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Sample records for muscle biopsy samples

  1. Determination of Magnesium in Needle Biopsy Samples of Muscle Tissue by Means of Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D; Sjoeberg, H E

    1964-07-15

    Magnesium has been determined by means of neutron-activation analysis in needle biopsy samples of the order of magnitude 1 mg dry weight. The procedure applied was to extract the Mg-27 activity from irradiated muscle tissue with concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by a fast hydroxide precipitation and gamma-spectrometric measurements. The Mg activity was recovered in the muscle tissue samples to (97 {+-} 2) per cent. The sensitivity for the magnesium determination is estimated as 0.3 {mu}g.

  2. Needle muscle biopsy and its application

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    Meng-long CHEN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Needle muscle biopsy is a straightforward and reliable minimally-invasive technique. During the past century, the needle biopsy can provide adequate samples and the technique has gradually gained wider acceptance. Compared with open biopsy, needle biopsy is less traumatic, with low rate of complications, and is suitable for the identifications and evaluations of muscular dystrophy, inflammatory myopathies and systemic diseases involving muscles, specially for infants and young children. Domestic insiders should be encouraged to apply this technique. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.06.003 

  3. [Muscle biopsy in children: Usefulness in 2012].

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    Cuisset, J-M; Maurage, C-A; Carpentier, A; Briand, G; Thévenon, A; Rouaix, N; Vallée, L

    2013-01-01

    Muscle biopsy is a mainstay diagnostic tool for investigating neuromuscular disorders in children. We report the yield of pediatric muscle biopsy in a population of 415 children by a retrospective study of 419 biopsies performed between 1/01/2000 and 31/12/2009 in a neuropediatric department, including mitochondrial respiratory chain analysis for 87 children. Two hundred and fifty-five biopsies were from boys (61%) 164 from girls (39%). Their mean age at biopsy was 6.5years; 155 (37%) biopsies were obtained before the child was 5years old. Final histopathological diagnoses were: congenital myopathy (n=193, including 15 structural congenital myopathies); progressive muscular dystrophy (n=75 [18%] including 57 dystrophinopathies); congenital muscular dystrophy (n=17, including six primary merosinopathies); dermatomyositis (n=11); spinal muscular atrophy (n=9, including six atypical spinal muscular atrophies); metabolic myopathy (n=32, including 19 mitochondrial myopathies); encephalomyopathy (n=53 [13%], including 27 with a mitochondrial respiratory chain defect). Pathological diagnosis remained undetermined in 16 cases. In 184 patients (44%), the muscle biopsy revealed specific histopathological anomalies (dystrophic process; specific ultrastructural abnormalities; perifascicular atrophy; neurogenic atrophy; metabolic anomalies) enabling a precise etiological diagnosis. For 85% of progressive muscular dystrophies, the biopsy resulted in a genetic diagnosis after identification of the protein defect. In 15% of the congenital myopathies, histopathological anomalies focused attention on one or several genes. Concerning dystrophinopathies, quantification of dystrophin deficiency on the biopsy specimen contributed to the definition of the clinical phenotype: Duchenne, or Becker. In children with a myopathy, muscle biopsy is often indispensable to establish the etiological diagnosis. Based on the results from this series, muscle biopsy can provide a precise

  4. Dengue: muscle biopsy findings in 15 patients

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    S.M.F. Malheiros

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is known to produce a syndrome involving muscles, tendons and joints. The hallmark of this syndrome is severe myalgia but includes fever, cutaneous rash, and headache. The neuromuscular aspects of this infection are outlined only in isolated reports, and the muscle histopathological features during myalgia have not been described. In order to ascertain the actual neuromuscular involvement in dengue and better comprehend the histological nature of myalgia, we performed a clinical and neurological evaluation, a serum CPK level and a muscle biopsy (with histochemistry in 15 patients (4 males, median age 23 years (range 14-47 with classic dengue fever, serologically confirmed, during the bra-zilian dengue epidemics from September 1986 to March 1987. All patients had a history of fever, headache and severe myalgia. Upon examination 4 had a cutaneous rash, 3 had fever, and 3 a small hepatomegaly. The neurological examination was unremarkable in all and included a manual muscle test. CPK was mildly elevated in only 3 patients. Muscle biopsy revealed a light to moderate perivascular mononuclear infiltrate in 12 patients and lipid accumulation in 11. Mild mitochondrial proliferation was seen in 3, few central nuclei in 3, rare foci of myonecrosis in 3, and 2 patients had type grouping. Dengue in our patients, produced myalgia but no detectable muscle weakness or other neuromuscular involvement. The main histopathological correlation with myalgia seems to be a perivascular mononuclear infiltrate and lipid accumulation.

  5. Inherited and Acquired Muscle Weakness: A Moving Target for Diagnostic Muscle Biopsy.

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    Stenzel, Werner; Schoser, Benedikt

    2017-08-01

    Inherited and acquired muscular weakness is caused by multiple conditions. While the inherited ones are mostly caused by mutations in genes coding for myopathic or neurogenic diseases, the acquired ones occur due to inflammatory, endocrine, or toxic etiologies. Precise diagnosis of a specific disease may be challenging and may require a multidisciplinary approach. What is the current place for a diagnostic biopsy of skeletal muscle? Diagnostic muscle biopsy lost in this context its first-tier place in the primary diagnostic workup for some diseases, but it is still mandatory for others. We here summarize conditions in which we believe a diagnostic sample is most relevant and mention those in which a biopsy may be secondary or can even be left out. We would like to stress that muscle biopsy nowadays has a new important place in description and definition of new diseases, for example, discovered by modern genetic approaches. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  6. Sonographically guided percutaneous muscle biopsy in diagnosis of neuromuscular disease: a useful alternative to open surgical biopsy.

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    O'Sullivan, Paul J; Gorman, Grainne M; Hardiman, Orla M; Farrell, Michael J; Logan, P Mark

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of sonographically guided percutaneous muscle biopsy in the investigation of neuromuscular disorders. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle biopsy of skeletal muscle was performed with a 14-gauge core biopsy system in 40 patients over a 24-month period. Patients were referred from the Department of Neurology under investigation for neuromuscular disorders. Sonography was used to find suitable tissue and to avoid major vascular structures. A local anesthetic was applied below skin only. A 3- to 4-mm incision was made. Three 14-gauge samples were obtained from each patient. All samples were placed on saline-dampened gauze and sent for neuropathologic analysis. As a control, we retrospectively assessed results of the 40 most recent muscle samples acquired via open surgical biopsy. With the use of sonography, 32 (80%) of 40 patients had a histologic diagnosis made via percutaneous needle biopsy. This included 26 (93%) of 28 patients with acute muscular disease and 6 (50%) of 12 patients with chronic disease. In the surgical group (all acute disease), 38 (95%) of 40 patients had diagnostic tissue attained. Sonographically guided percutaneous 14-gauge core skeletal muscle biopsy is a useful procedure, facilitating diagnosis in acute muscular disease. It provides results comparable with those of open surgical biopsy in acute muscular disease. It may also be used in chronic muscular disease but repeated or open biopsy may be needed.

  7. Reevaluating Muscle Biopsies in the Diagnosis of Pompe Disease: A Corroborative Report.

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    Genge, Angela; Campbell, Natasha

    2016-07-01

    Previous reports suggest that although a diagnostic muscle biopsy can confirm the presence of Pompe disease, the absence of a definitive biopsy result does not rule out the diagnosis. In this study, we reviewed patients with a limb-girdle syndrome who demonstrated nonspecific abnormalities of muscle, without evidence of the classical changes of acid maltase deficiency. These patients were rescreened for Pompe disease using dried blood spot (DBS) testing. Twenty-seven patients provided blood samples for the DBS test. Four patients underwent subsequent genetic testing. Genetic analysis demonstrated that one patient tested positive for Pompe disease and one patient had one copy of a pathogenic variant. In conclusion, the ability of a diagnostic muscle biopsy to definitively rule out the presence of Pompe disease is limited. There is a role for a screening DBS in all patients presenting with a limb-girdle syndrome without a clear diagnosis.

  8. Muscle biopsies off-set normal cellular signaling in surrounding musculature

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    Krag, Thomas O; Hauerslev, Simon; Dahlqvist, Julia R

    2013-01-01

    muscle tissue for at least 3 weeks after the biopsy was performed and magnetic resonance imaging suggests that an effect of a biopsy may persist for at least 5 months. Cellular signaling after a biopsy resembles what is seen in severe limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I with respect to protein......Studies of muscle physiology and muscular disorders often require muscle biopsies to answer questions about muscle biology. In this context, we have often wondered if muscle biopsies, especially if performed repeatedly, would affect interpretation of muscle morphology and cellular signaling. We...... hypothesized that muscle morphology and cellular signaling involved in myogenesis/regeneration and protein turnover can be changed by a previous muscle biopsy in close proximity to the area under investigation. Here we report a case where a past biopsy or biopsies affect cellular signaling of the surrounding...

  9. Ultrasound guided needle biopsy of skeletal muscle in neuromuscular disease

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    Lindequist, S; Schrøder, H D; Larsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Guided by ultrasonography percutaneous needle biopsy of skeletal muscle was performed in 24 patients, using the one hand held Biopty system and a 2 mm Tru-Cut needle. The specimens were graded with regard to diagnostic quality and utility and almost all specimens (96%) were of highest quality. Th....... The use of ultrasonography was helpful in selecting a suitable area for the biopsy and vascular structures could be avoided. The procedure was well tolerated and easy to perform, and no complications were recorded....

  10. Multiple biopsy probe sampling enabled minimally invasive electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shini, Mohanad; Rubinsky, Boris

    2008-01-01

    Biopsies are a reliable method for examining tissues and organs inside the body, in particular for detection of tumors. However, a single biopsy produces only limited information on the site from which it is taken. Therefore, tumor detection now employs multiple biopsy samplings to examine larger volumes of tissue. Nevertheless, even with multiple biopsies, the information remains discrete, while the costs of biopsy increase. Here we propose and evaluate the feasibility of using minimally invasive medical imaging as a means to overcome the limitations of discrete biopsy sampling. The minimally invasive medical imaging technique employs the biopsy probe as electrodes for measurements of electrical impedance tomography relevant data during each biopsy sampling. The data from multiple samplings are combined and used to produce an EIT image of the tissue. Two- and three-dimensional mathematical simulations confirm that the minimally invasive medical imaging technique can produce electrical impedance tomography images of the tissues between the biopsy probe insertion sites. We show that these images can detect tumors that would be missed with multiple biopsy samplings only, and that the technique may facilitate the detection of tumors with fewer biopsies, thereby reducing the cost of cancer detection

  11. Biopsy

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    ... Oropharynx lesion biopsy Pleural needle biopsy Polyp biopsy Rectal biopsy Renal biopsy Salivary gland biopsy Skin lesion ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  12. Ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies may assist in diagnosing mitochondrial cytopathy when muscle biopsies yield negative results.

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    McAfee, John L; Warren, Christine B; Prayson, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of skin biopsies has been utilized for diagnosis of mitochondrial disease. This study investigates how frequently skin biopsies reveal mitochondrial abnormalities, correlates skin and muscle biopsy findings, and describes clinical diagnoses rendered following the evaluation. A retrospective review of surgical pathology reports from 1990 to 2015 identified skin biopsies examined by electron microscopy for suspected metabolic disease. A total of 630 biopsies were included from 615 patients. Of these patients, 178 also underwent a muscle biopsy. Of the 630 skin biopsies, 75 (12%) showed ultrastructural abnormalities and 34 (5%) specifically showed mitochondrial abnormalities including increased size (n=27), reduced or abnormal cristae (n=23), dense matrices (n=20), and increased number (n=8). Additional findings included lysosomal abnormalities (n=13), lipid accumulation (n=2) or glycogen accumulation (n=1). Of the 34 patients with mitochondrial abnormalities on skin biopsy, 20 also had muscle biopsies performed and nine showed abnormalities suggestive of a mitochondrial disorder including absent cytochrome oxidase staining (n=2), increased subsarcolemmal NADH, SDH, or cytochrome oxidase staining (n=1), or ultrastructural findings including large mitochondrial size (n=5), abnormal mitochondrial structure (n=5), and increased mitochondrial number (n=4). The most common presenting symptoms were intellectual disability (n=13), seizures (n=12), encephalopathy (n=9), and gastrointestinal disturbances (n=9). At last known follow-up, 12 patients had a definitive diagnosis of a mitochondrial disorder. One patient each had Complex I deficiency, Complex III deficiency, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Our results suggest that skin biopsy sometimes yields diagnostic clues suggestive of a mitochondrial cytopathy in cases with a negative muscle biopsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Prevalence of adult Pompe disease in patients with proximal myopathic syndrome and undiagnosed muscle biopsy.

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    Golsari, Amir; Nasimzadah, Arzoo; Thomalla, Götz; Keller, Sarah; Gerloff, Christian; Magnus, Tim

    2018-03-01

    We examined patients with limb-girdle muscle weakness and/or hyper-CKaemia and undiagnosed muscle biopsy for late onset Pompe disease (LOPD). Patients with an inconclusive limb-girdle muscle weakness who presented at our neuromuscular centre between 2005 and 2015 with undiagnosed muscle biopsies were examined by dry blood spot testing (DBS) including determination of the enzyme activity of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). In the case of depressed enzyme activity, additional gene testing of the GAA gene was carried out. Of the 340 evaluated muscle biopsies, 69 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were examined with DBS. Among those patients, 76% showed a limb-girdle muscle weakness and 14% showed a hyper-CKaemia. A diagnosis of LOPD could be established in the case of two patients (2.9%) with reduced GAA enzyme activity and proof of mutations in the GAA gene. One of the two patients presents in the muscle biopsy suggestive features of Pompe disease including vacuoles with positive acid phosphatase reaction. In summary, our results show that a muscle biopsy can be helpful in identifying LOPD patients, but vacuolation with glycogen storage can also be absent. An inconspicuous muscle biopsy does not rule out Pompe disease. Consequently, all patients with limb-girdle muscle weakness should be examined by DBS before conducting a muscle biopsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitochondrial dysfunction in human skeletal muscle biopsies of lipid storage disorder.

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    Debashree, Bandopadhyay; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Natarajan, Archana; Christopher, Rita; Nalini, Atchayaram; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2018-02-09

    Mitochondria regulate the balance between lipid metabolism and storage in the skeletal muscle. Altered lipid transport, metabolism and storage influence the bioenergetics, redox status and insulin signalling, contributing to cardiac and neurological diseases. Lipid storage disorders (LSDs) are neurological disorders which entail intramuscular lipid accumulation and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics in the skeletal muscle causing progressive myopathy with muscle weakness. However, the mitochondrial changes including molecular events associated with impaired lipid storage have not been completely understood in the human skeletal muscle. We carried out morphological and biochemical analysis of mitochondrial function in muscle biopsies of human subjects with LSDs (n = 7), compared to controls (n = 10). Routine histology, enzyme histochemistry and ultrastructural analysis indicated altered muscle cell morphology and mitochondrial structure. Protein profiling of the muscle mitochondria from LSD samples (n = 5) (vs. control, n = 5) by high-throughput mass spectrometric analysis revealed that impaired metabolic processes could contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and ensuing myopathy in LSDs. We propose that impaired fatty acid and respiratory metabolism along with increased membrane permeability, elevated lipolysis and altered cristae entail mitochondrial dysfunction in LSDs. Some of these mechanisms were unique to LSD apart from others that were common to dystrophic and inflammatory muscle pathologies. Many differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins in LSD are linked with other human diseases, indicating that mitochondrial protection via targeted drugs could be a treatment modality in LSD and related metabolic diseases. © 2018 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Variability of protein level and phosphorylation status caused by biopsy protocol design in human skeletal muscle analyses

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    Caron Marc-André

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bergström needle biopsy is widely used to sample skeletal muscle in order to study cell signaling directly in human tissue. Consequences of the biopsy protocol design on muscle protein quantity and quality remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of different events surrounding biopsy protocol on the stability of the Western blot signal of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, muscle RING finger protein 1 (MuRF1 and p70 S6 kinase (p70 S6K. Six healthy subjects underwent four biopsies of the vastus lateralis, distributed into two distinct visits spaced by 48 hrs. At visit 1, a basal biopsy in the right leg was performed in the morning (R1 followed by a second in the left leg in the afternoon (AF. At visit 2, a second basal biopsy (R2 was collected from the right leg. Low intensity mobilization (3 × 20 right leg extensions was performed and a final biopsy (Mob was collected using the same incision site as R2. Results Akt and p70 S6K phosphorylation levels were increased by 83% when AF biopsy was compared to R1. Mob condition induced important phosphorylation of p70 S6K when compared to R2. Comparison of R1 and R2 biopsies revealed a relative stability of the signal for both total and phosphorylated proteins. Conclusions This study highlights the importance to standardize muscle biopsy protocols in order to minimize the method-induced variation when analyzing Western blot signals.

  16. Muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases with myopathic pathology reveal common alterations in mitochondrial function.

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    Sunitha, Balaraju; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Nalini, Atchayaram; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2016-07-01

    Muscle diseases are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and manifest as dystrophic, inflammatory and myopathic pathologies, among others. Our previous study on the cardiotoxin mouse model of myodegeneration and inflammation linked muscle pathology with mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies from muscle disease patients, represented by dysferlinopathy (dysfy) (dystrophic pathology; n = 43), polymyositis (PM) (inflammatory pathology; n = 24), and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) (distal myopathy; n = 31) were analyzed. Mitochondrial damage (ragged blue and COX-deficient fibers) was revealed in dysfy, PM, and DMRV cases by enzyme histochemistry (SDH and COX-SDH), electron microscopy (vacuolation and altered cristae) and biochemical assays (significantly increased ADP/ATP ratio). Proteomic analysis of muscle mitochondria from all three muscle diseases by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated down-regulation of electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunits, assembly factors and Krebs cycle enzymes. Interestingly, 80 of the under-expressed proteins were common among the three pathologies. Assay of ETC and Krebs cycle enzyme activities validated the MS data. Mitochondrial proteins from muscle pathologies also displayed higher tryptophan (Trp) oxidation and the same was corroborated in the cardiotoxin model. Molecular modeling predicted Trp oxidation to alter the local structure of mitochondrial proteins. Our data highlight mitochondrial alterations in muscle pathologies, represented by morphological changes, altered mitochondrial proteome and protein oxidation, thereby establishing the role of mitochondrial damage in human muscle diseases. We investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies

  17. Hepatic mitochondrial function analysis using needle liver biopsy samples.

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    Michael J J Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS AND AIM: Current assessment of pre-operative liver function relies upon biochemical blood tests and histology but these only indirectly measure liver function. Mitochondrial function (MF analysis allows direct measurement of cellular metabolic function and may provide an additional index of hepatic health. Conventional MF analysis requires substantial tissue samples (>100 mg obtained at open surgery. Here we report a method to assess MF using <3 mg of tissue obtained by a Tru-cut® biopsy needle making it suitable for percutaneous application. METHODS: An 18G Bard® Max-core® biopsy instrument was used to collect samples. The optimal Tru-cut® sample weight, stability in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution, reproducibility and protocol utility was initially evaluated in Wistar rat livers then confirmed in human samples. MF was measured in saponin-permeabilized samples using high-resolution respirometry. RESULTS: The average mass of a single rat and human liver Tru-cut® biopsy was 5.60±0.30 and 5.16±0.15 mg, respectively (mean; standard error of mean. Two milligram of sample was found the lowest feasible mass for the MF assay. Tissue MF declined after 1 hour of cold storage. Six replicate measurements within rats and humans (n = 6 each showed low coefficient of variation (<10% in measurements of State-III respiration, electron transport chain (ETC capacity and respiratory control ratio (RCR. Ischemic rat and human liver samples consistently showed lower State-III respiration, ETC capacity and RCR, compared to normal perfused liver samples. CONCLUSION: Consistent measurement of liver MF and detection of derangement in a disease state was successfully demonstrated using less than half the tissue from a single Tru-cut® biopsy. Using this technique outpatient assessment of liver MF is now feasible, providing a new assay for the evaluation of hepatic function.

  18. Tibialis anterior muscle needle biopsy and sensitive biomolecular methods: a useful tool in myotonic dystrophy type 1

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    S. Iachettini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 is a neuromuscular disorder caused by a CTG repeat expansion in 3’UTR of DMPK gene. This mutation causes accumulation of toxic RNA in nuclear foci leading to splicing misregulation of specific genes. In view of future clinical trials with antisense oligonucleotides in DM1 patients, it is important to set up sensitive and minimally-invasive tools to monitor the efficacy of treatments on skeletal muscle. A tibialis anterior (TA muscle sample of about 60 mg was obtained from 5 DM1 patients and 5 healthy subjects through a needle biopsy. A fragment of about 40 mg was used for histological examination and a fragment of about 20 mg was used for biomolecular analysis. The TA fragments obtained with the minimally-invasive needle biopsy technique is enough to perform all the histopathological and biomolecular evaluations useful to monitor a clinical trial on DM1 patients.

  19. Ultrastructural and Energy dispersive analysis of inorganic inclusions in a muscle biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, R.F.; Castillo-Mozun, P.; Hieger, L.R.; Williams, M.G. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A muscle biopsy that, by light microscopy, exhibited mild atrophy consistent with chronic denervating disease was submitted for ultrastructural analysis. Inorganic structures within the tissue were defined by energy dispersive analysis as aluminosilicates, magnesium silicates, and iron deposits. These structures were localized in the interstitial (intercollagenous) area and in high concentrations within degenerated muscle bundles. An alteration of the blood/muscle barrier has obviously occurred; however, the extent to which the end result commonly occurs in humans is unknown. Clarification of the question raised by this observation will have to be derived from animal studies, and clinicians must have an awareness of the need for electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray analysis in muscle biopsies from patients with similar therapeutic backgrounds

  20. Mantle biopsy: a technique for nondestructive tissue-sampling of freshwater mussels

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    David J. Berg; Wendell R. Haag; Sheldon I. Guttman; James B. Sickel

    1995-01-01

    Mantle biopsy is a means of obtaining tissue samples for genetic, physiological, and contaminant studies of bivalves; but the effects of this biopsy on survival have not been determined. We describe a simple technique for obtaining such samples from unionacean bivalves and how we compared survival among biopsied and control organisms in field experiments. Survival was...

  1. Assessment of satellite cell number and activity status in human skeletal muscle biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Kjaer, Michael; Charifi, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to validate the assessment of myonuclear and satellite cell number in biopsies from human skeletal muscle. We found that 25 type I and 25 type II fibers are sufficient to estimate the mean number of myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the assessment of satellite cells...

  2. Identification of proteomic biomarkers predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness and lethality despite biopsy-sampling error

    OpenAIRE

    Shipitsin, M; Small, C; Choudhury, S; Giladi, E; Friedlander, S; Nardone, J; Hussain, S; Hurley, A D; Ernst, C; Huang, Y E; Chang, H; Nifong, T P; Rimm, D L; Dunyak, J; Loda, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Key challenges of biopsy-based determination of prostate cancer aggressiveness include tumour heterogeneity, biopsy-sampling error, and variations in biopsy interpretation. The resulting uncertainty in risk assessment leads to significant overtreatment, with associated costs and morbidity. We developed a performance-based strategy to identify protein biomarkers predictive of prostate cancer aggressiveness and lethality regardless of biopsy-sampling variation. Methods: Prostatectom...

  3. Live changes in muscle glycogen concentration of steers due to feeding and fasting as determined through serial biopsies of the Longissimus dorsi muscle

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    Ariel Apaoblaza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient glycogen content in bovine muscle at slaughter produces meat with high final pH (> 5.8 which is undesirable. The objective of this study was to determine through biopsies the live changes in muscle glycogen concentration (MGC of housed steers fed on hay or hay plus energy concentrate for 30 d and then determine the effect of food deprivation (fasting for 24 h on the same variable. Ten steers of similar age, weight, and phenotypic characteristics were housed in individual pens and randomly assigned to two feeding treatments: ad libitum hay only (H, n = 5 and ad libitum hay plus flaked corn (Zea mays L. (HC, n = 5. Biopsies (B were taken from the Longissimus dorsi muscle at four occasions: the day before the start of experiment (B0, after 15 d (Bl, after 30 d (B2, and fasted for 24 h after B2 (B3. Before each biopsy, steers were sedated with xylazine (0.03 mL kg-1 and lidocaine was applied locally; samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen to determine MGC. Results showed a significant (P H and also of time (B2 > Bl on MGC; the decrease in MGC of steers due to fasting (B2 vs. B3 was not significant (P > 0.05. It was concluded that muscle biopsies allowed to detect a difference in the increase of MGC in steers fed an energy supplementation compared to steers fed hay only, and that fasting for 24 h tended to reduce MGC in both groups.

  4. Correlation of Utrophin Levels with the Dystrophin Protein Complex and Muscle Fibre Regeneration in Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy Muscle Biopsies.

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    Janghra, Narinder; Morgan, Jennifer E; Sewry, Caroline A; Wilson, Francis X; Davies, Kay E; Muntoni, Francesco; Tinsley, Jonathon

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a severe and currently incurable progressive neuromuscular condition, caused by mutations in the DMD gene that result in the inability to produce dystrophin. Lack of dystrophin leads to loss of muscle fibres and a reduction in muscle mass and function. There is evidence from dystrophin-deficient mouse models that increasing levels of utrophin at the muscle fibre sarcolemma by genetic or pharmacological means significantly reduces the muscular dystrophy pathology. In order to determine the efficacy of utrophin modulators in clinical trials, it is necessary to accurately measure utrophin levels and other biomarkers on a fibre by fibre basis within a biopsy section. Our aim was to develop robust and reproducible staining and imaging protocols to quantify sarcolemmal utrophin levels, sarcolemmal dystrophin complex members and numbers of regenerating fibres within a biopsy section. We quantified sarcolemmal utrophin in mature and regenerating fibres and the percentage of regenerating muscle fibres, in muscle biopsies from Duchenne, the milder Becker muscular dystrophy and controls. Fluorescent immunostaining followed by image analysis was performed to quantify utrophin intensity and β-dystrogylcan and ɣ -sarcoglycan intensity at the sarcolemma. Antibodies to fetal and developmental myosins were used to identify regenerating muscle fibres allowing the accurate calculation of percentage regeneration fibres in the biopsy. Our results indicate that muscle biopsies from Becker muscular dystrophy patients have fewer numbers of regenerating fibres and reduced utrophin intensity compared to muscle biopsies from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Of particular interest, we show for the first time that the percentage of regenerating muscle fibres within the muscle biopsy correlate with the clinical severity of Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients from whom the biopsy was taken. The ongoing development of these tools to quantify

  5. Correlation of Utrophin Levels with the Dystrophin Protein Complex and Muscle Fibre Regeneration in Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy Muscle Biopsies.

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    Narinder Janghra

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a severe and currently incurable progressive neuromuscular condition, caused by mutations in the DMD gene that result in the inability to produce dystrophin. Lack of dystrophin leads to loss of muscle fibres and a reduction in muscle mass and function. There is evidence from dystrophin-deficient mouse models that increasing levels of utrophin at the muscle fibre sarcolemma by genetic or pharmacological means significantly reduces the muscular dystrophy pathology. In order to determine the efficacy of utrophin modulators in clinical trials, it is necessary to accurately measure utrophin levels and other biomarkers on a fibre by fibre basis within a biopsy section. Our aim was to develop robust and reproducible staining and imaging protocols to quantify sarcolemmal utrophin levels, sarcolemmal dystrophin complex members and numbers of regenerating fibres within a biopsy section. We quantified sarcolemmal utrophin in mature and regenerating fibres and the percentage of regenerating muscle fibres, in muscle biopsies from Duchenne, the milder Becker muscular dystrophy and controls. Fluorescent immunostaining followed by image analysis was performed to quantify utrophin intensity and β-dystrogylcan and ɣ -sarcoglycan intensity at the sarcolemma. Antibodies to fetal and developmental myosins were used to identify regenerating muscle fibres allowing the accurate calculation of percentage regeneration fibres in the biopsy. Our results indicate that muscle biopsies from Becker muscular dystrophy patients have fewer numbers of regenerating fibres and reduced utrophin intensity compared to muscle biopsies from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Of particular interest, we show for the first time that the percentage of regenerating muscle fibres within the muscle biopsy correlate with the clinical severity of Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients from whom the biopsy was taken. The ongoing development of these

  6. Quantitative analysis of fine needle aspiration biopsy samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajer, M.; Kmet, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background. The fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is one of the methods used in tumour evaluation. Since a certain number of tumour cells are needed for a complete diagnostic algorithm, we wanted to test how many cells remain in the needle and syringe after routine stains have been made and which factors influence this number. The remaining cells are used in ancillary diagnostic procedures. Materials and methods. One hundred fifty two FNAB samples of tumours of the breast, thyroid and lymph nodes were included in our study. We counted the cells which were left in the needle and the syringe after the standard smears had been made. Buerker-Tuerk's chamber was used for this purpose. Results. The number of cells depended on the organ from which the cells had been aspirated, on the type of tumour and, in the case of breast cancer, also on the level of experience of the FNAB performer. The percentage of samples with too few cells for all modern diagnostic methods (<5x105 ) is lowest in FNAB of lymph nodes (4.9%), followed by breast (16.7%) and thyroid (18%). Conclusions. We concluded that FNAB in the majority of cases grants a sufficient number of cells for the standard microscopic evaluation and also ancillary diagnostic procedures. (author)

  7. Nuclear microprobe analysis of muscle biopsies: Applications in pathology and clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, Ph.; Coquet, M.; Gherardi, R.K.; Stoedzel, P.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear microprobe analysis of muscle biopsy sections has been recently applied to investigate different muscle disorders. This technique, employed as a complementary examination in the frame of pathological studies, permitted to confirm the diagnosis for a first pathology and to elucidate the cause of a second. In skeletal muscles of a young patient suffering from a slow progressive myopathy, calcium accumulations have been demonstrated in histologically abnormal fibers. These findings have been compared to histopathological characteristics previously described. On the other hand, we have evaluated muscle sections from two patients who presented symptoms of an inflammatory myopathy, a rare pathology that recently emerged in France. The chemical analyses permitted us to highlight local aluminium infiltration in muscles. The hypothesis of an unusual reaction to intramuscular aluminium accumulation has been advanced. These studies demonstrate the capability for ion beam microanalytical techniques to address acute problems in pathology

  8. The use of muscle biopsy in the diagnosis of undefined ataxia with cerebellar atrophy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Alessandra; Renaldo, Florence; Zanni, Ginevra; D'Amico, Adele; Pastore, Anna; Barresi, Sabina; Valente, Enza Maria; Piemonte, Fiorella; Tozzi, Giulia; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Boldrini, Renata; Mercuri, Eugenio; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico

    2012-05-01

    Childhood cerebellar ataxias, and particularly congenital ataxias, are heterogeneous disorders and several remain undefined. We performed a muscle biopsy in patients with congenital ataxia and children with later onset undefined ataxia having neuroimaging evidence of cerebellar atrophy. Significant reduced levels of Coenzyme Q10 (COQ10) were found in the skeletal muscle of 9 out of 34 patients that were consecutively screened. A mutation in the ADCK3/Coq8 gene (R347X) was identified in a female patient with ataxia, seizures and markedly reduced COQ10 levels. In a 2.5-years-old male patient with non syndromic congenital ataxia and autophagic vacuoles in the muscle biopsy we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation R111X mutation in SIL1 gene, leading to early diagnosis of Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome. We think that muscle biopsy is a valuable procedure to improve diagnostic assesement in children with congenital ataxia or other undefined forms of later onset childhood ataxia associated to cerebellar atrophy at MRI. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Muscle dysmorphia: a South African sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzeroth, V; Wessels, C; Zungu-Dirwayi, N; Oosthuizen, P; Stein, D J

    2001-10-01

    It has recently been suggested that muscle dysmorphia, a pathological preoccupation with muscularity, is a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). There are, however, few studies of the phenomenology of this putative entity. Twenty-eight amateur competitive body builders in the Western Cape, South Africa, were studied using a structured diagnostic interview that incorporated demographic data, body-building activities and clinical questions focusing on muscle dysmorphia and BDD. There was a high rate of muscle dysmorphia in the sample (53.6%). Those with muscle dysmorphia were significantly more likely to have comorbid BDD based on preoccupations other than muscularity (33%). Use of the proposed diagnostic criteria for muscle dysmorphia indicated that this is a common and relevant entity. Its conceptualization as a subtype of BDD seems valid. The disorder deserves additional attention from both clinicians and researchers.

  10. Two cases of acute rhabdomyolysis. Pathogenesis, muscle biopsy, EMG, X-CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Junichi; Maruyama, Hideharu; Yamamura, Yoshinori; Kurihara, Teruyuki; Matsukura, Shigeru

    1988-05-01

    Case 1 was a 25-year-old male who developed coma and the swelling of the left thigh after he was medicated with many kinds of major and minor tranquilizers. Serum CK and myoglobin levels were 26, 600 IU/l (normal value : less than 120 IU/l) and 196 ng/ml (normal value : less than 60 ng/ml), respectively. X-CT revealed low density area in the central portion of the adductor muscle of the left thigh. Case 2 was a 63-year-old male who developed paraplegia and the swelling of the right thigh. Serum CK and myoglobin levels were 39,960 IU/L and 406 ng/ml respectively. The biopsy of the right anterior tibialis muscle revealed non-specific ischemic myogenic changes. Electromyographic studies revealed two different changes. One was myogenic changes in the adductor muscle of the right thigh, which was not complicated by the compartment syndrome. The other was denervation changes in the right tibialis anterior, which was complicated by the compartment syndrome. MRI reflected the biopsy findings, such as the swelling of the myocytes and the interstitial tissues better than X-CT. ARML is one of emergency muscle disorders. Early diagnosis and adequate fluid therapy to prevent renal failure are indispensable and lifesaving. Both cases were treated successfully, and they became ambulatory upon discharge.

  11. Kidney biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the kidney (in rare cases, may require a blood transfusion) Bleeding into the muscle, which might cause soreness Infection (small risk) Alternative Names Renal biopsy; Biopsy - kidney Images Kidney anatomy ...

  12. U-14C-lactate-to-glycogen conversion and glycogen resynthesis rates in Type I and Type II human vastus lateralis muscle determined from biopsy samples following supramaximal and submaximal exhaustive one-leg cycling: an in vitro versus in vivo comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the in vitro lactate-to-glycogen conversion potential of human muscle, samples were incubated in U- 14 C-lactate. Because evidence existed suggesting that lactate-to-glycogen conversion occurred at a faster rate in Type II muscle in vivo glycogen resynthesis was calculated by the difference in muscle glycogen concentrations over the initial half-hour recovery period in the FT (Type II, fast-twitch) and ST (Type I, slow-twitch) muscle fiber pools from two of the original eight subjects

  13. Identification of proteomic biomarkers predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness and lethality despite biopsy-sampling error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipitsin, M; Small, C; Choudhury, S; Giladi, E; Friedlander, S; Nardone, J; Hussain, S; Hurley, A D; Ernst, C; Huang, Y E; Chang, H; Nifong, T P; Rimm, D L; Dunyak, J; Loda, M; Berman, D M; Blume-Jensen, P

    2014-09-09

    Key challenges of biopsy-based determination of prostate cancer aggressiveness include tumour heterogeneity, biopsy-sampling error, and variations in biopsy interpretation. The resulting uncertainty in risk assessment leads to significant overtreatment, with associated costs and morbidity. We developed a performance-based strategy to identify protein biomarkers predictive of prostate cancer aggressiveness and lethality regardless of biopsy-sampling variation. Prostatectomy samples from a large patient cohort with long follow-up were blindly assessed by expert pathologists who identified the tissue regions with the highest and lowest Gleason grade from each patient. To simulate biopsy-sampling error, a core from a high- and a low-Gleason area from each patient sample was used to generate a 'high' and a 'low' tumour microarray, respectively. Using a quantitative proteomics approach, we identified from 160 candidates 12 biomarkers that predicted prostate cancer aggressiveness (surgical Gleason and TNM stage) and lethal outcome robustly in both high- and low-Gleason areas. Conversely, a previously reported lethal outcome-predictive marker signature for prostatectomy tissue was unable to perform under circumstances of maximal sampling error. Our results have important implications for cancer biomarker discovery in general and development of a sampling error-resistant clinical biopsy test for prediction of prostate cancer aggressiveness.

  14. Measurement of trace elements in liver biopsy samples from cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Zeeuw, de A.C.; Moen, A.; Counotte, G.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Serum, plasma, or urine samples are usually used for the measurement of the trace elements copper, zinc, iron, selenium, because these samples are easy to obtain; however, these samples are not always appropriate. For example, it is not possible to measure molybdenum, the major antagonist of copper,

  15. [Transabdominal chorionic villus sampling using biopsy forceps or needle: pregnancy outcomes by technique used].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallina, J; Anselem, O; Haddad, B; Touboul, C; Tsatsaris, V; Le Ray, C

    2014-11-01

    To compare pregnancy outcomes after transabdominal chorionic villus sampling using biopsy forceps or needle. Retrospective bicentric study including all women who had a transabdominal chorionic villus sampling between 2005 and 2009 (172 using biopsy forceps and 160 using needle). The primary endpoint was the rate of fetal loss, after excluding medical abortion due to the result of the biopsy. The secondary endpoint was the rate of premature rupture of the membrane. All cases were reviewed to try to determine the responsibility of the biopsy. The pregnancy outcomes were not different between the two groups: 4 (4.4%) fetal losses in the biopsy forceps group and 6 (7.4%) in the needle group (P=0.52). Only one case (1.2%) of fetal loss can be attributed to the biopsy, using a needle, and none (0%) following a forceps biospy (P=0.29). The rate of premature rupture of the membrane was comparable in the two groups. The pregnancy outcomes following chorionic villus sampling using a biopsy forceps or a needle seem comparable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical and muscle biopsy findings in Norwegian paediatric patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Magnhild; Scheie, David; Breivik, Noralv; Mork, Marit; Lindal, Sigurd

    2014-05-01

    To describe patients diagnosed with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I) in our paediatric departments between 2004 and 2012. The hospital charts of 17 patients presenting for evaluation at a mean age of 7.8 years (range 1-13 years) were retrospectively reviewed. With one exception, all patients were homozygous for the common mutation c.826C>A in the FKRP gene. Three patients experienced transient pronounced weakness as toddlers. Fatigue and muscle pain were most prominent, weakness less so, in children presenting at an older age. The degree of severity varied substantially. In certain cases, increased creatine kinase was an incidental finding. All walked independently by 18 months. When last evaluated at a mean age of 14.3 years (range 3.5-18 years), five patients were part-time wheelchair users. One patient was then treated for a cardiomyopathy. Creatine kinase was consistently increased, except presymptomatic in one patient. Muscle biopsies showed focal acute and chronic myopathic changes and pathological expression of α-dystroglycan. No consistent relationship between clinical function and the degree of morphological pathology was found. LGMD2I is a relevant differential diagnosis when creatine kinase is increased in children presenting with fatigue, muscle pain and sometimes weakness. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dynamic telecytologic evaluation of imprint cytology samples from CT-guided lung biopsies: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosch, Helmut [Otto Wagner Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Hoffmann, Elisabeth; Schober, Ewald; Mostbeck, Gerhard [Otto Wagner Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bernhardt, Klaus; Schalleschak, Johann [Otto Wagner Hospital, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Rowhani, Marcel [Otto Wagner Hospital, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Weber, Michael [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-09-15

    This study assessed the feasibility of telecytological evaluation of samples from CT-guided lung biopsies using a dynamic telecytological system in which the microscope was operated by personnel from the radiology department at the site of the biopsy and a cytologist off-site diagnosed the biopsy sample. 45 imprint samples from CT-guided biopsies of lung lesions were reviewed by two cytologists using a telecytological microscope (Olympus BX51, Tokyo, Japan). The telecytological microscope was operated by one radiologist and one radiology technician. The cytological samples were classified by a cytologist into four categories: benign, malignant, atypical cells of undetermined significance, and non-diagnostic. The results were compared with those of a previous consensus reading of two independent cytologists (gold standard). When the radiologist was operating the microscope, the diagnostic accuracy was 100% as both cytologists came to the correct diagnosis in all samples. When the technician operated the microscope, two diagnoses of cyotologist 1 differed from the gold standard. Thus, the accuracy for the technician was 95.56%. Telecytological evaluation of imprint samples from CT-guided lung biopsies is feasible because it can be performed with high diagnostic accuracy if personnel from the radiology department operate the microscope. (orig.)

  18. Toxic myopathies: muscle biopsy features Miopatia tóxica: biópsia muscular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Herminia Scola

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Several drugs and toxic substances can cause muscular abnormalities and are frequent causes of acquired myopathies. We present a series of 32 patients, predominance of young adult patients, diagnosed with toxic myopathy. The most common substances inducing myopathy were corticosteroids (56.2% followed by the propoxyphene, neuroleptics, zidovudine and drug-induced hypokalemia. The investigation showed normal serum creatine kinase levels in 65.4%, myopathic pattern of the needle electromyography in 40% and the more frequent histological diagnosis of the muscle biopsy was type 2 fiber atrophy (59.3%. Clinical features, etiology, course of the disease, serum levels of muscular enzymes, electromyographic features and, especially, muscle biopsy features are discussed.Diversos medicamentos e substâncias tóxicas podem causar alterações musculares e são causas freqüentes de miopatia adquirida. Apresentamos uma série de 32 pacientes, predomínio de pacientes adulto jovens, com miopatia tóxica. As substâncias mais relacionadas com a miopatia foram os corticosteróides (56,2% seguidos pelo propoxifeno, neurolépticos, zidovudina e drogas indutoras de hipocalemia. A investigação mostrou níveis normais de creatino quinase sérica em 65,4%, eletromiografia de agulha com padrão miopático em 40% e o mais freqüente diagnóstico histológico da biópsia muscular foi atrofia de fibras do tipo 2 (59,3%. As manifestações clínicas, etiologia, tempo de evolução, nível sérico das enzimas musculares, alterações da eletroneuromiografia e, especialmente, da biópsia muscular são discutidos.

  19. Cytological Sampling Versus Forceps Biopsy During Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Analysis of Factors Predicting Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, C. R.; Byass, O. R.; Cast, J. E. I., E-mail: james.cast@hey.nhs.uk [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of cytological sampling and forceps biopsy in obstructing biliary lesions and to identify factors predictive of success. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 119) with suspected malignant inoperable obstructive jaundice treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during 7 years were included (60 male; mean age 72.5 years). All patients underwent forceps biopsy plus cytological sampling by washing the forceps device in cytological solution. Patient history, procedural and pathological records, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Histological diagnosis after forceps biopsy was more successful than cytology: Sensitivity was 78 versus 61%, and negative predictive value was 30 versus 19%. Cytology results were never positive when the forceps biopsy was negative. The cytological sample was negative and forceps sample positive in 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 16 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, and 1 case of benign disease. Diagnostic accuracy was predicted by low bilirubin (p < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), and white cell count (p {<=} 0.05). Conclusions: This technique is safe and effective and is recommended for histological diagnosis during PTBD in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures. Diagnostic yield is greater when bilirubin levels are low and there is no sepsis; histological diagnosis by way of forceps biopsy renders cytological sampling unnecessary.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ENDOMETRIAL SAMPLING USING PIPELLE WITH HYSTEROSCOPIC-GUIDED BIOPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalina S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hysteroscopic-guided biopsy is the gold standard for endometrial sampling, but it carries risk of general anaesthesia, infection and perforation, whereas Pipelle does not require anaesthesia or cervical dilatation and it allows outpatient and painless endometrial sampling. The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and accuracy of Pipelle aspiration in acquiring an adequate and representative endometrial sample and to compare its histopathology with hysteroscopic-directed biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective observational comparative study evaluating the role of Pipelle aspiration as an outpatient procedure in endometrial sampling of perimenopausal women with AUB. 150 perimenopausal women with clinical diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding were selected from the Gynaecology OPD of IOG, Chennai, between October 2014 and September 2015. They were subjected to endometrial sampling by Pipelle followed by hysteroscopic-directed biopsy. The efficacy of Pipelle was determined by correlating the histopathological results obtained from it and the hysteroscopic-directed biopsy. RESULTS The histopathology of the endometrium obtained using Pipelle’s curette showed a sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 90% in the detection of abnormal findings with PPV of 88% and NPV of 94%. However, accuracy of Pipelle is found to be less in the diagnosis of polyps and submucous fibroids with accuracy of nearing 100% when using hysteroscopy. CONCLUSION Pipelle endometrial sampling is convenient, easy, painless and safe in obtaining an adequate sample for histopathology with high sensitivity and specificity for endometrial pathologies and endometrial carcinoma.

  1. Percutaneous CT-guided sacroiliac joint sampling for infection: aspiration, biopsy, and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipp, David; Simeone, F Joseph; Nelson, Sandra B; Huang, Ambrose J; Chang, Connie Y

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate methods of CT-guided sacroiliac joint sampling in patients with suspected infection. All CT-guided sacroiliac joint sampling procedures for suspected infection were reviewed for sampling type (aspiration, lavage aspiration, biopsy), microbiology results, and clinical and imaging follow-up. The primary gold standard was anatomic pathology. If pathology was not available, then positive blood culture with the same organism as SIJ sampling, imaging and clinical follow-up, or clinical follow-up only were used. Anterior and posterior joint distention was evaluated by MRI within 7 days of the procedure. A total of 34 patients (age 39 ± 20 (range, 6-75) years; 21 F, 13 M) were included. Aspiration samples only were obtained in 13/34 (38%) cases, biopsy samples only in 9/34 (26%) cases, and both samples in 12/34 (35%) cases. There was an overall 54% sensitivity and 86% specificity. For the aspiration samples, sensitivity and specificity were 60 and 81%, respectively, compared to 45 and 90% for the biopsy samples. In cases with both samples, biopsy did not add additional microbial information. Seventeen (17/34, 50%) patients had an MRI. The anterior joint was more distended than the posterior joint in 15/17 (88%) of patients, and this difference was significant (P = 0.0003). All of these 17 patients had an attempted aspiration by a posterior approach; 6/17 (35%) resulted in a successful aspiration. Aspiration of the sacroiliac joint has a higher sensitivity than biopsy and should always be attempted first. MRI may be helpful for procedure planning.

  2. Percutaneous CT-guided sacroiliac joint sampling for infection. Aspiration, biopsy, and technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipp, David; Simeone, F.J.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Chang, Connie Y. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Nelson, Sandra B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Infectious Disease Unit, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2018-04-15

    To evaluate methods of CT-guided sacroiliac joint sampling in patients with suspected infection. All CT-guided sacroiliac joint sampling procedures for suspected infection were reviewed for sampling type (aspiration, lavage aspiration, biopsy), microbiology results, and clinical and imaging follow-up. The primary gold standard was anatomic pathology. If pathology was not available, then positive blood culture with the same organism as SIJ sampling, imaging and clinical follow-up, or clinical follow-up only were used. Anterior and posterior joint distention was evaluated by MRI within 7 days of the procedure. A total of 34 patients (age 39 ± 20 (range, 6-75) years; 21 F, 13 M) were included. Aspiration samples only were obtained in 13/34 (38%) cases, biopsy samples only in 9/34 (26%) cases, and both samples in 12/34 (35%) cases. There was an overall 54% sensitivity and 86% specificity. For the aspiration samples, sensitivity and specificity were 60 and 81%, respectively, compared to 45 and 90% for the biopsy samples. In cases with both samples, biopsy did not add additional microbial information. Seventeen (17/34, 50%) patients had an MRI. The anterior joint was more distended than the posterior joint in 15/17 (88%) of patients, and this difference was significant (P = 0.0003). All of these 17 patients had an attempted aspiration by a posterior approach; 6/17 (35%) resulted in a successful aspiration. Aspiration of the sacroiliac joint has a higher sensitivity than biopsy and should always be attempted first. MRI may be helpful for procedure planning. (orig.)

  3. Targeted histology sampling from atypical small acinar proliferation area detected by repeat transrectal prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Karman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Оbjective: to define the approach to the management of patients with the detected ASAP area.Materials and methods. In the time period from 2012 through 2015, 494 patients with previously negative biopsy and remaining suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa were examined. The patients underwent repeat 24-core multifocal prostate biopsy with taking additional tissue samples from suspicious areas detected by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound. An isolated ASAP area was found in 127 (25. 7 % of the 494 examined men. All of them were offered to perform repeat target transrectal biopsy of this area. Targeted transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the ASAP area was performed in 56 (44.1 % of the 127 patients, 53 of them being included in the final analysis.Results. PCa was diagnosed in 14 (26.4 % of the 53 patients, their mean age being 64.4 ± 6.9 years. The average level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA in PCa patients was 6.8 ± 3.0 ng/ml, in those with benign lesions – 9.3 ± 6.5 ng/ml; the percentage ratio of free/total PSA with PCa was 16.2 ± 7,8 %, with benign lesions – 23.3 ± 7.7 %; PSA density in PCa patients was 0.14 ± 0.07 ng/ml/cm3, in those with benign lesions – 0.15 ± 0.12 ng/ml/cm3. Therefore, with ASAP area being detected in repeat prostate biopsy samples, it is advisable that targeted extended biopsy of this area be performed. 

  4. Proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xing [Department of Analytical Chemistry and CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Xu, Yanli [Fuyang People’s Hospital (China); Meng, Qian [Department of Analytical Chemistry and CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Zheng, Qingqing [Digestive Endoscopic Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital (China); Wu, Jianhong [Department of Analytical Chemistry and CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital (China); Figeys, Daniel [Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, and Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Ottawa (Canada); Chang, Ying, E-mail: emulan@163.com [Digestive Endoscopic Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital (China); Zhou, Hu, E-mail: zhouhu@simm.ac.cn [Department of Analytical Chemistry and CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2016-08-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of malignant tumor worldwide. Currently, although many researchers have been devoting themselves in CRC studies, the process of locating biomarkers for CRC early diagnosis and prognostic is still very slow. Using a centrifugal proteomic reactor-based proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling, 2620 protein groups were quantified between cancer mucosa and adjacent normal colorectal mucosa. Of which, 403 protein groups were differentially expressed with statistic significance between cancer and normal tissues, including 195 up-regulated and 208 down-regulated proteins in cancer tissues. Three proteins (SOD3, PRELP and NGAL) were selected for further Western blot validation. And the resulting Western blot experimental results were consistent with the quantitative proteomic data. SOD3 and PRELP are down-regulated in CRC mucosa comparing to adjacent normal tissue, while NGAL is up-regulated in CRC mucosa. In conclusion, the centrifugal proteomic reactor-based label-free quantitative proteomic approach provides a highly sensitive and powerful tool for analyzing minute protein sample from tiny colorectal biopsies, which may facilitate CRC biomarkers discovery for diagnoses and prognoses. -- Highlights: •Minute amount of colonic biopsies by endoscopy is suitable for proteomic analysis. •Centrifugal proteomic reactor can be used for processing tiny clinic biopsy sample. •SOD3 and PRELP are down-regulated in CRC, while NGAL is up-regulated in CRC.

  5. Proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xing; Xu, Yanli; Meng, Qian; Zheng, Qingqing; Wu, Jianhong; Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping; Figeys, Daniel; Chang, Ying; Zhou, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of malignant tumor worldwide. Currently, although many researchers have been devoting themselves in CRC studies, the process of locating biomarkers for CRC early diagnosis and prognostic is still very slow. Using a centrifugal proteomic reactor-based proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling, 2620 protein groups were quantified between cancer mucosa and adjacent normal colorectal mucosa. Of which, 403 protein groups were differentially expressed with statistic significance between cancer and normal tissues, including 195 up-regulated and 208 down-regulated proteins in cancer tissues. Three proteins (SOD3, PRELP and NGAL) were selected for further Western blot validation. And the resulting Western blot experimental results were consistent with the quantitative proteomic data. SOD3 and PRELP are down-regulated in CRC mucosa comparing to adjacent normal tissue, while NGAL is up-regulated in CRC mucosa. In conclusion, the centrifugal proteomic reactor-based label-free quantitative proteomic approach provides a highly sensitive and powerful tool for analyzing minute protein sample from tiny colorectal biopsies, which may facilitate CRC biomarkers discovery for diagnoses and prognoses. -- Highlights: •Minute amount of colonic biopsies by endoscopy is suitable for proteomic analysis. •Centrifugal proteomic reactor can be used for processing tiny clinic biopsy sample. •SOD3 and PRELP are down-regulated in CRC, while NGAL is up-regulated in CRC.

  6. Assessment of bone biopsy needles for sample size, specimen quality and ease of use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, C.C.; Liu, P.T.; Morrison, W.B.; Leslie, K.O.; Carrino, J.A.; Lozevski, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether there are significant differences in ease of use and quality of samples among several bone biopsy needles currently available. Eight commonly used, commercially available bone biopsy needles of different gauges were evaluated. Each needle was used to obtain five consecutive samples from a lamb lumbar pedicle. Subjective assessment of ease of needle use, ease of sample removal from the needle and sample quality, before and after fixation, was graded on a 5-point scale. The number of attempts necessary to reach a 1 cm depth was recorded. Each biopsy specimen was measured in the gross state and after fixation. The RADI Bonopty 15 g and Kendall Monoject J-type 11 g needles were rated the easiest to use, while the Parallax Core-Assure 11 g and the Bard Ostycut 16 g were rated the most difficult. Parallax Core-Assure and Kendall Monoject needles had the highest quality specimen in the gross state; Cook Elson/Ackerman 14 g and Bard Ostycut 16 g needles yielded the lowest. The MD Tech without Trap-Lok 11 g needle had the highest quality core after fixation, while the Bard Ostycut 16 g had the lowest. There was a significant difference in pre-fixation sample length between needles (P<0.0001), despite acquiring all cores to a standard 1 cm depth. Core length and width decrease in size by an average of 28% and 42% after fixation. Bone biopsy needles vary significantly in performance. Detailed knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of different needles is important to make an appropriate selection for each individual's practice. (orig.)

  7. Use of individual containers for prostate biopsy samples: Do we gain diagnostic performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panach-Navarrete, J; García-Morata, F; Valls-González, L; Martínez-Jabaloyas, J M

    2016-05-01

    Prostate cores from transrectal biopsies are usually sent in separate vials for pathological processing. Although this is a common practice, there are controversial studies on its usefulness. We wanted to compare the rate of prostate cancer diagnosis between processing samples in 2 containers and processing them in individual containers to see if there are differences. Our secondary objective was to check the rate of diagnosis of various tumour subtypes in each of the 2 groups. A retrospective observational study was conducted of 2,601 cases of prostate biopsies. Ten cores were extracted in each biopsy. We divided the sample into 2 groups: biopsies sent in 2 containers to the department of pathology (left and right lobes) or sent in 10 (one for each cylinder), according to the different criteria used in our centre in the past. We then classified the cases according to the absence of neoplasia, insignificant tumour (involvement of just 1 cylinder, container group, and 824 were included in the 10-container group. We diagnosed a rate of 32.4% of cancers in the 2-container group and 40% in the 10-container group, a difference that was statistically significant (Pcontainer group than in the 10-container group (6.4% vs. 4.3%, respectively; P=.03). Samples with a Gleason score of 6 were diagnosed more often in the 10-container group than in the 2-container group (11.9% vs. 8.1%, respectively; P=.002). The same occurred with the Gleason score≥7 (23.8% in the 10-container group vs. 17.9% in the 2-container group; Pcontainers. Once the procedure was conducted, we also observed in our series a reduction in the diagnoses of insignificant carcinoma to the detriment of an increased diagnosis of not insignificant carcinomas. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. CT-Guided Transgluteal Biopsy for Systematic Random Sampling of the Prostate in Patients Without Rectal Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Ajit H; Remer, Erick M; Veniero, Joseph C; Thupili, Chakradhar R; Klein, Eric A

    2015-09-01

    The objective of our study was to review our experience with CT-guided transgluteal prostate biopsy in patients without rectal access. Twenty-one CT-guided transgluteal prostate biopsy procedures were performed in 16 men (mean age, 68 years; age range, 60-78 years) who were under conscious sedation. The mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value was 11.4 ng/mL (range, 2.3-39.4 ng/mL). Six had seven prior unsuccessful transperineal or transurethral biopsies. Biopsy results, complications, sedation time, and radiation dose were recorded. The mean PSA values and number of core specimens were compared between patients with malignant results and patients with nonmalignant results using the Student t test. The average procedural sedation time was 50.6 minutes (range, 15-90 minutes) (n = 20), and the mean effective radiation dose was 8.2 mSv (median, 6.6 mSv; range 3.6-19.3 mSv) (n = 13). Twenty of the 21 (95%) procedures were technically successful. The only complication was a single episode of gross hematuria and penile pain in one patient, which resolved spontaneously. Of 20 successful biopsies, 8 (40%) yielded adenocarcinoma (Gleason score: mean, 8; range, 7-9). Twelve biopsies yielded nonmalignant results (60%): high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 3) or benign prostatic tissue with or without inflammation (n = 9). Three patients had carcinoma diagnosed on subsequent biopsies (second biopsy, n = 2 patients; third biopsy, n = 1 patient). A malignant biopsy result was not significantly associated with the number of core specimens (p = 0.3) or the mean PSA value (p = 0.1). CT-guided transgluteal prostate biopsy is a safe and reliable technique for the systematic random sampling of the prostate in patients without a rectal access. In patients with initial negative biopsy results, repeat biopsy should be considered if there is a persistent rise in the PSA value.

  9. Sugar and acid interconversion in tomato fruits based on biopsy sampling of locule gel and pericarp tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Woltering, E.J.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with quantifying sugar and acids levels important for the perceived taste of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum). Sugar and acids levels were measured repeatedly on the same tomato using tissue samples obtained with a biopsy needle in combination with HPLC protocols. Biopsies of

  10. Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Reisinger

    Full Text Available Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1 the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2 the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3 the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4 the mid- (1 month and long- (24 month term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags. Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%, but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%. The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD. Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66% and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%. Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes

  11. EFNS review on the role of muscle biopsy in the investigation of myalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriakides, T; Angelini, Cinzia; Schaefer, J

    2013-01-01

    Myalgia, defined as any pain perceived in muscle, is very common in the general population and a frequent cause for referral to neurologists, rheumatologists and internists in general. It is however only rarely due to primary muscle disease and often referred from ligaments, joints, bones...

  12. A Review of Inflammatory Processes of the Breast with a Focus on Diagnosis in Core Biopsy Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. D’Alfonso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory and reactive lesions of the breast are relatively uncommon among benign breast lesions and can be the source of an abnormality on imaging. Such lesions can simulate a malignant process, based on both clinical and radiographic findings, and core biopsy is often performed to rule out malignancy. Furthermore, some inflammatory processes can mimic carcinoma or other malignancy microscopically, and vice versa. Diagnostic difficulty may arise due to the small and fragmented sample of a core biopsy. This review will focus on the pertinent clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of the more commonly encountered inflammatory lesions of the breast that can be characterized in a core biopsy sample. These include fat necrosis, mammary duct ectasia, granulomatous lobular mastitis, diabetic mastopathy, and abscess. The microscopic differential diagnoses for these lesions when seen in a core biopsy sample will be discussed.

  13. A Review of Inflammatory Processes of the Breast with a Focus on Diagnosis in Core Biopsy Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alfonso, Timothy M; Ginter, Paula S; Shin, Sandra J

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory and reactive lesions of the breast are relatively uncommon among benign breast lesions and can be the source of an abnormality on imaging. Such lesions can simulate a malignant process, based on both clinical and radiographic findings, and core biopsy is often performed to rule out malignancy. Furthermore, some inflammatory processes can mimic carcinoma or other malignancy microscopically, and vice versa. Diagnostic difficulty may arise due to the small and fragmented sample of a core biopsy. This review will focus on the pertinent clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of the more commonly encountered inflammatory lesions of the breast that can be characterized in a core biopsy sample. These include fat necrosis, mammary duct ectasia, granulomatous lobular mastitis, diabetic mastopathy, and abscess. The microscopic differential diagnoses for these lesions when seen in a core biopsy sample will be discussed.

  14. Comparison of human myofibrillar protein catabolic rate derived from 3-methylhistidine excretion with synthetic rate from muscle biopsies during L-(. cap alpha. -/sup 15/N)lysine infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeran, R O; Halliday, D; Purkiss, P [Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (UK). Div. of Inherited Metabolic Diseases and Clinical Investigation

    1978-05-01

    Urine was collected in five healthy men over 10 to 14 days, with fasting blood samples on days 1, 5 and 10, whilst they consumed a standard creatine-free diet, which was quantitatively related to their body surface area. The urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine fell to a plateau by day 5 in all subjects. Myofibrillar protein catabolic rate calculated from the mean value of 3-methylhistidine excretion from day 5 to day 10 averaged 1.21 g day/sup -1/ kg/sup -1/ body weight. The average turnover of muscle myofibrillar protein was calculated to be 2.16%/day. From a previous study using continuous intravenous infusion of L-(a-/sup 15/N)lysine with serial muscle biopsies on the same subjects, the mean myofibrillar protein synthetic rate was calculated to be 0.82 g day/sup -1/ kg/sup -1/ body weight, and the mean turnover rate was 1.47%/day of total muscle myofibrillar protein. The estimations of myofibrillar protein turnover rate derived from the two methods are compared and the differences discussed.

  15. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  16. A practical guideline to remote biopsy darting of wildebeests for genetic sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domnic Mijele

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of biopsy darts for remote collection of tissue samples from free-ranging terrestrial and aquatic animal species has gained popularity in the recent past. The success of darting is very important since scientists may not have many chances to re-dart the same animal, especially with the free-ranging elusive wildlife species. We used wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus as a model to estimate the optimum shooting distance, pressure and the shot part of the body through which a researcher can optimize the success and amount of tissue collected from similar wild land mammalian species. Wildebeests were darted at six categories of distances ranging between 10 and 45 m and dart gun pressures of 5–14 millibar. The number of failed darts increased by increasing the darting distance: 0% (10 m, 0% (20 m, 6% (30 m, 20% (35 m, 71% (40 m, and 67% (45 m. There was a notable effect of the distances on the amount of tissue collected 20 m offered the best results. Dart gun pressure had no effect on the amount of tissue samples obtained. The amount of tissue obtained from successful darts was the same whether the animal was darted on the shoulder or thigh. In this paper, we present a practical guideline for remote biopsy darting of wildebeest to obtain optimum amount of tissue samples, which could be generalized for similar wild land mammalian species.

  17. High-resolution, 2- and 3-dimensional imaging of uncut, unembedded tissue biopsy samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Richard; Vesuna, Sam; Levene, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Despite continuing advances in tissue processing automation, traditional embedding, cutting, and staining methods limit our ability for rapid, comprehensive visual examination. These limitations are particularly relevant to biopsies for which immediate therapeutic decisions are most necessary, faster feedback to the patient is desired, and preservation of tissue for ancillary studies is most important. The recent development of improved tissue clearing techniques has made it possible to consider use of multiphoton microscopy (MPM) tools in clinical settings, which could address difficulties of established methods. To demonstrate the potential of MPM of cleared tissue for the evaluation of unembedded and uncut pathology samples. Human prostate, liver, breast, and kidney specimens were fixed and dehydrated by using traditional histologic techniques, with or without incorporation of nucleic acid fluorescent stains into dehydration steps. A benzyl alcohol/benzyl benzoate clearing protocol was substituted for xylene. Multiphoton microscopy was performed on a home-built system. Excellent morphologic detail was achievable with MPM at depths greater than 500 μm. Pseudocoloring produced images analogous to hematoxylin-eosin-stained images. Concurrent second-harmonic generation detection allowed mapping of collagen. Subsequent traditional section staining with hematoxylin-eosin did not reveal any detrimental morphologic effects. Sample immunostains on renal tissue showed preservation of normal reactivity. Complete reconstructions of 1-mm cubic samples elucidated 3-dimensional architectural organization. Multiphoton microscopy on cleared, unembedded, uncut biopsy specimens shows potential as a practical clinical tool with significant advantages over traditional histology while maintaining compatibility with gold standard techniques. Further investigation to address remaining implementation barriers is warranted.

