WorldWideScience

Sample records for muscle aetiological classification

  1. [The psychosomatics of chronic back pain. Classification, aetiology and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, P

    2004-05-01

    An overview is given on the current classification, description and treatment of chronic pain with causally relevant psychological factors. It is based on the "practice guidelines on somatoform disorders" and on a thematically related meta-analysis. The classificatory problems, especially of the demarcation of somatoform and other chronic pain, are presented. Additional descriptive dimensions of the relevant psychosocial factors are: pain description, other organically unexplained pain- and non-pain-symptoms, anxiety and depression, disease conviction and illness behaviour, personality and childhood abuse. A modified psychotherapy for (somatoform) chronic pain is outlined. Finally, this aetiologically oriented psychosomatic-psychiatric approach is compared to psychological coping models for chronic pain.

  2. Classification of hand eczema: clinical and aetiological types. Based on the guideline of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Hald, Marianne; Andersen, Bo Lasthein

    2011-01-01

    Background. No generally accepted classification scheme for hand eczema exists. The Danish Contact Dermatitis Group recently developed a guideline defining common clinical types and providing criteria for aetiological types. Objectives. To test the concepts of this guideline in a group of hand...

  3. [Nosological classification and assessment of muscle dysmorphia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babusa, Bernadett; Túry, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Muscle dysmorphia is a recently described psychiatric disorder, characterized by a pathological preoccupation with muscle size. In spite of their huge muscles, muscle dysmorphia sufferers believe that they are insufficiently large and muscular therefore would like to be bigger and more muscular. Male bodybuilders are at high-risk for the disorder. The nosological classification of muscle dysmorphia has been changed over the years. However, consensus has not emerged so far. Most of the ongoing debate has conceptualized muscle dysmorphia as an eating disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder. There are a number of arguments for and againts. In the present study the authors do not take a position on the diagnostic classification of muscle dysmorphia. The purpose of the study is to review the present approaches relating to the diagnostic classification of muscle dysmporphia. Many different questionnaires were developed for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia. Currently, there is a lack of assessment methods measuring muscle dysmorphia symptoms in Hungary. As a secondary purpose the study also presents the Hungarian version of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (Mayville et al., 2002).

  4. [Aetiological classification of ischaemic strokes: comparison of the new A-S-C-O classification and the classification by the Spanish Society of Neurology's Cerebrovascular Disease Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino García, P; García Pastor, A; García Arratibel, A; Vicente Peracho, G; Rodriguez Cruz, P M; Pérez Sánchez, J R; Díaz Otero, F; Vázquez Alén, P; Villanueva Osorio, J A; Gil Núñez, A

    2013-09-01

    The A-S-C-O classification may be better than other methods for classifying ischaemic stroke by aetiology. Our aims are to describe A-S-C-O phenotype distribution (A: atherosclerosis, S: small vessel disease, C: cardiac source, O: other causes; 1: potential cause, 2: causality uncertain, 3: unlikely to be a direct cause although disease is present) and compare them to the Spanish Society of Neurology's Cerebrovascular Disease Study Group (GEECV/SEN) classification. We will also find the degree of concordance between these classification methods and determine whether using the A-S-C-O classification delivers a smaller percentage of strokes of undetermined cause. We analysed those patients with ischaemic stroke admitted to our stroke unit in 2010 with strokes that were classified according to GEECV/SEN and A-S-C-O criteria. The study included 496 patients. The percentages of strokes caused by atherosclerosis and small vessel disease according to GEECV/SEN criteria were higher than the percentages for potential atherosclerotic stroke (A1) (14.1 vs. 11.9%; P=.16) and potential small vessel stroke (S1) (14.3 vs. 3%; Pcause of stroke and other potential causes (O1) were observed. Some degree of atherosclerosis was present in 53.5% of patients (A1, A2, or A3); 65.5% showed markers of small vessel disease (S1, S2, or S3), and 74.9% showed signs of cardioembolism (C1, C2, or C3). Fewer patients in the group without scores of 1 or 2 for any of the A-S-C-O phenotypes were identified as having a stroke of undetermined cause (46.6 vs. 29.2%; P0.8 (unusual causes and O1). Our results show that GEECV/SEN and A-S-C-O classifications are neither fully comparable nor consistent. Using the A-S-C-O classification provided additional information on co-morbidities and delivered a smaller percentage of strokes classified as having an undetermined cause. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantification and localisation of damage in rat muscles after controlled loading; a new approach to study the aetiology of pressure sores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosboom, E.M.H.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Straaten, van H.W.M.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Kuipers, H.

    2001-01-01

    To obtain more insight in the aetiology of deep pressure sores, an animal model was developed to relate controlled externalloading to local muscle damage. The tibialis anterior muscle (TA) and overlying skin of a rat were compressed between indentorand tibia. Loads of 10, 70 and 250 kPa at skin

  6. Oral submucous fibrosis: an overview of the aetiology, pathogenesis, classification, and principles of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Brennan, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a complex, debilitating, and precancerous condition. Formerly confined to the Indian subcontinent, it is now often seen in the Asian populations of the United Kingdom, USA, and other developed countries, and is therefore a serious problem for global health. The well-known causative agent of the disease, areca-nut is now recognised as a group one carcinogen. We review and discuss all components of OSMF, including the terminology, presentation, aetiology, and pathogenesis, and provide a brief overview of its management. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A simplified immunohistochemical classification of skeletal muscle fibres in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kammoun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The classification of muscle fibres is of particular interest for the study of the skeletal muscle properties in a wide range of scientific fields, especially animal phenotyping. It is therefore important to define a reliable method for classifying fibre types. The aim of this study was to establish a simplified method for the immunohistochemical classification of fibres in mouse. To carry it out, we first tested a combination of several anti myosin heavy chain (MyHC antibodies in order to choose a minimum number of antibodies to implement a semi-automatic classification. Then, we compared the classification of fibres to the MyHC electrophoretic pattern on the same samples. Only two anti MyHC antibodies on serial sections with the fluorescent labeling of the Laminin were necessary to classify properly fibre types in Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles in normal physiological conditions. This classification was virtually identical to the classification realized by the electrophoretic separation of MyHC. This immunohistochemical classification can be applied to the total area of Tibialis Anterior and Soleus mouse muscles. Thus, we provide here a useful, simple and time-efficient method for immunohistochemical classification of fibres, applicable for research in mouse

  8. Baird-Pattinson Aetiological Classification and Phases of Delay Contributing to Stillbirths in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Olumuyiwa Awoleke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aims to identify triggers of stillbirth in the study setting and to make suggestions to reduce the prevalence. Method. A three-year retrospective case-control study of stillbirths at Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital. Results. The stillbirth rate was 33 per 1000 births. Based on Baird-Pattinson classification of the primary obstetric causes of stillbirth, adverse intrapartum events, hypertensive diseases, and unexplained intrapartum fetal deaths were topmost causes of stillbirths. In comparison with the controls, other identified predictors of SB were grand multiparity (p=0.016, delays in seeking medical care and/or in receiving treatment (p=0.001, wrong initial diagnosis (p=0.001, inadequate intrapartum monitoring (p=0.001, and inappropriate clinical management (p=0.001. Conclusion. Stillbirth rate remains high in our setting. Elimination of obstacles to accessing care, effective management of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, updated health facilities, improved dedication to duty, and retraining of health workers will reduce the prevalence.

  9. Terminology and classification of muscle injuries in sport: The Munich consensus statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Wohlfahrt, Hans-Wilhelm; Haensel, Lutz; Mithoefer, Kai; Ekstrand, Jan; English, Bryan; McNally, Steven; Orchard, John; van Dijk, C Niek; Kerkhoffs, Gino M; Schamasch, Patrick; Blottner, Dieter; Swaerd, Leif; Goedhart, Edwin; Ueblacker, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a clear terminology and classification of muscle injuries in order to facilitate effective communication among medical practitioners and development of systematic treatment strategies. Methods Thirty native English-speaking scientists and team doctors of national and first division professional sports teams were asked to complete a questionnaire on muscle injuries to evaluate the currently used terminology of athletic muscle injury. In addition, a consensus meeting of international sports medicine experts was established to develop practical and scientific definitions of muscle injuries as well as a new and comprehensive classification system. Results The response rate of the survey was 63%. The responses confirmed the marked variability in the use of the terminology relating to muscle injury, with the most obvious inconsistencies for the term strain. In the consensus meeting, practical and systematic terms were defined and established. In addition, a new comprehensive classification system was developed, which differentiates between four types: functional muscle disorders (type 1: overexertion-related and type 2: neuromuscular muscle disorders) describing disorders without macroscopic evidence of fibre tear and structural muscle injuries (type 3: partial tears and type 4: (sub)total tears/tendinous avulsions) with macroscopic evidence of fibre tear, that is, structural damage. Subclassifications are presented for each type. Conclusions A consistent English terminology as well as a comprehensive classification system for athletic muscle injuries which is proven in the daily practice are presented. This will help to improve clarity of communication for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and can serve as the basis for future comparative studies to address the continued lack of systematic information on muscle injuries in the literature. What are the new things Consensus definitions of the terminology which is used in the field of muscle injuries

  10. Terminology and classification of muscle injuries in sport: the Munich consensus statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller-Wohlfahrt, Hans-Wilhelm; Haensel, Lutz; Mithoefer, Kai; Ekstrand, Jan; English, Bryan; McNally, Steven; Orchard, John; van Dijk, C. Niek; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.; Schamasch, Patrick; Blottner, Dieter; Swaerd, Leif; Goedhart, Edwin; Ueblacker, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To provide a clear terminology and classification of muscle injuries in order to facilitate effective communication among medical practitioners and development of systematic treatment strategies. Thirty native English-speaking scientists and team doctors of national and first division professional

  11. Time for a paradigm shift in the classification of muscle injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Hamilton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle injuries remain one of the most common injuries in sport, yet despite this, there is little consensus on how to either effectively describe or determine the prognosis of a specific muscle injury. Numerous approaches to muscle classification and grading of medicine have been applied over the last century, but over the last decade the limitations of historic approaches have been recognized. As a consequence, in the past 10 years, clinical research groups have begun to question the historic approaches and reconsider the way muscle injuries are classified and described. Using a narrative approach, this manuscript describes several of the most recent attempts to classify and grade muscle injuries and highlights the relative strengths and weaknesses of each system. While each of the new classification and grading systems have strengths, there remains little consensus on a system that is both comprehensive and evidence based. Few of the currently identified features within the grading systems have relevance to accurately determining prognosis.

  12. Software for muscle fibre type classification and analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karen, Petr; Števanec, M.; Smerdu, V.; Cvetko, E.; Kubínová, Lucie; Eržen, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2009), s. 87-95 ISSN 1121-760X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB090910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : muscle fiber types * myosin heavy chain isoforms * image processing Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 0.886, year: 2009

  13. Statin-associated muscle symptoms: impact on statin therapy-European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel Statement on Assessment, Aetiology and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroes, Erik S.; Thompson, Paul D.; Corsini, Alberto; Vladutiu, Georgirene D.; Raal, Frederick J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Roden, Michael; Stein, Evan; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bruckert, Eric; de Backer, Guy; Krauss, Ronald M.; Laufs, Ulrich; Santos, Raul D.; Hegele, Robert A.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Mach, Francois; März, Winfried; Newman, Connie B.; Wiklund, Olov; Jacobson, Terry A.; Catapano, Alberico L.; Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Leiter, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are one of the principal reasons for statin non-adherence and/or discontinuation, contributing to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Consensus Panel overviews current understanding of the pathophysiology of

  14. Statin-associated muscle symptoms: impact on statin therapy—European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel Statement on Assessment, Aetiology and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroes, Erik S.; Thompson, Paul D.; Corsini, Alberto; Vladutiu, Georgirene D.; Raal, Frederick J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Roden, Michael; Stein, Evan; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bruckert, Eric; De Backer, Guy; Krauss, Ronald M.; Laufs, Ulrich; Santos, Raul D.; Hegele, Robert A.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Mach, Francois; März, Winfried; Newman, Connie B.; Wiklund, Olov; Jacobson, Terry A.; Catapano, Alberico L.; Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Stroes, Erik; Thompson, Paul D.; Corsini, Alberto; Vladutiu, Georgirene D.; Raal, Frederick J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Roden, Michael; Stein, Evan; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bruckert, Eric; Krauss, Ronald M.; Laufs, Ulrich; Santos, Raul D.; März, Winfried; Newman, Connie B.; John Chapman, M.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; John Chapman, M.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; de Backer, Guy; Catapano, Alberico L.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kees Hovingh, G.; Jacobson, Terry A.; Leiter, Lawrence; Mach, Francois; Wiklund, Olov

    2015-01-01

    Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are one of the principal reasons for statin non-adherence and/or discontinuation, contributing to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Consensus Panel overviews current understanding of the pathophysiology of statin-associated myopathy, and provides guidance for diagnosis and management of SAMS. Statin-associated myopathy, with significant elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK), is a rare but serious side effect of statins, affecting 1 per 1000 to 1 per 10 000 people on standard statin doses. Statin-associated muscle symptoms cover a broader range of clinical presentations, usually with normal or minimally elevated CK levels, with a prevalence of 7–29% in registries and observational studies. Preclinical studies show that statins decrease mitochondrial function, attenuate energy production, and alter muscle protein degradation, thereby providing a potential link between statins and muscle symptoms; controlled mechanistic and genetic studies in humans are necessary to further understanding. The Panel proposes to identify SAMS by symptoms typical of statin myalgia (i.e. muscle pain or aching) and their temporal association with discontinuation and response to repetitive statin re-challenge. In people with SAMS, the Panel recommends the use of a maximally tolerated statin dose combined with non-statin lipid-lowering therapies to attain recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets. The Panel recommends a structured work-up to identify individuals with clinically relevant SAMS generally to at least three different statins, so that they can be offered therapeutic regimens to satisfactorily address their cardiovascular risk. Further research into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms may offer future therapeutic potential. PMID:25694464

  15. Statin-associated muscle symptoms: impact on statin therapy-European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel Statement on Assessment, Aetiology and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroes, Erik S; Thompson, Paul D; Corsini, Alberto; Vladutiu, Georgirene D; Raal, Frederick J; Ray, Kausik K; Roden, Michael; Stein, Evan; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bruckert, Eric; De Backer, Guy; Krauss, Ronald M; Laufs, Ulrich; Santos, Raul D; Hegele, Robert A; Hovingh, G Kees; Leiter, Lawrence A; Mach, Francois; März, Winfried; Newman, Connie B; Wiklund, Olov; Jacobson, Terry A; Catapano, Alberico L; Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2015-05-01

    Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are one of the principal reasons for statin non-adherence and/or discontinuation, contributing to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Consensus Panel overviews current understanding of the pathophysiology of statin-associated myopathy, and provides guidance for diagnosis and management of SAMS. Statin-associated myopathy, with significant elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK), is a rare but serious side effect of statins, affecting 1 per 1000 to 1 per 10 000 people on standard statin doses. Statin-associated muscle symptoms cover a broader range of clinical presentations, usually with normal or minimally elevated CK levels, with a prevalence of 7-29% in registries and observational studies. Preclinical studies show that statins decrease mitochondrial function, attenuate energy production, and alter muscle protein degradation, thereby providing a potential link between statins and muscle symptoms; controlled mechanistic and genetic studies in humans are necessary to further understanding. The Panel proposes to identify SAMS by symptoms typical of statin myalgia (i.e. muscle pain or aching) and their temporal association with discontinuation and response to repetitive statin re-challenge. In people with SAMS, the Panel recommends the use of a maximally tolerated statin dose combined with non-statin lipid-lowering therapies to attain recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol targets. The Panel recommends a structured work-up to identify individuals with clinically relevant SAMS generally to at least three different statins, so that they can be offered therapeutic regimens to satisfactorily address their cardiovascular risk. Further research into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms may offer future therapeutic potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  16. British athletics muscle injury classification: a reliability study for a new grading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, A.; Chakraverty, J.; Pollock, N.; Chakraverty, R.; Suokas, A.K.; James, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To implement and validate the newly proposed British athletics muscle injury classification in the assessment of hamstring injuries in track and field athletes and to analyse the nature and frequency of the discrepancies. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study analysing hamstring injuries in elite British athletes using the proposed classification system. Classification of 65 hamstring injuries in 45 high-level athletes by two radiologists at two time points 4 months apart to determine interrater variability, intrarater variability, and feasibility of the classification system was undertaken. Results: Interrater Kappa values of 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67–0.92; p<0.0001) for Round 1 and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.76–1.00; p<0.0001) for Round 2 of the review were observed. Percentages of agreement were 85% for Round 1 and 91% for Round 2. The intrarater Kappa value for the two reviewers were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63–0.88; p<0.0001) and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.53–0.76; p<0.0001) and the average was 0.71 suggesting substantial overall agreement. The percentages of agreement were 82% and 72%, respectively. Conclusions: This classification system is straightforward to use and produces both reproducible and consistent results based on interrater and intrarater Kappa values with at least substantial agreement in all groups. Further work is ongoing to investigate whether individual grades within this classification system provide prognostic information and could guide clinical management. - Highlights: • This classification system is based on MRI parameters shown to have prognostic relevance. • It is simple to use, reproducible and clinically relevant which will enhance clinical practice. • Once clinicians are familiar with the classification inter & intrarater reliability will improve.

  17. Muscle Injuries in Sports: A New Evidence-Informed and Expert Consensus-Based Classification with Clinical Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valle, Xavier; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Tol, Johannes L.; Hamilton, Bruce; Garrett, William E.; Pruna, Ricard; Til, Lluís; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Alomar, Xavier; Balius, Ramón; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Monllau, Joan Carles; Whiteley, Rodney; Witvrouw, Erik; Samuelsson, Kristian; Rodas, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Muscle injuries are among the most common injuries in sport and continue to be a major concern because of training and competition time loss, challenging decision making regarding treatment and return to sport, and a relatively high recurrence rate. An adequate classification of muscle injury is

  18. Impact-Induced Muscle Damage and Contact-Sport: Aetiology, Effects on Neuromuscular Function and Recovery, and the Modulating Effects of Adaptation and Recovery Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Mitchell; Miller, Joanna; Slater, Gary J

    2017-11-28

    Athletes involved in contact-sports are habitually exposed to skeletal muscle damage as part of their training and performance environments. This often leads to exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) resulting from repeated eccentric and/or high-intensity exercise, and impact-induced muscle damage (IIMD) resulting from collisions with opponents and the playing surface. Whilst EIMD has been an area of extensive investigation, IIMD has received comparatively little research, with the magnitude and timeframe of alterations following IIMD not presently well understood. It is currently thought that EIMD occurs through an overload of mechanical stress causing ultrastructural damage to the cellular membrane constituents. Damage leads to compromised ability to produce force which manifest immediately and persist for up to 14 days following exercise exposure. IIMD has been implicated in attenuated neuromuscular performance and recovery with inflammatory process implicated, although the underlying time course remains unclear. Exposure to EIMD leads to an adaptation to subsequent exposures, a phenomenon known as the repeated-bout effect. An analogous adaptation has been suggested to occur following IIMD, however, to date this contention remains equivocal. Whilst a considerable body of research has explored the efficacy of recovery strategies following EIMD, strategies promoting recovery from IIMD are limited to investigations using animal contusion models. Strategies such as cryotherapy and antioxidant supplementation, which focus on attenuating the secondary inflammatory response may provide additional benefit in IIMD and are explored herein. Further research is required to firstly establish a model of generating IIMD and then explore broader areas around IIMD in athletic populations.

  19. Muscle Injuries in Sports: A New Evidence-Informed and Expert Consensus-Based Classification with Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Xavier; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Tol, Johannes L; Hamilton, Bruce; Garrett, William E; Pruna, Ricard; Til, Lluís; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Alomar, Xavier; Balius, Ramón; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Monllau, Joan Carles; Whiteley, Rodney; Witvrouw, Erik; Samuelsson, Kristian; Rodas, Gil

    2017-07-01

    Muscle injuries are among the most common injuries in sport and continue to be a major concern because of training and competition time loss, challenging decision making regarding treatment and return to sport, and a relatively high recurrence rate. An adequate classification of muscle injury is essential for a full understanding of the injury and to optimize its management and return-to-play process. The ongoing failure to establish a classification system with broad acceptance has resulted from factors such as limited clinical applicability, and the inclusion of subjective findings and ambiguous terminology. The purpose of this article was to describe a classification system for muscle injuries with easy clinical application, adequate grouping of injuries with similar functional impairment, and potential prognostic value. This evidence-informed and expert consensus-based classification system for muscle injuries is based on a four-letter initialism system: MLG-R, respectively referring to the mechanism of injury (M), location of injury (L), grading of severity (G), and number of muscle re-injuries (R). The goal of the classification is to enhance communication between healthcare and sports-related professionals and facilitate rehabilitation and return-to-play decision making.

  20. Post-operative rotator cuff integrity, based on Sugaya's classification, can reflect abduction muscle strength of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masahito; Collin, Phillipe; Josseaume, Thierry; Lädermann, Alexandre; Goto, Hideyuki; Sugimoto, Katumasa; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is common in structural and qualitative assessment of the rotator cuff post-operatively. Rotator cuff integrity has been thought to be associated with clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inter-observer reliability of cuff integrity (Sugaya's classification) and assess the correlation between Sugaya's classification and the clinical outcome. It was hypothesized that Sugaya's classification would show good reliability and good correlation with the clinical outcome. Post-operative MR images were taken two years post-operatively, following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. For assessment of inter-rater reliability, all radiographic evaluations for the supraspinatus muscle were done by two orthopaedic surgeons and one radiologist. Rotator cuff integrity was classified into five categories, according to Sugaya's classification. Fatty infiltration was graded into four categories, based on the Fuchs' classification grading system. Muscle hypotrophy was graded as four grades, according to the scale proposed by Warner. The clinical outcome was assessed according to the constant scoring system pre-operatively and 2 years post-operatively. Of the sixty-two consecutive patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears, fifty-two patients were reviewed in this study. These subjects included twenty-three men and twenty-nine women, with an average age of fifty-seven years. In terms of the inter-rater reliability between orthopaedic surgeons, Sugaya's classification showed the highest agreement [ICC (2.1) = 0.82] for rotator cuff integrity. The grade of fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy demonstrated good agreement, respectively (0.722 and 0.758). With regard to the inter-rater reliability between orthopaedic surgeon and radiologist, Sugaya's classification showed good reliability [ICC (2.1) = 0.70]. On the other hand, fatty infiltration and muscle hypotrophy classifications demonstrated fair and moderate agreement

  1. Clinical classification of cancer cachexia: phenotypic correlates in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Johns

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cachexia affects the majority of patients with advanced cancer and is associated with a reduction in treatment tolerance, response to therapy, and duration of survival. One impediment towards the effective treatment of cachexia is a validated classification system. METHODS: 41 patients with resectable upper gastrointestinal (GI or pancreatic cancer underwent characterisation for cachexia based on weight-loss (WL and/or low muscularity (LM. Four diagnostic criteria were used >5%WL, >10%WL, LM, and LM+>2%WL. All patients underwent biopsy of the rectus muscle. Analysis included immunohistochemistry for fibre size and type, protein and nucleic acid concentration, Western blots for markers of autophagy, SMAD signalling, and inflammation. FINDINGS: Compared with non-cachectic cancer patients, patients with LM or LM+>2%WL, mean muscle fibre diameter was reduced by about 25% (p = 0.02 and p = 0.001 respectively. No significant difference in fibre diameter was observed if patients had WL alone. Regardless of classification, there was no difference in fibre number or proportion of fibre type across all myosin heavy chain isoforms. Mean muscle protein content was reduced and the ratio of RNA/DNA decreased in patients with either >5%WL or LM+>2%WL. Compared with non-cachectic patients, SMAD3 protein levels were increased in patients with >5%WL (p = 0.022 and with >10%WL, beclin (p = 0.05 and ATG5 (p = 0.01 protein levels were increased. There were no differences in phospho-NFkB or phospho-STAT3 levels across any of the groups. CONCLUSION: Muscle fibre size, biochemical composition and pathway phenotype can vary according to whether the diagnostic criteria for cachexia are based on weight loss alone, a measure of low muscularity alone or a combination of the two. For intervention trials where the primary end-point is a change in muscle mass or function, use of combined diagnostic criteria may allow identification of a more

  2. A manometry classification to assess pelvic floor muscle function in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscylla Helouyse Angelo

    Full Text Available To develop a classification scale for manometry of pelvic floor muscles (PFM in Brazilian women, according to the modified Oxford scale.A cross sectional study, with 288 women enrolled in the Maternity, Natal, Brazil. Manometry and PFM strength data were collected and classified according to the modified Oxford scale. A simple linear regression was performed to determine the classification scale of manometry using the modified Oxford scale as the explanatory variable and the arithmetic mean of the manometry measurements as the response variable.The average age was 52.80 (±8.78; CI: 51.67-53.93 years. Manometry showed an average of 35.1 (±22.7; CI: 32.1-38.0 cmH2O and most women (29.7% scored grade 3 on the modified Oxford scale. According to the proposed scale, values between 7.5 to 14.5 cmH2O correspond to very weak pressure; 14.6 to 26.5 cmH2O represent weak pressure; 26.6 to 41.5 cmH2O represent moderate pressure; 41.6 to 60.5 cmH2O represent good pressure, and values above 60.6 cmH2O correspond to strong pressure.Manometry values were rated on a five-point scale. It is possible to rank the pressure levels performed by voluntary contraction of PFM with this new scale.

  3. Assessment of respiratory muscle strength in children according to the classification of body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jung da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the respiratory muscle strength among eutrophic, overweight and obese school children, as well as to identify anthropometric and respiratory variables related to the results.METHODS: Cross-sectional survey with healthy schoolchildren aged 7-9 years old, divided into three groups: Normal weight, Overweight and Obese. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire was applied. The body mass index (BMI was evaluated, as well as the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 with a portable digital device. The maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP were measured by a digital manometer. Comparisons between the groups were made by Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlations among the variables.RESULTS: MIP of eutrophic school children was higher than MIP found in overweight (p=0.043 and obese (p=0.013 children. MIP was correlated with BMI percentile and weight classification (r=-0.214 and r=-0.256 and MEP was correlated with height (r=0.328. Both pressures showed strong correlation with each other in all analyses (r≥0.773, and less correlation with FEV1 (MIP - r=0.362 and MEP - r=0.494. FEV1 correlated with MEP in all groups (r: 0.429 - 0.569 and with MIP in Obese Group (r=0.565. Age was correlated with FEV1 (r=0.578, MIP (r=0.281 and MEP (r=0.328.CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese children showed lower MIP values, compared to eutrophic ones. The findings point to the influence of anthropometric variables on respiratory muscle strength in children.

  4. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  5. Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discusses definitions of the term “classification” and the related concepts “Concept/conceptualization,”“categorization,” “ordering,” “taxonomy” and “typology.” It further presents and discusses theories of classification including the influences of Aristotle...... and Wittgenstein. It presents different views on forming classes, including logical division, numerical taxonomy, historical classification, hermeneutical and pragmatic/critical views. Finally, issues related to artificial versus natural classification and taxonomic monism versus taxonomic pluralism are briefly...

  6. Neuroendocrine mechanisms and the aetiology of male and female homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCulloch, M J; Waddington, J L

    1981-10-01

    Theories on the classification and aetiology of male homosexuality are reviewed, particularly recent hypotheses on the role of prenatal hormonal influences on brain sexual differentiation and subsequent sexual object choice in the male. Female as well as male brain sexual differentiation may be hormonally determined, and so primary homosexuality in both sexes may be due to abnormalities in foetal exposure to hormones, leading first to physical mis-differentiation and later to homosexual behaviour in genetically and phenotypically normal men and women.

  7. Aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintoprak, Fatih; Kivilcim, Taner; Ozkan, Orhan Veli

    2014-12-16

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The most common clinical presentation is an unilateral, discrete breast mass, nipple retraction and even a sinus formation often associated with an inflammation of the overlying skin. The etiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is still obscure. Its treatment remains controversial. The cause may be the autoimmune process, infection, a chemical reaction associated with oral contraceptive pills, or even lactation. Various factors, including hormonal imbalance, autoimmunity, unknown microbiological agents, smoking and α 1-antitrypsin deficiency have been suggested to play a role in disease aetiology. In this review, causing factors in the aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis are reviewed in detail.

  8. Differentiation of fat, muscle, and edema in thigh MRIs using random forest classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, William; Liu, Chia-Ying; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    There are many diseases that affect the distribution of muscles, including Duchenne and fascioscapulohumeral dystrophy among other myopathies. In these disease cases, it is important to quantify both the muscle and fat volumes to track the disease progression. There has also been evidence that abnormal signal intensity on the MR images, which often is an indication of edema or inflammation can be a good predictor for muscle deterioration. We present a fully-automated method that examines magnetic resonance (MR) images of the thigh and identifies the fat, muscle, and edema using a random forest classifier. First the thigh regions are automatically segmented using the T1 sequence. Then, inhomogeneity artifacts were corrected using the N3 technique. The T1 and STIR (short tau inverse recovery) images are then aligned using landmark based registration with the bone marrow. The normalized T1 and STIR intensity values are used to train the random forest. Once trained, the random forest can accurately classify the aforementioned classes. This method was evaluated on MR images of 9 patients. The precision values are 0.91+/-0.06, 0.98+/-0.01 and 0.50+/-0.29 for muscle, fat, and edema, respectively. The recall values are 0.95+/-0.02, 0.96+/-0.03 and 0.43+/-0.09 for muscle, fat, and edema, respectively. This demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing information from multiple MR sequences for the accurate quantification of fat, muscle and edema.

  9. Morphological and qualitative characteristics of the quadriceps muscle of community-dwelling older adults based on ultrasound imaging: classification using latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Hisashi; Kera, Takeshi; Hirayama, Ryo; Hirano, Hirohiko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Ihara, Kazushige; Kojima, Motonaga; Obuchi, Shuichi

    2018-04-01

    Muscle thickness and echo intensity measured using ultrasound imaging represent both increased muscle volume and connective tissue accumulation. In combination, these ultrasound measurements can be utilized for assessing sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to determine whether morphological and qualitative characteristics classified by quadriceps muscle thickness and echo intensity measured using ultrasound are associated with muscle strength, physical function, and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. Quadriceps muscle thickness and echo intensity were measured using ultrasound imaging in 1239 community-dwelling older adults. Latent class analyses were conducted to classify participants based on similarity in the subcutaneous fat thickness (FT), quadriceps muscle thickness (MT), subcutaneous fat echo intensity (FEI), and muscle echo intensity (MEI), which were assessed using ultrasound imaging. Morphological and qualitative characteristics were classified into four types as follows: (A) normal, (B) sarcopenic obesity, (C) obesity, and (D) sarcopenia type. Knee extension strength was significantly greater in A than in B and D. FT and percent body fat were greater in C than in the other types. The correlation between the ultrasound measures and knee extension strength differed among the classification types. The classification types were significantly associated with sarcopenia prevalence. Classification of the morphological and qualitative characteristics obtained from ultrasound imaging may be useful for assessing sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults.

  10. [Chewing on bruxism. Diagnosis, imaging, epidemiology and aetiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Jacobs, R; De Laat, A; Aarab, G; Wetselaar, P; Manfredini, D

    2017-06-01

    Since the publication of a special issue on bruxism of the NTvT in July 2000, consensus has been reached on bruxism's definition as a repetitive masticatory muscle activity that is characterised by clenching and/or grinding while awake (awake bruxism) or during sleep (sleep bruxism). As yet, however, no consensus exists about the diagnosis of bruxism: sufficient evidence to establish the reliability and validity of the commonly used techniques (self-report, clinical examination, imaging, electromyography, polysomnography) has not yet been produced. Morphological factors are no longer considered important aetiological factors, while increasing evidence suggests aetiological roles for psychosocial, physiological, biological, and exogenous factors. This review paper is the first part of a diptych and is concerned with the definition, diagnostics, epidemiology and possible causes of this disorder. In the second part, that will be published in the next issue, associations of bruxism with other conditions will be discussed, along with its (purported) consequences and its management.

  11. Schizophrenia : Current concepts in aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is perhaps the most devastating neuropsychiatric illness. Worldwide, its prevalence rate is about 1%. Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder involving the interplay of susceptibility genes and environmental factors. There is a wide range of pathologic findings, but there is no specific or diagnostic laboratory abnormality. Till date, the aetiology, neuropathology, and pathophysiology of schizophrenia remain elusive. Over the last forty years, the dopaminergic model has been the leading neurochemical hypothesis of schizophrenia. Yet it remains unlikely that dopaminergic dysfunction, on its own. Glutamatergic models provide an alternate approach for conceptualizing the brain abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. New pharmacological and behavioral approaches aimed at potentiating glutamatergic neurotransmission, offer new hopeforfuture clinical development

  12. Aetiology of auditory dysfunction in amusia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Daniel Aj

    2013-04-24

    Amusia, a music-specific agnosia, is a disorder of pitch interval analysis and pitch direction change recognition which results in a deficit in musical ability. The full range of aetiological factors which cause this condition is unknown, as is each cause's frequency. The objective of this study was to identify all causes of amusia, and to measure each of their frequencies. systematic review was conducted by search of multiple databases for articles related to the aetiology of amusic auditory dysfunction. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for reporting of systematic reviews were followed, utilizing the PRISMA checklist and PRISMA flowchart methodology. Retrospective medical database review. evidence yielded from the systematic review process. The initial search protocol identified 5723 articles. Application of a classification review filter and exclusion of irrelevant or duplicates led to the initial identification of 56 relevant studies which detailed 301 patients. However, these studies were of poor quality. Because of this, synthesis and statistical analysis were not appropriate. Although initially a large number of relevant studies were identified, and might point in future to potential diagnostic categories, it was not appropriate to synthesise and analyse them due to poor quality, considerable heterogeneity and small numbers. This suggests that large, high quality studies focussed directly on understanding the aetiology of amusia are required.

