. We developed a methodology to assess EMG activity during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the GMax, GMed, TFL and sartorius muscles as a reference for normalization. A prospective study aimed to assess whether hip joint positioning and the learning curve on an MVC test affect the EMG signal during a maximal voluntary contraction. Hip positioning and the learning curve on an MVC test affect EMG signal during MVC of GMax, GMed, TFL and S. Thirty young asymptomatic subjects participated in the study. Each performed 8 hip muscle MVCs in various joint positions recorded with surface EMG sensors. Each MVC was performed 3 times in 1 week, with the same schedule every day, controlling for activity levels in the preceding 24h. EMG activity during MVC was expressed as a ratio of EMG activity during unipedal stance. Non-parametric tests were applied. Statistical analysis showed no difference according to hip position for abductors or flexors in assessing EMG signal during MVC over the 3 sessions. Hip abductors showed no difference between abduction in lateral decubitus with hip straight versus hip flexed: GMax (19.8±13.7 vs. 14.5±7.8, P=0.78), GMed (13.4±9.0 vs. 9.9±6

  5. Sore Throat: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck to check for swollen glands (lymph nodes) Listening to your or your child's breathing with a ... of your sore throat, these at-home care strategies can help you ease your symptoms: Rest. And ...

  6. Healthy Muscles Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lying down, and faster when you’re running or playing sports and your skeletal muscles need more blood to help them do their work. What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles after exercising ...

  7. Associations of maximal voluntary isometric hip extension torque with muscle size of hamstring and gluteus maximus and intra-abdominal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayashiki, Kota; Hirata, Kosuke; Ishida, Kiraku; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Naokazu

    2017-06-01

    Muscle size of the hamstring and gluteus maximus (GM) as well as intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) are considered as factors affecting the torque development during hip extension. This study examined the associations of torque development during maximal voluntary isometric hip extension with IAP and muscle size of the hamstring and GM. Anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of the hamstring and thickness of GM were determined in 20 healthy young males using an ultrasonography apparatus (Experiment 1). Torque and IAP were simultaneously measured while subjects performed maximal voluntary isometric hip extension. The IAP was measured using a pressure transducer placed in the rectum and determined at the time at which the developed torque reached to the maximal. In Experiment 2, torque and IAP were measured during maximal voluntary isometric hip flexion in 18 healthy young males. The maximal hip extension torque was significantly correlated with the IAP (r = 0.504, P = 0.024), not with the ACSA of the hamstring (r = 0.307, P = 0.188) or the thickness of GM (r = 0.405, P = 0.076). The relationship was still significant even when the ACSA of the hamstring and the thickness of GM were adjusted statistically (r = 0.486, P = 0.041). The maximal hip flexion torque was not significantly correlated with the IAP (r = -0.118, P = 0.642). The current results suggest that IAP can contribute independently of the muscle size of the agonists to maximal voluntary hip extension torque.

  8. Assessment of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage of the elbow flexors by tensiomyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Angus M; Galloway, Stuart D R; Smith, Iain J; Tallent, Jamie; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Fairweather, Malcolm M; Howatson, Glyn

    2012-06-01

    Exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) impairs maximal torque production which can cause a decline in athletic performance and/or mobility. EIMD is commonly assessed by using maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), creatine kinase (CK) and muscle soreness. We propose as an additional technique, tensiomyography (TMG), recently introduced to measure mechanical and muscle contractile characteristics. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of TMG in detecting changes in maximal torque following EIMD. Nineteen participants performed eccentric elbow flexions to achieve EIMD on the non- dominant arm and used the dominant elbow flexor as a control. TMG parameters, MVC and rate of torque development (RTD) were measured prior to EIMD and repeated for another six consecutive days. Creatine kinase, muscle soreness and limb girth were also measured during this period. Twenty four hours after inducing EIMD, MVC torque, RTD and TMG maximal displacement had significantly (pTMG recovered to 12%, 24% and 17% of respective pre-EIMD values. In conclusion, as hypothesised TMG maximal displacement significantly followed other standard EIMD responses. This could therefore be useful in detecting muscle damage from impaired muscle function and its recovery following EIMD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EFFECT OF HEAT PRECONDITIONING BY MICROWAVE HYPERTHERMIA ON HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE AFTER ECCENTRIC EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Saga

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify whether heat preconditioning results in less eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and muscle soreness, and whether the repeated bout effect is enhanced by heat preconditioning prior to eccentric exercise. Nine untrained male volunteers aged 23 ± 3 years participated in this study. Heat preconditioning included treatment with a microwave hyperthermia unit (150 W, 20 min that was randomly applied to one of the subject's arms (MW; the other arm was used as a control (CON. One day after heat preconditioning, the subjects performed 24 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors at 30°·s-1 (ECC1. One week after ECC1, the subjects repeated the procedure (ECC2. After each bout of exercise, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, range of motion (ROM of the elbow joint, upper arm circumference, blood creatine kinase (CK activity and muscle soreness were measured. The subjects experienced both conditions at an interval of 3 weeks. MVC and ROM in the MW were significantly higher than those in the CON (p < 0.05 for ECC1; however, the heat preconditioning had no significant effect on upper arm circumference, blood CK activity, or muscle soreness following ECC1 and ECC2. Heat preconditioning may protect human skeletal muscle from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage after a single bout of eccentric exercise but does not appear to promote the repeated bout effect after a second bout of eccentric exercise

  10. Preparation of collagen-coated gels that maximize in vitro myogenesis of stem cells by matching the lateral elasticity of in vivo muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Tathagata; Rehfeldt, Florian; Sweeney, H Lee; Discher, Dennis E

    2010-01-01

    The physical nature of a cell's microenvironment--including the elasticity of the surrounding tissue--appears to exert a significant influence on cell morphology, cytoskeleton, and gene expression. We have previously shown that committed muscle cells will develop sarcomeric striations of skeletal muscle myosin II only when the cells are grown on a compliant gel that closely matches the passive compliance of skeletal muscle. We have more recently shown with the same types of elastic gels that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) maximally express myogenic genes, even in the absence of tailored soluble factors. Here, we provide detailed methods not only for how we make and nanomechanically characterize hydrogels of muscle-like elasticity, but also how we culture MSCs and characterize their myogenic induction by whole human genome transcript analysis.

  11. Effects of basketball training on maximal oxygen uptake, muscle strength, and joint mobility in young basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvakoudis, Efstratios; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Galazoulas, Christos; Stefanidis, Panagiotis; Metaxas, Thomas I; Mandroukas, Konstantinos

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of prolonged basketball skills training on maximal aerobic power, isokinetic strength, joint mobility, and body fat percentage, in young basketball players, and controls of the same age. Twenty basketball players and 18 control boys participated in the study. Basketball players participated both in their school's physical education program and in a children's basketball team training program. Controls participated only in their school's physical education program. All subjects were tested every 6 months (18 months total, 11(1/2), 12, 12(1/2), 13 years old) for VO(2)max, peak torque values of the quadriceps and hamstrings at 180 and 300 degrees x s(-1) and range of motion of the knee and hip joints. Body fat percentage was assessed at the beginning and the end of the experimental period. Results showed that the basketball group had lower heart rate values in all ages and higher VO(2) values in the initial test compared with the control in submaximal intensity. The VO(2)max was altered in both groups on the final test, when compared to the initial test. However, the basketball group had a higher VO(2)max on each of the 6-month follow-up measurements, compared to the control group (p trained group had significantly lower percentage body fat values, compared to controls. In conclusion, regular basketball training increased aerobic power and decreased body fat percentage of prepubescent boys, while it did not affect muscle strength and joint mobility of the lower limbs. The major implication suggested by the findings of the present study is that, in order to improve the basic physical components, specific training procedures should be incorporated during the basketball training sessions. It is recommended that all children should be involved in some type of cardiovascular and resistance training program.

  12. Cortical and spinal excitability during and after lengthening contractions of the human plantar flexor muscles performed with maximal voluntary effort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hahn

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the sites of potential specific modulations in the neural control of lengthening and subsequent isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs versus purely isometric MVCs of the plantar flexor muscles, when there is enhanced torque during and following stretch. Ankle joint torque during maximum voluntary plantar flexion was measured by a dynamometer when subjects (n = 10 lay prone on a bench with the right ankle tightly strapped to a foot-plate. Neural control was analysed by comparing soleus motor responses to electrical nerve stimulation (M-wave, V-wave, electrical stimulation of the cervicomedullary junction (CMEP and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (MEP. Enhanced torque of 17 ± 8% and 9 ± 8% was found during and 2.5-3 s after lengthening MVCs, respectively. Cortical and spinal responsiveness was similar to that in isometric conditions during the lengthening MVCs, as shown by unchanged MEPs, CMEPs and V-waves, suggesting that the major voluntary motor pathways are not subject to substantial inhibition. Following the lengthening MVCs, enhanced torque was accompanied by larger MEPs (p ≤ 0.05 and a trend to greater V-waves (p ≤ 0.1. In combination with stable CMEPs, increased MEPs suggest an increase in cortical excitability, and enlarged V-waves indicate greater motoneuronal output or increased stretch reflex excitability. The new results illustrate that neuromotor pathways are altered after lengthening MVCs suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of the enhanced torque are not purely mechanical in nature.

  13. The Effects of Active Trigger Point of Upper Trapezius Muscle on Its Electromyography Activity and Maximal Isometric Contraction Force during Scapular Plane Elevation (Scaption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Trigger points may result in referral pain of their close areas. Recent evidence suggests that latent trigger points although they are not sensitive enough to cause pain, can interfere with the normal muscle function. These myofascial trigger points are estimated as an electro-physiological phenomenon. However, there are a few studies which investigated the effect of these points on the muscle activity. Muscle activity is a determinant factor in injuries which may cause or worsen shoulder-neck pain. The aim of the study was to evaluate upper trapezius muscle activity and delay time at the presence of active trigger point during scapular plane elevation (scaption. Materials & Methods: In a case-control comparative study in spring 2012, Seventeen women with active trigger points (mean age 26.76 y and 17 healthy women (mean age 26.18 y in bio-mechanic laboratory of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation sciences (USWR participated in the study. Using surface EMG, the amplitude of muscle activity and the onset time of upper trapezius during scaption, were recorded and analyzed. Results: The maximum amplitude of the upper trapezius muscle activity (during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of 90°scaption in patients showed significant decrease in comparison with the healthy subjects (P=0.01.Also, the onset time of upper trapezius muscle activation time in the patient group was significantly delayed in comparison to the healthy group (P=0.04. Conclusion: At the presence of trigger points in Upper trapezius muscle, muscle activation pattern changes trigger points can change the amplitude and timing of muscle activity and may consequently lead to abnormal patterns of motion of the shoulder girdle. These findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of shoulder disorders.

  14. Reconstruction of pressure sores with perforator-based propeller flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubietz, Rafael G; Jakubietz, Danni F; Zahn, Robert; Schmidt, Karsten; Meffert, Rainer H; Jakubietz, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Perforator flaps have been successfully used for reconstruction of pressure sores. Although V-Y advancement flaps approximate debrided wound edges, perforator-based propeller flaps allow rotation of healthy tissue into the defect. Perforator-based propeller flaps were planned in 13 patients. Seven pressure sores were over the sacrum, five over the ischial tuberosity, and one on the tip of the scapula. Three patients were paraplegic, six were bedridden, and five were ambulatory. In three patients, no perforators were found. In 10 patients, propeller flaps were transferred. In two patients, total flap necrosis occurred, which was reconstructed with local advancement flaps. In two cases, a wound dehiscence occurred and had to be revised. One hematoma required evacuation. No further complications were noted. No recurrence at the flap site occurred. Local perforator flaps allow closure of pressure sores without harvesting muscle. The propeller version has the added benefit of transferring tissue from a distant site, avoiding reapproximation of original wound edges. Twisting of the pedicle may cause torsion and venous obstruction. This can be avoided by dissecting a pedicle of at least 3 cm. Propeller flaps are a safe option for soft tissue reconstruction of pressure sores. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  15. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Ratamess, Noah A. Beller, Adam M. Gonzalez, Gregory E. Spatz, Jay R. Hoffman, Ryan E. Ross, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Jie Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT or a non-exercising control group (CTL. The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON and 3-sec eccentric (ECC phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg, 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg, and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women.

  16. Effects of hand configuration on muscle force coordination, co-contraction and concomitant intermuscular coupling during maximal isometric flexion of the fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charissou, Camille; Amarantini, David; Baurès, Robin; Berton, Eric; Vigouroux, Laurent

    2017-11-01

    The mechanisms governing the control of musculoskeletal redundancy remain to be fully understood. The hand is highly redundant, and shows different functional role of extensors according to its configuration for a same functional task of finger flexion. Through intermuscular coherence analysis combined with hand musculoskeletal modelling during maximal isometric hand contractions, our aim was to better understand the neural mechanisms underlying the control of muscle force coordination and agonist-antagonist co-contraction. Thirteen participants performed maximal isometric flexions of the fingers in two configurations: power grip (Power) and finger-pressing on a surface (Press). Hand kinematics and force/moment measurements were used as inputs in a musculoskeletal model of the hand to determine muscular tensions and co-contraction. EMG-EMG coherence analysis was performed between wrist and finger flexors and extensor muscle pairs in alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands. Concomitantly with tailored muscle force coordination and increased co-contraction between Press and Power (mean difference: 48.08%; p force coordination during hand contractions. Our results highlight the functional importance of intermuscular coupling as a mechanism contributing to the control of muscle force synergies and agonist-antagonist co-contraction.

  17. The effects of elevated levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on the acute power output and time to fatigue of maximally stimulated mouse soleus and EDL muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M F; Tallis, J; Price, M J; James, R S

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effects of elevated buffer capacity [~32 mM HCO₃(-)] through administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on maximally stimulated isolated mouse soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles undergoing cyclical length changes at 37 °C. The elevated buffering capacity was of an equivalent level to that achieved in humans with acute oral supplementation. We evaluated the acute effects of elevated [HCO₃(-)] on (1) maximal acute power output (PO) and (2) time to fatigue to 60 % of maximum control PO (TLIM60), the level of decline in muscle PO observed in humans undertaking similar exercise, using the work loop technique. Acute PO was on average 7.0 ± 4.8 % greater for NaHCO₃-treated EDL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.0) and 3.6 ± 1.8 % greater for NaHCO₃-treated SOL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.3) compared to CON. Increases in PO were likely due to greater force production throughout shortening. The acute effects of NaHCO₃ on EDL were significantly greater (P < 0.001; ES = 0.9) than on SOL. Treatment of EDL (P = 0.22; ES = 0.6) and SOL (P = 0.19; ES = 0.9) with NaHCO₃ did not alter the pattern of fatigue. Although significant differences were not observed in whole group data, the fatigability of muscle performance was variable, suggesting that there might be inter-individual differences in response to NaHCO₃ supplementation. These results present the best indication to date that NaHCO₃ has direct peripheral effects on mammalian skeletal muscle resulting in increased acute power output.

  18. Postexercise Dietary Protein Strategies to Maximize Skeletal Muscle Repair and Remodeling in Masters Endurance Athletes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Thomas M; Reaburn, Peter R; Phillips, Stuart M; Jenkins, David G

    2016-04-01

    Participation rates of masters athletes in endurance events such as long-distance triathlon and running continue to increase. Given the physical and metabolic demands of endurance training, recovery practices influence the quality of successive training sessions and, consequently, adaptations to training. Research has suggested that, after muscle-damaging endurance exercise, masters athletes experience slower recovery rates in comparison with younger, similarly trained athletes. Given that these discrepancies in recovery rates are not observed after non-muscle-damaging exercise, it is suggested that masters athletes have impairments of the protein remodeling mechanisms within skeletal muscle. The importance of postexercise protein feeding for endurance athletes is increasingly being acknowledged, and its role in creating a positive net muscle protein balance postexercise is well known. The potential benefits of postexercise protein feeding include elevating muscle protein synthesis and satellite cell activity for muscle repair and remodeling, as well as facilitating muscle glycogen resynthesis. Despite extensive investigation into age-related anabolic resistance in sedentary aging populations, little is known about how anabolic resistance affects postexercise muscle protein synthesis and thus muscle remodeling in aging athletes. Despite evidence suggesting that physical training can attenuate but not eliminate age-related anabolic resistance, masters athletes are currently recommended to consume the same postexercise dietary protein dose (approximately 20 g or 0.25 g/kg/meal) as younger athletes. Given the slower recovery rates of masters athletes after muscle-damaging exercise, which may be due to impaired muscle remodeling mechanisms, masters athletes may benefit from higher doses of postexercise dietary protein, with particular attention directed to the leucine content of the postexercise bolus.

  19. Attenuated increase in maximal force of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle after concurrent peak power and endurance training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furrer, R.; Jaspers, R.T.; Baggerman, H.L.; Bravenboer, N.; Lips, P.; de Haan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of muscle peak power and oxidative capacity are generally presumed to be mutually exclusive. However, this may not be valid by using fibre type-specific recruitment. Since rat medial gastrocnemius muscle (GM) is composed of high and low oxidative compartments which are recruited task

  20. Practical Management of Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure sores are common in the debilitated elderly. Causal factors are unrelieved pressure, shearing forces, friction, and moisture. Preventive measures should be used for all high-risk patients, defined by general condition, mental status, degree of incontinence, amount of activity, and mobility. Principles of treating ulcers include pressure relief, reducing bacterial counts, debriding necrotic tissue, and providing a moist, clean environment. Imagesp2385-ap2389-ap2392-a PMID:21221298

  1. Effect of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones on maximal normalized rate of bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction in the presence of calcium channel blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Virych

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern organic chemistry and molecular modeling technologies simplify the search for potential inhibitors of various receptor systems and biological processes. The one of the directions is the development of analgesics of broad spectrum and low toxicity. It is important to search for inhibitors of the kinin-kallikrein system that regulates many functions: inflammation, pain, carcinogenesis, vascular tone, smooth muscle contraction and other. Derivatives of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones have a unique spatial conformation that allows one to simulate β-structures of bioactive peptides. The functional activity of compounds is determined by properties of their peripheral chemical radicals. We analyzed the effect of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones derivatives on the normalized maximal rate of bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction and relaxation of the stomach in the presence of calcium channel blockers: verapamil (1 μM, gadolinium (300 μM and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (0.1 μM. The levels of bradykinin and 3-arylamino-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones in incubation solution were 10–6 M. Data processing on dynamics of contraction was performed according to the method of Burdyha and Kosterin. Compounds MX-1775 and MX-1925 reduced maximal normalized rate (Vn of bradykinin-induced smooth muscle contraction in the presence of Gd3+ by 21.2% and 31.0% respectively. Compound MX-1925 increased Vn of relaxation by 11.6%. A similar effect is typical for MX-2011, where there is an increase by 34.6%. In the presence of verapamil this compound additionally decreased Vn contraction by 20.5%. Substances MX-1775, MX-2004 and MX-1925 restored maximal normalized rate of relaxation to original values of bradykinin-induced contraction. In the presence of 2-aminoethyldiphenylborinate MX-1775 additionally reduced Vn of contractions by 7.5%. 3-substituted 1,4-benzo­diazepine-2-ones did not change the maximal

  2. [A variant of island flaps for the covering of pressure sores: the hatchet flap. Apropos of 31 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillot, M; Lodde, J P; Pegorier, O; Reynaud, J P; Cormerais, A

    1994-08-01

    The authors propose a modification of the classical design of island flaps for cover of pressure sores, applied to gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata muscles: the hatchet flap. 31 flaps have been used including 13 gluteus maximus superior flaps for sacral pressure sores, 9 gluteal inferior flaps for ischial pressure sores and 9 tensor fascia lata flaps for trochanteric pressure sores. A small partial necrosis and two cases of sepsis were observed in this series, but did not require surgical revision. The authors emphasize the value of this modification of the classical flap design, which preserves an even better musculocutaneous capital in these patients, who are often already multi-operated. The very rapid recovery of patients supports the authors' application of hatchet flaps to the surgery of pressure sores, and suggests the extension to other musculocutaneous flaps in the future.

  3. Measurement of maximal isometric torque and muscle quality of the knee extensors and flexors in healthy 50- to 70-year-old women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter; Toomey, Clodagh; Mc Cormack, William; Lyons, Mark; Jakeman, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Muscle quality is defined as strength per unit muscle mass. The aim of this study was to measure the maximal voluntary isometric torque of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups in healthy older women and to develop an index of muscle quality based on the combined knee extensor and flexor torque per unit lean tissue mass (LTM) of the upper leg. One hundred and thirty-six healthy 50- to 70-year-old women completed an initial measurement of isometric peak torque of the knee extensors and flexors (Con-Trex MJ; CMV AG, Dubendorf, Switzerland) that was repeated 7 days later. Subsequently, 131 women returned for whole- and regional-body composition analysis (iDXA ™ ; GE Healthcare, Chalfont St Giles, Buckinghamshire, UK). Isometric peak torque demonstrated excellent within-assessment reliability for both the knee extensors and flexors (ICC range: 0·991-1·000). Test-retest reliability was lower (ICC range: 0·777-0·828) with an observed mean increase of 5% in peak torque [6·2 (17·2) N m] on the second day of assessment (Ptorque (-12·2%; P = 0·001) was double that of the relative, non-significant, median difference in upper leg LTM (-5·3%; P = 0·102) between those in the 5th and 6th decade. The majority of difference in peak isometric torque came from the knee extensors (15·1 N m, Ptorque normalized for upper leg LTM (muscle quality) was 8% lower between decades (P = 0·029). These findings suggest strength per unit tissue may provide a better indication of age-related differences in muscle quality prior to change in LTM. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Whole-body pre-cooling does not alter human muscle metabolism during sub-maximal exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J; Wilsmore, B R; Macdonald, A D; Zeyl, A; Mcghee, S; Calvert, D; Marino, F E; Storlien, L H; Taylor, N A

    2001-06-01

    Muscle metabolism was investigated in seven men during two 35 min cycling trials at 60% peak oxygen uptake, at 35 degrees C and 50% relative humidity. On one occasion, exercise was preceded by whole-body cooling achieved by immersion in water during a reduction in temperature from 29 to 24 degrees C, and, for the other trial, by immersion in water at a thermoneutral temperature (control, 34.8 degrees C). Pre-cooling did not alter oxygen uptake during exercise (P > 0.05), whilst the change in cardiac frequency and body mass both tended to be lower following pre-cooling (0.05 whole-body pre-cooling does not alter muscle metabolism during submaximal exercise in the heat. It is more likely that thermoregulatory and cardiovascular strain are reduced, through lower muscle and core temperatures.

  5. MAXIMAL HIP AND KNEE MUSCLE STRENGTH ARE NOT RELATED TO NEUROMUSCULAR PRE-ACTIVITY DURING SIDECUTTING MANEUVER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Hölmich, Per

    2018-01-01

    recorded during a sidecutting maneuver (high-risk movement) in adolescent female soccer and handball athletes. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Eighty-five adolescent (age 16.9 ± 1.2 years) female elite handball and soccer athletes were assessed for maximal hip extensor, hip abductor and knee...

  6. Effects on muscle strength, maximal jump height, flexibility and postural sway after soccer and Zumba exercise among female hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barene, Svein; Holtermann, Andreas; Oseland, Harald

    2016-01-01

    -63 were cluster-randomised to a soccer group, a Zumba group or a control group. Training was conducted outside working hours as two to three 1-h weekly sessions the first 3 months and once a week the last 6 months. Tests were conducted at baseline, after 3 and 9 months. The soccer group improved maximal...... lean mass (0.4 kg; P

  7. Effects on muscle strength, maximal jump height, flexibility and postural sway after soccer and Zumba exercise among female hospital employees: a 9-month randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barene, Svein; Holtermann, Andreas; Oseland, Harald; Brekke, Ole-Lars; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This 9-month randomised controlled workplace physical activity trial investigated the effects of soccer and Zumba exercise, respectively, on muscle strength, maximal jump height, sit-and-reach flexibility and postural sway among female workers. A total of 107 female hospital employees aged 25-63 were cluster-randomised to a soccer group, a Zumba group or a control group. Training was conducted outside working hours as two to three 1-h weekly sessions the first 3 months and once a week the last 6 months. Tests were conducted at baseline, after 3 and 9 months. The soccer group improved maximal neck extension strength both after 3 (1.2 kg; P flexibility. The present study indicates that workplace-initiated soccer and Zumba exercise may be beneficial for improvement of the neck and trunk strength, which may have preventive effects with regard to future perceived muscle pain in the respective body regions. Furthermore, the Zumba group revealed positive effects on lower limb lean mass and postural sway compared to the control group.

  8. Comparing two methods to record maximal voluntary contractions and different electrode positions in recordings of forearm extensor muscle activity: Refining risk assessments for work-related wrist disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Camilla; Nordander, Catarina; Granqvist, Lothy; Forsman, Mikael; Hansson, Gert-Åke

    2018-01-01

    Wrist disorders are common in force demanding industrial repetitive work. Visual assessment of force demands have a low reliability, instead surface electromyography (EMG) may be used as part of a risk assessment for work-related wrist disorders. For normalization of EMG recordings, a power grip (hand grip) is often used as maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the forearm extensor muscles. However, the test-retest reproducibility is poor and EMG amplitudes exceeding 100% have occasionally been recorded during work. An alternative MVC is resisted wrist extension, which may be more reliable. To compare hand grip and resisted wrist extension MVCs, in terms of amplitude and reproducibility, and to examine the effect of electrode positioning. Twelve subjects participated. EMG from right forearm extensors, from four electrode pairs, was recorded during MVCs, on three separate occasions. The group mean EMG amplitudes for resisted wrist extension were 1.2-1.7 times greater than those for hand grip. Resisted wrist extension showed better reproducibility than hand grip. The results indicate that the use of resisted wrist extension is a more accurate measurement of maximal effort of wrist extensor contractions than using hand grip and should increase the precision in EMG recordings from forearm extensor muscles, which in turn will increase the quality of risk assessments that are based on these.

  9. Association between maximal hamstring muscle strength and hamstring muscle pre-activity during a movement associated with non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, M. K.; Sorensen, R. S.; Thorborg, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reduced hamstring pre-activity during sidecutting increases the risk for non-contact ACL injury. During the last decade resistance training of the lower limb muscles has become an integral part ofACLinjury prevention in e.g. soccer and handball. However, it is not known whether a stro...

  10. The effects of a single intercuspal interference on electromyographic characteristics of human masticatory muscles during maximal voluntary teeth clenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Serrao, G; Colombo, A; Schmitz, J H

    1999-07-01

    In 13 healthy subjects (eight men and five women, mean age, 22 years), an aluminum intercuspal interference (height, 0.25 mm) was placed on the maxillary right first premolar to study its effect on the contractile symmetry of the right and left masseter and anterior temporalis muscles when measured through a Percentage Overlapping Coefficient (POC), derived from surface electromyographic recordings of maximum voluntary teeth clenching. Additionally, and to estimate the potential of the experimental intercuspal interference to induce lateral displacement of the mandible, a Torque Coefficient (TC) was derived from surface electromyographic recordings. The conclusion was that the experimental occlusal interference gave rise to asymmetric contractile activity in the studied mandibular elevator muscles as well as a potential to displace the mandible in a lateral direction.

  11. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy (-110 °C) on proprioception and indices of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, J T; Algar, L A; Donnelly, A E

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on proprioceptive function, muscle force recovery following eccentric muscle contractions and tympanic temperature (T(TY) ). Thirty-six subjects were randomly assigned to a group receiving two 3-min treatments of -110 ± 3 °C or 15 ± 3 °C. Knee joint position sense (JPS), maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the knee extensors, force proprioception and T(TY) were recorded before, immediately after the exposure and again 15 min later. A convenience sample of 18 subjects also underwent an eccentric exercise protocol on their contralateral left leg 24 h before exposure. MVIC (left knee), peak power output (PPO) during a repeated sprint on a cycle ergometer and muscles soreness were measured pre-, 24, 48 and 72h post-treatment. WBC reduced T(TY) , by 0.3 °C, when compared with the control group (P<0.001). However, JPS, MVIC or force proprioception was not affected. Similarly, WBC did not effect MVIC, PPO or muscle soreness following eccentric exercise. WBC, administered 24 h after eccentric exercise, is ineffective in alleviating muscle soreness or enhancing muscle force recovery. The results of this study also indicate no increased risk of proprioceptive-related injury following WBC. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Eyster, Kathleen; Liu, Jin-Song; Swanson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (Msum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (Mb) and muscle (Mpec) masses, basal metabolic rate (BMR), Msum, MMR, pectoralis mRNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased Msum, MMR, Mb and Mpec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities. PMID:25987736

  13. Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Eyster, Kathleen; Liu, Jin-Song; Swanson, David L

    2015-07-01

    Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (Msum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (Mb) and muscle (Mpec) masses, basal metabolic rate (BMR), Msum, MMR, pectoralis mRNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased Msum, MMR, Mb and Mpec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. [Pressure sores in a university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, Frédéric; Parzybut, Bérengère; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Neyme, Denis; Farid, Rachida; Kosmann, Marie-Jeanne; Luquel, Laurence

    2006-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of pressure sores, their risk factors, and the responsible microbial agents in an acute-care hospital and to evaluate their management. A prevalence survey was conducted from 5 July through 9 July 2004. Investigators completed a standardized questionnaire for each hospitalized patient, including demographic data (age, sex, previous hospitalizations, etc.) and Braden scale risk factors (sensory perception, humidity, activity, mobility, nutrition, and friction and shear). Two experts in skin care detected pressure sores by physical examination of the patients. Each pressure sore was swabbed and inoculated on selective media. Management was evaluated by reviewing the clinical charts of each patient with a pressure sore. The study included 535 adult patients (aged 59 +/- 19 years): 75 ulcer sores were observed in 37 patients (prevalence=6.9%). Stage I sores accounted for 24% of the total, stage II for 29%, stage III 31%, and stage IV 16%. The most frequent site was the heel (41%), followed by the sacrum (20%), elbow (11%), back (7%) and ischial tuberosities (7%). Sixty (80%) were acquired while hospitalized. Age-adjusted multivariate analyses found that the risk factors significantly associated with pressure sores were Braden scorepressure sores (OR=5.0 95% CI: 2.2-11.6, psores (24.5%), mostly stage III and IV, were colonized by multiple-drug-resistant bacteria (i.e., methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended spectrum beta-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae). Seven (9.3%) of the 75 ulcers were diagnosed only during the survey, by the experts; of the 68 diagnosed before the survey, 57 (83.8%) had been under treatment. Treatment was considered inappropriate according to French guidelines in 31.6% of the cases. This prospective prevalence study resulted in better awareness of the patients at risk for pressure sores. It also made the recently created mobile geriatrics unit better known within the hospital.

  15. The effects of low and moderate doses of caffeine supplementation on upper and lower body maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric muscle force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Jason; Yavuz, Harley C M

    2018-03-01

    Despite the growing quantity of literature exploring the effect of caffeine on muscular strength, there is a dearth of data that directly explores differences in erogenicity between upper and lower body musculature and the dose-response effect. The present study sought to investigate the effects of low and moderate doses of caffeine on the maximal voluntary strength of the elbow flexors and knee extensors. Ten nonspecifically strength-trained, recreationally active participants (aged 21 ± 0.3 years) completed the study. Using a randomised, counterbalanced, and double-blind approach, isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength was measured at 60 and 180°/s following administration of a placebo, 3 mg·kg -1 body mass caffeine, and 6 mg·kg -1 body mass caffeine. There was no effect of caffeine on the maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric strength of the elbow flexors, or the eccentric strength of the knee extensors. Both 3 and 6 mg·kg -1 body mass caffeine caused a significant increase in peak concentric force of the knee extensors at 180°/s. No difference was apparent between the 2 concentrations. Only 6 mg·kg -1 body mass caused an increase in peak concentric force during repeated contractions. The results infer that the effective caffeine concentration to evoke improved muscle performance may be related to muscle mass and contraction type. The present work indicates that a relatively low dose of caffeine treatment may be effective for improving lower body muscular strength, but may have little benefit for the strength of major muscular groups of the upper body.

  16. Attenuation of muscle damage by preconditioning with muscle hyperthermia 1-day prior to eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosaka, K; Muthalib, M; Lavender, A; Laursen, P B

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that muscle damage would be attenuated in muscles subjected to passive hyperthermia 1 day prior to exercise. Fifteen male students performed 24 maximal eccentric actions of the elbow flexors with one arm; the opposite arm performed the same exercise 2-4 weeks later. The elbow flexors of one arm received a microwave diathermy treatment that increased muscle temperature to over 40 degrees C, 16-20 h prior to the exercise. The contralateral arm acted as an untreated control. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength (MVC), range of motion (ROM), upper arm circumference, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration were measured 1 day prior to exercise, immediately before and after exercise, and daily for 4 days following exercise. Changes in the criterion measures were compared between conditions (treatment vs. control) using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA with a significance level of P < 0.05. All measures changed significantly following exercise, but the treatment arm showed a significantly faster recovery of MVC, a smaller change in ROM, and less muscle soreness compared with the control arm. However, the protective effect conferred by the diathermy treatment was significantly less effective compared with that seen in the second bout performed 4-6 weeks after the initial bout by a subgroup of the subjects (n = 11) using the control arm. These results suggest that passive hyperthermia treatment 1 day prior to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage has a prophylactic effect, but the effect is not as strong as the repeated bout effect.

  17. Prior exercise and antioxidant supplementation: effect on oxidative stress and muscle injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both acute bouts of prior exercise (preconditioning and antioxidant nutrients have been used in an attempt to attenuate muscle injury or oxidative stress in response to resistance exercise. However, most studies have focused on untrained participants rather than on athletes. The purpose of this work was to determine the independent and combined effects of antioxidant supplementation (vitamin C + mixed tocopherols/tocotrienols and prior eccentric exercise in attenuating markers of skeletal muscle injury and oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Methods Thirty-six men were randomly assigned to: no prior exercise + placebo; no prior exercise + antioxidant; prior exercise + placebo; prior exercise + antioxidant. Markers of muscle/cell injury (muscle performance, muscle soreness, C-reactive protein, and creatine kinase activity, as well as oxidative stress (blood protein carbonyls and peroxides, were measured before and through 48 hours of exercise recovery. Results No group by time interactions were noted for any variable (P > 0.05. Time main effects were noted for creatine kinase activity, muscle soreness, maximal isometric force and peak velocity (P Conclusion There appears to be no independent or combined effect of a prior bout of eccentric exercise or antioxidant supplementation as used here on markers of muscle injury in resistance trained men. Moreover, eccentric exercise as used in the present study results in minimal blood oxidative stress in resistance trained men. Hence, antioxidant supplementation for the purpose of minimizing blood oxidative stress in relation to eccentric exercise appears unnecessary in this population.

  18. Acute effects of maximal isometric muscle action of the elbow extensors on contralateral dynamic task of the elbow flexors: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cauê V La Scala Teixeira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim the aim was to investigate the influence of a maximal isometric muscle action of the elbow extensors on the contralateral dynamic task of the elbow flexors. Methods Seventeen recreationally trained men (23.3 ± 4.9 yrs, BMI: 24.8 ± 2.2 Kg/m² underwent two randomized different testing sessions separated by one week. In the control session (CON all subjects performed a maximum number of repetitions test (RMs at 75%1RM using the right elbow flexors. The experimental session (EXP was similar to the CON; however, all subjects were instructed to perform RMs at 75%1RM by using the right elbow flexors and maintaining the maximal voluntary contraction of the left elbow extensors during the test. RMs, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, and training volume (TV were measured and compared between sessions. Results The EXP showed a significant 10.4% increase on the RMs (13.8 vs. 12.5, p < 0.001, d = 0.44 and 12.1% increase in TV (238.0 vs. 212.4 kg, p < 0.001, d = 0.43 than CON. No differences were observed for RPE between sessions. Conclusion The maximum voluntary contraction of the left elbow extensors increased the RMs of the contralateral elbow flexors, reflecting a higher TV, and no differences in the RPE. Our results suggest that the investigated method may be a viable and practical alternative to increase the acute strength performance of elbow flexors when using submaximal loads.