  18. The Orientation of Gastric Biopsy Samples Improves the Inter-observer Agreement of the OLGA Staging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotruta, Bogdan; Gheorghe, Cristian; Iacob, Razvan; Dumbrava, Mona; Radu, Cristina; Bancila, Ion; Becheanu, Gabriel

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation of severity and extension of gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia is recommended to identify subjects with a high risk for gastric cancer. The inter-observer agreement for the assessment of gastric atrophy is reported to be low. The aim of the study was to evaluate the inter-observer agreement for the assessment of severity and extension of gastric atrophy using oriented and unoriented gastric biopsy samples. Furthermore, the quality of biopsy specimens in oriented and unoriented samples was analyzed. A total of 35 subjects with dyspeptic symptoms addressed for gastrointestinal endoscopy that agreed to enter the study were prospectively enrolled. The OLGA/OLGIM gastric biopsies protocol was used. From each subject two sets of biopsies were obtained (four from the antrum, two oriented and two unoriented, two from the gastric incisure, one oriented and one unoriented, four from the gastric body, two oriented and two unoriented). The orientation of the biopsy samples was completed using nitrocellulose filters (Endokit®, BioOptica, Milan, Italy). The samples were blindly examined by two experienced pathologists. Inter-observer agreement was evaluated using kappa statistic for inter-rater agreement. The quality of histopathology specimens taking into account the identification of lamina propria was analyzed in oriented vs. unoriented samples. The samples with detectable lamina propria mucosae were defined as good quality specimens. Categorical data was analyzed using chi-square test and a two-sided p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 350 biopsy samples were analyzed (175 oriented / 175 unoriented). The kappa index values for oriented/unoriented OLGA 0/I/II/III and IV stages have been 0.62/0.13, 0.70/0.20, 0.61/0.06, 0.62/0.46, and 0.77/0.50, respectively. For OLGIM 0/I/II/III stages the kappa index values for oriented/unoriented samples were 0.83/0.83, 0.88/0.89, 0.70/0.88 and 0.83/1, respectively. No case of OLGIM IV

  19. Gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from people with type 2 diabetes and relatives: differential regulation of insulin signaling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsgaard, J.; Brøns, C.; Friedrichsen, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene expression alterations have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes, however whether these changes are primary causes or secondary effects of type 2 diabetes is not known. As healthy first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing...... type 2 diabetes, they provide a good model in the search for primary causes of the disease. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle biopsies from Caucasian males with type 2 diabetes, healthy first degree relatives, and healthy controls. Gene expression...... downregulated in people with type 2 diabetes. On the individual gene level, 11 genes showed altered expression levels in first degree relatives compared to controls, among others KIF1B and GDF8 (myostatin). LDHB was found to have a decreased expression in both groups compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS...

  20. Evaluation of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsy samples from cats and dogs in an adapter-modified Ussing chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBiasio, John V.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Newman, Shelley; Musch, Mark W.; Steiner, Jörg M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate an adapter-modified Ussing chamber for assessment of transport physiology in endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from healthy cats and dogs, as well as dogs with chronic enteropathies. 17 duodenal biopsies from five cats and 51 duodenal biopsies from 13 dogs were obtained. Samples were transferred into an adapter-modified Ussing chamber and sequentially exposed to various absorbagogues and secretagogues. Overall, 78.6% of duodenal samples obtained from cats responded to at least one compound. In duodenal biopsies obtained from dogs, the rate of overall response ranged from 87.5% (healthy individuals; n = 8), to 63.6% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and histopathological unremarkable duodenum; n = 15), and 32.1% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal diseases and moderate to severe histopathological lesions; n = 28). Detailed information regarding the magnitude and duration of the response are provided. The adapter-modified Ussing chamber enables investigation of the absorptive and secretory capacity of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from cats and dogs and has the potential to become a valuable research tool. The response of samples was correlated with histopathological findings. PMID:24378587

  1. Complete removal of a breast mass by US-guided mammotome biopsy: histologic assessment by marginal sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youn Jeong; Choi, Hye Young; Moon, Byung In; Lee, Shi Nae

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the complete removal of a breast mass using ultrasound (US) guided mammotome biopsy was successful using a marginal biopsy after insuring the total visual excision of the breast mass on US images. The relationship of complete breast mass removal, and the hematoma, mass size and shape were also evaluated. A US guided mammotome biopsy was performed in a total of 136 cases in 133 patients, with marginal biopsies also added when the complete removal of breast mass had been identified by sonography. The results of the marginal biopsies were serially dividing into three groups, as follows: group I were the cases in the initial 6 months, group II after the initial 6 months and group III having undergone two marginal biopsies. The marginal biopsies were performed in four directions around the probe, with 'marginal positivity' defined as the same histopathological findings to that of the main mass in at least one direction. A statistical analysis was also used to evaluate between the marginal positivity and the hematoma, mass size and shape. The marginal positivities of groups I, II and III were 48.8, 29.4 and 45.5%, respectively. The marginal positivity of those with a lobular shaped mass was significantly higher (ρ = 0.0121) than those with round or oval shaped masses (61.5 vs 33.7 vs 50%), but showed no statistical relationship with hematoma size of the lesions. Although the lesions were removed by US using a US-guided mammotome biopsy, many residual lesions were still histologically present in the marginal samplings, especially in the lobular shaped masse

  2. Molecular sexing of tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia guianensis and Sotalia fluviatilis using samples from biopsy darting and decomposed carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydée A. Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the zinc-finger sex chromosome-linked genes Zfx/Zfy and the sex-determining region Y (Sry genes for gender determination of biopsy samples from marine and riverine tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia guianensis and S. fluviatilis. We also evaluated the performance of these genes with decomposed carcasses, for which sexing cannot rely on the direct examination of the reproductive tract. Both systems proved reliable for sexing 46 fresh and decomposed samples, making them especially useful when biopsy darting is coupled with photo-identification studies.

  3. Colour Doppler and microbubble contrast agent ultrasonography do not improve cancer detection rate in transrectal systematic prostate biopsy sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Gianluigi; Morandi, Giovanni; Seveso, Mauro; Giusti, Guido; Benetti, Alessio; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Minuti, Francesco; Grizzi, Fabio; Graziotti, Pierpaolo

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Transrectal gray-scale ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy sampling is the method for diagnosing prostate cancer (PC) in patients with an increased prostate specific antigen level and/or abnormal digital rectal examination. Several imaging strategies have been proposed to optimize the diagnostic value of biopsy sampling, although at the first biopsy nearly 10-30% of PC still remains undiagnosed. This study compares the PC detection rate when employing Colour Doppler ultransongraphy with or without the injection of SonoVue™ microbubble contrast agent, versus the transrectal ultrasongraphy-guided systematic biopsy sampling. The limited accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and the additional cost of using the contrast agent do not justify its routine application in PC detection. • To compare prostate cancer (PC) detection rate employing colour Doppler ultrasonography with or without SonoVue™ contrast agent with transrectal ultrasonography-guided systematic biopsy sampling. • A total of 300 patients with negative digital rectal examination and transrectal grey-scale ultrasonography, with PSA values ranging between 2.5 and 9.9 ng/mL, were randomized into three groups: 100 patients (group A) underwent transrectal ultrasonography-guided systematic bioptic sampling; 100 patients (group B) underwent colour Doppler ultrasonography, and 100 patients (group C) underwent colour Doppler ultrasonography before and during the injection of SonoVue™. • Contrast-enhanced targeted biopsies were sampled into hypervascularized areas of peripheral, transitional, apical or anterior prostate zones. • All the patients included in Groups B and C underwent a further 13 systematic prostate biopsies. The cancer detection rate was calculated for each group. • In 88 (29.3%) patients a histological diagnosis of PC was made, whereas 22 (7.4%) patients were diagnosed with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial

  4. Detection of p53 gene mutations in bronchial biopsy samples of patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, S.; Nawaz, T.

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue. It is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1.2 million deaths annually. The goal of this study was to detect the p53 gene mutations in lung cancer, in local population of Lahore, Pakistan. These mutations were screened in the bronchial biopsy lung cancer tissue samples. For this purpose microtomed tissue sections were collected. Following DNA extraction from tissue sections, the p53 mutations were detected by amplifying Exon 7 (145 bp) and Exon 8 (152 bp) of the p53 gene. PCR then followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for screening the p53 gene mutations. This results of SSCP were visualized of silver staining. The results showed different banding pattern indicating the presence of mutation. Majority of the mutations were found in Exon 7. Exon 7 of p53 gene may be the mutation hotspot in lung cancer. In lung cancer, the most prevalent mutations of p53 gene are G -> T transversions; other types of insertions and deletions are also expected, however, the exact nature of mutations in presented work could be confirmed by direct sequencing. (author)

  5. MRI follow-up after concordant, histologically benign diagnosis of breast lesions sampled by MRI-guided biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Dershaw, D David; Lee, Carol H; Kaplan, Jennifer; Morris, Elizabeth A

    2009-09-01

    Follow-up MRI can be useful to confirm a benign diagnosis after MRI-guided breast biopsy. This retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate appropriate timing and imaging interpretation for the initial follow-up MRI when a benign, concordant histology is obtained using MRI-guided breast biopsy. Retrospective review was performed of 177 lesions visualized only by MRI in 172 women who underwent 9-gauge, vacuum-assisted core biopsy and marker placement with imaging-concordant benign histology. All underwent follow-up MRI within 12 months. Timing of the follow-up study, change in size, results of second biopsy if performed, and distance of localizing marker to the lesion on the follow-up study were recorded. At initial follow-up, 155 lesions were decreased or gone, 14 lesions were stable, and eight were enlarged. Seventeen (9.6%, 17/177) lesions underwent a second biopsy, including six enlarging, 10 stable, and one decreasing. Of these, four were malignant. Enlargement was seen in two carcinomas at 6 and 12 months. Two carcinomas, one stable at 2 months and another stable at 3 and 11 months, were rebiopsied because of suspicion of a missed lesion in the former and worrisome mammographic and sonographic changes in the latter. The distance of the marker from the lesion on follow-up did not correlate with biopsy accuracy. Follow-up MRI did not detect missed cancers because of lesion enlargement before 6 months after biopsy; two of four missed cancers were stable. The localizing marker can deploy away from the target despite successful sampling.

  6. [Transciptome among Mexicans: a large scale methodology to analyze the genetics expression profile of simultaneous samples in muscle, adipose tissue and lymphocytes obtained from the same individual].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastarrachea, Raúl A; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Kent, Jack W; Laviada-Molina, Hugo A; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Torres-Salazar, Amada; Torres-Salazar, Amanda; Nava-González, Edna J; Solis-Pérez, Elizabeth; Gallegos-Cabrales, Esther C; Cole, Shelley A; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2008-01-01

    We describe the methodology used to analyze multiple transcripts using microarray techniques in simultaneous biopsies of muscle, adipose tissue and lymphocytes obtained from the same individual as part of the standard protocol of the Genetics of Metabolic Diseases in Mexico: GEMM Family Study. We recruited 4 healthy male subjects with BM1 20-41, who signed an informed consent letter. Subjects participated in a clinical examination that included anthropometric and body composition measurements, muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) subcutaneous fat biopsies anda blood draw. All samples provided sufficient amplified RNA for microarray analysis. Total RNA was extracted from the biopsy samples and amplified for analysis. Of the 48,687 transcript targets queried, 39.4% were detectable in a least one of the studied tissues. Leptin was not detectable in lymphocytes, weakly expressed in muscle, but overexpressed and highly correlated with BMI in subcutaneous fat. Another example was GLUT4, which was detectable only in muscle and not correlated with BMI. Expression level concordance was 0.7 (p< 0.001) for the three tissues studied. We demonstrated the feasibility of carrying out simultaneous analysis of gene expression in multiple tissues, concordance of genetic expression in different tissues, and obtained confidence that this method corroborates the expected biological relationships among LEPand GLUT4. TheGEMM study will provide a broad and valuable overview on metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  7. Is there a role for anterior zone sampling as part of saturation trans-rectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Eric; Margel, David; Greenspan, Michael; Shayegan, Bobby; Matsumoto, Edward; Fischer, Marc A; Patlas, Michael; Daya, Dean; Pinthus, Jehonathan H

    2014-05-03

    The prostatic anterior zone (AZ) is not targeted routinely by TRUS guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Pbx). MRI is an accurate diagnostic tool for AZ tumors, but is often unavailable due to cost or system restrictions. We examined the diagnostic yield of office based AZ TRUS-Pbx. 127 men at risk for AZ tumors were studied: Patients with elevated PSA and previous extended negative TRUS-Pbx (group 1, n = 78) and actively surveyed low risk prostate cancer patients (group 2, n = 49). None of the participants had a previous AZ biopsy. Biopsy template included suspicious ultrasonic areas, 16 peripheral zone (PZ), 4 transitional zone (TZ) and 6 AZ cores. All biopsies were performed by a single urologist under local peri-prostatic anaesthetic, using the B-K Medical US System, an end-firing probe 4-12 MHZ and 18 ga/25 cm needle. All samples were reviewed by a single specialized uro-pathologist. Multivariate analysis was used to detect predictors for AZ tumors accounting for age, PSA, PSA density, prostate volume, BMI, and number of previous biopsies. Median PSA was 10.4 (group 1) and 7.3 (group 2). Age (63.9, 64.5), number of previous biopsies (1.5) and cores (17.8, 21.3) and prostate volume (56.4 cc, 51 cc) were similar for both groups. The overall diagnostic yield was 34.6% (group 1) and 85.7% (group 2). AZ cancers were detected in 21.8% (group 1) and 34.7% (group 2) but were rarely the only zone involved (1.3% and 4.1% respectively). Gleason ≥ 7 AZ cancers were often accompanied by equal grade PZ tumors. In multivariate analysis only prostate volume predicted for AZ tumors. Patients detected with AZ tumors had significantly smaller prostates (36.9 cc vs. 61.1 cc p < 0.001). Suspicious AZ ultrasonic findings were uncommon (6.3%). TRUS-Pbx AZ sampling rarely improves the diagnostic yield of extended PZ sampling in patients with elevated PSA and previous negative biopsies. In low risk prostate cancer patients who are followed by active surveillance, AZ sampling changes risk

  8. High-resolution respirometry of fine-needle muscle biopsies in pre-manifest Huntington's disease expansion mutation carriers shows normal mitochondrial respiratory function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Buck

    Full Text Available Alterations in mitochondrial respiration are an important hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD, one of the most common monogenetic causes of neurodegeneration. The ubiquitous expression of the disease causing mutant huntingtin gene raises the prospect that mitochondrial respiratory deficits can be detected in skeletal muscle. While this tissue is readily accessible in humans, transgenic animal models offer the opportunity to cross-validate findings and allow for comparisons across organs, including the brain. The integrated respiratory chain function of the human vastus lateralis muscle was measured by high-resolution respirometry (HRR in freshly taken fine-needle biopsies from seven pre-manifest HD expansion mutation carriers and nine controls. The respiratory parameters were unaffected. For comparison skeletal muscle isolated from HD knock-in mice (HdhQ111 as well as a broader spectrum of tissues including cortex, liver and heart muscle were examined by HRR. Significant changes of mitochondrial respiration in the HdhQ knock-in mouse model were restricted to the liver and the cortex. Mitochondrial mass as quantified by mitochondrial DNA copy number and citrate synthase activity was stable in murine HD-model tissue compared to control. mRNA levels of key enzymes were determined to characterize mitochondrial metabolic pathways in HdhQ mice. We demonstrated the feasibility to perform high-resolution respirometry measurements from small human HD muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we conclude that alterations in respiratory parameters of pre-manifest human muscle biopsies are rather limited and mirrored by a similar absence of marked alterations in HdhQ skeletal muscle. In contrast, the HdhQ111 murine cortex and liver did show respiratory alterations highlighting the tissue specific nature of mutant huntingtin effects on respiration.

  9. Detection of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus in Prostate Biopsy Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, F. A.; Mirza, T.; Khanani, R.; Khan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of Xenotropic murine leukemia virus related virus (XMRV) infection with prostate cancer and compare it with benign prostate hyperplasia. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology and Molecular Pathology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2012. Methodology: XMRV was screened in 50 prostate cancer and 50 benign prostatic hyperplasia biopsies using conventional end-point PCR. Other studied variables were family history of prostate cancer, patients age and Gleason score. Results: XMRV was detected in 4 (8%) of the 50 prostate cancer biopsy specimens compared to none in biopsies with benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, there was no significant statistical association of XMRV infection with the other variables. Conclusion: A low frequency of XMRV infection was found in this case-control study. Men, who harbor XMRV infection, may be at increased risk of prostate cancer but this needs to be investigated further at a larger scale. (author)

  10. The effect of different physical activity levels on muscle fiber size and type distribution of lumbar multifidus. A biopsy study on low back pain patient groups and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazis, N; Papachristou, D J; Zouboulis, P; Tyllianakis, M; Scopa, C D; Megas, P

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies examining the multifidus fiber characteristics among low back pain (LBP) patients have not considered the variable of physical activity. The present study sought to investigate the muscle fiber size and type distribution of the lumbar multifidus muscle among LBP patient groups with different physical activity levels and healthy controls. Sixty-four patients were assigned to one of three groups named according to the physical activity level, determined for each patient by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. These were low (LPA), medium (MPA) and high (HPA) physical activity groups. A control group comprising of 17 healthy individuals was also recruited. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the multifidus muscle at the level L4-L5. contrast with the control group, LBP patient groups showed a significantly higher Type II fiber distribution as well as reduced diameter in both fiber types (P0.05) among LPA, MPA and HPA patient groups. Various pathological conditions were detected which were more pronounced in LBP groups compared to the control (P<0.05). Males had a larger fiber diameter compared to females for both fiber types (P<0.05). The results showed that the level of physical activity did not affect muscle fiber size and type distribution among LBP patients groups. These findings suggest that not only inactivity but also high physical activity levels can have an adverse effect on the multifidus muscle fiber characteristics.

  11. Gene expression in human skeletal muscle: alternative normalization method and effect of repeated biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Nordsborg, Nikolai; Kusuhara, K.

    2005-01-01

    standards revealed a high degree of sensitivity and linearity (2.5-45 ng; R 2>0.99) with OliGreen reagent, as was the case for OliGreen analyses with standard curves constructed from serial dilutions of representative RT samples (R 2 >0.99 for a ten times dilution range of a representative reversed...

  12. Determination of trace elements in human liver biopsy samples by ICP-MS and TXRF: hepatic steatosis and nickel accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Imre; Szoboszlai, Norbert [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 32, Budapest (Hungary); Szebeni, Agnes [MI Central Hospital, Ultrasound Laboratory, Budapest (Hungary); Kovacs, Bela [Debrecen University - Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Food Science and Quality Assurance, P.O. Box 36, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Human liver biopsy samples, collected from 52 individuals, were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry in a retrospective study (i.e. patient selection and liver biopsy were not for the purpose of element analysis). The freeze-dried samples (typically 0.5-2 mg dry weight) were digested in a laboratory microwave digestion system and solutions with a final volume of 1 mL were prepared. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Pb were determined by use of a Thermo Elemental X7 ICP-MS spectrometer. TXRF measurements were performed with an Atomika Extra IIA spectrometer. Yttrium was employed as an internal standard, prepared by dissolution of 5N-purity yttria (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in our laboratory. The accuracy was tested by analysis of NIST 1577a Bovine Liver certified reference material. The concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Rb determined in human liver biopsy samples were in good agreement with data published by other authors. The distribution of nickel in the samples was surprisingly uneven - nickel concentrations ranged from 0.7 to 12 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry weight) in 38 samples and in several samples were extremely high, 36-693 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Analysis of replicate procedural blanks and control measurements were performed to prevent misinterpretation of the data. For patients with steatosis (n=14) Ni concentrations were consistently high except for two who had levels close to those measured for the normal group. As far as we are aware no previous literature data are available on the association of steatosis with high concentration of nickel in human liver biopsies taken from living patients. (orig.)

  13. The effect of shot biopsy on behavior, salivary cortisol, and heart rate in slaughter pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geverink, NA; Ruis, MAW; Eisen, R; Lambooij, E; Blokhuis, HJ; Wiegant, VM

    This paper describes behavioral and. physiological responses of pigs to shot biopsy, an experimental method used to study muscle tissue processes or to:predict meat quality. One biopsy sample from the longissimus muscle was obtained from 23-wk-old gilts (n = 10) using a cannula connected to a

  14. Short Communication Evaluation of an underwater biopsy probe for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the use of a novel underwater biopsy probe designed to collect muscle and dermal tissue samples from large (170–220 cm total length), free-swimming bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas. The biopsy probe tissue retention rate was 87% after 23 trials, and the mean size of retained tissue was 310 mg (SD ...

  15. Gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from people with type 2 diabetes and relatives: differential regulation of insulin signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Palsgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene expression alterations have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes, however whether these changes are primary causes or secondary effects of type 2 diabetes is not known. As healthy first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, they provide a good model in the search for primary causes of the disease. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle biopsies from Caucasian males with type 2 diabetes, healthy first degree relatives, and healthy controls. Gene expression was measured using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays covering the entire human genome. These arrays have not previously been used for this type of study. We show for the first time that genes involved in insulin signaling are significantly upregulated in first degree relatives and significantly downregulated in people with type 2 diabetes. On the individual gene level, 11 genes showed altered expression levels in first degree relatives compared to controls, among others KIF1B and GDF8 (myostatin. LDHB was found to have a decreased expression in both groups compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We hypothesize that increased expression of insulin signaling molecules in first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes, work in concert with increased levels of insulin as a compensatory mechanism, counter-acting otherwise reduced insulin signaling activity, protecting these individuals from severe insulin resistance. This compensation is lost in people with type 2 diabetes where expression of insulin signaling molecules is reduced.

  16. 11C-L-methyl methionine dynamic PET/CT of skeletal muscle: response to protein supplementation compared to L-[ring 13C6] phenylalanine infusion with serial muscle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Saeed, Isra H; Frassetto, Lynda A; Masharani, Umesh; Harnish, Roy J; Seo, Youngho; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Hawkins, Randall A; Mari-Aparici, Carina; Pampaloni, Miguel H; Slater, James; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Lang, Thomas F

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if clinical dynamic PET/CT imaging with 11 C-L-methyl-methionine ( 11 C-MET) in healthy older women can provide an estimate of tissue-level post-absorptive and post-prandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis that is consistent with the more traditional method of calculating fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of muscle protein synthesis from skeletal muscle biopsies obtained during an infusion of L-[ring 13 C 6 ] phenylalanine ( 13 C 6 -Phe). Healthy older women (73 ± 5 years) completed both dynamic PET/CT imaging with 11 C-MET and a stable isotope infusion of 13 C 6 -Phe with biopsies to measure the skeletal muscle protein synthetic response to 25 g of a whey protein supplement. Graphical estimation of the Patlak coefficient K i from analysis of the dynamic PET/CT images was employed as a measure of incorporation of 11 C-MET in the mid-thigh muscle bundle. Post-prandial values [mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM)] were higher than post-absorptive values for both K i (0.0095 ± 0.001 vs. 0.00785 ± 0.001 min -1 , p Dynamic PET/CT imaging with 11 C-MET provides an estimate of the post-prandial anabolic response that is consistent with a traditional, invasive stable isotope, and muscle biopsy approach. These results support the potential future use of 11 C-MET imaging as a non-invasive method for assessing conditions affecting skeletal muscle protein synthesis.

  17. Assessment of molecular markers demonstrates concordance between samples acquired via stereotactic biopsy and open craniotomy in both anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Florian; Baumgarten, Peter; Bernstock, Joshua D; Harter, Patrick; Lescher, Stephanie; Senft, Christian; Seifert, Volker; Marquardt, Gerhard; Weise, Lutz

    2017-06-01

    The classification, treatment and prognosis of high-grade gliomas has been shown to correlate with the expression of molecular markers (e.g. MGMT promotor methylation and IDH1 mutations). Acquisition of tumor samples may be obtained via stereotactic biopsy or open craniotomy. Between the years 2009 and 2013, 22 patients initially diagnosed with HGGs via stereotactic biopsy, that ultimately underwent open craniotomy for resection of their tumor were prospectively included in an institutional glioma database. MGMT promotor analysis was performed using methylation-specific (MS)-PCR and IDH1R132H mutation analysis was performed using immunohistochemistry. Three patients (13.7%) exhibited IDH1R132H mutations in samples obtained via stereotactic biopsy. Tissue derived from stereotaxic biopsy was demonstrated to have MGMT promotor methylation in ten patients (45.5%), while a non-methylated MGMT promotor was demonstrated in ten patients (45.5%); inconclusive results were obtained for the remaining two patients (9%) within our cohort. The initial histologic grading, IDH1R132H mutation and MGMT promotor methylation results were confirmed using samples obtained during open craniotomy in all but one patient; here inconclusive MGMT promotor analysis was obtained in contrast to that which was obtained via stereotactic biopsy. Tumor samples acquired via stereotactic biopsy provide accurate information with regard to clinically relevant molecular markers that have been shown to impact patient care decisions. The profile of markers analyzed in our cohort was nearly concordant between those samples obtained via stereotactic biopsy or open craniotomy thereby suggesting that clinical decisions may be based on the molecular profile of the tumor samples obtained via stereotactic biopsy.

  18. Persistent organic pollutants and stable isotopes in biopsy samples (2004/2006) from Southern Resident killer whales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahn, Margaret M.; Hanson, M. Bradley; Baird, Robin W.; Boyer, Richard H.; Burrows, Douglas G.; Emmons, Candice K.; Ford, John K.B.; Jones, Linda L.; Noren, Dawn P.; Ross, Peter S.; Schorr, Gregory S.; Collier, Tracy K.

    2007-01-01

    'Southern Resident' killer whales include three 'pods' (J, K and L) that reside primarily in Puget Sound/Georgia Basin during the spring, summer and fall. This population was listed as 'endangered' in the US and Canada following a 20% decline between 1996 and 2001. The current study, using blubber/epidermis biopsy samples, contributes contemporary information about potential factors (i.e., levels of pollutants or changes in diet) that could adversely affect Southern Residents. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes indicated J- and L-pod consumed prey from similar trophic levels in 2004/2006 and also showed no evidence for a large shift in the trophic level of prey consumed by L-pod between 1996 and 2004/2006. ΣPCBs decreased for Southern Residents biopsied in 2004/2006 compared to 1993-1995. Surprisingly, however, a three-year-old male whale (J39) had the highest concentrations of ΣPBDEs, ΣHCHs and HCB. POP ratio differences between J- and L-pod suggested that they occupy different ranges in winter

  19. Persistent organic pollutants and stable isotopes in biopsy samples (2004/2006) from Southern Resident killer whales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krahn, Margaret M. [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Boulevard East, Seattle, WA 98112 (United States)], E-mail: peggy.krahn@noaa.gov; Hanson, M. Bradley [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Boulevard East, Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Baird, Robin W. [Cascadia Research, 218 1/2 W, 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501 (United States); Boyer, Richard H.; Burrows, Douglas G.; Emmons, Candice K. [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Boulevard East, Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Ford, John K.B. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, BC, V9R 5K6 (Canada); Jones, Linda L.; Noren, Dawn P. [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Boulevard East, Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Ross, Peter S. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Schorr, Gregory S. [Cascadia Research, 218 1/2 W, 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501 (United States); Collier, Tracy K. [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Boulevard East, Seattle, WA 98112 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    'Southern Resident' killer whales include three 'pods' (J, K and L) that reside primarily in Puget Sound/Georgia Basin during the spring, summer and fall. This population was listed as 'endangered' in the US and Canada following a 20% decline between 1996 and 2001. The current study, using blubber/epidermis biopsy samples, contributes contemporary information about potential factors (i.e., levels of pollutants or changes in diet) that could adversely affect Southern Residents. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes indicated J- and L-pod consumed prey from similar trophic levels in 2004/2006 and also showed no evidence for a large shift in the trophic level of prey consumed by L-pod between 1996 and 2004/2006. {sigma}PCBs decreased for Southern Residents biopsied in 2004/2006 compared to 1993-1995. Surprisingly, however, a three-year-old male whale (J39) had the highest concentrations of {sigma}PBDEs, {sigma}HCHs and HCB. POP ratio differences between J- and L-pod suggested that they occupy different ranges in winter.

  20. Association between statin-associated myopathy and skeletal muscle damage.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaupt Markus G; Karas Richard H; Babiychuk Eduard B; Sanchez-Freire Verónica; Monastyrskaya Katia; Iyer Lakshmanan; Hoppeler Hans; Breil Fabio; Draeger Annette

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many patients taking statins often complain of muscle pain and weakness. The extent to which muscle pain reflects muscle injury is unknown. METHODS We obtained biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis muscle of 83 patients. Of the 44 patients with clinically diagnosed statin associated myopathy 29 were currently taking a statin and 15 had discontinued statin therapy before the biopsy (minimal duration of discontinuation 3 weeks). We also included 19 patients who were taking stat...

  1. Liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  2. Systematic ultrasound-guided saturation and template biopsy of the prostate: indications and advantages of extended sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbarn, Hendrik; Briganti, Alberto; De Visschere, Pieter J L; Fütterer, Jurgen J; Ghadjar, Pirus; Giannarini, Gianluca; Ost, Piet; Ploussard, Guillaume; Sooriakumaran, Prasanna; Surcel, Christian I; van Oort, Inge M; Yossepowitch, Ofer; van den Bergh, Roderick C N

    2015-04-01

    Prostate biopsy (PB) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the optimal number of biopsy cores remains debatable. We sought to compare contemporary standard (10-12 cores) vs. saturation (=18 cores) schemes on initial as well as repeat PB. A non-systematic review of the literature was performed from 2000 through 2013. Studies of highest evidence (randomized controlled trials, prospective non-randomized studies, and retrospective reports of high quality) comparing standard vs saturation schemes on initial and repeat PB were evaluated. Outcome measures were overall PCa detection rate, detection rate of insignificant PCa, and procedure-associated morbidity. On initial PB, there is growing evidence that a saturation scheme is associated with a higher PCa detection rate compared to a standard one in men with lower PSA levels (40 cc), or lower PSA density values (sampling is associated with a high rate of acute urinary retention, whereas other severe adverse events, such as sepsis, appear not to occur more frequently with saturation schemes. Current evidence suggests that saturation schemes are associated with a higher PCa detection rate compared to standard ones on initial PB in men with lower PSA levels or larger prostates, and on repeat PB. Since most data are derived from retrospective studies, other endpoints such as detection rate of insignificant disease - especially on repeat PB - show broad variations throughout the literature and must, thus, be interpreted with caution. Future prospective controlled trials should be conducted to compare extended templates with newer techniques, such as image-guided sampling, in order to optimize PCa diagnostic strategy.

  3. Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Complicating Liver Cirrhosis: Utility of Repeat Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy after Unsuccessful First Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caturelli, Eugenio; Biasini, Elisabetta; Bartolucci, Francesca; Facciorusso, Domenico; Decembrino, Francesco; Attino, Vito; Bisceglia, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a second ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of liver nodules thought to be hepatocellular carcinoma when the original biopsy has failed to provide a reliable diagnosis. Methods: Thirty-seven cirrhotic patients underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of liver nodules that were subsequently diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma. Each biopsy involved a single puncture with a 20 G cutting needle, which yielded pathologic material used both for cytologic and histologic studies. In 23 cases (mean diameter of nodules 48 mm) the biopsy furnished exclusively necrotic material (non-diagnostic subgroup); in the other 14 cases (mean diameter 26 mm) the biopsy yielded no neoplastic elements (false-negative subgroup). All 37 nodules were subjected to repeat biopsies performed in the same manner. Results: The repeat biopsies provided a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in six of the 23 patients from the non-diagnostic subgroup and in seven of the 14 in the false-negative subgroup. Overall, repeat biopsy produced a diagnostic gain of 35.1%. Conclusion: The chance of success with repeat biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma is limited and may depend to some extent on the characteristics of the lesions (i.e., areas of necrosis in large nodules, well-differentiated cellular populations in small ones)

  4. Fish protein fingerprint in whole muscle samples of yellow perch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many studies have shown the impact of environmental and/or genetic factors on the growth and development of various fish species. However, the role of genes supporting the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for fish was to compare whole muscle proteomic profiles of large versus small growth yellow perch ...

  5. Muscle dysmorphia and psychopathology: Findings from an Italian sample of male bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Claudio; Prino, Laura Elvira; Fabris, Matteo Angelo; Settanni, Michele

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the risk of muscle dysmorphia and psychopathological symptoms in an Italian sample of male bodybuilders. The sample was recruited online (145 men with a mean age of 30.0 years) and participants were asked to fill out the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI), Symptom Cheklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES-II), and to provide other socio-demographic data. Bodybuilders at risk of muscle dysmorphia display greater global psychopathology and present higher scores on all SCL-90-R dimensions when compared to bodybuilders not at risk of muscle dysmorphia. Furthermore, risk of muscle dysmorphia is positively associated to dissociative symptoms. The Competitiveness dimension and anabolic steroid intake were not related to muscle dysmorphia, while age appeared to be more significant. Findings are discussed based upon previous studies and directions for future research are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CT-guided transgluteal biopsy for systematic sampling of the prostate in patients without rectal access: a 13-year single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael C; Atwell, Thomas D; Mynderse, Lance A; King, Bernard F; Welch, Timothy; Goenka, Ajit H

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the safety and diagnostic utility of transgluteal CT-guided prostate biopsy for prostate sampling in patients without rectal access. Seventy-three biopsies were performed in 65 patients over a 13-year period (2002-2015). Mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at biopsy was 7.8 ng/mL (range 0.37-31.5). Electronic medical records were reviewed for procedural details and complications. Mean PSA and number of cores in malignant and benign cohorts were compared with Student's t test. Technical success rate was 97.3% (71/73; mean cores 8, range 3-28). Of these, 43.6% (31/71) yielded malignancy (mean Gleason score 7, range 6-10) and 56.3% (40/71) yielded benign tissue. The only complication was an asymptomatic periprostatic hematoma (1/73; 1.4%). In 14 patients who underwent surgery, Gleason scores were concordant in 71.4% (10/14) and discordant in 28.6% (4/14; Gleason 6 on biopsy but Gleason 7 on surgical specimen). Mean effective radiation dose was 18.5 mSv (median 15.0, range 4.4-86.2). There was no significant difference in either mean PSA (p = 0.06) or number of core specimens (p = 0.33) between malignant and benign cohorts. CT-guided transgluteal prostate biopsy is highly safe and reliable for the detection of prostate cancer in men without rectal access. • Prostate cancer detection in men without rectal access is challenging. • CT-guided transgluteal prostate biopsy is safe and effective in these patients. • CT-guided biopsy may be particularly effective in diagnosing high-grade prostate cancer. • Unilateral CT-guided biopsy may be effective in patients with focal lesions. • The radiation exposure with this technique is acceptable.

  7. Effects of tetracycline administration on the proteomic profile of pig muscle samples (L. dorsi)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gratacos-Cubarsi, M.; Castellari, M.; Hortos, M.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of tetracycline (TC) administration on the proteomic profile of pig muscle was evaluated by 2D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The TC content at slaughter was determined in L. dorsi samples by HPLC-DAD. Mean residual concentration of TC in the muscle of treated animals, ca...

  8. Identification and Characterization of Epstein-Barr Virus Genomes in Lung Carcinoma Biopsy Samples by Next-Generation Sequencing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Xiong, Hongchao; Yan, Shi; Wu, Nan; Lu, Zheming

    2016-05-18

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been detected in the tumor cells of several cancers, including some cases of lung carcinoma (LC). However, the genomic characteristics and diversity of EBV strains associated with LC are poorly understood. In this study, we sequenced the EBV genomes isolated from four primary LC tumor biopsy samples, designated LC1 to LC4. Comparative analysis demonstrated that LC strains were more closely related to GD1 strain. Compared to GD1 reference genome, a total of 520 variations in all, including 498 substitutions, 12 insertions, and 10 deletions were found. Latent genes were found to harbor the most numbers of nonsynonymous mutations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all LC strains were closely related to Asian EBV strains, whereas different from African/American strains. LC2 genome was distinct from the other three LC genomes, suggesting at least two parental lineages of EBV among the LC genomes may exist. All LC strains could be classified as China 1 and V-val subtype according to the amino acid sequence of LMP1 and EBNA1, respectively. In conclusion, our results showed the genomic diversity among EBV genomes isolated from LC, which might facilitate to uncover the previously unknown variations of pathogenic significance.

  9. Evaluation of an endoscopic liver biopsy technique in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Divers, Stephen J; Stahl, Scott J; McBride, Michael; Stedman, Nancy L

    2007-06-15

    To establish a safe and effective endoscopic technique for collection of liver biopsy specimens from lizards by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope system that is commonly available in zoologic veterinary practice. Prospective study. 11 subadult male green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Each lizard was anesthetized, and right-sided coelioscopic examination of the right liver lobe and gallbladder was performed. Three liver biopsy specimens were collected from each lizard by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope and 1.7-mm (5-F) biopsy forceps. Biopsy samples were evaluated histologically for quality and crush artifact. Ten days following surgery, all iguanas were euthanatized and underwent full necropsy examination. For all 11 iguanas, the right liver lobe and gallbladder were successfully examined endoscopically, and 3 biopsy specimens of the liver were collected without complications. Mean +/- SD durations of anesthesia and surgery were 24 +/- 7 minutes and 6.8 +/- 1.0 minutes, respectively. At necropsy, there was no evidence of trauma or disease associated with the skin or muscle entry sites, liver, or any visceral structures in any iguana. All 33 biopsy specimens were considered acceptable for histologic interpretation; in most samples, the extent of crush artifact was considered minimal. By use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope, liver biopsy procedures can be performed safely, swiftly, and easily in green iguanas. Biopsy specimens obtained by this technique are suitable for histologic examination. For evaluation of the liver and biopsy specimen collection in lizards, endoscopy is recommended.

  10. FIRST SOUND EVIDENCE OF MUSCLE REGENERATION IN RECOVERY OF FUNCTION OF HUMAN PERMANENT DENERVATED MUSCLES BY A LONG-LASTING FUNCTIONAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION (FES TRAINING: BIOPSY FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to general believe, in one case of 18month cauda equina lesion four-month electrical stimulation of thigh muscles (impulse energy 1.92 Joule increased stimulation frequency from 2 to 20 Hz, i. e., up to tetanic contractions. After 2 years of treatment, CT-cross sectional area of quadriceps improved 58.3% (right and 44.4% (left with increased muscle density. Mean myofiber size was 37.2 ± 24.8 µm (right and 40.5 ±  24.9 µm (left. Improvement of stimulated knee torque, from zero to 12.0 Nm and 10.5 Nm, respectively, enabled to stand up trials. Surviving myofibers undergo re-growth (they show the chess board appearance of normal muscle, and dying myofibers continuously regenerate (up to 3% are embryonic myosin positive 3-year post-FES. Regeneration events are essential components of the FES rehabilitation protocol due to superior excitability of regenerated myofibers in comparison to long-term denervated, degenerated myofibers, which were almost not excitable before FES training.

  11. Prostate biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... give the cells a grade called a Gleason score . This helps predict how fast the cancer will ... TRUS); Stereotactic transperineal prostate biopsy (STPB) Images Male reproductive anatomy References Babayan RK, Katz MH. Biopsy prophylaxis, ...

  12. No need for biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Kristine; Skindersoe, Mette E; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare three sampling techniques used in routine diagnostics to identify the microbiota in chronic venous leg ulcers. A total of 46 patients with persisting venous leg ulcers were included in the study. At inclusion, swab, biopsy and filter paper pad samples were...... collected. After 4 weeks, additional biopsy and filter paper pad samples were collected. Bacteria were isolated and identified at species level by standard methods. The most common bacterial species detected was Staphylococcus aureus found in 89% of the ulcers. No methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates...... species present in chronic wounds, thus avoiding complications during and after biopsy sampling....

  13. Clinical usefulness of random biopsies in diagnosis and treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiela, J D; Palou, J; Esquinas, C; Fernández Gómez, J M; Rodríguez Faba, O

    2017-11-20

    This systematic review of the literature has been focused on determining the clinical usefulness of random bladder biopsies (RB) in the diagnosis of carcinoma in situ. A meta-analysis was performed to establish the clinic and pathological factors associated to positive biopsies. A systematic review was performed using Pubmed/Medline database according to the PRISMA guidelines. Thirty-seven articles were included, recruiting a total of 12,657 patients, 10,975 were submitted to RB. The overall incidence of positive RB was 21.91%. Significant differences were found in the incidence of positive RB when patients were stratified according to urine cytology result, tumor multiplicity, tumor appearance, stage and grade. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that the presence of positive cytology, tumor multiplicity, non-papillary appearance tumors, stage T1 and histological grades G2 and G3 represent the risk factors to predict abnormalities in RB. The incidence of positive RB in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer was 21.91%. The maximum usefulness of RB was observed when these are performed in a standardized way. The results of the meta-analysis showed that besides positive cytology and non-papillary appearance tumors, tumor multiplicity and histological grades G2 and G3 represent risk factors associated to positive RB, suggesting that the use of RB might be extensive to the intermediate risk group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. 1300 nm and 890 nm OCT images of oral cancer tissue engineered models and biopsy samples offer complimentary performance (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Joseph; Byers, Robert A.; Fernandes, Jon; Mittar, Shweta; Hearnden, Vanessa; Lu, Zenghai; MacNeil, Sheila; Thornhill, Martin; Murdoch, Craig; Hunter, Keith D.; McKechnie, Alasdair; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2016-02-01

    OCT has demonstrated great potential to non-invasively detect oral epithelial cancers, potentially guiding biopsy and surgical resection. On non-ophthalmic tissues the preferred illumination wavelength is 1300 nm. Previous studies on skin have shown that useful image data can also be obtained at shorter wavelengths, with systems at 1060 nm and 820 nm offering reduced depth penetration but higher contrast. Here we apply a similar comparison to tissue engineered models of oral cancer and also to human biopsy samples, generally finding a similar trend. 1300 nm multi-beam OCT (Michelson Diagnostics EX1301) visualises stromal structures and surface keratin more clearly, providing useful image contrast down to around 1 mm. This system was compared with an ultra-high resolution home-built system operating at 890 nm (2.5 micron resolution vs 7.5 micron axial resolution for the EX1301). The UHR system reveals epithelial features more clearly, especially in the DOK pre-invasive cell line model and the biopsy samples. The relative effects of center wavelength vs axial resolution in generating the differential, wavelength-dependent contrast are assessed and the OCT biopsy images are compared with contemporary histology.

  15. [Quantity research on epidermal growth factor in saliva and epidermal growth factor receptor in biopsy samples of recurrent aphthous ulcer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang; Zhang, Gang; Lin, Mei

    2008-02-01

    To examine the change of epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentration in saliva of recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) patients during the ulcerous and interval period and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in ulcer biopsy samples. ECF data of the samples, which were 27 saliva samples from RAU gained not only in the ulcerous period but also in interval period and 33 ones from normal persons, were acquired through enzyme linked immunosorhent assay (ELISA) and EGF standard curve. ECFR-RNA date of RAU biopsies, which were 31 biopsy samples from RAU got during the ulcerous period and 35 ones from normal persons, were surveyed by QF-RT-PCR. All RAU samples were obtained under the same level, which were the whole patients were minor aphthous ulcers and their ulcers occurred not over the first four days. All patients and normal persons were selected seriously under the rule of physical situations without any other diseases and histories of using medicines. The EGF concentration of saliva in RAU group at ulcer occurrence was higher than that in the interval period and the normal control with a significant test (F = 3.24, P ulcer occurrence was higher than the normal control with a significant test (t = 3.15, P ulcer occasion of RAU patients could be related with the decreasing of EGF in saliva during interval period, and that the ulcer sell-cure of RAU patients would be contributed to

  16. Cold knife cone biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References Baggish ...

  17. Should warfarin or aspirin be stopped prior to prostate biopsy? An analysis of bleeding complications related to increasing sample number regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, R.; Abbas, A.; Idriz, S.; Hoy, A.; Rutherford, E.E.; Smart, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy with increased sampling numbers are more likely to experience bleeding complications and whether warfarin or low-dose aspirin are independent risk factors. Materials and methods: 930 consecutive patients with suspected prostatic cancer were followed up after biopsy. Warfarin/low-dose aspirin was not stopped prior to the procedure. An eight to 10 sample regime TRUS-guided prostate biopsy was performed and patients were offered a questionnaire to complete 10 days after the procedure, to determine any immediate or delayed bleeding complications. Results: 902 patients returned completed questionnaires. 579 (64.2%) underwent eight core biopsies, 47 (5.2%) underwent nine, and 276 (30.6%) underwent 10. 68 were taking warfarin [mean international normalized ratio (INR) = 2.5], 216 were taking low-dose aspirin, one was taking both, and 617 were taking neither. 27.9% of those on warfarin and 33.8% of those on aspirin experienced haematuria. 37% of those on no blood-thinning medication experienced haematuria. 13.2% of those on warfarin and 14.4% of those on aspirin experienced rectal bleeding. 11.5% of those on no blood-thinning medication experienced rectal bleeding. 7.4% of those on warfarin and 12% of those on aspirin experienced haematospermia. 13.8% of those on neither experienced haematospermia. Regression analysis showed a significant association between increasing sampling number and occurrence of all bleeding complication types. There was no significant association between minor bleeding complications and warfarin use; however, there was a significant association between minor bleeding complications and low-dose aspirin use. There was no severe bleeding complication. Conclusion: There is an increased risk of bleeding complications following TRUS-guided prostate biopsy with increased sampling numbers but these are minor. There is also an increased risk with low

  18. An investigation of the microbiota in uterine flush samples and endometrial biopsies from dairy cows during the first 7 weeks postpartum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lif Rødtness Vesterby; Karstrup, Cecilia Christensen; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi

    2016-01-01

    Metritis and endometritis commonly occur in dairy cows after calving. Although numerous studies have been performed to identify the causative pathogens, a complete overview has not been done. Metagenomic studies have analyzed the bacterial populations of uterine flush samples from postpartum (pp......% and 13%, respectively, of the bacterial populations in the flush samples. The Mycoplasmataceae family was observed in much higher quantity in the flush samples than in the biopsies of the endometritis groups at weeks 4 and 7. Our findings support the observations of previous metagenomic studies...

  19. Histologic examination of hepatic biopsy samples as a prognostic indicator in dogs undergoing surgical correction of congenital portosystemic shunts: 64 cases (1997-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jacquelyn S; Monnet, Eric; Powers, Barbara E; Twedt, David C

    2008-05-15

    To determine whether results of histologic examination of hepatic biopsy samples could be used as an indicator of survival time in dogs that underwent surgical correction of a congenital portosystemic shunt (PSS). Retrospective case series. 64 dogs that underwent exploratory laparotomy for an extrahepatic (n = 39) or intrahepatic (25) congenital PSS. All H&E-stained histologic slides of hepatic biopsy samples obtained at the time of surgery were reviewed by a single individual, and severity of histologic abnormalities (ie, arteriolar hyperplasia, biliary hyperplasia, fibrosis, cell swelling, lipidosis, lymphoplasmacytic cholangiohepatitis, suppurative cholangiohepatitis, lipid granulomas, and dilated sinusoids) was graded. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine whether each histologic feature was associated with survival time. Median follow-up time was 35.7 months, and median survival time was 50.6 months. Thirty-eight dogs were alive at the time of final follow-up; 15 had died of causes associated with the PSS, including 4 that died immediately after surgery; 3 had died of unrelated causes; and 8 were lost to follow-up. None of the histologic features examined were significantly associated with survival time. Findings suggested that results of histologic examination of hepatic biopsy samples obtained at the time of surgery cannot be used to predict long-term outcome in dogs undergoing surgical correction of a PSS.

  20. CT-guided transgluteal biopsy for systematic sampling of the prostate in patients without rectal access: a 13-year single-center experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Michael C.; Atwell, Thomas D.; King, Bernard F.; Welch, Timothy; Goenka, Ajit H. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Mynderse, Lance A. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Urology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of our study was to examine the safety and diagnostic utility of transgluteal CT-guided prostate biopsy for prostate sampling in patients without rectal access. Seventy-three biopsies were performed in 65 patients over a 13-year period (2002-2015). Mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at biopsy was 7.8 ng/mL (range 0.37-31.5). Electronic medical records were reviewed for procedural details and complications. Mean PSA and number of cores in malignant and benign cohorts were compared with Student's t test. Technical success rate was 97.3% (71/73; mean cores 8, range 3-28). Of these, 43.6% (31/71) yielded malignancy (mean Gleason score 7, range 6-10) and 56.3% (40/71) yielded benign tissue. The only complication was an asymptomatic periprostatic hematoma (1/73; 1.4%). In 14 patients who underwent surgery, Gleason scores were concordant in 71.4% (10/14) and discordant in 28.6% (4/14; Gleason 6 on biopsy but Gleason 7 on surgical specimen). Mean effective radiation dose was 18.5 mSv (median 15.0, range 4.4-86.2). There was no significant difference in either mean PSA (p = 0.06) or number of core specimens (p = 0.33) between malignant and benign cohorts. CT-guided transgluteal prostate biopsy is highly safe and reliable for the detection of prostate cancer in men without rectal access. (orig.)

  1. Tissue Biopsies in Diabetes Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    resistance of glucose disposal and glycogen synthesis in this tissue are hallmark features of type 2 diabetes in humans (2,3). During the past two decades, we have carried out more than 1200 needle biopsies of skeletal muscle to study the cellular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes....... Together with morphological studies, measurement of energy stores and metabolites, enzyme activity and phosphorylation, gene and protein expression in skeletal muscle biopsies have revealed a variety of cellular abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. The possibility to establish...... and gene expression profiling on skeletal muscle biopsies have pointed to abnormalities in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in type 2 diabetes. These novel insights will inevitably cause a renewed interest in studying skeletal muscle. This chapter reviews our experience to date and gives a thorough...

  2. Sonographically guided fine-needle biopsy of thyroid nodules: the effects of nodule characteristics, sampling technique, and needle size on the adequacy of cytological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degirmenci, B.; Haktanir, A.; Albayrak, R.; Acar, M.; Sahin, D.A.; Sahin, O.; Yucel, A.; Caliskan, G.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of sonographic characteristics of thyroid nodules, the diameter of needle used for sampling, and sampling technique on obtaining sufficient cytological material (SCM). Materials and methods: We performed sonography-guided fine-needle biopsy (FNB) in 232 solid thyroid nodules. Size-, echogenicity, vascularity, and localization of all nodules were evaluated by Doppler sonography before the biopsy. Needles of size 20, 22, and 24 G were used for biopsy. The biopsy specimen was acquired using two different methods after localisation. In first method, the needle tip was advanced into the nodule in various positions using a to-and-fro motion whilst in the nodule, along with concurrent aspiration. In the second method, the needle was advanced vigorously using a to-and-fro motion within the nodule whilst being rotated on its axis (capillary-action technique). Results: The mean nodule size was 2.1 ± 1.3 cm (range 0.4-7.2 cm). SCM was acquired from 154 (66.4%) nodules by sonography-guided FNB. In 78 (33.6%) nodules, SCM could not be collected. There was no significant difference between nodules with different echogenicity and vascularity for SCM. Regarding the needle size, the lowest rate of SCM was obtained using 20 G needles (56.6%) and the highest rate of adequate material was obtained using 24 G needles (82.5%; p = 0.001). The SCM rate was 76.9% with the capillary-action technique versus 49.4% with the aspiration technique (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Selecting finer needles (24-25 G) for sonography-guided FNB of thyroid nodules and using the capillary-action technique decreased the rate of inadequate material in cytological examination

  3. Determination of five nitroimidazole residues in artificial porcine muscle tissue samples by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingyun; Su, Yan; Liao, Xiulin; Yang, Na; Yang, Xiupei; Choi, Martin M F

    2012-01-15

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with ultraviolet detection has been developed for simultaneous detection and quantification of five nitroimidazoles including benzoylmetronidazole, dimetridazole, metronidazole, ronidazole, and secnidazole in porcine muscles. Nitroimidazoles in samples were extracted by ethyl acetate with subsequent clean-up by a strong cation exchange solid phase extraction column. The clean extracts were subjected to CE separation with optimal experimental conditions: pH 3.0 running buffer containing 25mM sodium phosphate and 0.10mM tetrabutylammonium bromide, 5s hydrodynamic injection at 0.5psi and 28kV separation voltage. The nitroimidazoles could be monitored and detected at 320nm within 18min. The limits of detection were below 1.0μg/kg and limits of quantification were lower than 3.2μg/kg for all nitroimidazoles in the muscle samples. The recoveries and relative standard deviations were 85.4-96.0, 83.5-92.5, 1.3-3.9, and 1.1-4.2%, respectively for the intra-day and inter-day analyses. The proposed CE method has been successfully applied to determine nitroimidazoles in artificial porcine muscle samples with good accuracy and recovery, demonstrating that it has potential for detection and quantification of multi-nitroimidazole residue in real muscle samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae present on Ziehl-Neelsen-stained microscopic slides and in skin biopsy samples from leprosy patients in different geographic regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Nogueira Brum Fontes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analysed 16 variable number tandem repeats (VNTR and three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in Mycobacterium leprae present on 115 Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N-stained slides and in 51 skin biopsy samples derived from leprosy patients from Ceará (n = 23, Pernambuco (n = 41, Rio de Janeiro (n = 22 and Rondônia (RO (n = 78. All skin biopsies yielded SNP-based genotypes, while 48 of the samples (94.1% yielded complete VNTR genotypes. We evaluated two procedures for extracting M. leprae DNA from Z-N-stained slides: the first including Chelex and the other combining proteinase and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Of the 76 samples processed using the first procedure, 30.2% were positive for 16 or 15 VNTRs, whereas of the 39 samples processed using the second procedure, 28.2% yielded genotypes defined by at least 10 VNTRs. Combined VNTR and SNP analysis revealed large variability in genotypes, but a high prevalence of SNP genotype 4 in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Our observation of two samples from RO with an identical genotype and seven groups with similar genotypes, including four derived from residents of the same state or region, suggest a tendency to form groups according to the origin of the isolates. This study demonstrates the existence of geographically related M. leprae genotypes and that Z-N-stained slides are an alternative source for M. leprae genotyping.

  5. Use of Biopsy Tissue Samples, Incubated In Vitro for Autoradiographic Measurement of Cell Proliferation in Human Tissues; Utilisation de Biopsies Incubees In Vitro pour la Mesure Autoradiographique de la Proliferation Cellulaire de Tissus Humains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galand, P. [Faculte de Medecine de l' Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1970-02-15

    ) choice of the region of the sample where homogeneous labelling occurs after the diffusion of the labelled thymidine, and (3) tests on the stability of the biopsy during incubation. This was done by using varied time interval between {sup 3}H-thymidine administrations. The good correlation between the results obtained in this way also gives supports to the validity of our distinction between the two kinds of labelling intensity. In conclusion, this method could be applied to several types of tissues, provided they can be obtained by biopsy, and with proper safeguards, namely in the choice of the doses range and in the definition of the proliferating population. (author) [French] Afin d'eviter les risques d'effets radiobiologiques lies a l'utilisation de thymidine tritiee, plusieurs chercheurs ont procede a des incubations de biopsies in vitro en presence de ce precurseur radiomarque de l'ADN. Ils s' efforcaient de definir le taux de proliferation cellulaire d'apres la distribution et l' intensite du marquage dans les autoradiographies. Toutefois, pour evaluer exactement la duree du cycle mitotique ou temps de generation, il est necessaire de connaitrez duree de la phase S (phase de synthese de l'ADN), car l'index de marquage ne depend que de l'importance de cette phase par rapport a la duree totale du cycle mitotique. L'auteur a choisi la methode du 'double marquage', utilisant deux differentes doses de thymidine tritiee, qui a ete mise au point par Maurer et ses collaborateurs. En administrant deux doses du precurseur tritie (une dose faible et une dose forte) a un intervalle de temps donne et en soumettant le tissu traite au processus autobiographique, on peut calculer la duree (s) de la phase S d'apres la formule N{sub F}/N{sub f} = S/t. Np est le nombre de noyaux fortement marques (c'est-a-dire les noyaux qui etaient en phase S pendant le deuxieme marquage); Nf est le nombre de noyaux faiblement marques, correspondant aux cellules qui ont quitte la phase S pendant l

  6. US-guided percutaneous biopsies with a biopsy gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, In Oak; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jae Hyung; Lee, Goo; Jung, Sung Hoon

    1993-01-01

    Core tissue for histologic study is believed by many pathologist to be more diagnostic than material from needle aspiration. Recently introduced automatched biopsy gun simplifies core biopsies with increased quantity and quality of samples. Authors performed 38 percutaneous biopsies from 38 patients with 18G automated biopsy guns under US guide. Diagnostic target tissues were obtained in 33 biopsies(87%), inadequate tissues in 4(11%), and adequate but not of target tissue in 1(3%). There was no major complication requiring treatment, but pain needing analgesics and pain with nausea/vomiting were experienced in 2 and 1 biopsies respectively. Average number of needle passes was 1.5. We concluded that US guided gun biopsy was a easy and safe way to obtain tissue samples of good quantity and quality, especially useful in hospitals without constant availability of specialist in cytopathology

  7. ATP, IMP, and glycogen in cod muscle at onset and during development of rigor mortis depend on the sampling location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Gertrud; Jessen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Variation in glycogen, ATP, and IMP contents within individual cod muscles were studied in ice stored fish during the progress of rigor mortis. Rigor index was determined before muscle samples for chemical analyzes were taken at 16 different positions on the fish. During development of rigor......, the contents of glycogen and ATP decreased differently in relation to rigor index depending on sampling location. Although fish were considered to be in strong rigor according to the rigor index method, parts of the muscle were not in rigor as high ATP concentrations were found in dorsal and tall muscle....

  8. Liver Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called if any of the following occur: ● Persistent abdominal or chest pain ● Vomiting ● Pallor, weakness or dizziness ● Bleeding from the site of the biopsy ● Passage of tarry black stools For more information or to locate a pediatric gastroen- terologist in your area please visit our ...

  9. In vitro assessment of Tribulus terrestris aqueous extract and Benzoxacin fraction against Helicobacter pylori isolates from biopsy samples of Iranian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Hakemi vala

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives:  Helicobacter pylori (Hp is related to gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, and mucosal carcinoma. Emergence of multidrug resistant Hp strains encouraged the researchers to find new effective drugs. Especially medicinal herbs and plants which usually shows less side effects. The aim of this study was in vitro assessment of anti Hp activity of total extract of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris Benzoxacin, a local Iranian medicinal plant and its fraction Benzoxacin.Methods: total aqueous extract of aerial parts of the plant was prepared and liquid extraction with petroleum ether was used to separate its components. LC/MS system proved the existence of Benzoxazine derivative in the water fraction and the third's fraction. Anti (Hp effects of total extract and its third fraction were examined by cup plate method and using standard MacFarland. 50 biopsy samples of antrum were detected from patients who were endoscopic candidates in Milad and Fayazbakhsh  hospitals of Tehran during 2011. All samples were isolated, diagnosed based on standard methods and biochemical tests and confirmed by PCR method for ureC gene, too.  Different dilutions (250, 500,750 and 1000 mg/ml of total extract were prepared. Clarythromycin (Clr E-test strips and an identified Hp OC1096 was used, simultaneously.Results: Of 50 biopsy samples, 12 Hp strains were isolated. Rapid urease test were positive in all expect one biopsy sample. Existence of ureC gene in all isolates were confirmed expect one strain by PCR. By cup plate method, resistant to concentrations of 1000 and 750mg/ml were detected in 50% of Hp isolates and 66.6% of them were resistant to concentrations 250 and 500 mg/ml .Also, 83.3% of Hp strains were resistant to Benzoxacin fraction. Clarythromycin sensitivity detected in 83% of Hp isolates, simultaneously.Conclusion: This study was done as a pilot study for in vitro evaluation of antibacterial effect of total extract of T

  10. The Proteome of Ulcerative Colitis in Colon Biopsies from Adults - Optimized Sample Preparation and Comparison with Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schniers, Armin; Anderssen, Endre; Fenton, Christopher Graham; Goll, Rasmus; Pasing, Yvonne; Paulssen, Ruth Hracky; Florholmen, Jon; Hansen, Terkel

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to optimize the sample preparation and to further use an improved sample preparation to identify proteome differences between inflamed ulcerative colitis tissue from untreated adults and healthy controls. To optimize the sample preparation, we studied the effect of adding different detergents to a urea containing lysis buffer for a Lys-C/trypsin tandem digestion. With the optimized method, we prepared clinical samples from six ulcerative colitis patients and six healthy controls and analysed them by LC-MS/MS. We examined the acquired data to identify differences between the states. We improved the protein extraction and protein identification number by utilizing a urea and sodium deoxycholate containing buffer. Comparing ulcerative colitis and healthy tissue, we found 168 of 2366 identified proteins differently abundant. Inflammatory proteins are higher abundant in ulcerative colitis, proteins related to anion-transport and mucus production are lower abundant. A high proportion of S100 proteins is differently abundant, notably with both up-regulated and down-regulated proteins. The optimized sample preparation method will improve future proteomic studies on colon mucosa. The observed protein abundance changes and their enrichment in various groups improve our understanding of ulcerative colitis on protein level. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The classification of secondary colorectal liver cancer in human biopsy samples using angular dispersive x-ray diffraction and multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorakou, Chrysoula; Farquharson, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The motivation behind this study is to assess whether angular dispersive x-ray diffraction (ADXRD) data, processed using multivariate analysis techniques, can be used for classifying secondary colorectal liver cancer tissue and normal surrounding liver tissue in human liver biopsy samples. The ADXRD profiles from a total of 60 samples of normal liver tissue and colorectal liver metastases were measured using a synchrotron radiation source. The data were analysed for 56 samples using nonlinear peak-fitting software. Four peaks were fitted to all of the ADXRD profiles, and the amplitude, area, amplitude and area ratios for three of the four peaks were calculated and used for the statistical and multivariate analysis. The statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences between all the peak-fitting parameters and ratios between the normal and the diseased tissue groups. The technique of soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to classify normal liver tissue and colorectal liver metastases resulting in 67% of the normal tissue samples and 60% of the secondary colorectal liver tissue samples being classified correctly. This study has shown that the ADXRD data of normal and secondary colorectal liver cancer are statistically different and x-ray diffraction data analysed using multivariate analysis have the potential to be used as a method of tissue classification.