  13. Prognostic Performance and Reproducibility of the 1973 and 2004/2016 World Health Organization Grading Classification Systems in Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: A European Association of Urology Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Guidelines Panel Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Viktor; Čapoun, Otakar; Cohen, Daniel; Hernández, Virginia; Babjuk, Marek; Burger, Max; Compérat, Eva; Gontero, Paolo; Lam, Thomas; MacLennan, Steven; Mostafid, A Hugh; Palou, Joan; van Rhijn, Bas W G; Rouprêt, Morgan; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Sylvester, Richard; Yuan, Yuhong; Zigeuner, Richard

    2017-11-01

    Tumour grade is an important prognostic indicator in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Histopathological classifications are limited by interobserver variability (reproducibility), which may have prognostic implications. European Association of Urology NMIBC guidelines suggest concurrent use of both 1973 and 2004/2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classifications. To compare the prognostic performance and reproducibility of the 1973 and 2004/2016 WHO grading systems for NMIBC. A systematic literature search was undertaken incorporating Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Studies were critically appraised for risk of bias (QUIPS). For prognosis, the primary outcome was progression to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease. Secondary outcomes were disease recurrence, and overall and cancer-specific survival. For reproducibility, the primary outcome was interobserver variability between pathologists. Secondary outcome was intraobserver variability (repeatability) by the same pathologist. Of 3593 articles identified, 20 were included in the prognostic review; three were eligible for the reproducibility review. Increasing tumour grade in both classifications was associated with higher disease progression and recurrence rates. Progression rates in grade 1 patients were similar to those in low-grade patients; progression rates in grade 3 patients were higher than those in high-grade patients. Survival data were limited. Reproducibility of the 2004/2016 system was marginally better than that of the 1973 system. Two studies on repeatability showed conflicting results. Most studies had a moderate to high risk of bias. Current grading classifications in NMIBC are suboptimal. The 1973 system identifies more aggressive tumours. Intra- and interobserver variability was slightly less in the 2004/2016 classification. We could not confirm that the 2004/2016 classification outperforms the 1973 classification in prediction of recurrence and progression. This article

  14. Epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa: its socio-demography, aetiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess epileptics with regard to socio-demographic characteristics, aetiology, EEG results and classification. Design: A descriptive cohort study from 1997 to 2001. Setting: Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe. Subjects: A total of 229 consecutive epileptic subjects. Results: The mean (s.d.) ...

  15. Assessment of fatty degeneration of the gluteal muscles in patients with THA using MRI: reliability and accuracy of the Goutallier and quartile classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelken, Florian; Wassilew, Georgi I; Köhlitz, Torsten; Brockhaus, Sebastian; Hamm, Bernd; Perka, Carsten; Diederichs, und Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the performance of the Goutallier classification for assessing fatty degeneration of the gluteus muscles from magnetic resonance (MR) images and to compare its performance to a newly proposed system. Eighty-four hips with clinical signs of gluteal insufficiency and 50 hips from asymptomatic controls were analyzed using a standard classification system (Goutallier) and a new scoring system (Quartile). Interobserver reliability and intraobserver repeatability were determined, and accuracy was assessed by comparing readers' scores with quantitative estimates of the proportion of intramuscular fat based on MR signal intensities (gold standard). The existing Goutallier classification system and the new Quartile system performed equally well in assessing fatty degeneration of the gluteus muscles, both showing excellent levels of interrater and intrarater agreement. While the Goutallier classification system has the advantage of being widely known, the benefit of the Quartile system is that it is based on more clearly defined grades of fatty degeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic bowel obstruction: aetiology, clinical presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to describe in our region, the aetiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome of dynamic bowel obstruction. Data were analyzed using SPSS software system. A total of 342 patients were studied. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 2.1: 1. The median age of patients at presentation ...

  17. Dynamic bowel obstruction: aetiology, clinical presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005). This makes it essential that studies are made periodically in every region to define the local causes with the idea to do work on their prevention (Adhikari et al., 2010). This study was conducted to describe in our region, the aetiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome of dynamic bowel obstruction.

  18. with Candida spp. aetiology in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tomczak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%, C. glabrata (31%, C. tropicalis (6%, C. krusei (3%. In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  19. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by me...

  20. Aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2013-07-01

    To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan.

  1. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations.Material and Methods: This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan.Results: Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless, alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors.Conclusions: Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan.

  2. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength and conditioning coach and physiotherapist to better understand intensity- and muscle-specific activation during hamstring muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, these results may help in designing progressive strengthening and rehabilitation and prevention programs. PMID:26170726

  3. Identification and Classification of New Transcripts in Dorper and Small-Tailed Han Sheep Skeletal Muscle Transcriptomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianle Chao

    Full Text Available High-throughput mRNA sequencing enables the discovery of new transcripts and additional parts of incompletely annotated transcripts. Compared with the human and cow genomes, the reference annotation level of the sheep genome is still low. An investigation of new transcripts in sheep skeletal muscle will improve our understanding of muscle development. Therefore, applying high-throughput sequencing, two cDNA libraries from the biceps brachii of small-tailed Han sheep and Dorper sheep were constructed, and whole-transcriptome analysis was performed to determine the unknown transcript catalogue of this tissue. In this study, 40,129 transcripts were finally mapped to the sheep genome. Among them, 3,467 transcripts were determined to be unannotated in the current reference sheep genome and were defined as new transcripts. Based on protein-coding capacity prediction and comparative analysis of sequence similarity, 246 transcripts were classified as portions of unannotated genes or incompletely annotated genes. Another 1,520 transcripts were predicted with high confidence to be long non-coding RNAs. Our analysis also revealed 334 new transcripts that displayed specific expression in ruminants and uncovered a number of new transcripts without intergenus homology but with specific expression in sheep skeletal muscle. The results confirmed a complex transcript pattern of coding and non-coding RNA in sheep skeletal muscle. This study provided important information concerning the sheep genome and transcriptome annotation, which could provide a basis for further study.

  4. Aetiology of thrombosed external haemorrhoids: a questionnaire study

    OpenAIRE

    Gebbensleben, Ole; Hilger, York; Rohde, Henning

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background It is important to better understand the aetiology of thrombosed external haemorrhoids (TEH) because recurrence rates are high, prophylaxis is unknown, and optimal therapy is highly debated. Findings We conducted a questionnaire study of individuals with and without TEH. Aetiology was studied by comparison of answers to a questionnaire given to individuals with and without TEH concerning demography, history, and published aetiologic hypotheses. Participants were evaluated ...

  5. Muscle and intensity based hamstring exercise classification in elite female track and field athletes: implications for exercise selection during rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaklis P

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Panagiotis Tsaklis,1,2 Nikos Malliaropoulos,3–5,10 Jurdan Mendiguchia,6 Vasileios Korakakis,7–9 Kyriakos Tsapralis,11 Debasish Pyne,5 Peter Malliaras101Department of Physiotherapy, Laboratory of Biomechanics and Ergonomics, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bioengineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; 3National Track and Field Centre, Sports Injury Clinic, Sports Medicine Clinic of SEGAS, 4Thessaloniki Sports Medicine Clinic, Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Rheumatology Department, Sports Medicine Clinic, Mile End Hospital, London, UK; 6Department of Physical Therapy, Zentrum Rehabilitation and Performance Center, Pamplona, Spain; 7Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar; 8Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Trikala, 9Hellenic Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy Diploma, Athens, Greece; 10Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK; 11K Tsapralis Isokinetic Medical Group, Bologna, ItalyBackground: Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises.Methods: Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each

  6. Aetiological diagnosis of child deafness: CODEPEH recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose; Cabanillas-Farpón, Rubén

    Important progress in the fields of molecular genetics (principally) and diagnostic imaging, together with the lack of a consensus protocol for guiding the diagnostic process after confirming deafness by neonatal screening, have led to this new work document drafted by the Spanish Commission for the Early Detection of Child Deafness (Spanish acronym: CODEPEH). This 2015 Recommendations Document, which is based on the most recent scientific evidence, provides guidance to professionals to support them in making decisions regarding aetiological diagnosis. Such diagnosis should be performed without delay and without impeding early intervention. Early identification of the causes of deafness offers many advantages: it prevents unnecessary trouble for the families, reduces health system expenses caused by performing different tests, and provides prognostic information that may guide therapeutic actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  7. Aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W.K. Lam

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 1993 survey, allergic rhinitis was identified as the most common allergic disease in Hong Kong, affecting 29.1% of schoolchildren. Recently (1995, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC also reported 44.5% current rhinitis among Hong Kong teenagers. Our objective was to study the aetiology of allergic rhinitis in Hong Kong using serological tests of allergen sensitization. In 57 allergic rhinitis patients and in the same number of age- and sex-matched controls the following were measured: serum total IgE, mixed aeroallergen IgE (Phadiatop™ and specific IgE versus house dust mite (HDM, cockroach, cat and dog dander, mould mixture (Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Alternaria species and four local pollens (Bermuda grass, Timothy, ragweed and mugwort. Compared with controls, allergic rhinitis patients (26 males, 31 females; mean (± SD age 25 ±11 years had a significantly elevated serum total IgE concentration (mean ± SEM: 496 ± 88 vs 179 ± 38 kU/L and an increased proportion of positive Phadiatop (95 vs 33% and specific IgE tests versus HDM (90 vs 44% and cockroach (42 vs 9%; Mann-Whitney U-test and χ2 tests all P < 0.005. There was no significant difference in sensitization to other allergens tested. House dust mite and cockroach are ubiquitous in Hong Kong with a warm, humid climate and crowded living conditions. Their identification as aetiological agents of allergic rhinitis should help in the development of environmental strategies for reducing the inhalant allergen load to prevent and control this prevalent and costly health problem in our community.

  8. Aetiology of Depression: Insights from epidemiological and genetic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Story-Jovanova (Olivera)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis includes several population-based studies that explore the aetiology of depression, with a specific interest on biological factors, genetics and epigenetics, and physical health factors for depression. Unravelling the aetiology of depression could potentially answer some

  9. Gender Variation in the Aetiology and Pattern of Traumatized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Variation in the Aetiology and Pattern of Traumatized Anterior Teeth, in an Adult Population in Benin City, Nigeria. ... Motor bike accidents were the commonest aetiology reported by both gender; this was followed by falls in males and cracking of animal bones in females. More females had mandibular teeth injured ...

  10. MRI appearance of muscle denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S. [University Hospital of Wales, Department of Radiology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Venkatanarasimha, N.; Walsh, M.A.; Hughes, P.M. [Derriford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Muscle denervation results from a variety of causes including trauma, neoplasia, neuropathies, infections, autoimmune processes and vasculitis. Traditionally, the diagnosis of muscle denervation was based on clinical examination and electromyography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a distinct advantage over electromyography, not only in diagnosing muscle denervation, but also in determining its aetiology. MRI demonstrates characteristic signal intensity patterns depending on the stage of muscle denervation. The acute and subacutely denervated muscle shows a high signal intensity pattern on fluid sensitive sequences and normal signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI images. In chronic denervation, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration demonstrate high signal changes on T1-weighted sequences in association with volume loss. The purpose of this review is to summarise the MRI appearance of denervated muscle, with special emphasis on the signal intensity patterns in acute and subacute muscle denervation. (orig.)

  11. Enterovesical Fistulae: Aetiology, Imaging, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Golabek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Study Objectives. Enterovesical fistula (EVF is a devastating complication of a variety of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Radiological imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis of EVF and is indispensable to gastroenterologists and surgeons for choosing the correct therapeutic option. This paper provides an overview of the diagnosis of enterovesical fistulae. The treatment of fistulae is also briefly discussed. Material and Methods. We performed a literature review by searching the Medline database for articles published from its inception until September 2013 based on clinical relevance. Electronic searches were limited to the keywords: “enterovesical fistula,” “colovesical fistula” (CVF, “pelvic fistula”, and “urinary fistula”. Results. EVF is a rare pathology. Diverticulitis is the commonest aetiology. Over two-thirds of affected patients describe pathognomonic features of pneumaturia, fecaluria, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Computed tomography is the modality of choice for the diagnosis of enterovesical fistulae as not only does it detect a fistula, but it also provides information about the surrounding anatomical structures. Conclusions. In the vast majority of cases, this condition is diagnosed because of unremitting urinary symptoms after gastroenterologist follow-up procedures for a diverticulitis or bowel inflammatory disease. Computed tomography is the most sensitive test for enterovesical fistula.

  12. The aetiology of paediatric inflammatory vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, Juan; Mazón, Ana; Martinez, Rocío; González, Pilar; Gil-Setas, Alberto; Flores, Uxua; Orden, Beatriz; Gómez-Herruz, Peña; Millan, Rosario

    2004-02-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most common gynaecological problem in prepubertal girls and clear-cut data on the microbial aetiology of moderate to severe infections are lacking. Many microorganisms have been reported in several studies, but frequently the paediatrician does not know the pathogenic significance of an isolate reported in vaginal specimens of girls with vulvovaginitis. A multicentre study was performed, selecting 74 girls aged 2 to 12 years old with a clinical picture of vulvovaginitis and inflammatory cells on Gram stain. All the specimens were cultured following standard microbiological techniques and the paediatricians completed a questionnaire to highlight risk factors after interviewing the parents or tutors. The data were compared with those obtained in a control group of 11 girls without vulvovaginitis attending a clinic. Streptococcus pyogenesand Haemophilus spp.were isolated in 47 and 12 cases, respectively. Upper respiratory infection in the previous month ( Pvulvovaginitis in the previous year ( Pvulvovaginitis is mainly caused by pathogens of the upper respiratory tract and the most common risk factor for this infection is to have suffered an upper respiratory tract infection in the previous month.

  13. Chronic fatigue syndrome: aetiology, diagnosis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellaneda Fernández, Alfredo; Pérez Martín, Álvaro; Izquierdo Martínez, Maravillas; Arruti Bustillo, Mar; Barbado Hernández, Francisco Javier; de la Cruz Labrado, Javier; Díaz-Delgado Peñas, Rafael; Gutiérrez Rivas, Eduardo; Palacín Delgado, Cecilia; Rivera Redondo, Javier; Ramón Giménez, José Ramón

    2009-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterised by intense fatigue, with duration of over six months and associated to other related symptoms. The latter include asthenia and easily induced tiredness that is not recovered after a night's sleep. The fatigue becomes so severe that it forces a 50% reduction in daily activities. Given its unknown aetiology, different hypotheses have been considered to explain the origin of the condition (from immunological disorders to the presence of post-traumatic oxidative stress), although there are no conclusive diagnostic tests. Diagnosis is established through the exclusion of other diseases causing fatigue. This syndrome is rare in childhood and adolescence, although the fatigue symptom per se is quite common in paediatric patients. Currently, no curative treatment exists for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. The therapeutic approach to this syndrome requires a combination of different therapeutic modalities. The specific characteristics of the symptomatology of patients with chronic fatigue require a rapid adaptation of the educational, healthcare and social systems to prevent the problems derived from current systems. Such patients require multidisciplinary management due to the multiple and different issues affecting them. This document was realized by one of the Interdisciplinary Work Groups from the Institute for Rare Diseases, and its aim is to point out the main social and care needs for people affected with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. For this, it includes not only the view of representatives for different scientific societies, but also the patient associations view, because they know the true history of their social and sanitary needs. In an interdisciplinary approach, this work also reviews the principal scientific, medical, socio-sanitary and psychological aspects of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. PMID:19857242

  14. Paediatric retinal detachment: aetiology, characteristics and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McElnea

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To provide contemporary data on the aetiology, clinical features and outcomes of paediatric retinal detachment. METHODS: A retrospective review of all those under 16y who underwent surgical repair for retinal detachment at a single centre between the years 2008 and 2015 inclusive was performed. In each case the cause of retinal detachment, the type of detachment, the presence or absence of macular involvement, the number and form of reparative surgeries undertaken, and the surgical outcome achieved was recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-eight eyes of 24 patients, 15 (62.5% of whom were male and 9 (37.5% of whom were female, their mean age being 11.6y and range 2-16y developed retinal detachment over the eight year period studied. Trauma featured in the development of retinal detachment in 14 (50.0% cases. Retinal detachment was associated with other ocular and/or systemic conditions in 11 (39.3% cases. A mean of 3.0 procedures with a range of 1-9 procedures per patient were undertaken in the management of retinal detachment. Complex vitrectomy combined with scleral buckling or complex vitrectomy alone were those most frequently performed. Mean postoperative visual acuity was 1.2 logMAR with range 0.0-3.0 logMAR. In 22 of 26 (84.6% cases which underwent surgical repair the retina was attached at last follow-up. CONCLUSION: Aggressive management of paediatric retinal detachment including re-operation increases the likelihood of anatomical success. In cases where the retinal detachment can be repaired by an external approach alone there is a more favourable visual outcome.

  15. Paediatric retinal detachment: aetiology, characteristics and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElnea, Elizabeth; Stephenson, Kirk; Gilmore, Sarah; O'Keefe, Michael; Keegan, David

    2018-01-01

    To provide contemporary data on the aetiology, clinical features and outcomes of paediatric retinal detachment. A retrospective review of all those under 16y who underwent surgical repair for retinal detachment at a single centre between the years 2008 and 2015 inclusive was performed. In each case the cause of retinal detachment, the type of detachment, the presence or absence of macular involvement, the number and form of reparative surgeries undertaken, and the surgical outcome achieved was recorded. Twenty-eight eyes of 24 patients, 15 (62.5%) of whom were male and 9 (37.5%) of whom were female, their mean age being 11.6y and range 2-16y developed retinal detachment over the eight year period studied. Trauma featured in the development of retinal detachment in 14 (50.0%) cases. Retinal detachment was associated with other ocular and/or systemic conditions in 11 (39.3%) cases. A mean of 3.0 procedures with a range of 1-9 procedures per patient were undertaken in the management of retinal detachment. Complex vitrectomy combined with scleral buckling or complex vitrectomy alone were those most frequently performed. Mean postoperative visual acuity was 1.2 logMAR with range 0.0-3.0 logMAR. In 22 of 26 (84.6%) cases which underwent surgical repair the retina was attached at last follow-up. Aggressive management of paediatric retinal detachment including re-operation increases the likelihood of anatomical success. In cases where the retinal detachment can be repaired by an external approach alone there is a more favourable visual outcome.

  16. SHORT RESEARCH REPORTS The Aetiology and Agents of Pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aetiology, agents, pre-hospital, transportation, femoral shafts, fractures. Introduction ... Disability often results from limb shortening, malalignment, and prolonged .... youngest patient was a day-old baby with a fracture resulting from birth trauma ...

  17. Review of the Aetiology and Complications of Primary Postpartum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of the Aetiology and Complications of Primary Postpartum Haemorrhage following vaginal delivery at University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, Nigeria: A 5-year Review. CI Emechebe, CO Njoku, AN Njoku, JT Ukaga, EM Eyong ...

  18. The incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen E; Morrison-Rees, Sian; John, Ann; Williams, John G; Brown, Tim H; Samuel, David G

    Acute pancreatitis is increasingly one of the most important acute gastrointestinal conditions throughout much of the world, although incidence and aetiology varies across countries and regions. This study investigated regional and national patterns in the incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis, demographic patterns in incidence and trends over time in incidence across Europe. A structured review of acute pancreatitis incidence and aetiology from studies of hospitalised patient case series, cohort studies or other population based studies from 1989 to 2015 and a review of trends in incidence from 1970 to 2015 across all 51 European states. The incidence of acute pancreatitis was reported from 17 countries across Europe and ranged from 4.6 to 100 per 100 000 population. Incidence was usually highest in eastern or northern Europe, although reported rates often varied according to case ascertainment criteria. Of 20 studies that reported on trends in incidence, all but three show percentage increases over time (overall median increase = 3.4% per annum; range = -0.4%-73%). The highest ratios of gallstone to alcohol aetiologies were identified in southern Europe (Greece, Turkey, Italy and Croatia) with lowest ratios mainly in eastern Europe (Latvia, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Lithuania). The incidence of acute pancreatitis varies across Europe. Gallstone is the dominant aetiology in southern Europe and alcohol in eastern Europe with intermediate ratios in northern and western Europe. Acute pancreatitis continues to increase throughout most of Europe. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Aetiology of thrombosed external haemorrhoids: a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Henning

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to better understand the aetiology of thrombosed external haemorrhoids (TEH because recurrence rates are high, prophylaxis is unknown, and optimal therapy is highly debated. Findings We conducted a questionnaire study of individuals with and without TEH. Aetiology was studied by comparison of answers to a questionnaire given to individuals with and without TEH concerning demography, history, and published aetiologic hypotheses. Participants were evaluated consecutively at our institution from March 2004 through August 2005. One hundred forty-eight individuals were enrolled, including 72 patients with TEH and 76 individuals without TEH but with alternative diagnoses, such as a screening colonoscopy or colonic polyps. Out of 38 possible aetiologic factors evaluated, 20 showed no significant bivariate correlation to TEH and were no longer traced, and 16 factors showed a significant bivariate relationship to TEH. By multivariate analysis, six independent variables were found to predict TEH correctly in 79.1% of cases: age of 46 years or younger, use of excessive physical effort, and use of dry toilet paper combined with wet cleaning methods after defaecation were associated with a significantly higher risk of developing TEH; use of bathtub, use of the shower, and genital cleaning before sleep at least once a week were associated with a significantly lower risk of developing TEH. Conclusion Six hypotheses on the causes of TEH have a high probability of being correct and should be considered in future studies on aetiology, prophylaxis, and therapy of TEH.

  20. Treatment of hand eczema, any help from classification?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Christoffers, Wietske; Boonstra, Marrit; Coenraads, Pieter Jan

    Background: Intervention studies often use unclear definitions of either morphological or aetiological types of hand eczema, or there is no classification at all. These studies are not reproducible or difficult to compare. A generally accepted classification system is essential for clinical trials.

  1. Prevalence and Aetiology of Congenitally Deafblind People in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2010-01-01

    A study of prevalence and aetiology was performed on 63 children and 127 adults in Denmark with congenital deafblindness. Using a Scandinavian definition of deafblindness, the prevalence of congenital deafblindness was found to be 1:29,000. Thirty-five different aetiological causes of deafblindness...... were found. Causes of congenital deafblindness were different among adults compared to causes among children. Rubella syndrome (28%, n = 36) and Down syndrome (8%, n = 10) were the largest groups among people above 18 years of age. Among children CHARGE syndrome (16%, n = 13) was the largest group...

  2. Infection of PTFE mesh 15 years following pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction: mechanism and aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfaki, A; Gkorila, A; Khatib, M; Malata, C M

    2018-01-01

    The pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap procedure is still widely used for breast reconstruction. The repair of the flap harvest site in the transverse rectus abdominis muscle and sheath is often assisted by the use of prosthetic meshes. This decreases the risk of abdominal wall weakness and herniation but, being a foreign body, it also carries the risk of infection. In this report, we describe the case of a 63-year-old patient who, whilst receiving chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer, presented with an infected polytetrafluoroethylene mesh 15 years after pedicled TRAM flap immediate breast reconstruction. This necessitated mesh removal to treat the infection. Following a thorough review of the English literature, this is the longest recorded presentation of an abdominal prosthetic mesh infection. The mechanism and aetiology of such a late complication are discussed.

  3. [Scoliosis: review of types, aetiology, diagnostics, and treatment 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baat, P.; van Biezen, E.C.; de Baat, C.

    2012-01-01

    A scoliosis is a flexible or rigid deformity of the spine in the frontal plane. There are several types of scoliosis, each with specific characteristics. The most prevalent types are idiopathic, congenital, and neuromuscular scoliosis and scoliosis in adults. The aetiology is varied and largely

  4. Aetiology of hypospadias: a systematic review of genes and environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, L.F.M. van der; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Feitz, W.F.J.; Franke, B.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Roeleveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation of the male external genitalia. Most cases have an unknown aetiology, which is probably a mix of monogenic and multifactorial forms, implicating both genes and environmental factors. This review summarizes current knowledge about the

  5. [AETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS GASTRO-DUODENALES ULCERATIVE LESIONS IN ELDERLY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernekhovskaya, N E; Povalayev, A V; Layshenko, G A

    2015-01-01

    In review today conceptions of view to aetiology and pathogenesis gastro-duodenales ulcerative lesions in elderly. Atherosclerosis, ischemic disease of the heart and hypertension are reasons of acute ulcers and erosions in elderly. The breaking of microcirculation are very importance.

  6. Aetiology, imaging and treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moen, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The work contained is this thesis discusses aetiology, imaging and treatment of a common leg injury: medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Although a common injury, the number of scientific articles on this topic is relatively low as is explained in chapter 1. This chapter also highlights that the

  7. The aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis : biomechanical and neuromuscular factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, AG; Webb, PJ

    The aetiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remains an enigma. In the literature there are two opinions: one believes a deviating growth pattern is responsible for the condition - patients with AIS lend to be growing faster/be taller - while the other opinion assumes that the growth

  8. Occurrence, aetiology and challenges in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence, the aetiology and the management of congestive heart failure in the cardiac centre of the St. Elizabeth catholic general hospital Shisong in Cameroon. Methods: Between November 2002 and November 2008, a population of 8121 patients was consulted in ...

  9. Multiple aetiologies of secondary hypertension in one patient

    OpenAIRE

    Golan, Eliezer; Nabriski, Danny; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Werner, Miryam; Griton, Yigal; Moshkovich, Evgeny; Korzets, Ze?ev

    2008-01-01

    Apart from seeking target organ damage, the investigation of hypertension is primarily aimed at finding a treatable cause of the hypertension. The finding of one such cause is usually construed as being the sole culprit responsible for the patient's elevated blood pressure. The existence of multiple aetiologies of secondary hypertension in one patient is infrequent. In this report, we describe such a patient in whom secondary hypertension due to Cushing's disease, renovascular and finally bar...

  10. Aetiology, imaging and treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Moen, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The work contained is this thesis discusses aetiology, imaging and treatment of a common leg injury: medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Although a common injury, the number of scientific articles on this topic is relatively low as is explained in chapter 1. This chapter also highlights that the most probable cause of MTSS is bone overload and not traction induced periostitis. In chapter 2 a review of the literature on MTSS is provided until 2009. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss different common a...

  11. Intestinal volvulus: aetiology, morbidity and mortality in Tunisian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faouzi, Nouira; Yosra, Ben Ahmed; Said, Jlidi; Soufiane, Ghorbel; Aouatef, Charieg; Rachid, Khemakhem; Beji, Chaouachi

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal volvulus (IV) can occur at various sites of the gastrointestinal tract. In Europe, IV in children is most frequently due to malrotation but in Asia Ascaris infestation is a common cause. This report reviews the experience with IV in children in Tunisia; analyzes the aetiologies as well as the clinical presentations and the benefits of the Ladd's procedure in the treatment of the IV. The authors retrospectively reviewed the case records of all children with IV from January 2000 to December 2009 at the Tunis Children's Hospital. There were 22 boys and nine girls with an age range of one day to four years. Twenty-five (80%) patients presented during the neonatal period. The most common presentation was bilious vomiting and dehydration. The aetiology was identified in all patients: Anomalies in rotation (n=22), omphalo-mesenteric duct (n=3), internal hernia (n=3), cystic lymphangioma (n=2), caocal volvulus (n=1). The bowel resection rate for gangrene was 16%. All patients with malrotation had Ladd's procedure performed. Five patients (19%) developed wound infections. One patient presented with adhesive small bowel obstruction. There were no recurrences following Ladd's procedure for malrotation. Two neonates (6%) died from overwhelming infections. Intestinal volvulus in our environment differs in aetiology from other reports. The resection rates are not similar, however. Early diagnosis reduced the high morbidity and mortality in our study.

  12. NON-TRAUMATIC COMA- INCIDENCE, AETIOLOGY AND OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun R. Patil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute non-traumatic coma is one of the most common paediatric emergencies, which arouses much anxiety and apprehension in both parents and physicians. Due to heterogeneity of causes in these patients, prediction of outcome is difficult and unfortunately no single clinical, laboratory or electrophysiological parameters singly predict their outcome. Aetiology of nontraumatic coma varies depending on different geographical area. We have attempted to find the incidence, aetiology and outcome and delineate neurological signs to predict the prognosis in this study. The aim of this study is to study the incidence, aetiology and outcome of non-traumatic coma in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 consecutive cases of non-traumatic coma between 5months and 15 years of age were selected for the study. Clinical signs and findings were recorded at admission (‘0’ Hr and after ‘48’ Hrs. of hospital stay. Aetiology of coma is determined on the basis of clinical history, examination and relevant laboratory investigations by the treating physician. These children were followed up till the death in the hospital or discharged from the hospital. Discharged patients were asked for followup after 4 weeks. During this period, all of them were evaluated by formal neurological examination and for special sensory involvement. The neurological outcomes were categorised into 6 groups (I-VI based on the severity of neurological involvement. Chisquare test was applied to determine the predictors of outcome. RESULTS 1. The incidence of non-traumatic coma in our hospital based study was 8.02% of all paediatric admissions and 21.64% of all PICU admissions. 2. CNS infections contributed the majority (58% of cases. (Dengue encephalitis-28%, viral encephalitis-12%, TB meningitis-8%, pyogenic meningitis- 6%, Shigella encephalopathy-3% and cerebral malaria-1%. 3. Other non-infectious aetiologies were toxic and metabolic group- 21%, post status epilepticus- 9

  13. A systematic review of personality disorder, race and ethnicity: prevalence, aetiology and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tennyson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although psychoses and ethnicity are well researched, the importance of culture, race and ethnicity has been overlooked in Personality Disorders (PD research. This study aimed to review the published literature on ethnic variations of prevalence, aetiology and treatment of PD. Method A systematic review of studies of PD and race, culture and ethnicity including a narrative synthesis of observational data and meta-analyses of prevalence data with tests for heterogeneity. Results There were few studies with original data on personality disorder and ethnicity. Studies varied in their classification of ethnic group, and few studies defined a specific type of personality disorder. Overall, meta-analyses revealed significant differences in prevalence between black and white groups (OR 0.476, CIs 0.248 - 0.915, p = 0.026 but no differences between Asian or Hispanic groups compared with white groups. Meta-regression analyses found that heterogeneity was explained by some study characteristics: a lower prevalence of PD was reported among black compared with white patients in UK studies, studies using case-note diagnoses rather than structured diagnostic interviews, studies of borderline PD compared with the other PD, studies in secure and inpatient compared with community settings, and among subjects with co-morbid disorders compared to the rest. The evidence base on aetiology and treatment was small. Conclusion There is some evidence of ethnic variations in prevalence of personality disorder but methodological characteristics are likely to account for some of the variation. The findings may indicate neglect of PD diagnosis among ethnic groups, or a true lower prevalence amongst black patients. Further studies are required using more precise cultural and ethnic groups.

  14. A systematic review of personality disorder, race and ethnicity: prevalence, aetiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilloway, Angela; Hall, Ruth E; Lee, Tennyson; Bhui, Kamaldeep S

    2010-05-11

    Although psychoses and ethnicity are well researched, the importance of culture, race and ethnicity has been overlooked in Personality Disorders (PD) research. This study aimed to review the published literature on ethnic variations of prevalence, aetiology and treatment of PD. A systematic review of studies of PD and race, culture and ethnicity including a narrative synthesis of observational data and meta-analyses of prevalence data with tests for heterogeneity. There were few studies with original data on personality disorder and ethnicity. Studies varied in their classification of ethnic group, and few studies defined a specific type of personality disorder. Overall, meta-analyses revealed significant differences in prevalence between black and white groups (OR 0.476, CIs 0.248 - 0.915, p = 0.026) but no differences between Asian or Hispanic groups compared with white groups. Meta-regression analyses found that heterogeneity was explained by some study characteristics: a lower prevalence of PD was reported among black compared with white patients in UK studies, studies using case-note diagnoses rather than structured diagnostic interviews, studies of borderline PD compared with the other PD, studies in secure and inpatient compared with community settings, and among subjects with co-morbid disorders compared to the rest. The evidence base on aetiology and treatment was small. There is some evidence of ethnic variations in prevalence of personality disorder but methodological characteristics are likely to account for some of the variation. The findings may indicate neglect of PD diagnosis among ethnic groups, or a true lower prevalence amongst black patients. Further studies are required using more precise cultural and ethnic groups.

  15. Aetiology of molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) in Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, J F; Jeremias, F; Costa-Silva, C M; Santos-Pinto, L; Zuanon, A C C; Cordeiro, R C L

    2013-06-25

    To determine the potential aetiological factors related to molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) in Brazilian children. A total of 1,151 children aged 7-12 years (mean 8.86 ± 1.28), born and living in the urban area of Araraquara, Brazil, were examined by two examiners evaluating the presence of MIH according to criteria suggested by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (2003). Their mothers completed a structured questionnaire about medical history, from pregnancy to the first 3 years of the children's life. Descriptive analyses of data and odds ratios (OR) with 95 % test-based confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences between groups. The prevalence of MIH in the children was 12.3 %. The interviewing response rate was 90.4 %. The prevalence of miscarriage history (25 vs. 15.4 %; OR = 1.21; 95 % CI 0.30-4.92) and occurrence of anaemia (23 vs. 12.4 %; OR = 2.07; 95 % CI 0.50-8.63) were higher in mothers from MIH group than those from non-MIH group. However, these associations were not statically significant. In the children's medical history, rhinitis, bronchitis (56.5 vs. 52.5 %; OR = 1.17; 95 % CI 0.82-1.68), and high fever (20.4 vs. 18.2 %; OR = 1.14; 0.73-1.76) were more prevalent in MIH group, but there were no significant differences between the groups (p > 0.05). No possible aetiological factor investigated was associated with MIH. Prospective studies are needed to define the aetiological factors involved with MIH.

  16. Clinical presentation, aetiology and complications of pancreatitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, Z.; Cheema, H.A.; Suleman, H.; Hashmi, M.A.; Parkash, A.; Waheed, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood Pancreatitis is an uncommon but serious condition with incidence on the rise. It manifests as acute or chronic form with epigastric pain, vomiting and elevated serum -amylase and lipase. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the clinical presentation, aetiology, and complications of pancreatitis in children. Method: This descriptive case series was conducted in the Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital and the Institute of Child Health, Lahore from 1st January to 31st December 2014. Seventy-two patients up to the age of 15 years having abdominal pain, Amylase >200 IU/L and/or lipase >165 IU/L, with features of acute or chronic pancreatitis on abdominal imaging; were included in study. Data analysis was done using SPSS-20. Results: Of the total 72 patients, 43 (60 percentage) had acute pancreatitis, males were 25 (58 percentage) and females 18 (42 percentage) and chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed in 29 (40 percentage), males 10 (34 percentage) and females 19 (66 percentage). Common clinical features were abdominal pain (100 percentage), nausea and vomiting (79 percentage). Common aetiologies were idiopathic (40 percentage) while choledochal cyst 8 percentage, hyperlipidaemia 7 percentage, biliary tract stones/sludge 7 percentage and abdominal trauma 6percentage. Complications were more frequently associated with acute pancreatitis (60 percentage) than with chronic pancreatitis (34 percentage). Common complications were pseudo-pancreatic cyst (36 percentage), ascites (17 percentage) and pleural effusion (4 percentage). Conclusion: Abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting were common presenting features of childhood pancreatitis. Common aetiologies were idiopathic hyperlipidemia, biliary tract stones/sludge, choledochal cyst and abdominal trauma. Common complications were Pseudo-pancreatic cyst, ascites and pleural effusion. (author)

  17. Classifying Classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically analyzes seventeen game classifications. The classifications were chosen on the basis of diversity, ranging from pre-digital classification (e.g. Murray 1952), over game studies classifications (e.g. Elverdam & Aarseth 2007) to classifications of drinking games (e.g. LaBrie et...... al. 2013). The analysis aims at three goals: The classifications’ internal consistency, the abstraction of classification criteria and the identification of differences in classification across fields and/or time. Especially the abstraction of classification criteria can be used in future endeavors...... into the topic of game classifications....