  19. Systemic inflammatory responses to maximal versus submaximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jonathan M; Nosaka, Kazunori; Muthalib, Makii; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    We compared changes in markers of muscle damage and systemic inflammation after submaximal and maximal lengthening muscle contractions of the elbow flexors. Using a cross-over design, 10 healthy young men not involved in resistance training completed a submaximal trial (10 sets of 60 lengthening contractions at 10% maximum isometric strength, 1 min rest between sets), followed by a maximal trial (10 sets of three lengthening contractions at 100% maximum isometric strength, 3 min rest between sets). Lengthening contractions were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer. Opposite arms were used for the submaximal and maximal trials, and the trials were separated by a minimum of two weeks. Blood was sampled before, immediately after, 1 h, 3 h, and 1-4 d after each trial. Total leukocyte and neutrophil numbers, and the serum concentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1 were elevated after both trials (P < 0.01), but there were no differences between the trials. Serum IL-6 concentration was elevated 3 h after the submaximal contractions (P < 0.01). The concentrations of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-10, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and plasma C-reactive protein remained unchanged following both trials. Maximum isometric strength and range of motion decreased significantly (P < 0.001) after both trials, and were lower from 1-4 days after the maximal contractions compared to the submaximal contractions. Plasma myoglobin concentration and creatine kinase activity, muscle soreness and upper arm circumference all increased after both trials (P < 0.01), but were not significantly different between the trials. Therefore, there were no differences in markers of systemic inflammation, despite evidence of greater muscle damage following maximal versus submaximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors.

  20. Maximal Strength Performance and Muscle Activation for the Bench Press and Triceps Extension Exercises Adopting Dumbbell, Barbell, and Machine Modalities Over Multiple Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Déborah de Araújo; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Paz, Gabriel A; Bezerra, Ewertton de S; Miranda, Humberto

    2017-07-01

    Farias, DdA, Willardson, JM, Paz, GA, Bezerra, EdS, and Miranda, H. Maximal strength performance and muscle activation for the bench press and triceps extension exercises adopting dumbbell, barbell and machine modalities over multiple sets. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1879-1887, 2017-The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation, total repetitions, and training volume for 3 bench press (BP) exercise modes (Smith machine [SMBP], barbell [BBP], and dumbbell [DBP]) that were followed by a triceps extension (TE) exercise. Nineteen trained men performed 3 testing protocols in random order, which included: (P1) SMBP + TE; (P2) BBP + TE; and (P3) DBP + TE. Each protocol involved 4 sets with a 10-repetition maximum (RM) load, immediately followed by a TE exercise that was also performed for 4 sets with a 10RM load. A 2-minute rest interval was adopted between sets and exercises. Surface electromyographic activity was assessed for the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), biceps brachii (BB), and triceps brachii (TB). The results indicated that significantly higher total repetitions were achieved for the DBP (31.2 ± 3.2) vs. the BBP (27.8 ± 4.8). For the TE, significantly greater volume was achieved when this exercise was performed after the BBP (1,204.4 ± 249.4 kg) and DBP (1,216.8 ± 287.5 kg) vs. the SMBP (1,097.5 ± 193 kg). The DBP elicited significantly greater PM activity vs. the BBP. The SMBP elicited significantly greater AD activity vs. the BBP and DBP. During the different BP modes, the SMBP and BBP elicited significantly greater TB activity vs. the DBP. However, the DBP elicited significantly greater BB activity vs. the SMBP and BBP, respectively. During the succeeding TE exercise, significantly greater activity of the TB was observed when this exercise was performed after the BBP vs. the SMBP and DBP. Therefore, it seems that the variation in BP modes does influence both repetition performance and muscle activation patterns during the

  1. [Options for flap coverage in pressure sores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nae, S; Antohi, N; Stîngu, C; Stan, V; Parasca, S

    2010-01-01

    Despite improvements in reconstructive techniques for pressure sores, recurrences are still seen frequently, and success rate remains variable. During 2003 - 2007, at the Emergency Hospital for Plastic Surgery and Burns in Bucharest, 27 patients underwent surgical repair of 45 pressure sores located at sacral (22 ulcers), ischial (12 ulcers) and trochanteric (11 ulcers) regions. The mean patient age was 57, 1 years (range 26 to 82 years). Mean postoperative follow-up was 6 months (range 2 months - 2 years). There were 18 complications for the 45 sores (40%). At 6 months postoperatively, recurrence was noted in 12 ulcers (27%). Details regarding indications, contraindications, advantages and disadvantages for different coverage options are outlined. The authors advocate the importance of surgical coverage in reducing morbidity, mortality and treatment costs.

  2. An audit of the physiotherapy management of paraplegic patients with sacral pressure sores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pather

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pressure sores are the most common complication post spinal cord injury that requires patients to be on bed rest. Patient bed rest delay rehabilitation and may lead to other complications associated with immobility. This study sought to establish the treatment interventions physiotherapists provide to patients with sacral pressure sores and the factors that they consider when deciding whether the patient should receive physiotherapy in the ward or gym. Methods: This was a questionnaire based survey of physiotherapists working in spinal cord injury rehabilitation units in South Africa. The self-designed questionnaire was sent to all the main spinal rehabilitation units in the country (14 located in Gauteng, Kwa-Zulu Natal, Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Free State provinces. Results: Thirty-nine physiotherapists from a total of 51 completed the questionnaires (76% response rate. The most common treatment practice for patients with sacral pressure sores was bed rest (98%. The most common physio-therapy practices (70% included were upper limb muscle strengthening, upper and lower limb passive movements, positioning into prone and side lying and passive stretching. The choice of treatment environment was influenced by doctors’ orders and the size, grade and duration of the pressure sores. Conclusion: Direct involvement in pressure sore management in South Africa seem to be less than in other parts of the world. If we are to minimise the pressure sore impact, it appears like we need more focus on gait re-education and standardised ADL programmes and patient treatment in the gym to possibly maximise healing and rehabilitation.

  3. Maximal power training induced different improvement in throwing velocity and muscle strength according to playing positions in elite male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, M; Chtourou, H; Souissi, N; Aouidet, A; Chamari, K

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of strength and power training on throwing velocity and muscle strength in handball players according to their playing positions. Twenty-two male handball players were assigned to either an experimental group (n=11) or a control group (n=11) (age: 22.1 ± 3.0 years). They were asked to complete (i) the ball throwing velocity test and (ii) the one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests for the half-back squat, the pull-over, the bench press, the developed neck, and the print exercises before and after 12 weeks of maximal power training. The training was designed to improve strength and power with an intensity of 85-95% of the 1RM. In addition to their usual routine handball training sessions, participants performed two sessions per week. During each session, they performed 3-5 sets of 3-8 repetitions with 3 min of rest in between. Then, they performed specific shots (i.e., 12 to 40). Ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001) was higher after the training period in rear line players (RL). The training programme resulted in an improvement of 1RM bench press (p<0.001), 1RM developed neck (p<0.001) and 1RM print (p<0.001) in both front line (FL) and RL. The control group showed a significant improvement only in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.01) and 1RM bench press (p<0.01) in RL. A significantly greater improvement was found in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001), 1RM bench press (p<0.001), and 1RM half-back squat exercises in players of the central axis (CA) compared to the lateral axis (LA) (p<0.01). The power training programme induced significantly greater increases in ball-throwing velocity and muscle strength in FL than RL and in CA than LA axis players.

  4. Parasacral Perforator Flaps for Reconstruction of Sacral Pressure Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Ta; Chen, Shih-Yi; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Chang, Shun-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Despite advances in reconstruction techniques, pressure sores continue to present a challenge to the plastic surgeon. The parasacral perforator flap is a reliable flap that preserves the entire contralateral side as a future donor site. On the ipsilateral side, the gluteal muscle itself is preserved and all flaps based on the inferior gluteal artery are still possible. We present our experience of using parasacral perforator flaps in reconstructing sacral defects. Between August 2004 and January 2013, 19 patients with sacral defects were included in this study. All the patients had undergone surgical reconstruction of sacral defects with a parasacral perforator flap. The patients' sex, age, cause of sacral defect, flap size, flap type, numbers of perforators used, rotation angle, postoperative complications, and hospital stay were recorded. There were 19 parasacral perforator flaps in this series. All flaps survived uneventfully except for 1 parasacral perforator flap, which failed because of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. The overall flap survival rate was 95% (18/19). The mean follow-up period was 17.3 months (range, 2-24 months). The average length of hospital stay was 20.7 days (range, 9-48 days). No flap surgery-related mortality was found. Also, there was no recurrence of sacral pressure sores or infected pilonidal cysts during the follow-up period. Perforator-based flaps have become popular in modern reconstructive surgery because of low donor-site morbidity and good preservation of muscle. Parasacral perforator flaps are durable and reliable in reconstructing sacral defects. We recommend the parasacral perforator flap as a good choice for reconstructing sacral defects.

  5. Occipital pressure sores in two neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Xiao, Bin; Zhang, Cheng; Su, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    The preference for a specific head shape can be influenced by people's culture, religious beliefs and race. Modern Chinese people prefer a "talented" head shape, which is rounded and has a long profile. To obtain their preferred head shape, some parents try to change their neonates' sleeping position. Due to these forced sleeping positions, positional skull deformities, such as plagiocephaly, may be present during the first few months of life. In this article, we report two neonatal cases, of Hui nationality and Dongxiang nationality, with occipital pressure sores that were caused by using hard objects as pillows with the intention of obtaining a flattened occiput. The pressure sores were deep to the occipital bone and needed surgical management. These pressure sores caused wounds that were repaired by local skin flaps, after debridement, and the use of external constraints from a dense sponge-made head frame for approximately two weeks. One case recovered with primary healing after surgical operation. The other case suffered from a disruption of the sutured wound, and a secondary operation was performed to cover the wound. These occipital pressure sores are avoidable by providing guidance to the parents in ethnic minorities' area regarding the prevention, diagnosis and management of positional skull deformity.

  6. Muscle glycogen metabolism changes in rats fed early postnatal a fructose-rich diet after maternal protein malnutrition: effects of acute physical exercise at the maximal lactate steady-state intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambri, Lucieli T; Ribeiro, Carla; Botezelli, José D; Ghezzi, Ana C; Mello, Maria Ar

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the muscle glucose metabolism in rats fed a fructose-rich diet after fetal protein malnutrition, at rest and after acute physical exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity. The male offspring born of mothers fed on a balanced or low-protein diet were split in four groups until 60 days: Balanced (B): balanced diet during the whole period; Balanced/Fructose (BF): balanced diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth; Low protein/Balanced (LB): low-protein diet in utero and balanced diet after birth; Low protein/Fructose (LF): low protein diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth. Acute physical exercise reduced the muscle glycogen concentrations in all groups, although the LF group showed higher concentrations at rest. There was no difference among the groups in the glucose uptake and oxidation rates in the isolated soleus muscle neither at rest nor after acute exercise. However, glycogen synthesis was higher in the LF muscle than in the others at rest. Acute physical exercise increased glycogen synthesis in all groups, and the LF group showed the highest values. The fructose-rich diet administered in rats after fetal protein malnutrition alters muscle glycogen concentrations and glycogen synthesis in the rest and after acute exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity.

  7. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howatson Glyn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD decreases muscle function and causes soreness and discomfort. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation has been shown to increase protein synthesis and decrease muscle protein breakdown, however, the effects of BCAAs on recovery from damaging resistance training are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a BCAA supplementation on markers of muscle damage elicited via a sport specific bout of damaging exercise in trained volunteers. Methods Twelve males (mean ± SD age, 23 ± 2 y; stature, 178.3 ± 3.6 cm and body mass, 79.6 ± 8.4 kg were randomly assigned to a supplement (n = 6 or placebo (n = 6 group. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Creatine kinase (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, muscle soreness (DOMS, vertical jump (VJ, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC were measured as markers of muscle damage. All variables were measured immediately before the damaging exercise and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Results A significant time effect was seen for all variables. There were significant group effects showing a reduction in CK efflux and muscle soreness in the BCAA group compared to the placebo (P Conclusion The present study has shown that BCAA administered before and following damaging resistance exercise reduces indices of muscle damage and accelerates recovery in resistance-trained males. It seems likely that BCAA provided greater bioavailablity of substrate to improve protein synthesis and thereby the extent of secondary muscle damage associated with strenuous resistance exercise. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01529281.

  8. [Pressure sores unit--a one year study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaul, E

    2001-10-01

    The phenomenon of pressure sores in the elderly patient often requires an alternative management policy to that of the standard treatment. In general, the therapeutic approach to pressure sores in the elderly should be different to that in younger patients. This modification is due to the accompanying comorbidity so often associated with aging. Due to accompanying illnesses, the aging population is at high risk and more predisposed to the development of pressure sores. The importance of the establishment of a unit for pressure sores arises from the specific geriatric team approach to the patient and the need to focus carefully on the pressure sores. The management of this special Pressure Sores Unit with a permanent capable staff requires skilled treatment, both localized and systemic, since pressure sores are very often a result of systemic failure or an indication of a terminal condition in the elderly patient. Over six months we followed-up on the number and location of the pressure sores in 47 patients in addition to other functional and nutritional parameters, in order to investigate any connection between the pressure sores and nutritional parameters. The results of the study indicate that the nutritional state of the patients admitted for pressure sores was very poor. Two thirds of the patients suffered from either dementia or stroke, and 90 percent were bedridden, incontinent and enterally fed. Despite the poor general condition of the patient, the study shows improvement in the pressure sores with a reduction from an average of 2.8 to 1.8 pressure sores per patient. The improvement in the pressure sore located on the legs was three times greater than those located in the pelvic area. By the end of the study, 50% of the patients had died, 33% of the original patients who were still in the unit showed improvement in the pressure sores and 15% were discharged showing complete recovery from the sores. No significant correlation was found between changes in the

  9. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  10. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  11. The relation between maximal voluntary force in m. palmaris longus and the temporal and spatial summation of muscle fiber recruitment in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudel, Cécyl G.; Ahmed, Waqas; Elbrønd, Vibeke S.

    2018-01-01

    that AMG is a noninvasive method which can be readily applied to accurately describe how a subject uses a given muscle during any given movement. These findings have relevance when considering training strategies in subjects with muscle trauma or disease, in the elderly, or for both amateur and top...

  12. Association between maximal hamstring strength and hamstring muscle pre-activity during a movement associated with non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Husted, Rasmus; Bencke, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reduced hamstring pre-activity during side-cutting may predispose for non-contact ACL injury. During the last decade resistance training of the lower limb muscles has become an integral part of ACL injury prevention in e.g. soccer and handball. However, it is not known whether a strong...... hamstring (ACL-agonist) musculature is associated with a high level of hamstring muscle pre-activity during high risk movements such as side-cutting. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hamstring muscle pre-activity recorded during a standardized sidecutting maneuver...... translate into high levels of muscle pre-activity during movements like the sidecutting maneuver. Thus, other exercise modalities (i.e. neuromuscular training) are needed to optimize hamstring muscle pre-activity during movements associated with non-contact ACL injury....

  13. Muscle activity pattern dependent pain development and alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-12-01

    Muscle activity is for decades considered to provide health benefits irrespectively of the muscle activity pattern performed and whether it is during e.g. sports, transportation, or occupational work tasks. Accordingly, the international recommendations for public health-promoting physical activity do not distinguish between occupational and leisure time physical activity. However, in this body of literature, attention has not been paid to the extensive documentation on occupational physical activity imposing a risk of impairment of health - in particular musculoskeletal health in terms of muscle pain. Focusing on muscle activity patterns and musculoskeletal health it is pertinent to elucidate the more specific aspects regarding exposure profiles and body regional pain. Static sustained muscle contraction for prolonged periods often occurs in the neck/shoulder area during occupational tasks and may underlie muscle pain development in spite of rather low relative muscle load. Causal mechanisms include a stereotype recruitment of low threshold motor units (activating type 1 muscle fibers) characterized by a lack of temporal as well as spatial variation in recruitment. In contrast during physical activities at leisure and sport the motor recruitment patterns are more dynamic including regularly relatively high muscle forces - also activating type 2 muscles fibers - as well as periods of full relaxation even of the type 1 muscle fibers. Such activity is unrelated to muscle pain development if adequate recovery is granted. However, delayed muscle soreness may develop following intensive eccentric muscle activity (e.g. down-hill skiing) with peak pain levels in thigh muscles 1-2 days after the exercise bout and a total recovery within 1 week. This acute pain profile is in contrast to the chronic muscle pain profile related to repetitive monotonous work tasks. The painful muscles show adverse functional, morphological, hormonal, as well as metabolic characteristics. Of

  14. Giant trochanteric pressure sore: Use of a pedicled chimeric perforator flap for cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrotra Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sores are increasing in frequency commensurate with an ageing population with multi-system disorders and trauma. Numerous classic options are described for providing stable wound cover. With the burgeoning knowledge on perforator anatomy, recent approaches focus on the use of perforator-based flaps in bedsore surgery. A giant neglected trochanteric pressure sore in a paraplegic is presented. Since conventional options of reconstruction appeared remote, the massive ulcer was successfully managed by a chimeric perforator-based flap. The combined muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps were raised as separate paddles based on the anterolateral thigh perforator branches and provided stable cover without complications. Perforators allow versatility in managing complex wounds without compromising on established principles.

  15. Inferior gluteal artery perforator flap: a viable alternative for ischial pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Seok; Lew, Dae Hyun; Roh, Tai Suk; Yoo, Won Min; Lee, Won Jai; Tark, Kwan Chul

    2009-10-01

    after surgery due to tissue deficit and these were treated with bursectomy and muscle transposition flap to fill the dead space. We propose that the IGAP flap should be considered a viable alternative to other methods of ischial pressure sore surgery owing to its many advantages, which include the ability to preserve peripheral muscle tissue, the variability of flap designs, relatively good durability, and the low donor site morbidity rate.

  16. Effects of lymphatic drainage and cryotherapy on indirect markers of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Michael; Jedlicka, Diana; Mester, Joachim

    2018-06-01

    Muscle enzymes are cleared from the extracellular space by the lymphatic system, while smaller proteins enter the bloodstream directly. We investigated if manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), local cryotherapy (CRY), and rest (RST) differently affect the time course of creatine kinase (CK, 84 kDa) and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP, 15 kDa) in the blood. Randomized controlled trial. After 4x20 unilateral, eccentric accentuated knee extensions (with one-third of the maximal isometric force) 30 sports students randomly received either a 30 min MLD, CRY or they rested (RST) for the same amount of time. CK, h-FABP, neutrophil granulocytes, and the perceived muscle soreness were assessed before, immediately after, and 1 hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours after the exercise. All measures increased significantly (Psports physicians and conditioning specialists who use biochemical muscle damage markers to adjust the training load and volume of athletes.

  17. The ′reading man flap′ for pressure sore reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatis Sapountzis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment of pressure sores represents a significant challenge to health care professionals. Although, pressure wound management demands a multidisciplinary approach, soft tissue defects requiring reconstruction are often considered for surgical management. Myocutaneous and fasciocutaneous flaps can provide stable coverage of pressure sores. Purpose: Here, we describe our experience using a recent fasciocutaneous flap, which is named ′reading man′ flap, in sacral, ischial, and trochanteric pressure sores. Materials and Methods: During a period of 1 year the authors operated 16 patients, 11 men, and 5 women, using the reading man flap. The ages of the patients ranged from 24 to 78 years. The location of pressure sores was 8 sacral, 5 ischial, and 3 trochanteric pressure sores. The mean size of pressure sores was 8 cm × 9 cm. Results: All pressure sores covered bt the Reading Man flap healed asymptomatically. After follow-up of 2-8 months, no recurrences were encountered and no further surgical intervention was required. Conclusion: The reading man flap was found to be a useful technique for the closure of pressure sore in different anatomic locations. The advantage of tension-free closure and the minimal additional healthy skin excision made this flap a useful tool in pressure sore reconstructions.

  18. Effects of intravenous diclofenac on postoperative sore throat in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of intravenous diclofenac on postoperative sore throat in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery at Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi: A prospective, randomized, double blind controlled trial.

  19. Effects of combined β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and whey protein ingestion on symptoms of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirato, Minayuki; Tsuchiya, Yosuke; Sato, Teruyuki; Hamano, Saki; Gushiken, Takeshi; Kimura, Naoto; Ochi, Eisuke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combined β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and whey protein ingestion on muscle strength and damage following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Eighteen untrained male subjects were assigned to HMB and Whey protein (HMB + Whey; 3 g/day HMB and 36.6 g/day whey protein, n = 6), HMB (3 g/day, n = 6), or whey protein (36.6 g/day, n = 6) groups. Ingestion commenced 7 days before non-dominant elbow flexor eccentric exercise (30 deg/sec, 6 reps × 7 sets) and continued until 4 days post-exercise. The maximal isometric strength, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assessed pre-exercise, and at 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after exercise. The change scores of maximal isometric strength significantly decreased at day 1, 2, and 5 in the whey protein group compared to pre value and that in HMB + Whey protein and HMB groups decreased at day 1 and 5. The muscle soreness significantly increased in the whey and HMB + Whey protein groups at day 3 compared to pre value (p HMB and whey protein does not have a role to inhibit muscle strength loss and soreness, and decrease in muscle damage markers after eccentric exercise in comparison with HMB and whey protein alone.

  20. Acute and timing effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB on indirect markers of skeletal muscle damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While chronic β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation (≥ 2 wk lowers exercise induced muscle damage, its acute or timing effects have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and timing effects of oral HMB supplementation on serum creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, muscle soreness, and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC. Methods Sixteen non-resistance trained men (22 ± 2 yrs were assigned to HMB-Pre or HMB-Post groups. In a crossover design, all subjects performed 55 maximal eccentric knee extension/flexion contractions on 2 occasions on either the right or left leg. HMB-Pre (N = 8 randomly received 3 grams of either a placebo or HMB before and a placebo after exercise. HMB-Post (N = 8 received a placebo before and either 3 grams of HMB or a placebo after exercise. Muscle damage tests were recorded before, at 8, 24, 48, and 72 hrs post exercise. Results There was a reduction in MVC and an increase in soreness in the quadriceps and hamstrings following exercise (p p = 0.07, there was no time × group effect. Serum indices of damage increased, peaking at 48 hrs for CK (773% (p p Conclusion Our findings suggest no clear acute or timing effects of HMB supplementation. However, consuming HMB before exercise appeared to prevent increases in LDH.

  1. Changes in neutrophil count, creatine kinases and muscle soreness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. A primary objective was to examine circulating neutrophil count after repeated bouts of downhill running. An additional aim was to determine creatine kinase (CK) levels during the initial 12 hours, after repeated DHRs. Design. Eleven healthy, untrained Caucasian males performed 2 x 60 min bouts of DHR ...

  2. Pressure sores and underlying bone infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarman, B.

    1987-01-01

    Pressure sores are a serious complication of hospitalized and chronically ill patients. Evaluation for underlying bone infection can be made difficult by radiographic, nuclear imaging, and soft-tissue culture studies that are abnormal and suggest the presence of bone infection, when no infection is present. Evaluation by bone biopsy with histologic and microbiological studies can accurately and promptly diagnose whether bone infection is present. This allows appropriate treatment when infection is present, and prevents unneeded and potentially toxic antibiotic therapy when preliminary studies incorrectly suggest that infection is present

  3. Muscle glycogen metabolism changes in rats fed early postnatal a fructose-rich diet after maternal protein malnutrition: effects of acute physical exercise at the maximal lactate steady-state intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Cambri, Lucieli Teresa [UNESP; Ribeiro, Carla [UNESP; Botezelli, Jose Diego [UNESP; Ghezzi, Ana Carolina [UNESP; Mello, Maria Alice Rostom de [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective was to evaluate the muscle glucose metabolism in rats fed a fructose-rich diet after fetal protein malnutrition, at rest and after acute physical exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity.Methods: The male offspring born of mothers fed on a balanced or low-protein diet were split in four groups until 60 days: Balanced (B): balanced diet during the whole period; Balanced/Fructose (BF): balanced diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth; Low protein/Bal...

  4. Comparative study of patients suffering sore throat after general anesthesia using laryngeal mask airway and cuffed pharyngeal tube in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani V

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Post-operative sore throat is one of the most common complications and complaints of patients after general anesthesia especially in operations that need endotracheal intubations. Its causes are: size of endotracheal tube and type of its cuff, inadequate airway humidification, trauma during intubation and suctioning, high flow of inspiratory gases, surgical manipulation of airway and adjacent organs, ect. Use of instruments with less invasion to upper respiratory tract, for example, face mask and airway, LMA or CPT are methods, used for decreasing the rate of post-operative sore throat. This study was performed to compare the rate of sore throat after general anesthesia between Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA and Cuffed Pharyngeal Tube (CPT. From the patients, 120 ASA: PS-I cases, were selected, who were candidates for elective surgery of Orthopedics, Urology, General surgery and Gynecology in Hazrat Rasool-Akram Hospital Complex in the year 2000. Their operation were performed in supine position and did not need muscle relaxation and the patients had spontaneous breathing. Duration of surgery was less than 2 hours. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: LMA was used for one group and CPT for others. Immediately after operation, in the recovery room and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours after removing the tube, the patients were asked about sore throat and the results were recorded in the related sheets. The results was 31.7 percent of patients in group LMA and 0 percent of patients in group CPT, had sore throat. There were significant difference between groups (LMA and CPT in presentation of sore throat (P<0.001.

  5. [The prevention of pressure sores in paediatric intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thueux, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    In paediatric intensive care, children develop pressure sores as a result of various mechanical and clinical factors. The prevention and assessment of the risk of pressure sores constitute a key concern for the nursing teams which establish prevention strategies adapted to the young patients.

  6. [Prevalence of pressure sores in a university hospital in 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daideri, G; Berthier, F; Brocker, P; Darmon, M-J; Mignolet, F; Quaranta, J-F; Staccini, P

    2006-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of pressure sores in a university hospital and to assess the risk of developing a pressure sore. A one-day survey was performed in all hospitalized patients, day hospital excepted. The Garches scale was used to assess the severity of pressure sores and the Braden scale was used to measure the patient's risk for the development of pressure ulcers. One thousand six hundred and eleven patients were included, mean age was 62+/-23 years and 53.3% were over 65 years old. In hospitalized patients, 64% were in acute care, 29% in intermediate medicine and long-term care and 7% in intensive care units. We have found 675 pressure sores in 268 patients, mean age of 76 years; 263 decubitus ulcers were acquired during hospitalization. The most frequent sites were heels (46%) and sacrum (26%). Stage 1 pressure ulcers showed 33% of the total. The total prevalence was 16.6%, 95% CI (14.9-18.6), the hospital acquired pressure sores prevalence was 7.5%, all stages included. A Braden score less than or equal to 15 was found in 29.1% of hospitalized patients. Standard mattresses were used in 37% of patients with pressure sores. Multivariate analysis showed that age and a Braden score less than or equal to 15 were significantly associated with pressure sores. Pressure sores are still an important problem in hospital; occurrence must be considered as an iatrogenic event and management requires a multidisciplinary approach.

  7. Sacral pressure sore reconstruction – the pedicled superior gluteal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pressure sore reconstruction has always been challenging. Immobile patients are prone to develop pressure sores from unre- lieved pressure on tissue over the sacral area, with shear, friction, moisture and malnutrition as contributing factors. Up to one-third of immobilised patients in long-term care facilities will develop.

  8. Reconstruction of trochanteric pressure sores with pedicled anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Shih-Yi; Fu, Ju-Peng; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Chen, Shao-Liang; Chen, Tim-Mo; Chen, Shyi-Gen

    2011-05-01

    To provide an alternative choice for covering trochanteric pressure sores, we report on a modified pedicle anterolateral thigh (ALT) myocutaneous flap based on the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. From August 2007 to January 2010, 20 consecutive patients (10 men and 10 women) underwent 21 pedicled ALT myocutaneous flaps for reconstruction of trochanteric pressure sores. The flap was designed and elevated, resembling the ALT perforator flap including part of the vastus lateralis muscle but without skeletonisation of the perforators. The mean age of patients was 79.4 years (range: 46-103). The mean follow-up period was 13.9 months (range: 3-32). The flaps were 8-21 cm long and 5-11 cm wide. All flaps healed without major complications. All donor sites were closed primarily without skin grafting and showed good aesthetic results. No recurrence was observed. This modified design of pedicled ALT myocutaneous flap without skeletonisation of perforators is a reliable and easily harvested flap for reconstruction of trochanteric pressure sores with limited morbidity. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Propeller Flap: A Valid Method to Cover Complicated Ischiatic Pressure Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Alessandro; Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Pierangeli, Marina; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old paraplegic man with a complicated grade III/IV ischiatic pressure sore treated with a propeller flap based on the first perforator of the profunda femoris artery. Our aim was to surgically reconstruct an ischiatic pressure sore in a patient with ankylosis using a fasciocutaneous perforator propeller flap obtained from the posterior region of the thigh. Our decision to perform a profunda femoris artery perforator propeller flap reconstruction was mainly due to the anatomical contiguity of the flap with the site of the lesion and the good quality of the skin harvested from the posterior region of the thigh. The use of the perforator fasciocutaneous flap represents a muscle-sparing technique, providing a better long-term result in surgical reconstruction. The choice of the 180-degree propeller flap was due to its ability to provide a good repair of the pressure ulcer and to pass over the ischiatic prominence in the patient in the forced decubitus position. The operatory course did not present any kind of complication. Using this reconstructive treatment, we have obtained complete coverage of the ischiatic pressure sore.

  10. Pressure sores following elective total hip arthroplasty: pitfalls of misinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keong, Nicole; Ricketts, David; Alakeson, Nuki; Rust, Philippa

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of reporting protocols regarding pressure sores. METHODS: Retrospective data were collected regarding pressure sore rates following total hip arthroplasty operations carried out during 2001 at two orthopaedic units in an NHS hospital (Princess Royal Hospital) and in a local private hospital. RESULTS: Preliminary results presented in audit and interim reports indicated an alarmingly high pressure sore rate across the two sites (17/172 [9.9%] NHS, 23/71 [32.4%] private hospital). On analysis, the data collection system was revealed to be flawed. Grade 1 areas (erythema with no ulceration) were included, leading to a dramatic discrepancy between reported and confirmed pressure sores. Re-analysis showed the confirmed pressure sore rates to be much lower (2.3% NHS, 1.0% private hospital). CONCLUSIONS: This audit suggests that both poor data collection and education lead to inaccurate audit. This may lead to subsequent inappropriate management and inappropriate NHS star ratings. PMID:15140301

  11. Acute and timing effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on indirect markers of skeletal muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jacob M; Kim, Jeong-Su; Lee, Sang-Rok; Rathmacher, John A; Dalmau, Brett; Kingsley, J Derek; Koch, Heather; Manninen, Anssi H; Saadat, Raz; Panton, Lynn B

    2009-02-04

    While chronic β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation (≥ 2 wk) lowers exercise induced muscle damage, its acute or timing effects have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and timing effects of oral HMB supplementation on serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), muscle soreness, and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Sixteen non-resistance trained men (22 ± 2 yrs) were assigned to HMB-Pre or HMB-Post groups. In a crossover design, all subjects performed 55 maximal eccentric knee extension/flexion contractions on 2 occasions on either the right or left leg. HMB-Pre (N = 8) randomly received 3 grams of either a placebo or HMB before and a placebo after exercise. HMB-Post (N = 8) received a placebo before and either 3 grams of HMB or a placebo after exercise. Muscle damage tests were recorded before, at 8, 24, 48, and 72 hrs post exercise. There was a reduction in MVC and an increase in soreness in the quadriceps and hamstrings following exercise (p HMB-Pre approached significance in attenuating soreness for the quadriceps (p = 0.07), there was no time x group effect. Serum indices of damage increased, peaking at 48 hrs for CK (773%) (p HMB on CK and LDH, post hoc analysis revealed that only HMB-Pre showed no significant increase in LDH levels following exercise. Our findings suggest no clear acute or timing effects of HMB supplementation. However, consuming HMB before exercise appeared to prevent increases in LDH.

  12. [Surgical coverage technics of pressure sores and their outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilkay, Ufuk; Helvaci, Evren; Tokat, Cenk; Ozek, Cüneyt; Akin, Yalçin

    2006-04-01

    We reviewed the outcome of 66 patients with 100 pressure sores between 1984 and 2002. In the current study, 100 pressure sores in 66 patients (45 male, 21 female; mean age 39.4; range 13 to 80 years) who underwent surgical repair of pressure sores reconstructed using myocutaneous or fasciocutaneous flaps, skin grafts, excision and closure. The risk factors for pressure sores included acute trauma-induced spinal cord injury in 40 (61%) patients with paraplegia and in 5 (7%) patients with quadriplegia; congenital spina bifida and multiple sclerosis in 7 (11%) patients and prolonged immobilization in 14 (21 patients) patients. We achieved an overall pressure sore recurrence rate of 22% and overall patient recurrence of 24% in a-3-year follow-up. The recurrence rates according to anatomic sites; 23% (10 of 43) for the ischial pressure sore, sacral 21% (8 of 37), and trochanteric 20% (4 of 20). Fasciocutaneous and myocutaneous flap reconstructions were the most durable, as they were associated with 17% (6 of 34) and 12% recurrence rates (5 of 39). To reduce the recurrence rates the authors advocate the use of myocutaneous and fasciocutaneous flaps instead of skin grafts or direct closure for the coverage of pressure sores.

  13. CHANGES IN MAXIMAL STRENGTH AND BODY COMPOSITION AFTER DIFFERENT METHODS OF DEVELOPING MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SUPPLEMENTATION WITH CREATINE, L-CARNITINE AND HMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kruszewski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of bodybuilding training combined with administration of L-carnitine, weightlifting training combined with administration of creatine, and isometric training combined with administration of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB on maximal strength and body composition of athletes. The studies were conducted on groups of beginners practising bodybuilding training (n=63 and isometric training (n=69 as well as on a group of advanced powerlifters (n=50 practising weightlifting training. The obtained results indicate that the most desirable and beneficial supportive effect in strength sports was exhibited by HMB. No significant differences in body composition of subjects practising bodybuilding training were detected between those who were given L-carnitine and those who received placebo, an observation confirming controversies over the capacity of the former to reduce fat content. However, significant differences in maximal strength were demonstrated between the examined groups of athletes. Significant differences in the examined parameters were also detected within the group of advanced powerlifters practising weightlifting between those who were supplemented with creatine and those who were given placebo. Thus, the use of creatine in the development of physical capacity in advanced athletes may be advisable.