  12. Association between statin-associated myopathy and skeletal muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaupt, Markus G; Karas, Richard H; Babiychuk, Eduard B; Sanchez-Freire, Verónica; Monastyrskaya, Katia; Iyer, Lakshmanan; Hoppeler, Hans; Breil, Fabio; Draeger, Annette

    2009-07-07

    Many patients taking statins often complain of muscle pain and weakness. The extent to which muscle pain reflects muscle injury is unknown. We obtained biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis muscle of 83 patients. Of the 44 patients with clinically diagnosed statin-associated myopathy, 29 were currently taking a statin, and 15 had discontinued statin therapy before the biopsy (minimal duration of discontinuation 3 weeks). We also included 19 patients who were taking statins and had no myopathy, and 20 patients who had never taken statins and had no myopathy. We classified the muscles as injured if 2% or more of the muscle fibres in a biopsy sample showed damage. Using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, we evaluated the expression levels of candidate genes potentially related to myocyte injury. Muscle injury was observed in 25 (of 44) patients with myopathy and in 1 patient without myopathy. Only 1 patient with structural injury had a circulating level of creatine phosphokinase that was elevated more than 1950 U/L (10x the upper limit of normal). Expression of ryanodine receptor 3 was significantly upregulated in patients with biopsy evidence of structural damage (1.7, standard error of the mean 0.3). Persistent myopathy in patients taking statins reflects structural muscle damage. A lack of elevated levels of circulating creatine phosphokinase does not rule out structural muscle injury. Upregulation of the expression of ryanodine receptor 3 is suggestive of an intracellular calcium leak.

  13. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as papilloma) Fungal infections (such as candida) Histoplasmosis Oral lichen planus Precancerous sore (leukoplakia) Viral infections (such as Herpes simplex) Risks Risks of the procedure may ... Throat lesion biopsy; Biopsy - mouth or throat; Mouth lesion biopsy; Oral cancer - biopsy ...

  14. Simultaneous sampling of tissue oxygenation and oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, William H; Song, Bjorn K; Pittman, Roland N; Golub, Aleksander S

    2016-05-01

    Under physiologic conditions, microvascular oxygen delivery appears to be well matched to oxygen consumption in respiring tissues. We present a technique to measure interstitial oxygen tension (PISFO2) and oxygen consumption (VO2) under steady-state conditions, as well as during the transitions from rest to activity and back. Phosphorescence Quenching Microscopy (PQM) was employed with pneumatic compression cycling to achieve 1 to 10 Hz sampling rates of interstitial PO2 and simultaneous recurrent sampling of VO2 (3/min) in the exteriorized rat spinotrapezius muscle. The compression pressure was optimized to 120-130 mmHg without adverse effect on the tissue preparation. A cycle of 5s compression followed by 15s recovery yielded a resting VO2 of 0.98 ± 0.03 ml O2/100 cm(3)min while preserving microvascular oxygen delivery. The measurement system was then used to assess VO2 dependence on PISFO2 at rest and further tested under conditions of isometric muscle contraction to demonstrate a robust ability to monitor the on-kinetics of tissue respiration and the compensatory changes in PISFO2 during contraction and recovery. The temporal and spatial resolution of this approach is well suited to studies seeking to characterize microvascular oxygen supply and demand in thin tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetic Stirrer Method for the Detection of Trichinella Larvae in Muscle Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Pozio, Edoardo; Gayda, Jennifer; Thaben, Nora; Bahn, Peter; Nöckler, Karsten

    2017-03-03

    Trichinellosis is a debilitating disease in humans and is caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked meat of animals infected with the nematode larvae of the genus Trichinella. The most important sources of human infections worldwide are game meat and pork or pork products. In many countries, the prevention of human trichinellosis is based on the identification of infected animals by means of the artificial digestion of muscle samples from susceptible animal carcasses. There are several methods based on the digestion of meat but the magnetic stirrer method is considered the gold standard. This method allows the detection of Trichinella larvae by microscopy after the enzymatic digestion of muscle samples and subsequent filtration and sedimentation steps. Although this method does not require special and expensive equipment, internal controls cannot be used. Therefore, stringent quality management should be applied throughout the test. The aim of the present work is to provide detailed handling instructions and critical control points of the method to analysts, based on the experience of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Parasites and the National Reference Laboratory of Germany for Trichinella.

  16. Inflammatory focal myositis of the sternomastoid muscle: is there an absolute indication for biopsy? A case report and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgalas, Christos; Kapoor, Lekha; Chau, Ha; Bhattacharyya, Abir

    2006-01-01

    Focal myositis is a localised inflammatory process affecting skeletal muscles belonging to the pathological group of inflammatory pseudo tumours of soft tissue that includes myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis and nodular pseudosarcomatous fasciitis. Very rarely, it may affect one of the

  17. Stereotactic breast biopsy with a biopsy gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, S.H.; Lovin, J.; Luethke, J.; Jobe, W.E.; Hopper, K.D.; Yakes, W.F.

    1989-01-01

    With the recent introduction of stereotactic mammographic localizing devices, the authors have been performing histologic core needle breast biopsies in which the Bard biopsy gun is used in conjunction with sterotactic guidance. The authors have performed 60 breast gun biopsies with 16-gauge and 18-gauge biopsy-cut needles. These biopsies were followed immediately by traditional surgical excision. Pathologic results correlated well in 52 of the 60 patients, including 10 of 13 cancers. Three of the eight negative correlations occurred when diagnosis was made on gun biopsy but not on surgical biopsy. The stereotactic- guided gun biopsies appear to approach the surgical gold standard, decrease patient discomfort and potential disfigurement, lower the cost of breast biopsy, and lower the threshold necessary to perform breast biopsy

  18. Microbiopsies versus Bergström needle for skeletal muscle sampling: impact on maximal mitochondrial respiration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isner-Horobeti, M E; Charton, A; Daussin, F; Geny, B; Dufour, S P; Richard, R

    2014-05-01

    Microbiopsies are increasingly used as an alternative to the standard Bergström technique for skeletal muscle sampling. The potential impact of these two different procedures on mitochondrial respiration rate is unknown. The objective of this work was to compare microbiopsies versus Bergström procedure on mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. 52 vastus lateralis muscle samples were obtained from 13 anesthetized pigs, either with a Bergström [6 gauges (G)] needle or with microbiopsy needles (12, 14, 18G). Maximal mitochondrial respiration (V GM-ADP) was assessed using an oxygraphic method on permeabilized fibers. The weight of the muscle samples and V GM-ADP decreased with the increasing gauge of the needles. A positive nonlinear relationship was observed between the weight of the muscle sample and the level of maximal mitochondrial respiration (r = 0.99, p respiration (r = 0.99, p respiration compared to the standard Bergström needle.Therefore, the higher the gauge (i.e. the smaller the size) of the microbiopsy needle, the lower is the maximal rate of respiration. Microbiopsies of skeletal muscle underestimate the maximal mitochondrial respiration rate, and this finding needs to be highlighted for adequate interpretation and comparison with literature data.

  19. Impaired muscle glycogen resynthesis after a marathon is not caused by decreased muscle GLUT-4 content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, S; Rohde, T; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate whether the slow rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis after a competitive marathon is associated with a decrease in the total muscle content of the muscle glucose transporter (GLUT-4). Seven well-trained marathon runners participated in the study, and muscle biopsies...... were obtained from the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle before, immediately after, and 1, 2, and 7 days after the marathon, as were venous blood samples. Muscle GLUT-4 content was unaltered over the experimental period. Muscle glycogen concentration was 758 +/- 53 mmol/kg dry weight before...... the marathon and decreased to 148 +/- 39 mmol/kg dry weight immediately afterward. Despite a carbohydrate-rich diet (containing at least 7 g carbohydrate.kg body mass-1.day-1), the muscle glycogen concentration remained 30% lower than before-race values 2 days after the race, whereas it had returned to before...

  20. Prospective exploratory muscle biopsy, imaging, and functional assessment in patients with late-onset Pompe disease treated with alglucosidase alfa: The EMBASSY Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans); Carlier, P.G. (Pierre G.); Carlier, R.-Y. (Robert-Yves); Kissel, J.T. (John T.); B. Schoser; Wenninger, S. (Stephan); Pestronk, A. (Alan); Barohn, R.J. (Richard J.); Dimachkie, M.M. (Mazen M.); Goker-Alpan, O. (Ozlem); Mozaffar, T. (Tahseen); Pena, L.D.M. (Loren D.M.); Simmons, Z. (Zachary); V. Straub; Guglieri, M. (Michela); Young, P. (Peter); Boentert, M. (Matthias); Baudin, P.-Y. (Pierre-Yves); S.C.A. Wens (Stephan); Shafi, R. (Raheel); Bjartmar, C. (Carl); B. Thurberg

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Late-onset Pompe disease is characterized by progressive skeletal myopathy followed by respiratory muscle weakness, typically leading to loss of ambulation and respiratory failure. In this population, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alfa has been shown to

  1. Liquid biopsy for brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Ganesh M.; Balaj, Leonora; Stott, Shannon L.; Nahed, Brian; Carter, Bob S.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive methods will augment the clinical approach for establishing the diagnosis or monitoring treatment response of central nervous system tumors. Liquid biopsy by blood or cerebrospinal fluid sampling holds promise in this regard. Areas covered In this literature review, the authors highlight recent studies describing the analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell free nucleic acids, and extracellular vesicles as strategies to accomplish liquid biopsy in glioblastoma and metastatic tumors. The authors then discuss the continued efforts to improve signal detection, standardize the liquid biopsy handling and preparation, develop platforms for clinical application, and establish a role for liquid biopsies in personalized medicine. Expert commentary As the technologies used to analyze these biomarkers continue to evolve, we propose that there is a future potential to precisely diagnose and monitor treatment response with liquid biopsies. PMID:28875730

  2. Stereotactic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwangi, M.N.; Handa, A.

    2006-01-01

    This technology is capable of locating lesions precise detected by the mammography examinations. This devise allows the surgeon to position automatically the needle to perform the cytological/histological biopsy with maximum position accuracy. This is under sterile procedure. to position the lesion in the beam, two radiographic procedures are carried out: the first with the X-ray beam at an inclination of -15 degrees with respect to the position 0 degrees and the second at the inclination +15 degrees. After processing the film the lesion will appear on both radiographs but on light are of the negatoscope. With the cursor information is fed from four points. On the display the length of the needle will appear immediately. The length of the needle to be used in suction is chosen on the basis of the two values on the display. This information fed on the control panel will move the needle unit position where the lesion is. the needle is then introduced under local anaesthesia at the preselected length until it clicks into position. An exposure is made with needle in situ in position at +15 degrees and -15 degrees to ensure the needle is in position. the suction is then carried out and the needle removed. The machine is then reset to return at the initial position

  3. Ultrasound-guided renal biopsy: experience using an automated core biopsy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R; Common, A A; Marcuzzi, D

    2000-04-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy using an automated core biopsy system, and to determine radiologists' accuracy in predicting sample adequacy. Ninety-five biopsies were performed on 25 native kidneys and 70 renal allografts using a 16-gauge automated, spring-loaded core biopsy device under real-time sonographic guidance. Radiologists performing the biopsy estimated the number of core samples needed to obtain an adequate specimen, based on visual inspection of each core. The final determination of the number of samples was made by a pathology technologist who attended each biopsy, based on preliminary microscopic examination of tissue cores. After each biopsy, an ultrasonographic examination was performed to search for biopsy-related hemorrhage, and a questionnaire was given to the patient to determine biopsy-related complications, which were categorized as either minor or major. The main indication for biopsy was acute renal failure (in 43.2% of biopsies). An average of 3 tissue cores per biopsy were obtained. Of the 94 patients in whom a biopsy was conducted to exclude diffuse renal disease, a mean of 12.5 glomeruli were present in each specimen. Overall, adequate tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 98.9% of cases. The radiologists' estimate of the number of core samples needed concurred with the pathology technologists' determination of sample adequacy in 88.4% of cases. A total of 26 complications occurred (in 27.4% of biopsies), consisting of 23 minor (24.2%) and 3 major (3.2%) complications. Real-time sonographic guidance in conjunction with an automated core biopsy system is a safe and accurate method of performing percutaneous renal biopsy. Routine use of sonographic examinations to search for biopsy-related complications is not indicated. Radiologists are accurate in estimating sample adequacy in most cases; however, the presence of a pathology technologist at the biopsy procedure virtually eliminates the

  4. Exercise training normalizes skeletal muscle vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ane Håkansson; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Saltin, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    METHODS: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and capillarization were determined in muscle vastus lateralis biopsy samples in individuals with essential hypertension (n = 10) and normotensive controls (n = 10). The hypertensive individuals performed exercise training for 16 weeks....... Muscle samples as well as muscle microdialysis fluid samples were obtained at rest, during and after an acute exercise bout, performed prior to and after the training period, for the determination of muscle VEGF levels, VEGF release, endothelial cell proliferative effect and capillarization. RESULTS......: Prior to training, the hypertensive individuals had 36% lower levels of VEGF protein and 22% lower capillary density in the muscle compared to controls. Training in the hypertensive group reduced (P

  5. Muscle dysmorphia: detection of the use-abuse of anabolic adrogenic steroids in a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martí, Irene; Fernández-Bustos, Juan Gregorio; Contreras Jordán, Onofre Ricardo; Sokolova, Marina

    2017-07-14

    Debido a una distorsión en la imagen corporal, las personas que padecen Dismorfia Muscular se perciben menos musculosas de lo que son en realidad. Con el fin de aumentar su musculatura, algunas de estas personas hacen uso de hormonas cuya función principal es la del aumento del tamaño muscular. Por lo que el objetivo de este estudio es conocer la prevalencia del uso de hormonas en personas afectadas por Dismorfia Muscular. 562 hombres y 172 mujeres fisicoculturistas y levantadores de pesas, a los que se le administraron diferentes cuestionarios para conocer, primero si padecían el trastorno, y después en qué porcentaje usaban hormonas la muestra afectada. Para la creación de los modelos de regresión de la dismorfia muscular fueron empleadas las técnicas estadísticas de árboles de decisión (R = 0.78 y R2 = 0.62). Los resultados indican que casi un 50% de participantes, afectados por este trastorno, hacen uso de estas drogas. Due to a distortion in the body image, the people who suffer from muscle dysmorphia have the self-perception of being less muscular than they currently are. With the aim of increasing their muscular development, they resort to the use of AAS. The purpose of the present study is to know the prevalence of the use of AAS in a Spanish sample affected by muscle dysmorphia. 562 male and 172 female bodybuilders and weightlifters were provided with different questionnaires in order to know, firstly, if they suffered from this disorder and, secondly, the percentage of the participants affected who use these substances. Decision trees and regression was applied to create explanatory models for muscle dysmorphia (R = 0.78 and R2 = 0.62). The results show that almost 50% of the participants, male and female, affected by this disorder use this kind of drugs.

  6. High levels of N-palmitoylethanolamide and N-stearoylethanolamide in microdialysate samples from myalgic trapezius muscle in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazdar Ghafouri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: N-acylethanolamines (NAEs are endogenous compounds that regulate inflammation and pain. These include the cannabinoid ligand anandamide (AEA and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α ligand palmitoylethanolamide (PEA. Little is known as to the levels of NAEs in pain states in human, particularly in the skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of these lipid mediators in muscle dialysate from women with chronic neck-/shoulder pain compared to healthy controls. METHODS: Eleven women with chronic neck-/shoulder pain and eleven healthy women participated in this study. All participants went through microdialysis procedures in the trapezius muscle. Muscle dialysate samples were collected during four hours and analysed by nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS. RESULTS: We were able to detect AEA, PEA, N-stearoylethanolamine (SEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG in a single chromatographic run. Of the NAEs studied, PEA and SEA were clearly detectable in the muscle microdialysate samples. The muscle dialysate levels of PEA and SEA were significantly higher in myalgic subjects compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that microdialysis in combination with mass spectrometry can be used for analysing NAE's in human muscle tissue regularly over time. Furthermore the significant group differences in the concentration of PEA and SEA in this study might fill an important gap in our knowledge of mechanisms in chronic myalgia in humans. In the long run this expanded understanding of nociceptive and anitinociceptive processes in the muscle may provide a base for ameliorating treatment and rehabilitation of pain.

  7. Quantitative extraction of nucleotides from frozen muscle samples of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) and rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) : Effects of time taken to sample and extraction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, P.M.; Bremner, Allan; Pankhurst, N.W.

    2000-01-01

    time taken to sample, method 2 resulted in higher adenylate and lower IMP concentration than method I. These results indicate that method 2 is most effective in obtaining realistic nucleotide concentrations from fish muscle because it maintains the tissue temperature below the critical freeze zone, (-0...

  8. Open lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia . This means you will be asleep and ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  9. Biopsy system for CT-guided biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onik, G.; Cosman, E.; Wells, T.; Goldberg, H.I.; Moss, A.; Costello, P.; Kane, R.

    1987-01-01

    CT stereotaxic brain biopsies have made brain biopsies safe and minimally invasive. CT-guided biopsies of the body, however, have traditionally used a hand-guidance method. CT biopsy guidance systems for the body have recently become available that have similar capabilities as those of brain biopsy systems. To compare the clinical utility of stereotaxically guided biopsies with hand-guided biopsies, the authors prospectively compared 40 biopsies performed with each method. In the stereotaxic method, a localizor grid was placed on the patient to define a reference point, and a frame was used to guide the needle along the intended path. Computer software programs calculated complex paths from one scan plane to another. Although the results disclosed no significant differences in lesion size or path length between the two groups, the stereotaxically guided biopsies required 75% fewer needle manipulations to hit the intended target. Consequently, the stereotaxically guided biopsies required 40% less time and 80% fewer localization scans to find the biopsy needle than did the hand-guided biopsies

  10. Hypoxia marker labeling in tumor biopsies: quantification of labeling variation and criteria for biopsy sectioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, Donald E.; Rosner, Gary L.; Azuma, Chieko; McEntee, Margaret C.; Raleigh, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: The error associated with using biopsy-based methods for assessing parameters reflective of the tumor microenvironment depends on the variability in distribution of the parameter throughout the tumor and the biopsy sample. Some attention has been given to intratumoral distribution of parameters, but little attention has been given to their intrabiopsy distribution. We evaluated the intrabiopsy distribution of CCI-103F, a 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker. Materials and methods: The hypoxia marker CCI-103F was studied in dogs bearing spontaneous solid tumors. Two biopsies were taken from each of seven tumors, for a total of 14 biopsies. Biopsies were serially sectioned and four to six contiguous slides from each 100-150 μm of the biopsy were used to formulate the best estimate of CCI-103F labeled area throughout the biopsy sample. One, two or four slides were then randomly selected from each biopsy and the labeled area, based on this limited sample, was compared to the estimate obtained from counting all available slides. Random sampling of slides was repeated 1000 times for each biopsy sample. Results: CCI-103F labeling variance throughout the biopsy decreased as the estimated overall labeled area in the biopsy decreased. The error associated with estimating the overall labeled area in a biopsy from a randomly selected subset of slides decreased as the number of slides increased, and as the overall labeled area in the biopsy decreased. No minimally labeled biopsy was classified as unlabeled based on limited sampling. Conclusion: With regard to CCI-103F labeling, quantification of the labeled area in four randomly selected slides from a biopsy can provide, in most biopsies, an estimate of the labeled area in the biopsy within an absolute range of ±0.05

  11. Osteoinduction on acid and heat treated porous Ti metal samples in canine muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available Samples of porous Ti metal were subjected to different acid and heat treatments. Ectopic bone formation on specimens embedded in dog muscle was compared with the surface characteristics of the specimen. Treatment of the specimens by H2SO4/HCl and heating at 600 °C produced micrometer-scale roughness with surface layers composed of rutile phase of titanium dioxide. The acid- and heat-treated specimens induced ectopic bone formation within 6 months of implantation. A specimen treated using NaOH followed by HCl acid and then heat treatment produced nanometer-scale surface roughness with a surface layer composed of both rutile and anatase phases of titanium dioxide. These specimens also induced bone formation after 6 months of implantation. Both these specimens featured positive surface charge and good apatite-forming abilities in a simulated body fluid. The amount of the bone induced in the porous structure increased with apatite-forming ability and higher positive surface charge. Untreated porous Ti metal samples showed no bone formation even after 12 months. Specimens that were only heat treated featured a smooth surface composed of rutile. A mixed acid treatment produced specimens with micrometer-scale rough surfaces composed of titanium hydride. Both of them also showed no bone formation after 12 months. The specimens that showed no bone formation also featured almost zero surface charge and no apatite-forming ability. These results indicate that osteoinduction of these porous Ti metal samples is directly related to positive surface charge that facilitates formation of apatite on the metal surfaces in vitro.

  12. No need for biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Kristine; Skindersoe, Mette E; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    collected. After 4 weeks, additional biopsy and filter paper pad samples were collected. Bacteria were isolated and identified at species level by standard methods. The most common bacterial species detected was Staphylococcus aureus found in 89% of the ulcers. No methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates...... were found. We did not find any significant differences regarding the bacterial species isolated between the three sampling techniques. However, using multiple techniques led to identification of more species. Our study suggests that it is sufficient to use swab specimens to identify the bacterial...

  13. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure...... for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Curved Biopsy Device for CT-Guided Biopsy of Lesions Unreachable Using Standard Straight Needle Trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Hagen, Maximilian Franz, E-mail: mschulze@ukaachen.de; Pfeffer, Jochen; Zimmermann, Markus; Liebl, Martin [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Stillfried, Saskia Freifrau von [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Pathology (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane; Bruners, Philipp; Isfort, Peter [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the feasibility of a novel curved CT-guided biopsy needle prototype with shape memory to access otherwise not accessible biopsy targets.Methods and MaterialsA biopsy needle curved by 90° with specific radius was designed. It was manufactured using nitinol to acquire shape memory, encased in a straight guiding trocar to be driven out for access of otherwise inaccessible targets. Fifty CT-guided punctures were conducted in a biopsy phantom and 10 CT-guided punctures in a swine corpse. Biposies from porcine liver and muscle tissue were separately gained using the biopsy device, and histological examination was performed subsequently.ResultsMean time for placement of the trocar and deployment of the inner biopsy needle was ~205 ± 69 and ~93 ± 58 s, respectively, with a mean of ~4.5 ± 1.3 steps to reach adequate biopsy position. Mean distance from the tip of the needle to the target was ~0.7 ± 0.8 mm. CT-guided punctures in the swine corpse took relatively longer and required more biopsy steps (~574 ± 107 and ~380 ± 148 s, 8 ± 2.6 steps). Histology demonstrated appropriate tissue samples in nine out of ten cases (90%).ConclusionsTargets that were otherwise inaccessible via standard straight needle trajectories could be successfully reached with the curved biopsy needle prototype. Shape memory and preformed size with specific radius of the curved needle simplify the target accessibility with a low risk of injuring adjacent structures.

  15. Fluoroscopy-guided transnasal biopsy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma using a flexible bronchoscopic biopsy forcep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jai Keun; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Dong Ik; Suh, Jung Ho

    1996-01-01

    Otolaryngoscopic biopsy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a generalized method which may be associated with inadequate sampling of tissue and patient discomfort. So, we tried fluoroscopy-guided transnasal biopsy using bronchoscopic biopsy forcep and evaluated its safety and efficacy. Prospectively we performed fluoroscopy-guided transnasal biopsy in 11 patients who were radiographically suspected of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The posterior wall of the nasopharynx was coated with barium sulfate under fluoroscopy. A flexible bronchoscopic biopsy forcep with a steerable guiding catheter which was used in removal of intrahepatic duct stones was inserted through the nare. After localization of the tip of the biopsy forcep at tumor site with fluoroscopy, a tissue specimen was obtained. We also tried CT guided biopsy in initial 2cases. Each patient had otolaryngoscopic biopsy to compare the biopsy result and patient discomfort. We could have sufficient amount of tissue for pathological evaluation in 10 of 11 patients by the first pass with the fluoroscopic technique. Contrarily, otolaryngoscopic biopsy was successful in 7 of 11 patients on single passage. Additionally, 2 patients had complaint in our method comparing with 9 patients in otolaryngoscopic biopsy. Fluoroscopy-guided transnasal biopsy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma using the bronchoscopic biopsy forcep is safe and accurate. It can be a appropriate method competing otolaryngoscopic biopsy

  16. MR-guided biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehl, H.B.; Frahm, C.

    1998-01-01

    Biopsies were the first 'intervention' under MR guidance. After initial difficulties concerning ferromagnetic biopsy instruments and the design of MR scanners, the latest technological improvements rendered MR guidance for biopsies more feasible. In this article we illustrate present-day clinical experience in the field of abdominal, breast and bone biopsy. Important aspects regarding the different designs of 'interventional' MR scanners and the visualization of instruments for biopsy are discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. Dual p16 and Ki-67 Expression in Liquid-Based Cervical Cytological Samples Compared to Pap Cytology Findings, Biopsies, and HPV Testing in Cervical Cancer Screening: A Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigenzi, Karla Calaça Kabbach; Heinke, Thaís; Salim, Rafael Calil; Focchi, Gustavo Rubino de Azevedo

    2018-01-01

    Our objective was to verify the sensitivity and specificity of dual immunocytochemistry staining for p16 and Ki-67 in liquid-based samples (the "dual" assay) for cervical lesion screening, compared to biopsy findings and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA molecular detection. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values for the "dual immunocytochemistry assay" were calculated and compared to histopathological results and to high-risk HPV DNA detection in adult women or teenagers submitted to cervical cancer screening. A total of 151 women were included. The majority (96.2%) of those with negative dual assay results had lower biopsy grades (p cytology results suggestive of cervical cancer had positive dual immunocytochemistry assay results more frequently (p < 0.001), and these positive results were also significantly associated with biopsy findings (p < 0.001) and with high-risk genotype HPV infection (p = 0.007). Specificity and PPV for the dual assay were 0.972 (0.855-0.999) and 0.800 (0.284-0.995), respectively, and 1.000 (0.590-1.000) and 1.000 (0.631-1.000) for HPV detection. The dual immunocytochemistry assay had high specificity and PPV. It reveals a persistent HPV infection, avoiding the need for new tissue collections for biopsies or hybrid capture. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Telepathology and Optical Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ferrer-Roca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to obtain information about the structure of tissue without taking a sample for pathology has opened the way for new diagnostic techniques. The present paper reviews all currently available techniques capable of producing an optical biopsy, with or without morphological images. Most of these techniques are carried out by physicians who are not specialized in pathology and therefore not trained to interpret the results as a pathologist would. In these cases, the use of telepathology or distant consultation techniques is essential.

  19. Distribution of muscle fibre conduction velocity for representative samples of motor units in the full recruitment range of the tibialis anterior muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, A; Negro, F; Felici, F; Farina, D

    2018-02-01

    Motor units are recruited in an orderly manner according to the size of motor neurones. Moreover, because larger motor neurones innervate fibres with larger diameters than smaller motor neurones, motor units should be recruited orderly according to their conduction velocity (MUCV). Because of technical limitations, these relations have been previously tested either indirectly or in small motor unit samples that revealed weak associations between motor unit recruitment threshold (RT) and MUCV. Here, we analyse the relation between MUCV and RT for large samples of motor units. Ten healthy volunteers completed a series of isometric ankle dorsiflexions at forces up to 70% of the maximum. Multi-channel surface electromyographic signals recorded from the tibialis anterior muscle were decomposed into single motor unit action potentials, from which the corresponding motor unit RT, MUCV and action potential amplitude were estimated. Established relations between muscle fibre diameter and CV were used to estimate the fibre size. Within individual subjects, the distributions of MUCV and fibre diameters were unimodal and did not show distinct populations. MUCV was strongly correlated with RT (mean (SD) R 2  = 0.7 (0.09), P motor units), which supported the hypothesis that fibre diameter is associated with RT. The results provide further evidence for the relations between motor neurone and muscle fibre properties for large samples of motor units. The proposed methodology for motor unit analysis has also the potential to open new perspectives in the study of chronic and acute neuromuscular adaptations to ageing, training and pathology. © 2017 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  1. Increasing biopsy number and sampling from gastric body improve the sensitivity of rapid urease test in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzong-Hsi; Lin, Chien-Chu; Chung, Chen-Shuan; Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Liang, Cheng-Chao; Tsai, Kuang-Chau

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that the sensitivity of rapid urease test (RUT) for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection decreased during peptic ulcer bleeding. We designed this study and tried to find a better method to improve the detection rate of H. pylori infection at the same session of endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer bleeding. We prospectively enrolled 116 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. These patients received intravenous proton pump inhibitor and then received upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within 24 h after arrival. We took one piece of biopsy from gastric antrum (Group 1), four pieces from gastric antrum (Group 2), and one piece from the gastric body (Group 3) for three separate RUTs, respectively. (13)C-urease breath test was used as gold standard for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. There were 74 patients (64 %) with positive (13)C-urease breath test. Among these 74 patients, 45 patients had positive RUT (sensitivity: 61 %) in Group 1; 55 patients had positive RUT (sensitivity: 74 %) in Group 2; 54 patients had positive RUT (sensitivity: 73 %) in Group 3. There were significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2 (p = 0.02) and between Group 1 and Group 3 (p = 0.022). The sensitivity of RUT was 61 % during peptic ulcer bleeding. The sensitivity of RUT can be increased significantly by increased biopsy number from gastric antrum or biopsy from gastric body.

  2. Leucine incorporation into mixed skeletal muscle protein in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, K.S.; Halliday, D.; Griggs, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Fractional mixed skeletal muscle protein synthesis (FMPS) was estimated in 10 postabsorptive healthy men by determining the increment in the abundance of [ 13 C]-leucine in quadriceps muscle protein during an intravenous infusion of L-[1- 13 C]leucine. Whole-body muscle protein synthesis (MPS) was calculated based on the estimation of muscle mass from creatinine excretion and compared with whole-body protein synthesis (WBPS) calculated from the nonoxidative portion of leucine flux. A significant correlation was found between MPS. The contribution of MPS to WBPS was 27 ± 1%, which is comparable to the reports in other species. Morphometric analyses of adjacent muscle samples in eight subjects demonstrated that the biopsy specimens consisted of 86.5 ± 2% muscular as opposed to other tissues. Because fiber type composition varies between biopsies, the authors examined the relationship between proportions of each fiber type and FMPS. Variation in the composition of biopsies and in fiber-type proportion did not affect the estimation of muscle protein synthesis rate. They conclude that stable isotope techniques using serial needle biopsies permit the direct measurement of FMPS in humans and that this estimation is correlated with an indirect estimation of WBPS

  3. When size matters: diagnostic value of kidney biopsy according to the gauge of the biopsy needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Rachel; Parikh, Samir; Makey, Dayanand; Foster, Jamison; Rozenblit, Grigory; Satoskar, Anjali; Nadasdy, Gyongyi; Von Visger, Jon; Hebert, Lee; Rovin, Brad H; Nadasdy, Tibor; Brodsky, Sergey V

    2013-01-01

    Kidney biopsy is a vital tool in the diagnosis of kidney disease. Although it has become a routine procedure, it is not complication-free. Some serious complications of percutaneous kidney biopsy include retroperitoneal hemorrhage and death. There is an increased belief that smaller biopsy needle size results in a lower complication rate. As renal pathologists, we witness an increased number of kidney biopsies performed with a small needle size (as low as gauge 22), which results in inadequate tissue sampling and often non-diagnostic biopsy results. Herein we report the diagnostic value of kidney biopsies according to the size of the biopsy needles. We performed kidney biopsies from nephrectomy specimens using biopsy needles of different sizes. Morphologic parameters were analyzed. We found that biopsies performed by small needles (gauges 20 and 22) contain significantly lower numbers of glomeruli and blood vessels, which limits pathologic evaluation. Data from our institution do not show differences in kidney biopsy complication rates between 16- and 18-gauge needles. Our data indicate that small biopsy needles do not provide sufficient material for diagnosis, and they increase the likelihood for a repeat biopsy. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder-type pain and comorbid pains in a national US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesh, Octavia; Adams, Sally H; Gansky, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    To compare prevalences of self-reported comorbid headache, neck, back, and joint pains in respondents with temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder (TMJMD)-type pain in the 2000-2005 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and to analyze these self-reported pains by gender and age for Non-Hispanic (NH) Whites (Caucasians), Hispanics, and NH Blacks (African Americans). Data from the 2000-2005 NHIS included information on gender, age, race, ethnicity, education, different common types of pain (specifically TMJMD-type, severe headache/migraine, neck, and low back pains), changes in health status, and health care utilization. Estimates and test statistics (ie, Pearson correlations, regressions, and logistic models) were conducted using SAS survey analysis and SUDAAN software that take into account the complex sample design. A total of 189,977 people (52% female and 48% males, 73% NH Whites, 12% Hispanic, 11% NH Blacks, and 4% "Other") were included. A total of 4.6% reported TMJMD-type pain, and only 0.77% overall reported it without any comorbid headache/migraine, neck, or low back pains; also 59% of the TMJMD-type pain (n = 8,964) reported ⋝ two comorbid pains. Females reported more comorbid pain than males (odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, P neck pain, 64% low back pain, and 62% joint pain. Differences in gender and race by age patterns were detected. For females, headache/migraine pain with TMJMD-type pain peaked around age 40 and decreased thereafter regardless of race/ethnicity. Neck pain continued to increase up to about age 60, with a higher prevalence for Hispanic women at younger ages, and more pronounced in males, being the highest in the non-Whites. Low back pain was higher in Black and Hispanic females across the age span, and higher among non-White males after age 60. Joint pain demonstrated similar patterns by race/ethnicity, with higher rates for Black females, and increased with age regardless of gender. TMJMD-type pain was most often associated with

  5. Salivary gland biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also be performed to diagnose diseases such as Sjogren syndrome . How to Prepare for the Test There is ... few days after the biopsy. The biopsy for Sjogren syndrome requires an injection of the anesthetic in the ...

  6. Prostate biopsy after ano-rectal resection: value of CT-guided trans-gluteal biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantwell, Colin P.; Hahn, Peter F.; Gervais, Debra A.; Mueller, Peter R.

    2008-01-01

    We describe our single-institutional experience with computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous transgluteal biopsy of the prostate in patients in whom transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy is precluded by prior ano-rectal resection. Between March 1995 and April 2007, 22 patients had 34 prostate biopsies (mean age 68; mean PSA 29 ng/ml; mean follow-up 6.1 years). The charts of patients who had transgluteal biopsy were reviewed for demographic, complications and pathology. Ninety-five percent (21/22) of primary biopsies were diagnostic. Of the 21 diagnostic biopsies, 11 were positive for prostate cancer and ten were definitive benign samples. Seventy-three percent (8/11) of the patients had progressive PSA elevation that mandated 11 further prostate biopsies. Six patients had a second biopsy, one patient had a third and one patient had a fourth biopsy. Among patients who had serial biopsies, 38% (3/8) had prostate cancer. No complications or death occurred. A malignant biopsy was not significantly associated with core number (P = 0.58) or a high PSA level (P 0.15). CT-guided transgluteal biopsy of the prostate is safe and effective. (orig.)

  7. The Muscle Metabolome Differs between Healthy and Frail Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazelzadeh, Parastoo; Hangelbroek, Roland W J; Tieland, Michael; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Smilde, Age K; Alves, Rodrigo D A M; Vervoort, Jacques; Müller, Michael; van Duynhoven, John P M; Boekschoten, Mark V

    2016-02-05

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy older and frail older subjects to determine the effect of age and frailty on the metabolic signature of skeletal muscle tissue. In addition, the effects of prolonged whole-body resistance-type exercise training on the muscle metabolome of older subjects were examined. The baseline metabolome was measured in muscle biopsies collected from 30 young, 66 healthy older subjects, and 43 frail older subjects. Follow-up samples from frail older (24 samples) and healthy older subjects (38 samples) were collected after 6 months of prolonged resistance-type exercise training. Young subjects were included as a reference group. Primary differences in skeletal muscle metabolite levels between young and healthy older subjects were related to mitochondrial function, muscle fiber type, and tissue turnover. Similar differences were observed when comparing frail older subjects with healthy older subjects at baseline. Prolonged resistance-type exercise training resulted in an adaptive response of amino acid metabolism, especially reflected in branched chain amino acids and genes related to tissue remodeling. The effect of exercise training on branched-chain amino acid-derived acylcarnitines in older subjects points to a downward shift in branched-chain amino acid catabolism upon training. We observed only modest correlations between muscle and plasma metabolite levels, which pleads against the use of plasma metabolites as a direct read-out of muscle metabolism and stresses the need for direct assessment of metabolites in muscle tissue biopsies.

  8. Psychometric evaluation of the muscle appearance satisfaction scale in a Mexican male sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoto Ponce de León, María Del Consuelo; Bosques-Brugada, Lilián Elizabeth; Camacho Ruiz, Esteban Jaime; Alvarez-Rayón, Georgina; Franco Paredes, Karina; Rodríguez Hernández, Gabriela

    2017-03-02

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the muscle appearance satisfaction scale (MASS) shows acceptable psychometric properties in Mexican bodybuilders. A total of 258 Mexican male bodybuilders were recruited. Two self-report questionnaires, including the MASS and drive for muscularity scale (DMS), were administered. Six models of the latent structure of the MASS were evaluated, using confirmatory factor analysis with maximum likelihood, considering robust Satorra-Bentler correction to estimate the fit of the models to the data. Similar to the original MASS, the series of CFA confirmed that the Mexican version was well represented with the 17-item five-factor structure, which showed a good model fit [Satorra-Bentler Chi-square (109, n = 258) = 189.18, p McDonald's omega, which was acceptable for the MASS (0.88), and their subscales (0.80 to 0.89), except for muscle checking scale (0.77). Test-retest reliability analysis showed stability of the MASS total as well as of the subscale scores over a 2-week period (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.75-0.91). Construct validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation between MASS and DMS results (r = 0.75; p = 0.0001). These results were similar to those of previous studies, which demonstrate the scale's usefulness. Our results support the suitability of the MASS and its subscales to measure muscle dysmorphia symptoms in Mexican male bodybuilders.

  9. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... is the most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  10. Heterogeneity of PTEN and ERG expression in prostate cancer on core needle biopsies: implications for cancer risk stratification and biomarker sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rajal B; Bentley, James; Jeffery, Zach; DeMarzo, Angelo M

    2015-05-01

    ERG and PTEN biomarkers are increasingly being analyzed on prostate core biopsies (NBXs); ERG as a marker of clonality and number of separately arising tumor foci and PTEN for prognostic information. Yet, in patients with multiple biopsy cores positive for cancer (PCa), there is no standardized approach for interrogation of these biomarkers in terms of the number of positive cores to evaluate. A total of 194 NBX cases containing more than one positive core with cancer were evaluated for ERG overexpression and PTEN loss by immunostaining (immunohistochemistry) of all positive cores. ERG overexpression or PTEN loss in at least one cancer core was present in 111 (57%) and 69 (36%) cases respectively. ERG overexpression was significantly associated with PTEN loss (P < .0001), and PTEN loss was associated with a high Gleason score (P < .0001). Inter- and intra-tumor core staining heterogeneity for ERG overexpression occurred in 42% and 5% cases and for PTEN loss both intra- and inter-tumor core heterogeneity was 68%. PTEN staining was highly discordant between PCa sites regardless of laterality. When the Gleason score was non-uniform across PCa sites, the combination of cores showing the highest Gleason score and largest tumor volume provided the best representation of ERG overexpression (92%) and PTEN loss (98%). When grades were uniform across cancer sites, the highest tumor volume core was generally representative of ERG overexpression (90%) but was less representative for PTEN loss (76%). Our results suggest that knowledge of this heterogeneity is critical for developing optimal yet cost-effective strategies to identify these underlying molecular abnormalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30 0 C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with ( 30 P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ

  12. La biopsie prostatique

    OpenAIRE

    DJEDOUI, MERIEM

    2013-01-01

    La preuve d'un cancer de la prostate est apportée par la biopsie prostatique. Malheureusement, une biopsie négative, bien que rassurante, ne suffit pas à exclure un noyau cancéreux à côté duquel l'aiguille est passée. L'urologue peut être amené à proposer une nouvelle biopsie, en augmentant, s'il le faut, le nombre de prélèvements de tissu prostatique. Ayant connu Le but d'une biopsie prostatique, le patient pourrait maintenant décider d'entrer dans d'autres alternatives qui...

  13. Antecedents of eating disorders and muscle dysmorphia in a non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, J; Grieve, F G; Derryberry, W Pitt; Hakman, M; McClure, A

    2010-01-01

    Muscle Dysmorphia (MD) has recently been conceptualized as the male form of Eating Disorders (ED); although, it is not currently classified as an ED. The current study compares etiological models of MD symptomatology and ED symptomatology. It was hypothesized that sociocultural influences on appearance (SIA) would predict body dissatisfaction (BD), and that this relationship would be mediated by self-esteem (SE) and perfectionism (P); that BD would predict negative affect (NA); and that NA would predict MD and ED symptomatology. Two-hundred-forty-seven female and 101 male college students at a midsouth university completed the study. All participants completed measures assessing each of the constructs, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to test each model's fit. In both models, most predictor paths were significant. These results suggest similarity in symptomatology and etiological models between ED and MD.

  14. Skeletal muscle substrate metabolism during exercise: methodological considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; González-Alonso, J; Sacchetti, M

    1999-01-01

    and the respiratory exchange ratio. However, if the aim is to quantify limb or muscle metabolism, invasive measurements have to be carried out, such as the determination of blood flow, arterio-venous (a-v) difference measurements for O2 and relevant substrates, and biopsies of the active muscle. As many substrates...... substrates. There are several methodological concerns to be aware of when studying the metabolic response to exercise in human subjects. These concerns include: (1) the muscle mass involved in the exercise is largely unknown (bicycle or treadmill). Moreover, whether the muscle sample obtained from a limb......; (3) the use of net limb glycerol release to estimate lipolysis is probably not valid (triacylglycerol utilization by muscle), since glycerol can be metabolized in skeletal muscle; (4) the precision of blood-borne substrate concentrations during exercise measured by a-v difference is hampered since...

  15. GoM Coastal Biopsy Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Small vessel surveys were conducted within estuarine and nearshore coastal waters of Barataria Bay, LA and Mississippi Sound, MS to collect tissue biopsy samples...

  16. Mitochondrial dysfunction in calf muscles of patients with combined peripheral arterial disease and diabetes type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Pedersen, Brian; Bækgaard, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study elucidate the effects on muscle mitochondrial function in patients suffering from combined peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relation to patient symptoms and treatment. METHODS: Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS) calf muscle exercise tests...... were conducted on Forty subjects, 15 (PAD), 15 (PAD+T2D) and 10 healthy age matched controls (CTRL) recruited from the vascular outpatient clinic at Gentofte County Hospital, Denmark. Calf muscle biopsies (~ 80 mg) (Gastrocnemius and Anterior tibial muscles) were sampled and mitochondrial function...... group. This was confirmed by a ~30% reduction in oxygen consumption in the muscle biopsy tests for the PAD+T2D compared to the PAD group (P

  17. Percutaneous biopsy of a metastatic common iliac lymph node using hydrodissection and a semi-automated biopsy gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Seong Yoon; Park, Byung Kwan [Dept. of Radiology, amsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Percutaneous biopsy is a less invasive technique for sampling the tissue than laparoscopic biopsy or exploratory laparotomy. However, it is difficult to perform biopsy of a deep-seated lesion because of the possibility of damage to the critical organs. Recently, we successfully performed CT-guided biopsy of a metastatic common iliac lymph node using hydrodissection and semi-automated biopsy devices. The purpose of this case report was to show how to perform hydrodissection and how to use a semi-automated gun for safe biopsy of a metastatic common iliac lymph node.

  18. Biopsy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biopsy - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Breast Biopsy - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Colposcopy - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF ...

  19. Coeliac disease: to biopsy or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Norelle R; Husby, Steffen; Sanders, David S; Green, Peter H R

    2018-01-01

    Coeliac disease is increasingly recognized as a global problem in both children and adults. Traditionally, the findings of characteristic changes of villous atrophy and increased intraepithelial lymphocytosis identified in duodenal biopsy samples taken during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy have been required for diagnosis. Although biopsies remain advised as necessary for the diagnosis of coeliac disease in adults, European guidelines for children provide a biopsy-sparing diagnostic pathway. This approach has been enabled by the high specificity and sensitivity of serological testing. However, these guidelines are not universally accepted. In this Perspective, we discuss the pros and cons of a biopsy-avoiding pathway for the diagnosis of coeliac disease, especially in this current era of the call for more biopsies, even from the duodenal bulb, in the diagnosis of coeliac disease. In addition, a contrast between paediatric and adult guidelines is presented.

  20. Pumping Iron in Australia: Prevalence, Trends and Sociodemographic Correlates of Muscle Strengthening Activity Participation from a National Sample of 195,926 Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Bennie

    Full Text Available The current Australian Physical Activity Guidelines recommend that adults engage in regular muscle-strengthening activity (e.g. strength or resistance training. However, public health surveillance studies describing the patterns and trends of population-level muscle-strengthening activity participation are sparse. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, trends and sociodemographic correlates of muscle-strengthening activity participation in a national-representative sample of Australians aged 15 years and over.Between 2001 and 2010, quarterly cross-sectional national telephone surveys were conducted as part of the Australian Sports Commission's 'Exercise, Recreation and Sport Survey'. Pooled population-weighted proportions were calculated for reporting: [i] no muscle-strengthening activity; [ii] insufficient muscle-strengthening activity, and [iii] sufficient muscle-strengthening activity. Associations with sociodemographic variables were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses.Out of 195,926 participants, aged 15-98 years, only 10.4% (95% CI: 10.1-10.7 and 9.3% (95% CI: 9.1-9.5 met the muscle-strengthening activity recommendations in the past two weeks and in the past year, respectively. Older adults (50+ years, and those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged, outer regional/remote areas and with lower education were less likely to report sufficient muscle-strengthening activity (p<0.001. Over the 10-year monitoring period, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of sufficient muscle-strengthening activity (6.4% to 12.0%, p-value for linear trend <0.001.A vast majority of Australian adults did not engage in sufficient muscle-strengthening activity. There is a need for public health strategies to support participation in muscle-strengthening activity in this population. Such strategies should target older and lower educated adults, and those living in socioeconomically disadvantaged, outer regional

  1. Clinical application of Lin's biopsy grasper for intrauterine targeted biopsy and polypectomy during office hysteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Bao-Liang; Tseng, Jen-Yu; Ueno, Kazunori; Nakada, Sakura

    2018-06-01

    Hysteroscopy has widely been used for diagnosis of the uterine cavity; however, target biopsy has often been difficult in part to the inherent limitations of ancillary instruments. Lin's biopsy grasper was specifically designed to work in conjunction with a flexible hysteroscope to obtain intrauterine biopsy under transabdominal sonography. Herein, we share our clinical experience in the management of endometrial abnormalities with the use of Lin's biopsy grasper during office-based hysteroscopy. From February 2006 to November 2016, the use of Lin's biopsy grasper for tissue biopsy was attempted on 126 cases. We retrospectively recorded and analyzed the patients' preoperative characteristics and biopsy outcomes to demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of Lin's biopsy grasper. Out of the one hundred and twenty-six enrolled patients, satisfactory targeted biopsies were achieved; including high diagnostic rate (92.1%, with 116 cases confirmed histologically) and adequate tissue retrieval (77.8%, with 98 cases obtaining optimal specimen volume). All patients tolerated the procedure without analgesics or anesthesia. Diagnostic flexible hysteroscopy combined with the use of Lin's biopsy grasper has proven to be an effective tool for intrauterine evaluation and obtaining tissue sample. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in extrapulmonary biopsy samples using PCR targeting IS6110, rpoB, and nested-rpoB PCR Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghdadi, Hossein; Khosravi, Azar D; Ghadiri, Ata A; Sina, Amir H; Alami, Ameneh

    2015-01-01

    Present study was aimed to examine the diagnostic utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR techniques for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) DNA in samples from patients with extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). In total 80 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples comprising 70 samples with definite diagnosis of EPTB and 10 samples from known non- EPTB on the basis of histopathology examination, were included in the study. PCR amplification targeting IS6110, rpoB gene and nested PCR targeting the rpoB gene were performed on the extracted DNAs from 80 FFPE samples. The strong positive samples were directly sequenced. For negative samples and those with weak band in nested-rpoB PCR, TA cloning was performed by cloning the products into the plasmid vector with subsequent sequencing. The 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the estimates of sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each method. Fourteen (20%), 34 (48.6%), and 60 (85.7%) of the 70 positive samples confirmed by histopathology, were positive by rpoB-PCR, IS6110-PCR, and nested-rpoB PCR, respectively. By performing TA cloning on samples that yielded weak (n = 8) or negative results (n = 10) in the PCR methods, we were able to improve their quality for later sequencing. All samples with weak band and 7 out of 10 negative samples, showed strong positive results after cloning. So nested-rpoB PCR cloning revealed positivity in 67 out of 70 confirmed samples (95.7%). The sensitivity of these combination methods was calculated as 95.7% in comparison with histopathology examination. The CI for sensitivity of the PCR methods were calculated as 11.39-31.27% for rpoB-PCR, 36.44-60.83% for IS6110- PCR, 75.29-92.93% for nested-rpoB PCR, and 87.98-99.11% for nested-rpoB PCR cloning. The 10 true EPTB negative samples by histopathology, were negative by all tested methods including cloning and were used to calculate the specificity of the applied methods. The CI for 100

  3. Improved transvenous liver biopsy needle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Matzen, P; Christoffersen, P

    1979-01-01

    A modified type of the standard transvenous cholangiography biopsy needle is described. The modified tranvenous liver biopsy needle caused only minimal artefactual changes of the liver biopsy specimens. The new type of biopsy needle is a modified Menghini needle. The conventional Menghini needle...... should be avoided for transvenous catheter biopsies because of risk of leaving catheter fragments in the liver....

  4. Identification of proteins from 4200-year-old skin and muscle tissue biopsies from ancient Egyptian mummies of the first intermediate period shows evidence of acute inflammation and severe immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Ravishankar, Prathiba; Xavier, Dylan; Lim, Do Seon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Bianucci, Raffaella; Haynes, Paul A

    2016-10-28

    We performed proteomics analysis on four skin and one muscle tissue samples taken from three ancient Egyptian mummies of the first intermediate period, approximately 4200 years old. The mummies were first dated by radiocarbon dating of the accompany-\\break ing textiles, and morphologically examined by scanning electron microscopy of additional skin samples. Proteins were extracted, separated on SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) gels, and in-gel digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were analysed using nanoflow high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified a total of 230 unique proteins from the five samples, which consisted of 132 unique protein identifications. We found a large number of collagens, which was confirmed by our microscopy data, and is in agreement with previous studies showing that collagens are very long-lived. As expected, we also found a large number of keratins. We identified numerous proteins that provide evidence of activation of the innate immunity system in two of the mummies, one of which also contained proteins indicating severe tissue inflammation, possibly indicative of an infection that we can speculate may have been related to the cause of death.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Diabetic muscle infarction: radiologic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chason, D.P.; Fleckenstein, J.L.; Burns, D.K.; Rojas, G.

    1996-01-01

    Four patients with severe diabetes mellitus presenting with acute thigh pain, tenderness, and swelling were evaluated by imaging techniques and biopsy. Edema in the affected muscles was seen in two patients with MRI studies. Femoral artery calcification and mild muscle swelling was present in one patient who underwent CT. Decreased echogenicity was seen in the involved muscle in a patient studied with ultrasound. Serum enzymes were normal or mildly elevated in three patients (not reported in one). Biopsy demonstrated necrosis and regenerative change in all cases. MRI, although nonspecific, is the best imaging technique to suggest the diagnosis of DMI in the appropriate clinical setting, thereby obviating biopsy. (orig./MG)

  6. Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA in pharyngeal epithelium biopsy samples obtained from infected cattle: Investigation of possible sites of virus replication and persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    measurements of the levels of FMDV RNA in the DSP as well as mandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes beyond 28 days after infection. Results indicated only low levels of FMDV RNA present in samples of pharyngeal epithelia during both early and persistent phases of infection with significantly higher levels...... of virus detected in pharyngeal excretions. It is concluded that the targeted area for sampling within the DSP does not harbour significant levels of virus replication during acute or persistent FMDV infection in cattle. Furthermore, the DSP and the mandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes cannot...

  7. An investigation of the microbiota in uterine flush samples and endometrial biopsies from dairy cows during the first 7 weeks postpartum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lif Rødtness Vesterby; Karstrup, Cecilia Christensen; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi

    2016-01-01

    Metritis and endometritis commonly occur in dairy cows after calving. Although numerous studies have been performed to identify the causative pathogens, a complete overview has not been done. Metagenomic studies have analyzed the bacterial populations of uterine flush samples from postpartum (pp)...

  8. Breast biopsy -- stereotactic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org/-/media/ACR/Files/Practice-Parameters/stereo-breast.pdf . Updated 2016. Accessed March 14, 2017. Parker C, Umphrey H, Bland K. The role of stereotactic breast biopsy in the management of breast disease. In: Cameron ...

  9. Breast biopsy -- ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org/-/media/ACR/Files/Practice-Parameters/us-guidedbreast.pdf . Updated 2016. Accessed March 14, 2017. Torrente J, Brem RF. Minimally invasive image-guided breast biopsy and ablation. In: Mauro MA, Murphy KPJ, Thomson ...

  10. Pleural needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own. Sometimes, a chest tube is needed to drain the air and expand the lung. There is also a chance of excessive blood loss. Considerations If a closed pleural biopsy is not enough to make a diagnosis, ...

  11. Colposcopy - directed biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... squamous cells - colposcopy; Pap smear - colposcopy; HPV - colposcopy; Human papilloma virus - colposcopy; Cervix - colposcopy; Colposcopy ... also called cervical dysplasia) Cervical warts (infection with human papilloma virus , or HPV) If the biopsy does not ...

  12. Liver biopsy under hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P C; Stenn, P G

    1992-09-01

    Two patients underwent outpatient percutaneous liver biopsy under hypnosis without complications. One patient had severe anxiety about the procedure because of a previous adverse experience with liver biopsy and the other had a history of severe allergy to local anesthesia. Both patients had undergone a session of hypnosis at least once prior to the biopsy. One received no local anesthetic and the other received 1% lidocaine as a local anesthetic. Both patients were completely cooperative during the procedure with the required respiratory maneuvers. Both patients stated that they were aware of the procedure under hypnosis but described no pain and would be most willing to have the procedure done under hypnosis in the future. Hypnosis can be a useful method of preparing carefully selected patients for percutaneous liver biopsy.

  13. Corpus vitreum, retina og chorioidea biopsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherfig, Erik Christian Høegh

    2002-01-01

    oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma......oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma...

  14. Biopsy in Musculoskeletal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharehdaghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of bone tumors is based on careful evaluation of clinical, imaging and a pathologic findings. So the biopsy of bone and soft tissue sarcomas is the final step in evaluation and a fundamental step in the diagnosis of the lesion. It should not be performed as a shortcut to diagnosis (1. The biopsy should be performed in order to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate among few diagnoses after careful staged studies. Real and artificial changes in imaging studies will be superimposed after performing biopsy, which may alter the interpretation if done after biopsy is taken (1. The correct management of a sarcoma depends on the accurate diagnosis. Inadequate, inapprppriate, or inaccurate non-representative biopsy leads to poorer outcome in terms of survivorship and limb salvage. An incorrect, unplanned incision and biopsy may unnecessarily contaminate uninvolved compartments which may convert a salvageable limb to amputation. Anatomic approach along with the proper biopsy techniques may lead to success or catastrophe. It is clear that in patients with inappropriate biopsy, the chance of the need to change the treatment to more radical than would originally be expected is significantly higher. Also it is more probable to need to  convert curative to palliative treatment and to require adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with inappropriate biopsies. Patients with sarcoma are best served by early referral to a specialized center where staged investigations and biopsy can be performed with minimal morbidity (3. Open biopsy is still considered the gold standard; however, recent studies suggest comparable results with percutaneous core needle biopsy. Our study on 103 consecutive CNB and open biopsy showed comparable results as well. Surgeons need to answer to two questions prior to performing a biopsy: 1-          Where is the best part of the lesion to be biopsied? 2-          What is the safest route without contaminating

  15. Pre- and posttranslational upregulation of muscle-specific glycogen synthase in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Andersen, P H; Lund, S

    1994-01-01

    Expression of muscle-specific glycogen synthase (GS) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) was analyzed in seven athletes and eight control subjects who were characterized using the euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic (2 mU.kg-1.min-1) clamp technique in combination with indirect calorimetry and biopsy sampling...

  16. Pathology of skeletal muscle in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drewes, A M; Andreasen, A; Schrøder, H D

    1993-01-01

    The value of muscle biopsy in fibromyalgia is still questioned. In this study we obtained 50 quadriceps biopsies from 20 patients and compared them blindly to 10 biopsies from five normal controls. Using light microscopy, histochemical and immunoenzymatic methods we found no definite evidence...

  17. Does caffeine alter muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Terry E; Battram, Danielle S; Dela, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    and carbohydrate metabolism. While caffeine certainly mobilizes fatty acids from adipose tissue, rarely have measures of the respiratory exchange ratio indicated an increase in fat oxidation. However, this is a difficult measure to perform accurately during exercise, and small changes could be physiologically...... important. The few studies examining human muscle metabolism directly have also supported the fact that there is no change in fat or carbohydrate metabolism, but these usually have had a small sample size. We combined the data from muscle biopsy analyses of several similar studies to generate a sample size...

  18. Skeletal muscle lymphoma: observations at MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustace, S.; Winalski, C.S.; McGowen, A.; Lan, H.; Dorfman, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present the MR appearances of three patients with biopsy-proven primary lymphoma of skeletal muscle. In each case lymphoma resulted in bulky expansion of the involved muscle, homogeneously isointense to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted images, homogeneously hyperintense to skeletal muscle on T2-weighted images and diffusely enhancing following intravenous administration of gadopentate dimeglumine. (orig.)

  19. Diabetic muscle infarction: atypical MR appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.; Mangwana, S.; Kapoor, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a case of diabetic muscle infarction which had atypical features of hyperintensity of the affected muscle on T1-weighted images. Biopsy was performed which revealed diffuse extensive hemorrhage within the infarcted muscle. We believe increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images should suggest hemorrhage within the infarcted muscle. (orig.)

  20. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor BB Influences Muscle Regeneration in Duchenne Muscle Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñol-Jurado, Patricia; Gallardo, Eduard; de Luna, Noemi; Suárez-Calvet, Xavier; Sánchez-Riera, Carles; Fernández-Simón, Esther; Gomis, Clara; Illa, Isabel; Díaz-Manera, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle fibers, and their substitution by fibrotic and adipose tissue. Many factors contribute to this process, but the molecular pathways related to regeneration and degeneration of muscle are not completely known. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB belongs to a family of growth factors that regulate proliferation, migration, and differentiation of mesenchymal cells. The role of PDGF-BB in muscle regeneration in humans has not been studied. We analyzed the expression of PDGF-BB in muscle biopsy samples from controls and patients with DMD. We performed in vitro experiments to understand the effects of PDGF-BB on myoblasts involved in the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophies and confirmed our results in vivo by treating the mdx murine model of DMD with repeated i.m. injections of PDGF-BB. We observed that regenerating and necrotic muscle fibers in muscle biopsy samples from DMD patients expressed PDGF-BB. In vitro, PDGF-BB attracted myoblasts and activated their proliferation. Analysis of muscles from the animals treated with PDGF-BB showed an increased population of satellite cells and an increase in the number of regenerative fibers, with a reduction in inflammatory infiltrates, compared with those in vehicle-treated mice. Based on our results, PDGF-BB may play a protective role in muscular dystrophies by enhancing muscle regeneration through activation of satellite cell proliferation and migration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of 16S rRNA qPCR for detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA in nasal secretion and skin biopsy samples from multibacillary and paucibacillary leprosy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Lívia Érika Carlos; Frota, Cristiane Cunha; Quetz, Josiane da Silva; Bindá, Alexandre Havt; Mota, Rosa Maria Salane; Pontes, Maria Araci de Andrade; Gonçalves, Heitor de Sá; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo

    2017-12-26

    Mycobacterium leprae bacilli are mainly transmitted by the dissemination of nasal aerosols from multibacillary (MB) patients to susceptible individuals through inhalation. The upper respiratory tract represents the main entry and exit routes of M. leprae. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in detecting M. leprae in nasal secretion (NS) and skin biopsy (SB) samples from MB and paucibacillary (PB) cases. Fifty-four NS samples were obtained from leprosy patients at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology in Ceará, Brazil. Among them, 19 MB cases provided both NS and SB samples. Bacilloscopy index assays were conducted and qPCR amplification was performed using specific primers for M. leprae 16S rRNA gene, generating a 124-bp fragment. Primer specificity was verified by determining the amplicon melting temperature (T m  = 79.5 °C) and detection limit of qPCR was 20 fg of M. leprae DNA. Results were positive for 89.7 and 73.3% of NS samples from MB and PB cases, respectively. SB samples from MB patients were 100% positive. The number of bacilli detected in NS samples were 1.39 × 10 3 -8.02 × 10 5 , and in SB samples from MB patients were 1.87 × 10 3 -1.50 × 10 6 . Therefore, qPCR assays using SYBR Green targeting M. leprae 16S rRNA region can be employed in detecting M. leprae in nasal swabs from leprosy patients, validating this method for epidemiological studies aiming to identify healthy carriers among household contacts or within populations of an endemic area.

  2. Human papillomavirus in anal biopsy tissues and liquid-based cytology samples of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Thai men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tippawan Pankam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk of developing human papillomavirus (HPV-related anal cancer. We compared HPV genotypes in anal tissues (Bx and anal liquid-based cytology fluid (LBC from HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM. Methods: Bx (32 normal, 41 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and 22 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, along with LBC from the same visit, were selected from 61 HIV-positive and 34 HIV-negative MSM who enrolled into a prospective cohort in Bangkok, Thailand. HPV genotyping was performed on Bx and LBC. Results: Any HPV and high-risk HPV (HR-HPV prevalence were 63.2% and 60.0% in Bx and 71.6% and 62.1% in LBC, respectively. HIV-positive MSM had higher rates of HR-HPV genotypes detection (70.5% vs. 47.1%, p=0.03 in LBC than HIV-negative MSM. HPV16 (27% was the most common HR-HPV found in HSIL tissue. In HIV-positive MSM, the frequency of HR-HPV detection increased with histopathologic grading in both Bx and LBC samples. HSIL was associated with the presence of any HR-HPV(OR 7.6 (95%CI 1.8–31.9; P=0.006 in LBC and in Bx((OR 5.6 (95%CI 1.4–22.7; P=0.02. Conclusions: Our data strongly support the integration of HR-HPV screening on LBC samples, along with HPV vaccination, into an anal cancer prevention program. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Anal tissues, Men who have sex with men, HIV, Thailand

  3. Image-guided breast biopsy: state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Flynn, E.A.M., E-mail: lizoflynn@doctors.org.u [South East London Breast Screening Programme and National Breast Screening Training Centre, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Wilson, A.R.M.; Michell, M.J. [South East London Breast Screening Programme and National Breast Screening Training Centre, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Percutaneous image-guided breast biopsy is widely practised to evaluate predominantly non-palpable breast lesions. There has been steady development in percutaneous biopsy techniques. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was the original method of sampling, followed in the early 1990s by large core needle biopsy. The accuracy of both has been improved by ultrasound and stereotactic guidance. Larger bore vacuum-assisted biopsy devices became available in the late 1990s and are now commonplace in most breast units. We review the different types of breast biopsy devices currently available together with various localization techniques used, focusing on their advantages, limitations and current controversial clinical management issues.