  18. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  19. Myelitis: Differences between multiple sclerosis and other aetiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presas-Rodríguez, S; Grau-López, L; Hervás-García, J V; Massuet-Vilamajó, A; Ramo-Tello, C

    2016-03-01

    Myelitis can appear as an initial symptom in the context of demyelinating diseases, systemic inflammatory diseases, and infectious diseases. We aim to analyse the differences between myelitis associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) and myelitis resulting from other aetiologies. Single-centre, retrospective analysis of patients with initial myelitis (2000-2013). Demographic, aetiological, clinical, radiological and prognostic variables were analysed and compared between patients with myelitis from MS and those with myelitis due to other aetiologies. We included 91 patients; mean follow-up was 7 years. Diagnoses were as follows: MS 57 (63%), idiopathic transverse myelitis 22 (24%), associated systemic diseases 6 (7%), and other diagnoses (6%). Myelitis due to MS was associated with younger age of onset (35 ± 11 vs. 41 ± 13; P = .02), more pronounced sphincter involvement (40.4 vs. 27.3%; P=.05), greater multifocal involvement in spinal MRI (77.2 vs. 26.5%; P=.001), shorter lesion extension (2.4 vs. 1.4 vertebral segments; P=.001), cervical location (82.5 vs. 64.7%; P=.05) and posterior location (89.5 vs. 41.2%; P=.001). Myelitis due to other aetiologies more frequently showed anterior location (47.1 vs. 24.6%; P=.02), and central cord involvement (47.1 vs. 14.1%; P=.001), with better recovery at one year of follow up (EDSS 2.0 vs. 1.5; P=.01). Multivariate analysis showed that multifocal spinal cord involvement (OR 9.38, 95% CI: 2.04-43.1) and posterior cord involvement (OR 2.16, 95% CI: 2.04-2.67) were independently associated with the diagnosis of MS. A high percentage of patients with an initial myelitis event will be diagnosed with MS. The presence of multifocal and posterior spinal cord lesions was significantly associated with the diagnosis of MS. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis: Aetiology, evaluation and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rourke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome (BPS is often a chronic debilitating condition characterised by predominantly storage symptoms and associated frequently with pelvic pain that varies with bladder filling. The aetiology is uncertain as the condition occurs in the absence of a urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology. Resulting discomfort may vary and ranges from abdominal tenderness to intense bladder spasms. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult and is often made by its typical cystoscopic features. This review discusses the diagnosis and management of interstitial cystitis according to the current available best evidence and advises a multimodal approach in its management.

  1. Oral submucous fibrosis: an overview of the aetiology, pathogenesis, classification, and principles of management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arakeri, G.; Brennan, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a complex, debilitating, and precancerous condition. Formerly confined to the Indian subcontinent, it is now often seen in the Asian populations of the United Kingdom, USA, and other developed countries, and is therefore a serious problem for global health. The

  2. Aetiology and management of malnutrition in HIV-positive children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Anna M; Hall, Charles S; Martinez-Alier, Nuria

    2014-06-01

    Worldwide, more than 3 million children are infected with HIV and, without treatment, mortality among these children is extremely high. Both acute and chronic malnutrition are major problems for HIV-positive children living in resource-limited settings. Malnutrition on a background of HIV represents a separate clinical entity, with unique medical and social aetiological factors. Children with HIV have a higher daily calorie requirement than HIV-negative peers and also a higher requirement for micronutrients; furthermore, coinfection and chronic diarrhoea due to HIV enteropathy play a major role in HIV-associated malnutrition. Contributory factors include late presentation to medical services, unavailability of antiretroviral therapy, other issues surrounding healthcare provision and food insecurity in HIV-positive households. Treatment protocols for malnutrition have been greatly improved, yet there remains a discrepancy in mortality between HIV-positive and HIV-negative children. In this review, the aetiology, prevention and treatment of malnutrition in HIV-positive children are examined, with particular focus on resource-limited settings where this problem is most prevalent. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. CLINICO-AETIOLOGICAL STUDY OF LOWER MOTOR NEURON FACIAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvagini Acharya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The facial nerve paralysis is a broad term having so many differential diagnoses starting from congenital causes to malignant tumour. Accurate diagnosis with localisation of the site of injury or compression and timely intervention has become a challenge to an otorhinolaryngologist. Objective- To outline the incidence of the different aetiologies and the profile of peripheral facial nerve paralysis patients in the Otolaryngology Dept. of ENT in VIMSAR, Burla. MATERIALS AND METHODS The records of 53 patients with facial nerve paralysis seen during the years of 2016 & 2017 were analysed. RESULTS From the 53 patients analysed, 60.4% were male, maximum cases 35.85% were in 3 rd decade of age and had the right side of the face involved in 62.26%. Bell´s palsy was the most frequent aetiology (66.04%, others are traumatic (11.32%, Ramsay Hunt syndrome (1.89%, CSOM (16.98%, malignant otitis externa (1.89%. One case of Bell´s palsy during pregnancy was also seen in this series. CONCLUSION The data found are similar to the most of the literature showing that Bell´s palsy is still the most frequent. Males are more commonly affected with a preponderance to involve right side of face.

  4. The co-occurrence of multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes: shared aetiologic features and clinical implication for MS aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettey, Prudence; Simpson, Steve; Taylor, Bruce V; van der Mei, Ingrid A F

    2015-01-15

    We reviewed the evidence for the co-occurrence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS), and assessed the clinical significance of this association and the shared aetiological features of the two diseases. T1D and MS contribute considerably to the burden of autoimmune diseases in young adults. The co-occurrence of MS and T1D has been reported by a number of studies, suggesting that the two conditions share one or more aetiological components. Both conditions have been associated with distinct human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes but share a number of similarities in clinical, epidemiological and immunological features, leading to suggestions of possible common mechanisms of development. While underlying genetic factors may be important for the co-occurrence of both conditions, some evidence suggests that environmental factors such as vitamin D deficiency may also modulate an individual's risk for the development of both conditions. Evidence on whether the co-occurrence of the two autoimmune conditions will affect the disease course and severity of MS is merely absent. Further studies need to be conducted to ascertain whether the neuropathology associated with T1D might influence the disease course and contribute to the severity of MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bovine pododermatitis aseptica diffusa (laminitis) aetiology, pathogenesis, treatment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgasa, M N

    1987-01-01

    Pododermatitis aseptica diffusa (laminitis) is a major cause of lameness and discomfort to cattle with resultant economic losses. The disease is a result of multifactorial aetiology most of which is not clearly understood. Feeding readily fermentable carbohydrates to unaccustomed cattle predisposes to the disease. Histamine, lactic acid and endotoxins are believed to be involved. Systemic acidosis, histaminosis and endotoxaemia are thought to produce the pathophysiological characteristics of laminitis. The diagnosis is primarily based on the observation of symmetrical and bilateral lesions in hooves and characteristic lameness affecting all feet. Gross lesions include concavity of the dorsal wall, discolorations in the sole and rotation of the pedal bone. Degenerative changes and arteriosclerosis are constant histological findings in the corium, with chronic thrombi and chronic granulation tissue. The disease may be treated conservatively and by application of cyclo-oxygenase inhibiting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prevented or controlled by proper feeding and management practices.

  6. Villitis of unknown aetiology: correlation of recurrence with clinical outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Feeley, L

    2010-01-01

    Villitis of unknown aetiology (VUA) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Consequently, an ability to predict recurrence could be clinically relevant. We examined placentas where villitis was diagnosed in a previous pregnancy to establish the risk of recurrence and outcome. A total of 304 cases of VUA were diagnosed in our laboratory over a 4-year period. Subsequently, 19 of this cohort had a second placenta examined histologically. Recurrence and clinical outcome were recorded. Villitis recurred in 7 of 19 cases (37%). There was a high level of adverse pregnancy outcome in this cohort overall, characterised by small for gestational age infants and stillbirth, particularly in cases with high-grade villitis. We identified recurrent villitis more frequently than previously reported. Our findings confirm an association between high-grade villitis and poor outcome. Adequately powered prospective studies are required to determine if enhanced surveillance of subsequent pregnancies is indicated following a diagnosis of villitis.

  7. Experimental and theoretical analyses of compression induced muscle damage : aetiological factors in pressure ulcers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuls, R.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Pressure ulcers form a major problem in health care. They often occur when patients are bedridden, wheelchair bound or wearing prostheses. The ulcers can be very painful for the patient and often lead to prolonged hospitalization. In addition, the huge costs involved with treatment and prevention

  8. Levels of uric acid in erectile dysfunction of different aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barassi, Alessandra; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Dozio, Elena; Damele, Clara Anna Linda; Vaccalluzzo, Liborio; Di Dario, Marco; Goi, Giancarlo; Papini, Nadia; Massaccesi, Luca; Colpi, Giovanni Maria; Melzi d'Eril, Gian Vico

    2018-01-12

    Erectile dysfunction is a common disease characterized by endothelial dysfunction. The aetiology of ED is often multifactorial but evidence is being accumulated in favor of the proper function of the vascular endothelium that is essential to achieving and maintaining penile erection. Uric acid itself causes endothelial dysfunction via decreased nitric oxide production. This study aims to evaluate the serum uric acid (SUA) levels in 180 ED patients, diagnosed with the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) and 30 non-ED control. Serum uric acid was analyzed with a commercially available kit using ModularEVO (Roche, Monza, Italy). Within-assay and between-assay variations were 3.0% and 6.0%, respectively. Out of the ED patients, 85 were classified as arteriogenic (A-ED) and 95 as non-arteriogenic (NA-ED) with penile-echo-color-Doppler. Uric acid levels (median and range in mg/dL) in A-ED patients (5.8, 4.3-7.5) were significantly higher (p uric acid levels in patients with mild A-ED (IIEF-5 16-20) and severe/complete A-ED (IIEF-5 ≤ 10) that were 5.4 (range 4.3-6.5) mg/dL and 6.8 (range 6.4-7.2) mg/dL, respectively. There was no difference between the levels of uric acid in patients with different degree of NA-ED. Our findings reveal that SUA is a marker of ED but only of ED of arteriogenic aetiology.

  9. Aetiological diagnosis of male sex ambiguity: a collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Yves; Rey, Rodolfo; Teinturier, Cécile; Nicolino, Marc; Michel-Calemard, Laurence; Mowszowicz, Irène; Jaubert, Francis; Fellous, Marc; Chaussain, Jean-Louis; Chatelain, Pierre; David, Michel; Nihoul-Fékété, Claire; Forest, Maguelone G; Josso, Nathalie

    2002-01-01

    A collaborative study, supported by the Biomed2 Programme of the European Community, was initiated to optimise the aetiological diagnosis in genetic or gonadal males with intersex disorders, a total of 67 patients with external sexual ambiguity, testicular tissue and/or a XY karyotype. In patients with gonadal dysgenesis or true hermaphroditism, the incidence of vaginal development was 100%, a uterus was present in 60%; uni or bilateral cryptorchidism was seen in nearly all cases of testicular dysgenesis (99%) but in only 57% of true hermaphrodites. Mean serum levels of anti-mullerian hormone and of serum testosterone response to chorionic gonadotropin stimulation were significantly decreased in both conditions, by comparison with patients with unexplained male pseudohermaphroditism or partial androgen insensitivity (PAIS). Mutations in the androgen receptor, 90% within exons 2-8, were detected in patients with PAIS. Clinically, a vaginal pouch was present in 90%, cryptorchidism in 36%. In 52% of cases, no diagnosis could be reached, despite an exhaustive clinical and laboratory work-up, including routine sequencing of exons 2-8 of the androgen receptor. By comparison with PAIS, unexplained male pseudohermaphroditism was characterised by a lower incidence of vaginal pouch (55%) and cryptorchidism (22%) but a high incidence of prematurity/intrauterine growth retardation (30%) or mild malformations (14%). reaching an aetiological diagnosis in cases of male intersex is difficult because of the variability of individual cases. Hormonal tests may help to discriminate between partial androgen insensitivity and gonadal dysgenesis/true hermaphroditism but are of less use for differentiating from unexplained male pseudohermaphroditism. Sequencing of exons 2-8 of the androgen receptor after study of testosterone precursors following human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation is recommended when gonadal dysgenesis and true hermaphroditism can be excluded.

  10. Short article: Presence, extent and location of pancreatic necrosis are independent of aetiology in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Robert C; Sternby, Hanna; Dimova, Alexandra; Ignatavicius, Povilas; Koiva, Peter; Penttila, Anne K; Ilzarbe, Lucas; Regner, Sara; Rosendahl, Jonas; Bollen, Thomas L

    2018-03-01

    The most common aetiologies of acute pancreatitis (AP) are gallstones, alcohol and idiopathic. The impact of the aetiology of AP on the extent and morphology of pancreatic and extrapancreatic necrosis (EXPN) has not been clearly established. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of aetiology on the presence and location of pancreatic necrosis in patients with AP. We carried out a post-hoc analysis of a previously established multicentre cohort of patients with AP in whom a computed tomography was available for review. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records. All computed tomographies were revised by the same expert radiologist. The impact of aetiology on pancreatic and EXPN was calculated. In total, 159 patients with necrotizing pancreatitis were identified from a cohort of 285 patients. The most frequent aetiologies were biliary (105 patients, 37%), followed by alcohol (102 patients, 36%) and other aetiologies including idiopathic (78 patients, 27%). No relationship was found between the aetiology and the presence of pancreatic necrosis, EXPN, location of pancreatic necrosis or presence of collections. We found no association between the aetiology of AP and the presence, extent and anatomical location of pancreatic necrosis.

  11. Organophosphate-induced intermediate syndrome: aetiology and relationships with myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalliedde, Lakshman; Baker, David; Marrs, Timothy C

    2006-01-01

    The intermediate syndrome (IMS) following organophosphorus (OP) insecticide poisoning was first described in the mid-1980s. The syndrome described comprised characteristic symptoms and signs occurring after apparent recovery from the acute cholinergic syndrome. As the syndrome occurred after the acute cholinergic syndrome but before organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy, the syndrome was called 'intermediate syndrome'. The IMS occurs in approximately 20% of patients following oral exposure to OP pesticides, with no clear association between the particular OP pesticide involved and the development of the syndrome. It usually becomes established 2-4 days after exposure when the symptoms and signs of the acute cholinergic syndrome (e.g. muscle fasciculations, muscarinic signs) are no longer obvious. The characteristic features of the IMS are weakness of the muscles of respiration (diaphragm, intercostal muscles and accessory muscles including neck muscles) and of proximal limb muscles. Accompanying features often include weakness of muscles innervated by some cranial nerves. It is now emerging that the degree and extent of muscle weakness may vary following the onset of the IMS. Thus, some patients may only have weakness of neck muscles whilst others may have weakness of neck muscles and proximal limb muscles. These patients may not require ventilatory care but close observation and monitoring of respiratory function is mandatory. Management is essentially that of rapidly developing respiratory distress and respiratory failure. Delays in instituting ventilatory care will result in death. Initiation of ventilatory care and maintenance of ventilatory care often requires minimal doses of non-depolarising muscle relaxants. The use of depolarising muscle relaxants such as suxamethonium is contraindicated in OP poisoning. The duration of ventilatory care required by patients may differ considerably and it is usual for patients to need ventilatory support for 7

  12. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  13. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines. How can I prevent muscle cramps? To prevent muscle cramps, you can Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, ...

  14. Inflammatory aetiology of human myometrial activation tested using directed graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available THERE ARE THREE MAIN HYPOTHESES FOR THE ACTIVATION OF THE HUMAN UTERUS AT LABOUR: functional progesterone withdrawal, inflammatory stimulation, and oxytocin receptor activation. To test these alternatives we have taken information and data from the literature to develop causal pathway models for the activation of human myometrium. The data provided quantitative RT-PCR results on key genes from samples taken before and during labour. Principal component analysis showed that pre-labour samples form a homogenous group compared to those during labour. We therefore modelled the alternative causal pathways in non-labouring samples using directed graphs and statistically compared the likelihood of the different models using structural equations and D-separation approaches. Using the computer program LISREL, inflammatory activation as a primary event was highly consistent with the data (p = 0.925, progesterone withdrawal, as a primary event, is plausible (p = 0.499, yet comparatively unlikely, oxytocin receptor mediated initiation is less compatible with the data (p = 0.091. DGraph, a software program that creates directed graphs, produced similar results (p= 0.684, p= 0.280, and p = 0.04, respectively. This outcome supports an inflammatory aetiology for human labour. Our results demonstrate the value of directed graphs in determining the likelihood of causal relationships in biology in situations where experiments are not possible.

  15. Comparison of radiological findings and microbial aetiology of childhood pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korppi, M.; Kiekara, O.; Kosma, T.H.; Soimakallio, S.

    1993-01-01

    61 children were treated in hospital from 1981 to 1982 because of both radiologically and microbiologically verified viral or bacterial pneumonia. The chest radiographs were interpreted by two radiologists, not familiar with the clinical data, on two occasions three years apart, and only those patients with a definite alveolar or interstitial pneumonia at both evaluations were included in the present analysis. In addition, all patients had viral, mixed viral-bacterial or bacterial infections diagnosed by viral or bacterial antibody or antigen assays. Viral infection alone was seen in 7, mixed viral-bacterial infection in 8 and bacterial infection alone in 12 of the 27 patients with alveolar pneumonia. The respective figures were 13, 13 and 8 for the 34 patients with interstitial pneumonia. C-reactive protein concentration was greater than 40 mg/l in 15 of the patients with alveolar and in 11 of the patients with interstitial pneumonia. Thus 74% of the patients with alveolar and 62% with interstitial pneumonia had bacterial infection, either alone or as a mixed viral-bacterial infection. The results suggest that the presence of an alveolar infiltrate in a chest radiograph is a specific but insensitive indicator of bacterial pneumonia. It is concluded that patients with alveolar pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics. In patients with interstitial pneumonia, however, both viral and bacterial aetiology are possible. In those, the decision concerning antibiotic treatment should be based on clinical and laboratory findings. 21 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Frozen shoulder contracture syndrome - Aetiology, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    Frozen shoulder is a poorly understood condition that typically involves substantial pain, movement restriction, and considerable morbidity. Although function improves overtime, full and pain free range, may not be restored in everyone. Frozen shoulder is also known as adhesive capsulitis, however the evidence for capsular adhesions is refuted and arguably, this term should be abandoned. The aim of this Masterclass is to synthesise evidence to provide a framework for assessment and management for Frozen Shoulder. Although used in the treatment of this condition, manipulation under anaesthetic has been associated with joint damage and may be no more effective than physiotherapy. Capsular release is another surgical procedure that is supported by expert opinion and published case series, but currently high quality research is not available. Recommendations that supervised neglect is preferable to physiotherapy have been based on a quasi-experimental study associated with a high risk of bias. Physiotherapists in the United Kingdom have developed dedicated care pathways that provide; assessment, referral for imaging, education, health screening, ultrasound guided corticosteroid and hydro-distension injections, embedded within physiotherapy rehabilitation. The entire pathway is provided by physiotherapists and evidence exists to support each stage of the pathway. Substantial on-going research is required to better understand; epidemiology, patho-aetiology, assessment, best management, health economics, patient satisfaction and if possible prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vulvovaginitis: clinical features, aetiology, and microbiology of the genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquiery, A; Stylianopoulos, A; Hogg, G; Grover, S

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To clarify the contribution of clinical and environmental factors and infection to the aetiology of vulvovaginitis in premenarchal girls, and to determine clinical indicators of an infectious cause.
DESIGN—It was necessary first to define normal vaginal flora. Cases were 50 premenarchal girls > 2 years old with symptoms of vulvovaginitis; 50 controls were recruited from girls in the same age group undergoing minor or elective surgery.
RESULTS—Interview questionnaire showed no difference between cases and controls in regards to hygiene practices, exposure to specific irritants, or history of possible sexual abuse. Normal vaginal flora was similar to that described in previous studies, with the exception of organisms likely to be associated with sexual activity. 80% of cases had no evidence of an infectious cause. In the 10 cases in whom an infectious cause was found, there was significantly more visible discharge and distinct redness of the genital area on examination compared with other cases.
CONCLUSIONS— The findings suggest that vulvovaginitis in this age group is not usually infectious or necessarily related to poor hygiene, specific irritants or sexual abuse, although any of these can present with genital irritation. The possibility of sexual abuse should always be considered when a child presents with genital symptoms, but our data indicate it is not a common contributing factor. Infection is generally associated with vaginal discharge and moderate or severe inflammation.

 PMID:10373139

  18. Diet and the microbial aetiology of dental caries: new paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, David J; Lynch, Richard J M

    2013-12-01

    The microbial and dietary factors that drive caries have been studied scientifically for 120 years. Frequent and/or excessive sugar (especially sucrose) consumption has been ascribed a central role in caries causation, while Streptococcus mutans appeared to play the key role in metabolising sucrose to produce lactic acid, which can demineralise enamel. Many authors described caries as a transmissible infectious disease. However, more recent data have shifted these paradigms. Streptococcus mutans does not fulfil Koch's postulates - presence of the organism leading to disease, and absence of the organism precluding disease. Furthermore, molecular microbiological methods have shown that, even with a sugar-rich diet, a much broader spectrum of acidogenic microbes is found in dental plaque. While simple sugars can be cariogenic, cooked starches are also now recognised to be a caries threat, especially because such starches, while not 'sticky in the hand', can be highly retentive in the mouth. Metabolism of starch particles can yield a prolonged acidic challenge, especially at retentive, caries-prone sites. These changes in the paradigms of caries aetiology have important implications for caries control strategies. Preventing the transmission of S. mutans will likely be inadequate to prevent caries if a sufficiently carbohydrate-rich diet continues. Similarly, restriction of sucrose intake, although welcome, would be unlikely to be a panacea for caries, especially if frequent starch intake persisted. Instead, approaches to optimise fluoride delivery, to target plaque acidogenicity or acidogenic microbes, to promote plaque alkali generation, to increase salivary flow or replace fermentable carbohydrates with non-fermentable alternatives may be more promising. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  19. Binocular diplopia in a tertiary hospital: Aetiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, P; Fuentes, D; Gómez de Liaño, P; Ordóñez, M A

    2017-12-01

    To study the causes, diagnosis and treatment in a case series of binocular diplopia. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients seen in the Diplopia Unit of a tertiary centre during a one-year period. Diplopia was classified as: acute≤1 month since onset; subacute (1-6 months); and chronic (>6 months). Resolution of diplopia was classified as: spontaneous if it disappeared without treatment, partial if the course was intermittent, and non-spontaneous if treatment was required. It was considered a good outcome when diplopia disappeared completely (with or without treatment), or when diplopia was intermittent without significantly affecting the quality of life. A total of 60 cases were included. The mean age was 58.65 years (60% female). An acute or subacute presentation was observed in 60% of the patients. The mean onset of diplopia was 82.97 weeks. The most frequent aetiology was ischaemic (45%). The most frequent diagnosis was sixth nerve palsy (38.3%), followed by decompensated strabismus (30%). Neuroimaging showed structural lesions in 17.7% of the patients. There was a spontaneous resolution in 28.3% of the cases, and there was a good outcome with disappearance of the diplopia in 53.3% at the end of the study. The most frequent causes of binocular diplopia were cranial nerve palsies, especially the sixth cranial nerve, followed by decompensated strabismus. Structural lesions in imaging tests were more than expected. Only one third of patients had a spontaneous resolution, and half of them did not have a good outcome despite of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Pseudotumour cerebri in children: Aetiology, clinical features, and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera Gorostidi, A; Iridoy Zulet, M; Azcona Ganuza, G; Gembero Esarte, E; Yoldi Petri, M E; Aguilera Albesa, S

    2017-01-09

    The definition, associated aetiologies, diagnosis, and treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension, or pseudotumour cerebri (PTC), are constantly being revised in the paediatric population. Our study included children younger than 15 years old with PTC and attended at a reference hospital in the past 12 years. We analysed the clinical and epidemiological features of our sample and the diagnostic and treatment approaches. PTC was defined as presence of intracranial hypertension (CSF opening pressure>25cmH 2 O) and absence of space-occupying lesions in brain MR images. A total of 12 children with PTC were included; mean age was 10 years and 90% were girls. Weight was normal in all patients. Eighty-two percent of the patients had symptoms: headache (66%), diplopia (8%), and visual loss (8%). All of them displayed papilloedema (17% unilaterally). Lumbar puncture (LP) provided the diagnosis in all cases and 91% showed no relevant MRI findings. A potential cause of PTC was identified in 5 cases: pharmacological treatment in 2 and infection (Mycoplasma pneumoniae [M. pneumoniae]) in 3. Ninety-one per cent of the patients received treatment: 75% underwent several LPs and 42% received acetazolamide and/or prednisone. Outcomes were favourable in all cases. The incidence of PTC was estimated at approximately 1 case per 100 000 children/years, in line with data reported by previous studies. Overweight was not found to be a risk factor for PTC in this population. M. pneumoniae infection may trigger PTC and cause recurrences at later stages. The absence of symptoms seems to be independent from the degree of intracranial hypertension. Acetazolamide treatment is effective in most cases, and it represents a viable alternative to repeated LP. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Severe hyperthyroidism: aetiology, clinical features and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, P; Dévora, O; García, J; Tajada, P; García-Arévalo, C; Díez, J J

    2010-04-01

    Severe hyperthyroidism (SH) is a serious medical disorder that can compromise life. There have not been systematic studies in which SH has been evaluated in detail. Here, our aims were: (1) to analyse both clinical and analytical features and outcome in patients with SH and (2) to compare these data with those found in more usual forms of hyperthyroidism. Patients and methods All patients diagnosed of SH (free thyroxine, FT4 > 100 pmol/l, NR: 11-23) seen in our endocrinology clinic in the last 15 years were studied and compared with a sample of patients with mild (mH; FT4, 23-50 pmol/l) and moderate (MH; FT4, 51-100 pmol/l) hyperthyroidism. Aetiology, clinical analytical and imaging data at diagnosis, therapeutic response and outcome were registered. Results A total of 107 patients with overt hyperthyroidism (81 females, mean age +/- SD 46.9 +/- 16.1 years) were evaluated. We studied a historic group with SH (n = 21; 14 females, 40.9 +/- 17.2 years) and, as a comparator group, we analyszed the data of 86 hyperthyroid patients (67 females, 48.4 +/- 15.5.6 years, NS) comparable in age and gender. The comparator group was classified in MH (n = 37, 26 females, 47.2 +/- 16.6 years) and mH (n = 49, 41 females, 49.4 +/- 14.8 years). In comparison with mH group, SH patients were significantly (P hyperthyroidism. FT4 was the only independent predictor of cure [OR 0.98 (CI 95%, 0.97-0.99), P hyperthyroidism is usually de novo and is accompanied by more clinical signs, symptoms, and analytical derangements, as well as higher titres of TRAb at diagnosis than milder forms of hyperthyroidism. The present data are not able to show differences in treatment modality, time to achieve cure, and remission rate among patients with mild, moderate and severe hyperthyroidism.

  2. Status epilepticus: Aetiology and D outcome in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, T.S.; Rehman, A.U.; Wazeer, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Convulsing Status Epilepticus (CSE) is a common paediatric emergency especially under 24 months age group. Present study was done to know causes of Status Epilepticus (SE) and outcome during admission and at the time of discharge. A descriptive study in children 2 months to 15 years of age, admitted in Department of Paediatrics, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad with first status epilepticus, was done to evaluate aetiology, complications and immediate outcome after relevant history, examination, laboratory tests. All information was recorded on Performa designed especially for this purpose. Study was conducted over 2 year period from November 2005 to November 2007. Total number of children admitted with SE was 125. Majority of SE episodes were related to acute febrile illnesses. Acute viral encephalitis was the common cause of SE especially in children younger than 24 months followed by febrile convulsions. Fifteen (12%) patients expired while neurological complications secondary to brain injury developed in 10(8%) cases. Mean seizure duration was 4.92+-9.18 hours in children with normal outcome, 5.93+-5.76 hours in children who died, and 12.85+-12.91 hours in children with abnormal neurological outcome at discharge (p>0.05). Correlation between age and duration of seizure was not significant (p>0.05). SE is a common paediatric emergency associated with high mortality and morbidity. In young children SE is commonly associated with acute viral encephalitis. Antiviral treatment should be started earlier in this group of young children after history, examination, laboratory tests along with appropriate management of SE. (author)

  3. Status epilepticus: Aetiology and D outcome in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, T S; Rehman, A U [Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Paediatrics; Wazeer, M S [Saidu Group of Hospital, Swat (Pakistan). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2008-07-15

    Convulsing Status Epilepticus (CSE) is a common paediatric emergency especially under 24 months age group. Present study was done to know causes of Status Epilepticus (SE) and outcome during admission and at the time of discharge. A descriptive study in children 2 months to 15 years of age, admitted in Department of Paediatrics, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad with first status epilepticus, was done to evaluate aetiology, complications and immediate outcome after relevant history, examination, laboratory tests. All information was recorded on Performa designed especially for this purpose. Study was conducted over 2 year period from November 2005 to November 2007. Total number of children admitted with SE was 125. Majority of SE episodes were related to acute febrile illnesses. Acute viral encephalitis was the common cause of SE especially in children younger than 24 months followed by febrile convulsions. Fifteen (12%) patients expired while neurological complications secondary to brain injury developed in 10(8%) cases. Mean seizure duration was 4.92+-9.18 hours in children with normal outcome, 5.93+-5.76 hours in children who died, and 12.85+-12.91 hours in children with abnormal neurological outcome at discharge (p>0.05). Correlation between age and duration of seizure was not significant (p>0.05). SE is a common paediatric emergency associated with high mortality and morbidity. In young children SE is commonly associated with acute viral encephalitis. Antiviral treatment should be started earlier in this group of young children after history, examination, laboratory tests along with appropriate management of SE. (author)

  4. High power laser therapy treatment compared to simple segmental physical rehabilitation in whiplash injuries (1° and 2° grade of the Quebec Task Force classification) involving muscles and ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Maria; Fachinetti, Giorgio Paolo

    2013-04-01

    whiplash is a frequent post traumatic pathology caused by muscle, tendon and capsular elements over stretching. The authors conducted a short term prospective randomised study to test the effectiveness of a multi wave High Power Laser Therapy (HPLT) versus conventional simple segmental physical rehabilitation (PT) included in Italian tariff nomenclature performance physiotherapy Study Design: prospective randomised study (Level II). the authors identified 135 homogeneous patients with whiplash grade 1 - 2 of the Quebec Task Force classification (QTFC). INAIL, the Italian National Workers Insurance, based in Milan, was reliable source for identifying patients. All patients with whiplash injuries grade 1 or 2 QTFC, were eligible for the study, starting from April 28 2010 to September 30 2010. Patients referred to a Coordinator (C.M.) who applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups. Dates for initial treatment session were arranged, including cervical spine X-ray, and assessment. Each patient gave informed consent for participation and agreed to adopt only the study treatment for 6 weeks. Group A (84 patients) was treated with High Power Laser Therapy (HPLT), Group B (51 patients) received conventional simple segmental physical rehabilitation (PT). During the treatment period, no other electro-medical therapy, analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs were allowed. All patients were assessed at baseline (T0) and at the end of the treatment period (T1) using a Visual Analogical Scale (VAS), (T2) the date of return to work was registered afterwards. there was a reduction in VAS pain scores at T1. Group A (VAS = 20) Group B (VAS = 34,8) (p =0.0048). Laser treatment allowed quick recovery and return to work (T2). Group A after 48 days against 66 days of Group B (p=0.0005). results suggest that High Power Laser Therapy - is an effective treatment in patients with whiplash injury

  5. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  6. Aetiology and incidence of maxillofacial trauma in Amsterdam: a retrospective analysis of 579 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, B.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Heijmans, M.W.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of maxillofacial fractures varies widely between different countries. The large variability in reported incidence and aetiology is due to a variety of contributing factors, including environmental, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This retrospective report presents a

  7. Aetiology and incidence of maxillofacial trauma in Amsterdam: a retrospective analysis of 579 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, B.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Heymans, M.W.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of maxillofacial fractures varies widely between different countries. The large variability in reported incidence and aetiology is due to a variety of contributing factors, including environmental, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This retrospective report presents a

  8. Aetiology of community-acquired neonatal sepsis in low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Waters

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 99% of the approximate 1 million annual neonatal deaths from life-threatening invasive bacterial infections occur in developing countries, at least 50% of which are from home births or community settings. Data concerning aetiology of sepsis in these settings are necessary to inform targeted therapy and devise management guidelines. This review describes and analyses the bacterial aetiology of community-acquired neonatal sepsis in developing countries.

  9. Strength and fatigability of selected muscles in upper limb: assessing muscle imbalance relevant to tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehkhaiyat, O; Fisher, A C; Kemp, G J; Frostick, S P

    2007-08-01

    The aetiology of tennis elbow has remained uncertain for more than a century. To examine muscle imbalance as a possible pathophysiological factor requires a reliable method of assessment. This paper describes the development of such a method and its performance in healthy subjects. We propose a combination of surface and fine-wire EMG of shoulder and forearm muscles and wrist strength measurements as a reliable tool for assessing muscle imbalance relevant to the pathophysiology of tennis elbow. Six healthy volunteers participated. EMG data were acquired at 50% maximal voluntary isometric contraction from five forearm muscles during grip and three shoulder muscles during external rotation and abduction, and analysed using normalized median frequency slope as a fatigue index. Wrist extension/flexion strength was measured using a purpose-built dynamometer. Significant negative slope of median frequency was found for all muscles, with good reproducibility, and no significant difference in slope between the different muscles of the shoulder and the wrist. (Amplitude slope showed high variability and was therefore unsuitable for this purpose.) Wrist flexion was 27+/-8% stronger than extension (mean+/-SEM, p=0.006). This is a reliable method for measuring muscle fatigue in forearm and shoulder. EMG and wrist strength studies together can be used for assessing and identifying the muscle balance in the wrist-forearm-shoulder chain.

  10. Piriformis muscle syndrome. A cross-sectional imaging study in 116 patients and evaluation of therapeutic outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassalou, Evangelia E. [Heraklion University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Voutes, Crete (Greece); Katonis, Pavlos [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Orthopaedics, Voutes, Crete (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [Heraklion University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Voutes, Crete (Greece); University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Voutes, Crete (Greece)

    2018-02-15

    To increase the clinical awareness of piriformis muscle syndrome (PMs) by reporting cross-sectional imaging findings, the clinical impact of imaging studies and treatment outcome. Within a 10-year-period, 116 patients referred for radiological evaluation of clinically suspected PMs, with excluded lumbar pathology related to symptomatology, were prospectively studied with MRI and/or computed tomography (CT). Piriformis muscle (PM), sciatic nerve (SN), piriformis region and sacroiliac joints were evaluated. PMs was categorised into primary/secondary, according to a reported classification system. Treatment decisions were recorded. Outcome was categorised using a 3-point-scale. Seventy-four patients (63.8%) exhibited pathologies related to PMs. Primary causes were detected in 12 and secondary in 62 patients. PM enlargement was found in 45.9% of patients, abnormal PM signal intensity/density in 40.5% and sciatic neuritis in 25.7%. Space-occupying lesions represented the most common related pathology. Treatment proved effective in 5/8 patients with primary and 34/51 patients with secondary PMs. In 34 patients, imaging revealed an unknown underlying medical condition and altered treatment planning. Secondary PMs aetiologies appear to prevail. In suspected PMs, PM enlargement represented the most common imaging finding and space-occupying lesions the leading cause. Imaging had the potential to alter treatment decisions. (orig.)