  14. Prevention of pressure sores by identifying patients at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, K E; Jensen, O; Kvorning, S A; Bach, E

    1982-01-01

    The risk of pressure sores developing in patients admitted with acute conditions was assessed by a simple risk score system based on age, reduced mobility, incontinence, pronounced emaciation, redness over bony prominences, unconsciousness, dehydration, and paralysis in a prospective clinical study. During seven months in 1977, 600 of 3571 patients were classified as at risk. Of these 35 (5.8%) developed sores compared with five (0.2%) of those not at risk. The results of this study compared with those over the same period in 1976 show that close observation of at-risk patients and early detection of pressure sores prevents their development. PMID:6803980

  15. Prevention of pressure sores by identifying patients at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Jensen, O; Kvorning, S A

    1982-01-01

    The risk of pressure sores developing in patients admitted with acute conditions was assessed by a simple risk score system based on age, reduced mobility, incontinence, pronounced emaciation, redness over bony prominences, unconsciousness, dehydration, and paralysis in a prospective clinical stu...... of pressure sores prevents their development.......The risk of pressure sores developing in patients admitted with acute conditions was assessed by a simple risk score system based on age, reduced mobility, incontinence, pronounced emaciation, redness over bony prominences, unconsciousness, dehydration, and paralysis in a prospective clinical study...

  16. Reduced inflammatory and muscle damage biomarkers following oral supplementation with bioavailable curcumin

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlin, Brian K.; Venable, Adam S.; Henning, Andrea L.; Sampson, Jill N. Best; Pennel, Kathryn; Vingren, Jakob L.; Hill, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage (EIMD) and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) impact subsequent training sessions and activities of daily living (ADL) even in active individuals. In sedentary or diseased individuals, EIMD and DOMS may be even more pronounced and present even in the absence of structured exercise. Methods The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of oral curcumin supplementation (Longvida? 400?mg/days) on muscle & ADL soreness, creatine kinase (CK), an...

  17. Intrarater Reliability of Muscle Strength and Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Imbalance Ratios During Concentric, Isometric, and Eccentric Maximal Voluntary Contractions Using the Isoforce Dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau-Moeller, Anett; Gube, Martin; Felser, Sabine; Feldhege, Frank; Weippert, Matthias; Husmann, Florian; Tischer, Thomas; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Martin

    2017-08-17

    To determine intrasession and intersession reliability of strength measurements and hamstrings to quadriceps strength imbalance ratios (H/Q ratios) using the new isoforce dynamometer. Repeated measures. Exercise science laboratory. Thirty healthy subjects (15 females, 15 males, 27.8 years). Coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for (1) strength parameters, that is peak torque, mean work, and mean power for concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary contractions; isometric maximal voluntary torque (IMVT); rate of torque development (RTD), and (2) H/Q ratios, that is conventional concentric, eccentric, and isometric H/Q ratios (Hcon/Qcon at 60 deg/s, 120 deg/s, and 180 deg/s, Hecc/Qecc at -60 deg/s and Hiso/Qiso) and functional eccentric antagonist to concentric agonist H/Q ratios (Hecc/Qcon and Hcon/Qecc). High reliability: CV 0.90; moderate reliability: CV between 10% and 20%, ICC between 0.80 and 0.90; low reliability: CV >20%, ICC Strength parameters: (a) high intrasession reliability for concentric, eccentric, and isometric measurements, (b) moderate-to-high intersession reliability for concentric and eccentric measurements and IMVT, and (c) moderate-to-high intrasession reliability but low intersession reliability for RTD. (2) H/Q ratios: (a) moderate-to-high intrasession reliability for conventional ratios, (b) high intrasession reliability for functional ratios, (c) higher intersession reliability for Hcon/Qcon and Hiso/Qiso (moderate to high) than Hecc/Qecc (low to moderate), and (d) higher intersession reliability for conventional H/Q ratios (low to high) than functional H/Q ratios (low to moderate). The results have confirmed the reliability of strength parameters and the most frequently used H/Q ratios.

  18. Mouth Sores Caused by Cancer Treatment: How to Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leading to sores and infections. Both chemotherapy and radiation can impair your body's germ-fighting system (immune system). With an impaired immune system, viruses, bacteria and fungi can more easily infect your mouth, ...

  19. When a Sore Throat Is a More Serious Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often called Hand, Foot, and Mouth disease). Infectious mononucleosis can produce a sore throat, often with marked ... most young children who are infected with the mononucleosis virus have few or no symptoms. Strep throat ...

  20. Difference between a Sore Throat, Strep, and Tonsillitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often called Hand, Foot, and Mouth disease ). Infectious mononucleosis (often called "Mono") can produce a sore throat, ... most young children who are infected with the mononucleosis virus have few or no symptoms. Strep Throat ...

  1. Spotlight on Psoriasis: Preventing Patches of Itchy, Sore Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe August 2016 Print this issue Spotlight on Psoriasis Preventing Patches of Itchy, Sore Skin En español ... Sun Damage Sun and Skin Wise Choices Avoid Psoriasis Triggers Factors that may trigger psoriasis or make ...

  2. Efeito do uso de meia elástica sobre os níveis dos biomarcadores de lesão muscular em atletas de voleibol após atividade física Effect of elastic stockings on biomarkers levels of muscle soreness in volleyball players after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Figueiredo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os níveis plasmáticos dos biomarcadores de lesão muscular, a saber, creatina quinase, lactato desidrogenase e mioglobina, em atletas profissionais de voleibol após exercícios musculares anaeróbicos, com e sem uso de meia elástica. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas dez jogadoras profissionais de voleibol, com idades entre 18 e 25 anos, utilizando ou não meia elástica (Sport Active®, Venosan, Abreu e Lima, Brasil, com compressão de 20 a 30 mmHg abaixo do joelho. As dosagens foram feitas em três momentos: M0, início da manhã, com as atletas em repouso sem uso de meia elástica; M1, início da manhã, após a realização de atividade física com uso de meia elástica; M2, sete dias depois, após a realização dos mesmos exercícios, porém sem uso de meia elástica. Aplicou-se a escala de Borg após cada série de atividade física para avaliação do esforço. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios obtidos para creatina quinase e lactato desidrogenase foram, respectivamente, de 117,7±40,2 e 134,2±11,3 U/L, em M0; 138,2±47,2 e 157,9±10,1 U/L, em M1; e 161,3±59,9 e 177,2±18,8 U/L, em M2. Os valores médios obtidos para mioglobina foram de 31,5±6,5; 34,9±5,6 e 38,6±12,6 µg/L nos momentos M0, M1 e M2, respectivamente. Houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas (Tukey entre M1 e M2 para os valores de creatina quinase (p=0,0007 e lactato desidrogenase (p=0,000, mas não para os valores de mioglobina (p=0,1135. Os escores da escala de Borg em M1 e M2 foram, respectivamente, de 17,8 e 18,2, sem diferença estatisticamente significante entre eles (Wilcoxon. CONCLUSÃO: O uso da meia elástica foi associado a menores níveis plasmáticos dos biomarcadores de lesão muscular após exercício físico.OBJECTIVE:To assess plasma levels of muscle soreness biomarkers, namely creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and myoglobin, in professional volleyball players following anaerobic exercise with and without the use of elastic

  3. [Treatment of pubic osteomyelitis secondary to pressure sores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, Anne-Sophie; Téot, Luc; Lamy, Brigitte; Masson, Raphaël; Morquin, David; Reynes, Jacques; Le Moing, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for pubic osteomyelitis secondary to pelvic pressure sores. Diagnosis is often difficult and bone biopsies with microbiological and anatomical-pathological examination remain the gold standard. The rate of cicatrisation of pressure sores is low. Cleansing and negative pressure treatment are key elements of the treatment. Optimising the care management with medical-surgical collaboration is being studied in the Ostear protocol.

  4. Aetiology of pressure sores in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, C; Silver, J R

    1984-01-01

    One hundred consecutive patients admitted to the National Spinal Injuries Centre, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, with pressure sores were studied to assess the relative importance of factors known to predispose to the development of scores. Loss of feeling was critical, because patients were unable to appreciate pain when the sore was developing. Risk of developing a sore increased with age, but duration of the paralysis was of equal importance. After discharge from hospital the presence of a caring relative or friend was essential for survival. Many patients developed sores because of poor facilities at home or inappropriate advice from those who looked after them. An even more distressing factor was the number of patients who developed sores in hospital owing to inadequate nursing care. There are relatively few paralysed patients in the community, but the lessons learnt in this study may be applied to all patients with orthopaedic injuries and to geriatric patients with limited mobility. Nursing and medical staff must turn patients regularly and ensure that there is proper equipment to relieve pressure on the skin. Patients should not be allowed to sit in a chair if they develop a sacral or trochanteric sore. More effort should be directed towards the appropriate education of patients, their relatives, and all those who are concerned with their welfare. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 PMID:6439284

  5. [Pressure sores in geriatric medicine: the role of nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Juliette; Raynaud-Simon, Agathe

    2008-01-01

    Malnutrition is frequent in geriatric patients: it affects 30 to 60% of elderly residents of institutions and 30 to 70% of patients admitted for short-term hospitalization. Malnutrition is a risk factor for developing pressure sores, and patients with them are more often and more severely malnourished than patients without them. In elderly subjects, multiple and interlinked factors may trigger or aggravate malnutrition; they may be physical, psychological or social and may be worsened by drugs and some diets. Malnutrition has been recognized as a risk factor for the onset and perpetuation of pressure sores. Of the dietary factors, protein intake seems most important. A low body mass index (BMI), low serum albumin, and weight loss are associated with an increased risk of pressure sores. A physician observing pressure sores must conduct a nutritional assessment, using clinical and laboratory screening tools. The criteria for malnutrition in elderly subjects are weight loss > or =5% in 3 months or > or =10% in 6 months, BMIpressure sores in geriatric medicine. It must be adapted for each patient. The recommended calorie intake in malnourished patients at risk of or with pressure sores is 30-40 kcal/kg/d, with 1.2-1.5 g of proteins/kg/d.

  6. The repeated bout effect of typical lower body strength training sessions on sub-maximal running performance and hormonal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Schumann, Moritz; Sinclair, Wade H; Leicht, Anthony S; Deakin, Glen B; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of two typical strength training sessions performed 1 week apart (i.e. repeated bout effect) on sub-maximal running performance and hormonal. Fourteen resistance-untrained men (age 24.0 ± 3.9 years; height 1.83 ± 0.11 m; body mass 77.4 ± 14.0 kg; VOpeak 48.1 ± 6.1 M kg(-1) min(-1)) undertook two bouts of high-intensity strength training sessions (i.e. six-repetition maximum). Creatine kinase (CK), delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), counter-movement jump (CMJ) as well as concentrations of serum testosterone, cortisol and testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C) were examined prior to and immediately post, 24 (T24) and 48 (T48) h post each strength training bout. Sub-maximal running performance was also conducted at T24 and T48 of each bout. When measures were compared between bouts at T48, the degree of elevation in CK (-58.4 ± 55.6 %) and DOMS (-31.43 ± 42.9 %) and acute reduction in CMJ measures (4.1 ± 5.4 %) were attenuated (p 0.05). Sub-maximal running performance was impaired until T24, although changes were not attenuated following the second bout. The initial bout appeared to provide protection against a number of muscle damage indicators suggesting a greater need for recovery following the initial session of typical lower body resistance exercises in resistance-untrained men although sub-maximal running should be avoided following the first two sessions.

  7. MUSCLE STRENGTH AND DAMAGE FOLLOWING TWO MODES OF VARIABLE RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Jalal Aboodarda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nautilus Machine (NM and Elastic Resistance (ER have gained considerable popularity among athletes and recreational lifters seeking to increase muscle strength. However, there is controversy concerning the use of ER for increasing muscle hypertrophy and strength among healthy-trained individuals. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of repeated near maximal contractions by ER/NM on indicators of muscle damage including: maximal strength decrement (MVIC, rate of muscle soreness (DOMS, concentration of plasma creatine kinase (CK and increased high muscle signal on T2 weighted images using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Nine healthy male subjects completed two modalities of exercise (5 sets × 10RM ER/NM in a counterbalance cross-over study design with three weeks "wash-out" period between experiments. The MVIC was measured and DOMS rated and recorded for 4 consecutive days while blood samples were collected on day 1, 3, 5 and 7. Prior to and forty eight hours after completion of each mode of exercise, subjects underwent MRI scanning. The average of applied forces demonstrated significantly higher value for NM compared with ER (362 ± 34.2 N vs 266.73 ± 44.6 N respectively throughout the 5 sets of dynamic exercise (all p < 0.05. However, the indicators of muscle damage (T2 relaxation time, DOMS, MVIC and serum CK exhibited a very similar response across both modes of training. Plasma CK increased significantly following both modes of training with the peak value on Day 3 (p < 0.05. The time course of muscle soreness reached a significant level after both modes of exercise and showed a peak value on the 2nd day (p < 0.05. The T2 relaxation time demonstrated a statistically significant increase following ER and NM compared with the pre-test value (p < 0.05. The similarity of these responses following both the ER and NM exercise training session suggests that both modes of training provide a similar training stress; despite a considerably

  8. Maximal Voluntary Activation of the Elbow Flexors Is under Predicted by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Compared to Motor Point Stimulation Prior to and Following Muscle Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. J. Cadigan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic (TMS and motor point stimulation have been used to determine voluntary activation (VA. However, very few studies have directly compared the two stimulation techniques for assessing VA of the elbow flexors. The purpose of this study was to compare TMS and motor point stimulation for assessing VA in non-fatigued and fatigued elbow flexors. Participants performed a fatigue protocol that included twelve, 15 s isometric elbow flexor contractions. Participants completed a set of isometric elbow flexion contractions at 100, 75, 50, and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC prior to and following fatigue contractions 3, 6, 9, and 12 and 5 and 10 min post-fatigue. Force and EMG of the bicep and triceps brachii were measured for each contraction. Force responses to TMS and motor point stimulation and EMG responses to TMS (motor evoked potentials, MEPs and Erb's point stimulation (maximal M-waves, Mmax were also recorded. VA was estimated using the equation: VA% = (1−SITforce/PTforce × 100. The resting twitch was measured directly for motor point stimulation and estimated for both motor point stimulation and TMS by extrapolation of the linear regression between the superimposed twitch force and voluntary force. MVC force, potentiated twitch force and VA significantly (p < 0.05 decreased throughout the elbow flexor fatigue protocol and partially recovered 10 min post fatigue. VA was significantly (p < 0.05 underestimated when using TMS compared to motor point stimulation in non-fatigued and fatigued elbow flexors. Motor point stimulation compared to TMS superimposed twitch forces were significantly (p < 0.05 higher at 50% MVC but similar at 75 and 100% MVC. The linear relationship between TMS superimposed twitch force and voluntary force significantly (p < 0.05 decreased with fatigue. There was no change in triceps/biceps electromyography, biceps/triceps MEP amplitudes, or bicep MEP amplitudes throughout the fatigue protocol at

  9. Preconditioning by light-load eccentric exercise is equally effective as low-level laser therapy in attenuating exercise-induced muscle damage in collegiate men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausheen S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Samar Nausheen,1 Jamal Ali Moiz,1 Shahid Raza,1 Mohammad Yakub Shareef,2 Shahnawaz Anwer,3,4 Ahmad H Alghadir3 1Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 2Faculty of Dentistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 3Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India Background/objective: Previous studies have already reported an independent effect of light-load eccentric exercise (10% eccentric exercise contraction [EEC] and low-level laser therapy (LLLT as a protective measure against more strenuous eccentric exercise. However, the difference between these two interventions is largely unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the preconditioning effect of 10% EEC vs. LLLT on subjective, physiological, and biochemical markers of muscle damage in elbow flexors in collegiate men.Methods: All 36 enrolled subjects were randomly assigned to either 10% EEC or LLLT group. Subjects in 10% EEC group performed 30 repetitions of an eccentric exercise with 10% maximal voluntary contraction strength 2 days prior to maximal eccentric exercise bout, whereas subjects in LLLT group were given LLLT. All the indirect markers of muscle damage were measured pre-exercise and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the exercise-induced muscle damage protocol.Results: The muscle soreness was reduced in both groups (p = 0.024; however, soreness was attenuated more in LLLT group at 48 hours (33.5 vs. 42.7, p = 0.004. There was no significant difference between the effect of 10% EEC and LLLT groups on other markers of muscle damage like a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (p = 0.47, range of motion (p = 0.16, upper arm circumference (p = 0.70, creatine kinase (p = 0.42, and lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.08. Within-group analysis showed both interventions provided

  10. Treatment of ischial pressure sores with double adipofascial turnover flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haodong; Hou, Chunlin; Xu, Zhen; Chen, Aiming

    2010-01-01

    Despite a variety of flap reconstruction options, the ischium remains the most difficult pressure sore site to treat. This article describes the authors' successful surgical procedure for coverage of ischial ulcers using double adipofascial turnover flaps.After debridement, the adipofascial flaps are harvested both cephalad and caudal to the defect. The flaps are then turned over to cover the exposed bone in a manner so as to overlap the 2 flaps. The skin is then closed with sutures in 2 layers. A total of 15 patients with ischial sores were treated using this surgical procedure.The follow-up period ranged from 11 to 159 months, with a mean of 93.6 months. Overall, 86.7% of the flaps (13 of 15) healed primarily. One patient had a recurrent grade II ischial pressure sore again 11 months after the operation. The other 14 patients did not have a recurrence.Treatment of ischial pressure sores with adipofascial turnover flaps provides an easy, minimally invasive procedure, with preservation of future flap options, and a soft-tissue supply sufficient for covering the bony prominence and filling dead space. This technique is a reliable and safe reconstructive modality for the management of minor ischial pressure sores.

  11. Pressure sores--a multifaceted approach to prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staas, W. E.; Cioschi, H. M.

    1991-01-01

    The incidence and effect of pressure sores on the disabled and elderly population have created a challenge to physicians and health care professionals, from emergency departments to rehabilitation units, and in the community. If not prevented, the morbidity and mortality of patients and the direct and indirect costs to both patients and the health care system are radically increased. In this article we define the impact on our health care system of pressure sores, provide an overview of a multifaceted approach to their prevention and management, and introduce successful behavioral and educational approaches for patients with chronic, recurrent sores. A coordinated approach with patients as informed participants and their care givers enhances the chances for success. PMID:1830985

  12. Type of Ground Surface during Plyometric Training Affects the Severity of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage from a bout of plyometric exercise (PE; 10 × 10 vertical jumps performed in aquatic, sand and firm conditions. Twenty-four healthy college-aged men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Aquatic (AG, n = 8, Sand (SG, n = 8 and Firm (FG, n = 8. The AG performed PE in an aquatic setting with a depth of ~130 cm. The SG performed PE on a dry sand surface at a depth of 20 cm, and the FG performed PE on a 10-cm-thick wooden surface. Plasma creatine kinase (CK activity, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, knee range of motion (KROM, maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC of the knee extensors, vertical jump (VJ and 10-m sprint were measured before and 24, 48 and 72 h after the PE. Compared to baseline values, FG showed significantly (p < 0.05 greater changes in CK, DOMS, and VJ at 24 until 48 h. The MIVC decreased significantly for the SG and FG at 24 until 48 h post-exercise in comparison to the pre-exercise values. There were no significant (p > 0.05 time or group by time interactions in KROM. In the 10-m sprint, all the treatment groups showed significant (p < 0.05 changes compared to pre-exercise values at 24 h, and there were no significant (p > 0.05 differences between groups. The results indicate that PE in an aquatic setting and on a sand surface induces less muscle damage than on a firm surface. Therefore, training in aquatic conditions and on sand may be beneficial for the improvement of performance, with a concurrently lower risk of muscle damage and soreness.

  13. The Pacman Perforator-Based V-Y Advancement Flap for Reconstruction of Pressure Sores at Different Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Stefano; Salval, André; Brenta, Federica; Rapisarda, Vincenzo; Settembrini, Fernanda

    2016-09-01

    Many procedures have been proposed for the treatment of pressure sores, and V-Y advancement flaps are widely used to repair a defect. Unfortunately, the degree of mobility of a V-Y advancement flap is dependent on the laxity of the underlying subcutaneous tissue. This is an important disadvantage of traditional V-Y advancement flap and limits its use.We used V-Y advancement flaps as perforator-based to overcome mobility restriction problem, with a further modification (Pacman-like shape) to improve the covering surface area of the flap. Between January 2012 and December 2014, the authors used 37 V-Y Pacman perforator-based flaps in 33 consecutive patients for coverage of defects located at sacral (n = 21), ischial (n = 13), trochanter (n = 1) regions. There were 27 male and 6 female patients with a mean age of 49.9 years (range, 15-74 years). All flaps survived completely (92.3%) except 3 in which one of them had undergone total necrosis due to hematoma and the other 2 had partial necrosis. No venous congestion was observed. The mean follow-up period was 14.9 months (range, 2-38 months). No flap surgery-related mortality or recurrence of pressure sores was noted. The V-Y Pacman perforator-based advancement flaps are safe and very effective for reconstruction of pressure sores at various regions. The advantage of our modification procedure include shorter operative time, lesser pedicle dissection, low donor site morbidity, good preservation of muscle, and offers remarkable excursion to the V-Y flap, which make the V-Y Pacman perforator-based flaps an excellent choice for large pressure sore coverage.

  14. [An assessment scale for the prevention of pressure sores in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Corinne; Poirier, Marie-Renée; Sourisseau, Petronela Rachieru; Béduneau, Denis; Soulard, Anthony; Delacroix, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    Pressure sores in children are rare. However, when they do occur they can have significant consequences. Professionals in paediatric units realised the importance of assessing the risk of pressure sores and developed a pressure sore assessment scale specific to children. This project, carried out through a hospital-training school partnership, emphasises the importance of clinical reasoning in nursing practices.

  15. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  16. Parental contribution to over prescription of antibiotics for sore throat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Antibiotics are often prescribed by physicians for sore throat in children because of the danger of post streptococcal complications. The role of the parents in over prescription of antibiotics is less well known. Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of parents to antibiotic prescription for ...

  17. [Support devices for the prevention and treatment of pressure sores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrouin-Verbe, Brigite

    2014-12-01

    There is a strategy to be followed in the treatment of patients with specific pathologies placing them at high risk of pressure sores. In some cases, sophisticated support devices are used.These techniques must be combined with basic good practices.

  18. [Surgical issues and outcomes in ischial pressure sores treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulliaume, D; Grecea, M; Viard, R; Brun, A; Comparin, J-P; Foyatier, J-L

    2011-12-01

    Ischiatic pressure sores are frequent in spinal cord injury patients, associated with bad prognosis and high recurrence rate. Many surgical techniques were described, including surgical debridement followed by pedicled flap coverage. We aim to propose a practical decision tree for primary or secondary ischial pressure sore treatment. Our series of 48 operated ischial sores with an average follow up of 4 years (range 2 to 8years) is analyzed and compared to previously published reports. Surgical techniques are discussed according to their specific indications. The optimal recurrence rate in published reports about pressure sore treatment is 20%; a rate inferior to 19% is found in our series, showing the equal importance of flap selection and postoperative care and education. Depending on each situation, various available flaps are described and compared: gluteus maximus flap, biceps femoris flap, gracilis flap, tensor fascia lata flap, fasciocutaneous thigh flaps, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis flap, rectus abdominis flap. Specific surgical indications for more extensive wounds are studied: resection arthroplasty of the hip, hip disarticulation, fillet flaps from the leg, microsurgery. Based upon our experience, a decision tree summarizes our proposition of flap selection, depending on the wound size and the patient background. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Medicinal Plants for Healing Sores and Wounds among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal Plants for Healing Sores and Wounds among the Communities Surrounding Ungoye Forest, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. ... The focus was on the medicinal plants that grow in the Ungoye forest and around the homesteads. The survey ... Keywords: Traditional medicine, documentation, Ethno-survey, wounds.

  20. Antibiotic prescribing in patients with self-reported sore throat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, Nishchay; Schilder, Anne; Fragaszy, Ellen; E R Evans, Hannah; Dukes, Oliver; Manikam, Logan; Little, Paul; Smith, Sarah C; Hayward, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the predictors of general practitioner (GP) consultation and antibiotic use in those developing sore throat. METHODS: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study on 4461 participants in two rounds (2010-11) from 1897 households. RESULTS: Participants reported

  1. Sore throat · vaginal discharge · labial ulcer · Dx?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravelli, Ashley; Bhatnagar, Rupal; Ashaye, Adelola

    2016-06-01

    The patient complained of worsening vaginal pain and increased vaginal discharge, but reported resolution of her back and chest pain. She also said that a week earlier, she'd had a fever that reached 104° F and a sore throat. She denied urinary frequency/urgency, sexual activity, or sexual abuse.

  2. Pressure sores in spinal cord injury: Active intervention saves costs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-22

    Jul 22, 2008 ... interrogated for all cervical spine injuries. Patients were identified retrospectively for the period April 2003 to May 2006 and divided into 4 groups according to the level of intervention they received to prevent pressure sores. Group A. These were the first 100 patients with cervical injuries managed in the unit ...

  3. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  4. The effect of session order on the physiological, neuromuscular, and endocrine responses to maximal speed and weight training sessions over a 24-h period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Michael; Johnston, Julia; Cook, Christian J; Costley, Lisa; Kilgallon, Mark; Kilduff, Liam P

    2017-05-01

    Athletes are often required to undertake multiple training sessions on the same day with these sessions needing to be sequenced correctly to allow the athlete to maximize the responses of each session. We examined the acute effect of strength and speed training sequence on neuromuscular, endocrine, and physiological responses over 24h. 15 academy rugby union players completed this randomized crossover study. Players performed a weight training session followed 2h later by a speed training session (weights speed) and on a separate day reversed the order (speed weights). Countermovement jumps, perceived muscle soreness, and blood samples were collected immediately prior, immediately post, and 24h post-sessions one and two respectively. Jumps were analyzed for power, jump height, rate of force development, and velocity. Blood was analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, lactate and creatine kinase. There were no differences between countermovement jump variables at any of the post-training time points (p>0.05). Likewise, creatine kinase, testosterone, cortisol, and muscle soreness were unaffected by session order (p>0.05). However, 10m sprint time was significantly faster (mean±standard deviation; speed weights 1.80±0.11s versus weights speed 1.76±0.08s; p>0.05) when speed was sequenced second. Lactate levels were significantly higher immediately post-speed sessions versus weight training sessions at both time points (ptraining does not affect the neuromuscular, endocrine, and physiological recovery over 24h. However, speed may be enhanced when performed as the second session. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ibuprofen ingestion does not affect markers of post-exercise muscle inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke eVella

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated if oral ingestion of ibuprofen influenced leucocyte recruitment and infiltration following an acute bout of traditional resistance exercise. Methods: Sixteen male subjects were divided into two groups that received the maximum over-the-counter dose of ibuprofen (1200 mg d-1 or a similarly administered placebo following lower body resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from m.vastus lateralis and blood serum samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise, and at 3 h and 24 h after exercise. Muscle cross-sections were stained with antibodies against neutrophils (CD66b and MPO and macrophages (CD68. Muscle damage was assessed via creatine kinase and myoglobin in blood serum samples, and muscle soreness was rated on a ten-point pain scale. Results: The resistance exercise protocol stimulated a significant increase in the number of CD66b+ and MPO+ cells when measured 3 h post exercise. Serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness all increased post-exercise. Muscle leucocyte infiltration, creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness were unaffected by ibuprofen treatment when compared to placebo. There was also no association between increases in inflammatory leucocytes and any other marker of cellular muscle damage. Conclusion: Ibuprofen administration had no effect on the accumulation of neutrophils, markers of muscle damage or muscle soreness during the first 24 h of post-exercise muscle recovery.

  6. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  7. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  8. [Skin care and prevention of bed sores in bedridden patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cuervo, Fernando; Soldevilla Agreda, J Javier; Verdú Soriano, José; Segovia Gómez, Teresa; García Fernández, Francisco Pedro; Pancorbo Hidalgo, Pedro Luís

    2007-12-01

    The aging process and environmental aggressions will leave their imprints on the state of a person's skin, possibly compromising some of its functions. Age is a risk factor for the development of bed sores, but not the only factor nor the most important one; therefore, we need to develop prevention programs directed to all patients who spend long periods of time sedentary or bedridden. Prevention programs for bed sores must be based on the best evidence available and include a risk evaluation on these factors: suffering a lesion due to pressure, specific skin treatment, incontinence control, excessive humidity posture changes and the use of special surfaces to manage pressure during an increase in mobility or activity by the patient, local pressure reducing devices as well as paying attention to special situations. All of these care measures have to be developed based on a continuity of treatment among the institutions and caretakers involved with treating each patient.

  9. Ear Acupuncture for Acute Sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ear acupuncture for acute sore throat. A randomized controlled trial...Auncular Acupuncture is a low risk option for acute pain control •Battlefield acupuncture (BFA) IS a specific auncular acupuncture technique •BFA IS...Strengths: Prospect1ve RCT •Weaknesses Small sample stze. no sham acupuncture performed, patients not blinded to treatment •Th1s study represents an

  10. Pressure sores and blood and serum dysmetabolism in spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scivoletto, G; Fuoco, U; Morganti, B; Cosentino, E; Molinari, M

    2004-08-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with pressure sores were studied before and after surgical intervention for ulcer healing and compared with matched SCI patients without sores and with patients with pressure sores and other diseases. To analyse the relationship between pressure sores and anaemia and serum protein alteration in SCI patients. To study the pathogenesis of these alterations and suggest appropriate therapy. Spinal cord unit in Rome, Italy. A total of 13 SCI patients with pressure sores, 13 comparable patients without pressure sores and four patients with other diseases and pressure sores. Haematochemical parameters. Patients with pressure sore showed significant decreased red cells, decreased haemoglobin and haematocrit, increased white cells and ferritin and decreased transferrin and transferrin saturation; total hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia with increased Alfa-1 and gamma globulins increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were also present. The alterations returned to normal after surgical intervention for pressure sore healing. Patients with pressure sores suffer from anaemia and serum protein alteration that fells within the range of metabolic alteration of chronic disorders and neoplastic diseases. The alterations depend on a decreased utilisation of iron stores in the reticuloendothelial system and on inhibition of the hepatic synthesis of albumin. With regard to treatment, iron treatment should be avoided because of the risk of haemochromatosis.

  11. Approach to the pressure sores in geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre İnözü

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the follow-up results of nutritionally supported geriatric patientswho were admitted for their pressure sores then plannedtheir treatment.Materials and methods: In this study, we analyzed thehospitalized geriatric pressure sore patients in our clinicwho were admitted between 2006 and 2011. We calculatedBody Mass Index and the blood albumin levels of allhospitalized geriatric patients. In this patient group proteinenergy malnutrition and deficiency were analyzed andproper nutrition support was provided accordingly. Afterrecovering from malnutrition further treatment surpassed.Results: The mean albumin levels of the hospitalized patientswas 2,53 ± 0,25 g/dL after nutritional support thoselevels increased to mean 3,95 ± 0,42 g/dL . Of all thosepatients 75% were operated when their general conditionallowed us for a surgery. Due to their high risk wedid not perform any surgical operation to the remaining25%.. Post operative mean hospitalization period was 12(8-21 days. Majority of the patients (78.6% were treatedsuccessfully either with surgical or conservative treatmentmodalities.Conclusions: The success of the geriatric pressure soretreatment is highly related with the proper nutritional supportfor the ongoing malnutrition-like pathologies. Beforeoperation nutritional support not only makes a healthygranulation tissue but also yields fast and reliable woundhealing. Despite their chronic health problems many ofour geriatric patients were treated surgically for their pressuresores.Key words: Pressure sore, geriatric medicine, malnutrition,nutritional support

  12. Effects of low-level laser therapy applied before or after plyometric exercise on muscle damage markers: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Carolina Gassen; Dornelles, Maurício Pinto; Severo-Silveira, Lucas; Marques, Vanessa Bernardes; Rosso, Isabele de Albuquerque; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2016-12-01

    Promising effects of phototherapy on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage has been already demonstrated in constant load or isokinetic protocols. However, its effects on more functional situations, such as plyometric exercises, and when is the best moment to apply this treatment (pre- or post-exercise) remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) before or after plyometric exercise on quadriceps muscle damage markers. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 24 healthy men, 12 at pre-exercise treatment group and 12 at post-exercise treatment group. Placebo and LLLT (810 nm, 200 mW per diode, 6 J per diode, 240 J per leg) were randomly applied on right/left knee extensor muscles of each volunteer before/after a plyometric exercise protocol. Muscular echo intensity (ultrasonography images), soreness (visual analogue scale - VAS), and strength impairment (maximal voluntary contraction - MVC) were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise. Legs treated with LLLT before or after exercise presented significantly smaller increments of echo intensity (values up to 1 %) compared to placebo treatments (increased up to ∼7 %). No significant treatment effect was found for VAS and MVC, although a trend toward better results on LLLT legs have been found for VAS (mean values up to 30 % lesser than placebo leg). In conclusion, LLLT applied before or after plyometric exercise reduces the muscle echo intensity response and possibly attenuates the muscle soreness. However, these positive results were not observed on strength impairment.

  13. Effects of concentric and repeated eccentric exercise on muscle damage and calpain-calpastatin gene expression in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, K.; Overgaard, K.; Nedergaard, A.