  4. Nonfocal renal biopsies: adequacy and factors affecting a successful outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Mark A; Atri, Mostafa; O'Malley, Martin; Jacks, Lindsay; John, Rohan; Herzenberg, Andrew; Reich, Heather; Ghai, Sangeet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors affecting the success of ultrasound-guided core biopsy of kidneys and determine the optimum number of passes. This retrospective study evaluated 484 nonfocal renal biopsies performed with 18-gauge side-notch biopsy needles. Number of biopsy passes, serum creatinine, body mass index, needle type, transplant age, kidney size, diabetic status, and operator were evaluated as predictors of the number of biopsy passes. Four hundred seventy-four biopsies (338 transplant, 136 native) were included with mean number of passes 2.87 (3.1 native vs 2.78 transplant; P = 0.002). Mean number of glomeruli yielded per pass was 6.9 (7.2 transplant vs 6.1 native; P = 0.0002) with 3 passes adequate for histological diagnosis in 84% of biopsies. Native kidney, increasing serum creatinine level, trainee biopsy operator, and use of a Temno needle were found to be independent predictors of having more than 3 biopsy passes on multivariate analysis. Age, sex, body mass index, diabetic status, and kidney size were not associated with the number of biopsy passes. The success of a nonfocal renal biopsy has many influencing variables, and in the absence of an on-site electron microscopy technologist to immediately evaluate biopsy samples, 3 passes with an 18-gauge needle would be adequate in 84% of kidneys to achieve a histological diagnosis, with 2 passes needed for transplant kidneys to meet the Banff 97 criteria.

  5. CT Guided biopsies of musculoskeletal lesions, radiological and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzihasanovic, B.; Milisic, L.; Zuban, J.; Mujic, E.; Jahic, E.; Gjikolli, B.; Hasanovic, B.; Lincender-Cvijetic, L.; Jaganjac, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study is to overview our experiences in taking the CT guided biopsies of musculoskeletal lesions during the period of sixteen months, analysis of validity of samples taken and correlation with pathological findings. CT guided biopsies of musculoskeletal lesions were performed in 32 patients during the period of sixteen months (from December 2004 until March 2006). Age range was from 13 to 78 years. Majorities of the biopsies were performed with coaxial cutting needle system (14 G and 16 G) with introducers size 13 and 15 G. Bone biopsies were performed with Yamsidi needles in purpose of taking the bone cylinder. Majorities of the biopsies were performed under local anaesthesia except a thirteen years old child to whom CT guided biopsy of corpus Th 6 was performed under general anaesthesia. Two samples of tissues were sent in formalin solutions to Pathology Institute for pathological verification. In one case of musculoskeletal lesions CT guided biopsies didn't yield a representative tissue sample. We had high level of congruence between radiological and pathological findings; precise presented in the article. CT guided biopsies of musculoskeletal lesions are method of choice for pathologic verification of musculoskeletal lesions proving incomparable less risk compared to 'open' biopsy which requires operating theatre and general anaesthesia. Coaxial needle systems has shown as suitable for yielding representative tissue samples (two samples for each patient), and samples are also appropriate for immunohistochemical analysis

  6. Implication of sample preparation procedures in determination of 137Cs radioactivity in muscle of marine organisms and the radioactivity concentration in the recent years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Shinji; Isoyama, Naohiko; Misonoo, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Long-term fluctuation of the yield and ash content of muscle dissected from marine organisms were investigated for establishing a standard of pretreatment procedure based on the data on radioactivity analyses of various biological samples such as fish and shellfish which were collected from 15 sea areas adjacent to nuclear power stations in Japan. The muscle yield in terms of the percentage of muscle weight to the whole raw weight as well as ash content were obtained for 53 species during the period from 1983 to 2007 and subjected to a statistical scrutiny. There was no significant change in general in the muscle yield and ash content, with the exception of some species due to modification of pretreatment method. However those exceptions would not have resulted in a critical change of the level of 137 Cs concentration in marine organisms as a whole in the sea areas of concern, because it was usually expressed as the average for three different species in the present study. The ash content would be useful, nevertheless, as an index to assure the comparability of sample preparation technique. The 137 Cs radioactivity concentration in muscle of marine organisms gradually decreased year by year from 1990 after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, and would not be more than 0.24 Bq/kg-wet, the maximum level during 2003 to 2007, in the future from the viewpoint of fail-safe approaching. (author)

  7. Changes in persistent contaminant concentration and CYP1A1 protein expression in biopsy samples from northern bottlenose whales, Hyperoodon ampullatus, following the onset of nearby oil and gas development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, Sascha K. [Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4J1 (Canada); Sea Mammal Research Unit, University of St Andrews, FIFE KY16 8YG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.hooker@st-andrews.ac.uk; Metcalfe, Tracy L.; Metcalfe, Chris D. [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7B8 (Canada); Angell, Carolyn M.; Wilson, Joanna Y.; Moore, Michael J. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Whitehead, Hal [Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4J1 (Canada)

    2008-03-15

    A small population of endangered northern bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon ampullatus) inhabits 'The Gully' a Marine Protected Area on the Scotian Shelf, eastern Canada. Amid concerns regarding nearby oil and gas development, we took 36 skin and blubber biopsy samples in 1996-1997 (prior to major development) and 2002-2003 (five years after development began), and three samples from a population in the Davis Strait, Labrador in 2003. These were analysed for cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) protein expression (n = 36), and for persistent contaminants (n = 23). CYP1A1 showed generally low expression in whales from The Gully, but higher levels during 2003, potentially coincident with recorded oil spills, and higher levels in Davis Strait whales. A range of PCB congeners and organochlorine compounds were detected, with concentrations similar to other North Atlantic odontocetes. Concentrations were higher in whales from The Gully than from the Davis Strait, with significant increases in 4,4'-DDE and trans-nonachlor in 2002-2003 relative to 1996-1997. - Whale contaminants highlight concerns from oil and gas development near a marine protected area.

  8. Changes in persistent contaminant concentration and CYP1A1 protein expression in biopsy samples from northern bottlenose whales, Hyperoodon ampullatus, following the onset of nearby oil and gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, Sascha K.; Metcalfe, Tracy L.; Metcalfe, Chris D.; Angell, Carolyn M.; Wilson, Joanna Y.; Moore, Michael J.; Whitehead, Hal

    2008-01-01

    A small population of endangered northern bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon ampullatus) inhabits 'The Gully' a Marine Protected Area on the Scotian Shelf, eastern Canada. Amid concerns regarding nearby oil and gas development, we took 36 skin and blubber biopsy samples in 1996-1997 (prior to major development) and 2002-2003 (five years after development began), and three samples from a population in the Davis Strait, Labrador in 2003. These were analysed for cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) protein expression (n = 36), and for persistent contaminants (n = 23). CYP1A1 showed generally low expression in whales from The Gully, but higher levels during 2003, potentially coincident with recorded oil spills, and higher levels in Davis Strait whales. A range of PCB congeners and organochlorine compounds were detected, with concentrations similar to other North Atlantic odontocetes. Concentrations were higher in whales from The Gully than from the Davis Strait, with significant increases in 4,4'-DDE and trans-nonachlor in 2002-2003 relative to 1996-1997. - Whale contaminants highlight concerns from oil and gas development near a marine protected area

  9. Quantitative evaluation of skeletal muscle defects in second harmonic generation images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhua; Raben, Nina; Ralston, Evelyn

    2013-02-01

    Skeletal muscle pathologies cause irregularities in the normally periodic organization of the myofibrils. Objective grading of muscle morphology is necessary to assess muscle health, compare biopsies, and evaluate treatments and the evolution of disease. To facilitate such quantitation, we have developed a fast, sensitive, automatic imaging analysis software. It detects major and minor morphological changes by combining texture features and Fourier transform (FT) techniques. We apply this tool to second harmonic generation (SHG) images of muscle fibers which visualize the repeating myosin bands. Texture features are then calculated by using a Haralick gray-level cooccurrence matrix in MATLAB. Two scores are retrieved from the texture correlation plot by using FT and curve-fitting methods. The sensitivity of the technique was tested on SHG images of human adult and infant muscle biopsies and of mouse muscle samples. The scores are strongly correlated to muscle fiber condition. We named the software MARS (muscle assessment and rating scores). It is executed automatically and is highly sensitive even to subtle defects. We propose MARS as a powerful and unbiased tool to assess muscle health.

  10. Lung needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does not need treatment. But ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale (condition ... of the lung High blood pressure in the lung arteries Severe ...

  11. Closed Pericardial Biopsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-09-28

    Sep 28, 1974 ... The instrument used is a hook biopsy needle (Fig. I). manufactured by Becton, Dickinson and Co., Rutherford,. New Jersey, USA. The instrument' and technique' will be reviewed. The instrument consists of an ll-gauge needle with a sharp cutting edge into which fits, interchangeably, a 13-gauge needle or a ...

  12. CONE BIOPSY IN PREGNANCY*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Mei 1971. S.-A. TYDSKRIF VIR OBSTETRIE EN GINEKOLOGIE. CONE BIOPSY ... of the abnormal cervix in pregnancy is also no longer in question following the .... the concept of cancer prophylaxis to the majority of women, many of whom ...

  13. Skeletal muscle digoxin concentration during digitalization and during withdrawal of digoxin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogestrand, T; Ericsson, F; Sundqvist, K

    1981-01-01

    Blood samples and skeletal muscle biopsies (m. quadriceps femoris, vastus lateralis) were taken from 15 patients during digitalization or during withdrawal of digoxin treatment for analysis of serum and skeletal muscle digoxin concentrations. A percutaneous needle biopsy technique was used for muscle sampling and digoxin was analysed by radioimmunoassay. During "slow" digitalization with 0.25 mg digoxin daily the skeletal muscle digoxin concentrations after 2 and 4 days were 45% (range 19%--62%; n = 3) and 78% (range 56%--92%; n= 3) respectively, of the steady state concentration (defined as the digoxin concentration after 25--40 days of treatment). After 9 and 11 days of treatment the skeletal muscle digoxin concentrations were 106% (range 84%--133%; n = 5) and 116% (range 72%--164%; n = 3) respectively, of the steady state concentration. A doubling of the digoxin dose gave a proportional increase in skeletal muscle digoxin concentration (three patients). The magnitude of the estimated half-life of skeletal muscle digoxin was the same as previously reportedly in healthy subjects. No significant correlations were found between changes in systolic time intervals and steady state serum or skeletal muscle digoxin concentrations.

  14. Kinetic analysis of cooking losses from beef and other animal muscles heated in a water bath--effect of sample dimensions and prior freezing and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oillic, Samuel; Lemoine, Eric; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2011-07-01

    Cooking loss kinetics were measured on cubes and parallelepipeds of beef Semimembranosus muscle ranging from 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm to 7 cm × 7 cm × 28 cm in size. The samples were water bath-heated at three different temperatures, i.e. 50°C, 70°C and 90°C, and for five different times. Temperatures were simulated to help interpret the results. Pre-freezing the sample, difference in ageing time, and in muscle fiber orientation had little influence on cooking losses. At longer treatment times, the effects of sample size disappeared and cooking losses depended only on the temperature. A selection of the tests was repeated on four other beef muscles and on veal, horse and lamb Semimembranosus muscle. Kinetics followed similar curves in all cases but resulted in different final water contents. The shape of the kinetics curves suggests first-order kinetics. Copyright © 2011 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of percutaneous needle liver biopsy on dairy cow behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lene; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    In cattle, percutaneous needle liver biopsy is used for scientific examination of liver metabolism. The impact of the biopsy procedure is, however, poorly investigated. Our aim was to examine the behaviour of dairy cows during and after liver biopsy. Data were collected from 18 dry cows....... Percutaneous needle liver biopsies (after administration of local anaesthesia (2% Procaine)) and blood samples were taken during restraining. During the control treatment, animals were restrained and blood sampled. During the biopsy procedure, cows showed increased restlessness (P = 0.008), frequency of head...... behavioural changes for up to 19 h – and particularly for behaviour previously associated with pain. Even though the exact welfare impact of percutaneous needle liver biopsies in cows is not known, and the magnitude of the behavioural changes was limited, pain always has negative effects on animal welfare...

  16. A novel technique for diaphragm biopsies in human patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noullet, Séverine; Romero, Norma; Menegaux, Fabrice; Chapart, Maud; Demoule, Alexandre; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jésus

    2015-06-15

    The diaphragm is difficult to biopsy because of its anatomic location. We describe a new laparoscopic diaphragm biopsy technique. Fifty one patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis gave their consent to diaphragm biopsy in the context of an implanted phrenic nerve stimulation protocol (NCT01583088). The biopsy was taken from the costal diaphragm, after opening the parietal peritoneum with scissors, and by grasping the diaphragmatic muscle over the rib with toothed laparoscopy forceps. The first four electrocoagulation biopsies were unsuitable for morphologic examination. The following 47 biopsies were therefore performed without electrocoagulation. The mean size of the biopsy fragments obtained after preparation was 3 ± 1 × 2 ± 1 × 1 ± 1 mm (maximum: 4 × 3 × 2 mm). A diaphragmatic injury occurred during the section in three cases requiring immediate suture without causing pneumothorax. A small pleural effusion was observed on the postoperative chest x-ray in one patient with a spontaneously favorable outcome. Numerous stains were able to be performed on the fragments obtained. Diaphragm biopsy can be safely performed by laparoscopy and yields tissue suitable for our future histologic evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ibuprofen ingestion does not affect markers of post-exercise muscle inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke eVella

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated if oral ingestion of ibuprofen influenced leucocyte recruitment and infiltration following an acute bout of traditional resistance exercise. Methods: Sixteen male subjects were divided into two groups that received the maximum over-the-counter dose of ibuprofen (1200 mg d-1 or a similarly administered placebo following lower body resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from m.vastus lateralis and blood serum samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise, and at 3 h and 24 h after exercise. Muscle cross-sections were stained with antibodies against neutrophils (CD66b and MPO and macrophages (CD68. Muscle damage was assessed via creatine kinase and myoglobin in blood serum samples, and muscle soreness was rated on a ten-point pain scale. Results: The resistance exercise protocol stimulated a significant increase in the number of CD66b+ and MPO+ cells when measured 3 h post exercise. Serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness all increased post-exercise. Muscle leucocyte infiltration, creatine kinase, myoglobin and subjective muscle soreness were unaffected by ibuprofen treatment when compared to placebo. There was also no association between increases in inflammatory leucocytes and any other marker of cellular muscle damage. Conclusion: Ibuprofen administration had no effect on the accumulation of neutrophils, markers of muscle damage or muscle soreness during the first 24 h of post-exercise muscle recovery.

  18. Image-guided procedures in brain biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, K; Yanaka, K; Meguro, K; Narushima, K; Iguchi, M; Nakai, Y; Nose, T

    1999-07-01

    Image-guided procedures, such as computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic and ultrasound-guided methods, can assist neurosurgeons in localizing the relevant pathology. The characteristics of image-guided procedures are important for their appropriate use, especially in brain biopsy. This study reviewed the results of various image-guided brain biopsies to ascertain the advantages and disadvantages. Brain biopsies assisted by CT-guided stereotactic, ultrasound-guided, Neuronavigator-guided, and the combination of ultrasound and Neuronavigator-guided procedures were carried out in seven, eight, one, and three patients, respectively. Four patients underwent open biopsy without a guiding system. Twenty of 23 patients had a satisfactory diagnosis after the initial biopsy. Three patients failed to have a definitive diagnosis after the initial procedure, one due to insufficient volume sampling after CT-guided procedure, and two due to localization failure by ultrasound because the lesions were nonechogenic. All patients who underwent biopsy using the combination of ultrasound and Neuronavigator-guided methods had a satisfactory result. The CT-guided procedure provided an efficient method of approaching any intracranial target and was appropriate for the diagnosis of hypodense lesions, but tissue sampling was sometimes not sufficient to achieve a satisfactory diagnosis. The ultrasound-guided procedure was suitable for the investigation of hyperdense lesions, but was difficult to localize nonechogenic lesions. The combination of ultrasound and Neuronavigator methods improved the diagnostic accuracy even in nonechogenic lesions such as malignant lymphoma. Therefore, it is essential to choose the most appropriate guiding method for brain biopsy according to the radiological nature of the lesions.

  19. IL-1 receptor antagonism and muscle gene expression in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berchtold, L. A.; Larsen, C. M.; Vaag, A.

    2009-01-01

    ). To investigate the effects of IL-1Ra in insulin-sensitive tissue, gene expression levels in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients treated with IL-1Ra were analysed. Methods. Gene expression profiles in vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from five obese patients (BMI>27) were determined before and after 13......RT-PCR, were significantly altered when comparing the number of transcripts before and after treatment for each individual. Conclusion. Treatment with IL-1Ra did not significantly affect gene expression levels in skeletal muscle in this limited and selected sample of obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Larger...

  20. A new method for non-invasive estimation of human muscle fiber type composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Baguet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been established that excellence in sports with short and long exercise duration requires a high proportion of fast-twitch (FT or type-II fibers and slow-twitch (ST or type-I fibers, respectively. Until today, the muscle biopsy method is still accepted as gold standard to measure muscle fiber type composition. Because of its invasive nature and high sampling variance, it would be useful to develop a non-invasive alternative. METHODOLOGY: Eighty-three control subjects, 15 talented young track-and-field athletes, 51 elite athletes and 14 ex-athletes volunteered to participate in the current study. The carnosine content of all 163 subjects was measured in the gastrocnemius muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS. Muscle biopsies for fiber typing were taken from 12 untrained males. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A significant positive correlation was found between muscle carnosine, measured by (1H-MRS, and percentage area occupied by type II fibers. Explosive athletes had ∼30% higher carnosine levels compared to a reference population, whereas it was ∼20% lower than normal in typical endurance athletes. Similar results were found in young talents and ex-athletes. When active elite runners were ranked according to their best running distance, a negative sigmoidal curve was found between logarithm of running distance and muscle carnosine. CONCLUSIONS: Muscle carnosine content shows a good reflection of the disciplines of elite track-and-field athletes and is able to distinguish between individual track running distances. The differences between endurance and sprint muscle types is also observed in young talents and former athletes, suggesting this characteristic is genetically determined and can be applied in early talent identification. This quick method provides a valid alternative for the muscle biopsy method. In addition, this technique may also contribute to the diagnosis and monitoring of many conditions and

  1. Effects of muscular biopsy on the mechanics of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Benoit; Samozino, Pierre; Féasson, Léonard; Geyssant, André; Millet, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Muscle biopsy is a widely used technique in protocols aiming at studying physical capacities and fiber profiles of athletes, and muscular adaptations to exercise. Side effects of biopsy alone on physiological parameters have recently been pointed out, and we sought to determine whether a single biopsy had effects on the main stride mechanical parameters. Ten male runners performed 4-min runs before and after undergoing a biopsy of their left vastus lateralis muscle. Step frequency and duty factor were significantly higher after biopsy (2.86 +/- 0.14 vs. 2.82 +/- 0.15 Hz, and 0.77 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.75 +/- 0.05, respectively), whereas other factors were significantly lower: maximal vertical ground reaction force (1,601 +/- 240 vs. 1,643 +/- 230 N), loading rate (53.9 +/- 12.8 vs. 58.4 +/- 13.5 bw s(-1)), center of mass vertical displacement (0.056 +/- 0.008 vs. 0.058 +/- 0.008 m) and external mechanical work at each step (1.14 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.24 +/- 0.10 J kg(-1) step(-1)). These effects were observed on the left (biopsed) leg, but also on the right one for the external mechanical work, the duty factor and the maximal vertical ground reaction force, showing that a single biopsy had both ipsi- and contralateral effects on running mechanics.

  2. Image-Guided percutaneous biopsies with a biopsy gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hwan; Lim, Hyo Keun; Kim, Eun Ah; Yun, Ku Sub; Bae, Sang Hoo; Shin, Hyung Sik [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    We report the results of image-guided percutaneous biopsies with a biopsy gun and evaluate the clinical usefulness. One hundred and five biopsies under ultrasonographic or fluoroscopic guidance were performed. Various anatomic sites were targeted(liver; 50, chest; 22, kidney; 12, pancreas; 8, intraperitoeum; 7, retroperitoneum; ). Obtained tissue was diagnostic in 98 of the 105 biopsies(93%). In each instance, representative core tissue specimens were obtained. Evaluation of the core tissue by pathologist revealed consistent, uniform specimens that contained significant crush artifact in no case. Five biopsies yielded inadequate tissue which were too small for histopathologic interpretation or were composed of necrotic debris. Two biopsies yielded adequate tissues, but tissues were not of the target. The diagnoses were malignancy in 77 biopsies and benign disease in 21 biopsies. No complications other than mild, localized discomfort were encountered except a transient hemoptysis and pneumothorax which was observed in two patients. Cutting biopsy with a biopsy gun provided sufficient amount of target tissue for an accurate diagnosis of malignant and benign disease. It was a safe and useful procedure for percutaneous biopsy.

  3. Radiologically Guided Bone Biopsy: Results of 502 Biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Chaan S.; Salisbury, Jonathan R.; Darby, Alan J.; Gishen, Philip

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the results of 502 biopsies over a 19-year period for the purpose of highlighting the results that can be expected from such a large study, with emphasis on needle choice and anesthetic methods. Methods: The histological, cytological, and microbiological results of 477 patients who had 502 bone biopsies carried out between July 1977 and March 1996 were studied. Less than 5% of patients required second biopsies. There were almost equal numbers of males and females in the group. The lesions were visible radiologically and most of the biopsies were carried out by a single operator. The lesions were classified on their histopathological, cytopathological, and microbiological findings. Results: Tumors accounted for 40% of the biopsies, and infection for 16%. Biopsies which did not yield a 'positive' diagnosis accounted for 31%; these included specimens reported as normal, or as showing reactive changes, repair, remodelling, non-specific features, inflammation (but not clearly infective), or no evidence of malignancy or inflammation. Less than 4% of biopsies were incorrect, and some of these were re-biopsied. Conclusion: Bone biopsy is a valuable technique for positive diagnosis of malignancy or infection, as it enables a definitive plan for treatment and management of patients to be established. Exclusion of serious pathology is almost equally important. In principle, any osseous site can be biopsied using fluoroscopic or computed tomographic guidance. Care in the biopsy technique and selection of the bone needle is required

  4. Characteristics of muscle dysmorphia in male football, weight training, and competitive natural and non-natural bodybuilding samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghurst, Timothy; Lirgg, Cathy

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in traits associated with muscle dysmorphia between collegiate football players (n=66), weight trainers for physique (n=115), competitive non-natural bodybuilders (n=47), and competitive natural bodybuilders (n=65). All participants completed demographic questionnaires in addition to the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (Rhea, Lantz, & Cornelius, 2004). Results revealed a significant main effect for group, and post hoc tests found that the non-natural bodybuilding group did not score significantly higher than the natural bodybuilding group on any subscale except for Pharmacological Use. Both the non-natural and natural bodybuilding groups scored significantly higher than those that weight trained for physique on the Dietary Behavior and Supplement Use subscales. The collegiate football players scored lowest on all subscales of the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory except for Physique Protection where they scored highest. Findings are discussed with future research expounded.

  5. Nail biopsy: A user's manual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Grover

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nail biopsy is a procedure not routinely resorted to; but when indicated, it is often the only clue left for diagnosis. At such times, it pays to be conversant with it. It is an investigation that not only provides etiologic, diagnostic, and prognostic information but also aids in understanding the pathogenesis of nail diseases. It can be of therapeutic value, especially with respect to nail tumors. This article compiles the procedural techniques for nail biopsy of various types and attempts to summarize the evidence available in the literature. The objective of nail biopsy is to clinch a precise diagnosis of nail pathology with a simple and safe surgical procedure, avoiding pain or permanent nail damage. Patient selection is of utmost importance, wherein, the patient does not have typical skin lesions, yields inadequate information on routine nail investigations, and has no peripheral vascular compromise. The patient needs to be explained about the risks associated, the expected functional handicap, the time required for regrowth, a possibility of permanent nail dystrophy, and a possibility of not achieving a diagnosis even after the biopsy. Techniques and types of various nail biopsies are being discussed in this article. The specimen could be collected as an excision biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, or longitudinal biopsy. The trick lies in choosing the appropriate area for biopsy. Various biopsy types discussed in this article include nail plate biopsy (easiest and least scarring; nail bed biopsy (elliptical excision or punch; nail matrix biopsy (elliptical excision, punch excision (≤3 mm or tangential/shave excision; and nail fold biopsy. Complications reported along with means to minimize them are also discussed.

  6. Muscle necrosis - computer tomography aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franze, I.; Goebel, N.; Stuckmann, G.

    1985-01-01

    In four patients muscle necroses were observed. In two patients these were caused by intraoperative positioning, in one by having worked with a pneumatic hammer and in one possibly by alcohol. CT showed hypodense areas in the affected muscles which were - in the state of subacute necroses - surrounded by hyperaemic borders. The diagnosis was confirmed by puncture or biopsy. After six months hypodense areas were still perceptible in the atrophic muscles of two patients. (orig.) [de

  7. Usefulness of automated biopsy guns in image-guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Hyung; Rhee, Chang Soo; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Hong; Woo, Sung Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of automated biopsy guns in image-guided biopsy of lung, liver, pancreas and other organs. Using automated biopsy devices, 160 biopsies of variable anatomic sites were performed: Biopsies were performed under ultrasonographic(US) guidance in 95 and computed tomographic (CT) guidance in 65. We retrospectively analyzed histologic results and complications. Specimens were adequate for histopathologic diagnosis in 143 of the 160 patients(89.4%)-Diagnostic tissue was obtained in 130 (81.3%), suggestive tissue obtained in 13(8.1%), and non-diagnostic tissue was obtained in 14(8.7%). Inadequate tissue was obtained in only 3(1.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between US-guided and CT-guided percutaneous biopsy. There was no occurrence of significant complication. We have experienced mild complications in only 5 patients-2 hematuria and 2 hematochezia in transrectal prostatic biopsy, and 1 minimal pneumothorax in CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy. All of them were resolved spontaneously. The image-guided biopsy using the automated biopsy gun was a simple, safe and accurate method of obtaining adequate specimen for the histopathologic diagnosis

  8. Usefulness of automated biopsy guns in image-guided biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Hyung; Rhee, Chang Soo; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Hong; Woo, Sung Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of automated biopsy guns in image-guided biopsy of lung, liver, pancreas and other organs. Using automated biopsy devices, 160 biopsies of variable anatomic sites were performed: Biopsies were performed under ultrasonographic(US) guidance in 95 and computed tomographic (CT) guidance in 65. We retrospectively analyzed histologic results and complications. Specimens were adequate for histopathologic diagnosis in 143 of the 160 patients(89.4%)-Diagnostic tissue was obtained in 130 (81.3%), suggestive tissue obtained in 13(8.1%), and non-diagnostic tissue was obtained in 14(8.7%). Inadequate tissue was obtained in only 3(1.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between US-guided and CT-guided percutaneous biopsy. There was no occurrence of significant complication. We have experienced mild complications in only 5 patients-2 hematuria and 2 hematochezia in transrectal prostatic biopsy, and 1 minimal pneumothorax in CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy. All of them were resolved spontaneously. The image-guided biopsy using the automated biopsy gun was a simple, safe and accurate method of obtaining adequate specimen for the histopathologic diagnosis.

  9. Evidence towards improved estimation of respiratory muscle effort from diaphragm mechanomyographic signals with cardiac vibration interference using sample entropy with fixed tolerance values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Sarlabous

    Full Text Available The analysis of amplitude parameters of the diaphragm mechanomyographic (MMGdi signal is a non-invasive technique to assess respiratory muscle effort and to detect and quantify the severity of respiratory muscle weakness. The amplitude of the MMGdi signal is usually evaluated using the average rectified value or the root mean square of the signal. However, these estimations are greatly affected by the presence of cardiac vibration or mechanocardiographic (MCG noise. In this study, we present a method for improving the estimation of the respiratory muscle effort from MMGdi signals that is robust to the presence of MCG. This method is based on the calculation of the sample entropy using fixed tolerance values (fSampEn, that is, with tolerance values that are not normalized by the local standard deviation of the window analyzed. The behavior of the fSampEn parameter was tested in synthesized mechanomyographic signals, with different ratios between the amplitude of the MCG and clean mechanomyographic components. As an example of application of this technique, the use of fSampEn was explored also in recorded MMGdi signals, with different inspiratory loads. The results with both synthetic and recorded signals indicate that the entropy parameter is less affected by the MCG noise, especially at low signal-to-noise ratios. Therefore, we believe that the proposed fSampEn parameter could improve estimates of respiratory muscle effort from MMGdi signals with the presence of MCG interference.

  10. Oral biopsy: Oral pathologist′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  11. CT‑guided percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsy: First experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percutaneous lung biopsy had been described in the nineteenth century by Leyden, but image- guided needle chest biopsy only gained widespread acceptance in the 1970s. Currently, tissue sampling of a thoracic lesion is indicated when the diagnosis cannot be obtained by the non-invasive techniques and cytological ...

  12. Comparison between Doppler Ultrasound and Biopsy Findings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: We retrospectively studied a random sample of 188 kidney transplanted patients who had Doppler-ultrasound examination followed within two weeks by transplant biopsy. We evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of Doppler ultrasound in diagnosing rejection at different RI thresholds, using the reported biopsy ...

  13. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  14. Intraoperative visualisation of functional structures facilitates safe frameless stereotactic biopsy in the motor eloquent regions of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Shu; Qu, Ling; Wang, Qun; Jin, Wei; Hou, Yuan-Zheng; Sun, Guo-Chen; Li, Fang-Ye; Yu, Xin-Guang; Xu, Ban-Nan; Chen, Xiao-Lei

    2017-12-20

    For stereotactic brain biopsy involving motor eloquent regions, the surgical objective is to enhance diagnostic yield and preserve neurological function. To achieve this aim, we implemented functional neuro-navigation and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) into the biopsy procedure. The impact of this integrated technique on the surgical outcome and postoperative neurological function was investigated and evaluated. Thirty nine patients with lesions involving motor eloquent structures underwent frameless stereotactic biopsy assisted by functional neuro-navigation and iMRI. Intraoperative visualisation was realised by integrating anatomical and functional information into a navigation framework to improve biopsy trajectories and preserve eloquent structures. iMRI was conducted to guarantee the biopsy accuracy and detect intraoperative complications. The perioperative change of motor function and biopsy error before and after iMRI were recorded, and the role of functional information in trajectory selection and the relationship between the distance from sampling site to nearby eloquent structures and the neurological deterioration were further analyzed. Functional neuro-navigation helped modify the original trajectories and sampling sites in 35.90% (16/39) of cases to avoid the damage of eloquent structures. Even though all the lesions were high-risk of causing neurological deficits, no significant difference was found between preoperative and postoperative muscle strength. After data analysis, 3mm was supposed to be the safe distance for avoiding transient neurological deterioration. During surgery, the use of iMRI significantly reduced the biopsy errors (p = 0.042) and potentially increased the diagnostic yield from 84.62% (33/39) to 94.87% (37/39). Moreover, iMRI detected intraoperative haemorrhage in 5.13% (2/39) of patients, all of them benefited from the intraoperative strategies based on iMRI findings. Intraoperative visualisation of

  15. Antibiotic use in heavy pigs: Comparison between urine and muscle samples from food chain animals analysed by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Luca Maria; Nobile, Maria; Panseri, Sara; Arioli, Francesco

    2017-11-15

    The antibiotic overuse in zoothechnics, due to prophylactic and therapeutic treatments, or to their growth-promoting activity, is a major cause for the onset of widespread antibiotic resistance. Of particular relevance to this study, is the antibiotic abuse in pig breeding. Despite the comprehensive literature on residue controls in pig muscle, data on pig urine, a non-invasive, on-farm collectable matrix, are lacking. Therefore, we validated an HPLC-MS/MS method to detect 29 antimicrobials from eight classes and applied it to 43 anonymous pig urine and muscle paired samples and fulfilled the parameters in agreement with the Commission Decision 2002/657/UE. The analytical limits were moreover much lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) required by the Commission Regulation 37/2010/UE. In the samples, antibiotics were usually detected at higher frequencies and concentrations in urine than muscle. Urine proved a useful tool to detect antibiotic administration and their excessive use in pig farming is depicted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Regulation of Metabolic Signaling in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Peter Hjorth

    sensitivity in type I muscle fibers possibly reflects a superior effect of insulin on metabolic signaling compared to type II muscle fibers. This was investigated in the present thesis by examining muscle biopsies from lean and obese healthy subjects as well as patients with type 2 diabetes. From these muscle...

  17. Accuracy of CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy for assessment of pediatric musculoskeletal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hryhorczuk, Anastasia L.; Strouse, Peter J.; Biermann, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy has been shown in adults to be an effective diagnostic tool for a large number of musculoskeletal malignancies. To characterize our experience with CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy of pediatric bone lesions and determine its utility in diagnosing pediatric osseous lesions, in a population where such lesions are commonly benign. From 2000 to 2009, 61 children underwent 63 CT-guided percutaneous biopsies. Radiological, pathological and clinical records were reviewed. Fourteen biopsies (22%) were performed on malignant lesions, while 49 biopsies (78%) were performed on benign lesions. Forty-nine of the 63 biopsies (78%) were adequate; these children underwent no further tissue sampling. Fourteen of the 63 biopsies (22%) were inadequate or non-conclusive. Of these patients, 12 underwent open biopsy. Retrospective analysis of percutaneous biopsies in these patients demonstrates that 9/12 provided clinically relevant information, and 4/12 patients received final diagnoses that confirmed initial core biopsy findings. No malignancies were diagnosed as benign on percutaneous biopsy. Overall, percutaneous core needle biopsy provided accurate diagnostic information in 84% (53/63) of biopsies. Our results demonstrate that CT-guided percutaneous biopsy is safe and beneficial in children. This study supports the use of CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy for primary diagnosis of pediatric bone lesions. (orig.)

  18. Exercise-induced increase in glucose transport, GLUT-4, and VAMP-2 in plasma membrane from human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Hargreaves, Mark; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    contractions may induce trafficking of GLUT-4-containing vesicles via a mechanism similar to neurotransmitter release. Our results demonstrate for the first time exercise-induced translocation of GLUT-4 and VAMP-2 to the plasma membrane of human muscle and increased sarcolemmal glucose transport.......A major effect of muscle contractions is an increase in sarcolemmal glucose transport. We have used a recently developed technique to produce sarcolemmal giant vesicles from human muscle biopsy samples obtained before and after exercise. Six men exercised for 10 min at 50% maximal O2 uptake (Vo2max...

  19. GoM Coastal and Estuarine Biopsy Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Small vessel surveys are conducted within estuarine and nearshore coastal waters to collect tissue biopsy samples from bottlenose dolphins. Visual surveys are...

  20. New technique using [125I]labeled rose bengal for the quantification in blood samples of pipecuronium bromide, a muscle relaxant drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopfer, C.; Benakis, A.; Pittet, J.-F.; Tassonyi, E.

    1991-01-01

    A new technique involving the use of [ 125 I]labeled rose bengal for the quantification of pipecuronium bromide (a muscle relaxant drug) is presented. This technique, which is based on the ability of rose bengal to react with pipecuronium and then form a complex which can be extracted into an organic solvent, involves two steps: the purification and labeling of rose bengal with 125 I, and the quantification of pipecuronium. The specific activity of the compound (106 μCi/mg) allows for the quantification of pipecuronium in biological samples at concentrations as low as 5 ng/ml. (author)

  1. Oral Biopsy: A Dental Gawk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sir,. Dermatologists are often confronted with neoplasms and diseases of the oral cavity. Although many may be reluctant to perform oral surgical procedures, a biopsy is often needed to establish a definitive diagnosis, and biopsy of the oral cavity is a safe and useful technique that can be easily employed by dermatologists.

  2. The accuracy of colposcopic biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoler, Mark H; Vichnin, Michelle D; Ferenczy, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the overall agreement between colposcopically directed biopsies and the definitive excisional specimens within the context of three clinical trials. A total of 737 women aged 16-45 who had a cervical biopsy taken within 6 months before their definitive therapy were included. Per-prot...

  3. Muscle regeneration in mitochondrial myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, T O; Hauerslev, S; Jeppesen, T D

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathies cover a diverse group of disorders in which ragged red and COX-negative fibers are common findings on muscle morphology. In contrast, muscle degeneration and regeneration, typically found in muscular dystrophies, are not considered characteristic features of mitochondrial...... myopathies. We investigated regeneration in muscle biopsies from 61 genetically well-defined patients affected by mitochondrial myopathy. Our results show that the perturbed energy metabolism in mitochondrial myopathies causes ongoing muscle regeneration in a majority of patients, and some were even affected...

  4. False-negative results of breast core needle biopsies – retrospective analysis of 988 biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boba, Marek; Kołtun, Urszula; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara; Chmielik, Ewa; Eksner, Bartosz; Olejnik, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm and the most common cause of death among women. The core needle biopsy is becoming a universal practice in diagnosing breast lesions suspected of malignancy. Unfortunately, breast core needle biopsies also bear the risk of having false-negative results. 988 core needle breast biopsies were performed at the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, between 01 March 2006 and 29 February 2008. Malignant lesions were diagnosed in 426/988 (43.12%) cases, atypical hyperplasia in 69/988 (6.98%), and benign lesions in 493/988 (49.90%) cases. Twenty-two out of 988 biopsies (2.23%) were found to be false negative. Histopathological assessment of tissue specimens was repeated in these cases. In 14/22 (64%) cases, the previous diagnosis of a benign lesion was changed. In 8/22 (36%) cases, the diagnosis of a benign lesion was confirmed. False-negative rate was calculated at 2.2%. The rate of false-negative diagnoses resulting from a radiological mistake was estimated at 36%. The rate of false-negative diagnoses, resulting from histopathological assessment, was 64%. False-negative results caused by a radiological error comprised 1.5% of all histopathologically diagnosed cancers and atypias (sensitivity of 98.5%). There were no false-positive results in our material - the specificity of the method was 100%. Histopathological interpretation is a substantial cause of false-negative results of breast core needle biopsy. Thus, in case of a radiological-histopathological divergence, histopathological analysis of biopsy specimens should be repeated. The main radiological causes of false-negative results of breast core needle biopsy are as follows: sampling from an inappropriate site and histopathological non-homogeneity of cancer infiltration

  5. False-negative results of breast core needle biopsies - retrospective analysis of 988 biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boba, M.; Koltun, U.; Bobek-Billewicz, B.; Eksner, B.; Olejnik, T.; Chmielik, E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm and the most common cause of death among women. The core needle biopsy is becoming a universal practice in diagnosing breast lesions suspected of malignancy. Unfortunately, breast core needle biopsies also bear the risk of having false-negative results. Material/Methods: 988 core needle breast biopsies were performed at the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, between 01 March 2006 and 29 February 2008. Malignant lesions were diagnosed in 426/988 (43.12%) cases, atypical hyperplasia in 69/988 (6.98%), and benign lesions in 493/988 (49.90%) cases. Results: Twenty-two out of 988 biopsies (2.23%) were found to be false negative. Histopathological assessment of tissue specimens was repeated in these cases. In 14/22 (64%) cases, the previous diagnosis of a benign lesion was changed. In 8/22 (36%) cases, the diagnosis of a benign lesion was confirmed. False-negative rate was calculated at 2.2%. The rate of false-negative diagnoses resulting from a radiological mistake was estimated at 36%. The rate of false-negative diagnoses, resulting from histopathological assessment, was 64%. False-negative results caused by a radiological error comprised 1.5% of all histopathologically diagnosed cancers and atypias (sensitivity of 98.5%). There were no false-positive results in our material - the specificity of the method was 100%. Conclusions: Histopathological interpretation is a substantial cause of false-negative results of breast core needle biopsy. Thus, in case of a radiological-histopathological divergence, histopathological analysis of biopsy specimens should be repeated. The main radiological causes of false-negative results of breast core needle biopsy are as follows: sampling from an inappropriate site and histopathological non-homogeneity of cancer infiltration. (authors)

  6. Muscle GLUT4 in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter; Andersen, Per Heden; Lund, Sten

    2007-01-01

    test and later a muscle biopsy. Levels of GLUT4 total protein and mRNA content were determined in muscle biopsies by polyclonal antibody labelling and RT-PCR, respectively. RESULTS: GLUT4 protein content in the cirrhosis group was not different from that of the controls, but at variance......: In cirrhosis GLUT4 protein content was quantitatively intact, while limiting glucose tolerance. This indicates loss of redundancy of the major glucose transport system, possibly related to the markedly decreased expression of its gene. Hyper-insulinemia may be a primary event. Our findings implicate...

  7. Potential impact of the MR spectroscopic cancer blood test on reducing the need for lung biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Fossel, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Lung biopsies are generally performed to identify or rule out malignancy. A clinical presumption of lung malignancy without biopsy proof may result in unjustified surgery. The authors sought to test the value of the MR cancer blood test (CBT) recently described. They obtained prebiopsy blood samples (2 mL) from 65 patients undergoing lung biopsy for radiologically identified lesions. The CBT was performed blinded, and the result was then compared with the pathologic diagnosis obtained from biopsy. Results are presented

  8. Effect of muscle acidity on muscle metabolism and fatigue during intense exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Madsen, K.; Kiens, Bente

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of muscle pH on muscle metabolism and development of fatigue during intense exercise. 2. Seven subjects performed intense exhaustive leg exercise on two occasions: with and without preceding intense intermittent arm exercise leading to high...... or moderate (control) blood lactate concentrations (HL and C, respectively). Prior to and immediately after each exercise bout, a muscle biopsy was taken from m. vastus lateralis of the active leg. Leg blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood samples were collected before and frequently...... during the exhaustive exercises. 3. The duration of the exercise was shorter in HL than in C (3.46 +/- 0.28 vs. 4.67 +/- 0.55 min; means +/- S.E.M.; P muscle pH was the same in C and HL (7.17 vs. 7.10), but at the end of exercise muscle pH was lower in HL than in C (6.82 vs. 6...

  9. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event

  10. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.

    1987-01-02

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event.

  11. Evaluation of endogenous control genes for gene expression studies across multiple tissues and in the specific sets of fat- and muscle-type samples of the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y R; Li, M Z; Zhang, K; Chen, L; Jiang, A A; Wang, J Y; Li, X W

    2011-08-01

    To normalize a set of quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) data, it is essential to determine an optimal number/set of housekeeping genes, as the abundance of housekeeping genes can vary across tissues or cells during different developmental stages, or even under certain environmental conditions. In this study, of the 20 commonly used endogenous control genes, 13, 18 and 17 genes exhibited credible stability in 56 different tissues, 10 types of adipose tissue and five types of muscle tissue, respectively. Our analysis clearly showed that three optimal housekeeping genes are adequate for an accurate normalization, which correlated well with the theoretical optimal number (r ≥ 0.94). In terms of economical and experimental feasibility, we recommend the use of the three most stable housekeeping genes for calculating the normalization factor. Based on our results, the three most stable housekeeping genes in all analysed samples (TOP2B, HSPCB and YWHAZ) are recommended for accurate normalization of q-PCR data. We also suggest that two different sets of housekeeping genes are appropriate for 10 types of adipose tissue (the HSPCB, ALDOA and GAPDH genes) and five types of muscle tissue (the TOP2B, HSPCB and YWHAZ genes), respectively. Our report will serve as a valuable reference for other studies aimed at measuring tissue-specific mRNA abundance in porcine samples. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Are concurrent systematic cores needed at the time of targeted biopsy in patients with prior negative prostate biopsies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albisinni, S; Aoun, F; Noel, A; El Rassy, E; Lemort, M; Paesmans, M; van Velthoven, R; Roumeguère, T; Peltier, A

    2018-01-01

    MRI-guided targeted biopsies are advised in patients who have undergone an initial series of negative systematic biopsies, in whom prostate cancer (PCa) suspicion remains elevated. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether, in men with prior negative prostate biopsies, systematic cores are also warranted at the time of an MRI-targeted repeat biopsy. We enrolled patients with prior negative biopsy undergoing real time MRI/TRUS fusion guided prostate biopsy at our institute between 2014 and 2016. Patients with at least one index lesion on multiparametric MRI were included. All eligible patients underwent both systematic random biopsies (12-14 cores) and targeted biopsies (2-4 cores). The study included 74 men with a median age of 65 years, PSA level of 9.27ng/mL, and prostatic volume of 45ml. The overall PCa detection rate and the clinically significant cancer detection rate were 56.7% and 39.2%, respectively. Targeted cores demonstrated similar clinically significant PCa detection rate compared to systematic cores (33.8% vs. 28.4%, P=0.38) with significantly less tissue sampling. Indeed, a combination approach was significantly superior to a targeted-only in overall PCa detection (+16.7% overall detection rate, P=0.007). Although differences in clinically significant PCa detection were statistically non-significant (P=0.13), a combination approach did allow detecting 7 extra clinically significant PCas (+13.8%). In patients with elevated PSA and prior negative biopsies, concurrent systematic sampling may be needed at the time of targeted biopsy in order to maximize PCa detection rate. Larger studies are needed to validate our findings. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Testicular biopsy in psittacine birds (Psittaciformes): impact of endoscopy and biopsy on health, testicular morphology, and sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänse, Maria; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Reitemeier, Susanne; Einspanier, Almuth; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Histologic examination of a testicular biopsy sample may be required to evaluate the reproductive status of male psittacine birds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability of testicular sampling from live birds by assessing the impact on the birds' health, testicular integrity, and sperm quality. Testicular biopsy samples were obtained by endoscopy 4 times during 12 months from 9 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and 7 rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri). Only 2 of 16 birds showed testicular cicatrization or divided testicular tissue after a single endoscopy. Further complications, such as damage to the air sacs or bleeding, predominantly occurred in subsequent endoscopies. In both species, endoscopy and testicular biopsy caused only minor or transient effects on sperm production and sperm quality. These results support that a single testicular biopsy is a viable method for evaluating the reproductive status of male psittacine birds.

  14. Mammographic scar for stereotaxic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Tattis; Hincapie U, Ana Lucia; Patino P, Jairo Hernando

    1997-01-01

    It is reported the case of 56 years old woman who underwent a stereotactic biopsy because of having a circumscribed breast nodule. The histologic diagnosis was benign. After six months, during the mammographic control, it was noticed that the nodule showed irregular contours, because of that a surgical biopsy was performed. The histopathology was reported as benign. it is considered then, that the mammographic changes observed in the mammographic control are due to scar phenomenon after stereotactic biopsy. This findings has not been reported previously

  15. Preferential type II muscle fiber damage from plyometric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Filippo; Isaacs, Ashwin W; Myburgh, Kathryn H

    2012-01-01

    Plyometric training has been successfully used in different sporting contexts. Studies that investigated the effect of plyometric training on muscle morphology are limited, and results are controversial with regard to which muscle fiber type is mainly affected. To analyze the skeletal muscle structural and ultrastructural change induced by an acute bout of plyometric exercise to determine which type of muscle fibers is predominantly damaged. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Eight healthy, untrained individuals (age = 22 ± 1 years, height = 179.2 ± 6.4 cm, weight = 78.9 ± 5.9 kg). Participants completed an acute bout of plyometric exercise (10 sets of 10 squat-jumps with a 1-minute rest between sets). Blood samples were collected 9 days and immediately before and 6 hours and 1, 2, and 3 days after the acute intervention. Muscle samples were collected 9 days before and 3 days after the exercise intervention. Blood samples were analyzed for creatine kinase activity. Muscle biopsies were analyzed for damage using fluorescent and electron transmission microscopy. Creatine kinase activity peaked 1 day after the exercise bout (529.0 ± 317.8 U/L). Immunofluorescence revealed sarcolemmal damage in 155 of 1616 fibers analyzed. Mainly fast-twitch fibers were damaged. Within subgroups, 7.6% of type I fibers, 10.3% of type IIa fibers, and 14.3% of type IIx fibers were damaged as assessed by losses in dystrophin staining. Similar damage was prevalent in IIx and IIa fibers. Electron microscopy revealed clearly distinguishable moderate and severe sarcomere damage, with damage quantifiably predominant in type II muscle fibers of both the glycolytic and oxidative subtypes (86% and 84%, respectively, versus only 27% of slow-twitch fibers). We provide direct evidence that a single bout of plyometric exercise affected mainly type II muscle fibers.

  16. Liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ten tetracycline residues in muscle samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajda Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC, 4-epi oxytetracycline (4-epi OTC, tetracycline (TC, 4-epi tetracycline (4-epi TC, chlortetracycline (CTC, 4-epi chlortetracycline (4-epi CTC, doxycycline (DC, minocycline (MINO, methacycline (META and rolitetracycline (ROLI residues in muscles was developed. The procedure consisted of an oxalic acid extraction followed by protein removal with trichloroacetic acid. Further solid phase clean-up on polymeric (Strata X reversed phase columns was performed to obtain an extract suitable for LC-MS/MS analysis. The tetracyclines were separated on a C 18 analytical column with mobile phase consisting of 0.01% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid in water in gradient mode. The method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The recoveries of all target compounds were 91.8% – 103.6%. The decision limits were from 109.0 to 119.8 μg/kg and detection capability varied within the range of 122.2 to 137.6 μg/kg, depending on the analyte.

  17. Implementation of Upright Digital Breast Tomosynthesis-guided Stereotactic Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omofoye, Toma S; Martaindale, Sarah; Teichgraeber, Davis C; Parikh, Jay R

    2017-11-01

    With growing adoption of digital breast tomosynthesis, an increasing number of imaging abnormalities are being identified only by tomosynthesis. Upright digital breast tomosynthesis-guided stereotactic biopsy is a proven method for sampling these abnormalities as well as abnormalities traditionally evaluated using conventional stereotactic biopsy. In this article, we describe the technique of upright digital breast tomosynthesis-guided stereotactic biopsy and outline a systematic operational approach to implementation of this technique in clinical radiology practices. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of pH in human skeletal muscle: adaptations to physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, C

    2008-01-01

    -transport) and describes the contribution of each transport system in pH regulation at rest and during muscle activity. It is reported that the mechanisms involved in pH regulation can undergo adaptational changes in association with physical activity and that these changes are of functional importance....... resonance technique to exercise experiments including blood sampling and muscle biopsies. The present review characterizes the cellular buffering system as well as the most important membrane transport systems involved (Na(+)/H(+) exchange, Na-bicarbonate co-transport and lactate/H(+) co...

  19. Barbed micro-spikes for micro-scale biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Sangwon; Lim, Jung-Min; Paik, Seung-Joon; Lee, Ahra; Koo, Kyo-in; Park, Sunkil; Park, Jaehong; Choi, Byoung-Doo; Seo, Jong Mo; Kim, Kyung-ah; Chung, Hum; Song, Si Young; Jeon, Doyoung; Cho, Dongil

    2005-06-01

    Single-crystal silicon planar micro-spikes with protruding barbs are developed for micro-scale biopsy and the feasibility of using the micro-spike as a micro-scale biopsy tool is evaluated for the first time. The fabrication process utilizes a deep silicon etch to define the micro-spike outline, resulting in protruding barbs of various shapes. Shanks of the fabricated micro-spikes are 3 mm long, 100 µm thick and 250 µm wide. Barbs protruding from micro-spike shanks facilitate the biopsy procedure by tearing off and retaining samples from target tissues. Micro-spikes with barbs successfully extracted tissue samples from the small intestines of the anesthetized pig, whereas micro-spikes without barbs failed to obtain a biopsy sample. Parylene coating can be applied to improve the biocompatibility of the micro-spike without deteriorating the biopsy function of the micro-spike. In addition, to show that the biopsy with the micro-spike can be applied to tissue analysis, samples obtained by micro-spikes were examined using immunofluorescent staining. Nuclei and F-actin of cells which are extracted by the micro-spike from a transwell were clearly visualized by immunofluorescent staining.

  20. Breast MR biopsy: Pathological and radiological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dratwa, Chloe; Chopier, Jocelyne; Jalaguier-Coudray, Aurelie; Thomassin-Piana, Jeanne; Gonin, Julie; Antoine, Martine; Trop, Isabelle; Darai, Emile; Thomassin-Naggara, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    To identify pathological features for sample analysis of magnetic resonance imaging-guided vaccum-assisted breast biopsy (MRIgVaBB) to optimize radio pathological correlation and identify discordant benign result. Databases of two centres were queried to identify MRIgVaBB performed between January 2009 and February 2013. A cohort of 197 women (mean age: 54.5 years (24-77)) with 208 lesions was identified. We retrospectively analyzed all prebiopsy MRI examinations according to the new BI-RADS lexicon, and all biopsy samples to describe the lesion of interest, its interface with the surrounding breast tissue and other associated features. The malignancy rate was 26.0 % (54/208) with an underestimation rate of 15.67 % (5/32). A visible interface at pathology between a biopsied lesion and the surrounding breast tissue was more frequently identified in mass enhancement compared to NME or focus (p = 0.0003). Regional NME was correlated with a high degree of fibrosis (p = 0.001) and the presence of PASH (p = 0.0007). Linear or segmental NME was correlated with the presence of periductal mastitis (p = 0.0003). The description of a visible interface between the target lesion and the surrounding tissue is crucial to confirm the correct targeting of an MR mass or a NME. (orig.)

  1. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits The procedure is less invasive than surgical biopsy, ... risk of infection. The chance of infection requiring antibiotic treatment appears to be less than one in ...

  2. X-ray guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, R.; Lezana, A.H.; Pedrosa, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is now a routine procedure in many X-ray Departments. This paper presents the authors' experience with this technique in chest, abdominal and skeletal lesions. (Auth.)

  3. Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits The procedure is less invasive than surgical biopsy, ... risk of infection. The chance of infection requiring antibiotic treatment appears to be less than one in ...

  4. Percutaneous Biopsy of Retrobulbar Masses: Anatomical Considerations and MRI Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edalat, Faramarz, E-mail: faramarz.edalat@gmail.com; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Garnon, Julien; Tsoumakidou, Georgia [Nouvel Hôpital Civil (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Avérous, Gerlinde [CHU Strasbourg Hautepierre, Department of Pathology (France); Caudrelier, Jean; Koch, Guillaume; Gangi, Afshin [Nouvel Hôpital Civil (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS), Department of Interventional Radiology (France)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeObtaining adequate tissue from retrobulbar masses remains a challenge. To this end, a new method of retrobulbar mass biopsy using MRI guidance is presented.Materials and MethodsTwo patients (7- and 71-year-old male) with indeterminate retrobulbar masses underwent bioptic and cytological samplings using MR-compatible 18G and 20–22G needles, and multi-planar MR fluoroscopy. An inferior approach was taken to avoid injury to the optic nerve and ophthalmic arteries.ResultsThe two biopsies were completed without complication. The core biopsy resulted in a final diagnosis, whereas the cytological sampling was non-diagnostic.ConclusionPercutaneous MR-guided retrobulbar mass biopsy proved to be feasible and safe in the two cases described in this report.

  5. [Gene expression analyses of kidney biopsies: the European renal cDNA bank--Kröner-Fresenius biopsy bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, C D; Kretzler, M

    2009-03-01

    Histological analysis of kidney biopsies is an essential part of our current diagnostic workup of patients with renal disease. Besides the already established diagnostic tools, new methods allow extensive analysis of the sample tissue's gene expression. Using results from a European multicenter study on gene expression analysis of renal biopsies, in this review we demonstrate that this novel approach not only expands the scope of so-called basic research but also might supplement future biopsy diagnostics. The goals are improved diagnosis and more specific therapy choice and prognosis estimates.

  6. Histopathologic Review of Previously Negative Prostatic Core Needle Biopsies following a New Diagnosis of Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate by Core Needle Biopsies: Implications for Quality Assurance Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Patel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Programs for quality assurance are increasingly important in surgical pathology. Many quality assurance (QA techniques for surgical pathology were adopted from procedures introduced in cytopathology. Surgical pathology specimens have diminished in size such that the majority of diagnostic biopsies of prostatic lesions are now core needle biopsies. These specimens raise issues similar to those of cytology specimens, including concerns regarding adequacy and the representative nature of the biopsy. Due to sample size, some neoplasms may not be diagnosed on initial biopsy, raising concerns regarding false negative results. Cytopathologists have instituted QA procedures including review of all previously negative slides received within five years prior to the new diagnosis of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or gynecologic malignancy. No such requirement exists in surgical pathology for review of core biopsies. The Department of Pathology at the University of Utah instituted a QA policy requiring review of prior negative prostatic needle biopsies following a new diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma. We reviewed five years of QA records of prostate needle biopsy review. During this time, nine hundred and fifty-eight core biopsy sets were performed. Two hundred and ninety-five of these contained at least one biopsy with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Two hundred and eight patients had a prior set of prostatic needle biopsies with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. The remaining 87 had prior biopsies with either a diagnosis of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (23, small atypical acinar proliferation (21 or no evidence of malignancy (43. QA review of these 87 cases revealed two biopsies which revealed foci of adenocarcinoma. Both had been initially diagnosed as no evidence of malignancy. The false negative rate for core biopsy was 0.68%. In an additional twenty-one cases, microscopic foci of atypical small acinar proliferations were found in

  7. Normal mitochondrial function and increased fat oxidation capacity in leg and arm muscles in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ara, I; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2011-01-01

    was that fat oxidation during exercise might be differentially preserved in leg and arm muscles after weight loss.Methods:Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from musculus...... deltoideus (m. deltoideus) and m. vastus lateralis muscles. Fibre-type composition, enzyme activity and O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilized muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high-resolution respirometry.Results:During the graded exercise tests, peak fat oxidation during leg cycling...... and the relative workload at which it occurred (FatMax) were higher in PO and O than in C. During arm cranking, peak fat oxidation was higher in O than in C, and FatMax was higher in O than in PO and C. Similar fibre-type composition was found between groups. Plasma adiponectin was higher in PO than in C and O...

  8. Muscle adaptations to plyometric vs. resistance training in untrained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Kristian; Brink, Mads; Lønbro, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle strength, power, and morphology induced by conventional strength training vs. plyometric training of equal time and effort requirements. Young, untrained men performed 12 weeks of progressive conventional resistance training (CRT, n = 8......) or plyometric training (PT, n = 7). Tests before and after training included one-repetition maximum (1 RM) incline leg press, 3 RM knee extension, and 1 RM knee flexion, countermovement jumping (CMJ), and ballistic incline leg press. Also, before and after training, magnetic resonance imaging scanning...... was performed for the thigh, and a muscle biopsy was sampled from the vastus lateralis muscle. Muscle strength increased by approximately 20-30% (1-3 RM tests) (p Plyometric training increased maximum CMJ height (10...

  9. Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle following high-altitude exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Boushel, Robert; Wright-Paradis, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Studies regarding mitochondrial modifications in human skeletal muscle following acclimatization to high altitude are conflicting, and these inconsistencies may be due to the prevalence of representing mitochondrial function through static and isolated measurements of specific mitochondrial...... characteristics. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate mitochondrial function in response to high-altitude acclimatization through measurements of respiratory control in the vastus lateralis muscle. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 lowland natives prior to and again after a total of 9......-11 days of exposure to 4559 m. High-resolution respirometry was performed on the muscle samples to compare respiratory chain function and respiratory capacities. Respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondrial function was largely unaffected, because high-altitude exposure did not affect the capacity...

  10. Effects of high-intensity physical training on muscle fiber characteristics in poststroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Jørgensen, Jørgen R.; Zeeman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. High-intensity physical training can improve muscle strength and gait speed, but adaptive mechanisms at the muscle cellular level are largely unknown. METHODS: Outpatients with poststroke hemiparesis participated in a 3-month...... rehabilitation program combining high-intensity strength and body-weight supported treadmill-training. Biopsies sampled bilaterally from vastus lateralis muscles, before, after, and at 1-year follow-up after intervention, were analyzed for fiber size, type, and capillarization. RESULTS: At baseline, paretic...... lower limbs had smaller muscle fiber size and lower type I and IIA and higher type IIX percentages than nonparetic lower limbs. Paretic lower limbs had increased type IIA fibers after training. At follow-up, no difference between the lower limbs remained. CONCLUSIONS: Although high-intensity training...

  11. Postnatal changes in electromyographic signals during piglet growth, and in relation to muscle fibre types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ninette Kieme; Ravn, L.S.; Guy, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses non-invasive evoked surface electromyography (SEMG) to investigate postnatal muscle development in pigs, and to assess any correlation between recorded signal parameters and muscle fibre types in two different skeletal muscles. Four litters (n=43) of Large White x Landrace pigs were...... used. Evoked SEMG mesurements were taken on days 2, 5, 14, 26, 60 and 151 post partum from m. Longissimus dorsi (LD) and on days 14, 26, 60 and 151 post partum from m. Biceps femoris (BF). A third of each litter was slaughtered at days 27, 61 and 153 post partum. Biopsy samples for LD and BF were taken...... to categorize day 5 post partum, whilst for BF significant increases occurred from days 14 to 26 post partum. Fibre type development in both muscles showed a significant decrease in type IIA fibre number (Ptype IIB fibre number (P

  12. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  13. Functional characterization of muscle fibres from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrangelo, T; Toniolo, L; Paoli, A; Fulle, S; Puglielli, C; Fanò, G; Reggiani, C

    2009-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disabling condition characterized by unexplained chronic fatigue that impairs normal activities. Although immunological and psychological aspects are present, symptoms related to skeletal muscles, such as muscle soreness, fatigability and increased lactate accumulation, are prominent in CFS patients. In this case-control study, the phenotype of the same biopsy samples was analyzed by determining i) fibre-type proportion using myosin isoforms as fibre type molecular marker and gel electrophoresis as a tool to separate and quantify myosin isoforms, and ii) contractile properties of manually dissected, chemically made permeable and calcium-activated single muscle fibres. The results showed that fibre-type proportion was significantly altered in CSF samples, which showed a shift from the slow- to the fast-twitch phenotype. Cross sectional area, force, maximum shortening velocity and calcium sensitivity were not significantly changed in single muscle fibres from CSF samples. Thus, the contractile properties of muscle fibres were preserved but their proportion was changed, with an increase in the more fatigue-prone, energetically expensive fast fibre type. Taken together, these results support the view that muscle tissue is directly involved in the pathogenesis of CSF and it might contribute to the early onset of fatigue typical of the skeletal muscles of CFS patients.

  14. Interleukin-6 production in contracting human skeletal muscle is influenced by pre-exercise muscle glycogen content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, A; Febbraio, M A; Osada, T

    2001-01-01

    1. Prolonged exercise results in a progressive decline in glycogen content and a concomitant increase in the release of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) from contracting muscle. This study tests the hypothesis that the exercise-induced IL-6 release from contracting muscle is linked to the intram......1. Prolonged exercise results in a progressive decline in glycogen content and a concomitant increase in the release of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) from contracting muscle. This study tests the hypothesis that the exercise-induced IL-6 release from contracting muscle is linked...... to the intramuscular glycogen availability. 2. Seven men performed 5 h of a two-legged knee-extensor exercise, with one leg with normal, and one leg with reduced, muscle glycogen content. Muscle biopsies were obtained before (pre-ex), immediately after (end-ex) and 3 h into recovery (3 h rec) from exercise in both...... legs. In addition, catheters were placed in one femoral artery and both femoral veins and blood was sampled from these catheters prior to exercise and at 1 h intervals during exercise and into recovery. 3. Pre-exercise glycogen content was lower in the glycogen-depleted leg compared with the control...

  15. Bone biopsy needles. Mechanical properties, needle design and specimen quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keulers, Annika; Penzkofer, T.; Cunha-Cruz, V.C.; Bruners, P.; Helmholtz Inst. fuer biomedizinische Technik, Aachen; Braunschweig, T.; Schmitz-Rode, T.; Mahnken, A.; Helmholtz Inst. fuer biomedizinische Technik, Aachen

    2011-01-01

    To quantitatively analyze differences in mechanical properties, needle design including signs of wear, subjective handling and specimen quality of bone biopsy needles. Materials and Methods: In this study 19 different bone biopsy systems (total 38; 2 /type) were examined. With each biopsy needle five consecutive samples were obtained from vertebral bodies of swine. During puncture a force-torques sensor measured the mechanical properties and subjective handling was assessed. Before and after each biopsy the needles were investigated using a profile projector and signs of wear were recorded. Afterwards, a pathologist semi-quantitatively examined the specimen regarding sample quality. The overall evaluation considered mechanical properties, needle wear, subjective handling and sample quality. Differences were assessed for statistical significance using ANOVA and t-test. Results: Needle diameter (p = 0.003) as well as needle design (p = 0.008) affect the mechanical properties significantly. Franseen design is significantly superior to other needle designs. Besides, length reduction recorded by the profile projector, as a quality criterion showed notable distinctions in between the needle designs. Conclusion: Bone biopsy needles vary significantly in performance. Needle design has an important influence on mechanical properties, handling and specimen quality. Detailed knowledge of those parameters would improve selecting the appropriate bone biopsy needle. (orig.)