  11. Piriformis muscle syndrome. A cross-sectional imaging study in 116 patients and evaluation of therapeutic outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassalou, Evangelia E.; Katonis, Pavlos; Karantanas, Apostolos H.

    2018-01-01

    To increase the clinical awareness of piriformis muscle syndrome (PMs) by reporting cross-sectional imaging findings, the clinical impact of imaging studies and treatment outcome. Within a 10-year-period, 116 patients referred for radiological evaluation of clinically suspected PMs, with excluded lumbar pathology related to symptomatology, were prospectively studied with MRI and/or computed tomography (CT). Piriformis muscle (PM), sciatic nerve (SN), piriformis region and sacroiliac joints were evaluated. PMs was categorised into primary/secondary, according to a reported classification system. Treatment decisions were recorded. Outcome was categorised using a 3-point-scale. Seventy-four patients (63.8%) exhibited pathologies related to PMs. Primary causes were detected in 12 and secondary in 62 patients. PM enlargement was found in 45.9% of patients, abnormal PM signal intensity/density in 40.5% and sciatic neuritis in 25.7%. Space-occupying lesions represented the most common related pathology. Treatment proved effective in 5/8 patients with primary and 34/51 patients with secondary PMs. In 34 patients, imaging revealed an unknown underlying medical condition and altered treatment planning. Secondary PMs aetiologies appear to prevail. In suspected PMs, PM enlargement represented the most common imaging finding and space-occupying lesions the leading cause. Imaging had the potential to alter treatment decisions. (orig.)

  12. Muscle activation patterns in posttraumatic neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhand, Marcus Johannes

    2003-01-01

    As an important consequence of our research, we question the relevance of the criteria of the WAD injury severity classification system. We showed that the musculoskeletal signs in WAD grade II are not characterized by muscle spasm, (i.e. increase of muscle activity), but rather by a decrease in

  13. Shifting white pox aetiologies affecting Acropora palmata in the Florida Keys, 1994-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kathryn P; Berry, Brett; Park, Andrew; Kemp, Dustin W; Kemp, Keri M; Lipp, Erin K; Porter, James W

    2016-03-05

    We propose 'the moving target hypothesis' to describe the aetiology of a contemporary coral disease that differs from that of its historical disease state. Hitting the target with coral disease aetiology is a complex pursuit that requires understanding of host and environment, and may lack a single pathogen solution. White pox disease (WPX) affects the Caribbean coral Acropora palmata. Acroporid serratiosis is a form of WPX for which the bacterial pathogen (Serratia marcescens) has been established. We used long-term (1994-2014) photographic monitoring to evaluate historical and contemporary epizootiology and aetiology of WPX affecting A. palmata at eight reefs in the Florida Keys. Ranges of WPX prevalence over time (0-71.4%) were comparable for the duration of the 20-year study. Whole colony mortality and disease severity were high in historical (1994-2004), and low in contemporary (2008-2014), outbreaks of WPX. Acroporid serratiosis was diagnosed for some historical (1999, 2003) and contemporary (2012, 2013) outbreaks, but this form of WPX was not confirmed for all WPX cases. Our results serve as a context for considering aetiology as a moving target for WPX and other coral diseases for which pathogens are established and/or candidate pathogens are identified. Coral aetiology investigations completed to date suggest that changes in pathogen, host and/or environment alter the disease state and complicate diagnosis. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Shifting white pox aetiologies affecting Acropora palmata in the Florida Keys, 1994–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Brett; Park, Andrew; Kemp, Dustin W.; Kemp, Keri M.; Lipp, Erin K.; Porter, James W.

    2016-01-01

    We propose ‘the moving target hypothesis’ to describe the aetiology of a contemporary coral disease that differs from that of its historical disease state. Hitting the target with coral disease aetiology is a complex pursuit that requires understanding of host and environment, and may lack a single pathogen solution. White pox disease (WPX) affects the Caribbean coral Acropora palmata. Acroporid serratiosis is a form of WPX for which the bacterial pathogen (Serratia marcescens) has been established. We used long-term (1994–2014) photographic monitoring to evaluate historical and contemporary epizootiology and aetiology of WPX affecting A. palmata at eight reefs in the Florida Keys. Ranges of WPX prevalence over time (0–71.4%) were comparable for the duration of the 20-year study. Whole colony mortality and disease severity were high in historical (1994–2004), and low in contemporary (2008–2014), outbreaks of WPX. Acroporid serratiosis was diagnosed for some historical (1999, 2003) and contemporary (2012, 2013) outbreaks, but this form of WPX was not confirmed for all WPX cases. Our results serve as a context for considering aetiology as a moving target for WPX and other coral diseases for which pathogens are established and/or candidate pathogens are identified. Coral aetiology investigations completed to date suggest that changes in pathogen, host and/or environment alter the disease state and complicate diagnosis. PMID:26880837

  15. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. [Aetiology and pathogenesis of damages to blood vessels in drug addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanaliev, T A; Tursynbaev, S E; Ivakin, V M

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with the problems concerning aetiology and pathogenesis of damages to blood vessels in patients practicing parenteral administration of surrogates of narcotic substances. In order to clinically and experimentally study the pattern of morphological alterations in the area of narcotic substances administration and to work out an appropriate classification of the forms and stages of development of the pathological process, the authors analysed the clinical course of vascular lesions and complications thereof in a total of 244 drug abusers having parenterally administered surrogates of narcotic substances and undergoing treatment at the Department of Vascular Surgery of the Municipal Clinical Hospital of the city of Almaty. Additionally, experimental studies were carried out on 16 rabbits with the induced model of parenteral administration of surrogates of narcotic substances, thus making it possible to study the degree of their effect and to confirm the theory of a chemical impact of the homemade drugs on the vascular wall. The findings of the carried out studies enabled us to single out the following clinical stages of vascular lesions: stage I - the initial stage of cicatricial-and-ulcerous lesions formation, stage II - formation of cutaneous-and-vascular fistulas, stage III - the stage of complications characterized by development of health-hazardous vascular lesions, i. e., arterial and venous thromboses of the major vessels, as well as arrosive bleedings. It was noted that more than 50% of patients were admitted to the clinic presenting with the third stage of vascular lesions. The experimental part of the study included 64 experiments on 16 rabbits (one experiment per each paw of the animal). The laboratory animals were subdivided into three groups. The first experimental group consisted of the rabbits with a mechanically inflicted injury to the vessels. The second and third experimental groups were composed of the rabbits having received

  17. Sonography of gallstones and biliary dilatation without a visible aetiology: The infrequency of obstructing choledocholithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, O.; Van Sonnenberg, E.; Wittich, G.R.; Leopold, G.R.; Gosink, U.B.; Bowen, J.S.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes 50 consecutive patients who sonographically had gallbladder stones and dilated bile ducts, but no visible aetiology for the dilatation. We reviewed these cases to determine the frequency of choledocholithiasis in this setting. Common duct stones caused obstruction in only 36% of these patients. Other aetiologies included strictures due to chronic pancreatitis or prior stone passage in 24% of the patients, and malignant obstruction in 16%. In 24% of the patients, no cause was found for biliary dilatation: common duct stones or obstructing tumours were excluded in the group. Since aetiologies other than stones are likely in a majority of cases, further preoperative workup (CT, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, ERCP) or intraoperative cholangiography (if the patient requires urgent cholecystectomy) is indicated. The additional studies should provide a diagnosis, help determine whether or not the common duct should be explored, or avoid unnecessary operation in case of incurable malignancy. (orig.)

  18. Our experience with the aetiological diagnosis of global developmental delay and intellectual disability: 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pisón, J; García-Jiménez, M C; Monge-Galindo, L; Lafuente-Hidalgo, M; Pérez-Delgado, R; García-Oguiza, A; Peña-Segura, J L

    2014-09-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) and intellectual disability (ID) are common reasons for consultation in paediatric neurology. Results from aetiological evaluations of children with GDD/ID vary greatly, and consequently, there is no universal consensus regarding which studies should be performed. We review our experience with determining aetiological diagnoses for children with GDD/ID who were monitored by the paediatric neurology unit over the 5-year period between 2006 and 2010. During the study period, 995 children with GDD/ID were monitored. An aetiological diagnosis was established for 309 patients (31%), but not in 686 (69%), despite completing numerous tests. A genetic cause was identified in 142 cases (46% of the total aetiologies established), broken down as 118 cases of genetic encephalopathy and 24 of metabolic hereditary diseases. Our data seem to indicate that diagnosis is easier when GDD/ID is associated with cerebral palsy, epilepsy, infantile spasms/West syndrome, or visual deficit, but more difficult in cases of autism spectrum disorders. Genetic studies provide an increasing number of aetiological diagnoses, and they are also becoming the first step in diagnostic studies. Array CGH (microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation) is the genetic test with the highest diagnostic yield in children with unexplained GDD/ID. The cost-effectiveness of complementary studies seems to be low if there are no clinically suspected entities. However, even in the absence of treatment, aetiological diagnosis is always important in order to provide genetic counselling and possible prenatal diagnosis, resolve family (and doctors') queries, and halt further diagnostic studies. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Halitosis: a new definition and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, M; Harvey-Woodworth, C N

    2014-07-11

    There is no universally accepted, precise definition, nor standardisation in terminology and classification of halitosis. To propose a new definition, free from subjective descriptions (faecal, fish odour, etc), one-time sulphide detector readings and organoleptic estimation of odour levels, and excludes temporary exogenous odours (for example, from dietary sources). Some terms previously used in the literature are revised. A new aetiologic classification is proposed, dividing pathologic halitosis into Type 1 (oral), Type 2 (airway), Type 3 (gastroesophageal), Type 4 (blood-borne) and Type 5 (subjective). In reality, any halitosis complaint is potentially the sum of these types in any combination, superimposed on the Type 0 (physiologic odour) present in health. This system allows for multiple diagnoses in the same patient, reflecting the multifactorial nature of the complaint. It represents the most accurate model to understand halitosis and forms an efficient and logical basis for clinical management of the complaint.

  20. Cataract in small animals: classification and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahiano Montiani Ferreira

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Cataract means any opacity present in the lens, lens capsule or both. The opacities may vary in size, location, shape and rate of progression. By slit-lamp biomicroscopy it is possible to examine them with precision, determining its exact location and peculiarities, resulting in a safe, accurate diagnosis. Due to its variable origin and appearance, several methods of classification have been used. Classification by aetiology, grade of maturity, location and age of the patients are presented in this review. Surgical removal is the only effective therapy for this disease. Among the surgical techniques available to this day, endocapsular phacoemulsification excells for its better results, despite of its high cost, if compared to classical intra and extra capsular facectomies.

  1. Multiple aneurysm of unknown aetiology in childhood: Complications and diagnostic possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanfermann, H.; Benz-Bohm, G.; Schaper, J.; Gross-Fengels, W.

    1990-01-01

    A 6,5-year old boy with already known multiple aneurysm of all major arteries presented with acute abdominal pain. As demonstrated by ultrasound a big aneurysm of the left renal artery thrombosed in the course of three days. As a result, the left kidney developed severe ischaemia. Although computed tomography and scintigraphy were applied, a plan for a definitive therapeutic procedere could be established only by arterial angiography. Both Ehlers-Danlos' syndrome and Kawasaki's syndrome were excluded. There were no facts suggesting an infective aetiology. Four other cases with multiple aneurysms of unknown aetiology in childhood have so far been described in literature. (orig.) [de

  2. Diaphyseal long bone nonunions - types, aetiology, economics, and treatment recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Markus; Biehl, Christoph; Budak, Matthäus; Thormann, Ulrich; Heiss, Christian; Alt, Volker

    2018-02-01

    The intention of the current article is to review the epidemiology with related socioeconomic costs, pathophysiology, and treatment options for diaphyseal long bone delayed unions and nonunions. Diaphyseal nonunions in the tibia and in the femur are estimated to occur 4.6-8% after modern intramedullary nailing of closed fractures with an even much higher risk in open fractures. There is a high socioeconomic burden for long bone nonunions mainly driven by indirect costs, such as productivity losses due to long treatment duration. The classic classification of Weber and Cech of the 1970s is based on the underlying biological aspect of the nonunion differentiating between "vital" (hypertrophic) and "avital" (hypo-/atrophic) nonunions, and can still be considered to represent the basis for basic evaluation of nonunions. The "diamond concept" units biomechanical and biological aspects and provides the pre-requisites for successful bone healing in nonunions. For humeral diaphyseal shaft nonunions, excellent results for augmentation plating were reported. In atrophic humeral shaft nonunions, compression plating with stimulation of bone healing by bone grafting or BMPs seem to be the best option. For femoral and tibial diaphyseal shaft fractures, dynamization of the nail is an atraumatic, effective, and cheap surgical possibility to achieve bony consolidation, particularly in delayed nonunions before 24 weeks after initial surgery. In established hypertrophic nonunions in the tibia and femur, biomechanical stability should be addressed by augmentation plating or exchange nailing. Hypotrophic or atrophic nonunions require additional biological stimulation of bone healing for augmentation plating.

  3. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  4. Aetiological profile of nasal trauma in Ilorin North-Central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The nose being the most prominent part of the face is easily traumatized in facial injuries and these has been found to be common among the Caucasians compared to the Africans and Asians. The aim is to ighlight the Aetiological profile of nasal trauma in Ilorin orth-central Nigeria. Method: A prospective study ...

  5. aetiological agents of ear discharge: a two year re- view in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... SUMMARY. Background: The discharging ear is a common presentation in medical practice affecting all age groups but primarily children. This study shows the current aetiological causes of ear discharge and their antibiograms, data which would guide empirical treat- ment of ear infections, and also form ...

  6. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  7. http://www.bioline.org.br/js 101 Aetiological Profile of Facial Nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    Background: Facial nerve abnormalities represent a broad spectrum of lesions which are commonly seen by the otolaryngologist. The aim of this paper is to highlight the aetiologic profile of facial nerve palsy. Methods: A retrospective study of patients with facial nerve palsy seen in the Ear, Nose and Throat clinic for 5 years.

  8. Neonatal seizures : Aetiology by means of a standardized work-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loman, Annemiek M. W.; ter Horst, Henk J.; Lambrechtsen, Florise A. C. P.; Lunsing, Roelineke J.

    Neonatal seizures are an alarming symptom and are frequent in neonates. It is important to find the cause of neonatal seizures to start a specific treatment and to give a meaningful prognosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of different aetiologies of neonatal seizures in our

  9. Influence of obesity-related risk factors in the aetiology of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disney-Hogg, Linden; Sud, Amit; Law, Philip J

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and related factors have been implicated as possible aetiological factors for the development of glioma in epidemiological observation studies. We used genetic markers in a Mendelian randomisation framework to examine whether obesity-related traits influence glioma risk. This ...

  10. Symptoms and aetiology of delirium: a comparison of elderly and adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, S; Agarwal, M; Sharma, A; Mattoo, S K; Avasthi, A; Chakrabarti, S; Malhotra, S; Kulhara, P; Bas, D

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To compare the symptoms of delirium as assessed by the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98) and associated aetiologies in adult and elderly patients seen in a consultation-liaison service. METHODS. A total of 321 consecutive patients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of delirium were assessed on the DRS-R-98 and a study-specific aetiology checklist. RESULTS. Of the 321 patients, 245 (76%) aged 18 to 64 years formed the adult group, while 76 (24%) formed the elderly group (≥ 65 years). The prevalence and severity of various symptoms of delirium as assessed using the DRS-R-98 were similar across the 2 groups, except for the adult group having statistically higher prevalence and severity scores for thought process abnormalities and lability of affect. For both groups and the whole sample, factor analysis yielded a 3-factor model for the phenomenology. In the 2 groups, the DRS-R-98 item loadings showed subtle differences across various factors. The 2 groups were similar for the mean number of aetiologies associated with delirium, the mean number being 3. However, the 2 groups differed with respect to hepatic derangement, substance intoxication, withdrawal, and postpartum causes being more common in the adult group, in contrast lung disease and cardiac abnormalities were more common in the elderly group. CONCLUSION. Adult and elderly patients with delirium are similar with respect to the distribution of various symptoms, motor subtypes, and associated aetiologies.

  11. A review of the current literature on aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.M. van den; Feenstra, L.; Baat, C. de

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This work reviews the current knowledge of aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis. DATA: Halitosis is an unpleasant or offensive odour emanating from the breath. The condition is multifactorial and may involve both oral and non-oral conditions. SOURCES: A private, monthly with

  12. Domestic donkey (Equus africanus asinus bites: An unusual aetiology of severe scalp injuries in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Droussi

    2014-12-01

    Discussion: The bite of a donkey is rare aetiology of scalp injuries. Special features of these injuries, including a literature review, are discussed focusing on the care of these patients in the emergency centre, describing the surgical procedures required and antibiotic choice. Recommendations for the management of donkey bite scalp injuries are provided.

  13. Aetiology of male urethritis in patients recruited from a population with a high HIV prevalence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, P.D.J.; Moodley, P.; Khan, N.; Ebrahim, S.; Govender, K.; Connolly, C.E.; Sturm, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    The aetiology of urethritis, the significance of potential pathogens and the relation of urethritis to HIV infection were determined in 335 men (cases) with and 100 men (controls) without urethral symptoms. Urethral swab specimens were tested for different organisms by PCR or by culture for

  14. Does the sun play a role in the aetiology of malignant melanoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of the sun in the aetiology of malignant melanoma is controversial. In 1992 Schuster1 wrote provocatively, 'Despite the lack of evidence of a causal link between sun exposure and melanoma, fear has been used shamelessly to frighten people out of the sun and into pigmented lesion clinics.' He claimed that the ...

  15. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  16. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  17. Understanding Muscle Dysfunction in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Rutherford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME is a debilitating disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by severe disabling fatigue in the absence of alternative diagnosis. Historically, there has been a tendency to draw psychological explanations for the origin of fatigue; however, this model is at odds with findings that fatigue and accompanying symptoms may be explained by central and peripheral pathophysiological mechanisms, including effects of the immune, oxidative, mitochondrial, and neuronal pathways. For example, patient descriptions of their fatigue regularly cite difficulty in maintaining muscle activity due to perceived lack of energy. This narrative review examined the literature for evidence of biochemical dysfunction in CFS/ME at the skeletal muscle level. Methods. Literature was examined following searches of PUB MED, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar, using key words such as CFS/ME, immune, autoimmune, mitochondria, muscle, and acidosis. Results. Studies show evidence for skeletal muscle biochemical abnormality in CFS/ME patients, particularly in relation to bioenergetic dysfunction. Discussion. Bioenergetic muscle dysfunction is evident in CFS/ME, with a tendency towards an overutilisation of the lactate dehydrogenase pathway following low-level exercise, in addition to slowed acid clearance after exercise. Potentially, these abnormalities may lead to the perception of severe fatigue in CFS/ME.

  18. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  19. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People who cannot actively move one or more joints can do exercises using braces or splints . When ... A.M. Editorial team. Muscle Disorders Read more Neuromuscular Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  20. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Aberrant Muscle Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Jessica; Coombs, Christopher

    2018-06-01

    Aberrant Muscle Syndrome (AMS) is a rare congenital hand difference that is characterised by unilateral non-progressive muscular hyperplasia. The aetiology of aberrant muscle syndrome is not known, but a recently published case has shown a somatic PIK3CA activating mutation in a patient with AMS. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in children is rare. The most common causes are the mucopolysaccaridoses but space-occupying lesions have also been reported to cause CTS in children. We report the first case of CTS in a child with AMS successfully treated with open carpal tunnel release and excision of aberrant muscles.

  1. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology and ground-water ionicity: study based on Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharma-Wardana, M W C; Amarasiri, Sarath L; Dharmawardene, Nande; Panabokke, C R

    2015-04-01

    High incidence of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDU) in Sri Lanka is shown to correlate with the presence of irrigation works and rivers that bring-in 'nonpoint source' fertilizer runoff from intensely agricultural regions. We review previous attempts to link CKDU with As, Cd and other standard toxins. Those studies (e.g. the WHO-sponsored study), while providing a wealth of data, are inconclusive in regard to aetiology. Here, we present new proposals based on increased ionicity of drinking water due to fertilizer runoff into the river system, redox processes in the soil and features of 'tank'-cascades and aquifers. The consequent chronic exposure to high ionicity in drinking water is proposed to debilitate the kidney via a Hofmeister-type (i.e. protein-denaturing) mechanism.

  2. The problems of urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Hanna; Szałek, Edyta; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2014-08-29

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics), immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%), C. glabrata (31%), C. tropicalis (6%), C. krusei (3%). In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  3. The contribution of twin studies to the understanding of the aetiology of asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and other atopic diseases has increased markedly during the past decades and the reasons for this are not fully understood. Asthma is still increasing in many parts of the world, notably in developing countries, and this emphasizes the importance of continuing research...... aimed at studying the aetiological factors of the disease and the causes of its increase in prevalence. Twin studies enable investigations into the genetic and environmental causes of individual variation in multifactorial diseases such as asthma. Thorough insight into these causes is important...... as this will ultimately guide the development of preventive strategies and targeted therapies. This review explores the contribution of twin studies to the understanding of the aetiology of asthma and atopic diseases....

  4. Aetiology and pathology of otitis media with effusion in adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R; Hathorn, I

    2016-05-01

    To gather and analyse information concerning the aetiology and pathology of otitis media with effusion in adults. A review of the English language literature from 1970 to the present was conducted. The available evidence suggests that otitis media with effusion in adult life is best viewed as a syndrome with a number of causes, including: infiltration of the eustachian tube by nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other local malignancies; changes in the middle ear and eustachian tube induced by radiotherapy; and systemic disease. There is now a body of evidence specifically related to the aetiology and pathology of otitis media with effusion in adult life. However, further research is required to fill in the gaps in our knowledge and understanding of this condition.

  5. The aetiology of acute and chronic pancreatitis over time in a hospital in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Bendtsen, Flemming; Matzen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    : Gallstone disease significantly (p = 0.04) increased as the cause of acute pancreatitis over the 22-year period, while alcohol remained the major cause of chronic pancreatitis. The validity of the diagnoses for patients with acute pancreatitis varied between 51% and 73%, and for chronic pancreatitis between......INTRODUCTION: The change in aetiology over time of acute and chronic pancreatitis has been sparsely described, as has also the validity of the diagnostic codes. The aim of the study was 1) to clarify whether the aetiology of acute and chronic pancreatitis changed during the period 1983-2005, and 2......) to validate the diagnostic codes over time for acute and chronic pancreatitis registered in the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR) in the same period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All admissions at Hvidovre Hospital coded in the NPR in 1983, 1994 and 2005 with a diagnosis of either acute or chronic pancreatitis...

  6. AETIOLOGY OF ACQUIRED LOWER MOTOR NEURON TYPE OF FACIAL NERVE PARALYSIS– A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Devi Karangat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study was conducted to evaluate the various aetiologies of acquired lower motor neuron type of facial nerve paralysis, assessment of severity of lesion and outcome through follow up. 47 patients between 15-75 years were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS All patients with acquired LMN facial paralysis who presented to our department were included in the study. They were evaluated with history, clinical examination and investigations. They were treated and followed up for a period of 6 months. RESULTS The most common aetiology identified for facial palsy was trauma which was non-iatrogenic. The anatomic level which predominated in our patients was infrastapedial. Maximum number of patients presented with grade 4 facial palsy. CONCLUSION Non- iatrogenic trauma was the most common cause among the patients studied and follow up of these patients had a good recovery of 60%.

  7. Panhypopituitarism due to Absence of the Pituitary Stalk: A Rare Aetiology of Liver Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Rozas, Marta; Hernanz Roman, Lidia; Gonzalez, Diego Gonzalez; Pérez-Castrillón, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Studies have established a relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and the onset of liver damage, which may occasionally progress to cirrhosis. Patients with hypopituitarism can develop a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype. Insulin resistance is the main pathophysiological axis of metabolic syndrome and is the causal factor in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We present the case of a young patient with liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology that was finally attributed to panhypopituitarism.

  8. Panhypopituitarism due to Absence of the Pituitary Stalk: A Rare Aetiology of Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gonzalez Rozas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have established a relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and the onset of liver damage, which may occasionally progress to cirrhosis. Patients with hypopituitarism can develop a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype. Insulin resistance is the main pathophysiological axis of metabolic syndrome and is the causal factor in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. We present the case of a young patient with liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology that was finally attributed to panhypopituitarism.

  9. Clinical profile and aetiology of optic neuritis in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia--5 years review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Shatriah; Wan Hazabbah, Wan Hitam; Muhd-Nor, Nor-Idahriani; Daud, Jakiyah; Embong, Zunaina

    2012-04-01

    Although few studies concerning optic neuritis (ON) in Asian countries have been reported, there is no report about ON in Malaysia particularly within the Malay population. We aimed to determine the clinical manifestation, visual outcome and aetiology of ON in Malays, and discussed the literature of ON studies in other Asian populations. This was a retrospective study involving 31 consecutive patients (41 eyes) with ON treated at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia commencing from July 2005 till January 2010 with a period of follow-up ranging from 18-60 months. The clinical features, laboratory results, possible aetiology, and visual acuity after one year were analysed. Females were the predominant group. The age of the patients ranged between 3-55 years and peaked between 21-30 years old. 67.7% of the patients had unilateral involvement. Pain on ocular movement was observed in 31.7% of the affected eyes. 73.3% of 41 involved eyes showed visual acuity equal 6/60 or worse on presentation. Paracentral scotoma was the most common visual field defect noted. Optic disc papillitis proved more widespread compared to the retrobulbar type of ON. The aetiology was idiopathic in more than 50%, while the risk of multiple sclerosis was extremely low (3.2%) in our series. 66.0% demonstrating visual acuity improved to 6/12 or better at one year after the attack. 16.1% showed evidence of recurrence during follow-up. In conclusion, the clinical profile and aetiology of ON in Malay patients are comparable to other ON studies reported by other Asian countries.

  10. New data on aetiology of nodular gill disease in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Kostka, Martin; Wortberg, F.; Nardy, E.; Pecková, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2010), s. 157-163 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0137; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : nodular gill disease * aetiological study * amoebae * Naegleria sp. * fish diseases * aquaculture * Oncorhynchus mykiss Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  11. Non-traumatic cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage: diagnostic work-up and aetiological background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, C.; Kosinski, C.M. [University Hospital of RWTH Aachen, Department of Neurology, Aachen (Germany); Mull, M. [University Hospital of RWTH Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Rohde, V. [University Hospital of RWTH Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Only 15% of all subarachnoid haemorrhages (SAHs) are not of aneurysmal origin. Among those, circumscribed SAHs along the cortical convexity are rare and have only been described in singular case reports so far. Here, we present a collection of 12 cases of SAH along the convexity, of non-traumatic origin. Over a period of 10 years, 12 cases of circumscribed SAH along the convexity were identified at our clinic. The clinical presentations, neuroradiological SAH characteristics, further diagnostic work-up to identify the underlying aetiologies, the therapy and clinical outcome were analysed. The patients' chief complaints were unspecific cephalgia, focal or generalised seizures and focal neurological deficits. Typical signs of basal SAH, such as nuchal rigidity, thunderclap-headache or alteration of consciousness, were rare. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed different aetiologies, namely postpartal posterior encephalopathy (three), cerebral vasculitis (two), dural sinus thrombosis (two), cortical venous thrombosis (one), intracerebral abscesses (one) and cerebral cavernoma (one). Two cases remained unresolved. Treatment of the underlying disease and symptomatic medication led to good clinical outcome in almost all cases. On the basis of these findings, we demonstrate that the clinical presentation, localisation and aetiology of cortical SAH differ clearly from other SAHs. A diagnostic work-up with MRI and eventually DSA is essential. Mostly, the causative disease can be identified, and specific treatment allows a favourable outcome. (orig.)

  12. An investigation into febrile illnesses of unknown aetiology in Wipim, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, Grace; Hetzel, Manuel W; Iga, Jonah; Barnadas, Celine; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M; Horwood, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the aetiology of febrile illnesses remains poorly characterized, mostly due to poor diagnostic facilities and the inaccessibility of much of the rural areas of the country. We investigated the aetiological agents of febrile illnesses for 136 people presenting to Wipim Health Centre in Western Province, Papua New Guinea. Arboviral and rickettsial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, malaria blood smears and a malaria PCR test were used to identify pathogens associated with a history of fever. In 13% (n = 18) of cases an aetiological agent was identified. Dengue virus type 1 was detected in 11% (n = 15) of the samples tested and malaria in 2% (n = 3). None of the other arboviral or rickettsial pathogens tested for were detected in any of the samples. Although dengue viruses have been identified in Papua New Guinea using serological methods, this study represents the first direct detection of dengue in the country. The detection of malaria, on the other hand, was surprisingly low considering the previous notion that this was a hyperendemic region of Papua New Guinea.

  13. Massive immunoglobulin treatment in women with four or more recurrent spontaneous primary abortions of unexplained aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Kishida, T; Kobayashi, N; Kato, E H; Hoshi, N; Fujimoto, S

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate the efficacy of massive i.v. immunoglobulin (MIVIg) treatment for women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) due to unexplained aetiology. The study included nine women (11 pregnancies) with a history of four or more consecutive RSA with unexplained aetiology and no live births. The mean number of fetal losses was 4.5 (range 4-6 abortions). Over the course of 5 days, immunoglobulin (20 g/day) was infused i.v. at gestational weeks 4-7. No additional infusions were carried out. Two pregnancies out of the 11 conceptions resulted in missed abortions at gestational weeks 6 and 7 respectively. Mosaicism (46XX/ 48XX, +16, +20), and tetraploidy (92XXXX) were found by chromosome analyses of the two aborti. Eight out of the other nine pregnancies resulted in full term deliveries of healthy neonates. One pregnancy developed intrauterine growth retardation and fetal distress, resulting in a premature delivery (30 gestational weeks) by Caesarean section. Thus, excluding the two abortions with chromosome aberrations, the MIVIg treatment was effective in all nine pregnancies of RSA women with unexplained aetiology. This MIVIg treatment (100 g administered in early gestation) may be a beneficial alternative to previous IVIg infusion methods, and should be further evaluated in a multicentric, placebo-controlled study, employing a larger number of homogeneous patients who fall into a high risk category of first trimester abortions.

  14. A STUDY ON CLINICAL AND AETIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF HYPOKALAEMIC PARALYSIS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kekathi Vidyasagar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis is a rare disorder characterised by transient attacks of flaccid paralysis of varying intensity and frequency. Although mostly familial in aetiology, several sporadic cases with different causes have been reported. There are two groups of disorders predominantly that causes hypokalaemic paralysis. One group is due to transcellular shift of potassium and other is due to loss of potassium from body either through GI tract or through renal system. MATERIAL AND METHODS Here we report a study on the clinical and aetiological profile of 30 cases of hypokalaemic paralysis admitted in our institution between January 2014 to January 2016. RESULTS The aetiological workup of all the patients was done which revealed thyrotoxic periodic paralysis as the major cause in 12 of 30 patients. Three rare causes of hypokalaemia have been diagnosed which included Bartter’s syndrome, Mixed Connective tissue disorder, Sjogren’s syndrome. Vomiting and diarrhoea was seen in 12 of 30 patients. CONCLUSION Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis is a heterogenous group of disorder. A significant number of patients had thyroid disorders mostly in the form of thyrotoxicosis, non-renal and renal loss of potassium like diarrhoea and vomiting. Early recognition and prompt management of these conditions is essential to prevent residual deformity and further attacks in future.

  15. Role of medical history and medication use in the aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in Europe: the ARCAGE study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Macfarlane, T V

    2012-04-01

    The study aimed to investigate the role of medical history (skin warts, Candida albicans, herpetic lesions, heartburn, regurgitation) and medication use (for heartburn; for regurgitation; aspirin) in the aetiology of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer.

  16. Prevalence, and Intellectual Outcome of Unilateral Focal Cortical Brain Damage as a Function of Age, Sex and Aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. J. Braun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurologists and neuropsychologists are aware that aging men are more at risk than women for brain damage, principally because of the well known male-predominant risk for cardiovascular disease and related cerebrovascular accidents. However, a disproportion in prevalence of brain damage between the sexes in childhood may be less suspected. Furthermore, sex-specific risk for other aetiologies of brain damage may be little known, whether in the pediatric or adult populations. Proposals of a sex difference in cognitive recovery from brain damage have also been controversial. Six hundred and thirty five “consecutive” cases with cortical focal lesions including cases of all ages and both sexes were reviewed. Aetiology of the lesion was determined for each case as was postlesion IQ. Risk was highly male prevalent in all age groups, with a predominance of cardiovascular aetiology explaining much of the adult male prevalence. However, several other aetiological categories were significantly male prevalent in juveniles (mitotic, traumatic, dysplasic and adults (mitotic, traumatic. There was no sex difference in outcome (i.e., postlesion IQ of these cortical brain lesions for the cohort as a whole, after statistical removal of the influence of lesion extent, aetiology and presence of epilepsy. Mechanisms potentially responsible for sex differences in prevalence, aetiology of brain damage, and recovery, are reviewed and discussed.

  17. A STUDY OF AETIOLOGICAL FACTORS IN THE OCCURRENCE OF CUTANEOUS VASCULITIS IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN NORTH KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Malayath

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cutaneous vasculitis is a condition caused by various aetiologies. They can be primary or secondary. Cutaneous lesions maybe a pointer to systemic diseases. So, it is important to identify the various aetiological factors in the occurrence of the various types of cutaneous vasculitis. The patterns and the various aetiologies of cutaneous vasculitis in Kerala is not well documented in the existing literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive study of patients with a clinical diagnosis of cutaneous small vessel vasculitis admitted in Medicine and Dermatology Wards of Calicut, Government Medical College during January 2013 to December 2013. A detailed history and clinical examination of patients along with histopathological examination of skin biopsy was done. RESULTS Out of the 70 cases of cutaneous vasculitis studied, idiopathic cutaneous small vessel vasculitis was the most common type followed by Henoch-Schonlein purpura. The most common aetiology identified was drugs followed by infections. No aetiological factor was identified in 42.8% of the cases. CONCLUSION An aetiological association could be found in 57.8% of cases. The causes identified include drugs, infections, malignancy, connective tissue disorder associated, chronic systemic diseases and Behcet’s disease in decreasing order of frequency.