    2008-01-01

    , and was compared to a control-group (n = 6). Muscle strength and soreness and plasma creatine kinase and myoglobin were measured before and during 7 days following exercise bouts. Muscle biopsies were collected from m. vastus lateralis of both legs prior to and at 3, 24 h and 7 days after exercise and quantified...... for muscle Ca2+-content and mRNA levels for calpain isoforms and calpastatin. Exercise reduced muscle strength and increased muscle soreness predominantly in the eccentric leg (P ... eccentric exercise bout (P muscle Ca2+-content did not differ between interventions. mRNA levels for calpain 2 and calpastatin were upregulated exclusively by eccentric exercise 24 h post-exercise (P

  14. Isometric pre-conditioning blunts exercise-induced muscle damage but does not attenuate changes in running economy following downhill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leonardo C R; Bassan, Natália M; Cardozo, Adalgiso C; Gonçalves, Mauro; Greco, Camila C; Denadai, Benedito S

    2018-05-08

    Running economy (RE) is impaired following unaccustomed eccentric-biased exercises that induce muscle damage. It is also known that muscle damage is reduced when maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) are performed at a long muscle length 2-4 days prior to maximal eccentric exercise with the same muscle, a phenomenon that can be described as isometric pre-conditioning (IPC). We tested the hypothesis that IPC could attenuate muscle damage and changes in RE following downhill running. Thirty untrained men were randomly assigned into experimental or control groups and ran downhill on a treadmill (-15%) for 30 min. Participants in the experimental group completed 10 MVIC in a leg press machine two days prior to downhill running, while participants in the control group did not perform IPC. The magnitude of changes in muscle soreness determined 48 h after downhill running was greater for the control group (122 ± 28 mm) than for the experimental group (92 ± 38 mm). Isometric peak torque recovered faster in the experimental group compared with the control group (3 days vs. no full recovery, respectively). No significant effect of IPC was found for countermovement jump height, serum creatine kinase activity or any parameters associated with RE. These results supported the hypothesis that IPC attenuates changes in markers of muscle damage. The hypothesis that IPC attenuates changes in RE was not supported by our data. It appears that the mechanisms involved in changes in markers of muscle damage and parameters associated with RE following downhill running are not completely shared. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Smoking on Muscle Adaptation to Exercise Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    needle muscle biopsy technique in the 1860s as a means to characterize muscular dystrophy (2). It was not until 1962 that Bergström modified this...leg (unless cleared by a physician) or have a skeletal, muscular or neuromuscular dysfunction? Has subject participated in a muscle soreness trial... muscle damage, creatine kinase, strength loss APPENDIX E: Manuscript submitted $" " Paragraph 1 Introduction: Duchenne first developed the

  16. Effects of air-pulsed cryotherapy on neuromuscular recovery subsequent to exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hug, François; Couturier, Antoine; Regnault, Stéphanie; Bournat, Laure; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Dorel, Sylvain

    2013-08-01

    Localized cooling has been proposed as an effective strategy to limit the deleterious effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on neuromuscular function. However, the literature reports conflicting results. This randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the effects of a new treatment, localized air-pulsed cryotherapy (-30°C), on the recovery time-course of neuromuscular function following a strenuous eccentric exercise. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 24 participants were included in either a control group (CONT) or a cryotherapy group (CRYO). Immediately after 3 sets of 20 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of elbow flexors, and then 1, 2, and 3 days after exercise, the CRYO group received a cryotherapy treatment (3 × 4 minutes at -30°C separated by 1 minute). The day before and 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 days after exercise, several parameters were quantified: maximal isometric torque and its associated maximal electromyographic activity recorded by a 64-channel electrode, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), biceps brachii transverse relaxation time (T2) measured using magnetic resonance imaging, creatine kinase activity, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein. Maximal isometric torque decreased similarly for the CONT (-33% ± 4%) and CRYO groups (-31% ± 6%). No intergroup differences were found for DOMS, electromyographic activity, creatine kinase activity, and T2 level averaged across the whole biceps brachii. C-reactive protein significantly increased for CONT (+93% at 72 hours, P cryotherapy delayed the significant increase of T2 and the decrease of electromyographic activity level for CRYO compared with CONT (between day 1 and day 3) in the medio-distal part of the biceps brachii. Although some indicators of muscle damage after severe eccentric exercise were delayed (ie, local formation of edema and decrease of muscle activity) by repeated air-pulsed cryotherapy, we provide evidence that this cooling procedure failed to improve long

  17. Potential therapeutic effects of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on resistance exercise-based muscle damage in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Luz Claudia R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA supplementation has been considered an interesting nutritional strategy to improve skeletal muscle protein turnover in several conditions. In this context, there is evidence that resistance exercise (RE-derived biochemical markers of muscle soreness (creatine kinase (CK, aldolase, myoglobin, soreness, and functional strength may be modulated by BCAA supplementation in order to favor of muscle adaptation. However, few studies have investigated such effects in well-controlled conditions in humans. Therefore, the aim of this short report is to describe the potential therapeutic effects of BCAA supplementation on RE-based muscle damage in humans. The main point is that BCAA supplementation may decrease some biochemical markers related with muscle soreness but this does not necessarily reflect on muscle functionality.

  18. Reduction of the incidence of pressure sores by an education program on nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisupan, Vijitr; Senaratana, Wilawan; Picheansatian, Wilawan; Chittreecheur, Jittaporn; Watanakool, Malinee; Chaisri, Pratin; Singhakumfu, Laddawan; Tribuddharat, Chanwit; Danchaivijitr, Somwang

    2005-12-01

    To determine whether an education and campaign program would reduce the incidence of pressure sores. The study was performed in a 1,400-bed teaching hospital in Thailand with a total number of 697patients from 47 wards for a point prevalence study; 1,201 and 1,268 patients from 12 wards to determine whether reduction of pressure sore occurrence would be obtained by an education program. The point prevalence of pressure sores was 10.8%. The significant risk factors were age older than 60 years, fecal incontinence, and history of diarrhea. The occurrence of pressure sores was significantly reduced after the educational program from 9.91% to 5. 76%. The education on patient care aiming at reduction of the occurrence of pressure sores could be adopted nation-wide in order to reduce the morbidity, mortality and expenses. The education program was effective in reducing the incidence of pressure sores.

  19. Maximizers versus satisficers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...

  20. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  1. How effective are treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, M; Del Mar, C; Glasziou, P

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the benefits of treatments other than antibiotics for acute sore throat, and the differences between non-antibiotic interventions and controls in patient-perceived pain of sore throat, a systematic review of controlled trials in Medline and the Cochrane Library was carried out. Sixty-six randomised controlled trials (with or without additional antibiotics) were identified and 17 met the selection criteria. Twenty-two non-antibiotic managements for sore throat were compared. Their ...

  2. Risk factors for pressure sores in adult patients with myelomeningocele – a questionnaire-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaum, Pål-Erik; Riemer, Gunnar; Frøslie, Kathrine Frey

    2006-01-01

    Background Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a part of a complex neural tube defect and a disorder of the cerebrospinal fluid system. Pressure sores are a frequent complication for patients with MMC. Little is known about the risk factors for pressure sores in adults with MMC. The aim of this study was to investigate an association between the presence of pressure sores and other patient characteristics, in order to develop an improved strategy for the management of sores. Methods A structured questionnaire regarding sores, medical condition, function and living factors was designed and sent to the 193 patients with MMC registered in the year 2003 at TRS, a National Centre for Rare Disorders in Norway. Results Out of 193 total, 87 patients participated and 71 patients (82%) reported sores; 26 (30%) at the time of the interview and 45 (52%) during the last 5 years. Sores were mostly localized on toes and feet and occurred exclusively in regions with reduced or missing sensibility. A significant association was found between sores and memory deficit (p = 0.02), Arnold Chiari malformation (p = 0.02) and a record of previous sores (p = 0.004). Sores were not significantly associated with hydrocephalus, syringomyelia, nutrition, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, employment or living together with other persons. Some patients (18, 21%) reported skin inspection by others and the remainder relied on self-inspection. Conclusion Patients with sensory deficit, memory problems, and Arnold Chiari malformation had a higher risk of having pressure sores. This patient group needs improved skin inspection routines and sore treatment. PMID:17196099

  3. Risk factors for pressure sores in adult patients with myelomeningocele--a questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaum, Pål-Erik; Riemer, Gunnar; Frøslie, Kathrine Frey

    2006-12-29

    Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a part of a complex neural tube defect and a disorder of the cerebrospinal fluid system. Pressure sores are a frequent complication for patients with MMC. Little is known about the risk factors for pressure sores in adults with MMC. The aim of this study was to investigate an association between the presence of pressure sores and other patient characteristics, in order to develop an improved strategy for the management of sores. A structured questionnaire regarding sores, medical condition, function and living factors was designed and sent to the 193 patients with MMC registered in the year 2003 at TRS, a National Centre for Rare Disorders in Norway. Out of 193 total, 87 patients participated and 71 patients (82%) reported sores; 26 (30%) at the time of the interview and 45 (52%) during the last 5 years. Sores were mostly localized on toes and feet and occurred exclusively in regions with reduced or missing sensibility. A significant association was found between sores and memory deficit (p = 0.02), Arnold Chiari malformation (p = 0.02) and a record of previous sores (p = 0.004). Sores were not significantly associated with hydrocephalus, syringomyelia, nutrition, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, employment or living together with other persons. Some patients (18, 21%) reported skin inspection by others and the remainder relied on self-inspection. Patients with sensory deficit, memory problems, and Arnold Chiari malformation had a higher risk of having pressure sores. This patient group needs improved skin inspection routines and sore treatment.

  4. Risk factors for pressure sores in adult patients with myelomeningocele – a questionnaire-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frøslie Kathrine

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myelomeningocele (MMC is a part of a complex neural tube defect and a disorder of the cerebrospinal fluid system. Pressure sores are a frequent complication for patients with MMC. Little is known about the risk factors for pressure sores in adults with MMC. The aim of this study was to investigate an association between the presence of pressure sores and other patient characteristics, in order to develop an improved strategy for the management of sores. Methods A structured questionnaire regarding sores, medical condition, function and living factors was designed and sent to the 193 patients with MMC registered in the year 2003 at TRS, a National Centre for Rare Disorders in Norway. Results Out of 193 total, 87 patients participated and 71 patients (82% reported sores; 26 (30% at the time of the interview and 45 (52% during the last 5 years. Sores were mostly localized on toes and feet and occurred exclusively in regions with reduced or missing sensibility. A significant association was found between sores and memory deficit (p = 0.02, Arnold Chiari malformation (p = 0.02 and a record of previous sores (p = 0.004. Sores were not significantly associated with hydrocephalus, syringomyelia, nutrition, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, employment or living together with other persons. Some patients (18, 21% reported skin inspection by others and the remainder relied on self-inspection. Conclusion Patients with sensory deficit, memory problems, and Arnold Chiari malformation had a higher risk of having pressure sores. This patient group needs improved skin inspection routines and sore treatment.

  5. [Program for lowering the incidence of pressure sores in neurosurgical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chau-Hui; Chen, Hui-Ling; Chen, Hsiang-Chi

    2007-12-01

    Pressure sores are one of the well known problems that occur in hospitals. As the literature on the subject indicates, a lot of money is expended in managing this problem every year, and 12-66% of pressure sores are caused during surgery. Patients who undergo neurosurgical procedures are susceptible to pressure sores because of lengthy operations. We collected data on patients with pressure sores who underwent surgery between May 2004 and August 2004, and found that the incidence of pressure sore in neurosurgical patients was 9.5%, which was the highest among all surgical patients. This project was developed to solve the problem of pressure sores by setting up standard preventive procedures, a nursing follow up system and continuing education courses, and utilizing cotton rolls to pad sites of pressure sores. The incidence of pressure sore in neurosurgical patients was reduced from 9.5% to 7% after the improvement project was carried out. The more concerned nurses are about pressure sores, the better the quality of operative nursing care.

  6. Prophylaxis of postintubation sore throat by the use of single puff inhalation of clomethasone dipropionate preoperatively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, I.; Masood, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to asses the occurrence and severity of sore throat following endotracheal anesthesia and its reduction by beclomethasone inhalation. Study Design: A randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the main operation theatre, Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi from October 2002 to April 2003. Patients and Methods: Two hundred patients undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgery were included. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups of 100 patients each. The patients in group A were given one puff inhalation of beclomethasone before intubation while group B was control group. The patients were evaluated for occurrence and severity of postoperative sore throat by direct questions 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after surgery. Results: In the beclomethasone group, 10 patients had sore throat as compared to 55 in control group (p<0.01). All 10 patients who experienced symptoms in beclomethasone group had mild sore throat while among the patients in the control group 22 had mild, 13 had moderate and 20 had severe sore throat. After 48 hours, no patient had the symptoms in the study group while 9 of the control group still suffered from sore throat. No drug related side effects were observed. Conclusion: Postoperative sore throat after general anaesthesia is common (occurrence rate of 55%). Beclomethasone inhaler is highly effective in the prevention of postoperative sore throat. It reduces both the occurrence and severity of sore throat. (author)

  7. The comparison of cold-water immersion and cold air therapy on maximal cycling performance and recovery markers following strength exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kane J. Hayter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI and cold air therapy (CAT on maximal cycling performance (i.e. anaerobic power and markers of muscle damage following a strength training session. Twenty endurance-trained but strength-untrained male (n = 10 and female (n = 10 participants were randomised into either: CWI (15 min in 14 °C water to iliac crest or CAT (15 min in 14 °C air immediately following strength training (i.e. 3 sets of leg press, leg extensions and leg curls at 6 repetition maximum, respectively. Creatine kinase, muscle soreness and fatigue, isometric knee extensor and flexor torque and cycling anaerobic power were measured prior to, immediately after and at 24 (T24, 48 (T48 and 72 (T72 h post-strength exercises. No significant differences were found between treatments for any of the measured variables (p > 0.05. However, trends suggested recovery was greater in CWI than CAT for cycling anaerobic power at T24 (10% ± 2%, ES = 0.90, T48 (8% ± 2%, ES = 0.64 and T72 (8% ± 7%, ES = 0.76. The findings suggest the combination of hydrostatic pressure and cold temperature may be favourable for recovery from strength training rather than cold temperature alone.

  8. Reference Values for Maximal Inspiratory Pressure: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela MB Sclauser Pessoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP is the most commonly used measure to evaluate inspiratory muscle strength. Normative values for MIP vary significantly among studies, which may reflect differences in participant demographics and technique of MIP measurement.

  9. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  10. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  11. Development of a cushion to prevent ischial pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, P; Davidson, L M

    1979-01-01

    A study was carried out jointly by nursing staff and technologists in an attempt to develop a cushion based on scientific principles and measurement that might prevent pressure sores. At each stage in the development clinical trials were carried out, and using the results of these together with the opinions of medical staff and patients who used the cushion the design was suitably modified. Over four years a seat was evolved that was simple to construct and fulfilled the clinical requirements for a wide range of patients while providing maximum relief of high-pressure points. The design was subsequently taken up commercially. Images Fig 3 PMID:509176

  12. Histopathology of red-sore disease (aeromonas hydrophila) in naturally and experimentally infected largemouth bass micropterus salmoides(lacepede)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, H W [Illinois State Univ., Normal; Esch, G W; Hazen, T C

    1979-01-01

    The histopathology of red-sore disease, caused by the gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila, is described for largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides. Externally, lesions range from those affecting a few scales (pin-point), to those associated with extensive chronic ulcerations; there is focal hemorrhage, oedema and dermal necrosis which exposes underlying muscles producing infiltration of mononuclear and granulocytic inflammatory cells. Internally, the liver and kidneys are foci for toxic products produced by A. hydrophila with, in the most severe cases, complete destruction of the structural integrity of both organs. Pathological changes were not serious in either the spleen or heart, even in cases with massive damage in the liver and kidney. Internal and external lesions were similar in both natural and experimentally induced infections. The pathobiology of red-sore disease in bass was postulated to be linked to elevated water temperature stimulating increased metabolism, decreased body condition and stress, leading to the increased production of corticosteroids and the concommitant rise in susceptibility to infection.

  13. Nuclear Positioning in Muscle Development and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eric eFolker; Mary eBaylies

    2013-01-01

    Muscle disease as a group is characterized by muscle weakness, muscle loss, and impaired muscle function. Although the phenotype is the same, the underlying cellular pathologies, and the molecular causes of these pathologies, are diverse. One common feature of many muscle disorders is the mispositioning of myonuclei. In unaffected individuals myonuclei are spaced throughout the periphery of the muscle fiber such that the distance between nuclei is maximized. However, in diseased muscles, th...

  14. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  15. Decubitus grade IV (deep pressure sore) with intact skin in a patient with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, C.C.W.; Zeilstra, J.T.; van Voorst Vader, P.C.; Kardaun, S.H.; Leeman, F.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Even with intact skin the possibility of pressure sores should not be dismissed. Early recognition of a pressure sore is important for adequate treatment and prevention of progression. Multidisciplinary intervention is essential. A wheelchair patient with spinal cord injury is described, who

  16. Evaluation of blood and serum markers in spinal cord injured patients with pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Eda; Bal, Ajda; Gurcay, Ahmet G; Cakci, Aytul

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate blood and serum markers in traumatic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients, with and without pressure sores. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Ministry of Health Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit, and Numune Education and Research Hospitals, Ankara, Turkey, from 2006-2008. A total of 23 SCI patients with pressure sores (group I) and a control group of 25 SCI patients without pressure sores (group II) were evaluated. Characteristics of sores were examined with respect to duration, location, grade, tissue types, surface area, and exudate amount. Recorded laboratory parameters included erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Htc), lymphocytes, white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), serum iron, transferrin, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, total protein, albumin, vitamin B12, and zinc. The most common pressure sore location was the sacrum (38%). Compared to the control group, the patients with pressure sores showed anemia with reduced serum iron, transferrin, TIBC, and increased ferritin. They also had increased ESR, CRP, and WBC and reduced lymphocytes, total protein, albumin and zinc. Statistically significant correlations were found between CRP, Hb, Htc, lymphocytes, RBC, WBC, and serum protein levels, and grade of pressure sores. Clinicians should regularly screen patients with respect to blood and serum markers, in order to determine any risks for pressure sores, and they should perform immediate preventive measures based on the patient's condition.

  17. [A scale for the assessment of the risk of pressure sores in paediatric intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Pressure sores are a frequent complication in paediatric intensive care. A multi-disciplinary nursing team has drawn up an assessment scale for the risk of pressure sores and has put in place guidelines for caring for children in intensive care. Prevention actions are thereby adapted to each young patient.

  18. Cost analysis of surgically treated pressure sores stage III and IV.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filius, A.; Damen, T.H.; Schuijer-Maaskant, K.P.; Polinder, S.; Hovius, S.E.R.; Walbeehm, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    Health-care costs associated with pressure sores are significant and their financial burden is likely to increase even further. The aim of this study was to analyse the direct medical costs of hospital care for surgical treatment of pressure sores stage III and IV. We performed a retrospective chart

  19. What role can nurse leaders play in reducing the incidence of pressure sores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Pressure sores have plagued the nursing profession for many years as a major health care problem in terms of a patient's suffering and financial cost. Pressure sores are increasingly common in hospitalized patients in the United States with a 63% increase from 1993 to 2003. The nurse leader is accountable for the occurrence of pressure sores, a nurse-sensitive indicator, by a scorecard which is benchmarked against other facilities. The nurse leader must take a systematic approach in the prevention of pressure sores, with the strategy being consistent and motivating to the staff in order to improve patient outcome. The chief nursing officer, the unit manager, and the bedside nurse must all collaborate to prevent tissue injury in patients at risk for developing pressure sores and to promote wound healing in patients with existing breakdown.

  20. Flurbiprofen microgranules for relief of sore throat: a randomised, double-blind trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Marc; Bloch, Mark; de Looze, Fred; Morris, Christopher; Shephard, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Background Many people with sore throat seek, and are often inappropriately prescribed, antibiotics. Aim The objective of this study was to determine the analgesic efficacy of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg microgranules versus placebo. These microgranules are a possible alternative treatment for patients with sore throat due to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). Design and setting Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study conducted at eight primary care sites in Australia. Method Participants with sore throat of onset within the past 4 days received either flurbiprofen 8.75 mg microgranules or non-medicated placebo microgranules. Throat soreness, difficulty in swallowing, sore throat pain intensity, sore throat relief, oral temperature, and treatment benefits were all assessed at regular intervals. Result Of 373 patients from eight centres, 186 received flurbiprofen 8.75 mg microgranules and 187 received placebo microgranules (intent-to-treat population). Throat soreness was significantly reduced over the first 2 hours after the first dose. Reductions in difficulty in swallowing were observed at all time points from 5 to 360 minutes after the first dose, after taking flurbiprofen microgranules versus placebo. Sore throat relief was also evident at 1 minute and lasted for at least 6 hours. The multiple-dose efficacy results showed reduction of difficulty in swallowing at the end of days 1–3 and sore throat relief at the end of day 1. Conclusion Microgranules containing flurbiprofen 8.75 mg provided fast and effective relief from sore throat due to URTI and represent an alternative treatment option to antibiotic therapy. PMID:23561694

  1. Cost analysis of surgically treated pressure sores stage III and IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filius, A; Damen, T H C; Schuijer-Maaskant, K P; Polinder, S; Hovius, S E R; Walbeehm, E T

    2013-11-01

    Health-care costs associated with pressure sores are significant and their financial burden is likely to increase even further. The aim of this study was to analyse the direct medical costs of hospital care for surgical treatment of pressure sores stage III and IV. We performed a retrospective chart study of patients who were surgically treated for stage III and IV pressure sores between 2007 and 2010. Volumes of health-care use were obtained for all patients and direct medical costs were subsequently calculated. In addition, we evaluated the effect of location and number of pressure sores on total costs. A total of 52 cases were identified. Average direct medical costs in hospital were €20,957 for the surgical treatment of pressure sores stage III or IV; average direct medical costs for patients with one pressure sore on an extremity (group 1, n = 5) were €30,286, €10,113 for patients with one pressure sore on the trunk (group 2, n = 32) and €40,882 for patients with multiple pressure sores (group 3, n = 15). The additional costs for patients in group 1 and group 3 compared to group 2 were primarily due to longer hospitalisation. The average direct medical costs for surgical treatment of pressure sores stage III and IV were high. Large differences in costs were related to the location and number of pressure sores. Insight into the distribution of these costs allows identification of high-risk patients and enables the development of specific cost-reducing measures. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in Indirect Markers of Muscle Damage and Tendons After Daily Drop Jumping Exercise with Rapid Load Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Paleckis, Mantas Mickevičius, Audrius Snieckus, Vytautas Streckis, Mati Pääsuke, Saulius Rutkauskas, Rasa Steponavičiūtė, Albertas Skurvydas, Sigitas Kamandulis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and type I collagen degradation, as well as, patellar and Achilles tendon morphological differences during nine daily drop-jumps sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load to test the hypothesis that frequent drop-jump training results in negative muscular and tendon adaptation. Young men (n = 9 performed daily drop jump workouts with progression every 3 days in terms of number of jumps, platform height and squat amplitude. Voluntary and electrically evoked knee extensor torque, muscle soreness, blood plasma creatine kinase (CK activity and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide (ICTP, patellar and Achilles tendon thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA were assessed at different time points during the training period and again on days 1, 3, 10 and 17 after the training. The findings were as follows: (1 steady decline in maximal muscle strength with major recovery within 24 hours after the first six daily training sessions; (2 larger decline in electrically induced muscle torque and prolonged recovery during last three training sessions; (3 increase in patellar and Achilles tendons CSA without change in thickness towards the end of training period; (4 increase in jump height but not in muscle strength after whole training period. Our findings suggest that frequent drop-jump sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load do not induce severe muscle damage or major changes in tendons, nonetheless, this type of loading is not advisable for muscle strength improvement.

  3. No effect of short-term amino acid supplementation on variables related to skeletal muscle damage in 100 km ultra-runners - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness. We hypothesized that the supplementation of amino acids before and during an ultra-marathon would lead to a reduction in the variables of skeletal muscle damage, a decrease in muscle soreness and an improved performance. Methods Twenty-eight experienced male ultra-runners were divided into two groups, one with amino acid supplementation and the other as a control group. The amino acid group was supplemented a total of 52.5 g of an amino acid concentrate before and during the 100 km ultra-marathon. Pre- and post-race, creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were determined. At the same time, the athletes were asked for subjective feelings of muscle soreness. Results Race time was not different between the groups when controlled for personal best time in a 100 km ultra-marathon. The increases in creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were not different in both groups. Subjective feelings of skeletal muscle soreness were not different between the groups. Conclusions We concluded that short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon had no effect on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness.

  4. [Plastic surgery treatment techniques for interdisciplinary therapy of pressure sores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Karin; Becker, Frederic; Pfau, Matthias; Werdin, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Pressure sores in geriatric patients represent a challenge for all disciplines involved in the treatment process; however, the prerequisite for successful treatment is the elaboration of an interdisciplinary treatment concept. The treatment goals should be adapted to the individual needs of the patients including the life situation, general condition and local findings. In addition to general basic operative techniques, such as wound cleansing and conditioning, plastic and reconstructive surgery provides a wide range of highly specialized operative techniques for the treatment of these patients by which a definitive defect coverage can be achieved. The aim of this article is to raise awareness for these complex and highly specialized procedures for all disciplines participating in the treatment in order to improve the interdisciplinary cooperation and ultimately the quality of treatment.

  5. [Prescribing antibiotics for sore throat: a persistent habit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damoiseaux, Roger A M J; Venekamp, Roderick P

    2015-01-01

    Recently the revision of the guideline of the Dutch College of General Practitioners on sore throat has been published. Again, one of the key messages is restricting the use of antibiotics. In the Netherlands general practitioners prescribe antibiotics in 50% of cases of tonsillitis. Although there has been a decrease in the number of antibiotic prescriptions for tonsillitis in the last 30 years, they are still being prescribed twice as often as is recommended by the guideline. The beliefs of both patient and doctor play an important role in prescribing and better communication might help to improve the situation. Public campaigns can also help by providing the best knowledge on the effectiveness of antibiotics to the public.

  6. Oxidative stress and acute-phase response in patients with pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Maria Bernarda Cavalcanti; Antonelli, Elida Juliana; da Cunha, Daniel Ferreira; Júnior, Alceu Afonso Jordão; Júnior, Virmondes Rodrigues; Vannucchi, Helio

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the relation between oxidative stress and the occurrence of the acute-phase response with serum ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol levels in patients with pressure sores. The following groups of patients were studied: 1) those who had patients with pressure sores, 2) those who had pneumonia, and 3) those who did not develop pressure sores or any type of infection (control). Concentrations of total proteins, albumin, creatinine, iron, ferritin, transferrin, C-reactive protein, alpha1-acid glycoprotein, total iron-binding capacity, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and malondialdehyde were measured during the first days of hospitalization. Albumin concentrations were significantly lower (P pressure sores compared with controls. Concentrations of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol were significantly decreased (P pressure sores or infection, whereas malondialdehyde concentrations were significantly increased (P pressure sores and 10 of 12 patients (83.33%) with pneumonia presented serum ascorbic acid concentrations below the reference value (34 to 91 micromol/L). Concentrations of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol versus malondialdehyde were significantly correlated in the three patient groups (r = -0.44, P pressure sores and acute infection present a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by an increase in lipid peroxidation that is associated with decreased serum ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol levels, suggesting that these patients may be at risk for important nutritional deficiencies.

  7. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  8. A comparative analysis of pressure sore treatment modalities in community settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Small

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of pressure sores in community settings, poses a clinical problem which challenges the patient’s tolerance and the clinician’s diligence and ingenuity. Pressure sores can be painful, lead to infection and are associated with considerable morbidity and increased mortality (Patterson & Bennett, 1995:919; Bale, Banks, Hagelstein & Harding, 1998:65. Treatment costs of these wounds are high in terms of resources (Colin 1995:65; Wood, Griffiths & Stoner, 1997:256. However, since there are untold cost in terms of pain and suffering to the patient, it is impossible to calculate the true cost of pressure sores (Dealey, 1994:87.

  9. [Primary investigation on fumigation and moxibustion in treatment ulcer and sore of yin syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chao-Jun; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Ma, Jing; Li, Pin-Chuan; Liu, Xian-Zhou; Yin, Yue; Tian, Ying

    2011-09-01

    To explore the fumigation and moxibustion therapy in treatment of ulcer and sore of yin syndrome. The fumigation and moxibustion therapy is the combination of fumigation and moxibustion, in which, smoking fumigation is provided with warming effect and the actions as moxibustion. This therapy works on the efficacy of both fumigation and moxibustion. In treatment, different herbal medicines can be selected flexibly, acting on dispersing yin and rescuing yang. The fumigation and moxibustion therapy can drain toxin and remove ulcer and sore. It contributes to the treatment of boils and chronic sores of yin syndrome and promotes wound healing.

  10. Muscle damage and repeated bout effect induced by enhanced eccentric squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Chemello, Alessandro; Schena, Federico

    2016-12-01

    Muscle damage and repeated bout effect have been studied after pure eccentric-only exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle damage and repeated bout effect induced by enhanced eccentric squat exercise using flywheel device. Thirteen healthy males volunteered for this study. Creatine kinase blood activity (CK), quadriceps isometric peak torque and muscle soreness were used as markers of muscle damage. The dependent parameters were measured at baseline, immediately after and each day up to 96 hours after the exercise session. The intervention consisted of 100 repetitions of enhanced eccentric squat exercise using flywheel device. The same protocol was repeated after 4 weeks. After the first bout, CK and muscle soreness were significantly greater (P0.05), while isometric peak torque and muscle soreness returned to values similar to baseline after respectively 48 and 72 hours. All muscle damage markers were significantly lower after second compared to first bout. The enhanced eccentric exercise induced symptoms of muscle damage up to 96 hours. However, it provided muscle protection after the second bout, performed four weeks later. Although it was not eccentric-only exercise, the enhancement of eccentric phase provided muscle protection.

  11. Tri-maximal vs. bi-maximal neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments point strongly to tri-maximal or bi-maximal lepton mixing. While ('optimised') bi-maximal mixing gives an excellent a posteriori fit to the data, tri-maximal mixing is an a priori hypothesis, which is not excluded, taking account of terrestrial matter effects

  12. [Adverse muscle effects of a podofyllotoxin-containing cytotoxic drug product with simvastatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipiainen-Seppänen, Oili; Savolainen, Elina; Elfving, Pia; Kononoff, Aulikki

    2009-01-01

    With the ageing population, drug interactions pose an increasing challenge to health professionals. We describe four patients, for whom concurrent administration of a podofyllotoxin-containing cytotoxic drug product and simvastatin caused severe adverse effects on muscles, including muscle pain, soreness or fatigue or weakness, and in some patients also disintegration of muscle tissue, i.e. rhabdomyolysis. The metabolism of both drugs proceeds via the common CYP3A4 enzyme pathway.

  13. Immediate and short-term effects of the combination of dry needling and percutaneous TENS on post-needling soreness in patients with chronic myofascial neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Hernández, Jose V.; Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Aitor; Frutos, Laura G.; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel M.; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana I.; Fernandez-Carnero, Josue

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Dry needling (DN) and percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) are widely used techniques in the treatment of myofascial pain. Objective To investigate the immediate and short-term effects of the combination of DN and PENS compared to DN alone on the upper trapezius muscle. Method This is a 72-hour follow-up single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Sixty-two volunteer patients with chronic myofascial neck pain with active Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs) in the upper trapezius muscle were recruited. Randomization was performed, and 31 patients received DN treatment (DN group) and 31 received DN and PENS (DN+PENS group). The primary outcomes were neck disability index (NDI) and visual analog scale for pain for both post-needling soreness (PNS) and neck pain intensity (NPI). Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and cervical range of motion (CROM) were the secondary outcomes. Results We detected between-group differences in NPI and PNS in favor of the DN+PENS group immediately after treatment. No between-group differences in NDI were observed. Conclusion PENS application after dry needling treatment is more effective than dry needling alone for decreasing soreness in the short term and improving neck pain intensity immediately in patients with myofascial chronic neck pain. PMID:27410163

  14. How elderly patients with femoral fracture develop pressure sores in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluysen, M

    1986-01-01

    The routine hospital management of 100 consecutive elderly patients was studied to determine the reason for the high incidence of pressure sores among patients admitted to hospital for femoral fractures. Of these patients, 66 developed sores, 83% occurring by the fifth day in hospital. This was due to the long periods that patients were immobilised on high pressure surfaces in the casualty department, wards, and theatres before repair of the fracture and restoration of their weight bearing function. Sores are not simply a ward or nursing problem, but an unintended consequence of hospital treatment. To reduce the incidence of sores elderly patients should be treated on low pressure patient support systems from the point of entry to hospital until mobility is restored. PMID:3085827

  15. Diabetes: Good Diabetes Management and Regular Foot Care Help Prevent Severe Foot Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation and diabetes: How to protect your feet Good diabetes management and regular foot care help prevent severe foot sores that ... and may require amputation. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes complications can include nerve damage and poor blood ...

  16. Dano muscular: resposta inflamatória sistêmica após ações excêntricas máximas Daño muscular: respuesta inflamatoria sistémica después de acciones excéntricas máximas Muscle damage: systemic inflammatory response after maximal eccentric actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton

    2012-09-01

    émica.The objective of this study was to analyze the magnitude of the inflammatory response induced by a high number of eccentric actions (AE of the elbow flexors. Participated on this study nine young men who performed 35 sets of six AE of the elbow flexors, with an one minute interval, using an isokinetic dynamometer at 210º.s-1. Maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC, range of motion (ROM, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α were measured. Significant changes were observed for markers of muscle damage (MVIC, ROM and DOMS, however, there were no changes on inflammatory markers IL-6 and TNF-α. In conclusion, the results show that even with large numbers of AE and changes in indirect markers of muscle damage, no change was observed in the systemic inflammatory response.

  17. Cutaneous flaps in the treatment of 338 pressure sores: a better choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Manfredi; Marchetti, Francesco; Tempesta, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco; Marcasciano, Marco; Carlesimo, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Muscular flaps are considered by many surgeons as a treatment of choice for pressure sores. Nevertheless fasciocutaneous and adipofascial flaps are less sensitive to ischemia, more resistant to pressure and have higher mechanical resistance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of our integrated rehabilitative and surgical protocol in pressure sore management based on the use of cutaneous flaps. Since 1998, we treated 338 pressure sores (PS) in 195 patients (120 males; 75 females), 189 patients were affected by paraplegia and tetraplegia and 6 of them by neurological disorders. Ninety sacral, 156 ischiatic, 75 trochanteric, 9 calcanean and 8 sores of the iliac-crest were succesfully treated. All showed an involvement of the bone element, with osteitis and/or periosteitis. 14 cases of trocanteric sores showed a deeper bone involvement, with evidences of osteomyelitis. Follow up ranges from 7 years to 2 months. Median time for wound healing was 18 days. The use of fasciocutaneous flaps, as an alternative to the traditional muscolocutaneous flaps in the treatment of pressure sores leads to good and statistically comparable, healing rate, time and incidence of complications. Reconstructive plastic surgery as is a decisive factor to reach a good rehabilitative outcome, minimizing the time of rehabilitation with a following decrease of hospitalization costs. In spinal cord injured patients, surgical treatment of pressure sores is not proposed as the main procedure, but it is an important stage during the natural history of pressure sores. Cutaneous, adipofascial and fasciocutaneous flaps are less invasive, of a relatively easy execution, provided by a reliable vascular pedicle and they could be "re-used" in case of recurrences.

  18. Pressure Sore at an Unusual Site- the Bilateral Popliteal Fossa: A Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kataria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sore is tissue ulceration due to unrelieved pressure, altered sensory perception, and exposure to moisture. Geriatric patients with organic problems and patients with spinal cord injuries are the high-risk groups. Soft tissues over bony prominences are the common sites for ulcer development. About 95% of pressure ulcers occur in the lower part of the body. Ischial tuberosity, greater trochanter, sacrum and heel are common sites. In addition to these, pressure sores at unusual sites like nasal alae, malar eminences, cervical region and medial side of knee have also been described. Only 1.6% of the patients present with sores in areas outside the pelvis and lower extremity. In a paraplegic patient, pressure sores are usually over extensor surface of knee and heel but pressure ulcer over popliteal fossa are extremely rare. We herein report a case of a 36-years-old diabetic and paraplegic male, who presented with multiple bed sores involving the sacral area, heels and bilateral popliteal fossa. Popliteal fossa is an unusual site for pressure sores. Only one similar case has been previously reported in the literature.

  19. [Urinary incontinence as a risk factor for pressure sores does not withstand a critical examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Tom; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang

    2005-10-01

    The association between urinary incontinence and pressure sores is put down to various causes. Most frequently urinary wet and following maceration of the skin are mentioned. However, it is possible that urinary incontinence is only an indicator for other risk factors or a measure of the need for care without any causal relation to pressure sores. There are hardly any controlled or randomised studies; this lack of scientific evidence is problematic. Based on a case-control-study including data of 200 patients as well as on the existing models of explanation, the following study tries to examine critically the connections between pressure sores and urinary incontinence. Out of the patients in our study population 97.5 percent were incontinent. Different categories of the risk factor urinary incontinence and different dichotomisations have led to different statistical results. Statements concerning the connection between urinary incontinence and pressure sores have to be interpreted critically. The dependence of urinary incontinence on other risk factors such as patients' need for care or compliance suggests that the causal connection to pressure sores be not reduced to the influence of wetness. We advise to research connections between urinary incontinence and pressure sores in a methodologically appropriate setting.