  16. Muscle MRI in pediatrics: clinical, pathological and genetic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cejas, Claudia P.; Serra, Maria M.; Galvez, David F.G. [Foundation for Neurological Research Dr. Raul Carrea (FLENI), Radiology Department, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cavassa, Eliana A.; Vazquez, Gabriel A.; Massaro, Mario E.L.; Schteinschneider, Angeles V. [Foundation for Neurological Research Dr. Raul Carrea (FLENI), Department of Neuropediatrics, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Taratuto, Ana L. [Foundation for Neurological Research Dr. Raul Carrea (FLENI), Neuropathology Consultant, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-05-15

    Pediatric myopathies comprise a very heterogeneous group of disorders that may develop at different ages and affect different muscle groups. Its diagnosis is sometimes difficult and must be confirmed by muscle biopsy and/or genetic analysis. In recent years, muscle involvement patterns observed on MRI have become a valuable tool, aiding clinical diagnosis and enriching pathological and genetic assessments. We selected eight myopathy cases from our institutional database in which the pattern of muscle involvement observed on MRI was almost pathognomonic and could therefore contribute to establishing diagnosis. Muscle biopsy, genetic diagnosis or both confirmed all cases. (orig.)

  17. Muscle MRI in pediatrics: clinical, pathological and genetic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cejas, Claudia P.; Serra, Maria M.; Galvez, David F.G.; Cavassa, Eliana A.; Vazquez, Gabriel A.; Massaro, Mario E.L.; Schteinschneider, Angeles V.; Taratuto, Ana L.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric myopathies comprise a very heterogeneous group of disorders that may develop at different ages and affect different muscle groups. Its diagnosis is sometimes difficult and must be confirmed by muscle biopsy and/or genetic analysis. In recent years, muscle involvement patterns observed on MRI have become a valuable tool, aiding clinical diagnosis and enriching pathological and genetic assessments. We selected eight myopathy cases from our institutional database in which the pattern of muscle involvement observed on MRI was almost pathognomonic and could therefore contribute to establishing diagnosis. Muscle biopsy, genetic diagnosis or both confirmed all cases. (orig.)

  18. Computed-Tomography-Guided Percutaneous Core Needle Biopsies of Suspected Malignant Lymphomas: Impact of Biopsy, Lesion, and Patient Parameters on Diagnostic Yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesselmann, V.; Zaehringer, M.; Krug, B.; Wesselmann, C.; Haferkamp, K.; Wickenhauser, C.; Lackner, K.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic yield of core needle biopsy in patients with malignant lymphoma. Material and Methods: Computed-tomography-guided core needle biopsies in patients with malignant lymphoma performed in the period 1996 to 2001 were evaluated retrospectively. A biopsy was considered as 'fully diagnostic' if a histological diagnosis, including the histologic subtype in the event of malignant lymphoma, was achieved and the clinical course and CT follow-up of at least 6 months confirmed the biopsy results. A biopsy was regarded as 'partly diagnostic' if histological work-up defined malignant lymphoma but not the histological subtype, and if histological diagnosis bore therapeutic relevance. Diagnostic yield was correlated with features such as size of specimen, location and depth of the target lesion, and experience of the investigator. Results: 45 biopsies were performed in 40 patients. With respect to definite histopathological diagnosis, 31 biopsies (68.9%) were diagnostic and 14 (31.1%) non-diagnostic. In 4 cases (8.8%), biopsies yielded partly diagnostic results, since therapy could be scheduled after biopsy without final sub-classification. Statistical analysis of biopsy parameters revealed that sample sizes were significantly larger in the diagnostic group. Conclusion: CT-guided biopsy can be considered as an alternative for lymphoma diagnosis and should be the first interventional procedure. The most important parameter for diagnostic success is the size of the specimen

  19. Remote biopsy darting and marking of polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Anthony M.; Peacock, Elizabeth; McKinney, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Remote biopsy darting of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is less invasive and time intensive than physical capture and is therefore useful when capture is challenging or unsafe. We worked with two manufacturers to develop a combination biopsy and marking dart for use on polar bears. We had an 80% success rate of collecting a tissue sample with a single biopsy dart and collected tissue samples from 143 polar bears on land, in water, and on sea ice. Dye marks ensured that 96% of the bears were not resampled during the same sampling period, and we recovered 96% of the darts fired. Biopsy heads with 5 mm diameters collected an average of 0.12 g of fur, tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while biopsy heads with 7 mm diameters collected an average of 0.32 g. Tissue samples were 99.3% successful (142 of 143 samples) in providing a genetic and sex identification of individuals. We had a 64% success rate collecting adipose tissue and we successfully examined fatty acid signatures in all adipose samples. Adipose lipid content values were lower compared to values from immobilized or harvested polar bears, indicating that our method was not suitable for quantifying adipose lipid content.

  20. Effects of exercise on insulin binding to human muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonen, A.; Tan, M.H.; Clune, P.; Kirby, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure was developed to measure insulin binding to human skeletal muscle obtained via the percutaneous muscle biopsy technique. With this method the effects of exercise on insulin binding were investigated. Subjects (n = 9) exercised for 60 min on a bicycle ergometer at intensities ranging from 20-86% maximum O 2 consumption (VO 2 max). Blood samples were obtained before, during, and after exercise and analyzed for glucose and insulin. Muscle samples (250 mg) for the vastus lateralis were obtained 30 min before exercise, at the end of exercise, and 60 min after exercise. Two subjects rested during the experimental period. There was no linear relationship between exercise intensities and the changes in insulin binding to human muscle. At rest (n = 2) and at exercise intensities below 60% VO 2 max (n = 5) no change in insulin binding occurred (P greater than 0.05). However, when exercise occurred at greater than or equal to 69% VO 2 max (n = 4), a pronounced decrement in insulin binding (30-50%) was observed (P less than 0.05). This persisted for 60 min after exercise. These results indicate that insulin binding in human muscle is not altered by 60 min of exercise at less than or equal to 60% VO 2 max but that a marked decrement occurs when exercise is greater than or equal to 69% VO 2 max

  1. A sensitive, reproducible and objective immunofluorescence analysis method of dystrophin in individual fibers in samples from patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Beekman

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is characterized by the absence or reduced levels of dystrophin expression on the inner surface of the sarcolemmal membrane of muscle fibers. Clinical development of therapeutic approaches aiming to increase dystrophin levels requires sensitive and reproducible measurement of differences in dystrophin expression in muscle biopsies of treated patients with DMD. This, however, poses a technical challenge due to intra- and inter-donor variance in the occurrence of revertant fibers and low trace dystrophin expression throughout the biopsies. We have developed an immunofluorescence and semi-automated image analysis method that measures the sarcolemmal dystrophin intensity per individual fiber for the entire fiber population in a muscle biopsy. Cross-sections of muscle co-stained for dystrophin and spectrin have been imaged by confocal microscopy, and image analysis was performed using Definiens software. Dystrophin intensity has been measured in the sarcolemmal mask of spectrin for each individual muscle fiber and multiple membrane intensity parameters (mean, maximum, quantiles per fiber were calculated. A histogram can depict the distribution of dystrophin intensities for the fiber population in the biopsy. This method was tested by measuring dystrophin in DMD, Becker muscular dystrophy, and healthy muscle samples. Analysis of duplicate or quadruplicate sections of DMD biopsies on the same or multiple days, by different operators, or using different antibodies, was shown to be objective and reproducible (inter-assay precision, CV 2-17% and intra-assay precision, CV 2-10%. Moreover, the method was sufficiently sensitive to detect consistently small differences in dystrophin between two biopsies from a patient with DMD before and after treatment with an investigational compound.

  2. The 3DBiopsy Prostate Biopsy System: Preclinical Investigation of a Needle, Actuator, and Specimen Collection Device Allowing Sampling of Individualized Prostate Lengths Between 20 and 60 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nelson N; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Schechter, David; Lucia, M Scott; Smith, Elizabeth E; Arangua, Paul; Hoenemeyer, John; Rosa, Jim; Bawa, Rajan; Crawford, E David

    2017-09-01

    To increase the likelihood of detecting anterior cancers within the prostate and provide a specimen that spans the length of the gland. Newly designed 17- and 15-gauge (G) biopsy needles, a variable actuator, and an integrated pathology system intended for the longer cores were developed and tested for this purpose. Testing was performed comparing 2 common cannula tip grinds, a Vet-point (sharp tip) and a Menghini-point (atraumatic tip), and were tested against 18-G Bard Monopty in porcine kidney. A variable actuator was developed to fire the needle 20-60 mm and tested in cadaver prostates. The aggregate firings for 3 different shot lengths comparing the Vet- with the Menghini-tip cannulas demonstrated 91% vs 85.2% fill (length of specimen/length of core bed, P = .007). A 15-G trocar needle with the Vet-tip cannula also had the best performance, with an aggregate standard deviation of 6.4% across 3 firing ranges and a minimum to maximum specimen length of 81%-105% of potential fill. Cadaver testing with the Vet-tip needles in the actuator for the transrectal (17-G) and transperineal (15-G) biopsies demonstrated mean fills of 93.3% and 76.5%, respectively. The new transrectal ultrasound needle obtained a 2-fold increase in specimen length over the standard Bard device (P actuator, the physician can obtain specimens that include peripheral and anterior zone tissue in 1 core. Determination of cancer location on the longer specimens could enhance focal therapy planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasound-guided forceps for pleural biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Agmy

    2014-04-01

    Clinical implications: Ultrasound-guided forceps for pleural biopsy can overcome many of the limitations of the conventional needle biopsy procedures, provides multiple biopsy specimens of the parietal pleura that are inaccessible to the biopsy needle, and can be carried out easily and safely even in sick and obese patients. The diagnostic yield is nearly similar to thoracoscopy.

  4. Optical biopsy of head and neck cancer using hyperspectral imaging and convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halicek, Martin; Little, James V.; Wang, Xu; Patel, Mihir; Griffith, Christopher C.; El-Deiry, Mark W.; Chen, Amy Y.; Fei, Baowei

    2018-02-01

    Successful outcomes of surgical cancer resection necessitate negative, cancer-free surgical margins. Currently, tissue samples are sent to pathology for diagnostic confirmation. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging, non-contact optical imaging technique. A reliable optical method could serve to diagnose and biopsy specimens in real-time. Using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as a tissue classifier, we developed a method to use HSI to perform an optical biopsy of ex-vivo surgical specimens, collected from 21 patients undergoing surgical cancer resection. Training and testing on samples from different patients, the CNN can distinguish squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa) from normal aerodigestive tract tissues with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.82, 81% accuracy, 81% sensitivity, and 80% specificity. Additionally, normal oral tissues can be sub-classified into epithelium, muscle, and glandular mucosa using a decision tree method, with an average AUC of 0.94, 90% accuracy, 93% sensitivity, and 89% specificity. After separately training on thyroid tissue, the CNN differentiates between thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid with an AUC of 0.95, 92% accuracy, 92% sensitivity, and 92% specificity. Moreover, the CNN can discriminate medullary thyroid carcinoma from benign multi-nodular goiter (MNG) with an AUC of 0.93, 87% accuracy, 88% sensitivity, and 85% specificity. Classical-type papillary thyroid carcinoma is differentiated from benign MNG with an AUC of 0.91, 86% accuracy, 86% sensitivity, and 86% specificity. Our preliminary results demonstrate that an HSI-based optical biopsy method using CNNs can provide multi-category diagnostic information for normal head-and-neck tissue, SCCa, and thyroid carcinomas. More patient data are needed in order to fully investigate the proposed technique to establish reliability and generalizability of the work.

  5. Single muscle fiber gene expression in human skeletal muscle: validation of internal control with exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemiolo, Bozena; Trappe, Scott

    2004-01-01

    Reverse transcription and real-time PCR have become the method of choice for the detection of low-abundance mRNA transcripts obtained from small human muscle biopsy samples. GAPDH, β-actin, β-2M, and 18S rRNA are widely employed as endogenous control genes, with the assumption that their expression is unregulated and constant for given experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to determine if mRNA transcripts could be performed on isolated human single muscle fibers and to determine reliable housekeeping genes (HKGs) using quantitative gene expression protocols at rest and in response to an acute exercise bout. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the gastrocnemius of three adult males before, immediately after, and 4 h following 30 min of treadmill running at 70% of VO 2 max. A total of 40 single fibers (MHC I and IIa) were examined for GAPDH, β-actin, β-2M, and 18S rRNA using quantitative RT-PCR and SYBR Green detection. All analyzed single fiber segments showed ribosomal RNA (28S/18S). No degradation or additional bands below ribosomal were detected (rRNA ratio 1.5-1.8). Also, no high or low-molecular weight genomic DNA contamination was observed. For each housekeeping gene the duplicate average SD was ±0.13 with a CV of 0.58%. Stable expression of GAPDH was observed at all time points for each fiber type (MHC I and IIa). Inconsistent expression of β-actin, β-2M, and 18S rRNA was observed during the post-exercise time points for each fiber type. These data indicate that successful extraction of high quality RNA from human single muscle fibers along with quantification of mRNA of selected genes can be performed. Furthermore, exercise does influence the expression of certain HKGs with GAPDH being the most stable

  6. MRI/TRUS fusion software-based targeted biopsy: the new standard of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, M; Costa Moretti, T B; Emberton, M; Villers, A; Valerio, M

    2015-09-01

    The advent of multiparametric MRI has made it possible to change the way in which prostate biopsy is done, allowing to direct biopsies to suspicious lesions rather than randomly. The subject of this review relates to a computer-assisted strategy, the MRI/US fusion software-based targeted biopsy, and to its performance compared to the other sampling methods. Different devices with different methods to register MR images to live TRUS are currently in use to allow software-based targeted biopsy. Main clinical indications of MRI/US fusion software-based targeted biopsy are re-biopsy in men with persistent suspicious of prostate cancer after first negative standard biopsy and the follow-up of patients under active surveillance. Some studies have compared MRI/US fusion software-based targeted versus standard biopsy. In men at risk with MRI-suspicious lesion, targeted biopsy consistently detects more men with clinically significant disease as compared to standard biopsy; some studies have also shown decreased detection of insignificant disease. Only two studies directly compared MRI/US fusion software-based targeted biopsy with MRI/US fusion visual targeted biopsy, and the diagnostic ability seems to be in favor of the software approach. To date, no study comparing software-based targeted biopsy against in-bore MRI biopsy is available. The new software-based targeted approach seems to have the characteristics to be added in the standard pathway for achieving accurate risk stratification. Once reproducibility and cost-effectiveness will be verified, the actual issue will be to determine whether MRI/TRUS fusion software-based targeted biopsy represents anadd-on test or a replacement to standard TRUS biopsy.

  7. 11-gauge vacuum assisted directional biopsy of breast calcifications, using upright stereotactic guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.P.; Borthwick-Clarke, A.; Scott, N.

    2000-01-01

    To assess the use of a prototype vacuum assisted biopsy device on a standard upright mammography unit, using a slightly modified digital stereotactic add-on component. A group comprised of 42 sequential patients, who had been recalled from an asymptomatic mammographic screening programme, were studied. All 42 were recalled for assessment of small clusters of microcalcification, graded as indeterminate. Group 1 (21 patients) were biopsied using 14-gauge automated large core needle biopsy. Group 2 (21 patients) were biopsied using 11-gauge vacuum assisted biopsy. Both groups had mammographic guidance on the same upright mammographic unit (Siemens 3000), with Opdima Digital Stereotactic add-on. A total of 86% of specimen radiographs in Group 2 patients (vacuum assisted biopsy) showed successful sampling of the calcifications, compared to 62% of Group 1 patients (14-gauge automated large core biopsies). This study shows that vacuum assisted biopsy is possible using upright stereotactic mammography units. The technique shows promise as a biopsy tool, offering larger cores compared to 14-gauge automated large core biopsy, while requiring less space and lower purchase price compared to dedicated prone biopsy tables. The technique also offers access to biopsy in patients with posterior lesions and for patients who cannot tolerate prone positioning

  8. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... was unaltered. During saline infusion the adipose tissue release averaged 0.8 ± 0.3 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1) whereas skeletal muscle release was 0.5 ± 0.1 ng min(-1) 100g tissue(-1). In young healthy humans, skeletal muscle contribution to whole body leptin production could be substantial given the greater...

  9. Grading of shoulder ulcerations in sows by biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Dahl-Pedersen, Kirstin; Barington, Krisitane

    2014-01-01

    legislation, stating that sows with shoulder ulcers grade 3 or 4 must be kept loose and have access to soft bedding. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate if biopsies from the center of a shoulder ulcer can be used to point out animals for which an intervention must be initiated. Postmortem......, a punch biopsy was sampled from the center of the ulceration or from the tissue overlaying the tuber spina scapula. Afterward, the shoulders were cross-sectioned and evaluated grossly and histologically (“gold standard”). In total, 121 shoulders were included in the study, and the diagnostic value...... of a punch biopsy in grading shoulder ulcerations was evaluated. The results showed a sensitivity of 0.78, a specificity of 0.98, a positive likelihood ratio of 38.36, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.22. The agreement between the cross-section evaluation and the punch biopsy was found to be 0...

  10. Fatal mediastinal biopsy: How interventional radiology saves the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Yaacob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This was a case of a 35-year-old man with mediastinal mass requiring computed tomography (CT-guided biopsy for tissue diagnosis. A posterior approach with an 18-gauge biopsy needle was used to obtain tissue sample. Post biopsy, patient condition deteriorated and multiphase CT study detected active bleeding in arterial phase at the biopsy site with massive hemothorax. Subsequent angiography showed arterial bleeder arising from the apical branch of the right pulmonary artery. Selective endovascular embolization with NBCA (n-Butyl cyanoacrylate was successful. Patient survived the complication. The case highlighted a rare complication in a common radiology procedure and the value of the interventional radiology unit in avoiding a fatal outcome.

  11. Core biopsy as a simple and effective diagnostic tool in head and neck focal myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chun Yee; Chong, Sheldon; Shaw, Chi-Kee Leslie

    2015-12-01

    Most unilateral head and neck masses are benign, although malignancy is a possibility in some cases. However, there are other rare causes of unilateral neck masses, such as focal myositis, which is a rare, benign condition belonging to the family of inflammatory pseudotumors of the skeletal muscles, with rare presentations in the head and neck region. Focal myositis presents as a rapidly enlarging neck mass that can be misdiagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy and/or radiologic imaging as either an infective or a neoplastic process. To date, there are only 5 reported cases of adult focal myositis of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the medical literature. In this article, the authors present 2 cases involving patients with focal myositis of the sternocleidomastoid muscle that were successfully diagnosed with core-needle biopsy and managed conservatively. The pros and cons of fine-needle aspiration biopsy and core-needle biopsy are discussed. Based on the authors' results, fine-needle aspiration biopsy universally fails to provide the diagnosis of focal myositis. In contrast, core-needle biopsy successfully diagnosed focal myositis in both of our patients. Both of them had complete resolution with conservative management.

  12. Skeletal muscle injury induced by a pneumatic tourniquet: an enzyme- and immunohistochemical study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedowitz, R A; Fridén, J; Thornell, L E

    1992-03-01

    The pathophysiology of skeletal muscle injury induced by compression beneath pneumatic tourniquets is poorly understood. Tourniquet hemostasis was induced in rabbit hindlimbs for 2 hr with a cuff inflation pressure of either 125 mm Hg (n = 5) or 350 mm Hg (n = 5). Skeletal muscle biopsies, taken 2 days later from tissue beneath and distal to the tourniquet, were frozen and analyzed using enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques. In the 350 mm Hg tourniquet group, four of 10 thigh muscle samples demonstrated significant regional necrosis (mean 37.3% of the total cross-sectional area). Regional necrosis was not observed in thigh muscles of the 125 mm Hg tourniquet group or in any of the ischemic leg muscles. A topographic pattern of necrosis consistent with the arterial distribution of skeletal muscle suggested pathogenic events during the reperfusion period, such as granulocyte-mediated superoxide radical formation. Extremely large and rounded fibers (histochemically identified as Type IIB fibers) were observed in compressed thigh muscles, indicating differential fiber sensitivity to tourniquet compression and ischemia. The present study demonstrated significant skeletal muscle necrosis after a 2 hr tourniquet applied at a clinically relevant cuff inflation pressure. Recent studies of systemic changes associated with limb "ischemia" should be reassessed in consideration of the confounding effects of tissue compression induced beneath pneumatic tourniquets.

  13. Relationships of mercury concentrations across tissue types, muscle regions and fins for two shark species

    KAUST Repository

    O'Bryhim, Jason R.

    2017-01-31

    Mercury (Hg) exposure poses a threat to both fish and human health. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate Hg, however, little is known regarding how Hg is distributed between different tissue groups (e.g. muscle regions, organs). Here we evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two different shark species, bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) to determine the relationships of THg concentrations between and within tissue groups. Total Hg concentrations were highest in the eight muscle regions with no significant differences in THg concentrations between the different muscle regions and muscle types (red and white). Results from tissue collected from any muscle region would be representative of all muscle sample locations. Total Hg concentrations were lowest in samples taken from the fin inner core of the first dorsal, pectoral, and caudal (lower lobe) fins. Mercury concentrations for samples taken from the trailing margin of the dorsal, pectoral, and caudal fins (upper and lower lobe) were also not significantly different from each other for both species. Significant relationships were found between THg concentrations in dorsal axial muscle tissue and the fin inner core, liver, kidney, spleen and heart for both species as well as the THg concentrations between the dorsal fin trailing margin and the heart for the silky shark and all other sampled tissue types for the bonnethead shark. Our results suggest that biopsy sampling of dorsal muscle can provide data that can effectively estimate THg concentrations in specific organs without using more invasive, or lethal methods.

  14. The Incidence of Malignant Infiltration in the Biopsy Tract of Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mohana

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy is a crucial step in the management of musculoskeletal sarcoma. The surgical approach to the biopsy site is important, as the tract must be removed en bloc with the tumour during limb sparing surgery so as to reduce the risk of local recurrence. The biopsy tracts of 26 osteosarcoma patients were evaluated histologically for tumour infiltration. Horizontal sections of 1 mm thickness with 2 cm radius from were evaluated from each excised biopsy tract. Five out of 26 cases (19.2% showed positive tumour infiltration. One case (3.85% had tumour infiltration in the pseudocapsule, two cases (7.69% had tumour infiltration into the muscle and two other cases (7.69% had tumour infiltration into the subcutaneous tissue. None had skin infiltration. We conclude that resection of the entire biopsy tract is indeed mandatory for surgical treatment of osteosarcoma.

  15. Comparative analysis of diagnostic accuracy of different brain biopsy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepali; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Sarkar, Chitra; Gupta, Deepak; Singh, Manmohan; Mahapatra, A K

    2006-12-01

    Image-guided procedures such as computed tomography (CT) guided, neuronavigator-guided and ultrasound-guided methods can assist neurosurgeons in localizing the intraparenchymal lesion of the brain. However, despite improvements in the imaging techniques, an accurate diagnosis of intrinsic lesion requires tissue sampling and histological verification. The present study was carried out to examine the reliability of the diagnoses made on tumor sample obtained via different stereotactic and ultrasound-guided brain biopsy procedures. A retrospective analysis was conducted of all brain biopsies (frame-based and frameless stereotactic and ultrasound-guided) performed in a single tertiary care neurosciences center between 1995 and 2005. The overall diagnostic accuracy achieved on histopathology and correlation with type of biopsy technique was evaluated. A total of 130 cases were included, which consisted of 82 males and 48 females. Age ranged from 4 to 75 years (mean age 39.5 years). Twenty per cent (27 patients) were in the pediatric age group, while 12% (16 patients) were >or= 60-years of age. A definitive histological diagnosis was established in 109 cases (diagnostic yield 80.2%), which encompassed 101 neoplastic and eight nonneoplastic lesions. Frame-based, frameless stereotactic and ultrasound-guided biopsies were done in 95, 15 and 20 patients respectively. Although the numbers of cases were small there was trend for better yield with frameless image-guided stereotactic biopsy and maximum diagnostic yield was obtained i.e, 87% (13/15) in comparison to conventional frame-based CT-guided stereotactic biopsy and ultrasound-guided biopsy. Overall, a trend of higher diagnostic yield was seen in cases with frameless image-guided stereotactic biopsy. Thus, this small series confirms that frameless neuronavigator-guided stereotactic procedures represent the lesion sufficiently in order to make histopathologic diagnosis.

  16. Increased expression of Myosin binding protein H in the skeletal muscle of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

    KAUST Repository

    Conti, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe and fatal neurodegenerative disease of still unknown pathogenesis. Recent findings suggest that the skeletal muscle may play an active pathogenetic role. To investigate ALS\\'s pathogenesis and to seek diagnostic markers, we analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies with the differential expression proteomic approach. We studied skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy controls (CN), sporadic ALS (sALS), motor neuropathies (MN) and myopathies (M). Pre-eminently among several differentially expressed proteins, Myosin binding protein H (MyBP-H) expression in ALS samples was anomalously high. MyBP-H is a component of the thick filaments of the skeletal muscle and has strong affinity for myosin, but its function is still unclear. High MyBP-H expression level was associated with abnormal expression of Rho kinase 2 (ROCK2), LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) and cofilin2, that might affect the actin-myosin interaction. We propose that MyBP-H expression level serves, as a putative biomarker in the skeletal muscle, to discriminate ALS from motor neuropathies, and that it signals the onset of dysregulation in actin-myosin interaction; this in turn might contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Increased expression of Myosin binding protein H in the skeletal muscle of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Antonio; Riva, Nilo; Pesca, Mariasabina; Iannaccone, Sandro; Cannistraci, Carlo V; Corbo, Massimo; Previtali, Stefano C; Quattrini, Angelo; Alessio, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe and fatal neurodegenerative disease of still unknown pathogenesis. Recent findings suggest that the skeletal muscle may play an active pathogenetic role. To investigate ALS's pathogenesis and to seek diagnostic markers, we analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies with the differential expression proteomic approach. We studied skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy controls (CN), sporadic ALS (sALS), motor neuropathies (MN) and myopathies (M). Pre-eminently among several differentially expressed proteins, Myosin binding protein H (MyBP-H) expression in ALS samples was anomalously high. MyBP-H is a component of the thick filaments of the skeletal muscle and has strong affinity for myosin, but its function is still unclear. High MyBP-H expression level was associated with abnormal expression of Rho kinase 2 (ROCK2), LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) and cofilin2, that might affect the actin-myosin interaction. We propose that MyBP-H expression level serves, as a putative biomarker in the skeletal muscle, to discriminate ALS from motor neuropathies, and that it signals the onset of dysregulation in actin-myosin interaction; this in turn might contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Age-related reduction of trunk muscle torque and prevalence of trunk sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly: Validity of a portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument and its application to a large sample cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Sasaki

    Full Text Available Trunk muscle weakness and imbalance are risk factors for postural instability, low back pain, and poor postoperative outcomes. The association between trunk muscle strength and aging is poorly understood, and establishing normal reference values is difficult. We aimed to establish the validity of a novel portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument (PTMI. We then estimated reference data for healthy young adults and elucidated age-related weakness in trunk muscle strength. Twenty-four university students were enrolled to validate values for PTMI, and 816 volunteers from the general population who were recruited to the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included to estimate reference data for trunk muscle strength. Trunk flexion and extension torque were measured with PTMI and KinCom, and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC were estimated to evaluate the reliability of PTMI values. Furthermore, from the young adult reference, the age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque and the prevalence of sarcopenia among age-sex groups were estimated. The ICC in flexion and extension torque were 0.807 (p<0.001 and 0.789 (p<0.001, respectively. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased with age, and the prevalence due to flexion torque was double that of extension torque. Flexion torque decreased significantly after 60 years of age, and extension torque decreased after 70 years of age. In males over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 49.1% in flexion and 63.5% in extension. In females over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 60.7% in flexion and 68.4% in extension. The validity of PTMI was confirmed by correlation with KinCom. PTMI produced reference data for healthy young adults, and demonstrated age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque. Trunk sarcopenia progressed with aging, and the loss of flexion torque began earlier than extension torque. At age 80, trunk muscle torque had decreased 60% compared with healthy young adults.

  19. Age-related reduction of trunk muscle torque and prevalence of trunk sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly: Validity of a portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument and its application to a large sample cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Eiji; Sasaki, Shizuka; Chiba, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Yuji; Nawata, Atsushi; Tsuda, Eiichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2018-01-01

    Trunk muscle weakness and imbalance are risk factors for postural instability, low back pain, and poor postoperative outcomes. The association between trunk muscle strength and aging is poorly understood, and establishing normal reference values is difficult. We aimed to establish the validity of a novel portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument (PTMI). We then estimated reference data for healthy young adults and elucidated age-related weakness in trunk muscle strength. Twenty-four university students were enrolled to validate values for PTMI, and 816 volunteers from the general population who were recruited to the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included to estimate reference data for trunk muscle strength. Trunk flexion and extension torque were measured with PTMI and KinCom, and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were estimated to evaluate the reliability of PTMI values. Furthermore, from the young adult reference, the age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque and the prevalence of sarcopenia among age-sex groups were estimated. The ICC in flexion and extension torque were 0.807 (psarcopenia increased with age, and the prevalence due to flexion torque was double that of extension torque. Flexion torque decreased significantly after 60 years of age, and extension torque decreased after 70 years of age. In males over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 49.1% in flexion and 63.5% in extension. In females over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 60.7% in flexion and 68.4% in extension. The validity of PTMI was confirmed by correlation with KinCom. PTMI produced reference data for healthy young adults, and demonstrated age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque. Trunk sarcopenia progressed with aging, and the loss of flexion torque began earlier than extension torque. At age 80, trunk muscle torque had decreased 60% compared with healthy young adults.

  20. MRI-guided Wire Localization Surgical Biopsy in an Adolescent Patient with a Difficult to Diagnose Case of Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Scott M.; Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Jondal, Danielle E.; Rech, Karen L.; Mardini, Samir; Woodrum, David A.

    2017-01-01

    A 17-year-old previously healthy female presented with a progressive soft tissue infiltrative process involving the neck and thorax. Extensive diagnostic evaluation including multiple imaging, laboratory, and biopsy studies was nondiagnostic. Due to an urgent need to establish a diagnosis and several previous nondiagnostic biopsies, she was referred to interventional radiology for MRI-guided wire localization immediately prior to open surgical biopsy. Under general anesthesia, wires were placed in the areas of increased T2 signal within the bilateral splenius capitis muscles using intermittent MRI-guidance followed by immediate surgical biopsy down to the wires. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

  1. MRI-guided Wire Localization Surgical Biopsy in an Adolescent Patient with a Difficult to Diagnose Case of Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Scott M., E-mail: Thompson.scott@mayo.edu; Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Jondal, Danielle E. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); Rech, Karen L. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (United States); Mardini, Samir [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery (United States); Woodrum, David A. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2017-01-15

    A 17-year-old previously healthy female presented with a progressive soft tissue infiltrative process involving the neck and thorax. Extensive diagnostic evaluation including multiple imaging, laboratory, and biopsy studies was nondiagnostic. Due to an urgent need to establish a diagnosis and several previous nondiagnostic biopsies, she was referred to interventional radiology for MRI-guided wire localization immediately prior to open surgical biopsy. Under general anesthesia, wires were placed in the areas of increased T2 signal within the bilateral splenius capitis muscles using intermittent MRI-guidance followed by immediate surgical biopsy down to the wires. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

  2. Roentgenmorphological muscle changes in anterior horn cell lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palvoelgyi, R.

    1979-01-01

    The author examined muscles in the extremities of 42 poliomyelitis patients using a special roentgenological technique. This method made it possible to objectively determine the size of the muscles in the soft tissues of the extremities. The volume and distribution of the increased amounts of fatty tissue in the muscle and the volume of normal muscle tissue led to draw conclusions regarding the histological state of the muscle. Roentgenomorphological changes are closely linked to muscle dysfunction. Roentgenological examination of the soft tissue provides a useful supplement to a muscle biopsy and to electromyographic examinations and is of value for the rehabilitation of the patients. (orig.) [de

  3. Muscle structural changes in mitochondrial myopathy relate to genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, David B.; Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Ørngreen, Mette C.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that morphological changes at the cellular level occur in muscle of patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM), but changes in muscle structure with fat infiltration and gross variation of muscle fiber size with giant fibers, normally encountered in the muscular dystrophies, have...... typically not been associated with mitochondrial disease. We investigated gross and microscopic muscle morphology in thigh muscles by muscle biopsy and MRI in 16 patients with MM, and compared findings with those obtained in muscular dystrophy patients and healthy subjects. Changes of muscle architecture...

  4. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous, suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies.

  5. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms may include: Loss of appetite or weight loss Nausea and vomiting Pain in the upper part of the belly Black stools Vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material A gastric tissue biopsy and culture can help detect: Cancer Infections, most commonly Helicobacter ...

  6. Cost Analysis of Channeled, Distal Chip Laryngoscope for In-office Laryngopharyngeal Biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Sonya; Timen, Micah; Dion, Gregory R; Fritz, Mark A; Branski, Ryan C; Amin, Milan R

    2018-02-19

    Given that financial considerations play an increasingly prominent role in clinical decision-making, we sought (1) to determine the cost-effectiveness of in-office biopsy for the patient, the provider, and the health-care system, and (2) to determine the diagnostic accuracy of in-office biopsy. Retrospective, financial analyses were performed. Patients who underwent in-office (Current Procedural Terminology Code 31576) or operative biopsy (CPT Code 31535) for laryngopharyngeal lesions were included. Two financial analyses were performed: (1) the average cost of operating room (OR) versus in-office biopsy was calculated, and (2) a break-even analysis was calculated to determine the cost-effectiveness of in-office biopsy for the provider. In addition, the diagnostic accuracy of in-office biopsies and need for additional biopsies or procedures was recorded. Of the 48 patients included in the current study, 28 underwent in-office biopsy. A pathologic sample was obtained in 26 of 28 (92.9%) biopsies performed in the office. Of these patients, 16 avoided subsequent OR procedures. The average per patient cost was $7000 and $11,000 for in-office and OR biopsy, respectively. Break-even analysis demonstrated that the provider could achieve a profit 2 years after purchase of the necessary equipment. In-office laryngopharyngeal biopsies are accurate and, overall, more cost-effective than OR biopsies. Purchase of the channeled, distal chip laryngoscope and biopsy forceps to perform in-office biopsies can be profitable for a provider with a videolaryngoscopy tower. In-office biopsy should be considered the initial diagnostic tool for suspected laryngopharyngeal malignancies noted on videolaryngoscopy. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MR imaging of muscle diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.A.; Zeitler, E.; Schalke, B.C.G.

    1986-01-01

    Because of high soft-tissue contrast, MR imaging is especially suitable for the investigation of muscle diseases. Between March 1984 and March 1986, 76 patients with different types of muscle diseases were examined using a 1-T superconductive magnet (Siemens Magnetom). Studied were 14 patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (including carriers), 32 patients with myositis, four patients with myotonic dystrophy, six patients with spinal muscular atrophy, and 20 patients with other muscle diseases, including metabolic disorders. MR imaging showed typical signal patterns in affected muscle groups. These patterns can be used in the differential diagnosis, in biopsy planning, or in evaluation of response to therapy. The T1/T2 ratio especially seems to indicate very early stages of muscle disease

  8. Ultra structure of the denervated vocal muscle mechanically in hogs (sus scrofa domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão, Henrique Zaquia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The literature is not clear in the ultra-structural manifestations of the vocal wrinkles after neural wound. Objective: To verify the alterations that occur in a vocal fold mechanically denervated. Method: In this prospective study, it were utilized 15 hogs of commercial race (Sus scrofa domesticates, with age of 4 to 12 weeks. The animals were distributed in three groups, chosen at random. Everybody was submitted to the denervation of the right vocal fold, with surgical removal of a segment with three centimeters of the recurring right laryngeal nerve. After 45, 90 and 180 days of the operations, it was proceeded the biopsy of the vocal muscles, it was prosecuted the samples for transmission electron microscopy and, for the ultra-structural study, utilized the transmission electron microscopy Philips, model EM208S. Results: The biopsied groups with 45 and 90 days after operation of mechanical denervation, presented disorganization miofibrilar, only vestigial lines Z in many samples, as well like altered mithochondrions presenting limited sizes, and matrix mithocondrial rarefied with rare mithocondrial cristae present. The biopsied group with 180 days after operation of denervation, presented regular sarcomeres, mithocondrions with sizes and regular number with correct positioning between the sarcomerical units. Conclusion: The finds in the ultra-structure of the vocal muscles suggest to re enervation of the muscle being that the muscular mithochondrions were the most sensible structures to the denervated condition, successions by the cytoarchiteture of the miofibrilas; the finds in the ultra-structure of the vocal muscles suggests to reinervation of the muscle in the period of approximately six months.

  9. The Role of Biopsy in Pediatric Dermatopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Şule Afşa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Pediatric dermatology is characterized by skin disorders which have frequencies different from those in adults. Skin biopsies are necessary for differential diagnosis and clinicopathologic correlation is very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the pediatric dermatology cases in whom biopsy was performed for differential diagnosis and to investigate the contribution of biopsy to diagnosis of skin disorders. Material and Methods: The cases from whom biopsy was taken in the pediatric dermatology clinic during a three-year period were evaluated retrospectively for pre-diagnoses, biopsy diagnoses, and success of biopsies.Results: Two hundred thirteen (1.7% skin biopsies had been taken from a total of 12420 patients. Henoch-Schönlein purpura, psoriasis, pityriasis lichenoides, pityriasis rosea, lichen planus, pityriasis rubra pilaris, erythema multiforme, atopic dermatitis, granuloma annulare, and pigmented purpuric dermatosis were the most frequent skin disorders diagnosed dermatopathologically. In a total of 120 (56.3% cases, the biopsy diagnosis was within the pre-diagnosis and a biopsy consistency was present. In 25 (11.7% cases, biopsy had no contribution to the differential diagnosis. An absolutely different diagnosis which was incompatible with the pre-diagnosis had been reported in 10 (4.6% cases. Conclusion: In pediatric dermatology, skin biopsy is very helpful for the differential diagnosis. An easy biopsy procedure for the patient, an effective designation of biopsy indication, a good dermatopathologic correlation and an experienced team of pediatric dermatopathology increase the success of skin biopsies.

  10. Nitrosative stress in human skeletal muscle attenuated by exercise countermeasure after chronic disuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova, Michele; Schiffl, Gudrun; Gutsmann, Martina; Felsenberg, Dieter; Furlan, Sandra; Volpe, Pompeo; Clarke, Andrew; Blottner, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Activity-induced nitric oxide (NO) imbalance and "nitrosative stress" are proposed mechanisms of disrupted Ca(2+) homeostasis in atrophic skeletal muscle. We thus mapped S-nitrosylated (SNO) functional muscle proteins in healthy male subjects in a long-term bed rest study (BBR2-2 Study) without and with exercise as countermeasure in order to assess (i) the negative effects of chronic muscle disuse by nitrosative stress, (ii) to test for possible attenuation by exercise countermeasure in bed rest and (iii) to identify new NO target proteins. Muscle biopsies from calf soleus and hip vastus lateralis were harvested at start (Pre) and at end (End) from a bed rest disuse control group (CTR, n=9) and two bed rest resistive exercise groups either without (RE, n=7) or with superimposed vibration stimuli (RVE, n=7). At subcellular compartments, strong anti-SNO-Cys immunofluorescence patterns in control muscle fibers after bed rest returned to baseline following vibration exercise. Total SNO-protein levels, Nrf-2 gene expression and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling were changed to varying degrees in all groups. Excess SNO-protein levels of specific calcium release/uptake proteins (SNO-RyR1, -SERCA1 and -PMCA) and of contractile myosin heavy chains seen in biopsy samples of chronically disused skeletal muscle were largely reduced by vibration exercise. We also identified NOS1 as a novel NO target in human skeletal muscle controlled by activity driven auto-nitrosylation mechanisms. Our findings suggest that aberrant levels of functional SNO-proteins represent signatures of uncontrolled nitrosative stress management in disused human skeletal muscle that can be offset by exercise as countermeasure.

  11. Nitrosative stress in human skeletal muscle attenuated by exercise countermeasure after chronic disuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Salanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-induced nitric oxide (NO imbalance and “nitrosative stress” are proposed mechanisms of disrupted Ca2+ homeostasis in atrophic skeletal muscle. We thus mapped S-nitrosylated (SNO functional muscle proteins in healthy male subjects in a long-term bed rest study (BBR2-2 Study without and with exercise as countermeasure in order to assess (i the negative effects of chronic muscle disuse by nitrosative stress, (ii to test for possible attenuation by exercise countermeasure in bed rest and (iii to identify new NO target proteins. Muscle biopsies from calf soleus and hip vastus lateralis were harvested at start (Pre and at end (End from a bed rest disuse control group (CTR, n=9 and two bed rest resistive exercise groups either without (RE, n=7 or with superimposed vibration stimuli (RVE, n=7. At subcellular compartments, strong anti-SNO-Cys immunofluorescence patterns in control muscle fibers after bed rest returned to baseline following vibration exercise. Total SNO-protein levels, Nrf-2 gene expression and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling were changed to varying degrees in all groups. Excess SNO-protein levels of specific calcium release/uptake proteins (SNO-RyR1, –SERCA1 and –PMCA and of contractile myosin heavy chains seen in biopsy samples of chronically disused skeletal muscle were largely reduced by vibration exercise. We also identified NOS1 as a novel NO target in human skeletal muscle controlled by activity driven auto-nitrosylation mechanisms. Our findings suggest that aberrant levels of functional SNO-proteins represent signatures of uncontrolled nitrosative stress management in disused human skeletal muscle that can be offset by exercise as countermeasure.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrugia, M.E. [Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.e.farrugia@doctors.org.uk; Bydder, G.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103-8226 (United States); Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D. [OCMR, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrugia, M.E.; Bydder, G.M.; Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders

  14. Added value of second biopsy target in screen-detected widespread suspicious breast calcifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Nathalie M; Hince, Dana; Porter, Gareth; Dessauvagie, Ben; Jeganathan, Sanjay; Bulsara, Max; Lo, Glen

    2018-06-01

    There is controversy on the optimal work-up of screen-detected widespread breast calcifications: whether to biopsy a single target or multiple targets. This study evaluates agreement between multiple biopsy targets within the same screen-detected widespread (≥25 mm) breast calcification to determine if the second biopsy adds value. Retrospective observational study of women screened in a statewide general population risk breast cancer mammographic screening program from 2009 to 2016. Screening episodes recalled for widespread calcifications where further views indicated biopsy, and two or more separate target areas were sampled within the same lesion were included. Percentage agreement and Cohen's Kappa were calculated. A total of 293317 women were screened during 761124 separate episodes with recalls for widespread calcifications in 2355 episodes. In 171 women, a second target was biopsied within the same lesion. In 149 (86%) cases, the second target biopsy result agreed with the first biopsy (κ = 0.6768). Agreement increased with increasing mammography score (85%, 86% and 92% for score 3, 4 and 5 lesions). Same day multiple biopsied lesions were three times more likely to yield concordant results compared to post-hoc second target biopsy cases. While a single target biopsy is sufficient to discriminate a benign vs. malignant diagnosis in most cases, in 14% there is added value in performing a second target biopsy. Biopsies performed prospectively are more likely to yield concordant results compared to post-hoc second target biopsy cases, suggesting a single prospective biopsy may be sufficient when results are radiological-pathological concordant; discordance still requires repeat sampling. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  15. Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound Image Fusion Supported Transperineal Prostate Biopsy Using the Ginsburg Protocol: Technique, Learning Points, and Biopsy Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nienke; Patruno, Giulio; Wadhwa, Karan; Gaziev, Gabriele; Miano, Roberto; Barrett, Tristan; Gnanapragasam, Vincent; Doble, Andrew; Warren, Anne; Bratt, Ola; Kastner, Christof

    2016-08-01

    high, prostate biopsies may not be needed for all men with elevated prostate-specific antigen values and nonsuspicious mpMRI. We present our technique to sample (biopsy) the prostate by the transperineal route (the area between the scrotum and the anus) to detect prostate cancer using a fusion of magnetic resonance and ultrasound images to guide the sampling. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. All rights reserved.

  16. Raman spectroscopic study of acute oxidative stress induced changes in mice skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Alimova, Alexandra; Chakraverty, Rahul; Katz, A.; Gayen, S. K.; Larsson, L.; Savage, H. E.; Alfano, R. R.

    2008-02-01

    The oxidative stress due to free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in diseases such as muscular dystrophy, Alzheimer dementia, diabetes mellitus, and mitochrondrial myopathies. In this study, the acute oxidative stress induced changes in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in mouse skeletal muscles are studied in vitro using Raman spectroscopy. Mammalian skeletal muscles are rich in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in both reduced (NADH) and oxidized (NAD) states, as they are sites of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The relative levels of NAD and NADH are altered in certain physiological and pathological conditions of skeletal muscles. In this study, near infrared Raman spectroscopy is used to identify the molecular fingerprints of NAD and NADH in five-week-old mice biceps femoris muscles. A Raman vibrational mode of NADH is identified in fresh skeletal muscle samples suspended in buffered normal saline. In the same samples, when treated with 1% H IIO II for 5 minutes and 15 minutes, the Raman spectrum shows molecular fingerprints specific to NAD and the disappearance of NADH vibrational bands. The NAD bands after 15 minutes were more intense than after 5 minutes. Since NADH fluoresces and NAD does not, fluorescence spectroscopy is used to confirm the results of the Raman measurements. Fluorescence spectra exhibit an emission peak at 460 nm, corresponding to NADH emission wavelength in fresh muscle samples; while the H IIO II treated muscle samples do not exhibit NADH fluorescence. Raman spectroscopy may be used to develop a minimally invasive, in vivo optical biopsy method to measure the relative NAD and NADH levels in muscle tissues. This may help to detect diseases of muscle, including mitochondrial myopathies and muscular dystrophies.

  17. Retroperitoneoscopic renal biopsy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Jesus

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We present our experience in a series of 17 consecutive pediatric patients submitted to retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal biopsy (LRB was performed in 5 boys and 12 girls. Mean age was 8.1 years and age range from 2 to 12. Two or three trocars were used to expose the inferior pole of the kidney, remove enough cortical parenchymal specimen and fulgurate the biopsy site. Assessment included surgical time, estimated blood loss, hospitalization period, analgesia requirements, complications and number of glomeruli present in the specimen. RESULTS: LRB was successfully performed in all 15 patients (88%. In two cases, LRB was not possible to be performed. One patient was converted to a transperitoneal laparoscopy due to tear in the peritoneum. The other patient had had previous abdominal surgery and, during retroperitoneal balloon dilation, the peritoneum was opened and the open biopsy was performed. A third patient had postoperatively a perirenal hematoma, which was solved spontaneously. Complication rate was 17.6% (3/17 cases. Mean operative time was 65 minutes, while mean estimated blood loss was 52 mL, mean hospital stay was 2.2 days and mean analgesic requirement was 100 mg of tramadol. The mean number of glomeruli present in the specimen was 60. CONCLUSION: Retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal biopsy in children is a simple, safe. Bleeding is still the most common complication. However, direct vision usually allows a safe control of this drawback. In our institution, laparoscopic approach is the chosen procedure in pediatric patients older than one - year - old.

  18. Plasma and Muscle Myostatin in Relation to Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Claus; Nielsen, Anders R.; Fischer, Christian P.; Hansen, Jakob; Pedersen, Bente K.; Plomgaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective Myostatin is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle tissue, which negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Recent animal studies suggest a role for myostatin in insulin resistance. We evaluated the possible metabolic role of myostatin in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. Design 76 patients with type 2 diabetes and 92 control subjects were included in the study. They were matched for age, gender and BMI. Plasma samples and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained to assess plasma myostatin and expression of myostatin in skeletal muscle. Results Patients with type 2 diabetes had higher fasting glucose (8.9 versus 5.1 mmol/L, Pmyostatin mRNA content than the control subjects. Plasma myostatin concentrations did not differ between patients with type 2 diabetes and controls. In healthy controls, muscle myostatin mRNA correlated with HOMA2-IR (r = 0.30, Pmyostatin may have a negative effect on metabolism. However, the metabolic effect of myostatin appears to be overruled by other factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:22615949

  19. Striated muscle fiber size, composition and capillary density in diabetes in relation to neuropathy and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christer Swan; Jensen, Jacob Malte; Jakobsen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    study was to evaluate histologic properties and capillarization of diabetic skeletal muscle in relation to DPN and muscle strength. METHODS: Twenty type 1 and 20 type 2 diabetic (T1D and T2D, respectively) patients underwent biopsy of the gastrocnemic muscle, isokinetic dynamometry at the ankle...... between muscle fiber diameter, muscle fiber type distribution, or capillary density and degree of neuropathy or muscle strength for either patient group. Muscle fiber diameter and the proportion of Type II fibers were greater for T1D patients than both T2D patients and controls. The T2D patients had fewer...

  20. Electrophysiologic and clinico-pathologic characteristics of statin-induced muscle injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdulrazaq

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Atorvastatin increased average creatine kinase, suggesting, statins produce mild muscle injury even in asymptomatic subjects. Diabetic statin users were more prone to develop muscle injury than others. Muscle fiber conduction velocity evaluation is recommended as a simple and reliable test to diagnose statin-induced myopathy instead of invasive muscle biopsy.

  1. [Current situation and prospect of breast cancer liquid biopsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, B; Xin, L; Xu, L; Ye, J M; Liu, Y H

    2018-02-01

    Liquid biopsy is a diagnostic approach by analyzing body fluid samples. Peripheral blood is the most common sample. Urine, saliva, pleural effusion and ascites are also used. Now liquid biopsy is mainly used in the area of neoplasm diagnosis and treatment. Compared with traditional tissue biopsy, liquid biopsy is minimally invasive, convenient to sample and easy to repeat. Liquid biopsy mainly includes circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) detection. Detection of ctDNA requires sensitive and accurate methods. The progression of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and digital PCR promote the process of studies in ctDNA. In 2016, Nature published the result of whole-genome sequencing study of breast cancer. The study found 1 628 mutations of 93 protein-coding genes which may be driver mutations of breast cancer. The result of this study provided a new platform for breast cancer ctDNA studies. In recent years, there were many studies using ctDNA detection to monitor therapeutic effect and guide treatment. NGS is a promising technique in accessing genetic information and guiding targeted therapy. It must be emphasized that ctDNA detection using NGS is still at research stage. It is important to standardize ctDNA detection technique and perform prospective clinical researches. The time is not ripe for using ctDNA detection to guide large-scale breast cancer clinical practice at present.

  2. Diet and exercise reduce low-grade inflammation and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue but not in skeletal muscle in severely obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jens M; Helge, Jørn W; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of a 15-wk lifestyle intervention (hypocaloric diet and daily exercise) on inflammatory markers in plasma, adipose tissue (AT), and skeletal muscle...... (SM) in 27 severely obese subjects (mean body mass index: 45.8 kg/m2). Plasma samples, subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies, and vastus lateralis SM biopsies were obtained before and after the intervention and analyzed by ELISA and RT-PCR. The intervention reduced body weight (P

  3. Image-guided biopsy in patients with suspected ovarian carcinoma: a safe and effective technique?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Nyree; Grant, Lee A.; Freeman, Susan J.; Berman, Laurence H.; Sala, Evis; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Earl, Helena; Ahmed, Ahmed Ashour; Crawford, Robin; Brenton, James

    2009-01-01

    In patients with suspected advanced ovarian carcinoma, a precise histological diagnosis is required before commencing neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. This study aims to determine the diagnostic accuracy and complication rate of percutaneous biopsies performed under ultrasound or computed tomography guidance. Between 2002 to 2007, 60 consecutive image-guided percutaneous biopsies were performed in patients with suspected ovarian cancer. The following variables were recorded: tissue biopsied, imaging technique, experience of operator, biopsy needle gauge, number of passes, complications, and final histology. Forty-seven patients had omental biopsies, 12 pelvic mass biopsies, and 1 para-aortic lymph node biopsy. Thirty-five biopsies were performed under ultrasound, 25 under computed tomography guidance. Biopsy needle gauges ranged from 14-20 swg with two to five passes for each patient. There were no complications. Histology was obtained in 52 (87%) patients. Percutaneous image-guided biopsy of peritoneal disease or pelvic mass is safe with high diagnostic accuracy. The large-gauge biopsy needle is as safe as the small gauge needle, but has the added value of obtaining tissue samples for immunohistochemistry and genomic studies. (orig.)

  4. Outcomes following negative prostate biopsy for patients with persistent disease after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob H. Cohen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: When faced with biochemical recurrence after definitive radiotherapy for prostate cancer, clinicians must determine whether the recurrence is local or systemic. Post radiotherapy prostate biopsies to detect persistent local disease are difficult to interpret histopathologically and are subject to sampling error. Our study examines outcomes for patients with a negative prostate biopsy performed for rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels after prostate radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 238 prostate cancer patients with a negative biopsy following definitive radiotherapy. Seventy-five of these patients had biochemical recurrence at the time of biopsy. A negative biopsy was defined as the absence of prostate cancer without radiation-treatment effect in the specimen. RESULTS: Patients underwent biopsy at a mean of 41 months after the completion of radiation. They had a mean PSA of 6. Patients were followed for an average of 63 months. Thirty-two patients (43% developed metastasis, and 11 (15% died of prostate cancer despite a negative post-radiation biopsy. Five of nine patients (56% with sequential biopsies had a positive second biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PSA recurrence and a negative post-radiation biopsy have a high chance of persistent local disease, progression, and death from prostate cancer. Furthermore, an initial negative biopsy does not rule-out local recurrence. Patients with biochemical recurrence after radiotherapy for prostate cancer need to be evaluated earlier for local recurrence.

  5. Use of capillary Western immunoassay (Wes) for quantification of dystrophin levels in skeletal muscle of healthy controls and individuals with Becker and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Chantal; Janson, Anneke A; Baghat, Aabed; van Deutekom, Judith C; Datson, Nicole A

    2018-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive weakness of the skeletal and cardiac muscles. This X-linked disorder is caused by open reading frame disrupting mutations in the DMD gene, resulting in strong reduction or complete absence of dystrophin protein. In order to use dystrophin as a supportive or even surrogate biomarker in clinical studies on investigational drugs aiming at correcting the primary cause of the disease, the ability to reliably quantify dystrophin expression in muscle biopsies of DMD patients pre- and post-treatment is essential. Here we demonstrate the application of the ProteinSimple capillary immunoassay (Wes) method, a gel- and blot-free method requiring less sample, antibody and time to run than conventional Western blot assay. We optimized dystrophin quantification by Wes using 2 different antibodies and found it to be highly sensitive, reproducible and quantitative over a large dynamic range. Using a healthy control muscle sample as a reference and α-actinin as a protein loading/muscle content control, a panel of skeletal muscle samples consisting of 31 healthy controls, 25 Becker Muscle dystrophy (BMD) and 17 DMD samples was subjected to Wes analysis. In healthy controls dystrophin levels varied 3 to 5-fold between the highest and lowest muscle samples, with the reference sample representing the average of all 31 samples. In BMD muscle samples dystrophin levels ranged from 10% to 90%, with an average of 33% of the healthy muscle average, while for the DMD samples the average dystrophin level was 1.3%, ranging from 0.7% to 7% of the healthy muscle average. In conclusion, Wes is a suitable, efficient and reliable method for quantification of dystrophin expression as a biomarker in DMD clinical drug development.

  6. CT-guided biopsies and drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppers, I.; Wollschlaeger, D.

    2011-01-01

    Following the implementation of computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound-guided biopsy of solid tumors and the puncture and drainage of liquid processes, the number of surgical open biopsies and curative operations for abscess drainage has declined. Such CT-guided interventions are performed in nearly every organ. Instead of aspiration biopsies, more and more core biopsies are being performed to allow histopathological evaluation and thus allowing targeted therapy. This article is intended to give a general overview of techniques, materials, indications and contraindications. Ultrasound-guided biopsies as well as large bore vacuum biopsies of the breast are not included in this review. (orig.) [de

  7. Freehand biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, C; Nielsen, Marie Kristina Rue; Nielsen, M Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking.......To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking....

  8. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on postoperative muscle mass and protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinge, O; Edvardsen, L; Jensen, F

    1996-01-01

    In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein ...... protein synthesis and muscle mass after abdominal surgery and should be evaluated in other catabolic states with muscle wasting.......In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein...... synthesis were assessed by computed tomography and ribosome analysis of percutaneous muscle biopsies before surgery and on the sixth postoperative day. The percentage of polyribosomes in the ribosome suspension decreased significantly (P

  9. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  10. A novel method for determining human ex vivo submaximal skeletal muscle mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Gram, Martin; Jensen, Martin Borch

    2015-01-01

    previously used. Muscle biopsies were taken from 64 old or young male subjects (60-70 or 20-30 years old). Aged subjects were recruited as trained or untrained. Muscle biopsies were used for isolation of mitochondria and subsequent measurements of DNA repair, antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial protein...

  11. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines. How can I prevent muscle cramps? To prevent muscle cramps, you can Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, ...

  12. A randomized controlled trial of electrocoagulation-enabled biopsy versus conventional biopsy in the diagnosis of endobronchial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ajmal; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Agarwal, Ritesh; Bal, Amanjit; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2011-01-01

    Although electrocoagulation at time of endobronchial biopsy can potentially reduce procedure-related bleeding during fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB), it can also impair quality of tissue specimen; credible data for either are lacking. To evaluate the impact of hot biopsy on the quality of tissue samples and to quantify the amount of procedure-related bleeding during endobronchial biopsy. In this single-center, prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled study we included adult patients referred for FOB and having endobronchial lesions. Patients were randomized to bronchial biopsy using an electrocoagulation-enabled biopsy forceps, with (EC+ group) or without (EC- group) application of electrocoagulation current (40 W for 10 s in a monopolar mode). Procedure-related bleeding was semi-quantified by observer description, as well as through a visual analogue scale. Overall quality of biopsy specimen and tissue damage were assessed and graded by a pulmonary pathologist blinded to FOB details. 160 patients were randomized to endobronchial biopsy with (n = 81) or without (n = 79) the application of electrocoagulation. There were no severe bleeding episodes in either group, and severity of bleeding in the EC+ and EC- groups was similar (median visual analogue scale scores of 14 and 16, respectively). Histopathological diagnosis was similar in the EC+ and EC- groups (77.8% and 82.3%, respectively). There was no significant difference in tissue quality between the two groups. Use of electrocoagulation-enabled endobronchial biopsy does not alter specimen quality and does not result in any significant reduction in procedure-related bleeding. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Effect of Myostatin SNP on muscle fiber properties in male Thoroughbred horses during training period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hirofumi; Itoh, Rika; Sato, Fumio; Takebe, Naoya; Hada, Tetsuro; Tozaki, Teruaki

    2017-10-20

    Variants of the Myostatin gene have been shown to have an influence on muscle hypertrophy phenotypes in a wide range of mammalian species. Recently, a Thoroughbred horse with a C-Allele at the g.66493737C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been reported to be suited to short-distance racing. In this study, we examined the effect of the Myostatin SNP on muscle fiber properties in young Thoroughbred horses during a training period. To investigate the effect of the Myostatin SNP on muscle fiber before training, several mRNA expressions were relatively quantified in biopsy samples from the middle gluteal muscle of 27 untrained male Thoroughbred horses (1.5 years old) using real-time RT-PCR analysis. The remaining muscle samples were used for immunohistochemical analysis to determine the population and area of each fiber type. All measurements were revaluated in biopsy samples of the same horses after a 5-month period of conventional training. Although the expressions of Myostatin mRNA decreased in all SNP genotypes, a significant decrease was found in only the C/C genotype after training. While, expression of VEGFa, PGC1α, and SDHa mRNAs, which relate to the biogenesis of mitochondria and capillaries, was significantly higher (54-82%) in the T/T than the C/C genotypes after training. It is suggested that hypertrophy of muscle fiber is directly associated with a decrease in Myostatin mRNA expression in the C/C genotype, and that increased expressions of VEGFa, PGC1α, and SDHa in the T/T genotype might be indirectly caused by the Myostatin SNP.

  14. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various other investigations ...

  15. Right Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Following Endomyocardial Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita; Santos; Manteiga; Rodriguez; Beiras

    1996-03-01

    Ventricular perforation is an unusual complication after endomyocardial biopsy in heart transplanted patients. We report a case of asymptomatic right ventricular perforation and pseudoaneurysm formation, secondary to endomyocardial biopsy, diagnosed by angiography. The spontaneous obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm was observed.

  16. Accessible or Inaccessible? Diagnostic Efficacy of CT-Guided Core Biopsies of Head and Neck Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Jane D., E-mail: janecunningham0708@gmail.com; McCusker, Mark W.; Power, Sarah; PearlyTi, Joanna; Thornton, John; Brennan, Paul; Lee, Michael J.; O’Hare, Alan; Looby, Seamus [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTissue sampling of lesions in the head and neck is challenging due to complex regional anatomy and sometimes necessitates open surgical biopsy. However, many patients are poor surgical candidates due to comorbidity. Thus, we evaluated the use of CT guidance for establishing histopathological diagnosis of head and neck masses.MethodsAll consecutive patients (n = 22) who underwent CT-guided core biopsy of head or neck masses between April 2009 and August 2012 were retrospectively reviewed using the departmental CT interventional procedures database. The indication for each biopsy performed was to establish or exclude a diagnosis of neoplasia in patients with suspicious head or neck lesions found on clinical examination or imaging studies. Patients received conscious sedation and 18 G, semiautomated core needle biopsies were performed by experienced neuroradiologists using 16-slice multidetector row CT imaging guidance (Somatom Definition Siemens Medical Solutions, Germany). Histopathology results of each biopsy were analysed.ResultsSixteen of 22 biopsies that were performed (73 %) yielded a pathological diagnosis. Anatomic locations biopsied included: masticator (n = 7), parapharyngeal (n = 3), parotid (n = 3), carotid (n = 3), perivertebral (n = 3), pharyngeal (n = 2), and retropharyngeal (n = 1) spaces. Six biopsies (27 %) were nondiagnostic due to inadequate tissue sampling, particularly small biopsy sample size and failure to biopsy the true sampling site due to extensive necrosis. No major complications were encountered.ConclusionsThe use of CT guidance to perform core biopsies of head and neck masses is an effective means of establishing histopathological diagnosis and reduces the need for diagnostic open surgical biopsy and general anaesthesia.