  18. Classification in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys classification research literature, discusses various classification theories, and shows that the focus has traditionally been on establishing a scientific foundation for classification research. This paper argues that a shift has taken place, and suggests that contemporary...... classification research focus on contextual information as the guide for the design and construction of classification schemes....

  19. Classification of the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by investigations into the classification of the Web and outlines inquiries that are needed to use principles for bibliographic classification to construct classifications of the Web. This paper suggests that the classification of the Web meets challenges...... that call for inquiries into the theoretical foundation of bibliographic classification theory....

  20. Gluteal muscle fibrosis with abduction contracture of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bayati, Mohammed Ali; Kraidy, Bakir Kadhum

    2016-03-01

    Gluteal muscle fibrosis with hip contracture is a rare condition and causes major disability; literature reports are sparse. The aim of this study is to present, for the first time in Iraq and the region, a case series of gluteal fibrosis and the results of surgical treatment. Seven children--six boys and one girl--diagnosed as having gluteal muscle fibrosis with hip contracture, were investigated and treated by open surgical release of fibrotic bands and physiotherapy. All patients improved dramatically over the subsequent weeks, and were able to sit and squat in the normal position. Gluteal muscle fibrosis with hip contracture is present in Iraq and more awareness is needed for early diagnosis. Surgical treatment provided excellent results. More studies are needed to delineate the aetiology of the condition.

  1. CT evaluation of the damaged upper limb muscle in patients with Duchenne type progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuke, Yutaka.

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate the changes of CT numbers and cross sectional areas of the muscles, we determined CT scores of the muscle. In twelve patients with Duchenne type progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD), we assessed the difference of CT scores of the muscle and the correlation between CT score of the muscle and 9-stage classification of upper extremities. CT scores of the subscapularis muscle and infraspinatus muscle were significantly lower than deltoideus muscle at the level of the shoulder, and flexor muscles showed also significantly lower than extensor muscles at the level of the upper extremity. Good correlations between CT score of the muscle and 9-stage classification of upper extremities were observed in the muscles of shoulder and upper arm. (author)

  2. CT evaluation of the damaged upper limb muscle in patients with Duchenne type progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Hiroshi (Anan Central Hospital, Tokushima (Japan)); Matsuke, Yutaka

    1992-04-01

    In order to evaluate the changes of CT numbers and cross sectional areas of the muscles, we determined CT scores of the muscle. In twelve patients with Duchenne type progressive muscular dystrophy (DMD), we assessed the difference of CT scores of the muscle and the correlation between CT score of the muscle and 9-stage classification of upper extremities. CT scores of the subscapularis muscle and infraspinatus muscle were significantly lower than deltoideus muscle at the level of the shoulder, and flexor muscles showed also significantly lower than extensor muscles at the level of the upper extremity. Good correlations between CT score of the muscle and 9-stage classification of upper extremities were observed in the muscles of shoulder and upper arm. (author).

  3. Detection of muscle gap by L-BIA in muscle injuries: clinical prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nescolarde, L; Yanguas, J; Terricabras, J; Lukaski, H; Alomar, X; Rosell-Ferrer, J; Rodas, G

    2017-06-21

    Sport-related muscle injury classifications are based basically on imaging criteria such as ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without consensus because of a lack of clinical prognostics for return-to-play (RTP), which is conditioned upon the severity of the injury, and this in turn with the muscle gap (muscular fibers retraction). Recently, Futbol Club Barcelona's medical department proposed a new muscle injury classification in which muscle gap plays an important role, with the drawback that it is not always possible to identify by MRI. Localized bioimpedance measurement (L-BIA) has emerged as a non-invasive technique for supporting US and MRI to quantify the disrupted soft tissue structure in injured muscles. To correlate the severity of the injury according to the gap with the RTP, through the percent of change in resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase-angle (PA) by L-BIA measurements in 22 muscle injuries. After grouping the data according to the muscle gap (by MRI exam), there were significant differences in R between grade 1 and grade 2f (myotendinous or myofascial muscle injury with feather-like appearance), as well as between grade 2f and grade 2g (myotendinous or myofascial muscle injury with feather and gap). The Xc and PA values decrease significantly between each grade (i.e. 1 versus 2f, 1 versus 2g and 2f versus 2g). In addition, the severity of the muscle gap adversely affected the RTP with significant differences observed between 1 and 2g as well as between 2f and 2g. These results show that L-BIA could aid MRI and US in identifying the severity of an injured muscle according to muscle gap and therefore to accurately predict the RTP.

  4. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  5. Systems Biology of Glucocorticoids in Muscle Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Introduction Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and incurable muscular dystrophy of childhood. Muscle regeneration fails with...SUBJECT TERMS Duchenne Muscular dystrophy , Glucocorticoids, Systems biology, Drug mechanism 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17. LIMITATION...better targeted and more effective therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy dynamically. This MDA grant proposal is led by Dr. Eric Hoffman, and it

  6. Characteristics, aetiological spectrum and management of valvular heart disease in a Tunisian cardiovascular centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triki, Faten; Jdidi, Jihen; Abid, Dorra; Tabbabi, Nada; Charfeddine, Selma; Ben Kahla, Sahar; Hentati, Mourad; Abid, Leila; Kammoun, Samir

    Valvular heart diseases occur frequently in Tunisia, but no precise statistics are available. To analyse the characteristics of patients with abnormal valvular structure and function, and to identify the aetiological spectrum, treatment and outcomes of valvular heart disease in a single cardiovascular centre in Tunisia. This retrospective study included patients with abnormal valvular structure and function, who were screened by transthoracic echocardiography at a single cardiology department between January 2010 and December 2013. Data on baseline characteristics, potential aetiology, treatment strategies and discharge outcomes were collected from medical records. There were 959 patients with a significant valvular heart disease (mean age 53±17years; female/male ratio 0.57). Valvular heart disease was native in 77% of patients. Mitral stenosis was the most frequent lesion (44.1%), followed by multiple valve disease (22.3%). Rheumatic origin (66.6%) was the most frequent aetiology, followed by degenerative (17.2%) or ischaemic (8.1%) causes, endocarditis (1.4%) and congenital (0.9%) causes. Native valve disease was severe in 589 patients (61.4%). Percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty was performed in 36.9% of patients with mitral stenosis. Among patients with severe valvular heart disease, surgical treatment was indicated for 446 (75.7%) patients. Only 161 (36.1%) patients were finally operated. Postoperative mortality was 13.6% for all valvular heart diseases. This retrospective study has shown that the main cause of valvular heart disease in Tunisia is rheumatic fever. Mitral stenosis and multiple valve disease are the most frequent valvular heart diseases in Tunisia. Percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty and prosthetic valve replacement are the preferred treatment methods for valvular heart disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. A STUDY OF THE VARIED AETIOLOGY AND CLINICAL PRESENTATION OF NEW ONSET SEIZURES IN POSTPARTUM PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Kumar Sudarsi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Seizures in the postpartum period are the major cause of mortality and morbidity. A variety of neurological disorders causing seizures may be encountered during pregnancy and puerperium. These disorders may be unrelated to pregnancy (e.g. Meningitis or peculiar to pregnancy (e.g. Eclampsia or. Pregnancy may affect the course of the pre-existing neurological disorders such as epilepsy. So, keeping in mind the varied aetiology of postpartum seizures and its response to appropriate treatment, our study has been conducted to find out the most common causes in our setup to guide the optimal therapy. AIM OF THE STUDY To study the varied aetiology and clinical presentation of new onset seizures in the postpartum period over a period of two years. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients who developed first episode of seizures in postpartum period (that is after delivery to 6 weeks admitted to Osmania General Hospital on random selection. All women complaining of new onset seizure with in postpartum period up to 6 weeks. All those women who are known epileptics and who had seizures in the antenatal period were excluded from the study. The selected patients were studied in detail with history and physical examination. RESULTS Different causes for first episode of seizures in postpartum period are enlisted here. Cavernous sinus thrombosis in 17 patients, late postpartum eclampsia accounted for 13 patients, intracranial haemorrhage in 6 patients, ischaemic stroke in 5 patients, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in 4 patients, CNS infections in 6 patients, glioma in 1 patient, viral hepatitis in one patient, idiopathic in 3 patients. CONCLUSIONS Cavernous sinus thrombosis and late postpartum eclampsia constitute the major aetiology of first onset of seizes occurring in the postpartum period.

  8. Gifles de la Tourett's Disease a Single case study A Discussion on Aetiology and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Izadi

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of Gille de la Tourett's syndrome is reported and discussed 111 the light of conflicting views on the aetiology of the condition. It is hypothesized that if Tourette's syndrome is to be considered as a sort of reaction against adaption to an unhealthy environment, this reaction and its continuity can be attributed to permanent eNS damage (Probably in the area of corpora striata beginning in childhood. Treatment with haloperidol is suggested as a most effective method of symptomatic treatment.

  9. Aetiology of Vertigo as Seen at the Federal Medical Center Lokoja, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Agbomhekhe Ogah

    2017-05-01

    Results: Three thousand two hundred and fourteen patients were seen and 65 of them had vertigo with a prevalence of 2.0%. Fifteen files had incomplete information and were not include in the study. The remaining 50 patients' files that were reviewed, consisted of 32 males (64% and 18 females (36%. Male to female ratio was 1.8:1 and a mean age of 24.8 years. Bengin Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV 22(44% was the commonest aetiology found followed by Meniere's disease 8(16%, trauma 7(14% and Vestibular Neuronitis 5(10% respectively.

  10. Radiation-induced increase in the release of amino acids by isolated, perfused skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenen, M.

    1989-01-01

    Local exposure of the hindquarter of the rat to 15Gy of gamma-radiation resulted, 4-6h after irradiation, in increased release of amino acids by the isolated, perfused hindquarter preparation, 70% of which is skeletal muscle. This increase in release involves not only alanine and glutamine, but also those amino acids not metabolized by muscle and, therefore, released in proportion to their occurrence in muscle proteins. Because metabolic parameters and content of energy-rich phosphate compounds in muscle remain unchanged, it is unlikely that general cellular damage is the underlying cause of the radiation-induced increase in amino acid release. The findings strongly favour the hypothesis that increased availability of amino acids results from enhanced protein break-down in skeletal muscle which has its onset shortly after irradiation. This radiation-induced disturbance in protein metabolism might be one of the pathogenetic factors in the aetiology of radiation myopathy. (author)

  11. Genetics and other factors in the aetiology of female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redler, Silke; Messenger, Andrew G; Betz, Regina C

    2017-06-01

    Pattern hair loss is the most common form of hair loss in both women and men. Male pattern hair loss, also termed male androgenetic alopecia (M-AGA), is an androgen-dependent trait that is predominantly genetically determined. Androgen-mediated mechanisms are probably involved in female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in some women but the evidence is less strong than in M-AGA; other non-androgenic pathways, including environmental influences, may contribute to the aetiology. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic loci for M-AGA and have provided better insight into the underlying biology. However, the role of heritable factors in Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL) is largely unknown. Recently published studies have been restricted to candidate gene approaches and could not clearly identify any susceptibility locus/gene for FPHL but suggest that the aetiology differs substantially from that of M-AGA. Hypotheses about possible pathomechanisms of FPHL as well as the results of the genetic studies performed to date are summarized. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Incidence, aetiology and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, O; Maas, M; Verhagen, E; Zwerver, J; Gouttebarge, V

    2017-07-01

    Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (volleyball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among volleyball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review systematically the scientific evidence on the incidence, prevalence, aetiology and preventive measures of volleyball injuries. To this end, a highly sensitive search strategy was built based on two groups of keywords (and their synonyms). Two electronic databases were searched, namely Medline (biomedical literature) via Pubmed, and SPORTDiscus (sports and sports medicine literature) via EBSCOhost. The results showed that ankle, knee and shoulder injuries are the most common injuries sustained while playing volleyball. Results are presented separately for acute and overuse injuries, as well as for contact and non-contact injuries. Measures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries, anterior knee injuries and ankle injuries were identified in the scientific literature. These preventive measures were found to have a significant effect on decreasing the occurrence of volleyball injuries (for instance on ankle injuries with a reduction from 0.9 to 0.5 injuries per 1000 player hours). Our systematic review showed that musculoskeletal injuries are common among volleyball players, while effective preventive measures remain scarce. Further epidemiological studies should focus on other specific injuries besides knee and ankle injuries, and should also report their prevalence and not only the incidence. Additionally, high-quality studies on the aetiology and prevention of shoulder injuries are lacking and should be a focus of future studies.

  13. Multiple constitutional aetiological factors in bone marrow failure syndrome (BMFS) patients from north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Neelam; Varma, Subhash; Marwaha, Ram Kumar; Malhotra, Pankaj; Bansal, Deepak; Malik, Kiran; Kaur, Sukhdeep; Garewal, Gurjeevan

    2006-07-01

    A large number of patients diagnosed with bone marrow failure syndromes (BMFS), comprising aplastic anaemia (AA) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), remain aetiologically uncharacterized worldover, especially in resource constrained set up. We carried out this study to identify a few constitutional causes in BMFS patients attending a tertiary care hospital in north India. Peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures were performed (with and without clastogens) in a cohort of 135 consecutive BMFS patients, in order to detect Fanconi anaemia (FA), Down's syndrome (+21), trisomy 8 (+8) and monosomy 7 (-7). Constitutional factors were detected in 17 (12.6%) patients. FA defect was observed in 24.07 percent (13/54), 16.66 percent (1/6) and 2.85 percent (1/35) paediatric aplastic anaemia, paediatric MDS and adult MDS patients respectively. Down's syndrome was detected in 5.00 percent (2/40) adult aplastic anaemia patients. None of the patients revealed trisomy 8 or monosomy 7. Presence of an underlying factor determines appropriate management, prognostication, family screening and genetic counselling of BMFS patients. Special tests required to confirm or exclude constitutional aetiological factors are not available to majority of the patients in our country. Diepoxybutane (DEB) test yielded better results than mitomycin C (MMC) test in our experience.

  14. A Latter-day Saint Approach to Addiction: Aetiology, Consequences and Treatment in a Theological Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Holt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the theological underpinning of the nature, aetiology and treatment of addictions within The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The first section outlines the “plan of salvation” and how this provides the theological framework for the source and solution to addictions. The final section explores addiction against this background in terms of its aetiology, types, consequences and treatment in a Latter-day Saint context. In so doing it builds on the recognition by the Church in recent years that addiction is a problem in the lives of some of its members and that treatment programs coherent with its teachings and beliefs are necessary. The article concludes by suggesting that while addiction may be more openly discussed within a Latter-day Saint context there is a need to keep this dialogue moving forward. This article does not examine Latter-day Saint teaching within the wider context of psychotherapy and other definitions of addiction; rather it explores the place of addiction as understood within the theological and ecclesiological context of Mormonism.

  15. Genetic evidence implicates the immune system and cholesterol metabolism in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Jones

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Late Onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD is the leading cause of dementia. Recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS identified the first strongly supported LOAD susceptibility genes since the discovery of the involvement of APOE in the early 1990s. We have now exploited these GWAS datasets to uncover key LOAD pathophysiological processes.We applied a recently developed tool for mining GWAS data for biologically meaningful information to a LOAD GWAS dataset. The principal findings were then tested in an independent GWAS dataset.We found a significant overrepresentation of association signals in pathways related to cholesterol metabolism and the immune response in both of the two largest genome-wide association studies for LOAD.Processes related to cholesterol metabolism and the innate immune response have previously been implicated by pathological and epidemiological studies of Alzheimer's disease, but it has been unclear whether those findings reflected primary aetiological events or consequences of the disease process. Our independent evidence from two large studies now demonstrates that these processes are aetiologically relevant, and suggests that they may be suitable targets for novel and existing therapeutic approaches.

  16. Viral aetiology influenza like illnesses in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delangue, Julie; Roca Sanchez, Yelin; Piorkowski, Géraldine; Bessaud, Maël; Baronti, Cécile; Thirion-Perrier, Laurence; Mafayle, Roxana Loayza; Ardaya, Cinthia Avila; Aguilera, Gabriela Añez; Guzman, Jimmy Revollo; Riera, Javier Lora; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-02-24

    Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses. 50.2% of samples were positive for at least one virus with influenza viruses (Flu A: ~15%; Flu B: ~9%), rhinoviruses (~8%), coronaviruses (~5%) and hRSV (~4%) being the most frequently identified. The pattern of viral infections varied according to age groups. The elucidation rate was the highest (>60%) amongst patients under 10 yo and the lowest (Bolivia in the study period, originating from Central and North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Our results emphasise the requirement for a reinforced epidemiological and genetic follow-up of influenza and other ILIs in Bolivia to further inform the preparation of vaccines used in the region, guide vaccination campaigns and improve the medical management of patients.

  17. Viral aetiology influenza like illnesses in Santa Cruz, Bolivia (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represents the first attempt to characterise viral aetiologies of ILIs in Bolivia. Methods It was performed in Santa Cruz city from January 2010 to September 2012, based on 564 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected in a National Reference Laboratory and real-time PCR techniques, viral cultures and phylogenetic analyses. Results 50.2% of samples were positive for at least one virus with influenza viruses (Flu A: ~15%; Flu B: ~9%), rhinoviruses (~8%), coronaviruses (~5%) and hRSV (~4%) being the most frequently identified. The pattern of viral infections varied according to age groups. The elucidation rate was the highest (>60%) amongst patients under 10 yo and the lowest (Bolivia in the study period, originating from Central and North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Conclusion Our results emphasise the requirement for a reinforced epidemiological and genetic follow-up of influenza and other ILIs in Bolivia to further inform the preparation of vaccines used in the region, guide vaccination campaigns and improve the medical management of patients. PMID:24564892

  18. Pituitary transcription factors in the aetiology of combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfäffle, R; Klammt, J

    2011-02-01

    The somatotropic axis is the central postnatal regulator of longitudinal growth. One of its major components--growth hormone--is produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary, which also expresses and secretes five additional hormones (prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone). Proper development of the pituitary assures the regulation of critical processes such as metabolic control, puberty and reproduction, stress response and lactation. Ontogeny of the adenohypophysis is orchestrated by inputs from neighbouring tissues, cellular signalling molecules and transcription factors. Perturbation of expression or function of these factors has been implicated in the aetiology of combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). Mutations within the genes encoding for the transcription factors LHX3, LHX4, PROP1, and POU1F1 (PIT1) that act at different stages of pituitary development result in unique patterns of hormonal deficiencies reflecting their differential expression during organogenesis. In the case of LHX3 and LHX4 the phenotype may include extra-pituitary manifestations due to the function of these genes/proteins outside the pituitary gland. The remarkable variability in the clinical presentation of affected patients indicates the influence of the genetic background, environmental factors and possibly stochastic events. However, in the majority of CPHD cases the aetiology of this heterogeneous disease remains unexplained, which further suggests the involvement of additional genes. Identification of these factors might also help to close the gaps in our understanding of pituitary development, maintenance and function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of Evidence in Prevention and Aetiology of Food Allergy: A Review of Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Caroline J.; Allen, Katrina J.; Lowe, Adrian J.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of food allergy appears to be increasing. Early life environmental factors are implicated in the aetiology of this global epidemic. The largest burden of disease is in early childhood, where research efforts aimed at prevention have been focused. Evidence synthesis from good quality systematic reviews is needed. We performed an overview of systematic reviews concerning the prevention and aetiology of food allergy, retrieving 14 systematic reviews, which covered three broad topics: formula (hydrolysed or soy) for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization; maternal and infant diet and dietary supplements for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization and hygiene hypothesis-related interventions. Using the AMSTAR criteria for assessment of methodological quality, we found five reviews to be of high quality, seven of medium quality and two of low quality. Overall we found no compelling evidence that any of the interventions that had been systematically reviewed were related to the risk of food allergy. Updating of existing reviews, and production of new systematic reviews, are needed in areas where evidence is emerging for interventions and environmental associations. Furthermore, additional primary studies, with greater numbers of participants and objective food allergy definitions are urgently required. PMID:24192789

  20. Chicken astrovirus as an aetiological agent of runting-stunting syndrome in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Il; Linnemann, Erich; Icard, Alan H; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Sellers, Holly S

    2018-04-01

    Despite descriptions of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens dating back over 40 years, the aetiology has not yet been described. A novel chicken astrovirus (CkAstV) was isolated in an LMH liver cell line from the intestines of chickens affected with RSS. Clinical RSS is characterized by retarded growth and cystic crypt lesions in the small intestine. In 1-day-old broiler chickens infected with the CkAstV isolate, virus was only detected in the intestinal epithelial cells during the first few days after infection. Notably, the preferred host cells are the crypt epithelial cells following initial replication in the villous epithelial cells, thus implying viral preference for immature intestinal cells. Nevertheless, the CkAstV isolate did not induce remarkable pathological changes, despite the presence of the virus in situ. Serial chicken-to-chicken passages of the virus induced increased virulence, as displayed by decreased weight gain and the presence of cystic lesions in the small intestine reproducing clinical RSS in chickens. The analysis of the full-length genome sequences from the isolated CkAstV and the CkAstV from the bird-to-bird passages showed >99 % similarity. The data obtained in this study suggest that the CkAstV isolate is capable of inducing RSS following serial bird-to-bird passages in broilers and is as an aetiological agent of the disease.

  1. The aetiology of oral submucous fibrosis: the stimulation of collagen synthesis by extracts of areca nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canniff, J P; Harvey, W

    1981-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic disabling disease developing in up to 0.5% of the estimated 500 million habitual chewers of the "betel" quid. The quid, or chew, usually comprises a leaf of the Piper betel vine in which is wrapped fragments of the nut of Areca catechu, together with slaked lime and varied additives, including tobacco. The precise aetiology of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) remains obscure, but epidemiological and animal studies have pointed to a close association with the prolonged usage of A. catechu nuts. Epithelial atypia and epidermoid carcinoma have been reported in 15% and 7%, respectively, of patients with established OSF. Preparations from varieties of A. catechu nuts have been tested for their ability to stimulate collagen synthesis in microwell cultures of human fibroblasts, using a pulse of 3H-proline and subsequent analysis of the cultures for radioactive collagen. Crude extracts of three varieties of areca nuts were extracted with ethanol and lyophilised before dilution in the culture medium. Control media contained identical concentrations of ethanol where appropriate. The three extracts at a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml stimulated collagen synthesis by approximately 150%, suggesting that this effect might be involved in the aetiology of oral submucous fibrosis.

  2. Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment: Aetiological Evaluation of Infants identified through the Irish Newborn Hearing Screening Programme

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, A

    2017-11-01

    The Newborn Hearing Screening Programme (NHSP) was established in Cork University Maternity Hospital (CUMH) in April 2011. Between April 2011 and July 2014, 42 infants were identified with a Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment (PCHI). Following this diagnosis, infants underwent a paediatric assessment according to recognised guidelines with the intention of identifying the underlying aetiology of the PCHI. The aim of this study was to assess the findings of this aetiological workup via retrospective chart review. PCHI data was obtained from the eSP database. This is a web based information system (eSP) used to track each baby through the screening and referral process A retrospective chart review of these patients was performed. Sixteen (38%) infants were diagnosed with a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Two infants had congenital CMV infection. A Connexin 26 gene mutation was detected in one infant. Two infants were diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome, One with Pendred syndrome and one with Pfeiffer syndrome. Five babies underwent cochlear implantation. Through adherence to the recommended protocol a possible cause of PCHI may be determined. This study has identified areas of future improvement for this service in Ireland.

  3. Role of Gut Microbiota in the Aetiology of Obesity: Proposed Mechanisms and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Edwards, Christine Ann; Shaikh, M. Guftar

    2016-01-01

    The aetiology of obesity has been attributed to several factors (environmental, dietary, lifestyle, host, and genetic factors); however none of these fully explain the increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide. Gut microbiota located at the interface of host and environment in the gut are a new area of research being explored to explain the excess accumulation of energy in obese individuals and may be a potential target for therapeutic manipulation to reduce host energy storage. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the role of gut microbiota in the aetiology of obesity such as short chain fatty acid production, stimulation of hormones, chronic low-grade inflammation, lipoprotein and bile acid metabolism, and increased endocannabinoid receptor system tone. However, evidence from animal and human studies clearly indicates controversies in determining the cause or effect relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity. Metagenomics based studies indicate that functionality rather than the composition of gut microbiota may be important. Further mechanistic studies controlling for environmental and epigenetic factors are therefore required to help unravel obesity pathogenesis. PMID:27703805

  4. South African Muslim Faith Healers perceptions of mental illness: understanding, aetiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Yaseen; Laher, Sumaya

    2008-03-01

    The important role that religious beliefs may have on perceptions of mental illness cannot be ignored. Many religions including Islam advocate witchcraft and spirit possession--all of which are thought to influence the behaviour of a person so as to resemble that of a mentally ill individual. Thus this research explored Muslim Faith Healers perceptions of mental and spiritual illness in terms of their understanding of the distinctions between the two, the aetiologies and the treatments thereof. Six Muslim Healers in the Johannesburg community were interviewed and thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data. From the results it is clear that the faith healers were aware of the distinction between mental and spiritual illnesses. It was also apparent that Islam has a clear taxonomy that distinguishes illness and the causes thereof. Treatments are then advised accordingly. Thus this paper argues that the predominant Western view of the aetiology and understanding of mental illness needs to acknowledge the various culturally inclined taxonomies of mental illness so as to better understand and aid clients.

  5. Viral pneumonia in adults in sub-Saharan Africa – epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Ho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia causes substantial morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa with an estimated 131 million new cases each year. Viruses – such as influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus – are now recognised as important causes of respiratory disease in older children and adults in the developed world following the emergence of sensitive molecular diagnostic tests, recent severe viral epidemics, and the discovery of novel viruses. Few studies have comprehensively evaluated the viral aetiology of adult pneumonia in Africa, but it is likely to differ from Western settings due to varying seasonality and the high proportion of patients with immunosuppression and co-morbidities. Emerging data suggest a high prevalence of viral pathogens, as well as multiple viral and viral/bacterial infections in African adults with pneumonia. However, the interpretation of positive results from highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction tests can be challenging. Therapeutic and preventative options against viral respiratory infections are currently limited in the African setting. This review summarises the current state of the epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and management of viral pneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. The prevalence, aetiology and management of wounds in a community care area in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Skerritt, Louise

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence and aetiology of wounds, allowing an insight into the management of wound care, the use of dressings and the nursing time allocated to the provision of wound care in a community setting in Ireland. A cross-sectional survey was used, with data collected on all clients in the community who received treatment from public health nurses or community registered general nurses for wound care over a 1-week period in April 2013. A 98.9% response rate was realised, and 188 people were identified as having wounds, equating to a crude prevalence of 5% of the active community nursing caseload. A total of 60% (n=112) had leg ulcers, 22% (n=42) had pressure ulcers, 16% (n=30) had an acute wound (surgical or traumatic wounds), 1% (n=2) had a diabetic foot wound and a further 1% (n=2) had wounds of other aetiologies. The mean duration of wounds was 5.41 months. A total of 18% of wounds were identified as infected; however, 60% (n=112) of wounds had antimicrobial products in use as either a primary or secondary dressing. The study established that there is a significant prevalence of wounds in this community care area. There was absence of a clinical diagnosis in many cases, and evidence of inappropriate dressing use, risking an increase in costs and a decrease in good clinical outcomes. It also highlighted the importance of ongoing education and auditing in the provision of wound care.

  7. Masculinity and emotion in Mexican men's understandings of erectile dysfunction aetiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzell, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role that emotions related to local gender norms play in urban Mexican men's understandings of erectile dysfunction (ED) aetiology and drug treatment by analysing semi-structured interviews with 28 male urology patients. Analysing narrative data from our interviews, the paper examines how these men drew differently from locally intelligible ways of understanding health and masculinity to develop context-specific understandings of causes and potential treatment outcomes. Study participants' feelings of success or failure in life areas relating to the performance of 'responsible' masculinity, especially work and romance, strongly influenced understandings of ED aetiology and goals for drug treatment. Those who felt successful at being men collaborated with loved ones to adopt purely biological understandings of ED causation, while those who expressed negative emotions about their performances of masculinity viewed these feelings, as well as the structural and interpersonal problems that caused them, as key causes and consequences of dysfunction. I discuss how these different emotional experiences led to different ways of using medication, and the relevance of these findings for clinical practice.

  8. Dental Erosion and Medical Conditions: An Overview of Aetiology, Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paryag, A; Rafeek, R

    2014-09-01

    Tooth wear or tooth surface loss is a normal physiological process and occurs throughout life but is considered pathological when the degree of destruction is excessive or the rate of loss is rapid, causing functional, aesthetic or sensitivity problems. The importance of tooth wear as a dental problem has been increasingly recognized. The findings of a study in Trinidad indicate that the prevalence of tooth wear in a Trinidadian population is comparable to the United Kingdom (UK) and, indeed, that the level of moderate and severe wear is in fact nearly twice as high. The aetiology of tooth wear is attributed to four causes: erosion, attrition, abrasion and abfraction. Erosion is generally considered to be the most prevalent cause of tooth wear in the UK and Europe. Acids that cause dental erosion originate mainly from the diet or the stomach and to a lesser extent, the environment. Underlying medical problems can contribute to the progress of tooth wear due to erosion and the patient may not be aware of these conditions. Moderate to severe tooth wear poses a significant clinical challenge to dental practitioners and may result in treatment that is more complex and costly to the patient both in terms of finances and time spent in the dental chair. This paper provides an overview of aetiology and diagnosis of tooth wear, in particular tooth wear due to erosion, so that medical and dental practitioners may recognize tooth wear early, institute preventive measures and manage patients appropriately.

  9. Relationship between Traditional Chinese Beliefs about Aetiology of Mental Disorders and Help Seeking: A Survey of the Elderly in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Found, A

    2016-03-01

    A wide range of factors can influence help-seeking attitudes when individuals experience a mental disorder. The current study investigated the relationship between traditional Chinese beliefs related to the aetiology of mental disorders and help-seeking attitudes among elderly participants in Macao. In order to ensure the suitability of participants for inclusion in this study, the participants were required to complete an initial screening test using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Participants who successfully passed the test (n = 183) completed a questionnaire that included the Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS), a set of 9 items related to traditional Chinese beliefs about aetiology of mental disorders and demographic items. The IASMHS scores were higher for female participants and for participants who had completed high school compared with those who had never attended school or who had only completed primary education. Endorsement of traditional Chinese beliefs about the aetiology of mental disorders was higher for male participants. There was a negative correlation between traditional Chinese aetiology beliefs related to mental disorders and help-seeking attitudes. Traditional Chinese beliefs related to the aetiology of mental disorders are a negative factor that inhibits help seeking. Implications for efforts to increase the utilisation of mental health services by the elderly are discussed.

  10. Risk factors, aetiology and outcome of ischaemic stroke in young adults: the Swiss Young Stroke Study (SYSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeggel Simonetti, Barbara; Mono, Marie-Luise; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Michel, Patrik; Odier, Celine; Sztajzel, Roman; Lyrer, Philippe; Engelter, Stefan T; Bonati, Leo; Gensicke, Henrik; Traenka, Christopher; Tettenborn, Barbara; Weder, Bruno; Fischer, Urs; Galimanis, Aekaterini; Jung, Simon; Luedi, Rudolf; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Weck, Anja; Cereda, Carlo W; Baumgartner, Ralf; Bassetti, Claudio L; Mattle, Heinrich P; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Arnold, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    Ischaemic stroke (IS) in young adults has been increasingly recognized as a serious health condition. Stroke aetiology is different in young adults than in the older population. This study aimed to investigate aetiology and risk factors, and to search for predictors of outcome and recurrence in young IS patients. We conducted a prospective multicentre study of consecutive IS patients aged 16-55 years. Baseline demographic data, risk factors, stroke aetiology including systematic genetic screening for Fabry disease and severity were assessed and related to functional neurological outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS), case fatality, employment status, place of residence, and recurrent cerebrovascular events at 3 months. In 624 IS patients (60% men), median age was 46 (IQR 39-51) years and median NIHSS on admission 3 (IQR 1-8). Modifiable vascular risk factors were found in 73%. Stroke aetiology was mostly cardioembolism (32%) and of other defined origin (24%), including cervicocerebral artery dissection (17%). Fabry disease was diagnosed in 2 patients (0.3%). Aetiology remained unknown in 20%. Outcome at 3 months was favourable (mRS 0-1) in 61% and fatal in 2.9%. Stroke severity (p young adults with IS had modifiable vascular risk factors, emphasizing the importance of prevention strategies. Outcome was unfavourable in more than a third of patients and was associated with initial stroke severity and diabetes mellitus. Previous cerebrovascular events predicted recurrent ones.

  11. Childhood acute non-traumatic coma: aetiology and challenges in management in resource-poor countries of Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwer, Samson; Chacha, Clifford; Newton, Charles R; Idro, Richard

    2013-08-01

    This review examines the best available evidence on the aetiology of childhood acute non-traumatic coma in resource-poor countries (RPCs), discusses the challenges associated with management, and explores strategies to address them. Publications in English and French which reported on studies on the aetiology of childhood non-traumatic coma in RPCs are reviewed. Primarily, the MEDLINE database was searched using the keywords coma, unconsciousness, causality, aetiology, child, malaria cerebral, meningitis, encephalitis, Africa, Asia, and developing countries. 14 records were identified for inclusion in the review. Cerebral malaria (CM) was the commonest cause of childhood coma in most of the studies conducted in Africa. Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) was the second most common known cause of coma in seven of the African studies. Of the studies in Asia, encephalitides were the commonest cause of coma in two studies in India, and ABM was the commonest cause of coma in Pakistan. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most commonly isolated organism in ABM. Japanese encephalitis, dengue fever and enteroviruses were the viral agents most commonly isolated. Accurate diagnosis of the aetiology of childhood coma in RPCs is complicated by overlap in clinical presentation, limited diagnostic resources, disease endemicity and co-morbidity. For improved outcomes, studies are needed to further elucidate the aetiology of childhood coma in RPCs, explore simple and practical diagnostic tools, and investigate the most appropriate specific and supportive interventions to manage and prevent infectious encephalopathies.

  12. [Aspects of aetiology of neuro-psychic disorders in male liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power accident consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skavysh, V A

    2009-01-01

    The author considered aetiology of neuro-psychic disorders in liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power accident consequences, demonstrated scientific value of studying the liquidators cohort, as they were protected from internal radiation factors and reside on radiation "pure" territories. External radiation doses in those liquidators vary from 16 cGy to 18.7 +/- 10.8 cGy, according to the author. Catamnesis enabled to doubt radiation aetiology of psychic organic syndrome revealed in 1991-1994 by clinical and instrumental studies among 53.6% of 213 male examinees. According to the author, prolonged over 1-2 months external radiation of low dose could not cause health deterioration in adult males. Diagnosed psychic organic syndrome and vascular encephalopathy in some cases could have alcohol aetiology. This conclusion is not extrapolated to the whole liquidators cohort.