  20. Treatment of ischial pressure sores using a modified gracilis myofasciocutaneous flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haodong; Hou, Chunlin; Chen, Aimin; Xu, Zhen

    2010-04-01

    Despite the availability of a variety of flap reconstruction options, ischial pressure sores continue to be the most difficult pressure sores to treat. This article describes a successful surgical procedure for the coverage of ischial ulcers using a modified gracilis myofasciocutaneous flap. From August 2000 to April 2004, 12 patients with ischial sores were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent early aggressive surgical debridement followed by surgical reconstruction with a modified gracilis myofasciocutaneous flap. The follow-up period ranged from 13 to 86 months, with a mean of 44 months. Overall, 91.7% of the flaps (11 of 12) survived primarily. Partial flap necrosis occurred in one patient. Primary wound healing occurred without complications at both the donor and recipient sites in all cases. In one patient, grade II ischial pressure sores recurred 13 months after the operation. There was no recurrence in other 11 patients. A modified gracilis myofasciocutaneous flap provides a good cover for ischial pressure sores. Because it is easy to use and has favorable results, it can be used in the primary treatment for large and deep ischial pressure sores. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  1. The evaluation of daily living activities, pressure sores and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Gökçen; Mucuk, Salime

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess daily living activities, pressure sores and risk factors. This was a descriptive study. The study was conducted at a rehabilitation center with 188 individuals participating in the study. Data were collected with a questionnaire form, Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADLS) and Braden Risk Assessment Scale (BRAS). Among the participants, 48.9% were dependent according to activities of daily living and 71.8% were dependent on instrumental activities of daily living. It was noted that 4.8% had pressure sores and 38.8% were at high risk. A strong and positive correlation was found among ADLS, IADLS, and BRAS scores (p pressure sores (p pressure sores. Individuals who are treated at rehabilitation centers should be periodically assessed in terms of risk. Pressure sore development can be prevented with appropriate nursing interventions. To reduce the risk of developing pressure sores, nurses should describe the individual's degree of dependency according to ADLS and IADLS and initiate preventive nursing care. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  2. Pressure Sore at an Unusual Site- the Bilateral Popliteal Fossa: A Case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Kamal; Sagar, Sushma; Singhal, Manish; Yadav, Rajni

    2012-01-01

    Pressure sore is tissue ulceration due to unrelieved pressure, altered sensory perception, and exposure to moisture. Geriatric patients with organic problems and patients with spinal cord injuries are the high-risk groups. Soft tissues over bony prominences are the common sites for ulcer development. About 95% of pressure ulcers occur in the lower part of the body. Ischial tuberosity, greater trochanter, sacrum and heel are common sites. In addition to these, pressure sores at unusual sites like nasal alae, malar eminences, cervical region and medial side of knee have also been described. Only 1.6% of the patients present with sores in areas outside the pelvis and lower extremity. In a paraplegic patient, pressure sores are usually over extensor surface of knee and heel but pressure ulcer over popliteal fossa are extremely rare. We herein report a case of a 36-years-old diabetic and paraplegic male, who presented with multiple bed sores involving the sacral area, heels and bilateral popliteal fossa. Popliteal fossa is an unusual site for pressure sores. Only one similar case has been previously reported in the literature. PMID:29181131

  3. [Indication of sclerotherapy in the treatment of ischiatic pressure sore: about 13 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahé, L; Prud'homme, A; Penaud, A; Formé, N; Zakine, G

    2012-12-01

    Ischiatic pressure sore is a common pathology of the paraplegic patient. Usually treated after medical therapy, with fasciocutaneous or musculocutaneous local flaps, despite this treatment the recurrence rate is high. Sclerotherapy, injection of pure ethanol in the cavity of the pressure sore could be an interesting solution in the armentarium of the plastic surgeon in some indications. Sclerotherapy was used for 13 patients in the plastic surgery department to treat ischiatic pressure sores with a cavity, beneath the defect. The mean length of stay was 24 days. The ischiatic pressure sore was completely healed with no skin defect or cavity for nine patients (65%). For two patients, there was a delay of healing of the skin defect but no cavity beneath. There were two early recurrences of the pressure sore. They were treated by sclerotherapy with a complete recovery in 2 months with simple hydrocolloid dressings. The mean post op follow-up was 14,6 months (4 to 24). Only one recurrence was observed after 12 months. The injection of pure ethanol in the cavity of specifics ischiatics pressure sores is a simple, fast and effective technique with a good and stable long term wound healing. The mean length of stay is shorter and the recurrence rate is equivalent to other techniques. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Gargling with Ketamine Attenuates the Postoperative Sore Throat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rudra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative sore throat (POST is a common complication of anaesthesia with endotracheal tube that affects patient satisfaction after surgery. Therefore, this complication remains to be resolved in patients undergoing endotra-cheal intubation. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of ketamine gargles with placebo in prevent-ing POST after endotracheal intubation. Forty patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia were randomized into: Group C, water 30 ml; Group K, ketamine 50 mg in water 29 ml. Patients were asked to gargle this mixture for 40 seconds, 5 minutes before induction of anaesthesia. POST was graded at 4, 8 and 24 hours after operation on a four-point scale (0-3. In the Control group POST occurred more frequently, when compared with patients belonging to Ketamine group, at 4, 8, and 24 hours and significantly more patients suffered severe POST in Control group at 8 and 24 hours compared with Ketamine group (P< 0.05. We demonstrated that gargling with ketamine significantly attenuated POST, with no drug-related side effects were observed.

  5. Marjolin's Ulcer Complicating a Pressure Sore: The Clock is Ticking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran; Giannone, Anna Lucia; Mehrabi, Erfan; Khan, Ayda; Giannone, Roberto E

    2016-02-22

    Malignant degeneration in any chronic wound is termed a Marjolin's ulcer (MU). The overall metastatic rate of MU is approximately 27.5%. However, the prognosis of MU specific to pressure sores is poor, with a reported metastatic rate of 61%. This is due to insidious, asymptomatic malignant degeneration, a lack of healthcare provider awareness, and, ultimately, delayed management. An 85-year-old white male was noted by his wound-care nurse to have a rapidly developing growth on his lower back over a period of 4 months. There was history of a non-healing, progressive pressure ulcer of the lower back for the past 10 years. On examination, there was a 4 × 4 cm pressure ulcer of the lower back, with a superimposed 1.5 × 2 cm growth in the superior region. There was an absence of palpable regional lymphadenopathy. Punch biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma consistent with Marjolin's ulcer. The ulcer underwent excision with wide margins, and a skin graft was placed. Due to the prompt recognition of an abnormality by the patient's wound-care nurse, metastasis was not evident on imaging. There are no signs of recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Marjolin's ulcer has a rapid progression from local disease to widespread metastasis. Therefore, it is essential that wound-care providers are aware of the clinical signs and symptoms of malignant degeneration in chronic wounds.

  6. MAXIM: The Blackhole Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith; Cash, Webster; Gorenstein, Paul; Windt, David; Kaaret, Phil; Reynolds, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Beyond Einstein Program in NASA's Office of Space Science Structure and Evolution of the Universe theme spells out the top level scientific requirements for a Black Hole Imager in its strategic plan. The MAXIM mission will provide better than one tenth of a microarcsecond imaging in the X-ray band in order to satisfy these requirements. We will overview the driving requirements to achieve these goals and ultimately resolve the event horizon of a supermassive black hole. We will present the current status of this effort that includes a study of a baseline design as well as two alternative approaches.

  7. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  8. Does a foamy-block mattress system prevent pressure sores ? A prospective randomised clinical trial in 1729 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthe, J V; Bustillo, A; Mélot, C; de Fontaine, S

    2007-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are a frequent complication of bed rest. The development of an efficient and low cost pressure relieving system for the prevention of bed-sores would be of considerable hospital health and economic interest. Our study was designed to determine the effectiveness in pressure-sore prevention of an interface pressure-decreasing mattress, the Kliniplot mattress, used in our institution since 1978. In a prospective randomised controlled 7-month clinical trial we compared the Kliniplot mattress with our standard hospital mattress in 1729 patients admitted to medical and surgical departments (neurology, cardiology, oncology-haematology, neurosurgery, thoracic surgery and orthopaedic surgery). Two groups (Klinipot mattress and standard hospital mattress) were monitored for the prevention of pressure sores. The patients were evaluated on a daily basis from their admission until the eventual occurrence of a bed-sore. Patients' characteristics and pressure-sore risk factors were similar at the baseline in both groups. Patients presenting with a pressure sore at the time of admission were excluded. Forty-two of the 1729 patients (2.4%) who entered the study developed at least one pressure sore. Twenty-one of the 657 patients (3.2%) nursed on the Kliniplot mattress, and 21 of the 1072 patients (1.9%) on the standard mattress developed bed-sores (p = 0.154). The median time for the occurrence of pressure sores was 31 days (range 6-87) with the Kliniplot mattress and 18 days (range 2 to 38) with the standard mattress (p sores using the modified Ek's scale were no different at the baseline between both groups (p = 0.764). The severity of the pressure sores was no different between both groups (p = 0.918). Our results show that the occurrence of pressure sores is not reduced but is delayed when patients are nursed on a Kliniplot pressure-decreasing mattress.

  9. Improving outcomes following reconstruction of pressure sores in spinal injury patients: A multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadiparthi, S; Hartley, A; Alzweri, L; Mecci, M; Siddiqui, H

    2016-07-01

    Pressure sore treatment in spinal injury patients is challenging. A multidisciplinary approach with joint management by the plastic surgery and spinal injury teams was initiated at our institution in 2005 to improve patient care and surgical outcomes following reconstruction. This study assessed the surgical outcomes following reconstruction using the team approach and to compare inpatient stay and readmissions for complications before and after the multidisciplinary protocol was introduced. A retrospective review of consecutive patients in the multidisciplinary pressure sore clinic was performed. Data were collected on patient demographics, reconstructive techniques, surgical outcomes and readmission for any complications. In total, 45 patients with 60 pressure sores (grade 3 or 4) were reviewed in the joint clinic between 2005 and 2011. The majority of patients were paraplegic (78%), while the remaining 22% were tetraplegic. Ischial sores were the most common (45%) followed by trochanteric (23%) and sacral (20%) sores. Multiple sores were noted in 44% of patients. Flap reconstruction was required in 32 patients (71%); after a mean follow-up time of 33 months (range 25-72 months), there were three (9%) major complications (two recurrences of pressure sores and one sinus) and seven (22%) minor complications. After introduction of patient care pathways through the multidisciplinary approach, the rate of readmission for complications decreased from 14% to 5.5% and inpatient stay upon readmission reduced from 65 to 45 days. Implementation of a multidisciplinary approach was key to optimising surgical outcomes, achieving a low recurrence rate (6%) and reducing readmissions. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [A clinical audit on the use of medications for pressure sores, after the implementation of guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Paolo; Fontana, Mirella; Bianchi, Tommaso; Bonzagni, Cristina; Galetti, Caterina

    2006-01-01

    Although guidelines for the management of pressure sores are widely available, their implementation is not always easy and sometimes does not produce the desired changes. To describe the results of a clinical audit aiming at assessing the appropriate use of medications for pressure sores, after the implementation of guidelines. The audit group, with an expert in assessment, a nurse expert in pressure sores, a microbiologist, a dermatologist and a chemist analysed the clinical and nursing records of all the patients with a pressure sore, discharged during the first trimester of 2005 and 2006, after the implementation of the guidelines, from wards with higher prevalence of pressure sores: geriatric, medical, intensive care, rehabilitation and post acute wards. Each documented treatment was classified as appropriate, not appropriate or "grey area", treatments inappropriate according to guidelines but not according to expert or current knowledge (e.g. poliurethane medications for heel pressure sores). After each stage, the results were returned and discussed with the involved wards. One hundred 74 patients were surveyed in 2005 and 199 in 2006, with a total of respectively 287 and 326 sores. The percentage of inappropriate treatments was 20% in 2005 and 12.8% in 2006 (OR 1.79 I.C. 95% 1.10- 2.91), while an increase of treatments considered grey area (from 7% to 13.5%) was observed. The medium number of medications used was 17.3 per lesion, in 2005 and 16.4 in 2006 with a cost respectively of 83.6 and 67.35 per lesion, but the two populations were not strictly comparable. Clinical audit is a strategy that involving doctors and nurses, may promote positive changes. The rate of inappropriate treatments (higher in areas with high turnover of nurses) can be improved with educational interventions. The identification of treatments of the grey area highlights the need of periodically revising guidelines to update their contents according to new knowledge and technologies.

  11. [Clinical application of modified upper gluteal rhomboid fasciocutaneous flap in repairing sacrococcygeal pressure sores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Maohua; Yang, Xiaoliang; Wei, Bangmin; Li, Yinghao

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the method and effectiveness of repairing sacrococcygeal pressure sores with modified upper gluteal rhomboid fasciocutaneous flap. Between January 2004 and March 2011, 43 patients with sacrococcygeal pressure sores were treated. There were 25 males and 18 females with an average age of 63 years (range, 38-95 years). The disease duration was 3 months to 2 years and 6 months (mean, 8.5 months). The size of pressure sores ranged from 6 cm x 5 cm to 18 cm x 13 cm. According to the extent and lesion degree of pressure scores, 23 pressure sores were rated as degree III and 20 pressure sores as degree IV. The modified upper gluteal rhomboid flap was designed, one-side upper gluteal fasciocutaneous flaps were transplanted to repair sacrococcygeal pressure sores in 19 cases and two-side flaps in 24 cases. The size of one side flap ranged from 6.5 cm x 4.5 cm to 18.0 cm x 11.5 cm. Fluid under flap occurred in 1 case and edge necrosis of the flaps in 3 cases at 7 days after operation, which were cured after drainage and dressing change; the other flaps survived, and incisions healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 6 months to 3 years with an average of 11 months. Two patients relapsed at 5 months and 8 months, respectively; the other patients had no recurrence. The color of the flaps was normal, and the appearance and elasticity of the flaps were good. The modified upper gluteal rhomboid fasciocutaneous flap has the advantages of simple design and operation, less injury, and reliable effect in repairing sacrococcygeal pressure sores.

  12. The usefulness of a clinical 'scorecard' in managing patients with sore throat in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare Tony MO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of a clinical scorecard in managing sore throat in general practice. Design: Validation study of scorecard for sore throat with a throat swab culture used as the 'gold standard'. Setting: A solo family practice in rural New South Wales, Australia Participants: Patients attending with sore throat. Methods Patients from the age of 5 years and above presenting with the main symptom of a sore throat, and who have not had any antibiotic treatment in the previous two weeks, were invited to participate in the study. The doctor completed a scorecard for each patient participating and took a throat swab for culture. Adult patients (> 16 yrs were asked to complete a patient satisfaction questionnaire, while guardians accompanying children (5 yr to Main outcome measures: 1. Ability of a new scorecard to differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial sore throat. 2. Patients' trust in the scorecard. Results The scorecard has a sensitivity of 93.33%, a specificity of 63.16%, a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The sensitivity is better than other sore throat scorecards that have been published but with a slightly lower specificity. There was a high level of patient trust in the scorecard was (85.8% agreement. Patients also trusted their doctor's judgement based on the scorecard (90.6% agreement. Conclusions As the scorecard has a high sensitivity but only a moderate specificity, this means that it is more reliable for negative results, i.e. when the result suggests a viral infection. When the result favours a bacterial sore throat, then a high sensitivity can mean that there are a number of false positives. GPs can be confident in withholding antibiotics when the scorecard indicates a viral infection.

  13. [High-grade pressure sores in frail older high-risk persons. A retrospective postmortem case-control-study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Renteln-Kruse, W; Krause, T; Anders, J; Kühl, M; Heinemann, A; Püschel, K

    2004-04-01

    Some old persons at risk do develop, but others, at comparable risk, do not develop high-grade pressure sores. To evaluate potentially different risk factors, we performed a post mortem case-control study in old persons who developed high-grade pressure sores within six months until 14 days before death. Consecutive cases with pressure sores grade >/=3 and potential controls at comparably high risk for pressure sores were examined before cremation. After written informed consent had been obtained by the next relatives, all available nursing and medical records of the deceased were thoroughly evaluated. Cases and controls were matched according to age, gender, immobility, and cachexia.A total of 100 cases with 71 pressure sores grade 3 and 29 pressure sores grade 4 were compared to 100 controls with 27 pressure sores grade pressure sores in frail older high-risk persons. Sedative drug effects and impaired patient compliance with preventive and therapeutic measures may also be associated with the development of high-grade pressure sores in old persons at high risk.

  14. Distortion of maximal elevator activity by unilateral premature tooth contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Møller, Eigild

    1980-01-01

    In four subjects the electrical activity in the anterior and posterior temporal and masseter muscles during maximal bite was recorded bilaterally with and without premature unilateral contact. Muscle activity was measured as the average level and the peak of the mean voltage with layers of strips...... of 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 2.0 mm, placed between first molars either on the left or the right side, and compared with the level of activity with undistrubed occlusion. Unilateral premature contact caused a significant asymmetry of action in all muscles under study with stronger activity ipsilaterally...

  15. Ketorolac Tromethamine Spray Prevents Postendotracheal-Intubation-Induced Sore Throat after General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postoperative sore throat is one of the major complaints of general anesthesia in the postanesthesia care unit. This prospective study investigated the preventive effect of ketorolac tromethamine spray in postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat after general anesthesia. Methods. Surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were recruited from a medical center. Patients were randomly assigned to group K (treated with 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray or group D (treated with distilled water spray. Before intubation, each endotracheal tube was sprayed with the appropriate solution by physicians over the 20 cm length of the cuff. Each group comprised 95 patients fitting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for whom complete data sets were collected. The intensity of the sore throat was measured at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after surgery, and data were compared. Results. The two groups had similar characteristics. Postoperative sore throat was significantly less frequent in group K than in group D (p<0.001 and the pain intensity was significantly lower in group K than in group D at each time point (all p<0.001. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that preanesthesia 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray could effectively decrease postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat in patients undergoing general anesthesia.

  16. Vitamin C depletion and pressure sores in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, H. F.; Burns, E.; Walker, B. E.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the contribution of specific nutritional deficiencies (as indicated by zinc; vitamin A, C, and E; albumin; and haemoglobin concentrations) to the risk of pressure sores. DESIGN--Observational cohort study. SETTING--St James's University Hospital, Leeds. SUBJECTS--21 elderly patients presenting consecutively to the orthopaedic unit with femoral neck fracture. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Full thickness epidermal break over a pressure bearing surface. RESULTS--10 patients (48%) developed a pressure sore during their hospital stay. Indices of zinc status and concentrations of albumin, haemoglobin, and vitamins A and E were similar in patients who developed a pressure sore and those who did not. Mean leucocyte vitamin C concentration, however, was 6.3 (SD 2.2) micrograms/10(8) cells in patients who developed a pressure sore as compared with 12.8 (4.6) micrograms/10(8) cells in patients who did not. CONCLUSIONS--Low concentrations of leucocyte vitamin C appear to be associated with subsequent development of pressure sores in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures. PMID:1458073

  17. Detection and Isolation of Digital Dermatitis Treponemes from Bovine Pressure Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S R; Crosby-Durrani, H E; Bell, J; Blundell, R; Blowey, R W; Carter, S D; Evans, N J

    2016-05-01

    Pressure sores cause severe pain and discomfort in hospitalized people and in farmed cattle and are often infected with unknown bacteria. Pressure sores occur on the upper legs of 6-10% of recumbent cattle and are generally considered to be caused by constant pressure, commonly on bony areas of the limbs. This study analyzed pressure sores taken from the upper limbs of 14 cattle using isolation in culture and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect treponemes associated with digital dermatitis (DD). A 100% association of DD treponemes with the pressure sores was demonstrated, but treponemes were shown not to be part of the normal skin microbiota. Immunohistochemistry showed an association of DD treponemes with lesions and particularly with the hair follicles in lesions, identifying the bacteria deep within wounds, thereby suggesting that they could contribute to lesion pathogenesis. The bacteria isolated from the pressure sore lesions were similar or identical on analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to those found in DD foot lesions in cattle, suggesting the same bacteria can infect multiple lesions. Indeed, the results of this study suggest that these spirochaetal bacteria may be expanding in host range and in their ability to colonize different tissues and contribute to a range of disease manifestations in farm animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Single Portion Glutamine Supplement Consumption on Injury Indices of Muscle After Eccentric Resistance Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh Najarzadeh; Hadi Atarod; Hasan Mozaffari-Khosravi; Ali Dehghani; Foad Asjodi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Delayed muscular soreness after resistance exercises or eccentric trainings is probably because of muscle damage and injury. Nutrition by playing a crucial role in both protein synthesize and catabolism can influence the extent of muscle injury. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of single portion of Glutamine supplement consumption on injury indices of muscle after a session eccentric resistance exercise. Materials and Methods: this study used a ...

  19. Assessment of maximal handgrip strength : How many attempts are needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnierse, Esmee M.; de Jong, Nynke; Trappenburg, Marijke C.; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Gapeyeva, Helena; Hogrel, Jean Yves; Mcphee, Jamie S.; Narici, Marco V.; Sipilä, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; van Lummel, Rob C.; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B.

    Background: Handgrip strength (HGS) is used to identify individuals with low muscle strength (dynapenia). The influence of the number of attempts on maximal HGS is not yet known and may differ depending on age and health status. This study aimed to assess how many attempts of HGS are required to

  20. Maximal Bell's inequality violation for non-maximal entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Khanna, F.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.; Santana, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bell's inequality violation (BIQV) for correlations of polarization is studied for a product state of two two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) states. The violation allowed is shown to attain its maximal limit for all values of the squeezing parameter, ζ. We show via an explicit example that a state whose entanglement is not maximal allow maximal BIQV. The Wigner function of the state is non-negative and the average value of either polarization is nil

  1. Pressure sores--a constant problem for plegic patients and a permanent challenge for plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuglea, Carmen; Marinescu, Sllviu; Florescu, Ioan Petre; Jecan, Crenguta

    2010-01-01

    Pressure sores can be defined as lesions caused by unrelieved pressure resulting in damage of the underlying tissue. They represent a common problem in the pathology of plegic patients and, plastic surgery has a significant role in their treatment. Pressure sores occur over bony prominences and so, they are most commonly seen at the sacrum and trochanters in paralyzed patients and at ischium for the patients who sit in a wheelchair for a long time. For these patients, surgical treatment is very important because on one hand, it stops the loss of nutrients and proteins at the site of the pressure sore, and on the other hand, it permits the initiation of neuromuscular recuperation treatment much faster.

  2. Gamma loop contributing to maximal voluntary contractions in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbarth, K E; Kunesch, E J; Nordin, M; Schmidt, R; Wallin, E U

    1986-01-01

    A local anaesthetic drug was injected around the peroneal nerve in healthy subjects in order to investigate whether the resulting loss in foot dorsiflexion power in part depended on a gamma-fibre block preventing 'internal' activation of spindle end-organs and thereby depriving the alpha-motoneurones of an excitatory spindle inflow during contraction. The motor outcome of maximal dorsiflexion efforts was assessed by measuring firing rates of individual motor units in the anterior tibial (t.a.) muscle, mean voltage e.m.g. from the pretibial muscles, dorsiflexion force and range of voluntary foot dorsiflexion movements. The tests were performed with and without peripheral conditioning stimuli, such as agonist or antagonist muscle vibration or imposed stretch of the contracting muscles. As compared to control values of t.a. motor unit firing rates in maximal isometric voluntary contractions, the firing rates were lower and more irregular during maximal dorsiflexion efforts performed during subtotal peroneal nerve blocks. During the development of paresis a gradual reduction of motor unit firing rates was observed before the units ceased responding to the voluntary commands. This change in motor unit behaviour was accompanied by a reduction of the mean voltage e.m.g. activity in the pretibial muscles. At a given stage of anaesthesia the e.m.g. responses to maximal voluntary efforts were more affected than the responses evoked by electric nerve stimuli delivered proximal to the block, indicating that impaired impulse transmission in alpha motor fibres was not the sole cause of the paresis. The inability to generate high and regular motor unit firing rates during peroneal nerve blocks was accentuated by vibration applied over the antagonistic calf muscles. By contrast, in eight out of ten experiments agonist stretch or vibration caused an enhancement of motor unit firing during the maximal force tasks. The reverse effects of agonist and antagonist vibration on the

  3. Muscle injury after low-intensity downhill running reduces running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Cory W; Green, Michael S; Doyle, J Andrew; Rupp, Jeffrey C; Ingalls, Christopher P; Corona, Benjamin T

    2014-05-01

    Contraction-induced muscle injury may reduce running economy (RE) by altering motor unit recruitment, lowering contraction economy, and disturbing running mechanics, any of which may have a deleterious effect on endurance performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if RE is reduced 2 days after performing injurious, low-intensity exercise in 11 healthy active men (27.5 ± 5.7 years; 50.05 ± 1.67 VO2peak). Running economy was determined at treadmill speeds eliciting 65 and 75% of the individual's peak rate of oxygen uptake (VO2peak) 1 day before and 2 days after injury induction. Lower extremity muscle injury was induced with a 30-minute downhill treadmill run (6 × 5 minutes runs, 2 minutes rest, -12% grade, and 12.9 km·h(-1)) that elicited 55% VO2peak. Maximal quadriceps isometric torque was reduced immediately and 2 days after the downhill run by 18 and 10%, and a moderate degree of muscle soreness was present. Two days after the injury, steady-state VO2 and metabolic work (VO2 L·km(-1)) were significantly greater (4-6%) during the 65% VO2peak run. Additionally, postinjury VCO2, VE and rating of perceived exertion were greater at 65% but not at 75% VO2peak, whereas whole blood-lactate concentrations did not change pre-injury to postinjury at either intensity. In conclusion, low-intensity downhill running reduces RE at 65% but not 75% VO2peak. The results of this study and other studies indicate the magnitude to which RE is altered after downhill running is dependent on the severity of the injury and intensity of the RE test.

  4. Rational Pharmacotherapy for Sore Throat in Children at Different Stages of the Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Zaychenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the most pressing problems in pediatrics in the autumn and winter — a sore throat in children. The authors give its basic reasons, threatening symptoms that accompany sore throat, indicating an urgent need to visit a doctor, as well as the issues of treatment. It is noted that the most appropriate is the use of combination drugs that have complex (anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic effect. The characteristics of Strepsils Kids preparation, developed specifically for use in children from 6 years, are given.

  5. Pressure Sores and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome: UC Davis Quality Improvement Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairam, Abhishek; Song, Ping; Patel, Nirav B; Wong, Michael S

    2018-05-01

    The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel estimates pressure sore care to approach $11 billion annually. It is not uncommon for these patients to present to the emergency department (ED) with a chief concern of a pressure sore, while concurrently carrying an undiagnosed infectious process that is the culprit for the acute presentation, rather than the chronic pressure injury. We aim to identify patients who met systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria at ED presentation who were referred to plastic and reconstructive surgery for pressure sore debridement prior to a complete medical workup. We hypothesize that a restructuring of the ED triaging system would help conserve hospital resources, reduce costs of pressure sore management, and improve patient care and outcomes by first treating primary, underlying pathologies. This is a retrospective chart review of 36 patients who presented to the University of California, Davis Medical Center Emergency Department with a pressure sore and met SIRS criteria, but obtained a plastic surgery consult prior to a full medical workup. We defined SIRS based on standardized criteria: temperature greater than 100.4°F or less than 96.8°F, pulse rate greater than 90 beats/min, respiratory rate greater than 20 breaths/min or PaCO2 less than 32 mm Hg, white blood cell count greater than 12,000, less than 4000, or greater than 10% bands. Fifty percent of patients (18/36) met SIRS criteria at ED presentation for their pressure sores. Of these SIRS patients, 9 (50%) had a diagnosis of urinary tract infection or urosepsis, 6 (33.3%) had sepsis of undefined origin, and 3 (16.7%) had other diagnoses such as osteomyelitis or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Half of patients consulted while in the University of California, Davis Medical Center Emergency Department with pressure sores met SIRS criteria and received a plastic and reconstructive surgery consult prior to a full medical workup. We propose a new algorithm for

  6. [Randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of Corpitolinol 60 in the prevention of pressure sores in patients undergoing surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Paolo; Giorgi, Sabina; Ugolini, Daniela; Montanari, Morena; Giudanella, Pietro; Gramantieri, Antonella; Collesi, Franca; Pau, Michelina; Smaldone, Maddalena; Matarasso, Maddalena; Mazzini, Cinzia; Russo, Francesca; Gazineo, Domenica; Fontana, Mirella; Taddia, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of Corpitolinol 60 in the prevention of pressure sores in surgical patients. The risk of pressure sores in surgical patients is widely recognised. The Corpitolinol 60 (Sanyréne®) applied on compressed areas seems to reduce the risk of pressure sores. To assess the efficacy of Corpitolinol 60 in preventing pressure sores in the operatory theatre. The open label randomized clinical trial was conducted in 5 operating theatres of Northen Italy. Patients were randomized to receive Corpitolinol 60 in areas undergoing compression. Experimental group and controls were treated with usual measures for preventing pressure sores. The lesions were staged according to NPUAP up to 24 hours after surgery. Three-hundred-one patients were randomized (155 in the Sanyréne® group and 143 controls). The main variables predictive of pressure sores risk (ASA class, sex, age, duration of the surgery, and BMI) were comparable across groups. At the end of the surgery 71 patients (23.8%) in the experimental group and 47 controls (30.8%) had a pressure sore (p 0.006; RR 1.81 IC95% 1.17-2.79). Twelve and 24 hours after surgery the differences between groups were not significant. The aim of reducing pressure sores was not reached for patients treated with Corpitolinol 60.

  7. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  8. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics. S M ROY. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2N-dimensional phase space, ...

  9. Maximal bite force and surface EMG in patients with myasthenia gravis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijnen, FG; Wokke, JHJ; Kuks, JBM; van der Glas, HW; Bosman, F

    2000-01-01

    Masticatory muscle strength was quantified in patients with bulbar myasthenia gravis and compared with that of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis, patients in clinical remission (whether or not pharmacological) who previously suffered from bulbar myasthenia gravis, and healthy subjects. Maximal

  10. Evidence for antibiotic use for sore throat and URTI in general practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    banzi

    508 C M E September 2003 Vol.21 No.9. There is a common misconception among many people that antibiotics are necessary for common colds and their symptoms. Evidence- based medicine can provide a rational approach to this problem. Evidence for antibiotic use for sore throat and URTI in general practice. G T J KA ...

  11. Treatment of pressure sores in spina bifida patients with calcium alginate and foam dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausili, E; Paolucci, V; Triarico, S; Maestrini, C; Murolo, D; Focarelli, B; Rendeli, C

    2013-06-01

    Prospective study on local treatment of pressure sores using calcium alginate and foam dressings in spina bifida patients. Investigate if this sequential approach is valid and safe for selected patients with neurological impairments. Using European Pressure Ulcer Grading System, after clinical evaluation of local sore, selected patients of Spina Bifida Center of Rome were treated with sequential calcium alginate and foam dressings for 12 weeks. Pressure ulcere surfaces were measured monthly by ulcer tracing. The endpoints were the mean absolute areas surface reduction during every month and number of patients achieving a 50% or more during study. 14 patients (7 males aged 12-24 years) with spina bifida and pressure sores were treated. Mean and standard deviation of mean surface area reduction were 12.5 ± 7.5 cm 2 at start of the study versus 3.7 ± 5.2 cm 2 after 12 weeks, p pressure sores in selected patients with spina bifida. In fact, they protect the wound and create an environment favorable to healing.

  12. [Assessment of patients with pressure sores admitted in a tertiary care center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Adriana; Maurici, Alice; do Valle, Juliana Barros; Zaclikevis, Viviane Renata; Kleinubing, Harry

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and analyze the profile of patients with pressure sores, focusing on risk factors, the patients' clinical characteristics at a tertiary care center, as well as stage and location of the lesions on the body. This was a cross sectional not controlled observational study, all patients admitted from April to June of 2005 were observed daily to identify all cases of pressure sores. The affected patients were evaluated by a standard questionnaire and the Scale of Braden was applied to define the risk of developing ulcers. Of the 690 patients admitted during the referred period, a prevalence of 5.9% of patients with lesions was observed, equivalent to 41 patients 63.9% of which were elderly and the average length of stay was 18 days. In the sample studied 41.5% of patients were found in the internal medicine section and the intensive care unit, ICU. The most common location for sores was the sacral area, corresponding to 73.1% of the patients, and stage II was the most frequent, observed in 58.5% of those patients. According to the Braden scale, most patients, 80.4%, had a high risk of developing pressure ulcers, compared to 9.7% of patients with moderate risk and 7.4% with low risk. The affected patients were at high risk of developing pressure sores. Prevalence of these lesions and the clinical and demographic profile of the affected patients are in accordance with the data in literature.

  13. An audit of pressure sores caused by intermittent compression devices used to prevent venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Joanna; Thomas, Sunil

    2011-12-01

    When intermittent compression devices (ICDs) are used to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) they can cause pressure sores in a selected group of women, undergoing long operations. A prospective audit pre and post intervention showed a reduced risk with an alternative device, without increasing the risk of VTE.

  14. [Pedicled superior gluteal artery perforator bilateral quadrilobed flaps for repair of large sacrococcygeal pressure sores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Henglin; Li, Huatao; Chen, Yang; Li, Qiang; Wu, Shenggang; Lili, Wang; Yan, Lei; Xiaoying, Zhou

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of pedicled superior gluteal artery perforator bilateral quadrilobed flaps for repairing large sacrococcygeal pressure sores. Between June 2003 and August 2011, 6 paraplegia patients with large sacrococcygeal pressure sores were repaired with the pedicled superior gluteal artery perforator bilateral quadrilobed flaps. There were 2 males and 4 females with an average age of 45.6 years (range, 37-62 years). The mean disease duration was 8.4 months (range, 3-26 months). According to National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) standard, 6 cases rated as degree IV. The size of pressure sores ranged from 15 cm x 13 cm to 18 cm x 16 cm. The size of flaps ranged from 18 cm x 14 cm to 21 cm x 15 cm. After operation, all flaps survived successfully. The wounds healed by first intention in 5 cases; partial dehiscence of incision occurred in 1 case, which was cured after dressing change for 26 days. Six patients were followed up 6-24 months (mean, 12.5 months). The appearance and texture of the flaps were smooth and soft with good elasticity and no ulceration. Pedicled superior gluteal artery perforator bilateral quadrilobed flaps can repair large sacrococcygeal pressure sores. The appearance of flaps is smooth and has good compression-resistance effect.

  15. Evaluating the effects of pentoxifylline administration on experimental pressure sores in rats by biomechanical examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velaei, Kobra; Bayat, Mohammad; Torkman, Giti; Rezaie, Fatemealsadat; Amini, Abdollah; Noruzian, Mohsen; Tavassol, Azaedh; Bayat, Mehernoush

    2012-09-01

    This study used a biomechanical test to evaluate the effects of pentoxifylline administration on the wound healing process of an experimental pressure sore induced in rats. Under general anesthesia and sterile conditions, experimental pressure sores generated by no. 25 Halsted mosquito forceps were inflicted on 12 adult male rats. Pentoxifylline was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg daily from the day the pressure sore was generated, for a period of 20 days. At the end of 20 days, rats were sacrificed and skin samples extracted. Samples were biomechanically examined by a material testing instrument for maximum stress (N mm(2)), work up to maximum force (N), and elastic stiffness (N/mm). In the experimental group, maximum stress (2.05±0.15) and work up to maximum force (N/mm) (63.75±4.97) were significantly higher than the control group (1.3±0.27 and 43.3±14.96, P=0.002 and P=0.035, respectively). Pentoxifylline administration significantly accelerated the wound healing process in experimental rats with pressure sores, compared to that of the control group.