  17. Respiratory analysis of coupled mitochondria in cryopreserved liver biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes García-Roche

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a cryopreservation method of small liver biopsies for in situ mitochondrial function assessment. Herein we describe a detailed protocol for tissue collection, cryopreservation, high-resolution respirometry using complex I and II substrates, calculation and interpretation of respiratory parameters. Liver biopsies from cow and rat were sequentially frozen in a medium containing dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectant and stored for up to 3 months at −80 °C. Oxygen consumption rate studies of fresh and cryopreserved samples revealed that most respiratory parameters remained unchanged. Additionally, outer mitochondrial membrane integrity was assessed adding cytochrome c, proving that our cryopreservation method does not harm mitochondrial structure. In sum, we present a reliable way to cryopreserve small liver biopsies without affecting mitochondrial function. Our protocol will enable the transport and storage of samples, extending and facilitating mitochondrial function analysis of liver biopsies. Keywords: Cryopreservation, Mitochondria, Biopsy, Oxygen consumption rate, High-resolution respirometry, Mitochondrial function

  18. The functional significance of hamstrings composition: is it really a "fast" muscle group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelidis, Pavlos E; Massey, Garry J; Ferguson, Richard A; Wheeler, Patrick C; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2017-11-01

    Hamstrings muscle fiber composition may be predominantly fast-twitch and could explain the high incidence of hamstrings strain injuries. However, hamstrings muscle composition in vivo, and its influence on knee flexor muscle function, remains unknown. We investigated biceps femoris long head (BFlh) myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition from biopsy samples, and the association of hamstrings composition and hamstrings muscle volume (using MRI) with knee flexor maximal and explosive strength. Thirty-one young men performed maximal (concentric, eccentric, isometric) and explosive (isometric) contractions. BFlh exhibited a balanced MHC distribution [mean ± SD (min-max); 47.1 ± 9.1% (32.6-71.0%) MHC-I, 35.5 ± 8.5% (21.5-60.0%) MHC-IIA, 17.4 ± 9.1% (0.0-30.9%) MHC-IIX]. Muscle volume was correlated with knee flexor maximal strength at all velocities and contraction modes (r = 0.62-0.76, P hamstrings strain injury. Hamstrings muscle volume explained 38-58% of the inter-individual differences in knee flexor maximum strength at a range of velocities and contraction modes, while BFlh muscle composition was not associated with maximal or explosive strength. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Neuronavigator-guided cerebral biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivukangas, J; Louhisalmi, Y; Alakuijala, J; Oikarinen, J

    1993-01-01

    Neuronavigators are new dynamic interactive instruments that use on-line computers to orient imaging data to the surgical field and guide the neurosurgeon to his target. We have been working since 1987 on a neuronavigator that serves not only as a precise pointer, but also as a dynamic arm that can be used to hold instruments, such as biopsy guides. The neuronavigator arm consists of six joints with optical encoders and is attached to the Mayfield headholder. The arm is connected to a workstation running customized 3D image graphics software. Special instruments and surgical technique have been developed. Here, we report on early clinical experience with ten biopsy procedures: 4 low-grade and 3 high-grade astrocytomas, one craniopharyngioma and one chronic intracerebral haematoma and intracerebral cyst, both of the latter with surrounding tumour suspect tissue. In all glioma cases serial biopsies were taken from optimal sites under ultrasound imaging control. Eight cases showed representative tumour tissue, while in two cases neoplasia was ruled out. The neuronavigator proved to be versatile, allowing comprehensive imaging data to be adapted to the surgical field.

  20. Aortography following subdiaphragmal aortic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmler, J.

    1982-01-01

    A juxtaposition of the subdiaphragmal and infrarenal translumbar aortic biopsy sites showed decisive advantages in favour of the higher site: a more stable position because of better anatomic fixation and rarer incidence of vascular alterations, a wider vascular lumen. Disadvantages lie in the fact that the large visceral arteries (especially Tr. coeliacus) branch off nearly and in the close anatomic relationship to large abdominal organs and the thoracal region. Evaluation of the radiographical image of the vascular tree after subdiaphragmal aortic biopsy showed an average 82% of the vessels to the area of the Knees to be assessable (renal arteries approximately 93%, popliteal arteries approximately 70%). Beyong, the method proved unsatisfactory: 52% of the vessels could not, or not safety, be evaluated. A relatively broad spectrum of indications by comparison with transfemoral catheter aortography had no influence on the rate of complications with reference to either method. A comparison of the topographic conditions shows the need for even more scrupulons observation of the technique in subdiaphragmal biopsy than in the infrarenal one. To sum up the results obtained, subdiaphregmal translumbar aortography is to be preferred to the infrarenal one where transfemoral catheter aortography is contra-indicated, within the limits mentioned. (orig.) [de

  1. Value of CT-guided biopsy in malignant lymphoma; Wertigkeit der CT-gesteuerten Biopsie maligner Lymphome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libicher, M.; Noeldge, G.; Radeleff, B.; Gholipur, F.; Richter, G.M. [Abteilung Radiodiagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Management of diagnosing malignant lymphomas has changed with development of CT-guided techniques and reliable biopsy tools.Pathologists can use representative tissue samples for sub classification in more than 90%.Evaluation of residual lymphoma or relapse can be nearly as effective. Therefore percutaneous biopsy can be considered as primary diagnostic tool in the absence of peripheral lymphadenopathy. CT-guided biopsies can be performed on an outpatient basis under conscious sedation considering contraindications as well as regional complications. Acceptance of percutaneous biopsy by the pathologist and oncologist is based on diagnostic effectiveness that is significantly improved if more than 3{dagger}solid tissue samples are taken. This article reviews the value of CT-guided biopsy in comparison to surgical procedures in patients with malignant lymphoma. Essential aspects that lead to a diagnostic percutaneous biopsy are discussed on grounds of the current literature. (orig.) [German] Mit der Entwicklung CT-gesteuerter Biopsieverfahren sowie zuverlaessiger Biopsiesysteme hat sich die Vorgehensweise bei der Diagnostik maligner Lymphome geaendert. Repraesentative Stanzzylinder mit hoher Praeparatequalitaet ermoeglichen dem Pathologen eine Subklassifikation der Lymphome in ueber 90%. Eine aehnlich hohe Treffsicherheit ist auch bei der Rezidivdiagnostik moeglich. Deshalb sind perkutane Biopsien bei fehlender peripherer Lymphadenopathie als primaere diagnostische Methode geeignet. Unter Beachtung der Kontraindikationen sowie der regional unterschiedlichen Komplikationsmoeglichkeiten koennen die meisten CT-gesteuerten Biopsien ambulant unter Analgosedierung durchgefuehrt werden. Die Akzeptanz perkutaner Biopsien durch Pathologen und Onkologen ist an die diagnostische Genauigkeit gekoppelt. Diese wird durch Gewinnung von mindestens 3 repraesentativen Biopsiezylindern aus den soliden Anteilen eines Lymphoms signifikant erhoeht. Die vorliegende Uebersichtsarbeit

  2. Freehand biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, C; Nielsen, Marie Kristina Rue; Nielsen, M Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the overall accuracy and time spent on biopsy guided by electromagnetic needle tracking in a phantom compared with the standard technique of US-guided biopsy with an attached steering device. Furthermore, to evaluate off-plane biopsy guided by needle tracking....

  3. 20 CFR 718.106 - Autopsy; biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Autopsy; biopsy. 718.106 Section 718.106... PNEUMOCONIOSIS Criteria for the Development of Medical Evidence § 718.106 Autopsy; biopsy. (a) A report of an autopsy or biopsy submitted in connection with a claim shall include a detailed gross macroscopic and...

  4. Distribution patterns and predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in experimentally infected Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    , external tibial flexor, longissimus caudalis and caudal femoral muscles compared with naturally infected crocodiles. Results from this study show that, in Nile crocodiles, larvae of T. zimbabwensis appear first to invade predilection muscles closest to their release site in the small intestine before occupying those muscles situated further away. The recommendation for the use of masseter, pterygoid and intercostal muscles as sampling sites for the detection of T. zimbabwensis in crocodiles is in contrast to the results from this study, where the fore- and hind limb muscles had the highest number of larvae. This study also supports the use of biopsy sampling from the dorso-lateral regions of the tail for surveillance purposes in both wild and commercial crocodile populations.

  5. Importance of tissue biopsy in suicidal hanging deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal S. Bamousa

    2015-12-01

    The total number of cases was 62; 85.5% of the deceased were males, while 15% were females. The majority of cases (53% were among the age group of 20–30 years. Hemorrhage of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and carotid intimal tear were both found in 90% of cases. Thyroid congestion was detected in 91%, and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was diagnosed in 2% of studied cases. The study discusses the importance of biopsy examination in hanging deaths and compares its results with other similar previous studies.

  6. Analysis of costs of transrectal prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandella, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Literature reports mortality and morbidity data from prostatic carcinoma which permit a better use of some routine diagnostic tools such as transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. The aim of this work is to quantify the overall cost of transrectal ultrasound biopsy of the prostate (TRUSB) and to assess the economic impact of current procedures for diagnosing prostatic carcinoma. The total cost of TRUSB was calculated with reference to 247 procedures performed in 2008. The following cost factors were evaluated: personnel, materials, maintenance/depreciation of the equipment, energy consumption, and hospital overheads. A literature review was also carried out to check if our extrapolated costs corresponded to those of other authors worldwide, and to consider them in the wider framework of the economic effectiveness of strategies for early diagnosis of cancer of the prostate. The overall cost of TRUSB (8 samples) was EUR 249,000, obtained by adding together the costs of: personnel (EUR 160,000); materials (EUR 59,000); equipment maintenance and depreciation (EUR 12,400); energy consumption (EUR0,1); hospital overheads (EUR 17,500). With extended or saturation biopsies the cost increases for the more time needed by pathologists and can be calculated as EUR 300,000. The literature review points out TRUSB as an invasive tool for diagnosing prostatic carcinoma, clinically and economically controversial. Post-mortem data report the presence of cancer cells in the prostate of 50% of 70-year-old men, while extrapolations calculate a morbidity rate from prostatic carcinoma in 9.5% of 50-year-old men. It is therefore obvious that randomized prostatic biopsies, methods apart, have a good probability of being positive. This probability varies with the patient's age, the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA), the density of PSA/cm3 of prostate volume (PSAD), and the detection by digital exploration and/or positive transrectal ultrasound. CONCLUSIONS. Despite the severe

  7. Exercise training, but not resveratrol, improves metabolic and inflammatory status in skeletal muscle of aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse; Biensøe, Rasmus S

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol alone and when combined with exercise training in skeletal muscle of aged human subjects. Material and Methods: Healthy physically inactive men (60-72 year old) were randomized into either 8 weeks of daily intake of 250...... mg resveratrol or placebo or into 8 weeks of high intensity exercise training with 250 mg resveratrol or placebo. Before and after the interventions, resting blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained and a one-leg knee-extensor endurance exercise test (KEE) was performed. Results: Exercise...... with no significant additive or adverse effects of resveratrol on these parameters. Despite an overall ~25% reduction in total acetylation level in skeletal muscle with resveratrol, no exclusive resveratrol-mediated metabolic effects were observed on the investigated parameters. Notably however, resveratrol blunted...

  8. Muscle Carnosine Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora de Courten

    Full Text Available Carnosine is a naturally present dipeptide abundant in skeletal muscle and an over-the counter food additive. Animal data suggest a role of carnosine supplementation in the prevention and treatment of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease but only limited human data exists.Samples of vastus lateralis muscle were obtained by needle biopsy. We measured muscle carnosine levels (high-performance liquid chromatography, % body fat (bioimpedance, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity (magnetic resonance imaging, insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, resting energy expenditure (REE, indirect calorimetry, free-living ambulatory physical activity (accelerometers and lipid profile in 36 sedentary non-vegetarian middle aged men (45±7 years with varying degrees of adiposity and glucose tolerance. Muscle carnosine content was positively related to % body fat (r = 0.35, p = 0.04 and subcutaneous (r = 0.38, p = 0.02 but not visceral fat (r = 0.17, p = 0.33. Muscle carnosine content was inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.44, p = 0.008, REE (r = -0.58, p<0.001 and HDL-cholesterol levels (r = -0.34, p = 0.048. Insulin sensitivity and physical activity were the best predictors of muscle carnosine content after adjustment for adiposity.Our data shows that higher carnosine content in human skeletal muscle is positively associated with insulin resistance and fasting metabolic preference for glucose. Moreover, it is negatively associated with HDL-cholesterol and basal energy expenditure. Intervention studies targeting insulin resistance, metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors are necessary to evaluate its putative role in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  9. Endometrial biopsy findings in postmenopausal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, T.; Tariq, H.

    2007-01-01

    To study endometrial histopathology in women presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. A two-year study from January 2003 to December 2004 of 100 cases of postmenopausal bleeding was conducted at Combined Military Hospital, Sialkot. The histopathology of endometrial biopsy specimens was done to find out the causes of postmenopausal bleeding in these ladies. All these 100 patients had confirmed menopause and the average age was 55 years and above. The most common histopathological diagnosis was senile endometrial atrophy (27%), followed by simple cystic hyperplasia in (17%). Three cases of simple cystic hyperplasia had coexistent ovarian tumors. Glandular hyperplasia without atypia was seen in 6% and with atypia in 4%. Other causes were endometritis (13%), endometrial polyps (8%), proliferative phase endometrium (6%) and secretary phase endometrium (5%). Endometrial carcinoma was seen in (6%) cases, (8%) biopsy specimens were non-representative. Although senile endometrial atrophy was most commonly found in these ladies but a significant percentage of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer implies the need for investigating all cases of postmenopausal bleeding. Bimanual examination and pelvic ultrasonography should be combined with endometrial sampling so that rare pelvic pathologies may not be missed. (author)

  10. Relationship between muscle water and glycogen recovery after prolonged exercise in the heat in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Ortega, Juan F; Nelson, Rachael K; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2015-09-01

    It is usually stated that glycogen is stored in human muscle bound to water in a proportion of 1:3 g. We investigated this proportion in biopsy samples during recovery from prolonged exercise. On two occasions, nine aerobically trained subjects ([Formula: see text] = 54.4 ± 1.05 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) dehydrated 4.6 ± 0.2 % by cycling 150 min at 65 % [Formula: see text] in a hot-dry environment (33 ± 4 °C). One hour after exercise subjects ingested 250 g of carbohydrates in 400 mL of water (REHLOW) or the same syrup plus water to match fluid losses (i.e., 3170 ± 190 mL; REHFULL). Muscle biopsies were obtained before, 1 and 4 h after exercise. In both trials muscle water decreased from pre-exercise similarly by 13 ± 6 % and muscle glycogen by 44 ± 10 % (P recovery, glycogen levels were similar in both trials (79 ± 15 and 87 ± 18 g kg(-1) dry muscle; P = 0.20) while muscle water content was higher in REHFULL than in REHLOW (3814 ± 222 vs. 3459 ± 324 g kg(-1) dm, respectively; P recovery ratio 1:3) while during REHFULL this ratio was higher (1:17). Our findings agree with the long held notion that each gram of glycogen is stored in human muscle with at least 3 g of water. Higher ratios are possible (e.g., during REHFULL) likely due to water storage not bound to glycogen.

  11. PamFreezer: a solution to enable frozen biopsy logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colijn, B.A.; Rios Cruellas, G.; Hashemi-Shabastari, M.; Janssen, X.; van der Leij, A.; Leyte-Gonzalez, R.; Vanapalli, Srinivas; Veldhuizen, P.; Verbiest, G.; Verhaagen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue samples that are taken during a biopsy need to be snap-frozen in order to preserve their properties and use the tissue for contemporary molecular biology technologies that may improve the treatment of the patient. There is currently a lack of (safe) methodologies or devices for snap- freezing

  12. CT-guided percutaneous spine biopsy in suspected infection or malignancy. A study of 214 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, J.; Veith, S.; Kauczor, H.U.; Weber, M.A.; Akbar, M.

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively determine the effectiveness and accuracy of CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of malignant and inflammatory bone lesions of the spine and to assess the reliability of pre-biopsy CT and MRI. 214 patients with lesions of the spine, which were suspicious either for being malignant or inflammatory, underwent CT-guided biopsy for pathological and/or microbiological detection. Biopsy samples were sent for histological examination in 128/214 patients, for microbiological analysis in 17/214 patients and for both analyses in 69/214 patients. Retrospectively, the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity/specificity of the pre-interventional imaging (CT and MRI) were determined. In addition, the influence of the biopsy on subsequent patient management was assessed. The accuracy was 94.4% for histopathological analysis and 97.7% for microbiological analysis. In 25% of cases the microbiological analysis revealed an underlying pathogen that was not significantly affected by pre-biopsy antibiotic therapy. The sensitivity/specificity of the pre-biopsy cross-sectional imaging concerning suspected malignancy was 69%/78%. For suspected infection, the sensitivity/specificity of pre-biopsy imaging was 81%/44%. In 52% of all cases, the biopsy result changed subsequent patient management. Percutaneous CT-guided spine biopsy is a useful and reliable diagnostic procedure to establish a definitive diagnosis but with a relatively low yield of microorganisms in the case of infection.

  13. CT-guided percutaneous spine biopsy in suspected infection or malignancy. A study of 214 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, J.; Veith, S.; Kauczor, H.U.; Weber, M.A. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Akbar, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine

    2016-12-15

    To retrospectively determine the effectiveness and accuracy of CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of malignant and inflammatory bone lesions of the spine and to assess the reliability of pre-biopsy CT and MRI. 214 patients with lesions of the spine, which were suspicious either for being malignant or inflammatory, underwent CT-guided biopsy for pathological and/or microbiological detection. Biopsy samples were sent for histological examination in 128/214 patients, for microbiological analysis in 17/214 patients and for both analyses in 69/214 patients. Retrospectively, the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity/specificity of the pre-interventional imaging (CT and MRI) were determined. In addition, the influence of the biopsy on subsequent patient management was assessed. The accuracy was 94.4% for histopathological analysis and 97.7% for microbiological analysis. In 25% of cases the microbiological analysis revealed an underlying pathogen that was not significantly affected by pre-biopsy antibiotic therapy. The sensitivity/specificity of the pre-biopsy cross-sectional imaging concerning suspected malignancy was 69%/78%. For suspected infection, the sensitivity/specificity of pre-biopsy imaging was 81%/44%. In 52% of all cases, the biopsy result changed subsequent patient management. Percutaneous CT-guided spine biopsy is a useful and reliable diagnostic procedure to establish a definitive diagnosis but with a relatively low yield of microorganisms in the case of infection.

  14. New patient pathway using vacuum-assisted biopsy reduces diagnostic surgery for B3 lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, S.; Shaaban, A.M.; Dall, B.J.G.; Sharma, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess the clinical impact of a new patient management pathway incorporating vacuum-assisted biopsy for lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3). Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of all B3 lesions on core biopsy in the pathology database from April 2008 to April 2010. Outcome measures assessed included final histological diagnosis, frequency of diagnostic surgical biopsy, and impact on management. Results: In the old pathway, there were 95 B3 lesions, of which 14% (13/95) were planned for vacuum-assisted biopsy and 86% (82/95) for surgical biopsy. In the new pathway, there were 94 B3 lesions, of which 68% (64/94) were planned for vacuum-assisted biopsy and 32% (30/94) for surgical biopsy. Following further sampling with vacuum-assisted biopsy, only 13% of patients required diagnostic surgical biopsy and in 25% of cases, a preoperative diagnosis of carcinoma was reached allowing patients to proceed to therapeutic surgery. Conclusion: The new pathway has reduced the number of benign diagnostic surgical biopsies performed and increased the preoperative diagnosis of breast cancer.

  15. Effects of a Multidisciplinary Approach to Improve Volume of Diagnostic Material in CT-Guided Lung Biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Philip E; Sales, Catherine M; Hodges, Dalton C; Sales, Elizabeth W

    2015-01-01

    Recent publications have emphasized the importance of a multidisciplinary strategy for maximum conservation and utilization of lung biopsy material for advanced testing, which may determine therapy. This paper quantifies the effect of a multidisciplinary strategy implemented to optimize and increase tissue volume in CT-guided transthoracic needle core lung biopsies. The strategy was three-pronged: (1) once there was confidence diagnostic tissue had been obtained and if safe for the patient, additional biopsy passes were performed to further increase volume of biopsy material, (2) biopsy material was placed in multiple cassettes for processing, and (3) all tissue ribbons were conserved when cutting blocks in the histology laboratory. This study quantifies the effects of strategies #1 and #2. This retrospective analysis comparing CT-guided lung biopsies from 2007 and 2012 (before and after multidisciplinary approach implementation) was performed at a single institution. Patient medical records were reviewed and main variables analyzed include biopsy sample size, radiologist, number of blocks submitted, diagnosis, and complications. The biopsy sample size measured was considered to be directly proportional to tissue volume in the block. Biopsy sample size increased 2.5 fold with the average total biopsy sample size increasing from 1.0 cm (0.9-1.1 cm) in 2007 to 2.5 cm (2.3-2.8 cm) in 2012 (Pstrategy to CT-guided lung biopsies was effective in significantly increasing tissue volume and number of blocks available for advanced diagnostic testing.

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of Robot-Guided, Software Based Transperineal MRI/TRUS Fusion Biopsy of the Prostate in a High Risk Population of Previously Biopsy Negative Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Kroenig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In this study, we compared prostate cancer detection rates between MRI-TRUS fusion targeted and systematic biopsies using a robot-guided, software based transperineal approach. Methods and Patients. 52 patients received a MRIT/TRUS fusion followed by a systematic volume adapted biopsy using the same robot-guided transperineal approach. The primary outcome was the detection rate of clinically significant disease (Gleason grade ≥ 4. Secondary outcomes were detection rate of all cancers, sampling efficiency and utility, and serious adverse event rate. Patients received no antibiotic prophylaxis. Results. From 52 patients, 519 targeted biopsies from 135 lesions and 1561 random biopsies were generated (total n=2080. Overall detection rate of clinically significant PCa was 44.2% (23/52 and 50.0% (26/52 for target and random biopsy, respectively. Sampling efficiency as the median number of cores needed to detect clinically significant prostate cancer was 9 for target (IQR: 6–14.0 and 32 (IQR: 24–32 for random biopsy. The utility as the number of additionally detected clinically significant PCa cases by either strategy was 0% (0/52 for target and 3.9% (2/52 for random biopsy. Conclusions. MRI/TRUS fusion based target biopsy did not show an advantage in the overall detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer.

  17. Targeted massively parallel sequencing and histological assessment of skeletal muscles for the molecular diagnosis of inherited muscle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Atsuko; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Miyata, Naomasa; Nishino, Ichizo

    2017-02-01

    Inherited skeletal muscle diseases are genetically heterogeneous diseases caused by mutations in more than 150 genes. This has made it challenging to establish a high-throughput screening method for identifying causative gene mutations in clinical practice. In the present study, we developed a useful method for screening gene mutations associated with the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle diseases. We established four target gene panels, each covering all exonic and flanking regions of genes involved in the pathogenesis of the following muscle diseases: (1) muscular dystrophy (MD), (2) congenital myopathy/congenital myasthenic syndrome, (3) metabolic myopathy and (4) myopathy with protein aggregations/rimmed vacuoles. We assigned one panel to each patient based on the results of clinical and histological analyses of biopsied muscle samples and performed high-throughput sequencing by using Ion PGM next-generation sequencer. We also performed protein analysis to confirm defective proteins in patients with major muscular dystrophies. Further, we performed muscle-derived cDNA analysis to identify splice-site mutations. We identified possible causative gene mutations in 33% of patients (62/188) included in this study. Our results showed that the MD panel was the most useful, with a diagnostic rate of 46.2%. Thus, we developed a high-throughput sequencing technique for diagnosing inherited muscle diseases. The use of this technique along with histological and protein analyses may be useful and cost-effective for screening mutations in patients with inherited skeletal muscle diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Muscle phenotype in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Grete Kielgast; Orngreen, Mette C; Preisler, Nicolai Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The pathogenesis of muscle involvement in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is not well understood. In this study, we characterized the muscle phenotype in patients with confirmed DM1. Methods: In 38 patients, muscle strength was tested by hand-held dynamometry. Myotonia...... was evaluated by a handgrip test and by analyzing the decrement of the compound muscle action potential. Muscle biopsies were assessed for morphological changes and Na(+) -K(+) pump content. Results: Muscle strength correlated with a decline in Na(+) -K(+) pump content (r = 0.60, P

  19. Preparation and management of complications in prostate biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Jeng Tyng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy plays a key role in prostate sampling for cancer detection. Among interventional procedures, it is one of the most frequent procedures performed by radiologists. Despite the safety and low morbidity of such procedure, possible complications should be promptly assessed and treated. The standardization of protocols and of preprocedural preparation is aimed at minimizing complications as well as expediting their management. The authors have made a literature review describing the possible complications related to transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy, and discuss their management and guidance to reduce the incidence of such complications.

  20. Passive leg movement enhances interstitial VEGF protein, endothelial cell proliferation, and eNOS mRNA content in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Rufener, Nora; Nielsen, Jens J

    2008-01-01

    .05) in blood flow without a significant enhancement in oxygen uptake. Muscle interstitial fluid was sampled with microdialysis technique and analyzed for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and for the effect on endothelial cell proliferation. Biopsies obtained from the musculus vastus lateralis...... to cultured endothelial cells revealed that dialysate obtained during leg movement induced a 3.2-fold higher proliferation rate (P level fourfold above resting levels. VEGF mRNA and MMP-2 mRNA levels were...

  1. A cutting biopsy needle for the histological diagnosis of abdominal and retroperitoneal masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauenstein, K.H.; Wimmer, B.; Freudenberg, N.; Freiburg Univ.

    1985-01-01

    A new cutting biopsy needle has been used to obtain histologically useful material while causing the minimum of trauma. It permits biopsies of organs, but its small external diameter of 0.8 or 0.95 mm makes it possible to carry out transperitoneal puncture of the stomach, colon or liver and of the retroperitoneal space, using a ventral approach. Tissue samples were obtained in 96% of 63 patients. The risk of complications is no higher than for conventional needles used for cytology. The accuracy with which the material can be obtained is therefore the most important problem. The position of the area to be biopsied should determine whether the biopsy is to be aided by sonography or CT. Biopsies of organs can be appropriately carried out under ultrasound control, but processes in the pelvis and in retroperitoneal-paravertebral and extra-peritoneal positions are best biopsied under CT control. (orig.) [de

  2. Hepatitis B virus DNA quantification with the three-in-one (3io) method allows accurate single-step differentiation of total HBV DNA and cccDNA in biopsy-size liver samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranta, Andrzej; Tien Sy, Bui; Zacher, Behrend Johan; Rogalska-Taranta, Magdalena; Manns, Michael Peter; Bock, Claus Thomas; Wursthorn, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replicates via reverse transcription converting its partially double stranded genome into the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). The long-lasting cccDNA serves as a replication intermediate in the nuclei of hepatocytes. It is an excellent, though evasive, parameter for monitoring the course of liver disease and treatment efficiency. To develop and test a new approach for HBV DNA quantification in serum and small-size liver samples. The p3io plasmid contains an HBV fragment and human β-actin gene (hACTB) as a standard. Respective TaqMan probes were labeled with different fluorescent dyes. A triplex real-time PCR for simultaneous quantification of total HBV DNA, cccDNA and hACTB could be established. Three-in-one method allows simultaneous analysis of 3 targets with a lower limit of quantification of 48 copies per 20 μl PCR reaction and a wide range of linearity (R(2)>0.99, pDNA samples from HBV infected patients. Total HBV DNA and cccDNA could be quantified in 32 and 22 of 33 FFPE preserved liver specimens, respectively. Total HBV DNA concentrations quantified by the 3io method remained comparable with Cobas TaqMan HBV Test v2.0. The three-in-one protocol allows the single step quantification of viral DNA in samples from different sources. Therefore lower sample input, faster data acquisition, a lowered error and significantly lower costs are the advantages of the method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Early de novo DNA methylation and prolonged demethylation in the muscle lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumagari, Koji; Baribault, Carl; Terragni, Jolyon; Varley, Katherine E; Gertz, Jason; Pradhan, Sirharsa; Badoo, Melody; Crain, Charlene M; Song, Lingyun; Crawford, Gregory E; Myers, Richard M; Lacey, Michelle; Ehrlich, Melanie

    2013-03-01

    Myogenic cell cultures derived from muscle biopsies are excellent models for human cell differentiation. We report the first comprehensive analysis of myogenesis-specific DNA hyper- and hypo-methylation throughout the genome for human muscle progenitor cells (both myoblasts and myotubes) and skeletal muscle tissue vs. 30 non-muscle samples using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. We also focused on four genes with extensive hyper- or hypo-methylation in the muscle lineage (PAX3, TBX1, MYH7B/MIR499 and OBSCN) to compare DNA methylation, DNaseI hypersensitivity, histone modification, and CTCF binding profiles. We found that myogenic hypermethylation was strongly associated with homeobox or T-box genes and muscle hypomethylation with contractile fiber genes. Nonetheless, there was no simple relationship between differential gene expression and myogenic differential methylation, rather only for subsets of these genes, such as contractile fiber genes. Skeletal muscle retained ~30% of the hypomethylated sites but only ~3% of hypermethylated sites seen in myogenic progenitor cells. By enzymatic assays, skeletal muscle was 2-fold enriched globally in genomic 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) vs. myoblasts or myotubes and was the only sample type enriched in 5-hmC at tested myogenic hypermethylated sites in PAX3/CCDC140 andTBX1. TET1 and TET2 RNAs, which are involved in generation of 5-hmC and DNA demethylation, were strongly upregulated in myoblasts and myotubes. Our findings implicate de novo methylation predominantly before the myoblast stage and demethylation before and after the myotube stage in control of transcription and co-transcriptional RNA processing. They also suggest that, in muscle, TET1 or TET2 are involved in active demethylation and in formation of stable 5-hmC residues.

  4. The contribution of CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy to the diagnosis of organising pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, F; Pernet, D; Manzoni, P; Ranfaing, E; Dalphin, J-C

    2010-09-01

    Organising pneumonia is a pulmonary disease with variable clinical and radiological features and with many differential diagnoses. Diagnosis is based on histology obtained by either transbronchial or surgical lung biopsy but these techniques have several disadvantages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy in organising pneumonia and to compare it to the usual diagnostic tools. Six cases of organising pneumonia diagnosed with CT-guided lung biopsy are reported and discussed. The role of CT-guided lung biopsy in the diagnosis of organising pneumonia was also reviewed in the literature. CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsies provided a higher rate of adequate samples than transbronchial biopsies (92-100% versus 77-86%). The samples were larger, which reduced the risks of misdiagnosis and increased the diagnostic yield (88-97% versus 26-55% in pulmonary nodules and 42-100% versus 66-75% in diffuse pulmonary disease). Complications were rare and generally not serious. CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy may be considered in place of transbronchial biopsy in the diagnosis of organising pneumonia. Surgical lung biopsy remains the gold standard method for diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy of digestive tract lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, S.; Martin, I.; Ballesteros, J. M.; Gomez, C.; Marco, S. F.; Fernandez, P.

    1999-01-01

    To present our experience in ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy of lesions located in the digestive tract. We performed ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy in 14 patients (10 men and 4 women) ranging in age from 7 to 71 years (mean; 519 years). The lesions were located throughout the digestive tract, from the pyriform sinus to the sigmoid colon. The biopsy was carried out with a 5 MHz convex probe equipped with a device to direct the needle. An 18G automatic needle or a 20G Chiba needle was used to obtain specimens for histological study in every case, and additional samples were collected with a 22G needle for cytological examination in 13 of the patients. The ultrasound images corresponded to pseudokidney in 9 cases and extrinsic masses in 5. The diagnosis was obtained from the histological examination in every case (100%) and from cytology in 6 (44.4%), the latter results were less specific. The only complication corresponded to a case of bilioperitoneum. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy is a suitable technique for the histological diagnosis of those lesions of the digestive tract that are visible in ultrasound images, but that for some reason can not be examined by endoscopic biopsy. (Author) 20 refs

  6. Medical audit of rectal biopsy diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, J V; Morson, B C

    1982-03-01

    The records of the rectal biopsy diagnoses of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in the Department of Pathology, St Mark's Hospital, London, were reviewed. The biopsy diagnoses were compared to subsequent resection diagnoses on the same patients, and annual and seasonal variations in the frequency of these and related diagnoses were studied. The accuracy rate for the biopsy diagnosis of ulcerative colitis was about 70% and for Crohn's disease about 40% each time a biopsy was read. The low figure for the accuracy rate for Crohn's disease could be attributed to sampling error inherent in the diagnosis of a disease which is essentially patchy, showing discontinuous pathology. Also, many patients with Crohn's disease have a normal rectum which is biopsied to demonstrate the distinction from ulcerative colitis. In practical terms therefore a 40% accuracy rate in Crohn's disease is probably adequate. The rate of "false-positive" diagnoses was about 5%. There was a seasonal variation in the frequency of these two diagnoses, but no variation attributable to changes in observers, as pathology trainees in the Department change regularly. The frequency of diagnoses of non-specific inflammation and of normal colon did show such non-random variations.

  7. Percutaneous Native Renal Biopsy Adequacy: A Successful Interdepartmental Quality Improvement Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurette Geldenhuys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An adequate renal biopsy is essential for diagnosis and treatment of medical renal disease. Objective: We evaluated two initiatives to improve adequacy of renal biopsy samples at our centre. Design: Retrospective determination of renal biopsy adequacy. Setting: Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre. Patients: Patients undergoing medical renal biopsies. Measurements: Renal biopsy adequacy. Methods: The first initiative was to restrict the performance of biopsies to a smaller group of radiologists and to include a comment on biopsy adequacy in every pathology report. The second initiative was to introduce on-site adequacy assessment by a medical laboratory technologist. Native renal and allograft biopsy adequacies were calculated for three periods: 1 baseline, October 2005 to September 2006; 2 after implementation of the first initiative, January 2007 to September 2011; and 3 after implementation of the second initiative, October 2011 to September 2012. A subset of native renal biopsies was examined to determine if there was a relationship between adequacy and number of passes. Results: The percentages of adequate native renal biopsies during the first, second, and third periods were 31%, 72% and 90%, respectively. This represents a significant increase (40%, p < 0.0001 in adequacy following the first initiative, and another significant increase (18%, p = 0.0003 following the second initiative. The percentages of adequate renal allograft biopsies during the first, second, and third periods were 75%, 56% and 69%, respectively. These changes in adequacy were not statistically significant. In the subset of native renal biopsies examined, a biopsy comprising more than three cores was not associated with increase in adequacy. Limitations: The most important limitation is the lack of generally accepted and applied adequacy criteria limiting generalizability of our findings. Conclusions: Restricting the performance of biopsies to

  8. Comparison of sonoelastography guided biopsy with systematic biopsy: impact on prostate cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallwein, Leo; Struve, Peter; Aigner, Friedrich; Gradl, Johann; Schurich, Matthias; Frauscher, Ferdinand; Mitterberger, Michael; Horninger, Wolfgang; Bartsch, Georg; Pedross, Florian

    2007-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to determine the value of sonoelastography (SE) targeted biopsy for prostate cancer (PCa) detection. A series of 230 male screening volunteers was examined. Two independent examiners evaluated each subject. One single investigator performed ≤5 SE targeted biopsies into suspicious regions in the peripheral zone only. The stiffness of the lesion was displayed by SE and color-coded from red (soft) to blue (hard). Hard lesions were considered as malignant and targeted by biopsy. Subsequently, another examiner performed ten systematic biopsies. Cancer detection rates of the two techniques were compared. Cancer was detected in 81 of the 230 patients (35%), including 68 (30%) by SE targeted biopsy and in 58 (25%) by systematic biopsy. Cancer was detected by targeted biopsy alone in 23 patients (10%) and by systematic biopsy alone in 13 patients (6%). The detection rate for SE targeted biopsy cores (12.7% or 135 of 1,109 cores) was significantly better than for systematic biopsy cores (5.6% or 130 of 2,300 cores, P < 0.001). SE targeted biopsy in a patient with cancer was 2.9-fold more likely to detect PCa than systematic biopsy. SE targeted biopsy detected more cases of PCa than systematic biopsy, with fewer than half the number of biopsy cores in this prostate-specific antigen screening population. (orig.)

  9. Computed tomography guided needle biopsy: experience from 1,300 procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Isberner, Rony Klaus; Viana, Luciana Marinho; Yu, Liao Shin; Aita, Alessandro Amorim; Soares, Fernando Augusto [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia e Patologia

    2006-01-15

    Context and objective: computed tomography (CT) guided biopsy is widely accepted as effective and safe for diagnosis in many settings. Accuracy depends on target organ and needle type. Cutting needles present advantages over fine needles. This study presents experience from CT guided biopsies performed at an oncology center. Design and setting: retrospective study at Hospital do Cancer A. C. Camargo, Sao Paulo.Methods: 1,300 consecutive CT guided biopsies performed between July 1994 and February 2000 were analyzed. Nodules or masses were suspected as primary malignancy in 845 cases (65%) or metastatic lesion in 455 (35%). 628 lesions were thoracic, 281 abdominal, 208 retroperitoneal, 134 musculoskeletal and 49 head/neck. All biopsies were performed by one radiologist or under his supervision: 765 (59%) with 22-gauge fine-needle/aspiration technique and 535 (41%) with automated 16 or 18-gauge cutting-needle biopsy. Results: adequate samples were obtained in 70-92% of fine-needle and 93-100% of cutting-needle biopsies. The specific diagnosis rates were 54-67% for fine-needle and 82-100% for cutting-needle biopsies, according to biopsy site. For any site, sample adequacy and specific diagnosis rate were always better for cutting-needle biopsy. Among 530 lung biopsies, there were 84 pneumothorax (16%) and two hemothorax (0.3%) cases, with thoracic drainage in 24 (4.9%). Among abdominal and retroperitoneal biopsies, there were two cases of major bleeding and one of peritonitis. Conclusion: both types of needle showed satisfactory results, but cutting-needle biopsy should be used when specific diagnosis is desired without greater incidence of complications. (author)

  10. Successful application of the strategy of blastocyst biopsy, vitrification, whole genome amplification, and thawed embryo transfer for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lin Chen

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: We first demonstrate successful application of blastocyst biopsy, vitrification, WGA, and thawed embryo transfer for PGD of a monogenic disease. Vitrification of blastocysts after biopsy permits sufficient time for shipment of samples and operation of molecular diagnosis.

  11. Human skeletal muscle fibroblasts stimulate in vitro myogenesis and in vivo muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Abigail L; Magnan, Mélanie; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Kjaer, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Accumulation of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix is an unfavourable characteristic of many muscle diseases, muscle injury and sarcopenia. The extent of cross-talk between fibroblasts, as the source of matrix protein, and satellite cells in humans is unknown. We studied this in human muscle biopsies and cell-culture studies. We observed a strong stimulation of myogenesis by human fibroblasts in cell culture. In biopsies collected 30 days after a muscle injury protocol, fibroblast number increased to four times control levels, where fibroblasts were found to be preferentially located immediately surrounding regenerating muscle fibres. These novel findings indicate an important role for fibroblasts in supporting the regeneration of muscle fibres, potentially through direct stimulation of satellite cell differentiation and fusion, and contribute to understanding of cell-cell cross-talk during physiological and pathological muscle remodelling. Accumulation of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix is an unfavourable characteristic of many muscle diseases, muscle injury and sarcopenia. In addition to the indispensable role satellite cells play in muscle regeneration, there is emerging evidence in rodents for a regulatory influence on fibroblast activity. However, the influence of fibroblasts on satellite cells and muscle regeneration in humans is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate this in vitro and during in vivo regeneration in humans. Following a muscle injury protocol in young healthy men (n = 7), the number of fibroblasts (TCF7L2+), satellite cells (Pax7+), differentiating myogenic cells (myogenin+) and regenerating fibres (neonatal/embryonic myosin+) was determined from biopsy cross-sections. Fibroblasts and myogenic precursor cells (MPCs) were also isolated from human skeletal muscle (n = 4) and co-cultured using different cell ratios, with the two cell populations either in direct contact with each other or separated by a permeable

  12. Addition of urea and thiourea to electrophoresis sample buffer improves efficiency of protein extraction from TCA/acetone-treated smooth muscle tissues for phos-tag SDS-PAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeya, Kosuke; Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Miyazu, Motoi; Takai, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorylation analysis by using phos-tag technique has been reported to be suitable for highly sensitive quantification of smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain (LC 20 ) phosphorylation. However, there is another factor that will affect the sensitivity of phosphorylation analysis, that is, protein extraction. Here, we optimized the conditions for total protein extraction out of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-fixed tissues. Standard SDS sample buffer extracted less LC 20 , actin and myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) from TCA/acetone treated ciliary muscle strips. On the other hand, sample buffer containing urea and thiourea in addition to lithium dodecyl sulfate (LDS) or SDS extracted those proteins more efficiently, and thus increased the detection sensitivity up to 4-5 fold. Phos-tag SDS-PAGE separated dephosphorylated and phosphorylated LC 20 s extracted in LDS/urea/thiourea sample buffer to the same extent as those in standard SDS buffer. We have concluded that LDS (or SDS) /urea/thiourea sample buffer is suitable for highly sensitive phosphorylation analysis in smooth muscle, especially when it is treated with TCA/acetone. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Gallium-67 imaging in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and biopsy-proven myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.B.; Henkin, R.E.; Robinson, J.A.; Subramanian, R.; Scanlon, P.J.; Gunnar, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Current standards for detection of myocarditis in a clinical setting rely on endomyocardial biopsy for accurate diagnosis. With this technique a subset of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy show unsuspected myocarditis histologically. Endomyocardial biopsy, despite its specificity, may lack sensitivity due to sampling error if the inflammation is patchy or focal. Therefore, inflammation-sensitive radioisotopic imaging may be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of myocarditis. This study was designed to evaluate the applicability of gallium-67 (67Ga) myocardial imaging as an adjunct to endomyocardial biopsy in the diagnosis of myocarditis. Sixty-eight consecutive patients referred for evaluation of dilated cardiomyopathy underwent 71 parallel studies with 67Ga imaging and biopsies that served as the basis of comparison for this study. Histologic myocarditis was identified in 8% of biopsy specimens. Clinical and hemodynamic parameters could not be used to predict the presence of myocarditis. Five of six biopsy samples (87%) with myocarditis showed dense 67Ga uptake, whereas only nine of 65 negative biopsy samples (14%) were paired with equivocally positive 67Ga scans. The single patient with myocarditis and no myocardial 67Ga uptake had dense mediastinal lymph node uptake that may have obscured cardiac uptake. The incidence of myocarditis on biopsy with a positive 67Ga scan was 36% (5/14); however, the incidence of myocarditis with a negative 67Ga scan was only 1.8% (1/57). Follow-up scans for three patients showed close correlation of 67Ga uptake with myocarditis on biopsy. In conclusion 67Ga may be a useful screening test for identifying patients with a high yield of myocarditis on biopsy, and serial scans may eliminate the need for frequent biopsies in patients with proven myocarditis

  14. Investigating human skeletal muscle physiology with unilateral exercise models: when one limb is more powerful than two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; McGlory, Chris; Gibala, Martin J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2017-06-01

    Direct sampling of human skeletal muscle using the needle biopsy technique can facilitate insight into the biochemical and histological responses resulting from changes in exercise or feeding. However, the muscle biopsy procedure is invasive, and analyses are often expensive, which places pragmatic restraints on sample sizes. The unilateral exercise model can serve to increase statistical power and reduce the time and cost of a study. With this approach, 2 limbs of a participant are randomized to 1 of 2 treatments that can be applied almost concurrently or sequentially depending on the nature of the intervention. Similar to a typical repeated measures design, comparisons are made within participants, which increases statistical power by reducing the amount of between-person variability. A washout period is often unnecessary, reducing the time needed to complete the experiment and the influence of potential confounding variables such as habitual diet, activity, and sleep. Variations of the unilateral exercise model have been employed to investigate the influence of exercise, diet, and the interaction between the 2, on a wide range of variables including mitochondrial content, capillary density, and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Like any model, unilateral exercise has some limitations: it cannot be used to study variables that potentially transfer across limbs, and it is generally limited to exercises that can be performed in pairs of treatments. Where appropriate, however, the unilateral exercise model can yield robust, well-controlled investigations of skeletal muscle responses to a wide range of interventions and conditions including exercise, dietary manipulation, and disuse or immobilization.

  15. An examination of resveratrol's mechanisms of action in human tissue: impact of a single dose in vivo and dose responses in skeletal muscle ex vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron B Williams

    Full Text Available The current study tested the hypothesis that a single, moderate dose of RSV would activate the AMPK/SIRT1 axis in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Additionally, the effects of RSV on mitochondrial respiration in PmFBs were examined. Eight sedentary men (23.8±2.4 yrs; BMI: 32.7±7.1 reported to the lab on two occasions where they were provided a meal supplemented with 300 mg of RSV or a placebo. Blood samples, and a muscle biopsy were obtained in the fasted state and again, with the addition of an adipose tissue biopsy, two hours post-prandial. The effect of RSV on mitochondrial respiration was examined in PmFBs taken from muscle biopsies from an additional eight men (23.4±5.4 yrs; BMI: 24.4±2.8. No effect of RSV was observed on nuclear SIRT1 activity, acetylation of p53, or phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC or PKA in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. A decrease in post absorptive insulin levels was accompanied by elevated skeletal muscle phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but no change in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue insulin signalling. Mitochondrial respiration in PmFBs was rapidly inhibited by RSV at 100-300 uM depending on the substrate examined. These results question the efficacy of a single dose of RSV at altering skeletal muscle and adipose tissue AMPK/SIRT1 activity in humans and suggest that RSV mechanisms of action in humans may be associated with altered cellular energetics resulting from impaired mitochondrial ATP production.

  16. The Muscle Metabolome Differs between Healthy and Frail Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazelzadeh, P.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Tieland, M.; de Groot, C.P.G.M.; Verdijk, L.B.; van Loon, L.J.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Alves, R.D.A.M.; Vervoort, J.; Müller, M.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.; Boekschoten, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Populations around the world are aging rapidly. Age-related loss of physiological functions negatively affects quality of life. A major contributor to the frailty syndrome of aging is loss of skeletal muscle. In this study we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsy metabolome of healthy young, healthy

  17. Molecular responses to moderate endurance exercise in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined alterations in skeletal-muscle growth and atrophy-related molecular events after a single bout of moderate-intensity endurance exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 men (23 +/- 1 yr, body mass 80 +/- 2 kg, and VO(2peak) 45 +/- 1 ml x kg'¹ x min'¹) immediately (0 hr) and...

  18. Sternocleidomastoid muscle metastasis of breast cancer: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khettab, M; Barrascout, E; Lamuraglia, M

    2017-01-01

    The authors report a case of 84-year-old women, with dysphagia to liquids and solid foods, and with infiltration of right stemocleidomastoid muscle that compressed the upper third of the esophagus to the thoracic hull. The biopsy of sternocleidomastoid muscle permitted the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer relapse after 22 years.

  19. Ultrastructure of striated muscle fibers in the middle third of the human esophagus

    OpenAIRE

    Faussone-Pellegrini, M.S; Cortesini, C.

    1986-01-01

    Striated muscle fibers and .their spatial relationship to smooth muscle cells have been studied in the middle third of human esophagus. Biopsies were obtained from 3 patients during surgery. In both the circular and longitudinal layers, the muscle coat of this transition zone was composed of fascicles of uniform dimensioi~ (100-200 pm of diameter); some of these bundles were made up of striated muscle fibers, others were pure bundles of smooth muscle cells and ...

  20. Expression of interleukin-15 in human skeletal muscle effect of exercise and muscle fibre type composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rinnov; Mounier, Remi; Plomgaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) has been demonstrated to have anabolic effects in cell culture systems. We tested the hypothesis that IL-15 is predominantly expressed by type 2 skeletal muscle fibres, and that resistance exercise regulates IL-15 expression in muscle. Triceps brachii, vastus...... lateralis quadriceps and soleus muscle biopsies were obtained from normally physically active, healthy, young male volunteers (n = 14), because these muscles are characterized by having different fibre-type compositions. In addition, healthy, normally physically active male subjects (n = 8) not involved...

  1. 'Microerosions' in rectal biopsies in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Small (less than 1 mm), superficial erosions ('microerosions') have been observed stereo-microscopically in surface-stained rectal biopsies in Crohn's disease (CD). Biopsy specimens from 97 patients with CD, 225 with ulcerative colitis (UC), and a control material of 161 patients were investigated....... Granulomas were identified in 62% of the biopsies with microerosions and by examination of two consecutive biopsies from each of these patients, in 85% indicating a positive correlation. In patients with microerosions and a primary diagnosis of UC, granulomas were found in 38% and by examination of two...... biopsies in 54%. Patients with granulomas and a few other patients were reclassified as CD, but there still remained some patients with microerosions, who most probably had UC. In conclusion, microerosions are observed mainly in CD with colonic involvement. There is a high incidence of granulomas in biopsy...

  2. Liquid biopsies in gastrointestinal malignancies: when is the big day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anthony; Harada, Kazuto; Mizrak Kaya, Dilsa; Dong, Xiaochuan; Song, Shumei; Ajani, Jaffer A

    2018-01-01

    Tumor tissue sample is currently the gold standard for diagnosing gastrointestinal cancers, but also for genomic/immune component analyses that can help in the selection of therapy. However, this approach of studying a 'representative' sample of the tumor does not address inherent heterogeneity. Liquid biopsies, mainly represented by circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, tumor exosomes, and microRNAs, have the potential to assess various biomarkers for early detection of cancer, carrying out genomic/immune profiling for not only selection of appropriate therapy but also to monitor effect of therapy. Areas covered: This review summarizes the current evidence in the literature on liquid biopsies in gastrointestinal cancers concerning diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy. The following terms were used in PubMed: 'esophageal', 'gastric', 'colorectal', 'cancer', 'circulating tumor cells', 'circulating tumor DNA', microRNA', 'diagnosis', 'prognosis', 'response', 'resistance'. Expert commentary: Data increasingly supports the potential of liquid biopsies for early detection, selection of therapy, and monitoring response to therapy. One major question is whether assaying various components of the blood would accommodate considerable context-dependent heterogeneity of gastrointestinal tumors. There are many potential strategies to exploit liquid biopsy use. To put them in to perspective, well-designed and meticulous prospective studies will be needed to prove their usefulness.

  3. Gamma Imaging-Guided Minimally Invasive Breast Biopsy: Initial Clinical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Rachel F; Mehta, Anita K; Rapelyea, Jocelyn A; Akin, Esma A; Bazoberry, Adriana M; Velasco, Christel D

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate our initial experience with gamma imaging-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in women with abnormal findings. A retrospective review of patients undergoing breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), also known as molecular breast imaging (MBI), between April 2011 and October 2015 found 117 nonpalpable mammographically and sonographically occult lesions for which gamma imaging-guided biopsies were recommended. Biopsy was performed with a 9-gauge vacuum-assisted device with subsequent placement of a titanium biopsy site marker. Medical records and pathologic findings were evaluated. Of the 117 biopsies recommended, 104 were successful and 13 were canceled. Of the 104 performed biopsies, 32 (30.8%) had abnormal pathologic findings. Of those 32 biopsies, nine (28.1%) found invasive cancers, six (18.8%) found ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 17 (53.1%) found high-risk lesions. Of the 17 high-risk lesions, there were three (17.6%) lobular carcinomas in situ, five (29.4%) atypical ductal hyperplasias, two (11.8%) atypical lobular hyperplasias, one (5.9%) flat epithelial atypia, and six (35.3%) papillomas. Two cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia were upgraded to DCIS at surgery. The overall cancer detection rate for gamma imaging-guided biopsy was 16.3%. In this study, gamma imaging-guided biopsy had a positive predictive value of total successful biopsies of 16.3% for cancer and 30.8% for cancer and high-risk lesions. Gamma imaging-guided biopsy is a viable approach to sampling BSGI-MBI-detected lesions without sonographic or mammographic correlate. Our results compare favorably to those reported for MRI-guided biopsy.

  4. Effectiveness of core biopsy for screen-detected breast lesions under 10 mm: implications for surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshid, Gelareh; Downey, Peter; Pieterse, Steve; Gill, P Grantley

    2017-09-01

    Technical advances have improved the detection of small mammographic lesions. In the context of mammographic screening, accurate sampling of these lesions by percutaneous biopsy is crucial in limiting diagnostic surgical biopsies, many of which show benign results. Women undergoing core biopsy between January 1997 and December 2007 for core histology, 345 women (43.0%) were immediately cleared of malignancy and 300 (37.4%) were referred for definitive cancer treatment. A further 157 women (19.6%) required diagnostic surgical biopsy because of indefinite or inadequate core results or radiological-pathological discordance, and one woman (0.1%) needed further imaging in 12 months. The open biopsies were malignant in 46 (29.3%) cases. The positive predictive value of malignant core biopsy was 100%. The negative predictive value for benign core results was 97.7%, and the false-negative rate was 2.6%. The lesion could not be visualized after core biopsy in 5.1% of women and in 4.0% of women with malignant core biopsies excision specimens did not contain residual malignancy. Excessive delays in surgery because of complications of core biopsy were not reported. Even at this small size range, core biopsy evaluation of screen-detected breast lesions is highly effective and accurate. A lesion miss rate of 3.1% and under-representation of lesions on core samples highlight the continued need for multidisciplinary collaboration and selective use of diagnostic surgical biopsy. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Nerve Biopsy In The Diagnosis Of Leporsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hazra B; Banerjee P P; Bhattacharyya N K; Gupta P N; Barbhunia J N; Sanyal S

    1997-01-01

    Skin and nerve biopsies were done in 33 cases of different clinical types of leprosy selected from Dermatology OPD of Medical College and Hospitals, Calcutta during 1994-95. Histopathological results were compared with emphasis on the role of nerve biopsies in detection of patients with multibacillary leprosy. The evident possibility of having patients with multibacillary leprosy in peripheral leprosy with multiple drugs. It is found that skin and nerve biopsy are equally informative in borde...

  6. Infective endocarditis with spondylodiscitis after prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pivatto Júnior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate needle biopsy is the ideal method to obtain prostate specimens for histological analysis and is therefore frequently used in clinical practice. In the majority of the studies, prostate biopsy is considered a safe procedure with few major complications. In the present report, we describe a case of endocarditis with spondylodiscitis, two very rare complications of prostate biopsy.

  7. Biopsy-proven childhood glomerulonephritis in Johor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, J J; Pee, S; Thevarajah, B; Yap, Y C; Chin, C K

    2004-06-01

    There has been no published study of biopsy-proven childhood glomerulonephritis in Malaysia. To determine the pattern of childhood glomerulonephritis in Johor, Malaysia from a histopathological perspective and the various indications used for renal biopsy in children. Retrospective study was done of all renal biopsies from children under 16 years of age, received in Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor between 1994 and 2001. The histopathological findings were reviewed to determine the pattern of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis. The indications for biopsy, mode of therapy given after biopsy and the clinical outcome were studied. 122 adequate biopsies were received, 9 children had repeat biopsies. Of the 113 biopsies, minimal change disease formed the most common histopathological diagnosis (40.7%) while lupus nephritis formed the most common secondary glomerulonephritis (23.0%). The main indications for biopsy were nephrotic syndrome (50.8%), lupus nephritis (25.4%) and renal impairment (13.1%). The mode of therapy was changed in 59.8% of the children. Of 106 patients followed-up, 84 children were found to have normal renal function in remission or on treatment. 4 patients developed chronic renal impairment and 16 reached end stage renal disease. Five of the 16 children with end stage disease had since died while 11 were on renal replacement therapy. Another 2 patients died of other complications. The pattern of childhood GN in our study tended to reflect the more severe renal parenchymal diseases in children and those requiring more aggressive treatment. This was because of our criteria of selection (indication) for renal biopsy. Renal biopsy where performed appropriately in selected children may not only be a useful investigative tool for histological diagnosis and prognosis but may help clinicians plan the optimal therapy for these children.

  8. The value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of carcinoma in situ (CIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjónsson, Sigurdur; Bläckberg, Mats; Chebil, Gunilla; Jahnson, Staffan; Olsson, Hans; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Månsson, Wiking; Liedberg, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that CIS is a major risk factor for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and that this entity can be difficult to diagnose. Taking cold-cup mapping biopsies from different areas of the bladder (BMAP) is commonly used in patients at risk of harbouring CIS. The diagnostic accuracy of this approach has not been assessed until now. By using the CIS found in the cystoprostatectomy specimen as an indicator of the true occurrence of CIS and comparing that with the findings of BMAP, it is clear that the sensitivity of BMAP to detect CIS when present is low and that negative findings should be considered unreliable. To assess the value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS). CIS of the urinary bladder is a flat high-grade lesion of the mucosa associated with a significant risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease. CIS is difficult to identify on cystoscopy, and definite diagnosis requires histopathology. Traditionally, if CIS is suspected, multiple cold-cup biopsies are taken from the bladder mucosa, and resection biopsies are obtained from the prostatic urethra in males. This approach is often called bladder mapping (BMAP). The accuracy of BMAP as a diagnostic tool is not known. Male patients with bladder cancer scheduled for cystectomy underwent cold-cup bladder biopsies (sidewalls, posterior wall, dome, trigone), and resection biopsies were taken from the prostatic urethra. After cystectomy, the surgical specimen was investigated in a standardised manner and subsequently compared with the BMAP biopsies for the presence of CIS. The histopathology reports of 162 patients were analysed. CIS was detected in 46% of the cystoprostatectomy specimens, and multiple (≥2) CIS lesions were found in 30%. BMAP (cold-cup bladder biopsies + resection biopsies from the prostatic urethra) provided sensitivity of 51% for any CIS, and 55% for multiple CIS lesions. The cold-cup biopsies for CIS in the bladder

  9. Nerve Biopsy In The Diagnosis Of Leporsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazra B

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin and nerve biopsies were done in 33 cases of different clinical types of leprosy selected from Dermatology OPD of Medical College and Hospitals, Calcutta during 1994-95. Histopathological results were compared with emphasis on the role of nerve biopsies in detection of patients with multibacillary leprosy. The evident possibility of having patients with multibacillary leprosy in peripheral leprosy with multiple drugs. It is found that skin and nerve biopsy are equally informative in borderline and lepromatour leprosy and is the only means to diagnose polyneuritic leprosy. Nerve biopsy appears to be more informative in the diagnosis of all clinical types of leprosy.

  10. Surface staining of small intestinal biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1977-01-01

    Small intestinal biopsies are most often by routine examined under a stereo-microscope, prior to embedding for histological examination. This is done in order to get a view of the appearance of the mucosal pattern, especially villus configuration. The distinctness of the surface pattern however......, is improved considerably if the biopsies are stained with Alcian Green and/or PAS before they are examined. In the present paper a detailed description is given of staining of small intestinal biopsies as whole mounts. The difference between the unstained and the stained biopsies is illustrated by a few...

  11. Robotic Prostate Biopsy in Closed MRI Scanner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    .... This work enables prostate brachytherapy and biopsy procedures in standard high-field diagnostic MRI scanners through the development of a robotic needle placement device specifically designed...

  12. Punch Biopsy Results in Misdiagnosis of Pilomatrixoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Temel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Punch biopsy results in misdiagnosis of clinically unsuspected giant pilomatrixoma located over the parotid gland. This study presents a case of pilomatrixoma that was misdiagnosed as a malignant epithelial tumor using punch biopsy. A 25-year-old male was admitted to our clinic for the evaluation of a mass measuring 7×8×8 cm located over the parotid gland. The patient had previously undergone punch biopsy at another clinic because of a lesion in the parotid gland. Punch biopsy revealed a malignant epithelial tumor. The patient underwent excisional biopsy at our clinic. After the biopsy, the residual skin defect was treated using full-thickness skin grafts. The facial nerve and parotid gland were preserved during the biopsy. Histopathological examination of the excisional biopsy material revealed pilomatrixoma. Punch biopsy may result in misdiagnosis of skin lesions in the parotid gland. A differential diagnosis for benign tumors such as pilomatrixoma is essential prior to an aggressive surgical intervention of the parotid gland.

  13. The influence of capillarization on satellite cell pool expansion and activation following exercise-induced muscle damage in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederveen, Joshua P; Joanisse, Sophie; Snijders, Tim; Thomas, Aaron C Q; Kumbhare, Dinesh; Parise, Gianni

    2018-03-15

    Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) play a crucial role in repair and remodelling of muscle in response to exercise. Satellite cells are in close spatial proximity to muscle capillaries and therefore may be influenced by them. In this study, we describe the activation and expansion of the satellite cell pool in response to eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage in individuals with significantly different levels of muscle capillarization. Individuals with greater capillarization and capacity for muscle perfusion demonstrated enhanced activation and/or expansion of the satellite cell pool allowing for an accelerated recovery of muscle function. These results provide insight into the critical relationship between muscle capillarization and satellite cells during skeletal muscle repair. Factors that determine the skeletal muscle satellite cell (SC) response remain incompletely understood. It is known, however, that SC activation status is closely related to the anatomical relationship between SCs and muscle capillaries. We investigated the impact of muscle fibre capillarization on the expansion and activation status of SCs following a muscle-damaging exercise protocol in healthy young men. Twenty-nine young men (21 ± 0.5 years) performed 300 unilateral eccentric contractions (180 deg s -1 ) of the knee extensors. Percutaneous muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis and blood samples from the antecubital vein were taken prior to (Pre) exercise and at 6, 24, 72 and 96 h of post-exercise recovery. A comparison was made between subjects who had a relative low mixed muscle capillary-to-fibre perimeter exchange index (CFPE; Low group) and high mixed muscle CFPE index (High group) at baseline. Type I and type II muscle fibre size, myonuclear content, capillarization, and SC response were determined via immunohistochemistry. Overall, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.39; P < 0.05) between the expansion of SC content (change in total Pax7

  14. Adult dementia: history, biopsy, pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torack, R M

    1979-05-01

    The historical events in the evolution of Alzheimer's disease are reviewed, including the initial description by Alois Alzheimer and the subsequent controversy regarding the nosological specificity of this entity. The similarity of senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease is emphasized. The basis for the modern concept of Alzheimer's disease as premature or accelerated aging is included in the review. The pathological correlates of the major categories of adult dementia have been described. The traditional criteria of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques have been re-evaluated using the current insight into these changes afforded by electron microscopy and biochemistry. The significance of amyloid has been described because it occurs within the senile plaque and also as the essential component of congophilic angiopathy. The new information regarding neuronal cell counts and the loss of choline acetyltransferase has been evaluated in terms of an indication of a pathogenic mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. The current understanding of normal pressure hydrocephalus, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and multi-infarct dementia has been described. Brain biopsy in dementia has been described as having diagnostic, research, pathogenic, and prognostic value. The precautions involving the performance and handling of the biopsy have been stressed, particularly because these procedures involve conditions of possible slow virus etiology. The polemic for Alzheimer's disease as aging or slow virus infection has been summarized. At this time a consideration seems justified that Alzheimer's disease is an age-related, slow virus disease due to a hitherto unknown immune defect. Aging as an etiological agent must be clarified before Alzheimer's disease, in any form, can be considered to be an inevitable consequence of longevity.