  13. Aberrant mitochondrial homeostasis in the skeletal muscle of sedentary older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Safdar

    Full Text Available The role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress has been extensively characterized in the aetiology of sarcopenia (aging-associated loss of muscle mass and muscle wasting as a result of muscle disuse. What remains less clear is whether the decline in skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity is purely a function of the aging process or if the sedentary lifestyle of older adult subjects has confounded previous reports. The objective of the present study was to investigate if a recreationally active lifestyle in older adults can conserve skeletal muscle strength and functionality, chronic systemic inflammation, mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity, and cellular antioxidant capacity. To that end, muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of young and age-matched recreationally active older and sedentary older men and women (N = 10/group; female symbol = male symbol. We show that a physically active lifestyle is associated with the partial compensatory preservation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and cellular oxidative and antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle of older adults. Conversely a sedentary lifestyle, associated with osteoarthritis-mediated physical inactivity, is associated with reduced mitochondrial function, dysregulation of cellular redox status and chronic systemic inflammation that renders the skeletal muscle intracellular environment prone to reactive oxygen species-mediated toxicity. We propose that an active lifestyle is an important determinant of quality of life and molecular progression of aging in skeletal muscle of the elderly, and is a viable therapy for attenuating and/or reversing skeletal muscle strength declines and mitochondrial abnormalities associated with aging.

  14. SAW Classification Algorithm for Chinese Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Guo; Huiyu Sun; Tiehua Zhou; Ling Wang; Zhaoyang Qu; Jiannan Zang

    2015-01-01

    Considering the explosive growth of data, the increased amount of text data’s effect on the performance of text categorization forward the need for higher requirements, such that the existing classification method cannot be satisfied. Based on the study of existing text classification technology and semantics, this paper puts forward a kind of Chinese text classification oriented SAW (Structural Auxiliary Word) algorithm. The algorithm uses the special space effect of Chinese text where words...

  15. Definition and Classification of Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Lainscak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the definition and classification of heart failure, updated since the recent 2016 European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. Heart failure is defined by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC as a clinical syndrome characterised by symptoms such as shortness of breath, persistent coughing or wheezing, ankle swelling and fatigue, that may be accompanied by the following signs: jugular venous pressure, pulmonary crackles, increased heart rate and peripheral oedema. However, these signs may not be present in the early stages and in patients treated with diuretics. When apparent, they are due to a structural and/or functional cardiac abnormality, leading to systolic and/or diastolic ventricular dysfunction, resulting in a reduced cardiac output and/or elevated intra- cardiac pressures at rest or during stress. According to the most recent ESC guidelines the initial evaluation of patients with suspected heart failure should include a clinical history and physical examination, laboratory assessment, chest radiography, and electrocardiography. Echocardiography can confirm the diagnosis. Beyond detecting myocardial abnormality, other impairments such as abnormalities of the valves, pericardium, endocardium, heart rhythm, and conduction may be found. The identification of the underlying aetiology is pivotal for the diagnosis of heart failure and its treatment. The authors review the definitions and classifications of heart failure.

  16. [Stroke in young adults: incidence and clinical picture in 280 patients according to their aetiological subtype].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboix, Adrià; Massons, Joan; García-Eroles, Luís; Oliveres, Montserrat

    2016-03-04

    To assess the clinical features and incidence rate of stroke in young adults (less than 55 years of age). Hospital-based descriptive study of 280 young inpatients consecutively admitted for stroke over a period of 24 years. We conducted a comparison with the remaining 4,312 patients admitted for stroke. Stroke in young adults represented 6.1% of all strokes, 5.7% of transient ischaemic attacks, 5.8% of cerebral infarctions and 8.4% of brain haemorrhages. However, reported minimal frequency of cardioembolic (2.1%) and atherothrombotic (3.4%) infarctions, accounted for 5.9% of lacunar and for 10.7% of essential infarctions and showed a maximum frequency in those infarctions of unusual aetiology (36%). Factors independently associated with stroke in young adults were cigarette smoking (OR 4.23; 95% CI 3.02-5.93; P=.000), unusual aetiology (OR 4.97; 95% CI 3.15-7.84; P=.000), headache (OR 4.57; 95% CI 2.59-8.07; P=.000), alcohol abuse (OR 3.93; 95% CI 2.46-6.29; P=.000), oral contraceptives (OR 14.07; 95% CI 2.37-83.40; P=.004), atrial fibrillation (OR 0.15; 95% CI 0.08-0.28; P=.000), arterial hypertension (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.33-0.57; P=.000), COPD (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.09-0.44; P=.000), atherothrombotic infarction (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.34-0.77; P=.001), female sex (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.52-0.97; P=.029), diabetes mellitus (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.46-0.98; P=.030), ischaemic heart disease (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.33-0.95; P=.032) and intermittent claudication (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.24-0.94; P=.033). Stroke in young adults is infrequent (6.1% of the total), but represents the highest frequency of cerebral infarcts of unusual aetiology (36%). We conclude that stroke in younger patients presents its own and differentiated clinical profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. CLINICAL OUTCOME OF PENETRATING KERATOPLASTY IN CORNEAL OPACITIES OF DIFFERENT AETIOLOGY- A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Bhuyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Corneal transplantation or grafting is an operation in which abnormal corneal host tissue is replaced by healthy donor cornea. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, corneal diseases are among the major causes of vision loss and blindness in the world today after cataract and glaucoma. The aim of the study is to- 1. Evaluate the different aetiology of corneal opacity including active infective aetiology as indicated for penetrating keratoplasty. 2. Determine the clinical outcome of penetrating keratoplasty in relation to graft survival, graft rejection and peri-operative complications in different aetiology groups. 3. Determine the final visual outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Candidates for keratoplasty were selected from- 1. Eye Bank of Regional Institute of Ophthalmology (R.I.O. 2. R.I.O OPD. The study period was from September 2014 to August 2015. 30 cases were taken in the study. Descriptive statistics were applied to analyse the data wherever necessary. RESULTS 34.6±19.73 yrs. (mean±SD was the mean age at which transplants were done in the study. Out of total 30 cases, 13 (43.33% and 17 (56.66% were male and female, respectively. The different indications for penetrating keratoplasty are- Post ulcer corneal opacity in 14 cases (46.66%, posttraumatic corneal opacity 9 cases (30%, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy 4 cases (13.33%, corneal dystrophy in 2 cases (6.66% and non-healing corneal ulcer in 1 case (3.33%. 16 cases (53.33% showed clear graft till the last follow up while 11 (33.33% cases showed partially clear graft resulting in improved visual outcome while 3 cases (10.00% of the grafts were opaque due to graft failure. CONCLUSION The major indications for penetrating keratoplasty in this part of the world are post ulcer and posttraumatic corneal opacity and majority of them are illiterate agricultural workers who failed to get adequate treatment on time. Graft survival rate is high, which can be attributed to the

  18. Extraocular muscle function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  19. Aetiologies of diarrhoea in adults from urban and rural treatment facilities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, F; Ahmed, S; Farzana, F D; Das, J; Malek, M A; Das, S K; Salam, M A; Faruque, A S G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of our analysis was to describe the aetiology, clinical features, and socio-demographic background of adults with diarrhoea attending different urban and rural diarrhoeal disease hospitals in Bangladesh. Between January 2010 and December 2011, a total of 5054 adult diarrhoeal patients aged ⩾20 years were enrolled into the Diarrhoeal Disease Surveillance Systems at four different hospitals (two rural and two urban) of Bangladesh. Middle-aged [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0·28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·23-0·35, P economic and other progress made, conditions facilitating transmission of V. cholerae and Shigella prevail in adults with diarrhoea in Bangladesh and further efforts are needed to control these infections.

  20. Trends in the aetiology of facial fractures in the south of Ireland (1975-1993).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, S M

    2012-02-03

    An aetiological review of 332 patients with facial fractures seen in a 1 year period (1993) was carried out and compared to a similar study of 266 patients, performed in this unit in 1975. Males predominated in both years. Two thirds of fractures occurred in the second and third decades. Road traffic accident (RTA) related facial fractures decreased from 27% of the total in 1975 to 17% in 1993. Assault related facial fractures increased from 18% of the total in 1975 to 27% in 1993. In both study periods nasal fractures were the most common facial fracture seen and sport was the most common cause of facial fracture. The number of patients undergoing surgery increased from 67% of the total to 79% over the same period.

  1. The antimicrobial propeptide hCAP-18 plasma levels in neutropenia of various aetiologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Ying; Carlsson, Göran; Karlsson-Sjöberg, Jenny M T

    2015-01-01

    The underlying cause of neutropenia may be difficult to determine due to similar clinical presentation in many neutropenic conditions. The neutrophil protein hCAP-18 (pro-LL-37) is a major component of neutrophil secondary granules and in this prospective study we assessed the use of hCAP-18 levels...... in blood plasma for differential diagnosis of neutropenic patients (n = 133) of various aetiologies. Plasma levels of hCAP-18 were determined using immunoblot and ELISA. Patients with severe congenital neutropenia (n = 23) presented with the lowest levels of plasma hCAP-18 and differential diagnostic...... diagnostic value in differential diagnosis of chronic neutropenia. Neutropenic patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, Barth syndrome, Cohen syndrome, acute myeloid leukaemia and specific granule deficiency presented with reduced plasma hCAP-18 levels as well. The blood plasma level of hCAP-18 was thus low...

  2. Twin studies as a model for exploring the aetiology of autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Twins are an important resource for evaluating the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors in determining a phenotype. During the last decades, a number of twin studies have investigated the aetiology of several phenotypes related to thyroid autoimmunity. Taken together, these ....... Future twin studies should incorporate information on genetic, epigenetic and environmental variation thereby enhancing our ability to quantify the precise effect of specific risk factors......., and biometric twin modelling shows that approximately 75% of the total phenotypic variance in AITD is because of genetic effects. On the other hand, the lack of complete concordance in MZ twin pairs is proof of environmental and/or epigenetic factors also playing an important role. The impact of environmental...

  3. Spontaneous chylothorax complicating small cell lung cancer – Review of aetiology and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hanina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of spontaneous chylothorax complicating small cell lung cancer. A 52 year old female presented with exertional dyspnoea, left-sided chest and neck pain, and dysphagia. The chest X-ray on admission revealed a large left-sided pleural effusion. A subsequent CT chest showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with a left brachiocephalic and jugular vein thrombosis. The patient underwent medical thoracoscopy with chest drain insertion, which drained pleural fluid high in triglycerides, consistent with a chylothorax. Due to its uncommon nature, the management of chylothorax is not well defined. Alongside the case report, we provide a review of aetiology, mechanism and diagnosis with a brief summary of treatment options.

  4. Shared genetic aetiology of puberty timing between sexes and with health-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Felix R; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Hinds, David A; Finucane, Hilary K; Murabito, Joanne M; Tung, Joyce Y; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2015-11-09

    Understanding of the genetic regulation of puberty timing has come largely from studies of rare disorders and population-based studies in women. Here, we report the largest genomic analysis for puberty timing in 55,871 men, based on recalled age at voice breaking. Analysis across all genomic variants reveals strong genetic correlation (0.74, P=2.7 × 10(-70)) between male and female puberty timing. However, some loci show sex-divergent effects, including directionally opposite effects between sexes at the SIM1/MCHR2 locus (Pheterogeneity=1.6 × 10(-12)). We find five novel loci for puberty timing (Ppuberty, LEPR and KAL1. Finally, we identify genetic correlations that indicate shared aetiologies in both sexes between puberty timing and body mass index, fasting insulin levels, lipid levels, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  5. Adult bacterial meningitis: aetiology, penicillin susceptibility, risk factors, prognostic factors and guidelines for empirical antibiotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M; Bangsborg, J M

    2004-08-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibility occurred in 21 (23%) of 92 cases of known aetiology, compared to an estimated 6% in nationally notified cases (p ABM cases in the study population, and in 99.6% of nationally notified cases. The notification rate was 75% for penicillin-susceptible episodes, and 24% for penicillin-non-susceptible episodes (p ABM cases with no identified risk factors, nine of 11 cases with penicillin-non-susceptible bacteria were community-acquired. Severe sequelae correlated independently with age, penicillin non-susceptibility, mechanical ventilation and non-transferral to a tertiary hospital (p ABM should not be based exclusively on clinical notification systems with possible unbalanced under-reporting.

  6. Morphological and biochemical characterization of the aetiological agents of white piedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Alba Regina; Mondino, Silvia Susana Bona de; Silva, Manuela da; Nishikawa, Marilia Martins

    2008-12-01

    The Trichosporon genus is constituted by many species, of which Trichosporon ovoides and Trichosporon inkin are the causative agents of white piedra. They can cause nodules in genital hair or on the scalp. At present, Brazilian laboratory routines generally do not include the identification of the species of Trichosporon genus, which, although morphologically and physiologically distinct, present many similarities, making the identification difficult. The aim of this study was to identify the aetiological agents at the species level of white piedra from clinical specimens. Therefore, both the macro and micro morphology were studied, and physiological tests were performed. Trichosporon spp. was isolated from 10 clinical samples; T. ovoides was predominant, as it was found in seven samples, while T. inkin was identified just in two samples. One isolate could not be identified at the species level. T. inkin was identified for the first time as a white piedra agent in the hair shaft on child under the age of 10.

  7. Aetiological influences on stability and change in emotional and behavioural problems across development: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, L J; Walaker, N; Waszczuk, M A; McAdams, T A; Eley, T C

    2017-01-01

    Emotional and behavioural problems in childhood and adolescence can be chronic and are predictive of future psychiatric problems. Understanding what factors drive the development and maintenance of these problems is therefore crucial. Longitudinal behavioural genetic studies using twin, sibling or adoption data can be used to explore the developmental aetiology of stability and change in childhood and adolescent psychopathology. We present a systematic review of longitudinal, behavioural genetic analyses of emotional and behavioural problems between ages 0 to 18 years. We identified 58 studies, of which 19 examined emotional problems, 30 examined behavioural problems, and 9 examined both. In the majority of studies, stability in emotional and behavioural problems was primarily genetically influenced. Stable environmental factors were also widely found, although these typically played a smaller role. Both genetic and environmental factors were involved in change across development. We discuss the findings in the context of the wider developmental literature and make recommendations for future research.

  8. The frequency, characteristics and aetiology of stroke mimic presentations: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Graham; Rodgers, Helen; Flynn, Darren; Price, Christopher I

    2018-05-01

    A significant proportion of patients with acute stroke symptoms have an alternative 'mimic' diagnosis. A narrative review was carried out to explore the frequency, characteristics and aetiology of stroke mimics. Prehospital and thrombolysis-treated patients were described separately. Overall, 9972 studies were identified from the initial search and 79 studies were included with a median stroke mimic rate of 19% (range: 1-64%). The prehospital median was 27% (range: 4-43%) and the thrombolysis median 10% (range: 1-25%). Seizures, migraines and psychiatric disorders are the most frequently reported causes of stroke mimics. Several characteristics are consistently associated with stroke mimics; however, they do not fully exclude the possibility of stroke. Nineteen per cent of suspected stroke patients had a mimic condition. Stroke mimics were more common with younger age and female sex. The range of mimic diagnoses, a lack of clear differentiating characteristics and the short treatment window for ischaemic stroke create challenges for early identification.

  9. Aetiology and severity of gingival recession in an adult population sample in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession is the most common and undesirable condition of the gingiva. The aim of study was to investigate the aetiology and severity of gingival recession in a Greek adult population sample. Methods : The study was performed on 165 males and 179 females, 18-68 years old who sought dental treatment in a private dental practice and showed gingival recession. All subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding their oral hygiene habits such as the type of toothbrush, frequency of brushing and method of brushing. The association between gingival recession and the following parameters was assessed: plaque score, gingival score and tooth position. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using chi-square test (α = 0.05. Results: The majority (79.4% of the patients showed grade I gingival recession and 15.3% showed grade II gingival recession. The maxillary 1 st and 2 nd molars (35.3% and the mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars (28.7% were the teeth most frequently affected by root surface exposure. Patients with sub-gingival calculus, bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation (P < 0.05, malpositioned teeth (P < 0.001, horizontal brushing method, medium type of toothbrush (P < 0.001 and brushing once daily (P < 0.001 appeared to be the most common precipitating aetiological factor for gingival recession. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, gingival recession was the result of more than one factor acting together. Horizontal brushing method, usage of medium type toothbrush and tooth brushing once daily were found to be more associated with gingival recession.

  10. Causal inference regarding infectious aetiology of chronic conditions: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Orrskog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global burden of disease has shifted from communicable diseases in children to chronic diseases in adults. This epidemiologic shift varies greatly by region, but in Europe, chronic conditions account for 86% of all deaths, 77% of the disease burden, and up to 80% of health care expenditures. A number of risk factors have been implicated in chronic diseases, such as exposure to infectious agents. A number of associations have been well established while others remain uncertain. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the body of evidence regarding the infectious aetiology of chronic diseases in the peer-reviewed literature over the last decade. Causality was assessed with three different criteria: First, the total number of associations documented in the literature between each infectious agent and chronic condition; second, the epidemiologic study design (quality of the study; third, evidence for the number of Hill's criteria and Koch's postulates that linked the pathogen with the chronic condition. We identified 3136 publications, of which 148 were included in the analysis. There were a total of 75 different infectious agents and 122 chronic conditions. The evidence was strong for five pathogens, based on study type, strength and number of associations; they accounted for 60% of the associations documented in the literature. They were human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B virus, and Chlamydia pneumoniae and were collectively implicated in the aetiology of 37 different chronic conditions. Other pathogens examined were only associated with very few chronic conditions (≤ 3 and when applying the three different criteria of evidence the strength of the causality was weak. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention and treatment of these five pathogens lend themselves as effective public health intervention entry points. By concentrating research efforts on these promising areas, the human, economic, and societal

  11. Investigating risk factors and possible infectious aetiologies of mummified fetuses on a large piggery in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, N; Hernández-Jover, M; Doyle, R E; Holyoake, P K

    2014-12-01

    To investigate risk factors and potential infectious aetiologies of an increased mummification rate (>2%) identified over time on a 1200-sow farrow-to-finish farm in Australia. Association of potential non-infectious risk factors and the mummification rate was investigated using 15 years of breeding herd data (40,940 litters) and logistic regression analysis. Samples from a limited number of mummified fetuses were taken to identify potential infectious aetiologies (porcine parvovirus, Leptospira pomona, porcine circovirus type 2, Bungowannah virus and enterovirus). Logistic regression analysis suggested that the mummification rate was significantly associated with sow breed and parity, year and total born and stillborn piglets per litter. The mummification rate was lower (P < 0.001) in Landrace (3.4%) and Large White (2.6%) sows than in Duroc sows (4.9%). Gilts (2.9%) had a lower (P < 0.001) mummification rate than older sows. The mummification rate increased with total born litter size and decreased with the number of stillborn piglets (P < 0.001). A clustering effect within individual sows was identified, indicating that some sows with mummified fetuses in a litter were more likely to have repeated mummifications in subsequent litters. No infectious agents were identified in the samples taken. Results from this study suggest that the increased mummification rate identified over time on this farm is likely to be a non-infectious multifactorial problem predisposing the occurrence of mummification. Further research is required to better understand the pathophysiology of mummification and the role that different non-infectious factors play in the occurrence of mummified fetuses. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  12. The aetiology of post-traumatic stress following childbirth: a meta-analysis and theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, S; Bond, R; Bertullies, S; Wijma, K

    2016-04-01

    There is evidence that 3.17% of women report post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on vulnerability and risk factors for birth-related PTSD and refines a diathesis-stress model of its aetiology. Systematic searches were carried out on PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science using PTSD terms crossed with childbirth terms. Studies were included if they reported primary research that examined factors associated with birth-related PTSD measured at least 1 month after birth. In all, 50 studies (n = 21 429) from 15 countries fulfilled inclusion criteria. Pre-birth vulnerability factors most strongly associated with PTSD were depression in pregnancy (r = 0.51), fear of childbirth (r = 0.41), poor health or complications in pregnancy (r = 0.38), and a history of PTSD (r = 0.39) and counselling for pregnancy or birth (r = 0.32). Risk factors in birth most strongly associated with PTSD were negative subjective birth experiences (r = 0.59), having an operative birth (assisted vaginal or caesarean, r = 0.48), lack of support (r = -0.38) and dissociation (r = 0.32). After birth, PTSD was associated with poor coping and stress (r = 0.30), and was highly co-morbid with depression (r = 0.60). Moderator analyses showed that the effect of poor health or complications in pregnancy was more apparent in high-risk samples. The results of this meta-analysis are used to update a diathesis-stress model of the aetiology of postpartum PTSD and can be used to inform screening, prevention and intervention in maternity care.

  13. Interstitial and arterial-venous [K+] in human calf muscle during dynamic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, S; Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D

    2000-01-01

    +. Calf muscle pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale. On average, [K+]I was 4.4 mmol l(-1) at rest and increased during minutes 3-5 of incremental exercise by approximately 1-7 mmol l(-1) as a positive function of power output. K+ release also increased as a function of exercise intensity......Changes in the concentration of interstitial K+ surrounding skeletal muscle fibres ([K+]I) probably play some role in the regulation of cardiovascular adjustments to muscular activity, as well as in the aetiology of muscle pain and fatigue during high-intensity exercise. However, there is very...... little information on the response of [K+]I to exercise in human skeletal muscle. Five young healthy subjects performed plantar flexion exercise for four 5 min periods at increasing power outputs ( approximately 1-6 W) with 10 min intervening recovery periods, as well as for two 5 min periods...

  14. Asteroid taxonomic classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on three taxonomic classification schemes developed and applied to the body of available color and albedo data. Asteroid taxonomic classifications according to two of these schemes are reproduced

  15. Intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Tol, Johannes L; Roemer, Frank W; Bahr, Roald; Dijkstra, H Paul; Crema, Michel D; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Guermazi, Ali

    2017-04-01

    To assess and compare the intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injury. Male athletes (n=40) with clinical diagnosis of acute hamstring injury and MRI ≤5days were selected from a prospective cohort. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRIs using standardised scoring form including the modified Peetrons grading system, the Chan acute muscle strain injury classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification. Intra-and interrater reliability was assessed with linear weighted kappa (κ) or unweighted Cohen's κ and percentage agreement was calculated. We observed 'substantial' to 'almost perfect' intra- (κ range 0.65-1.00) and interrater reliability (κ range 0.77-1.00) with percentage agreement 83-100% and 88-100%, respectively, for severity gradings, overall anatomical sites and overall classifications for the three MRI systems. We observed substantial variability (κ range -0.05 to 1.00) for subcategories within the Chan classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification, however, the prevalence of positive scorings was low for some subcategories. The modified Peetrons grading system, overall Chan classification and overall British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification demonstrated 'substantial' to 'almost perfect' intra- and interrater reliability when scored by experienced radiologists. The intra- and interrater reliability for the anatomical subcategories within the classifications remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the aetiological factors of non-specific (non gonococcal urethritis, taking burning micturition as criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuravi Anandam

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of 90 cases of non-specific urethritis investigated, aetiological factors could be found in 58 cases. However, in 45 cases i.e. 50%, the causative factors turned out to be common factors like pyogenic, fungal, and trichomonal infections only.

  17. Shared Genetic Aetiology between Cognitive Ability and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Generation Scotland's Scottish Family Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Michelle; Batty, G. David; McGilchrist, Mark; Linksted, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Jackson, Cathy; Pattie, Alison; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, Blair H.; Porteous, David; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    People with higher general cognitive ability in early life have more favourable levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood and CVD itself. The mechanism of these associations is not known. Here we examine whether general cognitive ability and CVD risk factors share genetic and/or environmental aetiology. In this large,…

  18. Clinical presentation and aetiologies of acute or complicated headache among HIV-seropositive patients in a Ugandan clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katwere, Michael; Kambugu, Andrew; Piloya, Theresa; Wong, Matthew; Hendel-Paterson, Brett; Sande, Merle A; Ronald, Allan; Katabira, Elly; Were, Edward M; Menten, Joris; Colebunders, Robert

    2009-09-19

    We set out to define the relative prevalence and common presentations of the various aetiologies of headache within an ambulant HIV-seropositive adult population in Kampala, Uganda. We conducted a prospective study of adult HIV-1-seropositive ambulatory patients consecutively presenting with new onset headaches. Patients were classified as focal-febrile, focal-afebrile, non-focal-febrile or non-focal-afebrile, depending on presence or absence of fever and localizing neurological signs. Further management followed along a pre-defined diagnostic algorithm to an endpoint of a diagnosis. We assessed outcomes during four months of follow up. One hundred and eighty patients were enrolled (72% women). Most subjects presented at WHO clinical stages III and IV of HIV disease, with a median Karnofsky performance rating of 70% (IQR 60-80).The most common diagnoses were cryptococcal meningitis (28%, n = 50) and bacterial sinusitis (31%, n = 56). Less frequent diagnoses included cerebral toxoplasmosis (4%, n = 7), and tuberculous meningitis (4%, n = 7). Thirty-two (18%) had other diagnoses (malaria, bacteraemia, etc.). No aetiology could be elucidated in 28 persons (15%). Overall mortality was 13.3% (24 of 180) after four months of follow up. Those without an established headache aetiology had good clinical outcomes, with only one death (4% mortality), and 86% were ambulatory at four months. In an African HIV-infected ambulatory population presenting with new onset headache, aetiology was found in at least 70%. Cryptococcal meningitis and sinusitis accounted for more than half of the cases.

  19. A ten-year analysis of the traumatic maxillofacial and brain injury patient in Amsterdam: Incidence and aetiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.G.; Peerdeman, S.M.; Boffano, P.; van den Bergh, B.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the literature it is questioned if the presence of maxillofacial trauma is associated with the presence of brain injury. The aim of this study is to present a 10-year retrospective study of the incidence and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma associated with brain injury that required both oral

  20. System viability of organizations and the aetiology of organizational crisis : A Quantitative Assessment of Stafford Beer's Viable System Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfiffner, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Subject of this dissertation is the aetiology of crisis processes which place organizations under existential threats and which often cause organizational demise and bankruptcy. To date, research on organizational crises (OC) has not succeeded in identifying the generic grounds for these detrimental

  1. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System Infection in Viet Nam: A Prospective Provincial Hospital-Based Descriptive Surveillance Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho Dang Trung, Nghia; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen Thanh, Vinh; van, Minh Pham; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; van, Tan Le; Song, Diep To; Thi, Phuong Le; Thi Phuong, Thao Nguyen; van, Cong Bui; Tang, Vu; Ngoc Anh, Tuan Hoang; Nguyen, Dong; Trung, Tien Phan; Thi Nam, Lien Nguyen; Kiem, Hao Tran; Thi Thanh, Tam Nguyen; Campbell, James; Caws, Maxine; Day, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; van Vinh, Chau Nguyen; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Tinh, Hien Tran; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance; Loi, Tran Quoc; Son, Nguyen Truong; Bay, Phan Van Be; Tham, Nguyen Thi Hong; Phuong, Le Thi; Tri, Le Trung; Binh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Du, Doan Cong; Thao, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Tien, Truong Thi My; La, Tran Thi Phi; Cong, Bui Van; Diep, Pham Ngoc; Dong, Duong Phuoc; Lanh, Tran Thi Mong; Dom, Pham Van; Dung, Tran Quang; Tri, Phan Nhut; Ho, Tang Thi; Tai, Nguyen Anh; Luc, Quach Van; Phuoc, Dinh Xuan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date

  2. The incidence, aetiology and outcome of acute seizures in children admitted to a rural Kenyan district hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idro, Richard; Gwer, Samson; Kahindi, Michael; Gatakaa, Hellen; Kazungu, Tony; Ndiritu, Moses; Maitland, Kathryn; Neville, Brian G. R.; Kager, Piet A.; Newton, Charles R. J. C.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute seizures are a common cause of paediatric admissions to hospitals in resource poor countries and a risk factor for neurological and cognitive impairment and epilepsy. We determined the incidence, aetiological factors and the immediate outcome of seizures in a rural malaria endemic

  3. A ten-year analysis of the traumatic maxillofacial and brain injury patient in Amsterdam: incidence and aetiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.G.; Peerdeman, S.M.; Boffano, P.; van den Bergh, B.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the literature it is questioned if the presence of maxillofacial trauma is associated with the presence of brain injury. The aim of this study is to present a 10-year retrospective study of the incidence and aetiology of maxillofacial trauma associated with brain injury that required both oral

  4. Aetiologies of non-malaria febrile episodes in children under 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiemde, Francois; Spijker, René; Mens, Petra F.; Tinto, Halidou; Boele, Michael; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectivesTo provide an overview of the most frequent aetiologies found in febrile episodes of children under 5 years from sub-Saharan Africa. MethodsMEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for publications in English and French on non-malaria fever episodes in African children under 5 years of age, which

  5. Aetiology-Specific Estimates of the Global and Regional Incidence and Mortality of Diarrhoeal Diseases Commonly Transmitted through Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Lanata, Claudio F

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases are major contributors to the global burden of disease, particularly in children. However, comprehensive estimates of the incidence and mortality due to specific aetiologies of diarrhoeal diseases are not available. The objective of this study is to provide estimates of the gl...

  6. Hand eczema classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M

    2008-01-01

    of the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... A classification system for hand eczema is proposed. Conclusions It is suggested that this classification be used in clinical work and in clinical trials....

  7. Classification with support hyperplanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I. Nalbantov (Georgi); J.C. Bioch (Cor); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA new classification method is proposed, called Support Hy- perplanes (SHs). To solve the binary classification task, SHs consider the set of all hyperplanes that do not make classification mistakes, referred to as semi-consistent hyperplanes. A test object is classified using

  8. Standard classification: Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a draft standard classification of physics. The conception is based on the physics part of the systematic catalogue of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and on the classification given in standard textbooks. The ICSU-AB classification now used worldwide by physics information services was not taken into account. (BJ) [de

  9. Modulation of Stem Cells Differentiation and Myostatin as an approach to Counteract fibrosis in Muscle Dystrophy and Regeneration after Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), hampers cell therapy in the muscle , and is a feasible therapeutic target. Myostatin (Mst), a...17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 • Muscle lipofibrotic degeneration characterizes Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), hampers cell therapy...SUBJECT TERMS Myostatin, muscle dystrophy , stem cells, myogenesis, Oct-4; Duchenne 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  10. Relationships between Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Locomotor Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk Independently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Chantale; Lepage, Celine; Moffet, Helene; Maltais, Desiree B.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify relationships between lower limb muscle strength and locomotor capacity for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) to identify key muscle groups for strength training. Fifty 6- to 16-year-olds with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) participated. Isometric muscle strength of hip…

  11. Classification of refrigerants; Classification des fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document was made from the US standard ANSI/ASHRAE 34 published in 2001 and entitled 'designation and safety classification of refrigerants'. This classification allows to clearly organize in an international way the overall refrigerants used in the world thanks to a codification of the refrigerants in correspondence with their chemical composition. This note explains this codification: prefix, suffixes (hydrocarbons and derived fluids, azeotropic and non-azeotropic mixtures, various organic compounds, non-organic compounds), safety classification (toxicity, flammability, case of mixtures). (J.S.)

  12. The Emerging Role of Skeletal Muscle Metabolism as a Biological Target and Cellular Regulator of Cancer-Induced Muscle Wasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, James A.; Hardee, Justin P.; VanderVeen, Brandon N.

    2015-01-01

    While skeletal muscle mass is an established primary outcome related to understanding cancer cachexia mechanisms, considerable gaps exist in our understanding of muscle biochemical and functional properties that have recognized roles in systemic health. Skeletal muscle quality is a classification beyond mass, and is aligned with muscle’s metabolic capacity and substrate utilization flexibility. This supplies an additional role for the mitochondria in cancer-induced muscle wasting. While the historical assessment of mitochondria content and function during cancer-induced muscle loss was closely aligned with energy flux and wasting susceptibility, this understanding has expanded to link mitochondria dysfunction to cellular processes regulating myofiber wasting. The primary objective of this article is to highlight muscle mitochondria and oxidative metabolism as a biological target of cancer cachexia and also as a cellular regulator of cancer-induced muscle wasting. Initially, we examine the role of muscle metabolic phenotype and mitochondria content in cancer-induced wasting susceptibility. We then assess the evidence for cancer-induced regulation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, mitophagy, and oxidative stress. In addition, we discuss environments associated with cancer cachexia that can impact the regulation of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism. The article also examines the role of cytokine-mediated regulation of mitochondria function regulation, followed by the potential role of cancer-induced hypogonadism. Lastly, a role for decreased muscle use in cancer-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is reviewed. PMID:26593326

  13. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  14. The aetiology of rickets-like lower limb deformities in Malawian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, V S; Freeman, R; Greenwood, C L; Summers, D M; Nigdikar, S; Lavy, C B D; Offiah, A C; Bishop, N J; Cashman, J; Prentice, A

    2016-07-01

    Debilitating rickets-like lower limb deformities are common in children throughout the world, particularly in Malawi, Africa where the causes are unknown. We have identified that Blount disease and calcium deficiency rickets are the likely causes of these deformities and propose calcium supplementation as a potential treatment of Malawian rickets. Surgical correction of rickets-like lower limb deformities is the most common paediatric operation performed at Beit Cure Orthopaedic Hospital, Malawi. The aim of this study was to investigate the aetiology of these deformities. Children with a tibio-femoral angle of deformity >20° were enrolled (n = 42, 3.0-15.0 years). Anthropometric and early life and well-being data were collected. Early morning serum and urine samples were collected on the morning of the operation for markers of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Knee radiographs were obtained, and the children were diagnosed with either Blount (BD, n = 22) or evidence of rickets disease (RD, n = 20). As BD is a mechanical rather than metabolic disease, BD were assumed to be biochemically representative of the local population and thus used as a local reference for RD. There were no differences in anthropometry or early life experiences between BD and RD. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, total alkaline phosphatase and urinary phosphate were significantly higher and serum phosphate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and tubular maximal reabsorption of phosphate significantly lower in RD than BD. There was no difference in serum calcium, fibroblast growth factor 23 or markers of iron status between groups. All children had 25OHD > 25 nmol/L. Vitamin D deficiency is not implicated in the aetiology of RD or BD in Malawian children. The cause of RD in Malawi is likely to be dietary calcium deficiency leading to elevated PTH resulting in increased losses of phosphate from the bone and glomerular filtrate. The causes of BD remain unclear

  15. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology: prevalence and causative factors in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilake, Nihal; Mendis, Shanthi; Maheepala, Palitha; Mehta, Firdosi R

    2013-08-27

    This study describes chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology (CKDu), which cannot be attributed to diabetes, hypertension or other known aetiologies, that has emerged in the North Central region of Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was conducted, to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for CKDu. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, selenium, pesticides and other elements were analysed in biological samples from individuals with CKDu and compared with age- and sex-matched controls in the endemic and non-endemic areas. Food, water, soil and agrochemicals from both areas were analysed for heavy metals. The age-standardised prevalence of CKDu was 12.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.5% to 14.4%) in males and 16.9% (95% CI = 15.5% to 18.3%) in females. Severe stages of CKDu were more frequent in males (stage 3: males versus females = 23.2% versus 7.4%; stage 4: males versus females = 22.0% versus 7.3%; P 39 years and those who farmed (chena cultivation) (OR [odds ratio] = 1.926, 95% CI = 1.561 to 2.376 and OR = 1.195, 95% CI = 1.007 to 1.418 respectively, P CKDu (1.039 μg/g) compared with controls in the endemic and non-endemic areas (0.646 μg/g, P CKDu stage (P CKDu were at levels known to cause kidney damage. Food items from the endemic area contained cadmium and lead above reference levels. Serum selenium was CKDu and pesticides residues were above reference levels in 31.6% of those with CKDu. These results indicate chronic exposure of people in the endemic area to low levels of cadmium through the food chain and also to pesticides. Significantly higher urinary excretion of cadmium in individuals with CKDu, and the dose-effect relationship between urine cadmium concentration and CKDu stages suggest that cadmium exposure is a risk factor for the pathogensis of CKDu. Deficiency of selenium and genetic susceptibility seen in individuals with CKDu suggest that they may be predisposing factors for the development of CKDu.