  16. Pattern of Pressure Sores in Spinal Injured Patients with in the First ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Before 2006, all our spinal injured patients were nursed on conventional form mattress without pressure redistributing support surface. Pressure sore was a common complication and was a major contributing factor to prolonged hospitalization. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of pressure ...

  17. Estudo eletromiográfico do músculo masseter durante o apertamento dentário e mastigação habitual em adultos com oclusão dentária normal Electromyographic study of the masseter muscle during maximal voluntary clenching and habitual chewing in adults with normal occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rahal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a diferença entre os lados na atividade eletromiográfica do masseter em indivíduos adultos com oclusão dentária normal. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 30 indivíduos saudáveis entre 21 e 30 anos e realizou-se eletromiografia de superfície nos músculos masseteres direito e esquerdo, durante apertamento em máxima intercuspidação e mastigação habitual com uva passa. Foram computados os valores médios dos três apertamentos dentários e dos 15 segundos da mastigação habitual para cada indivíduo. Foram considerados para a análise: o lado de maior valor e o de menor valor eletromiográfico. RESULTADOS: Durante o apertamento dentário, a diferença média entre os dois lados foi de 20,0 microvolts (μV com intervalo de confiança (95% entre 14,0 e 26,0 μV e durante a mastigação habitual, a diferença média entre os dois lados foi de 10,3 μV com intervalo de confiança (95% entre 6,7 e 13,8 μV. CONCLUSÃO: Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os lados, com relação entre eles de 24% para o apertamento dentário e de 27% para a mastigação habitual, em indiv duos adultos saudáveis.PURPOSE: To analyze the difference between both sides of the face during the electromyographic activity of the masseter muscle in adults with normal occlusion. METHODS: Thirty healthy individuals with ages ranging from 21 to 30 years old were selected. Surface electromyography was performed on right and left masseter muscles during maximal voluntary clenching and habitual chewing with raisins. The mean values of three teeth clenching and fifteen seconds of habitual chewing were calculated for each subject. The analysis considered the sides with higher and lower electromyographic activity. RESULTS: During maximal voluntary clenching, the mean difference between sides was 20.0 microvolts (μV, with confidence interval (95% between 14.0 and 26.0 μV. During habitual chewing, the mean difference between sides was 10.3

  18. MUSCLE DAMAGE AFTER A TENNIS MATCH IN YOUNG PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Gomes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated changes in indirect markers of muscle damage following a simulated tennis match play using nationally ranked young (17.6 ± 1.4 years male tennis players. Ten young athletes played a 3-hour simulated match play on outdoor red clay courts following the International Tennis Federation rules. Muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity (CK, serum myoglobin concentration (Mb, one repetition maximum (1RM squat strength, and squat jump (SJ and counter movement jump (CMJ heights were assessed before, immediately after, and 24 and 48 h after the simulated match play. All parameters were also evaluated in a non-exercised group (control group. A small increase in the indirect markers of muscle damage (muscle soreness, CK and Mb was detected at 24-48 hours post-match (p<0.05. A marked acute decrement in neuromuscular performance (1RM squat strength: -35.2 ± 10.4%, SJ: -7.0 ± 6.0%, CMJ: -10.0 ± 6.3% was observed immediately post-match (p<0.05. At 24 h post-match, the 1RM strength and jump heights were not significantly different from the baseline values. However, several players showed a decrease of these measures at 24 h after the match play. The simulated tennis match play induced mild muscle damage in young players. Coaches could monitor changes in the indirect markers of muscle damage to assess athletes’ recovery status during training and competition.

  19. Changes in muscle strength and morphology after muscle unloading in Special Forces missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, J B; Jakobsen, O; Madsen, T

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the changes in maximal muscle strength, rapid force capacity, jumping performance and muscle morphology following a Special Forces military operation involving 8 days of muscle unloading. Nine male Special Forces soldiers were tested before (pre) ...

  20. Comparison of gluteal perforator flaps and gluteal fasciocutaneous rotation flaps for reconstruction of sacral pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chou; Huang, Eng-Yen; Lin, Pao-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    The gluteus maximus myocutaneous flap was considered the workhorse that reconstructed sacral pressure sores, but was gradually replaced by fasciocutaneous flap because of several disadvantages. With the advent of the perforator flap technique, gluteal perforator (GP) flap has gained popularity nowadays. The aim of this study was to compare the complications and outcomes between GP flaps and gluteal fasciocutaneous rotation (FR) flaps in the treatment of sacral pressure sores. Between April 2007 and June 2012, 63 patients underwent sacral pressure sore reconstructions, with a GP flap used in 31 cases and an FR flap used in 32 cases. Data collected on the patients included patient age, gender, co-morbidity for being bedridden and follow-up time. Surgical details collected included the defect size, operative time and estimated blood loss. Complications recorded included re-operation, dehiscence, flap necrosis, wound infection, sinus formation, donor-site morbidity and recurrence. The complications and clinical outcomes were compared between these two groups. We found that there was no significant difference in patient demographics, surgical complications and recurrence between these two groups. In gluteal FR flap group, all recurrent cases (five) were treated by reuse of previous flaps. Both methods are comparable, good and safe in treating sacral pressure sores. Gluteal FR flap can be performed without microsurgical dissection, and re-rotation is feasible in recurrent cases. The authors suggest using gluteal FR flaps in patients with a high risk of sore recurrence. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A composite gluteofemoral flap for reconstruction of large pressure sores over the sacrococcygeal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yun; Zhuang, Yue-Hong; Xue, Lan; Zheng, He-Ping; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Gigantic pressure sores pose a daunting challenge for plastic surgeons. This paper presents a composite gluteofemoral flap for reconstruction of large pressure sores over the sacrococcygeal region. In this anatomical study, 30 embalmed cadaveric lower limbs were used for dissection to observe the musculocutaneous perforators of the inferior gluteal artery and the longitudinal nutritional vascular chain of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. In this clinical study, eight patients underwent surgical harvest of the composite gluteofemoral flap for coverage of grade IV sacrococcygeal pressure sores. The size of the pressure sores ranged between 16 × 9 cm and 22 × 10 cm. The inferior gluteal artery was present in 26 cases and absent in four cases. It gave off two to four musculocutaneous branches with a diameter larger than 0.5 mm to the gluteus maximus. A direct cutaneous branch was given off at the inferior margin of the gluteus maximus, serving as a nutritional artery for the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. The size of the flap harvested ranged between 22 × 9 cm and 32 × 10 cm. Flaps in seven patients survived uneventfully and developed epidermal necrosis at the distal margin in one case. An average 2-year follow-up revealed no recurrence of pressure sores. The composite gluteofemoral flap, being robust in blood supply, simple in surgical procedure, and large in donor territory, is an important addition to the armamentarium. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of patients with sore throats in relation to guidelines: an interview study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Katarina; Strandberg, Eva Lena; Gröndal, Hedvig; Brorsson, Annika; Thulesius, Hans; André, Malin

    2014-12-01

    To explore how a group of Swedish general practitioners (GPs) manage patients with a sore throat in relation to current guidelines as expressed in interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse semi-structured interviews. Swedish primary care. A strategic sample of 25 GPs. Perceived management of sore throat patients. It was found that nine of the interviewed GPs were adherent to current guidelines for sore throat and 16 were non-adherent. The two groups differed in terms of guideline knowledge, which was shared within the team for adherent GPs while idiosyncratic knowledge dominated for the non-adherent GPs. Adherent GPs had no or low concerns for bacterial infections and differential diagnosis whilst non-adherent GPs believed that in patients with a sore throat any bacterial infection should be identified and treated with antibiotics. Patient history and examination was mainly targeted by adherent GPs whilst for non-adherent GPs it was often redundant. Non-adherent GPs reported problems getting patients to abstain from antibiotics, whilst no such problems were reported in adherent GPs. This interview study of sore throat management in a strategically sampled group of Swedish GPs showed that while two-thirds were non-adherent and had a liberal attitude to antibiotics one-third were guideline adherent with a restricted view on antibiotics. Non-adherent GPs revealed significant knowledge gaps. Adherent GPs had discussed guidelines within the primary care team while non-adherent GPs had not. Guideline implementation thus seemed to be promoted by knowledge shared in team discussions.

  3. Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.

  4. Implications of maximal Jarlskog invariant and maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

    2001-04-01

    We argue here why CP violating phase Φ in the quark mixing matrix is maximal, that is, Φ=90 . In the Standard Model CP violation is related to the Jarlskog invariant J, which can be obtained from non commuting Hermitian mass matrices. In this article we derive the conditions to have Hermitian mass matrices which give maximal Jarlskog invariant J and maximal CP violating phase Φ. We find that all squared moduli of the quark mixing elements have a singular point when the CP violation phase Φ takes the value Φ=90 . This special feature of the Jarlskog invariant J and the quark mixing matrix is a clear and precise indication that CP violating Phase Φ is maximal in order to let nature treat democratically all of the quark mixing matrix moduli. (orig.)

  5. Do Additional Inputs Change Maximal Voluntary Motor Unit Firing Rates After Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.

    Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary

  6. Phenomenology of maximal and near-maximal lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Pena-Garay, Carlos; Nir, Yosef; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The possible existence of maximal or near-maximal lepton mixing constitutes an intriguing challenge for fundamental theories of flavor. We study the phenomenological consequences of maximal and near-maximal mixing of the electron neutrino with other (x=tau and/or muon) neutrinos. We describe the deviations from maximal mixing in terms of a parameter ε(equivalent to)1-2sin 2 θ ex and quantify the present experimental status for |ε| e mixing comes from solar neutrino experiments. We find that the global analysis of solar neutrino data allows maximal mixing with confidence level better than 99% for 10 -8 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 . In the mass ranges Δm 2 ∼>1.5x10 -5 eV 2 and 4x10 -10 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 the full interval |ε| e mixing in atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay

  7. Maximal quantum Fisher information matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yuan, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix in the multi-parameter quantum estimation, which bounds the ultimate precision limit. We show that when the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix exists, it can be directly obtained from the underlying dynamics. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix by deriving various trade-off relations in multi-parameter quantum estimation and obtaining the bounds for the scalings of the precision limit. (paper)

  8. Electrical stimulation-induced Gluteal and Hamstring muscle activation can reduce sitting pressure in individuals with a spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T. W J; De Koning, A.; Legemate, K. J A; Smit, C. A J

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at high risk of developing pressure sores, in part due to high sitting pressures under the buttocks. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of ES-induced activation of the gluteal and hamstring muscles on the sitting pressure in individuals with SCI. METHODS:

  9. Maximize x(a - x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

  10. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2000-01-01

    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...... in the suffix tree that have a superprimitive path-label....

  11. Cirugía reconstructiva de las úlceras por presión Reconstructive surgery of pressure sores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sores are frequent in certain group of patients with predisposing conditions. In their evolution, this type of sores may require surgery, but the incidence of postoperative complications is high in this type of patients, given the confluence of factors that go against the sucessful surgery of these lesions in these patients. A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study was made to evaluate the results of surgical treatment of pressure sores in a 3 years-period. Taking into account the studied variables, the drawn conclusions will allow designing new strategies for care of these patients, in order to reduce postoperative morbidity and lenght of stay at hospital

  12. On the maximal diphoton width

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.

  13. Effects of a High Protein and Omega-3-Enriched Diet with or Without Creatine Supplementation on Markers of Soreness and Inflammation During 5 Consecutive Days of High Volume Resistance Exercise in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hayward, Colin D. Wilborn, Lem W. Taylor, Stacie L. Urbina, Jordan J. Outlaw, Cliffa A. Foster, Michael D. Roberts

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined if two different dietary interventions affected markers of soreness and inflammation over a 5-day high-volume resistance training protocol in females that resistance-trained 8 weeks prior. Twenty-eight females (age: 20 ± 1 yr; body mass: 63.5 ± 1.6 kg, height: 1.67 ± 0.01 m completed 4 weeks of pre-training (weeks 1-4 followed by a subsequent 4-week training period along with a dietary intervention (weeks 5-8. Dietary interventions from weeks 5-8 included: a no intervention (CTL, n = 10 b a higher-protein diet supplemented with hydrolyzed whey protein (50 g/d and omega-3 fatty acids (900 mg/d (DI, n = 8, and c the DI condition as well as creatine monohydrate (5 g/d (DI+C, n = 10. During week 9, participants resistance-trained for five consecutive days whereby 8 sets of 10 target repetitions at 70% one repetition maximum (1RM were performed each day for bench press, back squat, deadlift, and hip-thrusters with the intent of eliciting muscle soreness and inflammation. Prior to and 24 h following each of the 5 bouts muscle soreness (DOMS was assessed via questionnaire, and fasting blood was obtained and analyzed for serum cortisol, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP. No group*time (G*T or time effects were observed for training volume over the 5-d overreaching protocol. Furthermore, no group*time (G*T or time effects were observed for serum cortisol, IL-6 or CRP, and DOMS actually decreased in all groups 24 h following the fifth day training bout. This study demonstrates that, regardless of protein, omega-3 fatty acid and/or creatine supplementation, 5 days of consecutive resistance training does not alter perceived muscle soreness, training volume, and/or markers of inflammation in novice resistance-trained females.

  14. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  15. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines. How can I prevent muscle cramps? To prevent muscle cramps, you can Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, ...

  16. APLIKASI PEMESANAN MAKANAN ONLINE BERBASIS WEB PADA RUMAH MAKAN PAGI SORE SIPIN JAMBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novhirtamely Kahar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rumah Makan Pagi Sore Sipin Jambi merupakan rumah makan yang menyediakan bermacam-macam menu makanan khas minang dan memiliki banyak pelanggan. Pemesanan makanan bagi pelanggan tetap jika jarak tempat tinggal dengan rumah makan berjauhan selama ini dilakukan melalui telepon. Cara tersebut memiliki kendala, salah satunya pelanggan tidak mengetahui daftar menu dan harga yang ditawarkan oleh rumah makan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membangun aplikasi pemesanan makanan online sehingga penyampaian informasi menjadi cepat, akurat, memiliki jangkauan yang luas, serta dapat memesan makanan secara online. Sistem aplikasi pemesanan ini terdiri dari aplikasi untuk pelanggan dan admin. Aplikasi untuk pelanggan terdiri dari : Home, Profil, Menu, Paket Catering, Promotion, Info, dan Pemesanan. Aplikasi pemesanan untuk pelanggan terdiri dari Delivery Service, Paket Catering Service, dan Paket Catering Ruang Minang. Sedangkan aplikasi untuk admin terdiri dari olah data menu utama, transaksi, dan laporan. Untuk transaksi pembayaran dilakukan secara cash kepada bagian pengiriman. Sistem aplikasi ini dibangun dengan menggunakan PHP dan database MySQL. Dengan dibangunnya aplikasi ini, maka pelanggan dengan mudah mendapatkan informasi tentang Rumah Makan Pagi Sore Sipin Jambi dan dapat melakukan pemesanan makanan dimana saja dan kapan saja, sehingga dapat meningkatkan jumlah pelanggan dan berdampak pada peningkatan profit Rumah Makan Pagi Sore tersebut.Rumah Makan Pagi Sore Sipin Jambi merupakan rumah makan yang menyediakan bermacam-macam menu makanan khas minang dan memiliki banyak pelanggan. Pemesanan makanan bagi pelanggan tetap jika jarak tempat tinggal dengan rumah makan berjauhan selama ini dilakukan melalui telepon. Cara tersebut memiliki kendala, salah satunya pelanggan tidak mengetahui daftar menu dan harga yang ditawarkan oleh rumah makan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membangun aplikasi pemesanan makanan online sehingga penyampaian informasi menjadi

  17. The Effects of Multiple Cold Water Immersions on Indices of Muscle Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Stuart; Howatson, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the efficacy of repeated cold water immersions (CWI) in the recovery of exercise induced muscle damage. A randomised group consisting of eighteen males, mean ± s age, height and body mass were 24 ± 5 years, 1.82 ± 0.06 m and 85.7 ± 16.6 kg respectively, completed a bout of 100 drop jumps. Following the bout of damaging exercise, participants were randomly but equally assigned to either a 12 min CWI (15 ± 1 °C; n = 9) group who experienced immersions immediately post-exercise and every 24 h thereafter for the following 3 days, or a control group (no treatment; n = 9). Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors, creatine kinase activity (CK), muscle soreness (DOMS), range of motion (ROM) and limb girth were measured pre-exercise and then for the following 96 h at 24 h increments. In addition MVC was also recorded immediately post-exercise. Significant time effects were seen for MVC, CK, DOMS and limb girth (p 0.05). These results suggest that repeated CWI do not enhance recovery from a bout of damaging eccentric contractions. Key pointsCryotherapy, particularly cold water immersions are one of the most common interventions used in order to enhance recovery post-exercise.There is little empirical evidence demonstrating benefits from cold water immersions. Research evidence is equivocal, probably due to methodological inconsistencies.Our results show that the cryotherapy administered did not attenuate any markers of EIMD or enhance the recovery of function.We conclude that repeated cold water immersions are ineffective in the recovery from heavy plyometric exercise and suggest athletes and coaches should use caution before using this intervention as a recovery strategy PMID:24149455

  18. Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garmroodi Asil

    2017-09-01

    To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.

  19. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2013-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code....

  20. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code. © 2014 Elsevier...

  1. Therapeutic Effect of External Application of Ligustrazine Combined with Holistic Nursing on Pressure Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Junzhi; Han, Lin; Gong, Fen

    2016-08-15

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of external application of ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing on pressure sores, as well as the underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS From February 2014 to March 2015, a total of 32 patients with Phase II and Phase III pressure sores were enrolled and randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The clinical data were comparable between the 2 groups. In addition to holistic nursing, the patients in the experimental group received 4 weeks of continuous external application of ligustrazine, whereas patients in the control group received compound clotrimazole cream. Therapeutic effect and healing time were recorded. HaCaT cells were used as an in vitro model for mechanism analysis of the effect of ligustrazine in treating pressure sores. After culturing with different concentrations of ligustrazine or the inhibitor of AKT (LY294002) for 72 h, cell viability, clone formation numbers, and levels of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p-AKT, and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were determined. RESULTS Compared to the control group, the total effective rate in the experimental group was significantly higher, and the healing time was significantly reduced. Cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly upregulated by ligustrazine in a dose-dependent manner. Both the cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly inhibited by application of LY294002. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing is an effective treatment of pressure sores. The protective effect may be associated with the promotion of cell growth by activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  2. Clinical effects of Angelica dahurica dressing on patients with I-II phase pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fen; Niu, Junzhi; Pei, Xing

    2016-11-02

    Angelica dahurica is a well-known traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), while little information is available about its effects on pressure sores. We aimed to investigate the clinical effect of Angelica dahurica on patients with I-II phase pressure sores, as well as the underlying mechanism. Patients (n = 98) with phase I and phase II pressure sores were enrolled and randomly assigned to control and treated groups. In addition to holistic nursing, patients in the control group received compound clotrimazole cream, while patients in the treated group received continuous 4 weeks of external application of Angelica dahurica dressing. Therapeutic effect was recorded, along with the levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Besides, HaCaT cells were cultured with different concentrations of Angelica dahurica, and then cell viability, clone formation numbers, cell cycle, and levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2 were determined. The total effective rate in the treated group was significantly higher than in the control group. Levels of IL-8, EGF, TGF-β, and VEGF were statistically increased by Angelica dahurica. In addition, the cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly upregulated by Angelica dahurica in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase, and levels of cyclin D1 and CDK2 were significantly elevated. Our results suggest that Angelica dahurica may provide an effective clinical treatment for I-II phase pressure sores.

  3. Efficiency of Magnetic Field Treatment on Pressure Sores in Bedridden Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Özdemir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure sores are an important source of complications in patients who are immobilized and bedridden. We aimed to investigate the efficiency of magnetic field treatment in pressure sores. Material and Methods: This was a randomized, double blind controlled design study. 20 patients in the study group received magneto-therapy, once a day for 30 minutes and with 150G, keeping to the BTL09 magnetotherapy device’s program. In the control group, 20 patients received the dressing only once a day. The surface areas of the pressure sores were evaluated at the onset of the treatment (1st day, and on the 7th and 15th days.Results: When within group comparisons were conducted, a significant difference was observed between the 1st and 7th day, 7th and 15th day, and 1st and 15th day measures in both the groups in terms of the scar area. The average healing time for the treatment group was 10.80±4.06 (6-20 days, and the average healing time for the control group was 18.85±9.75 (5-32 days. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (z=-2.114, p=0.034. Also, there was a significant difference in the scar area between the two groups in the 15th day measure (z=-3.818, p=0.000.Conclusion: The healing process of the tissue can be accelerated.with the use of magnetotherapy in the treatment of pressure sores of stage II and III,

  4. Muscle cooling delays activation of the muscle metaboreflex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C A; Hume, K M; Gracey, K H; Mahoney, E T

    1997-11-01

    Elevation of muscle temperature has been shown to increase muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during isometric exercise in humans. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of muscle cooling on MSNA responses during exercise. Eight subjects performed ischemic isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction to fatigue followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI), with and without local cooling of the forearm. Local cooling of the forearm decreased forearm muscle temperature from 31.8 +/- 0.4 to 23.1 +/- 0.8 degrees C (P = 0.001). Time to fatigue was not different during the control and cold trials (156 +/- 11 and 154 +/- 5 s, respectively). Arterial pressures and heart rate were not significantly affected by muscle cooling during exercise, although heart rate tended to be higher during the second minute of exercise (P = 0.053) during muscle cooling. Exercise-induced increases in MSNA were delayed during handgrip with local cooling compared with control. However, MSNA responses at fatigue and PEMI were not different between the two conditions. These findings suggest that muscle cooling delayed the activation of the muscle metaboreflex during ischemic isometric exercise but did not prevent its full expression during fatiguing contraction. These results support the concept that muscle temperature can play a role in the regulation of MSNA during exercise.

  5. Long-term outcome of using posterior-thigh fasciocutaneous flaps for the treatment of ischial pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haodong; Hou, Chunlin; Chen, Aimin; Xu, Zhen

    2010-08-01

    Among the many difficult problems presented by patients with spinal cord injuries, management of ischial pressure ulcers remains challenging for reconstructive surgeons. This study describes the long-term outcome of using posterior-thigh fasciocutaneous flaps for the treatment of ischial pressure sores. Between January 1999 and June 2003, 12 patients with ischial sores were enrolled in this study. All the patients underwent early aggressive surgical debridement followed by surgical reconstruction with a laterally based posterior-thigh fasciocutaneous flap. The follow-up period ranged from 24 months to 97 months (mean, 62 months). All the flaps survived, and there were no partial flap losses. Primary-wound healing occurred in all the cases. In two patients, Grade II ischial pressure sores recurred 24 months and 27 months after the operation. There was no recurrence in the other 10 patients. The posterior-thigh fasciocutaneous pedicled flap was a good method for treating ischial bed sores. This flap could be used to treat recurrences observed after primary bed-sore treatment with other methods. The flap was easy to raise, and it did not cause any donor-site morbidity. The long-term outcome of using posterior-thigh fasciocutaneous flaps for the treatment of ischial pressure sores was generally good. (c) Thieme Medical Publishers.

  6. An Intelligent FPGA Based Anti-Sweating System for Bed Sore Prevention in a Clinical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Jaichandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed sores, a common problem among immobile patients occur as a result of continuous sweating due to increase in skin to bed surface temperature in patients lying on same posture for prolonged period. If left untreated, the skin can break open and become infected. Currently adopted methods for bed sores prevention include: use of two hourly flip chat for repositioning patient or use of air fluidized beds. However, the setbacks of these preventive measures include either use of costly equipment or wastage of human resources. This paper introduces an intelligent low cost FPGA based anti-sweating system for bed sores prevention in a clinical environment. The developed system consists of bed surface implanted temperature sensors interfaced with an FPGA chip for sensing the temperature change in patient’s skin to bed surface. Based on the temperature change, the FPGA chip select the - mode (heater/cooler and speed of the fan module. Furthermore, an alarm module was implemented to alert the nurse to reposition the patient only if patient’s skin to bed surface temperature exceeds a predefined threshold thereby saving human resources. By integrating the whole system into a single FPGA chip, we were able to build a low cost compact system without sacrificing processing power and flexibility.

  7. The operative treatment of pressure sores in the pelvic region: A 10-year period overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jósvay, János; Klauber, András; Both, Béla; Kelemen, Péter B; Varga, Zsombor Z; Pesthy, Pál Cs

    2015-07-01

    Pelvic region pressure sores often develop following spinal cord injury. Surgery is often necessary for long standing, large-sized pressure sores not responding to conservative treatment. Authors analyze their results of a 10-year period, and identify factors contributing to the reduction of the recurrence rate. A total of 119 pressure sores were operated on 98 patients in two institutions during a 10-year period (1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012). The encountered perioperative complications are summarized, and the recurrence rate is analyzed with a patient follow-up questionnaire. We experienced 15 perioperative complications (12.6%). All complications were fully resolved by conservative treatment. Fifty-eight returned patient replies were processed. The average follow-up time after surgery was 5.2 years. The recurrence rate was 5.47%. The strict adherence to surgical indications, full patient compliance, specialized pre- and post-operative patient care, our routinely used preferred surgical method, all contribute to a low post-operative complication rate, long-term flap survival, and an extended recurrence free period.

  8. Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim.: fernbush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    2008-01-01

    Fernbush - Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim. - the only species in its genus, is endemic to the Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, and adjacent areas of the western United States. It is an upright, generally multistemmed, sweetly aromatic shrub 0.3 to 2 m tall. Bark of young branches is brown and becomes smooth and gray with age. Leaves are leathery, alternate,...

  9. Reduced inflammatory and muscle damage biomarkers following oral supplementation with bioavailable curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K; Venable, Adam S; Henning, Andrea L; Sampson, Jill N Best; Pennel, Kathryn; Vingren, Jakob L; Hill, David W

    2016-06-01

    Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage (EIMD) and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) impact subsequent training sessions and activities of daily living (ADL) even in active individuals. In sedentary or diseased individuals, EIMD and DOMS may be even more pronounced and present even in the absence of structured exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of oral curcumin supplementation (Longvida® 400 mg/days) on muscle & ADL soreness, creatine kinase (CK), and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) following EMID (eccentric-only dual-leg press exercise). Subjects (N = 28) were randomly assigned to either curcumin (400 mg/day) or placebo (rice flour) and supplemented 2 days before to 4 days after EMID. Blood samples were collected prior to (PRE), and 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after EIMD to measure CK and inflammatory cytokines. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with P < 0.05. Curcumin supplementation resulted in significantly smaller increases in CK (- 48%), TNF-α (- 25%), and IL-8 (- 21%) following EIMD compared to placebo. We observed no significant differences in IL-6, IL-10, or quadriceps muscle soreness between conditions for this sample size. Collectively, the findings demonstrated that consumption of curcumin reduced biological inflammation, but not quadriceps muscle soreness, during recovery after EIMD. The observed improvements in biological inflammation may translate to faster recovery and improved functional capacity during subsequent exercise sessions. These findings support the use of oral curcumin supplementation to reduce the symptoms of EIMD. The next logical step is to evaluate further the efficacy of an inflammatory clinical disease model.

  10. IMNN: Information Maximizing Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    This software trains artificial neural networks to find non-linear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). As compressing large data sets vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference, important information may be inadvertently missed. Likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces summaries that are good approximations to sufficient statistics. IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, non-linear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima.

  11. Is the β phase maximal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The current experimental determination of the absolute values of the CKM elements indicates that 2 vertical bar V ub /V cb V us vertical bar =(1-z), with z given by z=0.19+/-0.14. This fact implies that irrespective of the form of the quark Yukawa matrices, the measured value of the SM CP phase β is approximately the maximum allowed by the measured absolute values of the CKM elements. This is β=(π/6-z/3) for γ=(π/3+z/3), which implies α=π/2. Alternatively, assuming that β is exactly maximal and using the experimental measurement sin(2β)=0.726+/-0.037, the phase γ is predicted to be γ=(π/2-β)=66.3 o +/-1.7 o . The maximality of β, if confirmed by near-future experiments, may give us some clues as to the origin of CP violation

  12. The Effects of Acute Post Exercise Consumption of Two Cocoa-Based Beverages with Varying Flavanol Content on Indices of Muscle Recovery Following Downhill Treadmill Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschek, Katelyn; Pritchett, Robert; Bergman, Ethan; Pritchett, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min) completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer) time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving) immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p = 0.97) between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3 ± 160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5 ± 148.8 s). No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK) levels (p = 0.31), or muscle soreness (p = 0.21) between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits. PMID:24362706

  13. The Effects of Acute Post Exercise Consumption of Two Cocoa-Based Beverages with Varying Flavanol Content on Indices of Muscle Recovery Following Downhill Treadmill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Peschek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary flavanols have been associated with reduced oxidative stress, however their efficacy in promoting recovery after exercise induced muscle damage is unclear. This study examined the effectiveness of acute consumption of cocoa-flavanols on indices of muscle recovery including: subsequent exercise performance, creatine kinase, muscle tenderness, force, and self-perceived muscle soreness. Eight endurance-trained athletes (VO2max 64.4 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min completed a downhill running protocol to induce muscle soreness, and 48-h later completed a 5-K (kilometer time trial. Muscle recovery measurements were taken at PRE, 24 h-POST, 48 h-POST, and POST-5K. Participants consumed 1.0 g of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight of a randomly assigned beverage (CHOC: 0 mg flavanols vs. CocoaCHOC: 350 mg flavanols per serving immediately after the downhill run and again 2 h later. The same protocol was repeated three weeks later with the other beverage. An ANOVA revealed no significant difference (p = 0.97 between trials for 5 K completion time (CHOC 1198.3 ± 160.6 s, CocoaCHOC 1195.5 ± 148.8 s. No significant difference was found for creatine kinase (CK levels (p = 0.31, or muscle soreness (p = 0.21 between groups over time. These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits.

  14. Strategy to maximize maintenance operation

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This project presents a strategic analysis to maximize maintenance operations in Alcan Kitimat Works in British Columbia. The project studies the role of maintenance in improving its overall maintenance performance. It provides strategic alternatives and specific recommendations addressing Kitimat Works key strategic issues and problems. A comprehensive industry and competitive analysis identifies the industry structure and its competitive forces. In the mature aluminium industry, the bargain...

  15. Scalable Nonlinear AUC Maximization Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Majdi; Ray, Indrakshi; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of interest in various machine learning and data mining applications. It has been widely used to evaluate classification performance on heavily imbalanced data. The kernelized AUC maximization machines have established a superior generalization ability compared to linear AUC machines because of their capability in modeling the complex nonlinear structure underlying most real world-data. However, the high training complexity renders the kernelize...

  16. Semimembranosus muscle herniation: a rare case with emphasis on muscle biomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naffaa, Lena [American University of Beirut, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El-Solh, Beirut (Lebanon); Moukaddam, Hicham [Saint Rita Medical Center, Lima, OH (United States); Samim, Mohammad [New York University, Department of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Disease, New York, NY (United States); Lemieux, Aaron [University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA (United States); Smitaman, Edward [University of California, San Diego, Teleradiology and Education Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Muscle herniations are rare and most reported cases involve muscles of the lower leg. We use a case of muscle herniation involving the semimembranosus muscle, presenting as a painful mass in an adolescent male after an unspecified American football injury, to highlight a simple concept of muscle biomechanics as it pertains to muscle hernia(s): decreased traction upon muscle fibers can increase conspicuity of muscle herniation(s) - this allows a better understanding of the apt provocative maneuvers to employ, during dynamic ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, in order to maximize diagnostic yield and, thereby, limit patient morbidity related to any muscle herniation. Our patient subsequently underwent successful decompressive fasciotomy and has since returned to his normal daily activities. (orig.)

  17. Semimembranosus muscle herniation: a rare case with emphasis on muscle biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naffaa, Lena; Moukaddam, Hicham; Samim, Mohammad; Lemieux, Aaron; Smitaman, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Muscle herniations are rare and most reported cases involve muscles of the lower leg. We use a case of muscle herniation involving the semimembranosus muscle, presenting as a painful mass in an adolescent male after an unspecified American football injury, to highlight a simple concept of muscle biomechanics as it pertains to muscle hernia(s): decreased traction upon muscle fibers can increase conspicuity of muscle herniation(s) - this allows a better understanding of the apt provocative maneuvers to employ, during dynamic ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, in order to maximize diagnostic yield and, thereby, limit patient morbidity related to any muscle herniation. Our patient subsequently underwent successful decompressive fasciotomy and has since returned to his normal daily activities. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear Positioning in Muscle Development and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eFolker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Muscle disease as a group is characterized by muscle weakness, muscle loss, and impaired muscle function. Although the phenotype is the same, the underlying cellular pathologies, and the molecular causes of these pathologies, are diverse. One common feature of many muscle disorders is the mispositioning of myonuclei. In unaffected individuals myonuclei are spaced throughout the periphery of the muscle fiber such that the distance between nuclei is maximized. However, in diseased muscles, the nuclei are often clustered within the center of the muscle cell. Although this phenotype has been acknowledged for several decades, it is often ignored as a contributor to muscle weakness. Rather, these nuclei are taken only as a sign of muscle repair. Here we review the evidence that mispositioned myonuclei are not merely a symptom of muscle disease but also a cause. Additionally, we review the working models for how myonuclei move from two different perspectives, from that of the nucleus and from that of the cytoskeleton. We further compare and contrast these mechanisms with the mechanisms of nuclear movement in other cell types both to draw general themes for nuclear movement and to identify muscle-specific considerations. Finally, we focus on factors that can be linked to muscle disease and find that genes that regulate myonuclear movement and positioning have been linked to muscular dystrophy. Although the cause-effect relationship is largely speculative, recent data indicate that the position of nuclei should no longer be considered only a means to diagnose muscle disease.

  19. Training-induced changes in muscle CSA,muscle strength, EMG and rate of force development in elderly subjects after long-term unilateral disuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per; Rosted, Anne

    2004-01-01

    , maximal isometric strength, RFD, and muscle activation in elderly men and women recovering from long-term muscle disuse and subsequent hip surgery. The improvement in both muscle mass and neural function is likely to have important functional implications for elderly individuals........ Thirty subjects completed the trial. In the strength-training group, significant increases were observed in maximal isometric muscle strength (24%, P impulse (27-32%, P

  20. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  1. The time course of short-term hypertrophy in the absence of eccentric muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Mota, Jacob A; DeFranco, Ryan N; Grue, Katherine A; Jacobo, A Unique; Chung, Eunhee; Moon, Jordan R; DeFreitas, Jason M; Beck, Travis W

    2017-05-01

    It has been proposed that the increase in skeletal muscle mass observed during the initial weeks of initiating a resistance training program is concomitant with eccentric muscle damage and edema. We examined the time course of muscle hypertrophy during 4 weeks of concentric-only resistance training. Thirteen untrained men performed unilateral concentric-only dumbbell curls and shoulder presses twice per week for 4 weeks. Sets of 8-12 repetitions were performed to failure, and training loads were increased during each session. Subjects consumed 500 ml of whole milk during training. Assessments of soreness, lean mass, echo intensity, muscle thickness, relaxed and flexed arm circumference, and isokinetic strength were performed every 72 or 96 h. Soreness, echo intensity, relaxed circumference, and peak torque data did not significantly change. Significant increases in lean mass, muscle thickness, and flexed circumference were observed within seven training sessions. Lean mass was elevated at tests #7 (+109.3 g, p = .002) and #8 (+116.1 g, p = .035), with eight different subjects showing changes above the minimal difference of 139.1 g. Muscle thickness was elevated at tests #6 (+0.23 cm, p = .004), #7 (+0.31 cm, p hypertrophy may occur in the absence of eccentric muscle damage within seven training sessions.