  15. The relationship between exercise-induced muscle fatigue, arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion after 56 days local muscle unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias; Ducos, Michel; Mulder, Edwin; Beijer, Åsa; Herrera, Frankyn; Zange, Jochen; Degens, Hans; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    In the light of the dynamic nature of habitual plantar flexor activity, we utilized an incremental isokinetic exercise test (IIET) to assess the work-related power deficit (WoRPD) as a measure for exercise-induced muscle fatigue before and after prolonged calf muscle unloading and in relation to arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion. Eleven male subjects (31 ± 6 years) wore the HEPHAISTOS unloading orthosis unilaterally for 56 days. It allows habitual ambulation while greatly reducing plantar flexor activity and torque production. Endpoint measurements encompassed arterial blood flow, measured in the femoral artery using Doppler ultrasound, oxygenation of the soleus muscle assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, lactate concentrations determined in capillary blood and muscle activity using soleus muscle surface electromyography. Furthermore, soleus muscle biopsies were taken to investigate morphological muscle changes. After the intervention, maximal isokinetic torque was reduced by 23·4 ± 8·2% (Pflow, tissue oxygenation, lactate concentrations and EMG median frequency kinematics during the exercise test were comparable before and after the intervention, whereas the increase of RMS in response to IIET was less following the intervention (P = 0·03). In conclusion, following submaximal isokinetic muscle work exercise-induced muscle fatigue is unaffected after prolonged local muscle unloading. The observation that arterial blood flow was maintained may underlie the unchanged fatigability. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Muscle satellite cells are functionally impaired in myasthenia gravis: consequences on muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Mohamed; Maurer, Marie; Robinet, Marieke; Le Grand, Fabien; Fadel, Elie; Le Panse, Rozen; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia

    2017-12-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular disease caused in most cases by anti-acetyl-choline receptor (AChR) autoantibodies that impair neuromuscular signal transmission and affect skeletal muscle homeostasis. Myogenesis is carried out by muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs). However, myogenesis in MG had never been explored. The aim of this study was to characterise the functional properties of myasthenic SCs as well as their abilities in muscle regeneration. SCs were isolated from muscle biopsies of MG patients and age-matched controls. We first showed that the number of Pax7+ SCs was increased in muscle sections from MG and its experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) mouse model. Myoblasts isolated from MG muscles proliferate and differentiate more actively than myoblasts from control muscles. MyoD and MyoG were expressed at a higher level in MG myoblasts as well as in MG muscle biopsies compared to controls. We found that treatment of control myoblasts with MG sera or monoclonal anti-AChR antibodies increased the differentiation and MyoG mRNA expression compared to control sera. To investigate the functional ability of SCs from MG muscle to regenerate, we induced muscle regeneration using acute cardiotoxin injury in the EAMG mouse model. We observed a delay in maturation evidenced by a decrease in fibre size and MyoG mRNA expression as well as an increase in fibre number and embryonic myosin heavy-chain mRNA expression. These findings demonstrate for the first time the altered function of SCs from MG compared to control muscles. These alterations could be due to the anti-AChR antibodies via the modulation of myogenic markers resulting in muscle regeneration impairment. In conclusion, the autoimmune attack in MG appears to have unsuspected pathogenic effects on SCs and muscle regeneration, with potential consequences on myogenic signalling pathways, and subsequently on clinical outcome, especially in the case of muscle stress.

  17. Evaluation of The Value of Core Needle Biopsy in The Diagnosis of a Breast Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Sadat Fattahi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Core needle biopsy (CNB with histological findings is regarded as one of the most important diagnostic measures that make preoperative assessment and planning for appropriate treatment possible. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of core biopsy results in our patients with benign and malignant breast lumps, especially for borderline breast lesions, by using a classification method.Methods: In this study, 116 patients who were referred to the Surgery Clinic of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran with breast lump and underwent diagnostic procedures such as mammography and ultrasound were selected. Core needle biopsy (Tru-cut #14 or 16 was performed. After that, excisional biopsy was done. The benign, malignant and unspecified samples obtained by core needle biopsy were evaluated with the samples of the surgical and pathological findings. Then, false positive, false negative, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the core needle biopsy method were calculated. Also, the National Health Service Breast Screening Program (NHSBSP classification was employed.Results: The mean age of the participants in this study was 39±13.13 years and the mean tumor size was 2.7 cm. An average of 3.35 biopsies was taken from all patients. Most of the pathology samples taken from CNB and excisional biopsy were compatible with invasive ductal carcinoma. Of the B type classifications, B5 was the most frequent in both methods. Borderline lesions B3 and B4 had a change in their category after surgery. About 2.5% of the samples in core biopsy were inadequate. Skin bruising was the most common core biopsy complication reported. While, the most common complication of excisional biopsy was hematoma. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the core needle biopsy procedure compared with excisional biopsy was 95.5%, 92.6%, 100%, 100%, and 91

  18. Axillary lymph node core biopsy for breast cancer metastases — How many needle passes are enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macaskill, E.J.; Purdie, C.A.; Jordan, L.B.; Mclean, D.; Whelehan, P.; Brown, D.C.; Evans, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To determine the diagnostic yield of each of three core passes when sampling abnormal lymph nodes in patients presenting with breast cancer. Materials and methods: All patients suspected of having breast cancer had axillary ultrasound as part of initial assessment. Radiologically abnormal nodes (cortical thickness >2.3 mm or round shape) were biopsied with three passes of a 22 mm throw 14 G core biopsy needle and sent for histopathology in separate numbered pots. Data were collected prospectively, and analysis performed on the data of 55 consecutive patients who had positive nodes on at least one core biopsy needle pass. Results: Of 55 patients with a positive node on core biopsy, tumour was noted in all three cores taken in 39 (70.9%). Lymph node metastasis was detected in 45 (81.8%) first core biopsies. With the first two cores taken, positive results were detected in 53 of 55 cases (96.4%). In both cases where tumour was only found on a third core biopsy pass, no lymph node tissue was present in the first two biopsy passes. Conclusion: Two well-directed 14 G core biopsy samples from an abnormal axillary node are adequate for diagnosis of breast cancer metastasis.

  19. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF SPIROTOME® DEVICE FOR LIVER BIOPSY IN GREEN IGUANAS (IGUANA IGUANA): A PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Giordano; Origgi, Francesco C; Leopardi, Stefania; Zaghini, Anna; Saunders, Jimmy H; Vignoli, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a large-core manual biopsy device (Spirotome(®), Medinvents, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium) for liver sampling and histologic diagnosis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The study included eight green iguanas, and two ultrasound-guided biopsies were collected for each lizard, for 16 biopsies in total. The procedure was carried out under general anesthesia induced by intravenous injection of propofol (10 mg/kg) maintained with a mixture of 2.0% isoflurane and 0.8-1.2 L/min oxygen after tracheal intubation. Fourteen (87.5%) of the 16 biopsies were considered diagnostic. Liver biopsy quality was assessed according to sample size and tissue preservation. In particular, mean length (16.2 ± 4.5 mm), width (2.2 ± 0.5 mm), area (34.8 ± 6.9 mm(2)), and number of portal areas (9.4 ± 3.9) of each biopsy were recorded for all green iguanas. The total available surface of the sections obtained from the biopsies and their grade of preservation enabled a satisfactory evaluation of the parenchymal architecture. One of the green iguanas in the study died the day after the procedure due to severe hemocoeloma. Risk assessment evaluation suggested that small green iguanas may not be suitable for this biopsy procedure.

  20. Tissue-specific and substrate-specific mitochondrial bioenergetics in feline cardiac and skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Dela, Flemming; Koch, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    fibers. Biopsies of left ventricular cardiac muscle and soleus muscle, a type I-rich oxidative skeletal muscle, were obtained from 15 healthy domestic cats. Enzymatic activity of citrate synthase (CS), a biomarker of mitochondrial content, was measured. Mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity with various kinds...

  1. Monitoring treatment response and metastatic relapse in advanced bladder cancer by liquid biopsy analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Christensen, Emil; Nordentoft, Iver Kristiansen

    2017-01-01

    of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) in plasma and urine to detect metastatic relapse after cystectomy and measure treatment efficacy. We exome sequenced tumour and germline DNA from patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer and monitored ctDNA in 370 liquid biopsies throughout the disease courses by 84......DNA detection in plasma and diagnosis of relapse was 101 d after cystectomy (range 0-932 d). Early detection of metastatic relapse and treatment response using liquid biopsies represents a novel, highly sensitive tool for monitoring patients, supporting clinicians, and guiding treatment decisions. PATIENT...

  2. Comparison of CT and PET/CT for biopsy guidance in oncological patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerci, Juliano J.; Bogoni, Mateos; Cunha Pereira, Carlos; Cerci, Rodrigo J.; Krauzer, Cassiano; Vicente Vitola, Joao; Tabacchi, Elena; Fanti, Stefano; Delbeke, Dominique; Giacometti Sakamoto, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    To compare FDG PET/CT and CT for the guidance of percutaneous biopsies with histological confirmation of lesions. We prospectively evaluated 323 patients of whom 181 underwent FDG PET/CT-guided biopsy (total 188 biopsies) and 142 underwent CT-guided biopsy (total 146 biopsies). Biopsies were performed using the same PET/CT scanner with a fluoroscopic imaging system. Technical feasibility, clinical success and complication rates in the two groups were evaluated. Of the 188 biopsies with PET/CT guidance, 182 (96.8%) were successful with conclusive tissue samples obtained and of the 146 biopsies with CT guidance, 137 (93.8%) were successful. Therefore, 6 of 188 biopsies (3.1%) with PET/CT guidance and 9 of 146 (6.1%) with CT guidance were inconclusive (p = 0.19). Due to inconclusive histological results, 4 of the 188 lesions (2.1%) were rebiopsied with PET/CT guidance and 3 of 146 lesions (2.0%) were rebiopsied with CT guidance. Histology demonstrated that 142 of 188 lesions (75.5%) were malignant, and 40 (21.2%) were benign in the PET/CT-guided group, while 89 of 146 lesions (60.9%) were malignant and 48 (32.8%) were benign in the CT-guided group (p = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively). Patients with a histological diagnosis of benign lesion had no recurrence of disease with a minimum of 6 months follow-up. Of the 188 PET/CT-guided biopsies, 6 (3.1%) were repeat biopsies due to a previous nondiagnostic CT-guided biopsy performed in a different diagnostic centre. The interval between the two biopsies was less than a month in all cases. Histology revealed five malignant lesions and one benign lesion among these. The complication rate in the PET/CT-guided biopsy group was 12.7% (24 of 188), while in the CT-guided group, was 9.5% (14 of 146, p = 0.26). Therefore, there was no significant difference in complication rates between PET/CT and CT guidance. PET/CT-guided biopsy is already known to be a feasible and accurate method in the diagnostic work-up of suspected malignant

  3. Comparison of CT and PET/CT for biopsy guidance in oncological patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerci, Juliano J.; Bogoni, Mateos; Cunha Pereira, Carlos; Cerci, Rodrigo J.; Krauzer, Cassiano; Vicente Vitola, Joao [Quanta - Diagnostico e Terapia, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tabacchi, Elena; Fanti, Stefano [University Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, Nuclear Medicine Department, Bologna (Italy); Delbeke, Dominique [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Giacometti Sakamoto, Danielle [Byori - Laboratorio de Patologia, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2017-08-15

    To compare FDG PET/CT and CT for the guidance of percutaneous biopsies with histological confirmation of lesions. We prospectively evaluated 323 patients of whom 181 underwent FDG PET/CT-guided biopsy (total 188 biopsies) and 142 underwent CT-guided biopsy (total 146 biopsies). Biopsies were performed using the same PET/CT scanner with a fluoroscopic imaging system. Technical feasibility, clinical success and complication rates in the two groups were evaluated. Of the 188 biopsies with PET/CT guidance, 182 (96.8%) were successful with conclusive tissue samples obtained and of the 146 biopsies with CT guidance, 137 (93.8%) were successful. Therefore, 6 of 188 biopsies (3.1%) with PET/CT guidance and 9 of 146 (6.1%) with CT guidance were inconclusive (p = 0.19). Due to inconclusive histological results, 4 of the 188 lesions (2.1%) were rebiopsied with PET/CT guidance and 3 of 146 lesions (2.0%) were rebiopsied with CT guidance. Histology demonstrated that 142 of 188 lesions (75.5%) were malignant, and 40 (21.2%) were benign in the PET/CT-guided group, while 89 of 146 lesions (60.9%) were malignant and 48 (32.8%) were benign in the CT-guided group (p = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively). Patients with a histological diagnosis of benign lesion had no recurrence of disease with a minimum of 6 months follow-up. Of the 188 PET/CT-guided biopsies, 6 (3.1%) were repeat biopsies due to a previous nondiagnostic CT-guided biopsy performed in a different diagnostic centre. The interval between the two biopsies was less than a month in all cases. Histology revealed five malignant lesions and one benign lesion among these. The complication rate in the PET/CT-guided biopsy group was 12.7% (24 of 188), while in the CT-guided group, was 9.5% (14 of 146, p = 0.26). Therefore, there was no significant difference in complication rates between PET/CT and CT guidance. PET/CT-guided biopsy is already known to be a feasible and accurate method in the diagnostic work-up of suspected malignant

  4. Outcomes of ultrasound guided renal mass biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Edward L; Choromanska, Agnieszka; Al-Katib, Sayf; Coffey, Mary

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of nondiagnostic ultrasound-guided renal mass biopsies (RMBs) at our institution and to determine what patient, procedural, and focal renal mass (FRM) factors were associated with nondiagnostic ultrasound-guided RMBs. Eighty-two ultrasound-guided renal mass biopsies performed between January 2014 and October 2016 were included in our study. Biopsy outcomes (diagnostic vs. nondiagnostic) and patient, procedural, and FRM characteristics were retrospectively reviewed and recorded. Univariate statistical analyses were performed to identify biopsy characteristics that were indicative of nondiagnostic biopsy. Ultrasound-guided RMBs were diagnostic in 70 out of 82 cases (85%) and non-diagnostic in 12 cases (15%). Among the diagnostic biopsies, 54 (77%) were malignant cases, 94% of which were renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Of the 12 nondiagnostic cases, the final diagnosis was RCC in 4 cases and angiomyolipoma in one case; seven of the nondiagnostic cases were lost to follow-up. A weak association (p = 0.04) was found between the number of needle passes and the biopsy outcome. None of the remaining collected RMB characteristics showed a significant correlation with a diagnostic or nondiagnostic RMB. Six patients (7%) experienced complications. Ultrasound-guided renal mass biopsy is a safe and effective method for the diagnosis of renal masses with a low rate of nondiagnostic outcomes. A nondiagnostic biopsy should not be treated as a surrogate for a diagnosis since a significant number of patients with nondiagnostic biopsies have subsequently been shown to have renal malignancies. Repeat biopsy should be considered in such cases.

  5. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Smoking on Muscle Adaptation to Exercise Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    needle muscle biopsy technique in the 1860s as a means to characterize muscular dystrophy (2). It was not until 1962 that Bergström modified this...leg (unless cleared by a physician) or have a skeletal, muscular or neuromuscular dysfunction? Has subject participated in a muscle soreness trial... muscle damage, creatine kinase, strength loss APPENDIX E: Manuscript submitted $" " Paragraph 1 Introduction: Duchenne first developed the

  7. In vitro culture and characterization of enteric neural precursor cells from human gut biopsy specimens using polymer scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamohan, Janardhanam; Senthilnathan, Venugopal S; Vaikundaraman, Tirunelveli Muthiah; Srinivasan, Thangavelu; Balamurugan, Madasamy; Iwasaki, Masaru; Preethy, Senthilkumar; Abraham, Samuel Jk

    2013-08-01

    In vitro expansion and characterization of neural precursor cells from human gut biopsy specimens with or without Hirschsprung's disease using a novel thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) is reported aiming at a possible future treatment. Gut biopsy samples were obtained from five patients undergoing gut resection for Hirschsprung's disease (n = 1) or gastrointestinal disorders (n = 4). Cells isolated from the smooth muscle layer and the myenteric plexus were cultured in two groups for 18 to 28 days; Group I: conventional culture as earlier reported and Group II: using TGP scaffold. Neurosphere like bodies (NLBs) were observed in the cultures between 8th to 12th day and H & E staining was positive for neural cells in both groups including aganglionic gut portion from the Hirschsprung's disease patient. Immunohistochemistry using S-100 and neuron specific enolase (NSE) was positive in both groups but the TGP group (Group II) showed more number of cells with intense cytoplasmic granular positivity for both NSE and S-100 compared to Group I. TGP supports the in vitro expansion of human gut derived neuronal cells with seemingly better quality NLBs. Animal Studies can be tried to validate their functional outcome by transplanting the NLBs with TGP scaffolds to see whether this can enhance the outcome of cell based therapies for Hirschsprung's disease.

  8. The Artificial Gravity Bed Rest Pilot Project: Effects on Knee Extensor and Plantar Flexor Muscle Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (2.5 g) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) control (C) group (N=7); and 2) an AG group (N=8), which was exposed to 21 days of bed-rest plus daily 1 hr exposures to AG (2.5 g). This particular experiment was part of an integrated AG Pilot Project sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center. The in vivo torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre and post treatment. Also, pre- and post treatment biopsy samples were obtained from both the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles and were used, in part, for a series of analyses on gene expression (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic versus catabolic state of the muscle. Post/Pre toque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the C versus AG group (P less than 0.04). The plantar flexor muscle group of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in torque-velocity relationship; whereas, in the C group the overall post/pre responses declined (AG vs C; P less than 0.001). Measurements of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (for both muscles) demonstrated a loss of approx. 20% in the C group while no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity (IGF-1, IGF-1 BP4, mechano growth factor, total RNA, and pro-collagen 3a) were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers (myostatin and atrogen) were elevated in the C group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. Based on these observations we conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading states. These findings also

  9. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.)

  10. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.) With 4 figs., 21 refs.

  11. Comparison between endobronchial forceps-biopsy and cryo-biopsy by flexible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami El-Dahdouh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We concluded that cryoprobe biopsies were more successful than forceps biopsies in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Nevertheless, further investigations are warranted to determine an efficacy of cryoprobe biopsy procedures and a rationale to use as a part of routine flexible bronchoscopy.

  12. BONE MARROW BIOPSY IN EVALUATION OF HAEMATOLOGICAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Rani Sahoo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Bone Marrow Trephine Biopsy (BMTB and aspiration is critical for diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and monitoring therapeutic response. BMTB is of greater value in assessing cellularity, degree of fibrosis, marrow architecture and especially when aspiration is dry tap. At the same time, it provides sample for immunohistochemistry. MATERIALSAND METHODS It is a single centre observational study conducted from July 2014 to July 2016 in Department of Pathology, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, which included both cell block and touch imprint along with trephine biopsy. Cases selected where lymphoma studied for pattern and extent of infiltration. Aspiration with dry tap and selected cases of myeloproliferative disorders, myelodysplastic syndrome, leukaemia (both acute and chronic, anaemia, multiple myeloma were studied. Jamshidi needle was used for biopsy. Samples obtained were formalin preserved, kept in decalcification solution (Hammersmith protocol and H and E slides prepared. Special stain-like reticulin and Masson’s trichrome were used for grading of fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry was done on selected cases of lymphoma. RESULTS Out of total 100 cases studied, 60 were of haematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms, 12 anaemia, 20 secondary metastasis, 8 miscellaneous (1 haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytic disease, 1 storage disease, 1 granulomatous and 5 ITP. CONCLUSION The study was conducted to establish the advantage of bone marrow biopsy in inadequate and failed aspiration, but both are complementary to each other and together provide a comprehensive evaluation of the bone marrow. Bone marrow fibrosis are well accessed and increased detection of tumour cells in suspected secondary metastasis. Special stains, IHC, cytogenetic study can be done over biopsy block.

  13. Influence of muscle strength, physical activity and weight on bone mass in a population-based sample of 1004 elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdhem, P; Ringsberg, K A M; Akesson, K; Obrant, K J

    2003-09-01

    High physical activity level has been associated with high bone mass and low fracture risk and is therefore recommended to reduce fractures in old age. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of potentially modifiable variables, such as physical activity, muscle strength, muscle mass and weight, on bone mass in elderly women. The influence of isometric thigh muscle strength, self-estimated activity level, body composition and weight on bone mineral density (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; DXA) in total body, hip and spine was investigated. Subjects were 1004 women, all 75 years old, taking part in the Malmö Osteoporosis Prospective Risk Assessment (OPRA) study. Physical activity and muscle strength accounted for 1-6% of the variability in bone mass, whereas weight, and its closely associated variables lean mass and fat mass, to a much greater extent explained the bone mass variability. We found current body weight to be the variable with the most substantial influence on the total variability in bone mass (15-32% depending on skeletal site) in a forward stepwise regression model. Our findings suggest that in elderly women, the major fracture-preventive effect of physical activity is unlikely to be mediated through increased bone mass. Retaining or even increasing body weight is likely to be beneficial to the skeleton, but an excess body weight increase may have negative effects on health. Nevertheless, training in elderly women may have advantages by improving balance, co-ordination and mobility and therefore decreasing the risk of fractures.

  14. Ultrasound guided synovial biopsy of the wrist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, R. M.; van Dalen, A.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    Seven patients (4 female and 3 male, mean age 46) with arthritis of the wrist (n = 7) without known etiology were evaluated. High-definition ultrasound equipment was used for localization of synovial hypertrophy, suitable for ultrasound guided biopsy without risk. A 18-gauge diameter Tru-cut biopsy

  15. Celioscopic liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P.S. Feranti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endosurgery has been used for assessment of fish celomatic cavity, as well as for obtaining biopsies for organic analysis. Such minimally invasive access may also be used for the analysis of environmental impact on biomarkers of pollution. In Brazil, studies and literature regarding the use of celioscopy in fish are sparse. The purpose of the current study was to develop a two-port celioscopy technique to obtain liver biopsy in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. Six adult female silver catfish were used. The animals were anesthetized and the inspection of the celomatic cavity were performed using a telescope and celioscopic-guided liver biopsy were taken using laparoscopic Kelly forceps. On the early postoperative period, the animals were released in a confined water reservoir where mortality could be checked. The liver samples were sent for histological assessment. There were no complications during surgery on early postoperative period. It was possible to visualize meticulously several organs (liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, swim bladder, ovaries, bowel and transverse septum. In conclusion, the surgical technique and the anesthetic protocol proposed were suitable to perform liver biopsies in silver catfish and provided low morbidity.

  16. Histopathologic quality of prostate core biopsy specimens: comparison of an MR-compatible biopsy needle and a ferromagnetic biopsy needle used for ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franiel, T.; Hamm, B.; Beyersdorff, D.; Fritzsche, F.; Staack, A.; Rost, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The histopathologic quality of core biopsy specimens obtained via MRI-guided prostate biopsy using a 16G MR-compatible needle was compared to that of biopsies obtained via ultrasound-guided biopsy using a conventional 18G stainless steel biopsy needle. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for a total of 247 transrectal prostate biopsy specimens obtained from 32 patients. A total of 117 tissue cores were obtained from 15 patients (PSA of 10.8 ng/ml, age 64 years) who underwent an MRI-guided prostate biopsy using a 16G (1.7 mm) MR-compatible biopsy needle made of titanium alloy. The remaining 130 tissue cores were obtained from 17 patients (PSA of 6.7 ng/ml, age 68 years) who underwent a transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy using an 18G (1.3 mm) ferromagnetic stainless steel biopsy needle. The length and width of the histologic sections prepared from the tissue cores were measured to calculate the area. The histopathologic quality of the specimens was assessed microscopically using tissue fragmentation, the presence of crush artifacts, and the overall assessability as criteria. Each of these features was assigned a score from 0 to 3. All 3 features contributed equally to the overall score which ranged from 0 (no tissue) to 9 (optimal quality). Results: The overall quality scores assigned to the biopsies obtained with a 16G MR-compatible needle and an 18G ferromagnetic needle can be considered to be equivalent to a mean difference between patient related median scores of the specimens of -0.05 (95% confidence interval [-0.46; 0.36]) and a given equivalence limit of 1. The MRI biopsies showed more tissue fragmentation (p=0.001) but fewer crush artifacts (p=0.022) while the assessability did not differ significantly between the two needle types (p=0.064). There was also no significant difference in the calculated areas of the tissue cores (p=0.236). According to the different calibers of the biopsy needles, the lengths (p=0

  17. Stereotaxic core needle biopsy of breast microcalcifications obtained using a standard mammography table with an add-on unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, S.E.; Taves, D.H.; McCurdy, L.I.

    2000-01-01

    To demonstrate the reliability of stereotaxic biopsy of indeterminate microcalcifications using a standard mammography table with an add-on unit. In 121 cases of indeterminate microcalcifications, core biopsy was performed using a standard mammography table with an add-on stereotaxic unit. Microcalcifications were identified on radiography of core specimens. Microcalcifications and a definitive histologic diagnosis were obtained in 112 core biopsies (92.6%), with no significant complications. In 23 lesions frank malignancy was diagnosed, and all of these diagnoses were confirmed on surgery. Pathologic examination suggested carcinoma in 4 lesions, and open biopsy confirmed malignancy in 3 of these cases. Four lesions showed atypical ductal hyperplasia. Benign disease was diagnosed in 81 lesions, of which 78 remained stable on mammographic follow-up (mean 16 months later) and 3 were subjected to surgical biopsy (of which 1 was malignant and 2 were benign). Nine cases were technically unsatisfactory because microcalcifications were not sampled. Stereotaxic core biopsy performed with an add-on unit is a safe and reliable technique for biopsy of indeterminate microcalcifications. For successful biopsy, microcalcifications must be harvested. Pathologic results should be correlated with mammographic findings. The accuracy rate compares favourably with results reported using prone biopsy tables. In an era of cost containment, this alternative to prone biopsy tables could result m significant savings in terms of capital investment and use of hospital rooms. In this study, surgical biopsy could have been avoided in 64.5% of cases. (author)

  18. Usefulness of CT fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous needle biopsy in the presence of pneumothorax during biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O, Dong Hyun; Cho, Young Jun; Park, Yong Sung; Hwang, Cheol Mok; Kim, Keum Won; Kim, Ji Hyung

    2006-01-01

    When pneumothorax occurs during a percutaneous needle biopsy, the radiologist usually stops the biopsy. We evaluated the usefulness of computed tomographic (CT) fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous needle biopsy in the presence of pneumothorax during biopsy. We performed 288 CT fluoroscopy guided percutaneous needle biopsies to diagnose the pulmonary nodules. Twenty two of these patients had pneumothorax that occurred during the biopsy without obtaining an adequate specimen. After pneumothorax occurred, we performed immediate CT fluoroscopy guided percutaneous needle biopsies using an 18-gauge cutting needle. We evaluated the success rate of the biopsies and also whether or not the pneumothorax progressed. We classified these patients into two groups according to whether the pneumothorax progressed (Group 2) or not (Group 1) by measuring the longest distance between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura both in the early and late pneumothorax. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between the progression of pneumothorax after biopsy and 1) the depth of the pulmonary nodule; 2) the number of biopsies; 3) the presence or absence of emphysema at the biopsy site; and 4) the size of the pulmonary nodule. Biopsy was successful in 19 of 22 nodules (86.3%). Of the 19 nodules, 12 (63.2%) were malignant and 7 (36.8%) were benign. Twelve patients (54.5%) were classified as group 1 and 10 patients (45.4%) as group 2. The distance between the lung lesion and pleura showed a statistically significant difference between these two groups: ≤ 1 cm in distance for group 1 (81.8%) and group 2 (18.2%), and > 1 cm in distance for group 1 (30%) and group 2 (70%), ρ 0.05). When early pneumothorax occurs during a biopsy, CT fluoroscopy guided percutaneous needle biopsy is an effective and safe procedure. Aggravation of pneumothorax after biopsy is affected by the depth of the pulmonary nodule

  19. Validation study of villous atrophy and small intestinal inflammation in Swedish biopsy registers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery Scott M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestinal biopsy with villous atrophy (VA is the gold standard for the diagnosis of celiac disease (CD. We validated VA (Marsh 3 and small intestinal inflammation without VA (Marsh 1+2 in Swedish regional biopsy registers. Methods All pathology departments in Sweden (n = 28 were searched to identify individuals with VA or duodenal/jejunal inflammation. The validation consisted of blinded examination of biopsy samples, manual review of biopsy reports, web surveys, and patient chart reviews of 121 individuals with VA and 39 with inflammation. Results We identified 29,148 individuals with VA and 13,446 individuals with inflammation. In a blinded examination, Swedish pathologists correctly classified 90% of biopsies with VA. Manual screening of 1,534 biopsy reports (performed by co-author JFL and a research assistant found that comorbidity other than CD was rare. IBD was the most common comorbidity and occurred in 0.3% of biopsies with VA (1.6% in inflammation. Among 114 patients with VA and available data, 108 (95% had a clinical diagnosis of CD. 79% of the validated individuals with VA and 64% of those with inflammation had documented gastrointestinal symptoms prior to biopsy. 88% of the validated individuals with VA had positive CD serology before their first biopsy. 172/180 (96% of Swedish gastroenterologists and 68/68 (100% of pediatricians perform a small intestinal biopsy in at least 9 out of 10 individuals prior to diagnosis of CD. Conclusion Regional biopsy data are feasible to identify individuals with CD and small-intestinal inflammation. The specificity of CD is high in villous atrophy.

  20. Breast carcinoma in radiosurgery biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Leonard O.; Brito, Pablo E.; Coppolecchia, German L.; Giarmana, Maria J.; Delle Ville, Rodolfo E.; Cortese, Eduardo M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report our experience on the detection of breast cancer (BC) through guided radiosurgical biopsies (GRSB) in the Gynecology Department of the Hospital Aeronautico Central (SGHAC). Materials and method: We retrospectively analyzed 622 GRSBs performed at the SGHAC between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2004. We took into account single or associated lesions found in mammograms, which we subdivided into four types: 1) Non-palpable mammographic nodules; 2) Microcalcifications; 3) Structural distortions; 4) Mammographic asymmetries. Results: We found 332 non-palpable nodules (53.4%), 214 microcalcifications (34.4%), 40 structural distortions (6.4%), and 36 mammographic asymmetries (5.8%). Out of the 622 GRSBs performed during the above period, 152 BCs were diagnosed, that is, an incidence of 24.4% detected through this method. Out of the 152 BCs, 110 (72.4%) were invasive and 42 (27.6%) were noninvasive. Conclusions: Although 24.4% of BCs were identified through GRSBs, our tea m considers this to be the standard method for early detection of breast cancer. (author) [es

  1. The effect of exercise and beta2-adrenergic stimulation on glutathionylation and function of the Na,K-ATPase in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Carsten; Hostrup, Morten; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    ) on Na,K-ATPase activity. Ten male subjects performed three bouts of 4-min submaximal exercise followed by intense exercise to exhaustion with and without beta2-adrenergic stimulation with terbutaline. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis at rest (Control samples) and at exhaustion....... In vitro glutathionylation reduced (P basal glutathionylation in Control samples and no further glutathionylation with exercise and beta......2-adrenergic stimulation. Immunoprecipitation with an anti-GSH antibody and subsequent immunodetection with β1 antibodies showed approximately 20% glutathionylation in Control samples and further glutathionylation after exercise (to 32%) and beta2-adrenergic stimulation (to 38%, P

  2. Muscle histochemistry in chronic alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Ferraz

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two chronic acoholic patients were assessed by neurologic examination and muscle biopsy. The patients manifested proximal muscular weakness to a variable extent. One case presented as an acute bout of myopathy, according to the Manual Muscle Test, MMT. The most prominent histologic feature observed was muscle atrophy (95.3% better evidenced through the ATPase stain with the predominance of type II A fibers (71.4%. Lack of the mosaic pattern (type grouping seen in 76% of the cases and an important mitochondrial proliferation with intrasarcoplasmatic lipid accumulation in 63% of the patients. In case of acute presentation of muscle weakness the. pathological substrate is quite different, i.e. presence of myositis mainly interstitial characterized by lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate and several spots of necrosis like Zencker degeneration. Based on histologic criteria, our data suggest that: the main determinant of muscle weakness seen in chronic alcoholic patients is neurogenic in origin (alcoholic polineuropathy; the direct toxic action of ethanol under the skeletal muscle is closely related to the mitochondrial metabolism; the so-called acute alcoholic myopathy has probably viral etiology.

  3. The need for using fluoroscopic guidance to obtain gastric biopsies when in search of Helicobacter pylori with a nonendoscopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Greg N.; Mullins, Daniel J.; Makuch, Richard S.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Nonendoscopic, fluoroscopic biopsy of the gastric mucosa, following barium examination of the stomach, has gained attention with its ease of performance and cost savings potential over endoscopy. Endoscopic research concerning the efficacy of biopsy sites has revealed an increased sensitivity of antral biopsies over greater curvature biopsies for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. Fluoroscopically guided biopsies of the gastric mucosal are studied to determine whether such a difference between site sensitivity held true. If not, blind biopsy through a nasogastric tube, which traditionally samples only the greater curvature, might prove an even less expensive alternative. Materials and methods: Seventy-two patients underwent nonendoscopic, fluoroscopically guided, mucosal biopsy of both the gastric antrum and the greater curvature of the stomach. Pathologic reports from both sites, using each patient as their own control, are compared to assess site sensitivity in the diagnosis of H. pylori gastritis. Results: The sensitivity for the detection of H. pylori gastritis by antral biopsy is 89% whereas the sensitivity of greater curvature biopsy is 62%. The difference is considered clinically significant at P≤0.05. Conclusions: This study confirms the need for antral biopsies when desiring a nonendoscopic approach to gastric mucosal sampling, in order to obtain a reasonable yield of data in dyspeptic patients with H. pylori gastritis. Blind techniques cannot reliably reach the antrum. Fluoroscopy can, and remains a less expensive alternative to endoscopy

  4. The need for using fluoroscopic guidance to obtain gastric biopsies when in search of Helicobacter pylori with a nonendoscopic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Greg N.; Mullins, Daniel J.; Makuch, Richard S

    1999-12-01

    Purpose: Nonendoscopic, fluoroscopic biopsy of the gastric mucosa, following barium examination of the stomach, has gained attention with its ease of performance and cost savings potential over endoscopy. Endoscopic research concerning the efficacy of biopsy sites has revealed an increased sensitivity of antral biopsies over greater curvature biopsies for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. Fluoroscopically guided biopsies of the gastric mucosal are studied to determine whether such a difference between site sensitivity held true. If not, blind biopsy through a nasogastric tube, which traditionally samples only the greater curvature, might prove an even less expensive alternative. Materials and methods: Seventy-two patients underwent nonendoscopic, fluoroscopically guided, mucosal biopsy of both the gastric antrum and the greater curvature of the stomach. Pathologic reports from both sites, using each patient as their own control, are compared to assess site sensitivity in the diagnosis of H. pylori gastritis. Results: The sensitivity for the detection of H. pylori gastritis by antral biopsy is 89% whereas the sensitivity of greater curvature biopsy is 62%. The difference is considered clinically significant at P{<=}0.05. Conclusions: This study confirms the need for antral biopsies when desiring a nonendoscopic approach to gastric mucosal sampling, in order to obtain a reasonable yield of data in dyspeptic patients with H. pylori gastritis. Blind techniques cannot reliably reach the antrum. Fluoroscopy can, and remains a less expensive alternative to endoscopy.

  5. US-guided biopsy of renal allografts using 18G biopsy gun: analysis of 200 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Myeong Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Ki Ill; Chung, Hyun Joo

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of 18G biopsy gun with US guidance in the transplanted kidneys. We performed 200 US-guided percutaneous biopsies using 18G biopsy gun. Diagnostic efficacy and complication of the biopsy in these patients were analyzed. Biopsy specimens were adequate for histologic diagnoses in 193 patients(96.5%). The mean of the biopsy frequency was 3, the mean of total glomerular number was 21.64 and the mean glomerular number per one biopsy was 6.93. Major complications occurred in 3 (1.5%) of the 200 biopsies; hematuria developed in two patients, AV fistula in one. These complications were successfully controlled either by only transfusion or by coil embolization. There were no statistical differences in blood pressure, hemoglobin, BUN/Cr between pre-and post-renal biopsies. US-guided percutaneous biopsy of renal allograft with 18G biopsy gun is simple, safe, and accurate method in evaluating the renal allograft dysfunction

  6. Determining the Optimal Number of Core Needle Biopsy Passes for Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Nam S; Ge, Benjamin H; Pan, Lorraine Y; Ozawa, Michael G; Kong, Christina S; Louie, John D; Shah, Rajesh P

    2018-03-01

    The number of core biopsy passes required for adequate next-generation sequencing is impacted by needle cut, needle gauge, and the type of tissue involved. This study evaluates diagnostic adequacy of core needle lung biopsies based on number of passes and provides guidelines for other tissues based on simulated biopsies in ex vivo porcine organ tissues. The rate of diagnostic adequacy for pathology and molecular testing from lung biopsy procedures was measured for eight operators pre-implementation (September 2012-October 2013) and post-implementation (December 2013-April 2014) of a standard protocol using 20-gauge side-cut needles for ten core biopsy passes at a single academic hospital. Biopsy pass volume was then estimated in ex vivo porcine muscle, liver, and kidney using side-cut devices at 16, 18, and 20 gauge and end-cut devices at 16 and 18 gauge to estimate minimum number of passes required for adequate molecular testing. Molecular diagnostic adequacy increased from 69% (pre-implementation period) to 92% (post-implementation period) (p < 0.001) for lung biopsies. In porcine models, both 16-gauge end-cut and side-cut devices require one pass to reach the validated volume threshold to ensure 99% adequacy for molecular characterization, while 18- and 20-gauge devices require 2-5 passes depending on needle cut and tissue type. Use of 20-gauge side-cut core biopsy needles requires a significant number of passes to ensure diagnostic adequacy for molecular testing across all tissue types. To ensure diagnostic adequacy for molecular testing, 16- and 18-gauge needles require markedly fewer passes.

  7. Percutaneous CT-guided biopsy of the musculoskeletal system: Results of 2027 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimondi, Eugenio; Rossi, Giuseppe; Bartalena, Tommaso; Ciminari, Rosanna; Alberghini, Marco; Ruggieri, Pietro; Errani, Costantino; Angelini, Andrea; Calabro, Teresa; Abati, Caterina Novella; Balladelli, Alba; Tranfaglia, Cristina; Mavrogenis, Andreas F.; Vanel, Daniel; Mercuri, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Biopsy of the musculoskeletal system is useful in the management of bone lesions particularly in oncology but they are often challenging procedures with a significant risk of complications. Computed tomography (CT)-guided needle biopsies may decrease these risks but doubts still exist about their diagnostic accuracy. This retrospective analysis of the experience of a single institution with percutaneous CT-guided biopsy of musculoskeletal lesions evaluates the results of these biopsies for bone lesions either in the appendicular skeleton or in the spine, and defines indications. Materials and methods: We reviewed the results of 2027 core needle biopsies performed over the past 18 years at the authors' institution. The results obtained are subject of this paper. Results: In 1567 cases the correct diagnosis was made with the first CT-guided needle biopsy (77.3% accuracy rate), in 408 cases the sample was not diagnostic and in 52 inadequate. Within 30 days these 408 patients underwent another biopsy, which was diagnostic in 340 cases with a final diagnostic accuracy of 94%. Highest accuracy rates were obtained in primary and secondary malignant lesions. Most false negative results were found in cervical lesions and in benign, pseudotumoral, flogistic, and systemic pathologies. There were 22 complications (18 transient paresis, 3 haematomas, 1 retroperitoneal haematoma) which had no influence on the treatment strategy, nor on patient outcome. Conclusion: This technique is reliable and safe and should be considered nowadays the gold standard for biopsies of the musculoskeletal system.

  8. Upright stereotactic vacuum-assisted needle biopsy of suspicious breast microcalcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, L. S. J.; Kei, P. L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Stereotactic core needle biopsy is a useful technique for evaluation of suspicious breast microcalcifications. Thf development of the 11-G vacuum-assisted biopsy system offers another method of minimally invasive biopsy carried out on a conventional mammography unit. We evaluate its usefulness, efficacy and safety in Asian women.. Vacuum-assisted biopsy was carried out through the lateral approach using an add-on stereotactic device attached to a mammography unit. One hundred and five lesions were sampled in 97 patients. Excisional biopsy was subsequently Carried out for diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia or carcinoma in high-risk patients. Patients with benign diagnosis underwent mammographic follow up. The technical success rate was 97%. An average of 13.5 tissue cores were retrieved for each lesion. The histopathological result obtained from mammotome was benign in 84.8% and malignant in 15.2%. The benign microcalcifications were predominantly fibrocystic change (n = 42)| whereas the malignant microcalcifications included ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 15) and invasive carcinoma (n = 1). Twenty-two patients underwent subsequent open surgical biopsy but no underestimation of disease was seen. Only two patients had vasovagal syncope and three others felt unwell during the biopsy. Nine patients had small haema-1 tomas, which resolved spontaneously. Vacuum-assisted biopsy carried out on an upright stereotactic mammography] unit is a safe and effective method for evaluation of suspicious microcalcifications.

  9. Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in skeletal muscle: effects of hypothyroidism and fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemstra, Karen A; Soeters, Maarten R; Fliers, Eric; Serlie, Mireille J; Burggraaf, Jacobus; van Doorn, Martijn B; van der Klaauw, Agatha A; Romijn, Johannes A; Smit, Johannes W; Corssmit, Eleonora P; Visser, Theo J

    2009-06-01

    The iodothyronine deiodinases D1, D2, and D3 enable tissue-specific adaptation of thyroid hormone levels in response to various conditions, such as hypothyroidism or fasting. The possible expression of D2 mRNA in skeletal muscle is intriguing because this enzyme could play a role in systemic as well as local T3 production. We determined D2 activity and D2 mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle biopsies under control conditions and during hypothyroidism, fasting, and hyperinsulinemia. This was a prospective study. The study was conducted at a university hospital. We studied 11 thyroidectomized patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) on and after 4 wk off T4( replacement and six healthy lean subjects in the fasting state and during hyperinsulinemia after both 14 and 62 h of fasting. D2 activity and D2 mRNA levels were measured in skeletal muscle samples. No differences were observed in muscle D2 mRNA levels in DTC patients on and off T4 replacement therapy. In healthy subjects, muscle D2 mRNA levels were lower after 62 h compared to 14 h of fasting. Insulin increased mRNA expression after 62 h, but not after 14 h of fasting. Skeletal muscle D2 activities were very low and not influenced by hypothyroidism and fasting. Human skeletal muscle D2 mRNA expression is modulated by fasting and insulin, but not by hypothyroidism. The lack of a clear effect of D2 mRNA modulation on the observed low D2 activities questions the physiological relevance of D2 activity in human skeletal muscle.

  10. Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosa, F.; McNulty, J.G.; Hickey, N.; O'Brien, P.; Tobin, A.; Noonan, N.; Ryan, B.; Keeling, P.W.N.; Kelleher, D.P.; McDonald, G.S.A.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the safety, effectiveness and diagnostic value of transvenous forceps biopsy of the liver in 54 patients with coagulopathy, gross ascites or morbid obesity and suspected liver disease in whom percutaneous liver biopsy was contraindicated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forceps biopsy of the liver via the femoral vein was attempted in 54 adult patients with advanced liver disease of unknown aetiology who had coagulation disorders (41 cases), gross ascites (11 cases) or morbid obesity (two cases). In each patient two to six biopsies (average four) were taken using a radial jaw forceps inserted via the right or left femoral vein. RESULTS: The procedure was successful in 53 cases. Hepatic vein catheterization failed in one patient. Adequate liver tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 84% of cases. One patient developed delayed haemorrhage at 12 h from a capsular leak that was undetected during the biopsy procedure. This patient required blood transfusions and laparotomy to control bleeding. There were no deaths in the 53 patients studied. Transient minor chest and shoulder pain was encountered during sheath insertion into a hepatic vein in 23 patients. Three patients developed a femoral vein haematoma, which resolved with conservative treatment. CONCLUSION: Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein is another safe, effective, simple alternative technique of biopsy when the percutaneous route is contraindicated

  11. Muscle fibre type composition and body composition in hammer throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Stavros; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm(2), p Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance. Key pointsWell-trained hammer throwers had increased lean body mass, higher type IIA muscle fibres cross sectional areas, as well as higher bone mineral density, compared to controls.Increased lean body mass was closely related with hammer throwing performance.The relative high percentage of type IIX muscle fibres in vastus lateralis in hammer throwers warrants further investigation.

  12. Muscle glycogen storage after different amounts of carbohydrate ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, J L; Lee, M C; Brozinick, J T; Reed, M J

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the rate of muscle glycogen storage could be enhanced during the initial 4-h period postexercise by substantially increasing the amount of the carbohydrate consumed. Eight subjects cycled for 2 h on three separate occasions to deplete their muscle glycogen stores. Immediately and 2 h after exercise they consumed either 0 (P), 1.5 (L), or 3.0 g glucose/kg body wt (H) from a 50% glucose polymer solution. Blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein before exercise, during exercise, and throughout recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis immediately, 2 h, and 4 h after exercise. Blood glucose and insulin declined significantly during exercise in each of the three treatments. They remained below the preexercise concentrations during recovery in the P treatment but increased significantly above the preexercise concentrations during the L and H treatments. By the end of the 4 h-recovery period, blood glucose and insulin were still significantly above the preexercise concentrations in both treatments. Muscle glycogen storage was significantly increased above the basal rate (P, 0.5 mumol.g wet wt-1.h-1) after ingestion of either glucose polymer supplement. The rates of muscle glycogen storage, however, were not different between the L and H treatments during the first 2 h (L, 5.2 +/- 0.9 vs. H, 5.8 +/- 0.7 mumol.g wet wt-1.h-1) or the second 2 h of recovery (L, 4.0 +/- 0.9 vs. H, 4.5 +/- 0.6 mumol.g wet wt-1. h-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Muscle satellite cells are activated after exercise to exhaustion in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, M; Aida, H; Hiraga, A; Miyata, H

    2013-07-01

    Although satellite cells are well known as muscle stem cells capable of adding myonuclei during muscle repair and hypertrophy, the response of satellite cells in horse muscles to a run to exhaustion is still unknown. To investigate the time course of satellite cell activation in Thoroughbred horse muscle after running to exhaustion. We hypothesised that this type of intense exercise would induce satellite cell activation in skeletal muscle similar to a resistance exercise. Nine de-trained Thoroughbred horses (6 geldings and 3 mares) aged 3-6 years were studied. Biopsy samples were taken from the gluteus medius muscle of the horses before and 1 min, 3 h, 1 day, 3 days, 1 week and 2 weeks after a treadmill run to exhaustion. The numbers of satellite cells for each fibre type were determined by using immunofluorescence staining. Total RNA was extracted from these samples, and the expressions of interleukin (IL)-6, paired box transcriptional factor (Pax) 7, myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD), myogenin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) mRNA were analysed using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. The numbers of satellite cells were significantly increased in type I and IIa fibres at 1 week and in type IIa/x fibre at 2 weeks post exercise. The expression of IL-6 mRNA increased significantly by 3 h post exercise. The expression of PCNA mRNA also increased by 1 day after running, indicating that running can initiate satellite cell proliferation. The expression of Pax7, MyoD, myogenin, IGF-I and HGF mRNA peaked at 1 week post exercise. Satellite cell activation and proliferation could be enhanced after a run to exhaustion without detectable injury as assessed by the histochemical analysis. Understanding the response of satellite cell activation to running exercise provides fundamental information about the skeletal muscle adaptation in Thoroughbred horses. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Bladder cancer: utility of MRI in detection of occult muscle-invasive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Mussi, Thais C.; Melamed, Jonathan; Taneja, Samir S.; Huang, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The presence of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer is a key factor in prognosis and treatment decisions, although may be missed by biopsy due to sampling error. MRI has shown potential for detection of muscle invasion but has not specifically been evaluated for this purpose in the setting of bladder cancer patients without evidence of muscle invasion on initial biopsy. Purpose. To evaluate the role of MRI in detection of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer following a pathologic diagnosis of non-invasive tumor. Material and Methods. This retrospective study included 23 patients who underwent pelvic MRI following a pathologic diagnosis of bladder cancer without muscularis propria invasion and in whom additional histologic evaluation was performed following MRI. Two radiologists in consensus reviewed T2-weighted images to identify those cases suspicious for muscle invasion on MRI. The radiologists identified whether cases suspicious for invasion demonstrated disruption of the T2-hypointense muscularis layer of the bladder wall, peri-vesical fat stranding, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity. Findings were compared with pathologic results obtained after MRI. Results. Suspicion was raised for muscle invasion in eight of 23 cases, four of which exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. No case without suspicion on MRI exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. Therefore, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 79%, respectively. Among individual findings, muscularis disruption on T2WI exhibited sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 79%, peri-vesical fat stranding exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 84%, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 25% and 100%. Conclusion. MRI demonstrated high sensitivity for detection of muscle invasion in cases of bladder cancer without invasion on initial histologic assessment. Muscularis disruption on T2WI appeared to exhibit a better

  15. Bladder cancer: utility of MRI in detection of occult muscle-invasive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B. [Dept. of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States)], E-mail: Andrew.rosenkrantz@nyumc.org; Mussi, Thais C. [Dept. of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Melamed, Jonathan [Dept. of Pathology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States); Taneja, Samir S.; Huang, William C. [Dept. of Urology, Div. of Urologic Oncology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Background. The presence of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer is a key factor in prognosis and treatment decisions, although may be missed by biopsy due to sampling error. MRI has shown potential for detection of muscle invasion but has not specifically been evaluated for this purpose in the setting of bladder cancer patients without evidence of muscle invasion on initial biopsy. Purpose. To evaluate the role of MRI in detection of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer following a pathologic diagnosis of non-invasive tumor. Material and Methods. This retrospective study included 23 patients who underwent pelvic MRI following a pathologic diagnosis of bladder cancer without muscularis propria invasion and in whom additional histologic evaluation was performed following MRI. Two radiologists in consensus reviewed T2-weighted images to identify those cases suspicious for muscle invasion on MRI. The radiologists identified whether cases suspicious for invasion demonstrated disruption of the T2-hypointense muscularis layer of the bladder wall, peri-vesical fat stranding, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity. Findings were compared with pathologic results obtained after MRI. Results. Suspicion was raised for muscle invasion in eight of 23 cases, four of which exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. No case without suspicion on MRI exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. Therefore, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 79%, respectively. Among individual findings, muscularis disruption on T2WI exhibited sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 79%, peri-vesical fat stranding exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 84%, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 25% and 100%. Conclusion. MRI demonstrated high sensitivity for detection of muscle invasion in cases of bladder cancer without invasion on initial histologic assessment. Muscularis disruption on T2WI appeared to exhibit a better

  16. Die Biopsie von Knochen- und Weichteiltumoren

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, B

    2008-01-01

    Technisch stellt die Biopsie von Knochen- und Weichteiltumoren einen simplen Akt dar, intellektuell aber ist die Planung einer Biopsie höchst anspruchsvoll. Zu häufig werden heutzutage immer noch Biopsien unsachgemäss durchgeführt, so dass die Behandlung - im besten Fall - erschwert wird. Eine unsachgemäss durchgeführte Biopsie führt häufig zu negativen funktionellen Konsequenzen für den Patienten, im schlimmsten Fall kann es die Prognose direkt beeinträchtigen. Aus diesem Grund soll...

  17. Efficacy of deep biopsy for subepithelial lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaicekauskas, Rolandas; Stanaitis, Juozas; Valantinas, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of subepithelial lesions (SELs) in the gastrointestinal tract depends on a variety of methods: endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound and different types of biopsy. Making an error-free diagnosis is vital for the subsequent application of an appropriate treatment. To evaluate the efficacy of deep biopsy via the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technique for SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract. It was a case series study. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was completed in 38 patients between November 2012 and October 2014. Thirty-eight SELs in the upper gastrointestinal tract of varying size (very small ≤ 1 cm, small 1-2 cm and large ≥ 2 cm) by means of the ESD technique after an incision with an electrosurgical knife of the overlying layers and revealing a small part of the lesion were biopsied under direct endoscopic view. Deep biopsy via the ESD technique was diagnostic in 28 of 38 patients (73.3%; 95% CI: 59.7-89.7%). The diagnostic yield for SELs with a clear endophytic shape increased to 91.3%. An evident endophytic appearance of a subepithelial lesion, the mean number of biopsied samples (6.65 ±1.36) and the total size in length of all samples per case (19.88 ±8.07 mm) were the main criteria influencing the positiveness of deep biopsy in the diagnostic group compared to the nondiagnostic one (p = 0.001; p = 0.025; p = 0.008). Deep biopsy via the ESD technique is an effective and safe method for the diagnosis of SELs especially with a clear endophytic appearance in a large number of biopsied samples.

  18. Gradient HPLC of antibiotics in urine, ground water, chicken muscle, hospital wastewater, and pharmaceutical samples using C-18 and RP-amide columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwini; Kumar Malik, Ashok; Kumar Tewary, Dhananjay; Singh, Baldev

    2008-02-01

    A simple and highly sensitive high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC-UV) method has been developed for the determination of ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, cinoxacin, and nalidixic acid, in mobile phase citrate buffer (0.001 M) of pH 4.5 prepared in water (X), methanol (Y), and ACN (Z) using gradient at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min by direct UV absorbance detection at lambda = 280 nm. Separation of analytes was studied on the C-18 and RP-amide columns and best results were observed on the RP-amide column with LODs (3.3 x S/m) 0.89, 0.55, 0.67, and 1.41 ng/mL for ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, cinoxacin, and nalidixic acid, respectively, and better RSD than the C-18 column. The recovery of Fluoroquinolones (FQs) in urine, ground water, hospital wastewater, and chicken muscle using this method is more than 90%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, cinoxacin, and nalidixic acid in urine, ground water, pharmaceutical dosage forms, hospital wastewater, and chicken muscle.

  19. Effect of a Biopsy Center on Adequacy Rates of Thyroid Nodule Fine-Needle Aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Vincent A; Kirpalani, Anish; Mnatzakanian, Gevork; Colak, Errol; Vlachou, Paraskevi A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a biopsy center-a dedicated space with a dedicated ultrasound machine and technologist, staffed daily by a radiologist responsible for performing ultrasound-guided procedures only-on the rate of non-diagnostic or unsatisfactory thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Three radiologists performed FNA on 1200 nodules in 998 patients between September 2010 and November 2015. We compared rates of nondiagnostic or unsatisfactory FNA before and after implementation of a biopsy center in September 2014 as part of a quality improvement initiative. Before the establishment of our biopsy center, ultrasound-guided procedures were scheduled between diagnostic studies in the main ultrasound department and were performed by a radiologist responsible for both. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of the biopsy center on the odds of obtaining an adequate sample. Rates of nondiagnostic or unsatisfactory FNA decreased significantly from 15.1% to 8.5% (p < 0.001) after implementation of the biopsy center. The odds of obtaining an adequate sample were higher in the biopsy center (odds ratio, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.43-3.01), even after adjusting for patient age, nodule size, the radiologist performing the procedure, and time over the study period. The implementation of a biopsy center was associated with significantly lower rates of nondiagnostic or unsatisfactory thyroid FNA, suggesting target rates of 10% or lower are achievable with quality improvement measures.

  20. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ... Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During ...

  1. Ultrasound guided pleural biopsy in undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel S. Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    In conclusion: Thoracic ultrasound (TUS guided pleural biopsy had a diagnostic yield which was slightly lower but comparable to both CT guided pleural biopsy and medical thoracoscopic pleural biopsy (MT.

  2. Anterior cruciate ligament tear induces a sustained loss of muscle fiber force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumucio, Jonathan P; Sugg, Kristoffer B; Enselman, Elizabeth R Sibilsky; Konja, Alexis C; Eckhardt, Logan R; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2018-01-18

    Patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears have persistent quadriceps strength deficits that are thought to be due to altered neurophysiological function. Our goal was to determine the changes in muscle fiber contractility independent of the ability of motor neurons to activate fibers. We obtained quadriceps biopsies of patients undergoing ACL reconstruction, and additional biopsies 1, 2, and 6 months after surgery. Muscles fiber contractility was assessed in vitro, along with whole muscle strength testing. Compared with controls, patients had a 30% reduction in normalized muscle fiber force at the time of surgery. One month later, the force deficit was 41%, and at 6 months the deficit was 23%. Whole muscle strength testing demonstrated similar trends. While neurophysiological dysfunction contributes to whole muscle weakness, there is also a reduction in the force generating capacity of individual muscle cells independent of alpha motor neuron activation. Muscle Nerve, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Postradiotherapy prostate biopsies: what do they really mean? results for 498 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, Juanita; Malone, Shawn; Perry, Gad; Bahadur, Yasir; Robertson, Susan; Abdolell, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Postradiotherapy (RT) prostate biopsies are prone to problems in interpretation. False negatives due to sampling error, false positives due to delayed tumor regression, and indeterminate biopsies showing radiation effect in residual tumor of uncertain viability are common occurrences. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 498 men treated with conventional RT from 06/87-10/96 were followed prospectively with systematic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided post-RT prostate biopsies, starting 12-18 months after RT. If there was residual tumor but further decline in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), biopsies were repeated every 6-12 months. Patients with negative biopsies were rebiopsied at 36 months. Residual tumor was evaluated for RT effect and proliferation markers. The 498 men had 978 biopsies. Median time of the first biopsy (n = 498) was 13 months, biopsy no. 2 (n = 342) 28 months, biopsy no. 3 (n = 110) 36 months, biopsy no. 4 (n = 28) 44 months, and biopsy no. 5 (n = 4) 55 months. Median follow-up is 54 months (range 13-131). One hundred seventy-five patients (34%) had prior hormonal therapy for a median of 5 months (range 1-60). Results: Clinical stage distribution was T1b: 46; T1c: 50; T2a: 115; T2b/c: 170; T3: 108; T4: 11; Tx: 1. Distribution by Gleason score was: 28% Gleason score 2-4; 42%: 5-6; 18%: 7; and 12%: 8-10. Seventy-one men have died, 26 of prostate cancer and 45 of other causes. Actuarial failure-free survival by T stage at 5 years is T1b: 78%; T1c: 76%; T2a: 60%; T2b/c: 55%; T3: 30%; and T4: 0%. Actuarial freedom from local failure at 5 years is T1b: 83%; T1c: 88%; T2a: 72%; T2b/c: 66%; T3: 58%; and T4: 0%. The proportion of indeterminate biopsies decreases with time, being 33% for biopsy 1, 24% for biopsy 2, 18% for biopsy 3, and 7% for biopsy 4. Thirty percent of indeterminate biopsies resolved to NED status, regardless of the degree of RT effect, 18% progressed to local failure, and 34% remained as biopsy failures with

  4. [Hospitalization rate in relation to severe complications of transrectal prostate biopsy: About 2715 patients biopsied].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarelle, B; Perrin, P; Devonec, M; Paparel, P; Ruffion, A

    To identify hospitalizations directly related to a complication occurring within 30 days following a transrectal prostate biopsy (PBP). Overall hospitalization rates, mortality rates, potential predisposing factors for complications. Single-center study including all patients who underwent PBP between January 2005 and January 2012. Any hospitalization occurring within 30 days of the PBP for urgent motive was considered potentially attributable to biopsy. We identified the reason for hospitalization with direct complications (urinary infection or fever, rectal bleeding, bladder caillotage, retention) and indirect (underlying comorbidities decompensation) of the biopsy. The contributing factors were anticoagulant or antiplatelet treatment well as waning immunity factors (corticosteroid therapy, HIV, chemotherapy or immunodulateur). Among 2715 men who underwent PBP, there were 120 (4.4%) hospitalizations including 28 (1.03%) caused by the biopsy. Twenty-five (0.92%) were related to a direct complication of biopsy: 14 (56%) for urinary tract infection or fever including 1 hospitalization in intensive care, 5 (20%) for rectal bleeding which required several transfusions 1, 10 (40%) urinary retention and 3 (0.11%) for an indirect complication (2 coronary syndromes and 1 respiratory failure). Several direct complications were associated in 3 cases. Only two hospitalizations associated with rectal bleeding were taking an antiplatelet or anticoagulant. There was no association between hospitalization for urinary tract infections and a decreased immune status. The first death observed in our study occurred at D31 of pulmonary embolism (advanced metastatic patient with bladder cancer). Twenty (60.6%) patients urgently hospitalized did not have prostate cancer. Within this large sample of patients the overall rate of hospitalization due to the realization of a PBP was 1%. It has not been found predictive of complications leading to hospitalization. 4. Copyright © 2016

  5. Protein synthesis in muscle cultures from patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionasescu, V.; Zellweger, H.; Ionasescu, R.; Lara-Braud, C.; Cancilla, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Muscle samples for cultures were obtained from the quadriceps by open biopsy under local anesthesia in five patients with early stage of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and 10 controls. Primary cultures were grown in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) with 20 per cent fetal calf serum. After 4 weeks, cells were trypsinized, counted, subcultured for 5 days in MEM with 5 per cent horse serum and finally incubated for 4 h with ( 3 H) leucine. Total protein synthesis showed a significant decrease (ALF OF CONTROL VALUES) only in muscle cultures from patients with DMD. Addition of calcium chloride alone or with A23187 ionophore normalized this defect in protein synthesis. By contrast, myosin heavy chain synthesis was measured and found normal in all patients. (author)

  6. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  7. Muscle fibre capillarization is a critical factor in muscle fibre hypertrophy during resistance exercise training in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; Joanisse, Sophie; Leenders, Marika; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2017-04-01

    Adequate muscle fibre perfusion is critical for the maintenance of muscle mass; it is essential in the rapid delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to the muscle, stimulating muscle fibre growth. Muscle fibre capillarization is known to decrease substantially with advancing age. However, whether (relative) low muscle fibre capillarization negatively impacts the muscle hypertrophic response following resistance exercise training in older adults is unknown. Twenty-two healthy older men (71 ± 1 years) performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance type exercise training. To assess the change in muscle fibre characteristics, percutaneous biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and following 12 and 24 weeks of the intervention programme. A comparison was made between participants who had a relatively low type II muscle fibre capillary-to-fibre perimeter exchange index (CFPE; LOW group) and high type II muscle fibre CFPE (HIGH group) at baseline. Type I and type II muscle fibre size, satellite cell, capillary content and distance between satellite cells to the nearest capillary were determined by immunohistochemistry. Overall, type II muscle fibre size (from 5150 ± 234 to 6719 ± 446 µm 2 , P muscle fibre, P muscle fibre capillarization, whereas muscle fibre size (from 5170 ± 390 to 7133 ± 314 µm 2 , P muscle fibre, P muscle fibre capillarization were observed in response to 12 and 24 weeks of resistance exercise training in both the LOW and HIGH group. Type II muscle fibre capillarization at baseline may be a critical factor for allowing muscle fibre hypertrophy to occur during prolonged resistance exercise training in older men. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  8. Carrier detection of duchenne and becker muscular dystrophy using muscle dystrophin immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acary S. Bulle Oliveira

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available To ascertain whether dystrophin immunohistochemistry could improve DMD/ BMD carrier detection, we analyzed 14 muscle biopsies from 13 DMD and one BMD probable and possible carriers. All women were also evaluated using conventional methods, including genetic analysis, clinical and neurological evaluation, serum CK levels, KMG, and muscle biopsy. In 6 cases, there was a mosaic of dystrophin-positive and dystrophin-deficient fibers that allowed to make the diagnosis of a carrier state. Comparing dystrophin immunohistochemistry to the traditional methods, it was noted that this method is less sensitive than serum CK measuremens, but is more sensitive than EMG and muscle biopsy. The use of dystrophin immunohistochemistry in addition to CK, EMG and muscle biopsy improved the accuracy of carrier detection. This method is also helpful to distinguish manifesting DMD carriers from patients with other neuromuscular diseases like limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy.