  16. The aetiological role of human papillomavirus in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi S Liyanage

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aetiological role of human papillomavirus (HPV in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC has been widely researched for more than three decades, with conflicting findings. In the absence of a large, adequately powered single case-control study, a meta-analysis of all available case-control studies is the most rigorous way of identifying any potential association between HPV and OSCC. We present the first global meta-analysis of case-control studies investigating the role of HPV in OSCC. METHODS: Case-control studies investigating OSCC tissue for presence of HPV DNA were identified. 21 case-control studies analyzing a total of 1223 cases and 1415 controls, met our inclusion criteria. HPV detection rates were tabulated for each study and all studies were assessed for quality. The random effects method was used to pool the odds ratios (OR. RESULTS: From all OSCC specimens included in this meta-analysis, 35% (426/1223 were positive for HPV DNA. The pooled OR for an HPV-OSCC association was 3.04 (95% CI 2.20 to 4.20. Meta-regression analysis did not find a significant association between OR and any of the quality domains. Influence analysis was non-significant for the effect of individual studies on the pooled estimate. Studies conducted in countries with low to medium OSCC incidence showed a stronger relationship (OR 4.65, 95% CI 2.47 to 8.76 than regions of high OSCC incidence (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.80 to 3.91. CONCLUSIONS: Uncertainty around the aetiological role of HPV in OSCC is due largely to the small number and scale of appropriately designed studies. Our meta-analysis of these studies suggests that HPV increases the risk of OSCC three-fold. This study provides the strongest evidence to date of an HPV-OSCC association. The importance of these findings is that prophylactic vaccination could be of public health benefit in prevention of OSCC in countries with high OSCC incidence.

  17. The Influence of Circadian Variation on Aetiological Markers of Ankle Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Chris; Marrin, Kelly; Page, Richard; Greig, Matt

    2018-03-15

    Clinical and functional assessments are performed regularly in sporting environments to screen for performance deficits and injury risk. Circadian rhythms have been demonstrated to affect human performance, however the influence of time of day on a battery of multiple ankle injury risk factors has yet to be established within athletic populations. To investigate the influence of circadian variation on a battery of tests, used to screen for ankle aetiological risk factors. Randomised crossover design. University laboratory. Thirty-three semi-professional soccer players (age 24.9 ± 4.4 years; height 1.77 ± 0.17 m; body mass 75.47 ± 7.98 kg) completed three randomized experimental trials (07:00 h, 12:00 h, 19:00 h) Main Outcome Measures: Trials involved the completion of a standardized test battery comprising Biodex Stability System (BSS), Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), isokinetic inversion: eversion ratio, joint position sense, and a drop landing inversion cutting manoeuvre. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significantly (P < 0.05) lower values for all BSS indicia; Overall Stability Index (1.10 ± 0.31 a.u), Anterior-Posterior (0.76 ± 0.21 a.u) and Medio-Lateral (0.68 ± 0.23) at 12:00 h when compared to 07:00 h. (1.30 ± 0.45 a.u; 0.96 ± 0.26 a.u; 0.82 ± 0.40 a.u) respectively. However, no significant (P ≥ 0.05) main effects for time of day were reported for any other test. Circadian influence on ankle aetiological risk factors was task dependent, with measures of proprioception, strength and SEBT displaying no circadian variation, indicating no association between time of day and markers of injury risk. However, the BSS displayed improved performance at midday, indicating postural stability tasks requiring unanticipated movements to display a time of day effect and potential increased injury risk. Consequently, time of testing for this task should be standardized to ensure correct interpretations of assessments and/or interventions.

  18. Characteristic MR image finding of squatting exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis of the thigh muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Eung K; Ryu, Kyung N; Kang, Hye J; Yoon, So H; Park, So Y; Park, Ji S; Jin, Wook

    2017-04-01

    To describe the characteristic MRI appearance of squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis involving the thigh muscles. This study consisted of 10 cases obtained at 3 institutions from 2005 to 2015. A retrospective review was performed to obtain clinical information and MR scans for rhabdomyolysis of the thigh muscles. MRI was analyzed according to the distribution and degree of muscle involvement; the degree was assessed and graded as normal, mild or prominent. The mean patient age was 20.2 years (range, 15-24 years), and 7 of the 10 patients were male. All patients had history of excessive squatting action, suffered clinically from bilateral thigh pain and were confirmed to have rhabdomyolysis through analysis of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. All of the patients (10/10) exhibited diffuse mild to prominent degree involvement of the anterior thigh muscles according to fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Among the anterior thigh muscles, the rectus femoris was spared in 8 patients (8/10) and mild degree involved in 2 patients (2/10). Thus, no cases exhibited prominent degree involvement of the rectus femoris muscle. Preservation of the rectus femoris muscle on MRI in squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis may be useful for differentiating rhabdomyolysis from other aetiologies. Advances in knowledge: Preservation of rectus femoris on MRI is distinguishable finding in squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis and reflects the functional anatomy of anterior thigh muscles.

  19. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  20. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: is cadmium a likely cause?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiris-John Roshini J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause still unknown. Methods Exposures to possible risk factors were determined in randomly recruited subjects (425 females and 461 males from selected areas of the NCP of Sri Lanka using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Sulphosalicylic acid and the Light Dependent Resister microalbumin gel filtration method was used for initial screening for microalbuminuria and reconfirmed by the Micral strip test. Results Microalbumnuria was detected in 6.1% of the females and 8.5% of the males. Smoking (p Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, and smoking are known risk factors for microalbuminuria. The association between microalbuminuria and consumption of well water suggests an environmental aetiology to CKD in NCP. The causative agent is yet to be identified. Investigations for cadmium as a potential causative agent needs to be initiated.

  1. A Hispanic mother's beliefs about stuttering aetiology: A systemic functional linguistic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Angela M

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the linguistic resources a Hispanic mother used to convey her beliefs about the aetiology of her adult son's stuttering. A qualitative research paradigm was adopted for data collection and analysis. An Ecuadorian mother and her adult son who stutters recorded a conversation in Spanish about the son's stuttering. Tools derived from systemic functional linguistic (SFL) theory were used to analyse conversation transcripts and to describe the word choices and sentence structures the mother used to talk about her son's stuttering. The mother deflected community-assigned blame for causing her son's stuttering by configuring her 'strong' temperament as a separate, uncontrollable entity. She structured the pervasiveness of stigma, lack of resources and misinformation within the community as causes for her inability to identify and seek help for her son's stuttering, which also served as a means for deflecting blame. SFL-based analyses were appropriate tools for the investigation of how a Hispanic mother construes her views, attitudes and experiences relative to her son's stuttering. Clinical implications of findings regarding parent education and the utility of SFL-based tools in the speech-language therapy setting are discussed.

  2. Eisenmenger syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension: do parenchymal lung changes reflect aetiology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, N.; Allen, D.; Wort, J.; Rubens, M.; Padley, S.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To document the pulmonary vascular changes on thin-section computed tomography (CT) in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and to determine whether there is any correlation with pulmonary arterial pressures or the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension. Material and methods: From the National Pulmonary Hypertension Database, we identified eight patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and 20 patients with Eisenmenger syndrome (secondary to a ventriculoseptal defect) who had also undergone contrast-enhanced thin-section CT. CT studies were reviewed for the presence of centrilobular nodules, mosaicism, neovascularity, and bronchial artery hypertrophy. Haemodynamic data were also reviewed. Results: Centrilobular nodules, mosaicism, and neovascularity were seen in both patient groups (p > 0.05). A significantly higher number of enlarged bronchial arteries were seen in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome. There was no correlation with pulmonary arterial pressures. Conclusion: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome demonstrated similar pulmonary vascular changes on CT. These changes did not predict the underlying cause of pulmonary hypertension or its severity

  3. A Study To Evaluate The Aetiological Factors And Management of Puberty Menorrhagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeb Roychowdhury

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aims to evaluate the incidence, clinical presentation, etiological factors and treatment outcomes of the patients suffering from puberty menorrhagia. Methods: 65 patients with puberty menorrhagia attending the outpatient as well as indoor department of NRS Medical College, Kolkata during the period from February, 2005 to July,2006 were included in the study. They were prospectively analysed to assess the aetiological factors and the outcome of treatment required to manage these cases.Results – The incidence of puberty menorrhagia was 9.6% in our study. 40%s patients had menarche between 12-13 years. 61.6% had anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding(DUB. 15.4% had hematological causes. Hypothyroidism, endometrial tuberculosis, polycystic ovarian disease were other important causes. 40% were relieved with tranexamic acid, 26% required hormone treatment and 35.3% received blood transfusion.Conclusion: Anovulatory DUB is the cause of menorrhagia in most of the cases .Medical treatment is mostly effective while surgical procedures are limited to few specific cases.

  4. Cervicitis aetiology and case definition: a study in Australian women attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, M Josephine; Garden, Frances L; Rawlinson, William D; Naing, Zin W; Cumming, Robert G; Konecny, Pam

    2016-05-01

    Studies examining cervicitis aetiology and prevalence lack comparability due to varying criteria for cervicitis. We aimed to outline cervicitis associations and suggest a best case definition. A cross-sectional study of 558 women at three sexually transmitted infection clinics in Sydney, Australia, 2006-2010, examined pathogen and behavioural associations of cervicitis using three cervicitis definitions: 'microscopy' (>30 pmnl/hpf (polymorphonuclear leucocytes per high-powered field on cervical Gram stain)), 'cervical discharge' (yellow and/or mucopurulent cervical discharge) or 'micro+cervical discharge' (combined 'microscopy' and 'cervical discharge'). Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) had the strongest associations with cervicitis definitions 'micro+cervical discharge': CT adjusted prevalence ratio (APR)=2.13 (95% CI 1.38 to 3.30) p=0.0006, MG APR=2.21 (1.33 to 3.69) p=0.002, TV APR=2.37 (1.44 to 3.90) p=0.0007 NG PR=4.42 (3.79 to 5.15) pdefinitions with best clinical utility and pathogen prediction were 'cervical discharge' and 'micro+cervical discharge'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep; Kulhara, Parmanand; Nehra, Ritu

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%), spirit intrusion (28.8%) and sorcery (46.6%). Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6%) believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6%) believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7%) admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.

  6. Lactate level, aetiology and mortality of adult patients in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mathilde; Brandt, Vibeke Schnack; Holler, Jon Gitz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased lactate is associated with high mortality among patients with suspected infection or trauma in the emergency department (ED), but the association with patients with other aetiologies is less well described. The aim of this study was to describe the relation between lactate......, lactate level showed to be useful in patients with infection (0.78, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.84), trauma (0.78, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.92), cardiac diseases (0.83, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.91) and gastrointestinal diseases (0.83, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.98). Lactate level was not useful in neurological (0.58, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.......67) and respiratory disease (0.64, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.74), and of uncertain value in the remaining diagnostic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among adult ED patients, the prognostic value of lactate varies between diagnostic groups....

  7. Pathogen profile of clinical mastitis in Irish milk-recording herds reveals a complex aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, O M; Budd, K E; Flynn, J; McCoy, F

    2013-07-06

    Effective mastitis control requires knowledge of the predominant pathogen challenges on the farm. In order to quantify this challenge, the aetiological agents associated with clinical mastitis in 30 milk-recording dairy herds in Ireland over a complete lactation were investigated. Standard bacteriology was performed on 630 pretreatment quarter milk samples, of which 56 per cent were culture-positive, 42 per cent culture-negative and 2 per cent contaminated. Two micro-organisms were isolated from almost 5 per cent of the culture-positive samples. The bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23 per cent), Streptococcus uberis (17 per cent), Escherichia coli (9 per cent), Streptococcus species (6 per cent), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (4 per cent) and other species (1 per cent). A wide variety of bacterial species were associated with clinical mastitis, with S aureus the most prevalent pathogen overall, followed by S uberis. However, the bacterial challenges varied widely from farm to farm. In comparison with previous reports, in the present study, the contagious pathogens S aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae were less commonly associated with clinical mastitis, whereas, the environmental pathogens S uberis and E coli were found more commonly associated with clinical mastitis. While S aureus remains the pathogen most commonly associated with intramammary infection in these herds, environmental pathogens, such as S uberis and E coli also present a considerable challenge.

  8. Clinical Presentation, Aetiology, and Outcomes of Meningitis in a Setting of High HIV and TB Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keneuoe Hycianth Thinyane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis causes significant morbidity and mortality globally. The aim of this study was to study the clinical presentation, aetiology, and outcomes of meningitis among adult patients admitted to Queen Mamohato Memorial Hospital in Maseru, Lesotho, with a diagnosis of meningitis. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and April 2014; data collected included presenting signs and symptoms, laboratory results, and clinical outcomes. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise data; association between variables was analysed using Fisher’s exact test. 56 patients were enrolled; the HIV coinfection rate was 79%. The most common presenting symptoms were altered mental status, neck stiffness, headache, and fever. TB meningitis was the most frequent diagnosis (39%, followed by bacterial (27%, viral (18%, and cryptococcal meningitis (16%. In-hospital mortality was 43% with case fatalities of 23%, 40%, 44%, and 90% for TB, bacterial, cryptococcal, and viral meningitis, respectively. Severe renal impairment was significantly associated with mortality. In conclusion, the causes of meningitis in this study reflect the high prevalence of HIV and TB in our setting. Strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality due to meningitis should include improving diagnostic services to facilitate early detection and treatment of meningitis and timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients.

  9. Aetiological factors contributing to road traffic accidents in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofal, F H; Saeed, A A; Anokute, C C

    1996-10-01

    The study analysed 13,390 police records of road traffic accidents (RTAs) covering a three and a half year period according to different suspected aetiological factors. The majority of the accidents were recorded for vehicles in good condition on well-paved straight roads with well-operating traffic light systems. Adverse weather conditions such as precipitation, fog and dust were of minimal importance, with most of the accidents being reported during sunny days during the rush period of 12 noon to 3 pm. Driver's error was identified as the main contributing factor in about two thirds of all RTAs mainly as reckless driving and excess speeding. About 27% of the drivers were professional drivers and 41% were in the age group 25-35 years in good health with no alcohol or drug intake. Hence, human errors may be attributed to carelessness, experience, lack of knowledge or attention, over-exhaustion or fatigue. The effects of physical stressors on performance of drivers need to be further explored and clarified but this need not underestimate the importance of vehicle and environment since most accidents are multifactoral and a slight change in them may effectively enhance perception and minimise personal error. Recommendations for remedial measures adopting an interdisciplinary approach are presented.

  10. INFECTIOUS AETIOLOGY OF MARGINAL ZONE LYMPHOMA AND ROLE OF ANTI-INFECTIVE THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Perrone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marginal zone lymphomas have been associated with several infectious agents covering both viral and bacterial pathogens and in some cases a clear aetiological role has been established. Pathogenetic mechanisms are currently not completely understood, however the role of chronic stimulation of the host immune response with persistent lymphocyte activation represents the most convincing explanation for lymphoproliferation. Gastric MALT lymphoma is strictly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and various eradicating protocols, developed due to increasing antibiotic resistance, represent the first line therapy. The response rate to eradication is good with 80% of response at 1 year; this finding is also noteworthy because recapitulates a cancer cured only by antibacterial approach and it satisfies the Koch postulates of causation, establishing a causative relationship between Hp and gastric MALT lymphoma. Patients with chronic HCV infection have 5 times higher risk to develop MZL, in particular an association with splenic and nodal MZL has been shown in several studies. Moreover, there is evidence of lymphoma regression after antiviral therapy with interferon+ribavirin, thus rising hope that new available drugs, extremely effective against HCV replication, could improve outcome also in HCV-driven lymphomas. The rare cases of MZL localized to orbital fat and eye conjunctivas have been associated with Chlamydia psittaci infection carried by birds. Efficacy of antibacterial therapy against C. psittaci are conflicting and generally poorer thain gastric MALT. Finally some case-reports will cover the relationship between primary cutaneous B-cell Lymphomas and Borrelia Burgdorferi.

  11. Eisenmenger syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension: do parenchymal lung changes reflect aetiology?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, N. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nyreegriffin@hotmail.com; Allen, D. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Wort, J. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Rubens, M. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Padley, S. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    Aim: To document the pulmonary vascular changes on thin-section computed tomography (CT) in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and to determine whether there is any correlation with pulmonary arterial pressures or the aetiology of pulmonary hypertension. Material and methods: From the National Pulmonary Hypertension Database, we identified eight patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and 20 patients with Eisenmenger syndrome (secondary to a ventriculoseptal defect) who had also undergone contrast-enhanced thin-section CT. CT studies were reviewed for the presence of centrilobular nodules, mosaicism, neovascularity, and bronchial artery hypertrophy. Haemodynamic data were also reviewed. Results: Centrilobular nodules, mosaicism, and neovascularity were seen in both patient groups (p > 0.05). A significantly higher number of enlarged bronchial arteries were seen in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome. There was no correlation with pulmonary arterial pressures. Conclusion: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome demonstrated similar pulmonary vascular changes on CT. These changes did not predict the underlying cause of pulmonary hypertension or its severity.

  12. Androgen excess fetal programming of female reproduction: a developmental aetiology for polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D H; Barnett, D K; Bruns, C M; Dumesic, D A

    2005-01-01

    The aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unknown. This familial syndrome is prevalent among reproductive-aged women and its inheritance indicates a dominant regulatory gene with incomplete penetrance. However, promising candidate genes have proven unreliable as markers for the PCOS phenotype. This lack of genetic linkage may represent both extreme heterogeneity of PCOS and difficulty in establishing a universally accepted PCOS diagnosis. Nevertheless, hyperandrogenism is one of the most consistently expressed PCOS traits. Animal models that mimic fetal androgen excess may thus provide unique insight into the origins of the PCOS syndrome. Many female mammals exposed to androgen excess in utero or during early post-natal life typically show masculinized and defeminized behaviour, ovulatory dysfunction and virilized genitalia, although behavioural and ovulatory dysfunction can coexist without virilized genitalia based upon the timing of androgen excess. One animal model shows particular relevance to PCOS: the prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkey. Females exposed to androgen excess early in gestation exhibit hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhoea and enlarged, polyfollicular ovaries, in addition to LH hypersecretion, impaired embryo development, insulin resistance accompanying abdominal obesity, impaired insulin response to glucose and hyperlipidaemia. Female monkeys exposed to androgen excess late in gestation mimic these programmed changes, except for LH and insulin secretion defects. In utero androgen excess may thus variably perturb multiple organ system programming and thereby provide a single, fetal origin for a heterogeneous adult syndrome.

  13. The aetiologies of central nervous system infections in hospitalised Cambodian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul; Suy, Kuong; Tan, Le Van; Sar, Pora; Miliya, Thyl; Hong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Ny, Nguyen Thi Han; Soeng, Sona; Day, Nicholas P J; van Doorn, H Rogier; Turner, Claudia

    2017-12-29

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections are an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The aetiologies of these potentially vaccine-preventable infections have not been well established in Cambodia. We did a one year prospective study of children hospitalised with suspected CNS infection at Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens (CSF) samples underwent culture, multiplex PCR and serological analysis to identify a range of bacterial and viral pathogens. Viral metagenomics was performed on a subset of pathogen negative specimens. Between 1st October 2014 and 30th September 2015, 284 analysable patients were enrolled. The median patient age was 2.6 years; 62.0% were aged <5 years. CSF white blood cell count was ≥10 cells/μL in 116/272 (42.6%) cases. CNS infection was microbiologically confirmed in 55 children (19.3%). Enteroviruses (21/55), Japanese encephalitis virus (17/55), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (7/55) accounted for 45 (81.8%) of all pathogens identified. Of the pathogens detected, 74.5% (41/55) were viruses and 23.6% (13/55) were bacteria. The majority of patients were treated with ceftriaxone empirically. The case fatality rate was 2.5%. Enteroviruses, JEV and S. pneumoniae are the most frequently detected causes of CNS infection in hospitalised Cambodian children.

  14. A cross-sectional study on aetiology of diarrhoeal disease, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Purwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global, regional and national estimates clearly place diarrhoeal diseases as a major, albeit to an extant neglected public health problem. Deaths of children aged <5 years owing to diarrhoea was estimated to be 1.87 million at the global level (uncertainty range from 1.56 to 2.19 million, which is approximately 19% of total child deaths. Objectives: The present report is a cross-sectional study undertaken to estimate the role of various aetiological agents causing diarrhoea in North Karnataka and adjoining areas of Maharashtra and Goa. Methods: Three hundred stool samples were collected from patients seeking health care at KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum; and processed for detection of various bacterial, viral and parasitic agents. Results: Bacterial pathogens attributed to 65.7% of diarrhoea cases, followed by viral infection (22%, parasitic infection (16.3% and infection by Candida spp. (5.6%. The study identified Escherichia coli in general and Enteropathogenic E. coli in particular, and Group A Rotavirus to be the most frequently isolated pathogens among diarrhoea patients. Conclusion: The data generated from the current study will help the health officials for better interventional and treatment strategies for diarrhoeal diseases.

  15. A Comprehensive Analysis of the SRS-Schwab Adult Spinal Deformity Classification and Confounding Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, Dennis Winge; Hansen, Lars Valentin; Dragsted, Casper Rokkjær

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses on a consecutive, prospective cohort. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-Schwab Adult Spinal Deformity Classification to group patients by widely used health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) scores and examine possible...... to confounding. However, age group and aetiology had individual significant effects. CONCLUSION: The SRS-Schwab sagittal modifiers reliably grouped patients graded 0 versus + / +  + according to the most widely used HRQOL scores and the effects of increasing grade level on odds for worse ODI scores remained...... confounding variables. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The SRS-Schwab Adult Spinal Deformity Classification includes sagittal modifiers considered important for HRQOL and the clinical impact of the classification has been validated in patients from the International Spine Study Group database; however, equivocal...

  16. Classification of Flotation Frothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drzymala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a scheme of flotation frothers classification is presented. The scheme first indicates the physical system in which a frother is present and four of them i.e., pure state, aqueous solution, aqueous solution/gas system and aqueous solution/gas/solid system are distinguished. As a result, there are numerous classifications of flotation frothers. The classifications can be organized into a scheme described in detail in this paper. The frother can be present in one of four physical systems, that is pure state, aqueous solution, aqueous solution/gas and aqueous solution/gas/solid system. It results from the paper that a meaningful classification of frothers relies on choosing the physical system and next feature, trend, parameter or parameters according to which the classification is performed. The proposed classification can play a useful role in characterizing and evaluation of flotation frothers.

  17. Retracted: Aetiology and clinical profile of children with 46, XY differences of sex development at an Indian referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V; Dada, R; Jain, V

    2017-11-01

    Retraction: 'Aetiology and clinical profile of children with 46, XY differences of sex development at an Indian referral centre' by Vasundhera Chauhan, Rima Dada, Vandana Jain The above article, published online on 8 August 2016 in Wiley Online Library (http://wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Journal Editors-in-Chief, Wolf-Bernhard Schill and Ralf Henkel, and Blackwell Verlag GmbH. The retraction has been agreed as the result of an unresolved dispute between the first author and a colleague research fellow due to the inclusion of data from patients who were simultaneously enrolled in two studies being conducted separately by the two parties. Reference Chauhan, V., Dada, R. and Jain, V. (2016), Aetiology and clinical profile of children with 46, XY differences of sex development at an Indian referral centre. Andrologia. doi:10.1111/and.12663. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Clinical Pattern and Aetiology in a Breast Clinic in Eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    common than breast cancer as a presentation.[1] Preece et al.[2] proposed a classification with six subgroups: Cyclical mastalgia, duct ectasia, Tietze's syndrome, trauma, sclerosing adenosis, and cancer. Mastalgia can be associated with premenstrual syndrome, fibrocystic breast disease, psychologic disturbance and ...

  19. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta...... data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...... classification systems and meta data taxonomies, should be based on ontologies....

  20. Natural history of severe eosinophilia with uncertain aetiology and proposals on a practical approach to its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, A L; Wong, R X; Zhuang, Q Y; Linn, Y C

    2012-08-01

    Eosinophilia is commonly encountered during clinical practice. Some can be attributed to well-defined causes while others cannot. Optimal management of hypereosinophilia with unknown aetiology is uncertain as the natural history is not well described. We retrospectively studied patients with hypereosinophilia (>5 × 10(9)/L) and described the characteristics, natural history and treatment of those with eosinophilia of uncertain aetiology. There were 141 patients with hypereosinophilia: 87 with well-defined causes, 54 with uncertain aetiology. The latter was managed as hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) (n = 5), idiopathic hypereosinophilia (IH) (n = 11), presumptive helminthic infection (n = 11) and reactive eosinophilia (n = 5), while 22 were insufficiently investigated and did not have definite working diagnoses. Their median age and peak eosinophil count were 64 (22 to 94) years and 10.0 (5.2-33.9) × 10(9)/L respectively. Forty-six per cent had symptoms attributable to eosinophilia, with the HES and insufficiently investigated groups having the highest (100%) and lowest (27%) percentages respectively. HES and IH patients were most extensively investigated. All 14 HES or IH patients who received steroids responded. All presumptive helminthic infection patients received mebendazole: nine responded, and two had unassessable responses. For the remaining patients, seven received steroids and all responded; one received mebendazole but defaulted; 19 were not treated: 11 resolved spontaneously. No non-HES patients developed eosinophilia-related organ dysfunction. No mortality was caused by hypereosinophilia. Patients with hypereosinophilia of uncertain aetiology can be empirically managed according to working diagnoses derived from history taking, examination and selective investigations. Most patients have benign short-term outcomes, but longer monitoring is required to assess long-term outcomes from untreated hypereosinophilia. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine

  1. Predicting the characteristics of the aetiological agent for Kawasaki disease from other paediatric infectious diseases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Y; Urabe, C; Nakamura, H; Hatano, N

    2016-02-01

    Although Kawasaki disease (KD), which was first reported in the 1960s, is assumed to be infectious, its aetiological agent(s) remains unknown. We compared the geographical distribution of the force of infection and the super-annual periodicity of KD and seven other paediatric infectious diseases in Japan. The geographical distribution of the force of infection, which was estimated as the inverse of the mean patient age, was similar in KD and other paediatric viral infections. This similarity was due to the fact that the force of infection was determined largely by the total fertility rate. This finding suggests that KD shares a transmission route, i.e. sibling-to-sibling infection, with other paediatric infections. The super-annual periodicity, which is positively associated with the sum of an infectious disease's incubation period and infectious period, was much longer for KD and exanthema subitum than other paediatric infectious diseases. The virus for exanthema subitum is known to persist across the host's lifespan, which suggests that the aetiological agent for KD may also be capable of persistent infection. Taken together, these findings suggest that the aetiological agent for KD is transmitted through close contact and persists asymptomatically in most hosts.

  2. Incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in men's amateur rugby union: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a paucity of epidemiological data on neck injury in amateur rugby union populations. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in Australian men's amateur rugby union. Methods Data was collected from a cohort of 262 participants from two Australian amateur men's rugby union clubs via a prospective cohort study design. A modified version of the Rugby Union Injury Report Form for Games and Training was used by the clubs physiotherapist or chiropractor in data collection. Results The participants sustained 90 (eight recurrent neck injuries. Exposure time was calculated at 31143.8 hours of play (12863.8 hours of match time and 18280 hours of training. Incidence of neck injury was 2.9 injuries/1000 player-hours (95%CI: 2.3, 3.6. As a consequence 69.3% neck injuries were minor, 17% mild, 6.8% moderate and 6.8% severe. Neck compression was the most frequent aetiology and was weakly associated with severity. Cervical facet injury was the most frequent neck injury type. Conclusions This is the first prospective cohort study in an amateur men's rugby union population since the inception of professionalism that presents injury rate, severity, aetiology and injury type data for neck injury. Current epidemiological data should be sought when evaluating the risks associated with rugby union football.

  3. Aetiologies of central nervous system infection in Viet Nam: a prospective provincial hospital-based descriptive surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghia Ho Dang Trung

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen.We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007-April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology.We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52% of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24% and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6% adult patients and 11/624 (2% paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR during hospital admission was 73/617 (12% in adults and to 42/624 (7% in children.Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam.

  4. Healthy Muscles Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lying down, and faster when you’re running or playing sports and your skeletal muscles need more blood to help them do their work. What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles after exercising ...

  5. Small-area analyses of bone cancer diagnosed in Great Britain provide clues to aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNally Richard J Q

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aetiology of bone cancers is poorly understood. This study examined geographical patterning in incidence of primary bone cancers diagnosed in 0–49 year olds in Great Britain during 1980–2005 to provide information on factors linked with disease development. We investigated putative associations with deprivation and population density. Methods Data on osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma were obtained from national population-based registries. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationship between incidence rates and the Townsend deprivation score (and its component variables and small-area population density. Results The study analyzed 2566 osteosarcoma and 1650 Ewing sarcoma cases. For females with osteosarcoma, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with higher levels of deprivation (relative risk [RR] per unit increase in deprivation score = 0.969; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.946–0.993. For all Ewing sarcoma combined, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with greater area-level population density and higher levels of non-car ownership (RR per person per hectare increase = 0.984; 95% CI 0.976–0.993, RR per 1% increase in non-car ownership = 0.994; 95% CI 0.991–0.998. Conclusions Higher incidence of osteosarcoma was observed for females in areas with lower deprivation levels indicating increased risk is linked to some aspect of affluent living. Higher incidence of Ewing sarcoma occurred in areas of low population density and where more people owned cars, both characteristic of rural environments. The study adds substantially to evidence associating Ewing sarcoma risk with rural environmental exposures. Putative risk factors include agricultural exposures, such as pesticides and zoonotic agents.

  6. Shared cognitive impairments and aetiology in ADHD symptoms and reading difficulties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste H M Cheung

    Full Text Available Twin studies indicate that the frequent co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms and reading difficulties (RD is largely due to shared genetic influences. Both disorders are associated with multiple cognitive impairments, but it remains unclear which cognitive impairments share the aetiological pathway, underlying the co-occurrence of the symptoms. We address this question using a sample of twins aged 7-10 and a range of cognitive measures previously associated with ADHD symptoms or RD.We performed multivariate structural equation modelling analyses on parent and teacher ratings on the ADHD symptom domains of inattention and hyperactivity, parent ratings on RD, and cognitive data on response inhibition (commission errors, CE, reaction time variability (RTV, verbal short-term memory (STM, working memory (WM and choice impulsivity, from a population sample of 1312 twins aged 7-10 years.Three cognitive processes showed significant phenotypic and genetic associations with both inattention symptoms and RD: RTV, verbal WM and STM. While STM captured only 11% of the shared genetic risk between inattention and RD, the estimates increased somewhat for WM (21% and RTV (28%; yet most of the genetic sharing between inattention and RD remained unaccounted for in each case.While response inhibition and choice impulsivity did not emerge as important cognitive processes underlying the co-occurrence between ADHD symptoms and RD, RTV and verbal memory processes separately showed significant phenotypic and genetic associations with both inattention symptoms and RD. Future studies employing longitudinal designs will be required to investigate the developmental pathways and direction of causality further.

  7. Network topologies and convergent aetiologies arising from deletions and duplications observed in individuals with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hyun Ji; Ponting, Chris P; Boulding, Hannah C; Meader, Stephen; Betancur, Catalina; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Pinto, Dalila; Marshall, Christian R; Lionel, Anath C; Scherer, Stephen W; Webber, Caleb

    2013-06-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are highly heritable and characterised by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours. Considering four sets of de novo copy number variants (CNVs) identified in 181 individuals with autism and exploiting mouse functional genomics and known protein-protein interactions, we identified a large and significantly interconnected interaction network. This network contains 187 genes affected by CNVs drawn from 45% of the patients we considered and 22 genes previously implicated in ASD, of which 192 form a single interconnected cluster. On average, those patients with copy number changed genes from this network possess changes in 3 network genes, suggesting that epistasis mediated through the network is extensive. Correspondingly, genes that are highly connected within the network, and thus whose copy number change is predicted by the network to be more phenotypically consequential, are significantly enriched among patients that possess only a single ASD-associated network copy number changed gene (p = 0.002). Strikingly, deleted or disrupted genes from the network are significantly enriched in GO-annotated positive regulators (2.3-fold enrichment, corrected p = 2×10(-5)), whereas duplicated genes are significantly enriched in GO-annotated negative regulators (2.2-fold enrichment, corrected p = 0.005). The direction of copy change is highly informative in the context of the network, providing the means through which perturbations arising from distinct deletions or duplications can yield a common outcome. These findings reveal an extensive ASD-associated molecular network, whose topology indicates ASD-relevant mutational deleteriousness and that mechanistically details how convergent aetiologies can result extensively from CNVs affecting pathways causally implicated in ASD.