  2. One session of partial-body cryotherapy (-110 °C) improves muscle damage recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Junior, J B; Bottaro, M; Vieira, A; Siqueira, A F; Vieira, C A; Durigan, J L Q; Cadore, E L; Coelho, L G M; Simões, H G; Bemben, M G

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of a single session of partial-body cryotherapy (PBC) on muscle recovery, 26 young men performed a muscle-damaging protocol that consisted of five sets of 20 drop jumps with 2-min rest intervals between sets. After the exercise, the PBC group (n = 13) was exposed to 3 min of PBC at -110 °C, and the control group (n = 13) was exposed to 3 min at 21 °C. Anterior thigh muscle thickness, isometric peak torque, and muscle soreness of knee extensors were measured pre, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h following exercise. Peak torque did not return to baseline in control group (P  0.05). Peak torque was also higher after PBC at 72 and 96 h compared with control group (P < 0.05). Muscle thickness increased after 24 h in the control group (P < 0.05) and was significantly higher compared with the PBC group at 24 and 96 h (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness returned to baseline for the PBC group at 72 h compared with 96 h for controls. These results indicate that PBC after strenuous exercise may enhance recovery from muscle damage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Muscle oxygenation and fascicle length during passive muscle stretching in ballet-trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, A; Fujita, E; Ikegawa, S; Kuno-Mizumura, M

    2011-07-01

    Muscle stretching transiently decreases muscle-blood flow corresponding to a muscle extension. It may disturb a balance between muscular oxygen demand and oxygen supply to muscles and reduce muscle oxygenation. However, muscle-stretching training may improve blood circulatory condition, resulting in the maintained muscle oxygenation during muscle stretching. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in muscle-blood volume (tHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) during muscle stretching determined by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in ballet-trained (BT) and untrained (C) subjects. 11 BT women who regularly perform muscle stretching and 11 C women participated in this study. Fascicle lengths, tHb and TOI in the tibialis anterior muscle were measured during passive plantar flexion from ankle joint angles of 120° (baseline) to 140°, 160°, the maximal comfortable position without pain (CP), and the maximal position (MP). At 160°, the % fascicle-length change from baseline was significantly lower in the BT than the C group, however, for the changes in tHb and TOI the significant interaction effect between the 2 groups was not detected. On the other hand, although the increases in the fascicle length from baseline to CP and MP were greater in BT than C, the tHb and TOI reductions were comparable between groups. We concluded that it appears that BT can extend their muscles without excessive reduction in muscle-blood volume and muscle oxygenation at relatively same but absolutely greater muscle-stretching levels than C. The attenuation in these indices during high-level muscle stretching may be associated with the repetitive muscle stretching of long-term ballet training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Activation of respiratory muscles during respiratory muscle training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Röcker, Kai; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown which respiratory muscles are mainly activated by respiratory muscle training. This study evaluated Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading (IPTL), Inspiratory Flow Resistive Loading (IFRL) and Voluntary Isocapnic Hyperpnea (VIH) with regard to electromyographic (EMG) activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), parasternal muscles (PARA) and the diaphragm (DIA) in randomized order. Surface EMG were analyzed at the end of each training session and normalized using the peak EMG recorded during maximum inspiratory maneuvers (Sniff nasal pressure: SnPna, maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure: PImax). 41 healthy participants were included. Maximal activation was achieved for SCM by SnPna; the PImax activated predominantly PARA and DIA. Activations of SCM and PARA were higher in IPTL and VIH than for IFRL (p<0.05). DIA was higher applying IPTL compared to IFRL or VIH (p<0.05). IPTL, IFRL and VIH differ in activation of inspiratory respiratory muscles. Whereas all methods mainly stimulate accessory respiratory muscles, diaphragm activation was predominant in IPTL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventing pressure sores of the nasal ala after nasotracheal tube intubation: from animal model to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tze-Ta; Tseng, Chih-En; Lee, Tsan-Mu; Yeh, Jen-Ying; Lai, Yu-Yung

    2009-03-01

    Nasal-ala pressure sores induced by nasotracheal intubation are common complications of oral and maxillofacial surgery, but are easily ignored. To determine whether such sores could be prevented, we studied the effects of a combination of cushioning material in an animal model, and then analyzed the efficacy of this combination clinically. Four pigs received nasotracheal intubation. Each pig received intubation for 4, 8, 12, or 16 hours. Outcomes from pigs undergoing 500-gram-weight compression on each nostril were compared: one nostril received an application of cushioning materials, and the contralateral nostril did not. After the required study period, clinical assessment and further evaluation were performed by measuring pressure-sore dimensions and performing incisional biopsies. Clinical applications of this protective technique were then undertaken. Eight patients who underwent intubation without Soft Liner (GC Co, Tokyo, Japan) and DuoDERM CGF (ConvaTec, Inc, Princeton, NJ) protection, and 10 patients with Soft Liner and DuoDERM protection, were evaluated. The protective efficacy of the cushioning materials was significant in the animal model as well as in clinical practice. Pressure sores were avoided on the protected side, with severe tissue necrosis documented on the control side. We found that the combined use of Soft Liner and DuoDERM reduced the size and severity of nasal-ala pressure sores attributable to nasotracheal intubation during oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  6. At-Home Application of Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma as Treatment for Pressure Sore and Related Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendas, Andrea; Niscola, Pasquale; Giovannini, Marco; Costa, Adriana; Venditti, Daniela; Volta, Laura; Malandruccolo, Luigi; Sabbadini, Stefania; Lasorella, Rosa; Fabritiis, Paolo de; Cassetta, Rita; Perrotti, Alessio P

    2017-01-01

    Pressure sores are a major complication in the bed-ridden older patient. In this report, we present the case of platelet rich plasma (PRP) application for the treatment of a pressure sore in an 88-year-old female affected by transfusion-dependent chronic inflammatory disease anemia associated with the congenital and inherited condition of thalassemic trait carrier. A weekly application schedule was planned athome, given the patient's debilitation and her decreased performance status as well as personal and family difficulties to go as outpatients at our treatment center. After 9 PRP applications, a remarkable sore improvement was achieved so that PRP was discontinued; nevertheless, sore rapidly improved until the full resolution and the complete closing after 4 months from the start of PRP treatment. Noteworthy, transfusion support was interrupted and a significant recovery and a sustained stabilization of hemoglobin (Hb) level at 1 year after ulcer healing were observed. The present case suggests that PRP application, performed athome in our case, is a feasible and effective treatment for pressure sores and related complications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. The Effect of Early Complications on Flap Selection on Sacral Pressure Sores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Kemal Keleş

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure sores occur in bedridden patients in intensive care units, clinics, and even at their own places. Care for sick relatives and working with doctors to address treatment options and ensure proper follow-up are some of the problems associated with these types of wounds. Surgical therapy in the treatment of pressure ulcers is associated with significant complications. In comparison to non-surgical treatment, surgical treatment has a low complication rate and is more cost-effective. The surgical treatment enables the patients to return to their social life sooner than non-surgical treatment. Patient's ability to early return to their social life is advantageous in terms of reducing morbidity and the need for additional operations. This study is aimed to review the flap choices used to treat sacral pressure sores and the resulting acute complications rates retrospectively. Material and Methods: Patients treated for stage 3 and stage 4 sacral pressure sores in our clinic in the past 5 years were included in the study. Patient records were analyzed retrospectively. Patients' demographic data and surgical treatment they received were documented. Surgical method and surgical outcomes were evaluated and early complication rates were determined. Result: Fifty patients were included in the study; 10 of them were female, 40 of were male cases. The most common causative agent was paraplegia after traffic accident. Conclusion: A significant difference was not observed between the type of flap used in the surgical treatment and the rate of complications. Consequently, the surgical treatment of pressure ulcers in the sacral region depends on the patient's individual situation, the cooperation of the family, and previously applied treatments

  8. Intermuscular interaction via myofascial force transmission: Effects of tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus length on force transmission from rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Huub; Baan, Guus C.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    Force transmission in rat anterior crural compartment, containing tibialis anterior (TA), extensor hallucis longus (EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, was investigated. These muscles together with the muscles of the peroneal compartment were excited maximally. Force was measured at

  9. Bone marrow mesenchymal cells improve muscle function in a skeletal muscle re-injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M Andrade

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle injury is the most common problem in orthopedic and sports medicine, and severe injury leads to fibrosis and muscle dysfunction. Conventional treatment for successive muscle injury is currently controversial, although new therapies, like cell therapy, seem to be promise. We developed a model of successive injuries in rat to evaluate the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMC injected directly into the injured muscle. Functional and histological assays were performed 14 and 28 days after the injury protocol by isometric tension recording and picrosirius/Hematoxilin & Eosin staining, respectively. We also evaluated the presence and the fate of BMMC on treated muscles; and muscle fiber regeneration. BMMC treatment increased maximal skeletal muscle contraction 14 and 28 days after muscle injury compared to non-treated group (4.5 ± 1.7 vs 2.5 ± 0.98 N/cm2, p<0.05 and 8.4 ± 2.3 vs. 5.7 ± 1.3 N/cm2, p<0.05 respectively. Furthermore, BMMC treatment increased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and the presence of mature muscle fiber 28 days after muscle injury. However, there was no difference in collagen deposition between groups. Immunoassays for cytoskeleton markers of skeletal and smooth muscle cells revealed an apparent integration of the BMMC within the muscle. These data suggest that BMMC transplantation accelerates and improves muscle function recovery in our extensive muscle re-injury model.

  10. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Changes in maximum muscle strength and rapid muscle force characteristics after long-term special support and reconnaissance missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Astrup; Jacobsen, Jacob Ole; Thorlund, Jonas B

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of 8 days of immobilization during a Special Support and Reconnaissance mission (SSR) on muscle mass, contraction dynamics, maximum jump height/power, and body composition. METHODS: Unilateral maximal voluntary contraction, rate...... of force development, and maximal jump height were tested to assess muscle strength/power along with whole-body impedance analysis before and after SSR. RESULTS: Body weight, fat-free mass, and total body water decreased (4-5%) after SSR, along with impairments in maximal jump height (-8%) and knee...... extensor maximal voluntary contraction (-10%). Furthermore, rate of force development was severely affected (-15-30%). CONCLUSIONS: Eight days of immobilization during a covert SSR mission by Special Forces soldiers led to substantial decrements in maximal muscle force and especially in rapid muscle force...

  12. Flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenges for treating sore throat symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtel, Bernard P; Shephard, Adrian; Shea, Timothy; Sanner, Kathleen; Savino, Laurie; Rezuke, Jeanne; Schachtel, Emily; Aspley, Sue

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed multiple doses of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenges for the relief of three prominent symptoms of acute pharyngitis: pain intensity (primary end point), difficulty swallowing and swollen throat. A total of 204 patients (102 in each group) with confirmed pharyngitis (onset ≤4 days) were randomly assigned to take up to five flurbiprofen or placebo lozenges every 3-6 h, for 7 days. Using validated rating scales (sore throat pain intensity, difficulty swallowing and swollen throat) patients rated their symptoms for the duration of the study. Over the first 24 h, patients treated with flurbiprofen lozenges reported significantly greater reductions in sore throat pain (47%) as well as difficulty swallowing (66%) and swollen throat (40%) compared with placebo (all p flurbiprofen lozenges provide effective relief of sore throat pain intensity as well as difficulty swallowing and swollen throat.

  13. Maximal Abelian sets of roots

    CERN Document Server

    Lawther, R

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author lets \\Phi be an irreducible root system, with Coxeter group W. He considers subsets of \\Phi which are abelian, meaning that no two roots in the set have sum in \\Phi \\cup \\{ 0 \\}. He classifies all maximal abelian sets (i.e., abelian sets properly contained in no other) up to the action of W: for each W-orbit of maximal abelian sets we provide an explicit representative X, identify the (setwise) stabilizer W_X of X in W, and decompose X into W_X-orbits. Abelian sets of roots are closely related to abelian unipotent subgroups of simple algebraic groups, and thus to abelian p-subgroups of finite groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic p. Parts of the work presented here have been used to confirm the p-rank of E_8(p^n), and (somewhat unexpectedly) to obtain for the first time the 2-ranks of the Monster and Baby Monster sporadic groups, together with the double cover of the latter. Root systems of classical type are dealt with quickly here; the vast majority of the present work con...

  14. Canker Sore

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... base of your gums, or on your soft palate. You might notice a tingling or burning sensation ... border) Pain that you can't control with self-care measures Extreme difficulty eating or drinking High ...

  15. Sore Throats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... since drainage from nose or sinus infections can cause throat infections as well. If you live or work in close quarters such as a child care center, classroom, office, prison, or military installation, ...

  16. Sore Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2014-01-01

    This is not brand new; in fact, I do not even mention the word selfie. However, it was very rewarding for me in terms of the intellectual and emotional richness and challenge, I got in return from working with this article and the questions and the answers it deals with. Maybe it will be good...

  17. Sore Throats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Health Home Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly ... Terms of Use © Copyright 2018. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, ...

  18. Mouth Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Health Home Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly ... Terms of Use © Copyright 2018. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery 1650 Diagonal Rd Alexandria, ...

  19. Cold Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Men? The History of Dental Advances Pacifiers Have Negative and Positive Effects What is Dental Amalgam (Silver Filling)? What is a Composite Resin (White Filling)? Learn what those dental words mean. Check out how your teeth and mouth change in every stage of life. More RSS ...

  20. [Reliability and validity of the Braden Scale for predicting pressure sore risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, C

    2000-12-01

    For more accurate and objective pressure sore risk assessment various risk assessment tools were developed mainly in the USA and Great Britain. The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk is one such example. By means of a literature analysis of German and English texts referring to the Braden Scale the scientific control criteria reliability and validity will be traced and consequences for application of the scale in Germany will be demonstrated. Analysis of 4 reliability studies shows an exclusive focus on interrater reliability. Further, even though examination of 19 validity studies occurs in many different settings, such examination is limited to the criteria sensitivity and specificity (accuracy). The range of sensitivity and specificity level is 35-100%. The recommended cut off points rank in the field of 10 to 19 points. The studies prove to be not comparable with each other. Furthermore, distortions in these studies can be found which affect accuracy of the scale. The results of the here presented analysis show an insufficient proof for reliability and validity in the American studies. In Germany, the Braden scale has not yet been tested under scientific criteria. Such testing is needed before using the scale in different German settings. During the course of such testing, construction and study procedures of the American studies can be used as a basis as can the problems be identified in the analysis presented below.

  1. A simple concept for covering pressure sores: wound edge-based propeller perforator flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelahmetoglu, Osman; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Yagmur, Caglayan; Sommeling, Casper E; Keles, Musa K; Tayfur, Volkan; Simsek, Tekin; Demirtas, Yener; Guneren, Ethem

    2017-12-01

    We present a new surgical modification to allow propeller perforator flaps to cover pressure sores at various locations. We used a propeller perforator flap concept based on the detection of newly formed perforator vessels located 1 cm from the wound margin and stimulated by the chronic inflammation process. Between January 2009 and January 2017, 33 wound edge-based propeller perforator flaps were used to cover pressure sores at various locations in 28 patients. In four cases more than one flap was used on the same patient. The patients comprised 18 males and 10 females with a mean age of 41·25 (range, 16-70) years. All patients underwent follow-up for 0-12 months. The mean follow-up duration was 5·03 months. Venous congestion was observed in three flaps that were rotated by 180° (9·1%). However, there was a significant difference between flaps rotated by 90° and 180° according to the complication rate (P = 0·034). Out of 33 flaps, 29 flaps healed uneventfully. Patients were able to sit and lie on their flaps three weeks after surgery. In our study, we were able to obtain satisfying final results using these novel flaps. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH PRESSURE SORES IN A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Gustavo Palmeiro; Seidel, William; Giustina, Renata Della; Bins-Ely, Jorge; Maurici, Rosemeri; Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína Luz

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances in medical care, patients who are hospitalized or have spinal cord injuries often develop pressure sores. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of pressure sores and evaluate factors associated with recurrence and cure. In this historical cohort study, clinical and laboratory data were collected from medical records between 1997 and 2016. Sixty individuals with pressure ulcers were included; mean patient age was 38.1±16.5 (37.0) years, 83.3% were men, and 86.8% identified as white. Most patients (85.1%) had paraplegia, amputation, or trauma of the lower limbs with motor sequelae; the remainder (14.9%) were quadriplegic. Most (78.3%) underwent surgery, and the mean follow-up time was 1.8±2.5 years. The lesions were cured in 25 patients; they recurred in 25% of the patients, and recurrence was seen to be associated with the location of the lesions. Patients with recurrent lesions had more medical consultations and a longer treatment time. Individuals whose ulcers had healed had fewer lesions, higher body mass index (BMI), and a higher proportion of these patients underwent surgery. BMI and location and number of lesions are prognostic factors. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.

  3. Dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for the treatment of sacral pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chuang, Shiow-Shuh

    2015-02-01

    The sacral region is one of the most vulnerable sites for the development of pressure sores. Even when surgical reconstruction is performed, there is a high chance of recurrence. Therefore, the concept of dual-dermal-barrier fashion flaps for sacral pressure sore reconstruction was proposed. From September 2007 to June 2010, nine patients with grade IV sacral pressures were enrolled. Four patients received bilateral myocutaneous V-Y flaps, four patients received bilateral fasciocutaneous V-Y flaps, and one patient received bilateral rotation-advanced flaps for sacral pressure reconstruction. The flaps were designed based on the perforators of the superior gluteal artery in one patient's reconstructive procedure. All flaps' designs were based on dual-dermal-barrier fashion. The mean follow-up time was 16 months (range = 12-25). No recurrence was noted. Only one patient had a complication of mild dehiscence at the middle suture line, occurring 2 weeks after the reconstructive surgery. The dual-dermal fashion flaps are easily duplicated and versatile. The study has shown minimal morbidity and a reasonable outcome.

  4. Relationships among hamstring muscle optimal length and hamstring flexibility and strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin Wan

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Hamstring flexibility may affect hamstring muscle maximum strain in movements. With similar hamstring flexibility, hamstring muscle maximal strain in a given movement may be different between genders. Hamstring muscle lengths in standing should not be used as an approximation of their optimal lengths in calculation of hamstring muscle strain in musculoskeletal system modeling.

  5. Reducing risk of pressure sores: effects of watch prompts and alarm avoidance on wheelchair push-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, G W; Mathews, R M; Fawcett, S B

    1989-01-01

    People who use wheelchairs are at risk for developing pressure sores. Regular pressure relief, in the form of a wheelchair push-up, is one way to reduce the likelihood of pressure sores. We examined the effects of antecedent (i.e., instructions, audible prompts) and consequent (i.e., alarm avoidance) events on wheelchair push-ups, using a multiple baseline analysis with 2 participants with spina bifida. Results suggest that the combined procedure was more effective than either antecedent or consequent events alone, and there is some evidence suggesting maintenance of effects over time. PMID:2793635

  6. A novel technique for preventing skin pressure sores using a rubber tube during surgical treatment of mandibular condyle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase-Koga, Yoko; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Hoshi, Kazuhito; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Craniofacial surgery occasionally results in sores and necrosis of the facial skin because of pressure from surgical instruments. During surgical treatment of mandibular condylar process fractures, the main mandibular fragment is routinely retracted downward using a wire to achieve a satisfactory anatomic reduction. This procedure may injure the facial skin. This potential complication is easily overlooked by medical staff, but it is easily preventable. We herein describe a method of using a rubber tube to avoid causing pressure sores of the facial skin during surgical treatment of mandibular condylar process fractures.

  7. Maximal respiratory pressures and pulmonary function in male runners.

    OpenAIRE

    Cordain, L; Glisan, B J; Latin, R W; Tucker, A; Stager, J M

    1987-01-01

    To determine the effects of long term exercise on respiratory muscle strength, maximal inspiratory (Pl max) and expiratory (PE max) pressures, pulmonary volumes and capacities and anthropometric parameters were measured in a group of 101 male runners aged 16 to 58 years. The runners exhibited significantly (p less than 0.05) lower PE max (202 +/- 41 cm H2O and significantly greater residual lung volumes (RV) (2.08 +/- 0.49 L) than predicted values for normal subjects of similar height and age...

  8. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  9. Maximizing synchronizability of duplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang; Emenheiser, Jeffrey; Wu, Xiaoqun; Lu, Jun-an; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the synchronizability of duplex networks formed by two randomly generated network layers with different patterns of interlayer node connections. According to the master stability function, we use the smallest nonzero eigenvalue and the eigenratio between the largest and the second smallest eigenvalues of supra-Laplacian matrices to characterize synchronizability on various duplexes. We find that the interlayer linking weight and linking fraction have a profound impact on synchronizability of duplex networks. The increasingly large inter-layer coupling weight is found to cause either decreasing or constant synchronizability for different classes of network dynamics. In addition, negative node degree correlation across interlayer links outperforms positive degree correlation when most interlayer links are present. The reverse is true when a few interlayer links are present. The numerical results and understanding based on these representative duplex networks are illustrative and instructive for building insights into maximizing synchronizability of more realistic multiplex networks.

  10. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  11. Photobiomodulation in human muscle tissue: an advantage in sports performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Cleber; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared (NIR) light to stimulate, heal, and regenerate damaged tissue. Both preconditioning (light delivered to muscles before exercise) and PBM applied after exercise can increase sports performance in athletes. This review covers the effects of PBM on human muscle tissue in clinical trials in volunteers related to sports performance and in athletes. The parameters used were categorized into those with positive effects or no effects on muscle performance and recovery. Randomized controlled trials and case-control studies in both healthy trained and untrained participants, and elite athletes were retrieved from MEDLINE up to 2016. Performance metrics included fatigue, number of repetitions, torque, hypertrophy; measures of muscle damage and recovery such as creatine kinase and delayed onset muscle soreness. Searches retrieved 533 studies, of which 46 were included in the review (n = 1045 participants). Studies used single laser probes, cluster of laser diodes, LED clusters, mixed clusters (lasers and LEDs), and flexible LED arrays. Both red, NIR, and red/NIR mixtures were used. PBM can increase muscle mass gained after training, and decrease inflammation and oxidative stress in muscle biopsies. We raise the question of whether PBM should be permitted in athletic competition by international regulatory authorities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Dynamic cardiomyoplasty using artificial muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Fukui, Kozo; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic cardiomyoplasty using latissimus dorsi muscle was previously used to compensate for congestive heart failure. Now, however, this method is not acceptable because the long-term result was not as expected owing to fatigue of the skeletal muscle. BioMetal fiber developed by Toki Corporation is one of the artificial muscles activated by electric current. The behavior of this fiber is similar to that of organic muscle. We made an artificial muscle like the latissimus dorsi using BioMetal fiber and tested whether we could use this new muscle as a cardiac supporting device. Testing one Biometal fiber showed the following performance: practical use maximal generative force was 30 g, exercise variation was 50%, and the standard driving current was 220 mA. We created a 4 x 12-cm tabular artificial muscle using 8 BioMetal fibers as a cardiac support device. We also made a simulation circuit composed of a 6 x 8-cm soft bag with unidirectional valves, reservoir, and connecting tube. The simulation circuit was filled with water and the soft bag was wrapped with the artificial muscle device. After powering the device electrically at 9 V with a current of 220 mA for each fiber, we measured the inside pressure and observed the movement of the artificial device. The artificial muscle contracted in 0.5 s for peak time and squeezed the soft bag. The peak pressure inside the soft bag was measured as 10 mmHg. Although further work will be needed to enhance the speed of deformability and movement simulating contraction, we conclude that artificial muscle may be potentially useful as a cardiac assistance device that can be developed for dynamic cardiomyoplasty.

  13. The posterior thigh flap for defect coverage of ischial pressure sores - a critical single-centre analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedovic, Gabriel; Morandi, Evi M; Metzler, Julia; Wirthmann, Anna; Matiasek, Johannes; Bauer, Thomas; Rieger, Ulrich M

    2017-12-01

    The development of pressure sores is still not only an enormous economical but also a medical burden. Especially in the ischial region, the local defect coverage remains demanding as it is the main weight-bearing area in wheelchair-mobilised patients and is prone to high mobility. The purpose of our study was to report our long-time experience with the reconstruction of ischial pressure ulcers with the medially based posterior thigh flap. A retrospective analysis of all primary pressure sores grade III-IV in the ischial area, which were covered with a medially based posterior thigh flap between January 2008 and December 2014, at our department was conducted. A total of 28 patients underwent defect coverage of an ischial pressure sore with the aforementioned flap. The subgroup with complications showed a statistically significant longer hospital stay. A statistically significant correlation between age and the coincidence of comorbidities could be seen. Older patients showed significantly higher grades of pressure sores. The medially based posterior thigh flap is a safe and reliable flap design. Complication rates are comparable to other flaps. Nevertheless, in case of complications, a significantly longer duration of hospitalisation has to be taken into account. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Penicillin for acute sore throat : randomised double blind trial of seven days versus three days treatment or placebo in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S; Sachs, APE; Ruijs, GJHM; Gubbels, JW; Hoes, AW; de Melker, RA

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess whether treatment with penicillin for three days and the traditional treatment for seven days were equally as effective at accelerating resolution of symptoms in patients with sore throat compared with placebo. Design Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Setting 43

  15. How social media meet patients’ questions: YouTube™ review for mouth sores in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasio, D; Romano, A; Paparella, R S; Gentile, C; Serpico, R; Minervini, G; Candotto, V; Laino, L

    2018-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common causes of mouth sores in children so the management of this condition is a matter of great importance. YouTube™ is increasingly being used by patients to obtain health-related information. The aim of this work is to examine the quality of information offered by YouTube™ about mouth sores in children (MSC). Searching the term ‘mouth sores in children’, (MSC) displayed 12.300 results. Of the top 60 videos analyzed, 31 were excluded following exclusion criteria. The major source of upload was from healthcare information channels (HC-41,38%), followed by individual users (HP-25.59%), healthcare professionals (IU-17.24%) and generalist information channels (HC-13.78%); 20.69% of them deal with predisposing factors, and related pathologies, the majority of these propose home remedies (60.72%) rather than topical analgesic drugs (21.43%), antimicrobials (7.14%) and topical steroids (3.57). Most of the videos analyzed were slightly useful (68.97%). Information about mouth sores in children on YouTube™ was poor regardless of the upload source. Analyzing health content on social platforms is a starting point for providing greater quality of health-related information.

  16. Randomized clinical study comparing Compeed (R) cold sore patch to acyclovir cream 5% in the treatment of herpes simplex labialis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmark, T.; Goodman, J.J.; Drouault, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background Hydrocolloid technology has been proven effective in treating dermal wounds. A previous study showed that a newly developed thin hydrocolloid patch [Compeed (R) cold sore patch (CSP)] provided multiple wound-healing benefits across all stages of a herpes simplex labialis (HSL) outbreak...

  17. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  18. Maximizing ROI (return on information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, B.

    2000-05-01

    The role and importance of managing information are discussed, underscoring the importance by quoting from the report of the International Data Corporation, according to which Fortune 500 companies lost $ 12 billion in 1999 due to inefficiencies resulting from intellectual re-work, substandard performance , and inability to find knowledge resources. The report predicts that this figure will rise to $ 31.5 billion by 2003. Key impediments to implementing knowledge management systems are identified as : the cost and human resources requirement of deployment; inflexibility of historical systems to adapt to change; and the difficulty of achieving corporate acceptance of inflexible software products that require changes in 'normal' ways of doing business. The author recommends the use of model, document and rule-independent systems with a document centered interface (DCI), employing rapid application development (RAD) and object technologies and visual model development, which eliminate these problems, making it possible for companies to maximize their return on information (ROI), and achieve substantial savings in implementation costs.

  19. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. The relationship between exercise-induced muscle fatigue, arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion after 56 days local muscle unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias; Ducos, Michel; Mulder, Edwin; Beijer, Åsa; Herrera, Frankyn; Zange, Jochen; Degens, Hans; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    In the light of the dynamic nature of habitual plantar flexor activity, we utilized an incremental isokinetic exercise test (IIET) to assess the work-related power deficit (WoRPD) as a measure for exercise-induced muscle fatigue before and after prolonged calf muscle unloading and in relation to arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion. Eleven male subjects (31 ± 6 years) wore the HEPHAISTOS unloading orthosis unilaterally for 56 days. It allows habitual ambulation while greatly reducing plantar flexor activity and torque production. Endpoint measurements encompassed arterial blood flow, measured in the femoral artery using Doppler ultrasound, oxygenation of the soleus muscle assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, lactate concentrations determined in capillary blood and muscle activity using soleus muscle surface electromyography. Furthermore, soleus muscle biopsies were taken to investigate morphological muscle changes. After the intervention, maximal isokinetic torque was reduced by 23·4 ± 8·2% (Pflow, tissue oxygenation, lactate concentrations and EMG median frequency kinematics during the exercise test were comparable before and after the intervention, whereas the increase of RMS in response to IIET was less following the intervention (P = 0·03). In conclusion, following submaximal isokinetic muscle work exercise-induced muscle fatigue is unaffected after prolonged local muscle unloading. The observation that arterial blood flow was maintained may underlie the unchanged fatigability. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Repeated Muscle Injury as a Presumptive Trigger for Chronic Masticatory Muscle Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Dessem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available skeletal muscles sustain a significant loss of maximal contractile force after injury, but terminally damaged fibers can eventually be replaced by the growth of new muscle (regeneration, with full restoration of contractile force over time. After a second injury, limb muscles exhibit a smaller reduction in maximal force and reduced inflammation compared with that after the initial injury (i.e., repeated bout effect. In contrast, masticatory muscles exhibit diminished regeneration and persistent fibrosis, after a single injury; following a second injury, plasma extravasation is greater than after a single injury and maximal force is decreased more than after the initial injury. Thus, masticatory muscles do not exhibit a repeated bout effect and are instead increasingly damaged by repeated injury. We propose that the impaired ability of masticatory muscles to regenerate contributes to chronic muscle pain by leading to an accumulation of tissue damage, fibrosis, and a persistent elevation and prolonged membrane translocation of nociceptive channels such as P2X3 as well as enhanced expression of neuropeptides including CGRP within primary afferent neurons. These transformations prime primary afferent neurons for enhanced responsiveness upon subsequent injury thus triggering and/or exacerbating chronic muscle pain.

  2. Urban sores. On the interaction between segregation, urban decay and deprived neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    Most European countries have experienced special problems that have emerged in certain more or less well-defined parts of cities called de-prived or depressed urban neighbourhoods. These problems were initially found in the oldest urban areas with the lowest quality housing. Since the beginning...... of the 1980s, however, in Europe they have also emerged in newer social housing estates outside city centres. These neighbourhoods display visible physical and social problems that can disfigure the perhaps otherwise attractive urban landscape. They could in severe cases even be termed sores on the face...... of the city. They are often perceived by the public as places that are not inhabited or frequented by decent people – they are seen as ‘places of exclusion’. The purpose of this book is to contribute to a deeper understanding of why such neighbourhoods come to exist and the impacts they have on cities. Urban...

  3. Computed tomography of pressure sores, pelvic abscess, and osteomyelitis in patients with spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firooznia, H.; Rafii, M.; Golimbu, C.; Lam, S.; Sokolow, J.; Kung, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Nine patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and large pressure ulcers and other possible complications, were evaluated by computed tomography (CT), conventional radiography, tomography, bone scanning, gallium scanning, and sonography. CT revealed the depth, extent, and relationship of the ulcer-bed to the underlying structures in all 9 patients. CT also positively identified unsuspected intra- and extra-pelvic abscess and pelvic osteomyelitis in 4 patients each. Other modalities identified only 2 of these complications. We believe CT is the modality of choice for evaluation of these complications in SCI patients, because of its superior ability in evaluation of pressure sores and detection of pathologic changes in soft tissue and bone in the pelvic region

  4. Development of Marjolin's ulcer following successful surgical treatment of chronic sacral pressure sore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, M.A.; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2008-01-01

    of surgical excision and successful closure of the wound, the patient developed Marjolin's ulcer 2.5 years later. Yet it illustrates the primary importance of preventing the development pressure sores, of aggressive (surgical) therapy with healing when they do arise and of taking frequent biopsies......STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: Report of an unusual case, where a Marjolin's ulcer that developed 2.5 years after surgical excision and successful closure. SETTING: Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Burn Unit and the Clinic for Spinal Cord Injuries, Copenhagen University...... Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 22-year-old man sustained a fracture with luxation of the 5th and 6th cervical vertebrae and loss of sensory and motor function after a diving accident (complete C8 lesion). During initial hospitalization, he developed a sacral ulcer...

  5. The Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Planning a Pedicled Perforator Flap for Pressure Sores in the Gluteal Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-June; Lee, Kyeong-Tae; Jeon, Byung-Joon; Woo, Kyong-Je

    2018-04-01

    Pedicled perforator flaps (PPFs) have been widely used to treat pressure sores in the gluteal region. Selection of a reliable perforator is crucial for successful surgical treatment of pressure sores using PPFs. In this study, we evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in planning PPF reconstruction of pressure sores in the gluteal region. A retrospective chart review was performed in patients who had undergone these PPF reconstructions and who had received preoperative MRI. Preoperatively, the extent of infection and necrotic tissue was evaluated using MRI, and a reliable perforator was identified, considering the perforator location in relation to the defect, perforator size, and perforator courses. Intraoperatively, the targeted perforator was marked on the skin at the locations measured on the MRI images, and the marked location was confirmed using intraoperative handheld Doppler. Superior gluteal artery, inferior gluteal artery, or parasacral perforators were used for the PPFs. Surgical outcomes were evaluated. A total of 12 PPFs were performed in 12 patients. Superior gluteal artery perforator flaps were performed in 7 patients, inferior gluteal artery perforator flaps were performed in 3 patients, and parasacral perforator flaps were performed in 2 patients. We could identify a reliable perforator on MRI, and it was found at the predicted locations in all cases. There was only one case of partial flap necrosis. There was no recurrence of the pressure sores during the mean follow-up period of 6.7 months (range = 3-15 months). In selected patients with gluteal pressure sores, MRI is a suitable means for not only providing information about disease extent and comorbidities but also for evaluating perforators for PPF reconstructions.

  6. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Mortensen, Sara Rosager; Aaboe, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Pain is the principal symptom in knee pathologies and reduced muscle strength is a common observation among knee patients. However, the relationship between knee joint pain and muscle strength remains to be clarified. This study aimed at investigating the changes in knee muscle strength following...... experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P knee extension and flexion at all angular velocities. The reduction in muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension...

  7. Making muscles "stronger": exercise, nutrition, drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, P

    2004-06-01

    As described in this review, maximal muscle strength is strongly influenced by resistive-types of exercise, which induce adaptive changes in both neuromuscular function and muscle morphology. Further, timed intake of protein in conjunction with resistance training elicit greater strength and muscle size gains than resistance training alone. Creatine supplementation amplifies the hypertrophic response to resistance training, although some individuals may not respond positively. Locally produced muscle growth factors are upregulated during creatine supplementation, which contributes to increase the responsiveness of muscle cells to intensive training stimuli. Usage of anabolic steroids boosts muscle hypertrophy beyond inherent genetical limits, not only by increasing the DNA transcription rate for myofibrillar proteins but also by increasing the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio due to accelerated activation of myogenic satellite cells. However, severe tissue damaging effects exist with anabolic steroids, some of which are irreversible.