  9. The value of diagnostic hysteroscopy with biopsy in the preoperative of endometrial ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Yatabe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the value of diagnostic hysteroscopy with biopsy in the preoperative preparation for endometrial ablation. Methods: It was a prospective non-randomized study conducted at the division of Gynecologic Endoscopy of Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual “Francisco Morato de Oliveira” from March 2007 to May 2009. A total of 45 patients with abnormal uterine bleeding, and referred to endometrial ablation were included. All women underwent a diagnostic hysteroscopy, and were treated with a GnRH analogous – goserelin – 10.8 mg before surgery. The endometrial ablation was performed with a surgical resectoscope. Patients were submitted to one directed endometrial biopsy, one guided endometrial biopsy with Novak curette, and to endometrial ablation, which was considered as reference for pathological examination with samples from the biopsies. Data were analyze using the SPSS-v16 software, and considered significance at p = 0.05. Results: The mean age of women was 44.20 years (33-56, parity of 2.67 (0-9, uterus size of 139.99 calculated in cc (42-278, and the mean duration of symptoms was 3.68 years (0.5-15. The guided endometrial biopsy showed sensitivity of 80% for endometrium without atypia, and the directed endometrial biopsy had sensitivity of 60%. For proliferative endometrium the directed endometrial biopsy showed sensitivity of 76 and 100% for secretory endometrium, which was higher than the guided endometrial biopsy with 53 and 50%, respectively. Conclusion: The directed biopsy before endometrial ablation had lower sensitivity than guided biopsy for endometrium without atypia, however it was higher for proliferative and secretory endometrium.

  10. Sentinel node biopsy in penile cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, J. K.; Krarup, K. P.; Sommer, P.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Nodal involvement is a strong prognosticator in penile cancer and lymph node staging is crucial. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has proven a useful staging tool with few complications, but evidence rely mostly on single institution publications with a short follow-up. In th......INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Nodal involvement is a strong prognosticator in penile cancer and lymph node staging is crucial. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has proven a useful staging tool with few complications, but evidence rely mostly on single institution publications with a short follow...... died from complications. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first complete national study on sentinel node biopsy. Penile cancer sentinel node biopsy with a close follow-up is a reliable lymph node staging and has few complications in a national multicentre setting. Inguinal lymph node...

  11. Computed tomography guidance for skeletal biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frager, D.H.; Goldman, M.J.; Elkin, C.M.; Cynamon, J.; Leeds, N.E.; Seimon, L.P.; Habermann, E.T.; Schreiber, K.; Freeman, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) guided biopsy and abscess drainage of multiple organ systems have been well described. Reports of spinal and skeletal applications have been less common. This study describes the use of CT guidance in the biopsy of various skeletal lesions in 46 patients. Forty-one patients had skinny needle aspirations (18 or 22 gauge) and 23 patients had trephine core biopsies. Sites of the lesions included: thoracic spine - 15 patients, lumbosacral spine - 17 patients, bony pelvis - 6 patients, rib - 2 patients, and long bones - 6 patients. Fast scanners capable of rapid image reconstruction have overcome many constraints. With CT guidance, the physician who performs the procedure receives virtually no ionizing radiation. The exact location of the needle tip is accurately visualized in relation to the lesion being biopsied and to the vital organs. (orig.)

  12. Magnetic Resonance (MR)-Guided Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits The procedure is less invasive than surgical biopsy, ... risk of infection. The chance of infection requiring antibiotic treatment appears to be less than one in ...

  13. morphological pattern of endometrial biopsies in south

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A retrospective study was undertaken to review all cases of endometrial biopsies ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective ... tumours, 10 (0.4%) mixed tumours, 14 (0.6%) ..... accurate and concise clinical information on the.

  14. Bulk Genotyping of Biopsies Can Create Spurious Evidence for Hetereogeneity in Mutation Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Kostadinov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available When multiple samples are taken from the neoplastic tissues of a single patient, it is natural to compare their mutation content. This is often done by bulk genotyping of whole biopsies, but the chance that a mutation will be detected in bulk genotyping depends on its local frequency in the sample. When the underlying mutation count per cell is equal, homogenous biopsies will have more high-frequency mutations, and thus more detectable mutations, than heterogeneous ones. Using simulations, we show that bulk genotyping of data simulated under a neutral model of somatic evolution generates strong spurious evidence for non-neutrality, because the pattern of tissue growth systematically generates differences in biopsy heterogeneity. Any experiment which compares mutation content across bulk-genotyped biopsies may therefore suggest mutation rate or selection intensity variation even when these forces are absent. We discuss computational and experimental approaches for resolving this problem.

  15. Bulk Genotyping of Biopsies Can Create Spurious Evidence for Hetereogeneity in Mutation Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, Rumen; Maley, Carlo C; Kuhner, Mary K

    2016-04-01

    When multiple samples are taken from the neoplastic tissues of a single patient, it is natural to compare their mutation content. This is often done by bulk genotyping of whole biopsies, but the chance that a mutation will be detected in bulk genotyping depends on its local frequency in the sample. When the underlying mutation count per cell is equal, homogenous biopsies will have more high-frequency mutations, and thus more detectable mutations, than heterogeneous ones. Using simulations, we show that bulk genotyping of data simulated under a neutral model of somatic evolution generates strong spurious evidence for non-neutrality, because the pattern of tissue growth systematically generates differences in biopsy heterogeneity. Any experiment which compares mutation content across bulk-genotyped biopsies may therefore suggest mutation rate or selection intensity variation even when these forces are absent. We discuss computational and experimental approaches for resolving this problem.

  16. Outpatient percutaneous renal biopsy in adult patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hweish, Abdulla K.; Abdul-Rehman, I. Saeed

    2007-01-01

    To study the safety and efficacy of performing percutanaeous renal biopsy in the outpatient department compared to the traditional inpatient policy, we studied 44 consecutive patients with proteinuria and other urinary sediment abnormalities, at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, during the period from September 2004 to August 2006. The patients were divided into two groups: group I, in whom kidney biopsy was performed and followed by 1-day hospital admission; and group II, in whom renal biopsy was performed in the outpatient department and followed by 6 hours observation period and then by regular outpatient visits. All biopsies were performed with the use of real-time ultrasound and automated biopsy needle. Patients with a history of bleeding diathesis or abnormal coagulation profile and those receiving warfarin, heparin, aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were excluded from the study. Only minor biopsy-related complications such as gross hematuria, perinephric hematoma that resolved without the need for blood transfusion or surgical intervention occurred in three (13.6%) patients in group I and in two (9.1%) patients in group II. The complications were apparent within 6 hours in all but one patient (97.7%). Overall, hematuria was identified in 52% of patients at <-72 hours, 85% at <-4 hours and 97.7% at <- 6 hours. The 24-hour hematocrit levels were not significantly different between the study groups. One (4.5%) patient from group II had a small perinephric hematoma, which was detected by ultrasound examination at 24 hours but not at 6 hours post biopsy period; it resolved spontaneously without intervention. We conclude that in selected patients, same day discharge after 6 hours of renal biopsy may be given safety without increased risk of complications. (author)

  17. Transbronchial biopsies safely diagnose amyloid lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Praveen; Keyes, Colleen M.; Hankinson, Elizabeth A.; O’Hara, Carl J.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Berk, John L.

    2018-01-01

    Background Autopsy identifies lung involvement in 58–92% of patients with the most prevalent forms of systemic amyloidoses. In the absence of lung biopsies, amyloid lung disease often goes unrecognized. Report of a death following transbronchial biopsies in a patient with systemic amyloidosis cautioned against the procedure in this patient cohort. We reviewed our experience with transbronchial biopsies in patients with amyloidosis to determine the safety and utility of bronchoscopic lung biopsies. Methods We identified patients referred to the Amyloidosis Center at Boston Medical Center with lung amyloidosis diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsies (TBBX). Amyloid typing was determined by immunohistochemistry or mass spectrometry. Standard end organ assessments, including pulmonary function test (PFT) and chest tomography (CT) imaging, and extra-thoracic biopsies established the extent of disease. Results Twenty-five (21.7%) of 115 patients with lung amyloidosis were diagnosed by TBBX. PFT classified 33.3% with restrictive physiology, 28.6% with obstructive disease, and 9.5% mixed physiology; 9.5% exhibited isolated diffusion defects while 19% had normal pulmonary testing. Two view chest or CT imaging identified focal opacities in 52% of cases and diffuse interstitial disease in 48%. Amyloid type and disease extent included 68% systemic AL disease, 16% localized (lung limited) AL disease, 12% ATTR disease, and 4% AA amyloidosis. Fluoroscopy was not used during biopsy. No procedure complications were reported. Conclusions Our case series of 25 patients supports the use of bronchoscopic transbronchial biopsies for diagnosis of parenchymal lung amyloidosis. Normal PFTs do not rule out the histologic presence of amyloid lung disease. PMID:28393574

  18. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia involving the superior rectus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Hellman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We present the first reported case of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia in the right superior rectus causing diplopia. Observations: A 72-year-old man with a 6-month history of untreated asymptomatic Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia presented with 2 years of diagonal binocular diplopia that was previously thought to be due to ocular myasthenia gravis. Examination showed mild right proptosis and right hypotropia, and MRI revealed a focal lesion of the right superior rectus muscle. Orbital biopsy was performed, and histopathology showed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration among the skeletal muscle fibers of the rectus muscle. Immunostaining confirmed a B-cell preponderance, along with more extensive staining for IgM than IgG, and in situ hybridization confirmed lambda restriction. These findings corresponded with those of his previous bone marrow biopsy, confirming Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia as the etiology for the extraocular muscle mass. Conclusions and Importance: Lymphoma of an extraocular muscle is a rare manifestation of orbital lymphoma, and the tumors are usually mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas (i.e. extranodal marginal zone lymphomas. There are 4 previous reports of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma of an extraocular muscle; however this is the first reported case of such a lesion in a patient with concurrent Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia at the time of diagnosis. Keywords: Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, Lymphoma, Superior rectus, Diplopia

  19. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy with an automated biopsy gun in diffuse renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Yang; Moon, Jeoung Mi; Park, Ji Hyun; Kwon, Jae Soo; Song, Ik Hoon; Kim, Sung Rok

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness and clinical usefulness of percutaneous renal biopsy by using automated biopsy gun under the real-time ultrasonographic guidance that was performed in 17 patients with diffuse renal disease. We retrospectively analysed the histopathological diagnosis and the patients' status after percutaneous renal biopsy.Adequate amount of tissue for the histologic diagnosis could be obtained in al patients. Histopathologic diagnosis included the minimal change nephrotic syndrome in 6 patients, the membrano proliferative glomerulonephritis in 4,the membranous glomerulonephritis in 2, the glomerulosclerosis in 2, Ig A nephropathy in 2, and the normal finding in 1. Significant complication occurred in only one patient who developed a transient loss of sensation at and around the biopsy site. In conclusion, automated biopsy gun was a very useful device in performing percutaneous biopsy for diffuse renal disease with a high success rate and a low complication rate

  20. Protonmotive force in muscle mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, D.A.; Haas, R.; Eguren, L.A.; Parks, J.K.; Eilert, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The protonmotive force (delta p) of muscle mitochondria was measured by estimating the distribution of 14C-labeled TPMP (trimethylphenylphosphonium iodide) and 14C-labeled acetate across the inner membrane of muscle mitochondria. The matrix volume was simultaneously determined using 3H-labeled H2O and 3H-labeled mannitol and repeated drying to distinguish the label in these 2 compounds. Rapid separation of mitochondria from the incubation medium by centrifugation through silicone oil avoids the problems of potential anaerobic conditions associated with conventional centrifugation and large volumes of trapped media associated with filtration. The value for delta p (mean +/- SD) was 192+/- 26 mV in 30 determinations with rat muscle mitochondria during state 4. Measurement of oxygen consumption allowed calculation of membrane conductance (Cm,H+) which was 0.49 +/- 0.18 nmol of H+/min/mg protein/mV. The values for delta p and Cm,H+ are reported for a variety of experimental conditions and are consistent with Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory. Biopsy specimens obtained from human muscle gave state-4 delta p values of 197+/- 30 mV (n .5) and Cm,H+ values of 0.52 +/- 0.12 nmol of H+/min/mg/mV (n . 4). This delta p assay is the first described for coupled mammalian muscle mitochondria and will be useful in assessing membrane function

  1. Initial experience with new dedicated needles for laparoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration and histological biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M B; Durup, J; Pless, T

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Laparoscopic ultrasonography (LUS) is an important imaging modality during laparoscopic staging of intra-abdominal malignancies, but LUS-assisted biopsy is often difficult or impossible. We report a newly developed inbuilt biopsy system for direct LUS-guided fine......-needle aspiration (FNA) and Tru-cut biopsies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: LUS-guided biopsy was performed in 20 patients with upper gastrointestinal tract tumors. The biopsied lesions had either not been previously detected by other imaging modalities or had been inaccessible, or the biopsy sample had been inadequate...... were good or acceptable in 18 patients (90%). Slight needle deviation (material was obtained, but pathological examination was impossible owing...

  2. Preliminary experience with interactive guided brain biopsies using a vertically opened 0.5-T MR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.P.; Dietrich, J.; Lieberenz, S.; Schmidt, F.; Sorge, O.; Trantakis, C.; Seifert, V.; Kellermann, S.; Schober, R.; Franke, P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of brain biopsies performed within a vertically opened MR system. We worked with the interventional 0.5-T MR ''SIGNA SP'' (General Electric Medical Systems, Milwaukee, Wis.) with an integrated tracking device ''Flashpoint Position Encoder'' (Image Guided Technologies, USA). As a holding device for this instrument we constructed a special frame. The whole system allows an exact adjustment of an optimum biopsy direction and guidance of the biopsy in a non-stereotactic, interactive mode in near real-time. As biopsy tools we used MR-compatible aspiration and specially made side-cut needles (Daum, Germany; E-Z-EM, USA). We performed a prospective diagnostic brain biopsy study in 18 patients. Guidance of the needle was carried out using gradient-echo single-slice technique. The sample was taken after controlling the exact position of the needle tip on spin-echo images. In 12 cases an exact neuropathological diagnosis was possible. In 6 cases of negative biopsy (4 aspiration biopsies) the samples were not representative. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of interactive MR-guided minimally invasive brain biopsies in an open MR system. The best results were achieved using cut needles for biopsies of contrast-enhancing lesions visible on T1-weighted gradient-echo guidance sequence. (orig.)

  3. Liver Biopsies for Chronic Hepatitis C: Should Nonultrasound-Guided Biopsies Be Abandoned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Liver biopsy has been the gold standard for grading and staging chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV-mediated liver injury. Traditionally, this has been performed by trained practitioners using a nonimage-guided percutaneous technique at the bedside. Recent literature suggests an expanding role for radiologists in obtaining biopsies using an ultrasound (US-guided technique. The present study was undertaken study to determine if the two techniques produced liver biopsy specimens of similar quality and hypothesized that at our institution, non-US-guided percutaneous liver biopsies for HCV would be of higher quality than US-guided specimens.

  4. Techniques in human airway inflammation - Quantity and morphology of bronchial biopsy specimens taken by forceps of three sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleva, RM; Kraan, J; Smith, M; ten Hacken, NHT; Postma, DS; Timens, W

    Background: In recent years, fiberoptic bronchoscopy has been introduced successfully in the research of bronchial asthma. Bronchial biopsy specimens obtained by this procedure are small, and an optimal biopsy technique is necessary to obtain high-quality tissue samples, as sufficient length of

  5. CT-guided stereotaxic biopsy in 104 cases of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizuma, Hiroshi; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Jokura, Hidehumi; Otsuki, Taisuke; Katakura, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Jiro

    1988-01-01

    Biopsy of suspected brain tumor was performed on 104 cases using Leksell's CT-guided stereotaxic system. The entire operation was performed in the CT room. A Backlund's spiral biopsy needle was advanced to the target point in a stepwise fashion and two to nine tissue samples were obtained from one to three biopsy tracks. Tissue sampling was impossible in two cases because the tumors were too hard for biopsy needle to advance. Also, sampling was sometimes difficult in the case of soft and necrotic tumor, cystic tumor, already treated (irradiated) tumor and the lesion including old blood clot. After the biopsy, minimal bleeding occurred in nine cases, however, stopped within 10 minutes by controlling the blood pressure. A minimum sized hematoma was visible on the postoperative CT in four cases. Postoperative neurological deterioration was seen in two cases. One case was transient and the other seemed to be in his natural course. Anyway, there were neither cases of operative mortality nor severely complicated cases in these series. Useful pathological diagnosis was possible in 83 cases (80 %). Accurate diagnosis was not possible in the remaining 21 cases, however, their histological datum such as necrosis, blood clot, and so on were very useful to estimate the lesions. In summary, accurate diagnosis rate of CT-guided stereotaxic needle biopsy was 80 %. However, it appeared to be a safe and useful procedure in the diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions. (author)

  6. Pattern analysis in MR imaging of muscle diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.A.; Schalke, B.C.G.

    1987-01-01

    Between March 1984 and March 1987, 161 patients with muscle diseases underwent MR imaging performed with a 1.0-T superconductive magnet. Forty-four had progressive muscular dystrophies, 25 had different types of myositis, 19 had spinal or neural muscular atrophies, 16 had myotonic dystrophy, 22 had metabolic disorders, and 35 had other muscle disease, including muscle tumors, posttraumatic muscular atrophies, and postradiation effects. The advantages of MR imaging are the high sensitivity and soft-tissue contrast, as well as the depiction of typical distribution patterns of affected muscle groups, which can be used in diagnosis, biopsy planning, and design of therapy

  7. Immune-mediated rippling muscle disease and myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Mariela; Gonorazky, Hernan; Chaves, Marcelo; Fulgenzi, Ernesto; Figueredo, Alejandra; Christiansen, Silvia; Cristiano, Edgardo; Bertini, Enrico S; Rugiero, Marcelo

    2016-10-15

    Cases of acquired rippling muscle disease in association with myasthenia gravis have been reported. We present three patients with iRMD (immune-mediated rippling muscle disease) and AChR-antibody positive myasthenia gravis. None of them had thymus pathology. They presented exercise-induced muscle rippling combined with generalized myasthenia gravis. One of them had muscle biopsy showing a myopathic pattern and a patchy immunostaining with caveolin antibodies. They were successfully treated steroids and azathioprine. The immune nature of this association is supported by the response to immunotherapies and the positivity of AChR-antibodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MRI findings of muscle involvement in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M.

    1999-01-01

    A 40-year-old white man presented with fever, muscle pain, skin nodules and persistent hypereosinophilia over a period of 1 year. In addition, he had ventricular arrhythmias with episodes of tachycardia. Besides a lack of response to antiparasitic therapy, laboratory and pathological data excluded the diagnosis of trichinosis or any other parasitic infection. The patient's course of the disease over the previous 1 1 / 2 years was compatible with hypereosinophilic syndrome. In a muscle biopsy several eosinophilic perivascular and leucocytic intravascular infiltrates were found, indicative of muscle involvement by the disease. This is a report on the MRI findings of muscle involvement in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. (orig.)

  9. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of transplanted pancreas: evaluation of 20 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Vieira da Nóbrega

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the experience with percutaneous biopsies of pancreatic grafts guided by ultrasonography. Methods: Series of cases referred from outpatient’s clinic for biopsy of pancreas transplant, between December 2006 and March 2008. Data were collected from medical electronic records for age, sex and histopathology. The indication for the procedure was obtained from medical and laboratory records. Doppler ultrasonography was performed for control and to guide biopsy in real time. Rresults: Twenty patients referred for biopsy of their transplanted pancreas over a one-year period were evaluated. In one patient, biopsy was not performed for having no safe access for ultrasound. It was used 18 gauge needles, mostly automatic-cut type. The main indications were increased blood glucose and pancreatic enzyme levels as well as reduction of urinary amylase. The sonographic aspect of the pancreatic graft was normal in 18 cases. In all 19 biopsies performed, satisfactory samples for histopathological study were obtained. There were no complications. Cconclusions: This series of cases demonstrated low sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in diagnosis of pancreatic transplants disorders, but showed to be very useful to guide transplanted pancreas biopsies. Although no complications occurred in this experience, the risk-benefit relation should always be assessed for every patient.

  10. Feasibility and effectiveness of image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butros, Selim Reha; McCarthy, Colin James; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Shenoy-Bhangle, Anuradha S; Arellano, Ronald S

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the indications, technique, results, and complications of image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder. This retrospective study included 15 patients (10 male, 5 female) who underwent image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder between January 1999 and December 2013. The medical records, imaging studies, procedural details, and long-term follow-up of each patient were reviewed in detail to assess the feasibility of percutaneous bladder biopsy. Ten patients had focal bladder masses and 5 patients had asymmetric or diffuse bladder wall thickening. Eleven patients had either negative or unsatisfactory cystoscopies prior to the biopsy. Percutaneous biopsies were performed under computed tomography guidance in 12 patients and ultrasound in 3 patients. All procedures were technically successful and there were no procedural complications. Malignancy was confirmed in 8 patients, among whom 6 had transitional cell carcinoma, 1 cervical cancer, and 1 prostate cancer metastasis. Seven patients had a benign diagnosis, including 3 that were later confirmed by pathology following surgery and 2 patients with a false-negative result. The overall sensitivity was 80% and accuracy was 87%. Image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder is a safe and technically feasible procedure with a high sensitivity and accuracy rate. Although image-guided bladder biopsy is an uncommon procedure, it should be considered in selected cases when more traditional methods of tissue sampling are either not possible or fail to identify abnormalities detected by cross-sectional imaging.

  11. Clinical impact of bladder biopsies with TUR-BT according to cytology results in patients with bladder cancer: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Kazuhiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There seems to be no consensus concerning taking bladder biopsies during transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT. We investigate the clinical significance of bladder biopsy with TUR-BT and the relationship between urinary cytology and the biopsy results. Methods We reviewed a total of 424 patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treated with TUR-BT between 1998 and 2005. Of the total, 293 patients also underwent a bladder biopsy. Biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium (N = 59 and those from normal-appearing urothelium (N = 234 were evaluated separately. Results Bladder cancer was observed in 23 cases (39.0% who underwent a biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium. Among these 23 cases, 9 cases with visible tumor resection had carcinoma in situ (CIS only in the biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was negative in 3 of the 9 cases. Bladder cancer was observed in 26 cases (11.1% who underwent a biopsy of normal-appearing urothelium. Of them, 5 cases with visible tumors had CIS only in the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was positive in all of the 5 cases. No upstaging or upgrading cases were found in these patients by the addition of these two types of biopsy. Furthermore, therapy was not altered in these patients. With or without bladder biopsy was not a significant factor for tumor recurrence in either the univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusions Based on the results, it is concluded the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium are not necessary in patients with negative cytology results because of the low detection rate and lack of influence on therapeutic decisions. Meanwhile, biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium is needed in patients with negative cytology results in order to detect CIS due to staging properties. This result supports a recent EAU guideline.

  12. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  13. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People who cannot actively move one or more joints can do exercises using braces or splints . When ... A.M. Editorial team. Muscle Disorders Read more Neuromuscular Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  14. Ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy methodology: retrospective comparison of the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach versus the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy technology represents the current standard of care for the evaluation of indeterminate and suspicious lesions seen on diagnostic breast ultrasound. Yet, there remains much debate as to which particular method of ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy provides the most accurate and optimal diagnostic information. The aim of the current study was to compare and contrast the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach and the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach. Methods A retrospective analysis was done of all ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedures performed by either the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach or the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach by a single surgeon from July 2001 through June 2009. Results Among 1443 ultrasound-guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedures performed, 724 (50.2%) were by the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy technique and 719 (49.8%) were by the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy technique. The total number of false negative cases (i.e., benign findings instead of invasive breast carcinoma) was significantly greater (P = 0.008) in the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group (8/681, 1.2%) as compared to in the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group (0/652, 0%), with an overall false negative rate of 2.1% (8/386) for the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy group as compared to 0% (0/148) for the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy group. Significantly more (P guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedure. Significantly more (P guided diagnostic breast biopsy procedure. Conclusions In appropriately selected cases, the 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy approach appears to be advantageous to the spring-loaded 14-gauge core biopsy approach for providing the most accurate and optimal diagnostic information. PMID:21835024

  15. MR imaging-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: Reduction of false-negative biopsies by short-term control MRI 24–48 h after biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrs, S.D.; Hattermann, V.; Preibsch, H.; Hahn, M.; Staebler, A.; Claussen, C.D.; Siegmann-Luz, K.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate whether another contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination 24–48 h after MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (MRI-VAB) can reduce the rate of false-negative cases. Materials and methods: The study included 252 patients who underwent MRI-VAB for the clarification of 299 lesions. The success of MRI-VAB was assessed at interventional MRI and another CE MRI 24–48 h after the intervention. In cases of successful MRI-VAB (complete or partial lesion removal) and benign histological results, follow-up breast MRI was performed. In cases of unsuccessful biopsy (unchanged lesion), tissue sampling was repeated. False-negative cases were calculated to assess the diagnostic value of MRI follow-up within 2 days after intervention. Results: Ninety-eight malignant (32.8%) and 201 (67.2%) benign lesions were diagnosed using MRI-VAB. At immediate unenhanced control MRI, all lesions were assessed as successfully biopsied. In 18 benign cases (6%), CE MRI after 24–48 h showed an unsuccessful intervention. Further tissue sampling revealed another 13 cancers in these patients. This results in a false-negative rate of 11.7%. Follow-up MRI of the benign lesions presented no further malignancy. Conclusions: MRI-VAB with immediate unenhanced control offers a success rate of 94%. The rate of false-negative biopsies (11.7%) could be reduced to zero by using short-term follow-up MRI. Therefore, a further CE breast MRI 24–48 h after benign MRI-VAB to eliminate missed cancers is recommended. - Highlights: • Some suspicious breast lesions are only seen on MRI. • They can be biopsied by a MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy system. • Inadequate sampling causes some false-negative biopsies. • We evaluate an additional control MRI 24 to 48 hours after biopsy. • A reduced rate of the false-negative biopsies was found

  16. Muscle ion transporters and antioxidative proteins have different adaptive potential in arm than in leg skeletal muscle with exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nielsen, Tobias Schmidt; Weihe, Pál

    2017-01-01

    for 15 weeks, and pre- and postintervention biopsies were obtained from deltoideus and vastus lateralis muscle. Before training, monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), Na(+)/K(+) pump α2, and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) expressions were lower (P ... occurred exclusively in vastus lateralis muscle. The increased (P MCT4 and SOD2 in deltoid muscle after HIS and vastus lateralis muscle after SOC were similar. In conclusion, arm musculature displays lower basal ROS, La(-), K(+) handling capability but higher Na(+)-dependent H...

  17. The eternal enigma in prostatic biopsy access route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fabiani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editors,We read with interest the article by Di Franco and co-workers (1. The introduction of prostatic magnetic resonance and the relative fusion-biopsy have not yet allowed the expected improvements in prostate biopsy. To our knowledge, there are no works that demonstrate the superiority of fusion techniques on the remaining ultrasound guided prostate biopsies that are still the widely used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Furthemore, these technologies are expensive exams and they are not yet available in all centers, especially in those minors. We work at a “minor” center and we always keep in mind that the goal of  prostatic biopsy is the diagnosis and the staging of prostatic neoplasms.. However, it remains uncertain which of the two techniques, transperineal (TP or transrectal (TR, is superior in terms of detection rate during first biopsy setting. Several studies have compared the prostate cancer detection rate but TR and TP access route in prostatic gland sampling seems to be equivalent in terms of efficiency and complications, as reported by Shen PF et al. (2, despite several methodological limitations recognized in their work. The results reported by Di Franco CA et al. represent the real life experience of most urologists that perform the PB based on their own training experience and available technical devices. From an historical viewpoint, the TP route has been the first one to be used to reach the prostate, both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. To date, because it seems to be more invasive and difficult, the TP route is less used worldwide than the TR one (2. Theoretically, the TP approach should detect more prostate cancer than the TR way  because the cores of the TP approach are directed longitudinally to the peripheral zone and the anterior part of the prostate (4. The results reported by Di Franco et al. seems to confirm these considerations. However, our real life experience differ from the conclusions

  18. The eternal enigma in prostatic biopsy access route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Andrea; Principi, Emanuele; Filosa, Alessandra; Servi, Lucilla

    2017-10-03

    Dear Editors,We read with interest the article by Di Franco and co-workers (1). The introduction of prostatic magnetic resonance and the relative fusion-biopsy have not yet allowed the expected improvements in prostate biopsy. To our knowledge, there are no works that demonstrate the superiority of fusion techniques on the remaining ultrasound guided prostate biopsies that are still the widely used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Furthemore, these technologies are expensive exams and they are not yet available in all centers, especially in those minors. We work at a "minor" center and we always keep in mind that the goal of  prostatic biopsy is the diagnosis and the staging of prostatic neoplasms.. However, it remains uncertain which of the two techniques, transperineal (TP) or transrectal (TR), is superior in terms of detection rate during first biopsy setting. Several studies have compared the prostate cancer detection rate but TR and TP access route in prostatic gland sampling seems to be equivalent in terms of efficiency and complications, as reported by Shen PF et al. (2), despite several methodological limitations recognized in their work. The results reported by Di Franco CA et al. represent the real life experience of most urologists that perform the PB based on their own training experience and available technical devices. From an historical viewpoint, the TP route has been the first one to be used to reach the prostate, both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. To date, because it seems to be more invasive and difficult, the TP route is less used worldwide than the TR one (2). Theoretically, the TP approach should detect more prostate cancer than the TR way  because the cores of the TP approach are directed longitudinally to the peripheral zone and the anterior part of the prostate (4). The results reported by Di Franco et al. seems to confirm these considerations. However, our real life experience differ from the conclusions reached in their

  19. Muscle specific microRNAs are regulated by endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Scheele, Camilla; Yfanti, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Muscle specific miRNAs, myomiRs, have been shown to control muscle development in vitro and are differentially expressed at rest in diabetic skeletal muscle. Therefore, we investigated the expression of these myomiRs, including miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b and miR-206 in muscle biopsies from vastus...... lateralis of healthy young males (n = 10) in relation to a hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp as well as acute endurance exercise before and after 12 weeks of endurance training. The subjects increased their endurance capacity, VO2max (l min-1) by 17.4% (P improved insulin sensitivity by 19......, but their role in regulating human skeletal muscle adaptation remains unknown....

  20. Muscle-specific expression of hypoxia-inducible factor in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mounier, Rémi; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Plomgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    fibres that possess unique patterns of protein and gene expression, producing different capillarization and energy metabolism systems. In this work, we analysed HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein expression related to the fibre-type composition in untrained human skeletal muscle by obtaining muscle biopsies...... from triceps brachii (characterized by a high proportion of type II fibres), from soleus (characterized by a high proportion of type I fibres) and from vastus lateralis (characterized by an equal proportion of type I and II fibres). The hypothesis was that type I muscle fibres would have lower HIF-1......alpha protein level. Interestingly, none of the HIF-1alpha target genes, like the most studied angiogenic factor involved in muscle angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), exhibited a muscle fibre-specific-related mRNA expression at rest in normoxia. However, soleus presented...

  1. Histopathological pattern of abnormal uterine bleeding in endometrial biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, S; Lakhey, M; Vaidya, S; Sharma, P K; Hirachand, S; Lama, S; KC, S

    2013-03-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting complaint in gyanecology out patient department. Histopathological evaluation of the endometrial samples plays a significant role in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding. This study was carried out to determine the histopathological pattern of the endometrium in women of various age groups presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. Endometrial biopsies and curettings of patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding was retrospectively studied. A total of 403 endometrial biopsies and curettings were analyzed. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 70 years. Normal cyclical endometrium was seen in 165 (40.94%) cases, followed by 54 (13.40%) cases of disordered proliferative endometrium and 44 (10.92%) cases of hyperplasia. Malignancy was seen in 10 (2.48%) cases. Hyperplasia and malignancy were more common in the perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups. Histopathological examination of endometrial biopsies and curettings in patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding showed a wide spectrum of changes ranging from normal endometrium to malignancy. Endometrial evaluation is specially recommended in women of perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups presenting with AUB, to rule out a possibility of any preneoplastic condition or malignancy.

  2. Screening for Helicobacter pylori in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Lung Biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Michael; Kirsten, Detlef; Bahmer, Thomas; Penzel, Roland; Claussen, Martin; Ehlers-Tenenbaum, Svenja; Muley, Thomas; Palmowski, Karin; Eichinger, Monika; Leider, Marta; Herth, Felix J F; Rabe, Klaus F; Bittmann, Iris; Warth, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a role of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) pathogenesis. Recently, an association between serum Helicobacter pylori (HP) antibody positivity and more severe disease was described, but HP has not been directly analysed in lung tissue so far. To investigate the presence of HP in the lung tissue of IPF patients. Two tertiary interstitial lung disease care centre databases were screened for available lung biopsy material from IPF patients. Clinical and radiological data, including presence of GER and antiacid medication, were evaluated. HP-specific PCR was carried out on the IPF lung biopsy specimens. A total of 39 IPF patients were included, of whom 85% were male. The patients' median age was 66 years, their vital capacity was 79% predicted, and their diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide was 53% predicted. In all, 82% of the lung biopsies were surgical and 18% transbronchial. Comorbidities were GER disease in 23% (n = 9), sleep apnoea in 13% (n = 5) and hiatal hernia in 38% of the cases (n = 15). Proton pump inhibitors were prescribed at the time of biopsy in 21% of the cases (n = 9). After a median follow-up of 25 months (range 6-69), there were 1 death, 1 lung transplantation and 8 acute exacerbations without relevant differences between the GER and non-GER subgroups. HP DNA was not detected in any of the lung tissue samples. The fact that no HP DNA was detected in the lung tissues calls into question the proposed relevance of HP to the direct pathogenesis of IPF. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Clinical validation of an epigenetic assay to predict negative histopathological results in repeat prostate biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Alan W; Van Neste, Leander; Klein, Eric A; Marks, Leonard S; Gee, Jason R; Troyer, Dean A; Rieger-Christ, Kimberly; Jones, J Stephen; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Mangold, Leslie A; Trock, Bruce J; Lance, Raymond S; Bigley, Joseph W; Van Criekinge, Wim; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2014-10-01

    The DOCUMENT multicenter trial in the United States validated the performance of an epigenetic test as an independent predictor of prostate cancer risk to guide decision making for repeat biopsy. Confirming an increased negative predictive value could help avoid unnecessary repeat biopsies. We evaluated the archived, cancer negative prostate biopsy core tissue samples of 350 subjects from a total of 5 urological centers in the United States. All subjects underwent repeat biopsy within 24 months with a negative (controls) or positive (cases) histopathological result. Centralized blinded pathology evaluation of the 2 biopsy series was performed in all available subjects from each site. Biopsies were epigenetically profiled for GSTP1, APC and RASSF1 relative to the ACTB reference gene using quantitative methylation specific polymerase chain reaction. Predetermined analytical marker cutoffs were used to determine assay performance. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate all risk factors. The epigenetic assay resulted in a negative predictive value of 88% (95% CI 85-91). In multivariate models correcting for age, prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, first biopsy histopathological characteristics and race the test proved to be the most significant independent predictor of patient outcome (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.60-4.51). The DOCUMENT study validated that the epigenetic assay was a significant, independent predictor of prostate cancer detection in a repeat biopsy collected an average of 13 months after an initial negative result. Due to its 88% negative predictive value adding this epigenetic assay to other known risk factors may help decrease unnecessary repeat prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Case report 376: Accessory (anomalous) soleus muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apple, J.S.; Khoury, M.B.; Martinez, S.; Nunley, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    In summary, a case has been presented of a 24-year-old woman who developed pain in the left lower extremity while jogging. Physical examination showed a soft, palpable mass medial and anterior to the Achilles tendon in the left lower extremity. Although a lipoma was suspected, plain films and CT studies indicated clearly that the mass was not of fatty density. In fact, the density of the mass was equivalent to adjacent muscles. The mass itself was lying in the soft tissues of the left ankle tissue. An open biopsy showed a normal muscle which represented an accessory soleus muscle - a muscle known to be anomalous on accoasion and reported as being symptomatic or asymptomatic in different individuals. (orig./SHA)

  5. A biomedical engineering approach to mitigate the errors of prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hashim Uddin; Emberton, Mark; Kepner, Gordon; Kepner, Jeremy

    2012-02-07

    The current protocol for detecting and ruling out prostate cancer involves serum PSA testing followed by sampling of the prostate using a transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy. Many specialists have discussed how PSA screening has contributed to underdetection of clinically significant prostate cancer, overdiagnosis of clinically insignificant disease and poor risk stratification; however, little consideration has been given to the role of TRUS-guided biopsy in these errors. The performance of TRUS-guided biopsy is constrained by the biomechanical attributes of the sampling strategy, resulting in suboptimal detection efficiency of each core. By using a biomedical engineering approach, a uniform grid sampling strategy could be used to improve the detection efficiency of prostate biopsy. Moreover, the calibration of the sampling can be adjusted by altering the distance between needle deployments. Our model shows that for any given number of needle trajectories, a uniform grid approach will be superior to a divergent, nonuniform strategy for the detection of clinically important disease. This is an important message that should result in a move away from divergent sampling to a uniform grid approach for prostate biopsy.

  6. RNA isolation for transcriptomics of human and mouse small skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breit Timo M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolation of RNA from skin biopsies presents a challenge, due to the tough nature of skin tissue and a high presence of RNases. As we lacked the dedicated equipment, i.e. homogenizer or bead-beater, needed for the available RNA from skin isolation methods, we adapted and tested our zebrafish single-embryo RNA-isolation protocol for RNA isolation from skin punch biopsies. Findings We tested our new RNA-isolation protocol in two experiments: a large-scale study with 97 human skin samples, and a small study with 16 mouse skin samples. Human skin was sampled with 4.0 mm biopsy punches and for the mouse skin different punch diameter sizes were tested; 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm. The average RNA yield in human samples was 1.5 μg with an average RNA quality RIN value of 8.1. For the mouse biopsies, the average RNA yield was 2.4 μg with an average RIN value of 7.5. For 96% of the human biopsies and 100% of the mouse biopsies we obtained enough high-quality RNA. The RNA samples were successfully tested in a transcriptomics analysis using the Affymetrix and Roche NimbleGen platforms. Conclusions Using our new RNA-isolation protocol, we were able to consistently isolate high-quality RNA, which is apt for further transcriptomics analysis. Furthermore, this method is already useable on biopsy material obtained with a punch diameter as small as 1.5 mm.

  7. Single muscle fiber adaptations with marathon training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Scott; Harber, Matthew; Creer, Andrew; Gallagher, Philip; Slivka, Dustin; Minchev, Kiril; Whitsett, David

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of marathon training on single muscle fiber contractile function in a group of recreational runners. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the gastrocnemius muscle of seven individuals (22 +/- 1 yr, 177 +/- 3 cm, and 68 +/- 2 kg) before, after 13 wk of run training, and after 3 wk of taper. Slow-twitch myosin heavy chain [(MHC) I] and fast-twitch (MHC IIa) muscle fibers were analyzed for size, strength (P(o)), speed (V(o)), and power. The run training program led to the successful completion of a marathon (range 3 h 56 min to 5 h 35 min). Oxygen uptake during submaximal running and citrate synthase activity were improved (P training program. Muscle fiber size declined (P training. P(o) was maintained in both fiber types with training and increased (P 60% increase (P training and was unchanged in MHC IIa fibers. Peak power increased (P training with a further increase (P marathon training decreased slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fiber size but that it maintained or improved the functional profile of these fibers. A taper period before the marathon further improved the functional profile of the muscle, which was targeted to the fast-twitch muscle fibers.

  8. Detection of EGFR mutations in plasma and biopsies from non-small cell lung cancer patients by allele-specific PCR assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Britta; Meldgaard, Peter; Hager, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    samples with allele-specific PCR assays. METHODS: Pairs of the diagnostic biopsy and plasma obtained just prior to start of erlotinib treatment were collected from 199 patients with adenocarcinoma of non-small-cell lung cancer. DNA from both sample types was isolated and examined for the presence...... of mutations in exons 18-21 of the EGFR gene, employing the cobas(®) EGFR Tissue Test and cobas(®) EGFR Blood Test (in development, Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., CA, USA). RESULTS: Test results were obtained in all 199 (100%) plasma samples and 196/199 (98%) of the biopsies. EGFR-activating mutations were...... identified in 24/199 (12%) plasma samples and 28/196 (14%) biopsy samples, and 17/196 (9%) matched pairs contained the same mutation. Six EGFR mutations were present only in plasma samples but not in the biopsy samples. The overall concordance of the EGFR gene mutations detected in plasma and biopsy tissue...

  9. Feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, Hylton R; Freeman, Lynetta J; Rohleder, Jacob J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Our goal was to develop and validate a technique to identify the sentinel lymph nodes of the mammary glands of healthy dogs with contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and evaluate the feasibility of obtaining representative samples of a sentinel lymph node under ultrasound guidance using a new biopsy device. Three healthy intact female adult hounds were anesthetized and each received an injection of octafluoropropane-filled lipid microspheres and a separate subcutaneous injection of methylene blue dye around a mammary gland. Ultrasound was then used to follow the contrast agent through the lymphatic channel to the sentinel lymph node. Lymph node biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance, followed by an excisional biopsy of the lymph nodes and a regional mastectomy procedure. Excised tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination and evaluated as to whether they were representative of the node. The ultrasound contrast agent was easily visualized with ultrasound leading up to the sentinel lymph nodes. Eight normal lymph nodes (two inguinal, one axillary in two dogs; two inguinal in one dog) were identified and biopsied. Lymphoid tissue was obtained from all biopsy specimens. Samples from four of eight lymph nodes contained both cortical and medullary lymphoid tissue. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be successfully used to image and guide minimally invasive biopsy of the normal sentinel lymph nodes draining the mammary glands in healthy dogs. Further work is needed to evaluate whether this technique may be applicable in patients with breast cancer or other conditions warranting evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in animals.

  10. Long-term high-level exercise promotes muscle reinnervation with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosole, Simone; Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut; Loefler, Stefan; Fruhmann, Hannah; Vogelauer, Michael; Burggraf, Samantha; Mayr, Winfried; Krenn, Matthias; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana; Hamar, Dusan; Cvecka, Jan; Sedliak, Milan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sarabon, Nejc; Musarò, Antonio; Sandri, Marco; Protasi, Feliciano; Nori, Alessandra; Pond, Amber; Zampieri, Sandra

    2014-04-01

    The histologic features of aging muscle suggest that denervation contributes to atrophy, that immobility accelerates the process, and that routine exercise may protect against loss of motor units and muscle tissue. Here, we compared muscle biopsies from sedentary and physically active seniors and found that seniors with a long history of high-level recreational activity up to the time of muscle biopsy had 1) lower loss of muscle strength versus young men (32% loss in physically active vs 51% loss in sedentary seniors); 2) fewer small angulated (denervated) myofibers; 3) a higher percentage of fiber-type groups (reinnervated muscle fibers) that were almost exclusive of the slow type; and 4) sparse normal-size muscle fibers coexpressing fast and slow myosin heavy chains, which is not compatible with exercise-driven muscle-type transformation. The biopsies from the old physically active seniors varied from sparse fiber-type groupings to almost fully transformed muscle, suggesting that coexpressing fibers appear to fill gaps. Altogether, the data show that long-term physical activity promotes reinnervation of muscle fibers and suggest that decades of high-level exercise allow the body to adapt to age-related denervation by saving otherwise lost muscle fibers through selective recruitment to slow motor units. These effects on size and structure of myofibers may delay functional decline in late aging.

  11. Muscle glycogen storage postexercise: effect of mode of carbohydrate administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M J; Brozinick, J T; Lee, M C; Ivy, J L

    1989-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether gastric emptying limits the rate of muscle glycogen storage during the initial 4 h after exercise when a carbohydrate supplement is provided. A secondary purpose was to determine whether liquid (L) and solid (S) carbohydrate (CHO) feedings result in different rates of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. Eight subjects cycled for 2 h on three separate occasions to deplete their muscle glycogen stores. After each exercise bout they received 3 g CHO/kg body wt in L (50% glucose polymer) or S (rice/banana cake) form or by intravenous infusion (I; 20% sterile glucose). The L and S supplements were divided into two equal doses and administered immediately after and 120 min after exercise, whereas the I supplement was administered continuously during the first 235 min of the 240-min recovery period. Blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein before exercise, during exercise, and throughout recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis immediately after and 120 and 240 min after exercise. Blood glucose and insulin declined during exercise and increased significantly above preexercise levels during recovery in all treatments. The increase in blood glucose during the I treatment, however, was three times greater than during the L or S treatments. The average insulin response of the L treatment (61.7 +/- 4.9 microU/ml) was significantly greater than that of the S treatment (47.5 +/- 4.2 microU/ml) but not that of the I (55.3 +/- 4.5 microU/ml) treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Isolate pulmonary nodule. CT-guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, J.N.; Ettore, F.; Rogopoulos, A.; Geoffray, A.; Balu-Maestro, C.; Le Houcq, M.

    1989-01-01

    Transparietal CT-guided biopsy location can be successfully performed for isolate pulmonary nodules, defined as lesions with a maximal diameter of 3 cm, without any other parenchymal or mediastinal abnormality. A 21 G needle has been used according to an identical protocole in 64 cases (10 benign, 54 malignant). The biopsy was successful in 77.7% of the malignant cases. In relation to the diameter of the nodules, biopsy was successful in 66.7% of the nodules smaller than 2 cm and in 76% of the nodules ranging from 2 to 3 cm. The complications observed were rare (1 case of pneumothorax requiring drainage, 9 cases of pneumothorax without clinical signs and simply followed up, 4 cases of minor hemoptysis requiring no treatment and 5 cases of hematomas smaller than 5 cm on CT) [fr

  13. Comparative study of decomposable and indecomposable biopsy needle in lung puncture biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Sheng Zhanxin; Wen Yamin; Zhang Liping; Wen Zongqiu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To contrast the clinical practice characteristics with decomposable and indecomposable biopsy needle in the CT-guided lung puncture biopsy. Methods: 50 patients with lung tumour carried on puncture biopsy under the CT guidance were divided in two groups randomly: Group A (25 examples): using the indecomposable BioPinceTM biopsy needle; Group B(25 examples): using the decomposable Precisa or Vitesse biopsy needle. The puncture biopsy organization quantity, the first time puncture success rate, the pathological diagnosis result and the incidence of puncture complication were compared in two groups. Results: More striped structures were gained obviously in group A than in group B: 24/25 and 11/25 respectively (P>0.05), The pathological diagnosis 'serious extrusion amoebocyte and nature undetermined' only occurred in group B. But the first time puncture success rate was lower in group A than in B: 52%(13/25) and 80%(20/25) respectively (P>0.05), The incidence of hemorrhage and pneumothorax in group A was higher slightly: 84% and 72%, 16% and 4% respectively (P>0.05). Conclusion: The indecomposable needle (BioPinceTM) was better in lung puncture biopsy, but the lower first time puncture success rate also increases the risk of operation and complication in some degree because of the structure of the needle. On the contrary, decomposable needle (the Precisa or the Vitesse) was not the best choice in lung puncture biopsy. But it had the original superiority, especially regarding the special patient such as patient with small tumour, thin thoracic wall, bad physique for its nimble operation. It is essential for us to use the two different types of biopsy needle rationally to enhance the level of CT-guided lung puncture biopsy. (authors)

  14. Diseases and disorders of muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A M; Young, R B

    1993-01-01

    Muscle may suffer from a number of diseases or disorders, some being fatal to humans and animals. Their management or treatment depends on correct diagnosis. Although no single method may be used to identify all diseases, recognition depends on the following diagnostic procedures: (1) history and clinical examination, (2) blood biochemistry, (3) electromyography, (4) muscle biopsy, (5) nuclear magnetic resonance, (6) measurement of muscle cross-sectional area, (7) tests of muscle function, (8) provocation tests, and (9) studies on protein turnover. One or all of these procedures may prove helpful in diagnosis, but even then identification of the disorder may not be possible. Nevertheless, each of these procedures can provide useful information. Among the most common diseases in muscle are the muscular dystrophies, in which the newly identified muscle protein dystrophin is either absent or present at less than normal amounts in both Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophy. Although the identification of dystrophin represents a major breakthrough, treatment has not progressed to the experimental stage. Other major diseases of muscle include the inflammatory myopathies and neuropathies. Atrophy and hypertrophy of muscle and the relationship of aging, exercise, and fatigue all add to our understanding of the behavior of normal and abnormal muscle. Some other interesting related diseases and disorders of muscle include myasthenia gravis, muscular dysgenesis, and myclonus. Disorders of energy metabolism include those caused by abnormal glycolysis (Von Gierke's, Pompe's, Cori-Forbes, Andersen's, McArdle's, Hers', and Tauri's diseases) and by the acquired diseases of glycolysis (disorders of mitochondrial oxidation). Still other diseases associated with abnormal energy metabolism include lipid-related disorders (carnitine and carnitine palmitoyl-transferase deficiencies) and myotonic syndromes (myotonia congenita, paramyotonia congenita, hypokalemic and hyperkalemic

  15. Serial superficial digital flexor tendon biopsies for diagnosing and monitoring collagenase-induced tendonitis in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. de Lacerda Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of a biopsy technique by performing serial evaluations of tissue samples of the forelimb superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT in healthy horses and in horses subjected to superficial digital flexor tendonitis induction. Eight adult horses were evaluated in two different phases (P, control (P1 and tendonitis-induced (P2. At P1, the horses were subjected to five SDFT biopsies of the left forelimb, with 24 hours (h of interval. Clinical and ultrasonographic (US examinations were performed immediately before the tendonitis induction, 24 and 48 h after the procedure. The biopsied tendon tissues were analyzed through histology. P2 evaluations were carried out three months later, when the same horses were subjected to tendonitis induction by injection of bacterial collagenase into the right forelimb SDFT. P2 clinical and US evaluations, and SDFT biopsies were performed before, and after injury induction at the following time intervals: after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and after 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. The biopsy technique has proven to be easy and quick to perform and yielded good tendon samples for histological evaluation. At P1 the horses did not show signs of localised inflammation, pain or lameness, neither SDFT US alterations after biopsies, showing that the biopsy procedure per se did not risk tendon integrity. Therefore, this procedure is feasible for routine tendon histological evaluations. The P2 findings demonstrate a relation between the US and histology evaluations concerning induced tendonitis evolution. However, the clinical signs of tendonitis poorly reflected the microscopic tissue condition, indicating that clinical presentation is not a reliable parameter for monitoring injury development. The presented method of biopsying SDFT tissue in horses enables the serial collection of material for histological analysis causing no clinical signs and tendon damage seen

  16. Endobronkial ultralydsskanning af mediastinum med biopsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemsen, Mette; Steffensen, Ida E; Iversen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is a minimally invasive diagnostic modality, by which it is possible to visualize and do biopsy of structures adjacent to the trachea and the central bronchial system. EBUS is mostly used for staging of lung cancer patients, but EBUS is now used worldwide as a diag......Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is a minimally invasive diagnostic modality, by which it is possible to visualize and do biopsy of structures adjacent to the trachea and the central bronchial system. EBUS is mostly used for staging of lung cancer patients, but EBUS is now used worldwide...

  17. Liver biopsy in liver patients with coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, P.; Gronbaek, H.; Clausen, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The risk of severe bleeding after liver biopsy is estimated to be 1:12,000 in patients with near normal coagulation (INR 60 billion /l). Beyond these limits, the risk is higher, but still uncertain. The Danish guidelines require INR > 1.5, platelet count ... and normal APTT. In some instances the risk of not knowing the histology is so high that a biopsy is considered even with a more disturbed coagulation. Vitamin K, freshly frozen plasma and recombinant activated factor VII may reduce the risk of bleeding in specific situations, but no firm recommendations can...

  18. Ultrasound-guided biopsy and drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, R.C.; Wellauer, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the ultrasound (US) biopsy techniques, cytology, histology, and physics. The emphasis is on use of US guidance, as the authors find that virtually all lesions are visible at US scanning and they thus save valuable time on the computer tomographic scanner. The authors present in great detail their considerable work in designing needles that are readily visible at US scanning and can also collect good cytologic and histologic material. Biopsy techniques are discussed separately for each organ system. The accuracy of these techniques in over 3,000 of the author's cases is presented

  19. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans diagnosed by a single biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Bakke Arvesen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This brief report is about a 9 year old girl presenting with a 2.5 cm circular blue to violet discoloration on the anterolateral upper left thigh. The first biopsy taken revealed the diagnosis dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. The patient underwent surgery at a specialized sarcoma center with post operative histology showing free wide resection margin. Preoperative chest x-ray showed no sign of metastasis. This brief report emphasizes the significance of the use of biopsy when cutaneous elements look suspicious and diagnosis is unclear.

  20. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Grupe, Peter

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To validate lymphatic mapping combined with sentinel lymph node biopsy as a staging procedure, and to evaluate the possible clinical implications of added oblique lymphoscintigraphy and/or tomography and test the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of lymphoscintigraphy. MATERIAL......: Eleven (28%) patients were upstaged. The sentinel lymph node identification rate was 97.5%. Sentinel lymph node biopsy significantly differentiated between patients with or without lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). Lymphatic mapping revealed 124 hotspots and 144 hot lymph nodes were removed by sentinel...

  1. Unaccustomed eccentric contractions impair plasma K+ regulation in the absence of changes in muscle Na+,K+-ATPase content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A Goodman

    Full Text Available The Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA plays a fundamental role in the regulation of skeletal muscle membrane Na+ and K+ gradients, excitability and fatigue during repeated intense contractions. Many studies have investigated the effects of acute concentric exercise on K+ regulation and skeletal muscle NKA, but almost nothing is known about the effects of repeated eccentric contractions. We therefore investigated the effects of unaccustomed maximal eccentric knee extensor contractions on K+ regulation during exercise, peak knee extensor muscle torque, and vastus lateralis muscle NKA content and 3-O-MFPase activity. Torque measurements, muscle biopsies, and venous blood samples were taken before, during and up to 7 days following the contractions in six healthy adults. Eccentric contractions reduced peak isometric muscle torque immediately post-exercise by 26±11% and serum creatine kinase concentration peaked 24 h post-exercise at 339±90 IU/L. During eccentric contractions, plasma [K+] rose during Set 1 and remained elevated at ∼4.9 mM during sets 4-10; this was despite a decline in work output by Set 4, which fell by 18.9% at set 10. The rise in plasma [K+] x work(-1 ratio was elevated over Set 2 from Set 4- Set 10. Eccentric contractions had no effect on muscle NKA content or maximal in-vitro 3-O-MFPase activity immediately post- or up to 7 d post-exercise. The sustained elevation in plasma [K+] despite a decrease in work performed by the knee extensor muscles suggests an impairment in K+ regulation during maximal eccentric contractions, possibly due to increased plasma membrane permeability or to excitation-contraction uncoupling.

  2. Myostatin in relation to physical activity and dysglycaemia and its effect on energy metabolism in human skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, M; Pourteymour, S; Görgens, S W; Langleite, T M; Lee, S; Holen, T; Gulseth, H L; Birkeland, K I; Jensen, J; Drevon, C A; Norheim, F

    2016-05-01

    Some health benefits of exercise may be explained by an altered secretion of myokines. Because previous focus has been on upregulated myokines, we screened for downregulated myokines and identified myostatin. We studied the expression of myostatin in relation to exercise and dysglycaemia in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and plasma. We further examined some effects of myostatin on energy metabolism in primary human muscle cells and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes. Sedentary men with or without dysglycaemia underwent a 45-min acute bicycle test before and after 12 weeks of combined endurance and strength training. Blood samples and biopsies from m. vastus lateralis and adipose tissue were collected. Myostatin mRNA expression was reduced in skeletal muscle after acute as well as long-term exercise and was even further downregulated by acute exercise on top of 12-week training. Furthermore, the expression of myostatin at baseline correlated negatively with insulin sensitivity. Myostatin expression in the adipose tissue increased after 12 weeks of training and correlated positively with insulin sensitivity markers. In cultured muscle cells but not in SGBS cells, myostatin promoted an insulin-independent increase in glucose uptake. Furthermore, muscle cells incubated with myostatin had an enhanced rate of glucose oxidation and lactate production. Myostatin was differentially expressed in the muscle and adipose tissue in relation to physical activity and dysglycaemia. Recombinant myostatin increased the consumption of glucose in human skeletal muscle cells, suggesting a complex regulatory role of myostatin in skeletal muscle homeostasis. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Association of Parathyroid Gland Biopsy Excision Technique With Ex Vivo Radiation Counts During Radioguided Parathyroid Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Andrew M; Lawson, Bradley R; Franco, Aime T; Stack, Brendan C

    2017-06-01

    Parathyroid biopsy represents a means for normal and hyperfunctional glands to be distinguished intraoperatively. However, no data exist to guide surgeons regarding how much of a parathyroid gland must be biopsied to satisfy the 20% rule. To quantify the relative proportion of a hyperfunctional parathyroid gland that must be evaluated with the gamma probe to satisfy the 20% rule. A retrospective review of surgical data for 24 consecutive patients (16 women, 18 men; mean [SD] age, 66.6 [10] years; range, 51-83 years) who underwent surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism between May and October, 2015, in a tertieary academic medical center. Extirpated parathyroid glands were sectioned into parallel or pie-shaped biopsies and evaluated ex vivo with a gamma probe to determine what percentage of a hyperfunctional gland must be sampled to meet the Norman 20% rule. The hypothesis was formulated during data collection. In total, 253 ex vivo biopsy specimens were obtained from 33 surgically removed parathyroid glands. Parathyroid biopsies satisfied the 20% rule with an accuracy that depended on the relative proportion of the parent gland represented: half or more (96.6%; 95% CI, 91.7%-100.0%), a quarter to one-half (87.0%; 95% CI, 79.3%-94.7%), less than a quarter (63.6%; 95% CI, 54.5%-72.8%). When less than a quarter of the gland was removed, pie-shaped biopsies were more likely to satisfy the 20% rule compared with parallel biopsies of the same weight (78.4% vs 56.2%; absolute difference, 22.2%; 95% CI, 4.7%-39.7%). Unless half of a parathyroid gland is biopsied during radioguided parathyroidectomy, the 20% rule cannot reliably rule out the presence of a hyperfunctional parathyroid lesion. Pie-shaped biopsies originating from the center of the gland are associated with a lower rate of false-negative results compared with peripheral biopsies of similar size. Pie-shaped biopsies and biopsy of half or more of each nonexcised parathyroid gland for ex vivo counts may increase

  4. Muscle irisin response to aerobic vs HIIT in overweight female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archundia-Herrera, Carolina; Macias-Cervantes, Maciste; Ruiz-Muñoz, Bernardo; Vargas-Ortiz, Katya; Kornhauser, Carlos; Perez-Vazquez, Victoriano

    2017-01-01

    Exercise stimulates the production of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), which is cleaved to release a protein called irisin. This protein induces browning of white adipose tissue resulting in increased thermogenesis. Different studies have measured circulating irisin at baseline and in response to exercise among a wide variety of individuals; yet, regarding the effect of different exercise intensities in obese adolescent girls, limited insight is available. This study compares the effect of acute aerobic exercise of moderate intensity and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on irisin levels in skeletal muscle and plasma of sedentary overweight or obese female adolescents. The aerobic group (n = 15) and HIIT group (n = 15) underwent anthropometric and metabolic measurements, electrocardiogram, peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ), and two vastus lateralis muscle biopsies before and after session of workout. The session of aerobic exercise included cycling at 65% of their peak heart rate (HRpeak) for 40 min. In the HIIT group, exercise included six bouts of 1 min at 85-95% HRpeak separated by 1 min of recovery. Irisin levels were evaluated in samples of skeletal muscle (western blot) and plasma (ELISA). The levels of expression of irisin in skeletal muscle increased significantly after a session of HIIT (p HIIT session. No increases in plasma irisin concentration were observed.

  5. Urothelial Tumours of the Urinary Bladder: A Histopathological Study of Cystoscopic Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Vaidya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Bladder tumours constitute one of the most common urological conditions. Urothelial (transitional cell carcinoma accounts for 90% of all primary tumours of the bladder. These tumours are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to present the histopathological patterns of urothelial tumours and to determine the grade and stage of these tumours. Methods: This is a 3 year retrospective study of urothelial tumours carried out in the Department of Pathology, Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS, Lalitpur, Nepal. Data of all cystoscopic biopsies collected during this period were analyzed. Results: Urothelial (transitional cell tumours accounted for 97.59% (81 cases of all bladder tumours. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC was the most common tumour which was present in 67 cases (80.72%. Of these, 32 (47.76% were low grade TCC while 35 (52.24% were high grade TCC. Maximum number of tumours (70.37% were superficial (pTa and pT1 while (29.63% were muscle invasive (pT2. Sixteen percent of low grade and 76.92% of high grade tumours showed muscle invasion. Detrusor muscle was absent in 23.88% cases (16/67. Conclusion: Transitional cell carcinoma was the most common bladder cancer. Most of these tumours were high grade. A large percentage of high grade carcinomas presented with muscle invasion. Pathological grade and muscle invasion are the most valuable prognostic predictors of survival. The importance of including smooth muscle in the biopsy specimens needs to be emphasized Key words: cancer, high grade, low grade, transitional, tumour, urinary bladder.

  6. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Technique and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Trejo-Ayala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow biopsy are invasive procedures in which good technical skill is crucial to obtain samples suitable for processing and diagnostic interpretation. The type and calibre of the needle is one of the main variables of the technique, and is selected on the basis of the age, gender and body mass of the patient. This article provides a practical, step-by-step guide to the technique for both procedures. It also discusses existing techniques for reducing the pain associated with the procedure, an essential aspect for the patient that if poorly handled, can force cancellation of the procedure.

  7. Amplification-free liquid biopsy by fluorescence approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhd, Jesper; Okholm, Anders; Kjems, Jargen

    2017-01-01

    Liquid biopsy is an attractive new paradigm of modern cancer research and clinical oncology. Synergy of fluorescence microscopy with mutation specific molecular probes is a method that we developed for the detection of tumor related circulating DNA, ctDNA. The present detection methods of ctDNA...... samples include amplification-based techniques that have multiple challenges, are often time consuming and rather expensive. In this work, we successfully applied the hybridization assay and advanced microscopy for the reliable amplification-free detection and quantification of cancer associated mutations...... in ctDNA....

  8. Ultrastructural muscle and neuro-muscular junction alterations in polymyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Babakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural analysis of 7 biopsies from m.palmaris longus and m.deltoideus in patients with confirmed polymyositis revealed alterationand degeneration of muscle fibers and anomalies of neuro-muscular junction (NMJ. The NMJ abnormalities and following denervation ofmuscle fibers in polymyositis start with subsynaptic damages. The occurance of regeneration features in muscle fibers at any stage is characteristic for PM.

  9. High velocity pulse biopsy device enables controllable and precise needle insertion and high yield tissue acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schässburger, Kai-Uwe; Paepke, Stefan; Saracco, Ariel; Azavedo, Edward; Ekström, Christina; Wiksell, Hans

    2018-02-01

    Minimally invasive biopsies are a cornerstone of breast cancer management with ultrasound being the preferred guidance modality. New developments in breast cancer management and advances in imaging technologies bring new challenges to current biopsy methodologies. A new biopsy device (NeoNavia® biopsy system, 14 G) was developed. It incorporates a pneumatic needle insertion mechanism that is intended to provide better control of needle progression and enable stepwise insertion without noticeable deformation or displacement of surrounding tissue as visualized under ultrasound. A new method of tissue acquisition was designed to achieve a sampling yield higher than standard methodologies. Needle dynamics was assessed on a specifically designed test bed and sampling performance was compared to a Magnum® biopsy instrument (Bard, Covington, GA, USA) in representative tissue models. The histological quality of samples obtained ex-vivo was evaluated. A pneumatic pulse was measured to accelerate the needle to a maximum velocity of 21.2 ± 2.5 m/s on a stroke length of 2.5 mm, achi