  8. Comparison of the Characteristics and Performance of Flurbiprofen 8.75 mg Spray for Sore Throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Shephard, Adrian; Adams, Verity; Lidster, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Sore throat sprays provide targeted relief by delivering the active ingredient directly to the site of pain. Different sprays vary in characteristics, thus affecting delivery of the active ingredient to the throat, which can impact compliance. The characteristics and performance of FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY were compared with 12 other sprays. Parameters assessed included spray angle and pattern, droplet size distribution, shot weight uniformity and shot weight throughout life. Among all sprays tested WICK Sulagil Halsspray had the smallest spray angle (46°) and also the smallest diameter spray pattern (X=32.8 mm; Y=34.4 mm). Thiovalone® Buccal Spray Suspension had both the largest spray angle (82°) and largest diameter spray pattern (X=62.6 mm; Y=78.0 mm). Hasco Sept® Aerosol Spray had the smallest droplet size (Dv90=118.4 μm) whereas OKi infiammazione e dolore® 0.16% spray had the largest (Dv90=214.34 μm). In terms of shot weight uniformity, TANTUM® VERDE GOLA 0.25% spray showed the least variation (2% RSD) between shots and UNIBEN Aerosol Spray the most (23.4% RSD). Shot weight throughout life studies showed that FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY had the least deviation from shot weight (1.77%) whereas OKi infiammazione e dolore® 0.16% spray deviated the most (44.9%). FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY had the second smallest spray angle/pattern and droplet size distribution and also the least variation in shot weight. Different sore throat sprays vary in different attributes, affecting delivery of the active ingredient. FLURBIPROFEN 8.75 mg SPRAY performed well overall, ranking first among all sprays tested, and providing a dose which is targeted and uniformly delivered throughout the life of the bottle. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. The magnitude of muscle strain does not influence serial sarcomere number adaptations following eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Timothy A; Herzog, Walter

    2006-02-01

    It is generally accepted that eccentric exercise, when performed by a muscle that is unaccustomed to that type of contraction, results in a delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). A prolonged exposure to eccentric exercise leads to the disappearance of the signs and symptoms associated with DOMS, which has been referred to as the repeated bout effect (RBE). Although the mechanisms underlying the RBE remain unclear, several mechanisms have been proposed, including the serial sarcomere number addition following exercise induced muscle damage. In the traditional DOMS and RBE protocols, muscle injury has been treated as a global parameter, with muscle force and strain assumed to be uniform throughout the muscle. To assess the effects of muscle-tendon unit strain, fiber strain, torque and injury on serial sarcomere number adaptations, three groups of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were subjected to chronic repetitive eccentric exercise bouts of the ankle dorsiflexors for 6 weeks. These eccentric exercise protocols consisted of identical muscle tendon unit (MTU) strain, but other mechanical factors were systematically altered. Following chronic eccentric exercise, serial sarcomere number adaptations were not identical between the three eccentric exercise protocols, and serial sarcomere number adaptations were not uniform across all regions of the muscle. Peak torque and relaxation fiber strain were the best predictors of serial sarcomere number across all three protocols. Therefore, MTU strain does not appear to be the primary cause for sarcomerogenesis, and differential adaptations within the muscle may be explained by the nonuniform architecture of the muscle, resulting in differential local fiber strains.

  10. Comparison of Effectiveness of Betamethasone gel Applied to the Tracheal Tube and IV Dexamethasone on Postoperative Sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Masumeh; Soltani, Ghasem; Zirak, Nahid; Alipour, Moammad; Khazaeni, Kamran

    2013-09-01

    Postoperative sore throat is a common complaint in patients with endotracheal intubation and has potentially dangerous complications. This randomized controlled trial study investigated the incidence of postoperative sore throat after general anesthesia when betamethasone gel is applied to a tracheal tube compared with when IV dexamethasone is prescribed. Two hundred and twenty five American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA)-class I and II patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery with tracheal intubation were randomly divided into three groups: betamethasone gel, intravenous (IV) dexamethasone, and control groups. In the post-anesthesia care unit, a blinded anesthesiologist interviewed all patients regarding postoperative sore throat at 1,6, and 24 hours after surgery. The incidence of sore throat was significantly lower in the betamethasone gel group compared with the IV dexamethasone and control groups, 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery. In the first day after surgery 10.7% of the betamethasone group had sore throat whereas 26.7% of the IV dexamethasone group and 30.7% of the control group had sore throat. Bucking before extubation was observed in 14(18.4%), 8(10.4%), and 9(12.2%) patients, in the IV dexamethasone, betamethasone gel, and control group, respectively. We concluded that wide spread application of betamethasone gel over tracheal tubes effectively mitigates postoperative sore throat, compared with IV dexamethasone application.

  11. Comparison of Effectiveness of Betamethasone gel Applied to the Tracheal Tube and IV Dexamethasone on Postoperative sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Tabari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postoperative sore throat is a common complaint in patients with endotracheal intubation and has potentially dangerous complications. This randomized controlled trial study investigated the incidence of postoperative sore throat after general anesthesia when betamethasone gel is applied to a tracheal tube compared with when IV dexamethasone is prescribed.   Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty five American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA-class I and II patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery with tracheal intubation were randomly divided into three groups: betamethasone gel, intravenous (IV dexamethasone, and control groups. In the post-anesthesia care unit, a blinded anesthesiologist interviewed all patients regarding postoperative sore throat at 1,6, and 24 hours after surgery.   Results: The incidence of sore throat was significantly lower in the betamethasone gel group compared with the IV dexamethasone and control groups, 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery. In the first day after surgery 10.7% of the betamethasone group had sore throat whereas 26.7% of the IV dexamethasone group and 30.7% of the control group had sore throat. Bucking before extubation was observed in 14(18.4%, 8(10.4%, and 9(12.2% patients, in the IV dexamethasone, betamethasone gel, and control group, respectively.   Conclusion:  We concluded that wide spread application of betamethasone gel over tracheal tubes effectively mitigates postoperative sore throat, compared with IV dexamethasone application.

  12. Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiaki Maeo

    Full Text Available Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE. Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes. The electromyograms (EMGs of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE. The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (P<0.01 than those for nonathletes (biceps brachii: 66±14% in bodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%. There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03. Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction.

  13. Trainability of Muscular Activity Level during Maximal Voluntary Co-Contraction: Comparison between Bodybuilders and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE). Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes). The electromyograms (EMGs) of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE). The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (Pbodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%). There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03). Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction. PMID:24260233

  14. AUC-Maximizing Ensembles through Metalearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDell, Erin; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya

    2016-05-01

    Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is often used to measure the performance of an estimator in binary classification problems. An AUC-maximizing classifier can have significant advantages in cases where ranking correctness is valued or if the outcome is rare. In a Super Learner ensemble, maximization of the AUC can be achieved by the use of an AUC-maximining metalearning algorithm. We discuss an implementation of an AUC-maximization technique that is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. We also evaluate the effectiveness of a large number of different nonlinear optimization algorithms to maximize the cross-validated AUC of the ensemble fit. The results provide evidence that AUC-maximizing metalearners can, and often do, out-perform non-AUC-maximizing metalearning methods, with respect to ensemble AUC. The results also demonstrate that as the level of imbalance in the training data increases, the Super Learner ensemble outperforms the top base algorithm by a larger degree.

  15. On maximal massive 3D supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergshoeff , Eric A; Hohm , Olaf; Rosseel , Jan; Townsend , Paul K

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N = 4 supersymmetric " general massive supergravity " and the maximally supersymmetric N = 8 " new massive supergravity ". We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N = 7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N = 6 to be maximal at the non-linear level. (Bergshoeff, Eric A) (Hohm, Olaf) (Rosseel, Jan) P.K.Townsend@da...

  16. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  17. Age-related functional changes and susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage in skeletal muscle cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Depending upon external loading conditions, skeletal muscles can either shorten, lengthen, or remain at a fixed length as they produce force. Fixed-end or isometric contractions stabilize joints and allow muscles to act as active struts during locomotion. Active muscles dissipate energy when they are lengthened by an external force that exceeds their current force producing capacity. These unaccustomed eccentric activities often lead to muscle weakness, soreness, and inflammation. During aging, the ability to produce force under these conditions is reduced and appears to be due to not only reductions in muscle mass but also to alterations in the basic mechanisms of contraction. These alterations include impairments in the excitation-contraction process, and the action of the cross-bridges. Also, it is well known that age-related skeletal muscle atrophy is characterized by a preferential atrophy of fast fibers, and increased susceptibility to fast muscle fiber when aged muscles are exposed to eccentric contraction followed by the impaired recovery process has been reported. Taken together, the selective loss of fast muscle fiber in aged muscle could be affected by eccentric-induced muscle damage, which has significant implication to identify the etiology of the age-related functional changes. Therefore, in this review the alteration of age-related muscle function and its impact to/of eccentric induced muscle damage and recovery will be addressed in detail.

  18. Age-related functional changes and susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage in skeletal muscle cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Jun Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Depending upon external loading conditions, skeletal muscles can either shorten, lengthen, or remain at a fixed length as they produce force. Fixed-end or isometric contractions stabilize joints and allow muscles to act as active struts during locomotion. Active muscles dissipate energy when they are lengthened by an external force that exceeds their current force producing capacity. These unaccustomed eccentric activities often lead to muscle weakness, soreness, and inflammation. During aging, the ability to produce force under these conditions is reduced and appears to be due to not only reductions in muscle mass but also to alterations in the basic mechanisms of contraction. These alterations include impairments in the excitation–contraction process, and the action of the cross-bridges. Also, it is well known that age-related skeletal muscle atrophy is characterized by a preferential atrophy of fast fibers, and increased susceptibility to fast muscle fiber when aged muscles are exposed to eccentric contraction followed by the impaired recovery process has been reported. Taken together, the selective loss of fast muscle fiber in aged muscle could be affected by eccentric-induced muscle damage, which has significant implication to identify the etiology of the age-related functional changes. Therefore, in this review the alteration of age-related muscle function and its impact to/of eccentric induced muscle damage and recovery will be addressed in detail.

  19. Activity versus outcome maximization in time management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Selin A; Tonietto, Gabriela N

    2018-04-30

    Feeling time-pressed has become ubiquitous. Time management strategies have emerged to help individuals fit in more of their desired and necessary activities. We provide a review of these strategies. In doing so, we distinguish between two, often competing, motives people have in managing their time: activity maximization and outcome maximization. The emerging literature points to an important dilemma: a given strategy that maximizes the number of activities might be detrimental to outcome maximization. We discuss such factors that might hinder performance in work tasks and enjoyment in leisure tasks. Finally, we provide theoretically grounded recommendations that can help balance these two important goals in time management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund-Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund-Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of AdS 4 X S 7 and find that it is isomorphic to osp(1|32). We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to AdS 4 X S 7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

  1. Task-oriented maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.

  2. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  3. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People who cannot actively move one or more joints can do exercises using braces or splints . When ... A.M. Editorial team. Muscle Disorders Read more Neuromuscular Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  4. Myoglobin plasma level related to muscle mass and fiber composition: a clinical marker of muscle wasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marc-André; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Aulmann, Michael; Renk, Hanna; Künkele, Annette; Edler, Lutz; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Wulf

    2007-08-01

    Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r = 0.65, p max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer-related muscle wasting was not associated with increases in plasma MG or CK in this study.

  5. Efficacy of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenge in patients with a swollen and inflamed sore throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspley, Sue; Shephard, Adrian; Schachtel, Emily; Sanner, Kathleen; Savino, Laurie; Schachtel, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Sore throat is often over-treated with antibiotics, therefore there is a need for non-antibiotic treatments that provide effective relief. From the patient's point of view, symptoms of pharyngeal inflammation such as a "swollen" and "inflamed" throat are often considered the most bothersome; so, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug could be an appropriate treatment. We investigated the efficacy and safety of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenge in adults with a swollen and inflamed throat. We enrolled adults with moderate-to-severe sore throat and evidence of tonsillo-pharyngitis into a randomized, double-blind study. Patients received flurbiprofen 8.75 mg or placebo lozenges every 3-6 hours as needed (up to five lozenges in 24 hours) and rated their symptoms (sore throat pain, difficulty swallowing and the sensation of a swollen throat) on standard linear scales regularly over 24 hours. The efficacy of flurbiprofen lozenge was determined in patients reporting a swollen and inflamed throat at baseline, as well as those with relatively severe symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01049334. The main outcome measures were the time-weighted summed differences in patient-reported sore throat pain, difficulty swallowing and swollen throat over 24 hours. Out of 204 patients, 124 (60.8%) described their throats as swollen and inflamed at baseline. Flurbiprofen lozenges provided greater relief than placebo over 24 hours: 79.8%, 99.6% and 69.3% (for sore throat pain, difficulty swallowing and swollen throat, respectively, all P ≤ 0.01). These outcomes were more substantial in patients with relatively severe symptoms. No serious or unexpected adverse events occurred. Flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenge appears to provide effective, well-tolerated relief of sore throat, difficulty swallowing and swollen throat in adults with a swollen and inflamed throat, as well as those with relatively severe symptoms. A limitation of these findings is that, while predetermined, these are

  6. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  7. Eicosahexanoic Acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic Acid (DHA in Muscle Damage and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Ochi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplementation not only helps in improving and maintaining performance in sports and exercise, but also contributes in reducing exercise fatigue and in recovery from exhaustion. Fish oil contains large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3. It is widely known that omega-3 fatty acids are effective for improving cardiac function, depression, cognitive function, and blood as well as lowering blood pressure. In the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and exercise performance, previous studies have been predicted improved endurance performance, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses, and effectivity against delayed-onset muscle soreness. However, the optimal dose, duration, and timing remain unclear. This review focuses on the effects of omega-3 fatty acid on muscle damage and function as evaluated by human and animal studies and summarizes its effects on muscle and nerve damage, and muscle mass and strength.

  8. Supplementation Strategies to Reduce Muscle Damage and Improve Recovery Following Exercise in Females: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Köhne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD caused by unaccustomed or strenuous exercise can result in reduced muscle force, increased muscle soreness, increased intramuscular proteins in the blood, and reduced performance. Pre- and post-exercise optimal nutritional intake is important to assist with muscle-damage repair and reconditioning to allow for an accelerated recovery. The increased demand for training and competing on consecutive days has led to a variety of intervention strategies being used to reduce the negative effects of EIMD. Nutritional intervention strategies are largely tested on male participants, and few report on sex-related differences relating to the effects of the interventions employed. This review focuses on nutritional intervention strategies employed to negate the effects of EIMD, focussing solely on females.

  9. Spatial and temporal aspects of muscle hyperalgesia induced by nerve growth factor in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Svensson, P.

    2008-01-01

    longus and at the web between 1st and 2nd metatarsal (central involvement). One day after the NGF/control injections, hypertonic saline (0.5 ml, 5.8%) was injected into the left and right TA to study the pain response to chemical stimulation of the hyperalgesic muscle tissue. Scores on a modified Likert...... distribution of muscle hyperalgesia over time (immediately after, 3 h, 1, 4, 7 and 21 days) after injecting NGF (5 mu g) into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle, to explore possibly involved central pain mechanisms and to investigate the effect of gender on development of hyperalgesia. Totally 20 healthy...... scale were used to assess soreness during muscle function. An area of hyperalgesia was observed locally at the injected site 3 h after injection of NGF, which expanded both proximally and distally on day 1; this effect subsided on day 4. Decreased PPT was also found between 1st and 2nd metatarsal on day...

  10. Maximally Entangled Multipartite States: A Brief Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez, M; Wintrowicz, I; Życzkowski, K

    2016-01-01

    The problem of identifying maximally entangled quantum states of a composite quantum systems is analyzed. We review some states of multipartite systems distinguished with respect to certain measures of quantum entanglement. Numerical results obtained for 4-qubit pure states illustrate the fact that the notion of maximally entangled state depends on the measure used. (paper)

  11. Utility maximization and mode of payment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.; Ridder, G.; Heijmans, R.D.H.; Pollock, D.S.G.; Satorra, A.

    2000-01-01

    The implications of stochastic utility maximization in a model of choice of payment are examined. Three types of compatibility with utility maximization are distinguished: global compatibility, local compatibility on an interval, and local compatibility on a finite set of points. Keywords:

  12. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Maximizing Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.

  13. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Andersen, Lars Louis; Kirk, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized...... to the maximal EMG activity during maximal voluntary contractions, and a p value 60% of maximal EMG activity). Type of exercise played a significant role...

  14. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  16. Amylmetacresol/2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol, hexylresorcinol, or carrageenan lozenges as active treatments for sore throat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morokutti-Kurz M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Martina Morokutti-Kurz, Christine Graf, Eva Prieschl-Grassauer Marinomed Biotechnologie GmbH, Vienna, Austria Abstract: Up to 80% of sore throats are caused by viruses. Several over the counter products are available which provide symptomatic, not causal relief. For such lozenges, containing the antiseptics and local anesthetics amylmetacresol (AMC and 2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol (DCBA or hexylresorcinol (HR, recently an additional virucidal effect was published. Therefore, we tested a set of Strepsils® lozenges, containing either HR (Max [#2] or AMC/DCBA (Original [#3], Extra Strong [#4], Warm [#5], Orange and Vitamin C [#6], Sugar free Lemon [#7], Children/Strawberry [#8] and Soothing Honey and Lemon [#9] for their antiviral efficiency against representatives of respiratory viruses known to cause sore throat: human rhinovirus (HRV 1a, HRV8, influenza virus A H1N1n, Coxsackievirus A10, and human coronavirus (hCoV OC43. The lozenges were tested head to head with Coldamaris® lozenges (#1, which contain the patented antiviral iota-carrageenan. None of the tested AMC/DCBA or HR containing lozenges shows any antiviral effectiveness against HRV8 at the tested concentrations, whereas all are moderately active against HRV1a. Only lozenge #5 shows any activity against hCoV OC43 and Coxsackievirus A10 at the tested concentrations. Similarly, only lozenge #3 is moderately active against influenza A H1N1n virus. The data indicates that neither the isolated effect of the active ingredients nor the pH but rather one or more of the excipients of the specific formulations are responsible for the antiviral effect of some of the AMC/DCBA or HR containing lozenges. In contrast, carrageenan-containing lozenges are highly active against all viruses tested. In another experiment, we showed that binding and inactivation of virus particles by iota-carrageenan are fast and highly effective. During the residence time of the lozenge in the mouth, the viral titer is

  17. Antibiotic prescription strategies for acute sore throat: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Hobbs, F D Richard; Butler, Chris C; Hay, Alastair D; Delaney, Brendan; Campbell, John; Broomfield, Sue; Barratt, Paula; Hood, Kerenza; Everitt, Hazel; Mullee, Mark; Williamson, Ian; Mant, David; Moore, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Data from trials suggest that antibiotics reduce the risk of complications of sore throat by at least 50%, but few trials for complications have been done in modern settings, and datasets of delayed antibiotic prescription are underpowered. Observational evidence is important in view of poor compliance with antibiotic treatment outside trials, but no prospective observational cohort studies have been done to date. We generated a large prospective cohort from the DESCARTE study, and the PRISM component of DESCARTE, of 12,829 adults presenting with sore throat (≤ 2 weeks duration) in primary care. Our follow-up of the cohort was based on a detailed and structured review of routine medical records, and analysis of the comparison of three antibiotic prescription strategies (no antibiotic prescription, immediate antibiotic prescription, and delayed antibiotic prescription) to control for the propensity to prescribe antibiotics. Information about antibiotic prescription was recorded in 12,677 individuals (4805 prescribed no antibiotics, 6088 prescribed antibiotics immediately, and 1784 prescribed delayed antibiotics). We documented by review of patients' notes (n=11,950) the development of suppurative complications (eg, quinsy, impetigo and cellulitis, otitis media, and sinusitis) or reconsultation with new or non-resolving symptoms). We used multivariate analysis to control for variables significantly related to the propensity to prescribe antibiotics and for clustering by general practitioner. 164 (1.4%) of the 11,950 patients with information available developed complications; otitis media and sinusitis were the most common complications (101 patients [62%]). Compared with no antibiotic prescription, immediate antibiotic prescription was associated with fewer complications (adjusted risk ratio [RR] 0.62, 95% CI 0.43-0.91, estimated number needed to treat [NNT 193) as was delayed prescription of antibiotics (0.58, 0.34-0.98; NNT 174). 1787 of the 11,950 patients (15

  18. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescent angiography-assisted modified superior gluteal artery perforator flap for reconstruction of sacral pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Kai; Wu, Chien-Ju; Chen, Chun-Yu; Wang, Chi-Yu; Chu, Tzi-Shiang; Hsu, Kuo-Feng; Chiu, Han-Ting; Liu, Hung-Hui; Chou, Chang-Yi; Wang, Chih-Hsin; Lin, Chin-Ta; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng

    2017-12-01

    Pressure sores are often observed in patients who are bedridden. They can be a severe problem not only for patients and their caregivers but also for plastic surgeons. Here, we describe a new method of superior gluteal artery perforator flap harvesting and anchoring with the assistance of intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescent angiography. In this report, we describe the procedure and outcomes for 19 patients with grades III and IV sacral pressure sores who underwent the operation between September 2015 and November 2016. All flaps survived, and two experienced wound-edge partial dehiscence. With the assistance of this imaging device, we were able to acquire a reliable superior gluteal artery perforator flap and perform modified operations with it that are safe, easy to learn and associated with fewer complications than are traditional. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A longitudinal study of the incidence of pressure sores and the associated risks and strategies adopted in Italian operating theatres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfone, Giampiera; Marzoli, Ilaria; Quattrin, Rosanna; Fabbro, Carmen; Palese, Alvisa

    2012-02-01

    To explore the incidence of intraoperative pressure sores, the associated risk factors and the preventive strategies adopted by nurses, we adopted a longitudinal study in a 900-bed teaching hospital with multiple operating theatres, located in the North of Italy. Patients who underwent major surgery were evaluated four times: at the moment of operating theatre admission, at operating theatre discharge, and on their third and sixth postoperative day. Of the patients included (n = 102) who had an average age of 62.3 years (range 20-87), 12.7% (13/102) developed a pressure ulcer in the operating theatre; 46.1% (6/13) of these ulcers were still present on the third postoperative day. Some health conditions (diabetes mellitus, cardiac diseases) and intra-operative factors (lying on the operating table for more than 6.15 hours, intraoperative hypothermia) are associated with the occurrence of pressure sores.

  20. Efficacy of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg spray in patients with sore throat due to an upper respiratory tract infection: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Looze, Ferdinandus; Russo, Marc; Bloch, Mark; Montgomery, Barney; Shephard, Adrian; Smith, Gary; Aspley, Sue

    2016-06-01

    Viral infections cause most cases of pharyngitis (sore throat); consequently, antibiotics are generally not warranted. However, a treatment targeting pain and inflammation, e.g. a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory spray, may be helpful for patients. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg spray. This randomised, double-blind, parallel group study was conducted at six community-based clinical research centres in Australia and two in New Zealand. Adults with sore throat due to upper respiratory tract infection (onset ≤ four days) took one dose of flurbiprofen (n = 249) or placebo spray (n = 256); after six hours, they could re-dose every three-six hours as required, for three days (max. five doses/day). The primary endpoint was the area under the change from baseline curve in throat soreness from zero-two hours (AUC0-2h). The change from baseline in other sore throat symptoms also assessed efficacy. The mean AUC0-2h for throat soreness was significantly greater with flurbiprofen spray (-1.82; 95% CI: -1.98 to 1.65) compared with placebo (-1.13; 95% CI: -1.27 to 0.99) (P flurbiprofen spray compared with placebo from the first time-points assessed (five minutes for throat soreness/difficulty swallowing, 20 minutes for sore throat pain intensity and 30 minutes for swollen throat) for up to six hours (P Flurbiprofen spray provides rapid and long-lasting relief from sore throat symptoms, and is well-tolerated over three days.

  1. Sore throat: effective communication delivers improved diagnosis, enhanced self-care and more rational use of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, A W; Bell, J; Sessa, A; Duerden, M; Altiner, A

    2013-11-01

    The majority of throat infections are of viral origin and resolve without antibiotic treatment. Despite this, antibiotic use for sore throat infections remains high, partly because it is difficult to determine when antibiotics may be useful, on the basis of physical findings alone. Antibiotics may be beneficial in bacterial throat infections under certain clinical and epidemiological circumstances; however, even many of those infections in which bacteria play a role do resolve just as quickly without antibiotics. Furthermore, non-medical factors such as patient expectations and patient pressure are also important drivers of antibiotic use. To address these issues, a behavioural change is required that can be facilitated by improved communication between primary healthcare providers and patients. In this article, we provide doctors, nurses and pharmacy staff, working in primary care or in the community, with a structured approach to sore throat management, with the aim of educating and empowering patients to self-manage their condition. The first component of this approach involves identifying and addressing patients' expectations and concerns with regard to their sore throat and eliciting their opinion on antibiotics. The second part is dedicated to a pragmatic assessment of the severity of the condition, with attention to red-flag symptoms and risk factors for serious complications. Rather than just focusing on the cause (bacterial or viral) of the upper respiratory tract infections as a rationale for antibiotic use, healthcare providers should instead consider the severity of the patient's condition and whether they are at high risk of complications. The third part involves counselling patients on effective self-management options and providing information on the expected clinical course. Such a structured approach to sore throat management, using empathetic, non-paternalistic language, combined with written patient information, will help to drive patient

  2. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone administration on recovery from mix-type exercise training-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Liao, Kun-Fu; Kao, Chung-Lan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Ivy, John L; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of DHEA-S in coping against the exercise training mixing aerobic and resistance components. During 5-day successive exercise training, 16 young male participants (19.2 ± 1.2 years) received either a placebo (flour capsule) or DHEA (100 mg/day) in a double-blinded and placebo-controlled design. Oral DHEA supplementation significantly increased circulating DHEA-S by 2.5-fold, but a protracted drop (~35 %) was observed from Day 3 during training. In the Placebo group, only a minimal DHEA-S reduction (~17 %) was observed. Changes in testosterone followed a similar pattern as DHEA-S. Muscle soreness was elevated significantly on Day 2 for both groups to a similar extent. Lower muscle soreness was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group on Day 3 and Day 6. In the Placebo group, training increased circulating creatine kinase (CK) levels by approximately ninefold, while only a threefold increase was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group. This mix-type exercise training improved glucose tolerance in both groups, while lowering the insulin response to the glucose challenge, but no difference between treatments was observed. Our results suggest that DHEA-S may play a role in protecting skeletal muscle from exercise training-induced muscle damage.

  3. [Thigh and leg musculo-cutaneous island flap for giant bilateral trochanteric and perineal pressure sores coverage: Extreme treatment in spinal cord injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, A; Crouzet, C; De Boissezon, X; Grolleau, J-L

    2015-06-01

    Surgical treatment of perineal pressure sores could be done with various fascio-cutaneous or musculo-cutaneous flaps, which provide cover and filling of most of pressure sores after spinal cord injuries. In rare cases, classical solutions are overtaken, then it is necessary to use more complex techniques. We report a case of a made-to-measure lower limb flap for coverage of confluent perineal pressure sores. A 49-year-old paraplegic patient developed multiple pressure sores on left and right ischial tuberosity, inferior pubic bone and bilateral trochanters with hips dislocation. Surgical treatment involved a whole right thigh flap to cover and fill right side lesions, associated to a posterior right leg musculo-cutaneous island flap to cover and fill the left trochanteric pressure sore. The surgical procedure lasted 6.5 hours and required massive blood transfusion. Antibiotics were adapted to bacteriological samples. There were no postoperative complications; complete wound healing occurred after three weeks. A lower limb sacrifice for coverage of a giant perineal pressure sores is an extreme surgical solution, reserved to patients understanding the issues of this last chance procedure. A good knowledge of vascular anatomy is an essential prerequisite, and allows to shape made-to-measure flaps. The success of such a procedure is closely linked to the collaboration with the rehabilitation team (appropriate therapeutic education concerning transfers and positioning). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanisms limiting glycogen storage in muscle during prolonged insulin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Hansen, S A; Hansen, B F

    1988-01-01

    increased muscle glycogen concentrations to maximal values 2, 3, and 3.5 times above normal fed levels in fast-twitch white, slow-twitch red, and fast-twitch red fibers, respectively. Glucose uptake decreased (mean +/- SE) from 34.9 +/- 1.2 mumol.g-1.h-1 at 0 h to 7.5 +/- 0.7 after 7 h of perfusion. During...... compared with initial values. Total muscle water concentration decreased during glycogen loading of the muscles. Mechanisms limiting glycogen storage under maximal insulin stimulation include impaired insulin-stimulated membrane transport of glucose as well as impaired intracellular glucose disposal....

  5. Design of a Novel Two-Component Hybrid Dermal Scaffold for the Treatment of Pressure Sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vaibhav; Kohli, Nupur; Moulding, Dale; Afolabi, Halimat; Hook, Lilian; Mason, Chris; García-Gareta, Elena

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to design a novel two-component hybrid scaffold using the fibrin/alginate porous hydrogel Smart Matrix combined to a backing layer of plasma polymerized polydimethylsiloxane (Sil) membrane to make the fibrin-based dermal scaffold more robust for the treatment of the clinically challenging pressure sores. A design criteria are established, according to which the Sil membranes are punched to avoid collection of fluid underneath. Manual peel test shows that native silicone does not attach to the fibrin/alginate component while the plasma polymerized silicone membranes are firmly bound to fibrin/alginate. Structural characterization shows that the fibrin/alginate matrix is intact after the addition of the Sil membrane. By adding a Sil membrane to the original fibrin/alginate scaffold, the resulting two-component scaffolds have a significantly higher shear or storage modulus G'. In vitro cell studies show that dermal fibroblasts remain viable, proliferate, and infiltrate the two-component hybrid scaffolds during the culture period. These results show that the design of a novel two-component hybrid dermal scaffold is successful according to the proposed design criteria. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that reports the combination of a fibrin-based scaffold with a plasma-polymerized silicone membrane. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Biceps brachii muscle oxygenation in electrical muscle stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Jubeau, Marc; Millet, Guillaume Y; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Ferrari, Marco; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare between electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) and maximal voluntary (VOL) isometric contractions of the elbow flexors for changes in biceps brachii muscle oxygenation (tissue oxygenation index, TOI) and haemodynamics (total haemoglobin volume, tHb = oxygenated-Hb + deoxygenated-Hb) determined by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The biceps brachii muscle of 10 healthy men (23-39 years) was electrically stimulated at high frequency (75 Hz) via surface electrodes to evoke 50 intermittent (4-s contraction, 15-s relaxation) isometric contractions at maximum tolerated current level (EMS session). The contralateral arm performed 50 intermittent (4-s contraction, 15-s relaxation) maximal voluntary isometric contractions (VOL session) in a counterbalanced order separated by 2-3 weeks. Results indicated that although the torque produced during EMS was approximately 50% of VOL (P<0.05), there was no significant difference in the changes in TOI amplitude or TOI slope between EMS and VOL over the 50 contractions. However, the TOI amplitude divided by peak torque was approximately 50% lower for EMS than VOL (P<0.05), which indicates EMS was less efficient than VOL. This seems likely because of the difference in the muscles involved in the force production between conditions. Mean decrease in tHb amplitude during the contraction phases was significantly (P<0.05) greater for EMS than VOL from the 10th contraction onwards, suggesting that the muscle blood volume was lower in EMS than VOL. It is concluded that local oxygen demand of the biceps brachii sampled by NIRS is similar between VOL and EMS.

  7. Botulinum toxin injection causes hyper-reflexia and increased muscle stiffness of the triceps surae muscle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Wienecke, Jacob; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum toxin is used to diminish spasticity and reduce the risk of development of contractures. Here, we investigated changes in muscle stiffness caused by reflex activity or elastic muscle properties following botulinum toxin injection in the triceps surae muscle in rats. Forty-four rats...... received injection of botulinum toxin in the left triceps surae muscle. Control measurements were performed on the non-injected contralateral side in all rats. Acute experiments were performed 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks following injection. The triceps surae muscle was dissected free, the Achilles tendon was cut...... and attached to a muscle puller. The resistance of the muscle to stretches of different amplitudes and velocities was systematically investigated. Reflex mediated torque was normalized to the maximal muscle force (Mmax) evoked by supramaximal stimulation of the tibial nerve. Botulinum toxin injection caused...

  8. Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)

  9. HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...

  10. Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X......-k. Then a maximal inequality gives conditions ensuring that the maximal partial sum M-n = max(1) (...

  11. Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control Successful missions to Mars and beyond will only be possible with the support of high-performance...

  12. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...... utility) maximizing actions are ruled out, e.g., by behavioural norms or formal institutions....

  13. A definition of maximal CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.

    1985-01-01

    The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)

  14. A cosmological problem for maximally symmetric supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Ross, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Under very general considerations it is shown that inflationary models of the universe based on maximally symmetric supergravity with flat potentials are unable to resolve the cosmological energy density (Polonyi) problem. (orig.)

  15. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  16. Maximal supergravities and the E10 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel; Nicolai, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    The maximal rank hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra e 10 has been conjectured to play a prominent role in the unification of duality symmetries in string and M theory. We review some recent developments supporting this conjecture

  17. [Reduction of pressure sores during prone positioning of ventilated intensive care patients by the prone-head support system: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebio, Michael; Katz-Papatheophilou, Elfriede; Heindl, Werner; Gelbmann, Herbert; Burghuber, Otto C

    2005-02-01

    Prone positioning in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome is a well-known method to improve oxygenation. The aim of our study was to evaluate a new device for prone positioning, the prone-head support system (PHS system), with regard to reduction of cutaneous pressure sores. In a pilot study we randomized 8 patients with ARDS in two groups: 180 degrees standard prone positioning (group without mask) and prone positioning with the PHS system (group with mask). The PHS system consists of a facemask support, which is connected to an adapted air suspension bed. The patients of both groups were intermittently proned for several days. We evaluated the pressure sores on head and neck before turning the patients prone for the first time and after each period of prone positioning. We documented the quantity, the size, the type and the localization of the pressure sores. There was no significant difference in the mean duration of prone positioning (27.1+/-14.7 hours in the group with mask versus 24.5+/-18.7 h in the group without mask). In the group with mask there were 1.5+/-0.8 new pressure sores by each proning, whereas in the group without mask there were 2.37+/-1.6 new pressure sores, which was lower, but not significantly. The overall area of pressure sores (798 mm2 versus 3184 mm2, p=0.004), the area of pressure sores per patient (199.5+/-104.7 mm2 versus 796+/-478 mm2, p=0.03) and the increase of the area of pressure sores per proning (79.8+/-52.0 mm2 versus 398.0+/-214.3 mm2, p=0.004) were significantly lower in the group with mask in comparison to the group without mask. The lips were the most effected localization in both groups. The pressure sores in the group with mask were less severe and showed a homogenous distribution in comparison to the group without mask. Blisters dominated in the group with mask in comparison to erosions, necrosis and ulcers in the group without mask. The PHS system with its face mask is able to reduce the extent and the

  18. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio

    2009-12-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7 .

  19. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7.

  20. Neutrino mass textures with maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Ichiro; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasue, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    We show three types of neutrino mass textures, which give maximal CP violation as well as maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. These textures are described by six real mass parameters: one specified by two complex flavor neutrino masses and two constrained ones and the others specified by three complex flavor neutrino masses. In each texture, we calculate mixing angles and masses, which are consistent with observed data, as well as Majorana CP phases