  8. Aetiological bases of 46,XY disorders of sex development in the Hong Kong Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Angel O K; But, W M; Lee, C Y; Lam, Y Y; Ng, K L; Loung, P Y; Lam, Aimen; Cheng, C W; Shek, C C; Wong, W S; Wong, K F; Wong, M Y; Tse, W Y

    2015-12-01

    Disorders of sex development are due to congenital defects in chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex development. The objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of this group of disorders in the Hong Kong Chinese population. Five public hospitals in Hong Kong. Patients with 46,XY disorders of sex development under the care of paediatric endocrinologists between July 2009 and June 2011. Measurement of serum gonadotropins, adrenal and testicular hormones, and urinary steroid profiling. Mutational analysis of genes involved in sexual differentiation by direct DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Overall, 64 patients were recruited for the study. Their age at presentation ranged from birth to 17 years. The majority presented with ambiguous external genitalia including micropenis and severe hypospadias. A few presented with delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea. Baseline and post-human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels were not discriminatory in patients with or without AR gene mutations. Of the patients, 22 had a confirmed genetic disease, with 11 having 5α-reductase 2 deficiency, seven with androgen insensitivity syndrome, one each with cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme deficiency, Frasier syndrome, NR5A1-related sex reversal, and persistent Müllerian duct syndrome. Our findings suggest that 5α-reductase 2 deficiency and androgen insensitivity syndrome are possibly the two most common causes of 46,XY disorders of sex development in the Hong Kong Chinese population. Since hormonal findings can be unreliable, mutational analysis of the SRD5A2 and AR genes should be considered the first-line tests for these patients.

  9. Local Aetiology and Pathways to Care in Malaria among the Ibibio of South-coastal Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Ajala

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a parallel between local and bio-medical perceptions of malaria among the Ibibio people of South-coastal Nigeria, as in many other societies of sub-Saharan Africa where malaria is endemic. Despite the fact that this accounts for resilience of the disease, earlier studies on malaria in Africa focused on causes, prevalence and socio-environmental factors. Local meanings of malaria and their influence on therapeutic choices have been largely ignored. This study examines local perceptions of malaria among the Ibibio and explains how attitudes are generated from indigenous meanings. It also examines how such attitudes inform a local aetiology of malaria. Similarly, our study examines how local meanings of, and attitudes towards malaria, set the pathway of care in malaria management among the Ibibio. Through qualitative and descriptive ethnography, Key Informant Interview (KII, Focus Group Discussion (FGD and the textual analysis of documents, our study seeks to establish that malaria is caused by parasites–protozoa. 83% of the respondents held that malaria is due to witchcraft, exposure to sunlight and eating of yellowish food items such as yellow maize, paw-paw, orange and red oil. These local perceptions are drawn from local conceptions which in turn encourage malaria patients to seek assistance outside modern health care facilities. This also discourages local communities from attending health education workshops that link malaria with germ theory and care. Treatment of malaria is thus mostly home-based where a wide variety of traditional remedies is practiced. Our study concludes that the lack of convergence between local knowledge-contents and bio-medical explanations account for a high prevalence rate and the lack of effective management. For proper management of malaria, there is a need to understand local knowledge and indigenous concepts in order to establish a convergence between bio-medical explanations and indigenous

  10. [Aetiology and outcomes of potentially serious infections in febrile infants less than 3 months old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Mercedes; de Lucas, Nieves; Velasco, Roberto; Gómez, Borja; Mintegi, Santiago

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies have shown changes in the aetiology of serious bacterial infections in febrile infants ≤ 90 days of age. The aim of this study was to describe the current microbiology and outcomes of these infections in Spain. Sub-analysis of a prospective multicentre study focusing on febrile infants of less than 91 days of life, admitted between October 2011 and September 2013 to Emergency Departments of 19 Spanish hospitals, members of the Spanish Paediatric Emergency Research Group of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Emergencies (RISeuP/SPERG). The analysis included 3,401 febrile infants ≤90 days of age with fever without source. There were 896 positive cultures: 766 urine (85.5%), 100 blood (11.2%), 18 cerebrospinal fluid (2%), 10 stool, and 2 umbilical cultures. Among the 3,401 infants included, 784 (23%) were diagnosed with a serious bacterial infection, and 107 of them (3.1%) with an invasive infection. E. coli was the most common pathogen isolated from urine (628; 82%), blood (46; 46%), and cerebrospinal fluid cultures (7; 38.9%), followed by S. agalactiae that was isolated from 24 (24%) blood cultures and 3 (16.7%) cerebrospinal fluid cultures. There were only 2 L. monocytogenes infections. Four children died, and seven had severe complications. Among infants ≤ 90 days of age with fever without source, E. coli was the most common pathogen isolated from urine, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of immunosuppression on incidence, aetiology and outcome of ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Anne-Sophie; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Povoa, Pedro; Salluh, Jorge; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Thille, Arnaud W; Diaz Santos, Emilio; Vedes, Elisa; Lobo, Suzana Margareth; Mégarbane, Bruno; Molero Silvero, Esperanza; Coelho, Luis; Argaud, Laurent; Sanchez Iniesta, Rafael; Labreuche, Julien; Rouzé, Anahita; Nseir, Saad

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this planned analysis of the prospective multinational TAVeM database was to determine the incidence, aetiology and impact on outcome of ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTI) in immunocompromised patients.All patients receiving mechanical ventilation for >48 h were included. Immunocompromised patients (n=663) were compared with non-immunocompromised patients (n=2297).The incidence of VA-LRTI was significantly lower among immunocompromised than among non-immunocompromised patients (16.6% versus 24.2%; sub-hazard ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.53-0.80; p<0.0001). Similar results were found regarding ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (7.3% versus 11.6%; sub-hazard ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.84; p=0.002) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (9.3% versus 12.7%; sub-hazard ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.54-0.95; p=0.019). Among patients with VA-LRTI, the rates of multidrug-resistant bacteria (72% versus 59%; p=0.011) and intensive care unit mortality were significantly higher among immunocompromised than among non-immunocompromised patients (54% versus 30%; OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.78-4.02; p<0.0001). In patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, mortality rates were higher among immunocompromised than among non-immunocompromised patients (64% versus 34%; p<0.001).Incidence of VA-LRTI was significantly lower among immunocompromised patients, but it was associated with a significantly higher mortality rate. Multidrug-resistant pathogens were more frequently found in immunocompromised patients with VA-LRTI. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  12. EPIDEMIOLOGY, AETIOLOGY AND PATTERN OF PENETRATING OCULAR TRAUMA IN KOLKATA AND SURROUNDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthapratim Mandal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The purpose of the study was to determine the epidemiology, aetiology and pattern of penetrating ocular trauma in Kolkata and surroundings. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a retrospective study of patients with open globe injuries who underwent surgery from July 2015 to June 2016 at Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Calcutta Medical College, West Bengal. We examined and classified the injuries based on BETTS (Birmingham eye trauma terminology system. We included 192 eyes from 192 patients. The majority of injuries occurred in young (48% patients were <16 years. 54.17% patients were male and 45.83% were female. Most common mode of trauma was Stone (52, Followed by Iron Rod or Piece (44 and Wood (32. Other causes were Cow’s horn (14, Needle (12 Knife (8, Arrow (6, Sickle (6, Rubber Tube (4, Glass (2, Crackers (4, Metal Instrument (2, Bird Beak (2 and Pencil (2. RESULTS The highest proportion of injuries occurred at home followed by outside. According to BETTS, 61 patients had zone 1, 29 patients - zone 2, 6 patients - Zone 3 injury. Associated features were iris prolapse, hyphaema, anterior capsular rupture, lid tear and impacted foreign body. Mean period of presenting at hospital was 2.72 days. Most common visual acuity at presentation was less than 6/60 to perception of light. CONCLUSION In our study, serious ocular trauma frequently occurred at home followed by outside and the young were particularly at risk. Most common mode of trauma was stone. Most of the injuries were limited to cornea up to limbus. More adequate adult supervision and educational measures are necessary in order to reduce the prevalence of these accidents.

  13. PREDISPOSING FACTORS AND AETIOLOGY OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Prakash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common infection in pregnant women. It is responsible for range of complications causing perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. AIM To assess the associated risk factors, aetiology and their antibiogram of UTI among pregnant women. METHODOLOGY This is a cross-sectional study carried out in Department of Microbiology & Department of Obstetrics from March 2015 to February 2016. The patient details and risk factors were recorded. Midstream & catheter urine specimens from pregnant women with symptoms of UTI were collected and sent for routine microscopy, culture and sensitivity. RESULTS In 550 pregnant women, 122(22.18% had significant bacteriuria and 72(17.72% had low colony count UTI. The most affected number age group was 25-35 years (58.85% followed by 15-25 years. Of the associated risk factors, multiparity 45.31%, low socioeconomic status 42.18%, anaemia 39.06% etc. were important. Escherichia coli was most frequently isolated with a percentage of 29.14%, followed by Klebsiella species (17.49%, S. aureus (14.34% etc. Other isolated micro-organisms included Enterococci, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter species. The antibiotics with more than 50% sensitivity against Gram-negative isolates were Imipenem (74.7%, Levofloxacin (73.17%, Ciprofloxacin (69.10%, Amikacin (57.72%, Amoxiclav (55.28%, and Cefoperazone/Sulbactam (50.40%. The antibiotics for Gram-positive isolates were Linezolid (88.46%, Cefoxitin (78.84%, Teicoplanin (69.23% and Vancomycin (65.22%. CONCLUSION We found associated risk factors such as multiparity, low socioeconomic status, etc. E. coli was the most common bacteria isolated in our setting. Therefore, pregnant women should be assessed for associated risk factors and evaluated for the pathogenic organism during their regular follow-up. The drug sensitivity should be taken into consideration with their side effects related to pregnancy.

  14. Olfactory Disorder Pattern In Patients With Neurological Diseases Excluding Psychiatric And Traumatic Aetiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro-Licer, Josep; González-Fernández, Adela; Planas-Comes, Albert; González-Ares, Josep Antón

    2018-03-23

    The most common cause of olfactory ENT disorders are colds and flu, chronic sinusitis, allergies and traumatic brain injury. Rarer aetiologies include certain neurological, psychiatric and metabolic injuries. The aim of this paper was to check the sort of olfactory disorders found in people who have suffered a brain injury, excluding: cranial traumas, psychiatric diseases, epilepsy, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, and synaesthesia. A descriptive study based on 61 patients with diagnoses of various neurological injuries, which were tested by BAST-24 olfactometer. The results were compared with those of a control group (n= 120). The results show major impairment in these patients' olfactory sense. The neurological injury patients were able to detect from 60-77% of the odours, while the control group were able to detect between 98-100%. The neurological patients were able, at best, to identify, 11-32% of the odours correctly, while the control group were able to correctly detect between 59 -75%. The differences between odour detection and correct identification were statistically significant (p<.05). We concluded: a) Neurological injury, not caused by traumatic brain injury, psychiatric disorders or ENT diseases, ranged from 68-89% of the olfactory failures. b) We must bear in mind that these sorts of injuries can cause olfactory disorders. c) ENT and Neurologists should collaborate in the treatment of these disorders. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Aetiology and pathogenesis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in cats by histological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessely, Marlis; Reese, Sven; Schnabl-Feichter, Eva

    2017-06-01

    of cats revealed no other signs of degeneration in the cranial cruciate ligaments. Thus, degeneration is likely not an aetiological factor for cranial cruciate ligament rupture in cats.

  16. Acute mechanical intestinal obstruction in children at zinder national hospital, Niger: Aetiologies and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harissou Adamou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To describe the aetiological and prognostic aspects of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction (AMIO in children at Zinder National Hospital (Niger. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on a period to January 2013–June 2015. The database included all children under 15 years of age with a surgical diagnosis of mechanical intestinal obstruction. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for analysis. Results: AMIOs represent 21.78% (n = 78 of child digestive surgical emergencies (n = 358. Median age was 12 months (range: 1 day–15 years. Fifteen (19.23% were neonates and sixty children (76.92% had ≤60 months. The sex ratio (male/female was 2.8. The mean time from onset to presentation was 39.96 ± 36.22 h. Intussusception and strangulated hernias were the main causes of AMIO with, respectively, 43.59% (n = 34 and 29.48% (n = 23. Anorectal malformations represent 17.95% (n = 14 of cases of AMIO. Intestinal resection was made in 22.08% and colostomy in 19.23% of patients. The average length of hospital stay was 6.44 ± 4.30 days. The post-operative complications were recorded in 26 patients (33.33%, mostly surgical site infections. Overall mortality of AMIO was 15.38% (n = 12. It was higher in the neonates (33.33% (P = 0.032. Deaths were associated with delay of admission (P = 0.0005 and waiting time for surgery (P = 0.019. Conclusion: Intussusception and strangulated hernia are the most common cause of AMIO in children. Diagnostic and therapeutic delays, lack of paediatric intensive care and post-operative complications are prognostic factors.

  17. Aetiology of stillbirths and neonatal deaths in rural Ghana: implications for health programming in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Karen M; Quigley, Maria A; Zandoh, Charles; Danso, Samuel; Hurt, Chris; Owusu Agyei, Seth; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2008-09-01

    In developing countries many stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur at home and cause of death is not recorded by national health information systems. A community-level verbal autopsy tool was used to obtain data on the aetiology of stillbirths and neonatal deaths in rural Ghana. Objectives were to describe the timing and distribution of causes of stillbirths and neonatal deaths according to site of death (health facility or home). Data were collected from 1 January 2003 to 30 June 2004; 20,317 deliveries, 696 stillbirths and 623 neonatal deaths occurred over that time. Most deaths occurred in the antepartum period (28 weeks gestation to the onset of labour) (33.0%). However, the highest risk periods were during labour and delivery (intrapartum period) and the first day of life. Infections were a major cause of death in the antepartum (10.1%) and neonatal (40.3%) periods. The most important cause of intrapartum death was obstetric complications (59.3%). There were significantly fewer neonatal deaths resulting from birth asphyxia in the home than in the health facilities and more deaths from infection. Only 59 (20.7%) mothers of neonates who died at home reported that they sought care from an appropriate health care provider (doctor, nurse or health facility) during their baby's illness. The results from this study highlight the importance of studying community-level data in developing countries and the high risk of intrapartum stillbirths and infectious diseases in the rural African mother and neonate. Community-level interventions are urgently needed, especially interventions that reduce intrapartum deaths and infection rates in the mother and infant.

  18. Aetiological patterns and management outcome of paediatric head trauma: one-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emejulu, J K C; Shokunbi, M T

    2010-09-01

    Trauma is the most common cause ofpaediatric deaths. In 75% ofpaediatric trauma deaths, head injury is responsible, and most are from falls. Recent reports from Nigeria, however, appear to indicate a predominance of road traffic accidents, instead of falls. To evaluate the aetiology of paediatric head trauma, management protocols and outcome from our Centre, in order to acquire a baseline data base and recommend measures to reduce childhood trauma. A prospective study of all paediatric head trauma cases presenting to Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, for 12months from April 21, 2006 to April 20, 2007, was done and collated data subsequently analyzed. The paediatric age group was taken as = 15 years, and grading of head injury was with the Glasgow Coma Scale (3-15) and the modified scale for non-verbal children; while outcome was measured with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (1-5). Out of 334 patients treated within the period of study, 210 were head trauma cases. Of these, 52 were paediatric head trauma, representing 24.8% of all head trauma cases; and 19.2% (10 of 52) of them were aged 0-2 years. About 62% (32 of 52) were males. Falls and RTA were each responsible in 25 (48.1%) cases. Mild head injury occurred in 31 (59.6%), and 49 (94.2%) patients were evaluated by plain radiography. Treatment was conservative in 39 (75%) cases; with satisfactory outcome in 36 (69.2%), and a mortality rate of 15.4%. Road traffic injury, mostly from motorcycles, has become the major cause of morbidity and mortality amongst the paediatric age group, especially the male gender, and outcome from management is mostly satisfactory.

  19. Chronic mitral regurgitation detected on cardiac MDCT: differentiation between functional and valvular aetiologies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cardiac computed tomography (MDCT) can differentiate between functional and valvular aetiologies of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) compared with echocardiography (TTE). METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with functional or valvular MR diagnosed by TTE and 19 controls prospectively underwent cardiac MDCT. The morphological appearance of the mitral valve (MV) leaflets, MV geometry, MV leaflet angle, left ventricular (LV) sphericity and global\\/regional wall motion were analysed. The coronary arteries were evaluated for obstructive atherosclerosis. RESULTS: All control and MR cases were correctly identified by MDCT. Significant differences were detected between valvular and control groups for anterior leaflet length (30 +\\/- 7 mm vs. 22 +\\/- 4 mm, P < 0.02) and thickness (3.0 +\\/- 1 mm vs. 2.2 +\\/- 1 mm, P < 0.01). High-grade coronary stenosis was detected in all patients with functional MR compared with no controls (P < 0.001). Significant differences in those with\\/without MV prolapse were detected in MV tent area (-1.0 +\\/- 0.6 mm vs. 1.3 +\\/- 0.9 mm, P < 0.0001) and MV tent height (-0.7 +\\/- 0.3 mm vs. 0.8 +\\/- 0.8 mm, P < 0.0001). Posterior leaflet angle was significantly greater for functional MR (37.9 +\\/- 19.1 degrees vs. 22.9 +\\/- 14 degrees , P < 0.018) and less for valvular MR (0.6 +\\/- 35.5 degrees vs. 22.9 +\\/- 14 degrees, P < 0.017). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of MDCT were 100%, 95%, 96% and 100%. CONCLUSION: Cardiac MDCT allows the differentiation between functional and valvular causes of MR.

  20. Multivariate analysis of electrical impedance spectra for relaxed and contracted skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T; Krizaj, D

    2008-01-01

    Four-electrode impedance spectra of relaxed and contracted muscle biceps brachii were analyzed in an adult human subject over the frequency range from 300 Hz to 75 kHz. A feasibility of the principal component analysis of bioimpedance measurement for the evaluation of skeletal muscle contractile state was examined. The principal components score plots show a data grouping of the impedance spectra from the two muscle groups. The classification was performed using a soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) method. The data set comprised 32 samples (16 samples of contracted muscle and 16 samples of relaxed muscle). The leave-one-out test of the classification yields about 80% of correctly classified samples (11 samples for contracted and 15 samples for relaxed muscle)

  1. Implications of skeletal muscle loss for public health nutrition messages: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Louis B; Welch, Ailsa A

    2015-11-01

    Age-related skeletal muscle loss, sarcopenia, cachexia and wider malnutrition (under nutrition) are complex in aetiology with interaction of clinical, social and economic factors. Weight loss and loss of skeletal muscle mass in older people are associated with increased morbidity and mortality with implications for increasing health and social care costs. There is insufficient evidence to identify the ideal treatment options. However, preventing weight loss and loss of skeletal muscle in older age will be keys to reducing morbidity and mortality. This will require all those coming into contact with older people to identify and address weight loss early, including through diet, improving physical activity and increasing social interaction. Public health messages on diet should, in the main, continue to focus on older people achieving current UK dietary recommendations for their age as visually depicted in the eatwell plate together with associated messages regarding dietary supplements where appropriate.

  2. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T; Quaresima, V

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  3. Classification of radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A classification for departments in Danish hospitals which use radiological procedures. The classification codes consist of 4 digits, where the first 2 are the codes for the main groups. The first digit represents the procedure's topographical object and the second the techniques. The last 2 digits describe individual procedures. (CLS)

  4. Colombia: Territorial classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Morales, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    The article is about the approaches of territorial classification, thematic axes, handling principles and territorial occupation, politician and administrative units and administration regions among other topics. Understanding as Territorial Classification the space distribution on the territory of the country, of the geographical configurations, the human communities, the political-administrative units and the uses of the soil, urban and rural, existent and proposed

  5. Munitions Classification Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    members of the community to make their own additions to any, or all, of the classification libraries . The next phase entailed data collection over less......Include area code) 04/04/2016 Final Report August 2014 - August 2015 MUNITIONS CLASSIFICATION LIBRARY Mr. Craig Murray, Parsons Dr. Thomas H. Bell, Leidos

  6. Recursive automatic classification algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, E V; Dorofeyuk, A A

    1982-03-01

    A variational statement of the automatic classification problem is given. The dependence of the form of the optimal partition surface on the form of the classification objective functional is investigated. A recursive algorithm is proposed for maximising a functional of reasonably general form. The convergence problem is analysed in connection with the proposed algorithm. 8 references.

  7. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  8. Spectroscopic classification of transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Fraser, M.; Hummelmose, N. N.

    2017-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017.......We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017....

  9. Intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Tol, Johannes L.; Roemer, Frank W.; Bahr, Roald; Dijkstra, H. Paul; Crema, Michel D.; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Guermazi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three different MRI grading and classification systems for acute hamstring injuries are overall reliable. • Reliability for the subcategories within these MRI grading and classification systems remains, however, unclear. - Abstract: Objective: To assess and compare the intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injury. Methods: Male athletes (n = 40) with clinical diagnosis of acute hamstring injury and MRI ≤5 days were selected from a prospective cohort. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRIs using standardised scoring form including the modified Peetrons grading system, the Chan acute muscle strain injury classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification. Intra-and interrater reliability was assessed with linear weighted kappa (κ) or unweighted Cohen's κ and percentage agreement was calculated. Results: We observed ‘substantial’ to ‘almost perfect’ intra- (κ range 0.65–1.00) and interrater reliability (κ range 0.77–1.00) with percentage agreement 83–100% and 88–100%, respectively, for severity gradings, overall anatomical sites and overall classifications for the three MRI systems. We observed substantial variability (κ range −0.05 to 1.00) for subcategories within the Chan classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification, however, the prevalence of positive scorings was low for some subcategories. Conclusions: The modified Peetrons grading system, overall Chan classification and overall British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification demonstrated ‘substantial' to ‘almost perfect' intra- and interrater reliability when scored by experienced radiologists. The intra- and interrater reliability for the anatomical subcategories within the classifications remains unclear.

  10. Intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug, E-mail: arnlaug.wangensteen@nih.no [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo (Norway); Tol, Johannes L., E-mail: johannes.tol@aspetar.com [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Amsterdam Center for Evidence Sports Medicine, Academic Medical Center (Netherlands); The Sports Physician Group, OLVG, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roemer, Frank W. [Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bahr, Roald [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo (Norway); Dijkstra, H. Paul [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Crema, Michel D. [Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Saint-Antoine Hospital, University Paris VI, Paris (France); Farooq, Abdulaziz [Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Guermazi, Ali [Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Three different MRI grading and classification systems for acute hamstring injuries are overall reliable. • Reliability for the subcategories within these MRI grading and classification systems remains, however, unclear. - Abstract: Objective: To assess and compare the intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injury. Methods: Male athletes (n = 40) with clinical diagnosis of acute hamstring injury and MRI ≤5 days were selected from a prospective cohort. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRIs using standardised scoring form including the modified Peetrons grading system, the Chan acute muscle strain injury classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification. Intra-and interrater reliability was assessed with linear weighted kappa (κ) or unweighted Cohen's κ and percentage agreement was calculated. Results: We observed ‘substantial’ to ‘almost perfect’ intra- (κ range 0.65–1.00) and interrater reliability (κ range 0.77–1.00) with percentage agreement 83–100% and 88–100%, respectively, for severity gradings, overall anatomical sites and overall classifications for the three MRI systems. We observed substantial variability (κ range −0.05 to 1.00) for subcategories within the Chan classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification, however, the prevalence of positive scorings was low for some subcategories. Conclusions: The modified Peetrons grading system, overall Chan classification and overall British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification demonstrated ‘substantial' to ‘almost perfect' intra- and interrater reliability when scored by experienced radiologists. The intra- and interrater reliability for the anatomical subcategories within the classifications remains unclear.

  11. DOE LLW classification rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, A.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This report was about the rationale which the US Department of Energy had with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) classification. It is based on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's classification system. DOE site operators met to review the qualifications and characteristics of the classification systems. They evaluated performance objectives, developed waste classification tables, and compiled dose limits on the waste. A goal of the LLW classification system was to allow each disposal site the freedom to develop limits to radionuclide inventories and concentrations according to its own site-specific characteristics. This goal was achieved with the adoption of a performance objectives system based on a performance assessment, with site-specific environmental conditions and engineered disposal systems

  12. Constructing criticality by classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machacek, Erika

    2017-01-01

    " in the bureaucratic practice of classification: Experts construct material criticality in assessments as they allot information on the materials to the parameters of the assessment framework. In so doing, they ascribe a new set of connotations to the materials, namely supply risk, and their importance to clean energy......, legitimizing a criticality discourse.Specifically, the paper introduces a typology delineating the inferences made by the experts from their produced recommendations in the classification of rare earth element criticality. The paper argues that the classification is a specific process of constructing risk....... It proposes that the expert bureaucratic practice of classification legitimizes (i) the valorisation that was made in the drafting of the assessment framework for the classification, and (ii) political operationalization when enacted that might have (non-)distributive implications for the allocation of public...

  13. The association between premature plantarflexor muscle activity, muscle strength, and equinus gait in patients with various pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Katrin; Romkes, Jacqueline; Brunner, Reinald

    2013-09-01

    This study provides an overview on the association between premature plantarflexor muscle activity (PPF), muscle strength, and equinus gait in patients with various pathologies. The purpose was to evaluate whether muscular weakness and biomechanical alterations are aetiological factors for PPF during walking, independent of the underlying pathology. In a retrospective design, 716 patients from our clinical database with 46 different pathologies (orthopaedic and neurologic) were evaluated. Gait analysis data of the patients included kinematics, kinetics, electromyographic activity (EMG) data, and manual muscle strength testing. All patients were clustered three times. First, patients were grouped according to their primary pathology. Second, all patients were again clustered, this time according to their impaired joints. Third, groups of patients with normal EMG or PPF, and equinus or normal foot contact were formed to evaluate the association between PPF and equinus gait. The patient groups derived by the first two cluster methods were further subdivided into patients with normal or reduced muscle strength. Additionally, the phi correlation coefficient was calculated between PPF and equinus gait. Independent of the clustering, PPF was present in all patient groups. Weak patients revealed PPF more frequently. The correlations of PPF and equinus gait were lower than expected, due to patients with normal EMG during loading response and equinus. These patients, however, showed higher gastrocnemius activity prior to foot strike together with lower peak tibialis anterior muscle activity in loading response. Patients with PPF and a normal foot contact possibly apply the plantarflexion-knee extension couple during loading response. While increased gastrocnemius activity around foot strike seems essential for equinus gait, premature gastrocnemius activity does not necessarily produce an equinus gait. We conclude that premature gastrocnemius activity is strongly associated

  14. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Bar-On

    Full Text Available The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01. The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between

  15. [Diagnosis and classification of headache and temporomandibular disorders, a new opportunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, P; Koole, R

    2011-05-01

    Patients with orofacial pains are generally treated by physicians. A small number of patients are treated for pain in the temporomandibular joint, the masticatory and the neck muscles, by dentists and orofacial surgeons. Among half of the patients being treated in neurological headache clinics, the temporomandibular joint and the masticatory muscles are the source of the pain. In order to achieve better research and a classification, the International Headache Society, consisting largely of neurologists, developed a classification system. A comparable development occurred among oral health specialists. Employing these 2 methods with the same patients leads to different diagnoses and treatments. Both the International Classification of Headache Disorders II and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders are being revised. This creates the opportunity to establish a single classification for these orofacial pains, preferably within the new International Classification of Headache Disorders.

  16. The Aetiologies and Impact of Fever in Pregnant Inpatients in Vientiane, Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilada Chansamouth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laos has the highest maternal mortality ratio in mainland Southeast Asia and a high incidence of infectious diseases. Globally, malaria has been the pathogen most intensively investigated in relation to impact on pregnancy, but there has been relatively little research on the aetiology and impact of other diseases. We therefore aimed to determine the causes and impact of fever in pregnant women admitted to two central hospitals in Vientiane City, Lao PDR (Laos.This hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Mahosot Hospital and the Mother and Child Hospital, Vientiane, between 2006 and 2010, with the aim to recruit 250 consenting pregnant women admitted with tympanic temperature ≥37.5°C. Primary outcome was the cause of fever and secondary outcomes were pregnancy outcomes. Specific investigations (culture, antigen, molecular and serological tests were performed to investigate causes of fever. After discharge, all pregnant women were asked to return for review and convalescence serum on day 10-14 and were monitored until delivery.250 pregnant women were recruited to this study between February 2006 and November 2010. Fifty percent were pregnant for the first time. Their median (range gestational age on admission was 24 (4-43 weeks. The median (range tympanic admission temperature was 38.5°C (37.5-40.5°C. Fifteen percent of patients stated that they had taken antibiotics before admission. Headache, myalgia, back pain and arthralgia were described by >60% of patients and 149 (60% were given a laboratory diagnosis. Of those with confirmed diagnoses, 132 (53% had a single disease and 17 (7% had apparent mixed diseases. Among those who had a single disease, dengue fever was the most common diagnosis, followed by pyelonephritis, scrub typhus, murine typhus and typhoid. Patients were also diagnosed with tuberculosis, appendicitis, Staphylococcus aureus septicemia, leptospirosis, Japanese encephalitis virus infection and Plasmodium falciparum

  17. Patterns of infections, aetiological agents and antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary care hospital in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumburu, Happiness Houka; Sonda, Tolbert; Mmbaga, Blandina Theophil; Alifrangis, Michael; Lund, Ole; Kibiki, Gibson; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2017-04-01

    To determine the causative agents of infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility at a tertiary care hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, to guide optimal treatment. A total of 590 specimens (stool (56), sputum (122), blood (126) and wound swabs (286)) were collected from 575 patients admitted in the medical and surgical departments. The bacterial species were determined by conventional methods, and disc diffusion was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates. A total of 249 (42.2%) specimens were culture-positive yielding a total of 377 isolates. A wide range of bacteria was isolated, the most predominant being Gram-negative bacteria: Proteus spp. (n = 48, 12.7%), Escherichia coli (n = 44, 11.7%), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 40, 10.6%) and Klebsiella spp (n = 38, 10.1%). Wound infections were characterised by multiple isolates (n = 293, 77.7%), with the most frequent being Proteus spp. (n = 44, 15%), Pseudomonas (n = 37, 12.6%), Staphylococcus (n = 29, 9.9%) and Klebsiella spp. (n = 28, 9.6%). All Staphylococcus aureus tested were resistant to penicillin (n = 22, 100%) and susceptible to vancomycin. Significant resistance to cephalosporins such as cefazolin (n = 62, 72.9%), ceftriaxone (n = 44, 51.8%) and ceftazidime (n = 40, 37.4%) was observed in Gram-negative bacteria, as well as resistance to cefoxitin (n = 6, 27.3%) in S. aureus. The study has revealed a wide range of causative agents, with an alarming rate of resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, the bacterial spectrum differs from those often observed in high-income countries. This highlights the imperative of regular generation of data on aetiological agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns especially in infectious disease endemic settings. The key steps would be to ensure the diagnostic capacity at a sufficient number of sites and implement structures to routinely exchange, compare, analyse and report data. Sentinel sites

  18. Aetiology, maternal and foetal outcome in 60 cases of obstetrical acute renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.A.M.; Azhar, A.; Anwar, N.

    2009-01-01

    Acute renal failure is a serious complication in pregnancy. Not only does it result in significant maternal morbidity and mortality but also results in significant number of foetal loss. Although incidence of obstetrical acute renal failure has decreased in developed countries but still it is one of the major health problem of developing nations. The objective of this study was to study aetiology, maternal and foetal outcome in obstetrical acute renal failure. This study was conducted at Department of Nephrology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from August 2006 to December 2007. It was a descriptive, case series study. Female patients with pregnancy and acute renal failure, irrespective of age, were included in the study. Patients were thoroughly examined and baseline urea, creatinine, serum electrolytes, peripheral smear, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen degradation products, renal and obstetrical ultrasound were performed on each patient and 24-hr urinary protein and bacterial culture sensitivity on blood, urine or vaginal swabs were done in selected patients. Foetal and maternal outcome were recorded. Data were analysed using SPSS. A total of 60 patients were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 29 +- 5.4 years and duration of gestation was 33 +- 4.9 weeks. Mean gravidity was 4 +- 2.2. Sixteen patients (26.66%) were treated conservatively while 44 (73.33%) required dialysis. Postpartum haemorrhage was present in 14 (23.33%), postpartum haemorrhage and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in 11 (18.33%), eclampsia-preeclampsia in 8 (13.33%), antepartum haemorrhage in 8 (13.33%), antepartum haemorrhage with DIC in 6 (10%), DIC alone in 4 (6.66%), obstructed labour in 3 (5%), septic abortion in 3 (3.33%), HELLP (haemolysis elevated liver enzyme and low platelet) in 2 (3.33%), urinary tract infection with sepsis in 1 (1.66%) and puerperal sepsis in 1 (1.66%). Foetal loss was 40 (66.66%). Maternal mortality was 9 (15

  19. Perspectives on aetiology, pathophysiology and management of shock in African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Nteziyaremye

    potential contribution of ETAT, the improved standard of care and supportive treatment across the subgroups in the trial. Strengthening systems that enable rapid identification of shock, prompt treatment of children with correct antimicrobials and supportive care such as oxygen administration and blood transfusion may contribute to better survival outcomes in resources limited settings. Keywords: Shock, Paediatric, Aetiology, Pathophysiology and management

  20. Classification of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahn, Stanley

    2011-05-01

    The classification of movement disorders has evolved. Even the terminology has shifted, from an anatomical one of extrapyramidal disorders to a phenomenological one of movement disorders. The history of how this shift came about is described. The history of both the definitions and the classifications of the various neurologic conditions is then reviewed. First is a review of movement disorders as a group; then, the evolving classifications for 3 of them--parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor--are covered in detail. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  1. A systematic review and comprehensive classification of pectoralis major tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElMaraghy, Amr W; Devereaux, Moira W

    2012-03-01

    Reported descriptions of pectoralis major (PM) injury are often inconsistent with the actual musculotendinous morphology. The literature lacks an injury classification system that is consistently applied and accurately reflects surgically relevant anatomic injury patterns, making meaningful comparison of treatment techniques and outcomes difficult. Published cases of PM injury between 1822 and 2010 were analyzed to identify incidence and injury patterns and the extent to which these injuries fit into a classification category. Recent work outlining the 3-dimensional anatomy of the PM muscle and tendon, as well as biomechanical studies of PM muscle segments, were reviewed to identify the aspects of musculotendinous anatomy that are clinically and surgically relevant to injury classification. We identified 365 cases of PM injury, with 75% occurring in the last 20 years; of these, 83% were a result of indirect trauma, with 48% occurring during weight-training activities. Injury patterns were not classified in any consistent way in timing, location, or tear extent, particularly with regard to affected muscle segments contributing to the PM's bilaminar tendon. A contemporary injury classification system is proposed that includes (1) injury timing (acute vs chronic), (2) injury location (at the muscle origin or muscle belly, at or between the musculotendinous junction and the tendinous insertion, or bony avulsion), and (3) standardized terminology addressing tear extent (anterior-to-posterior thickness and complete vs incomplete width) to more accurately reflect the musculotendinous morphology of PM injuries and better inform surgical management, rehabilitation, and research. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  3. Sequence Classification: 779151 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bnormal pharyngeal pumping EAT-5, innexin, required for synchronized pharyngeal muscle contraction and feeding (50.3 kD) (eat-5) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/17506489 ...

  4. Update on diabetes classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Celeste C; Philipson, Louis H

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the difficulties in creating a definitive classification of diabetes mellitus in the absence of a complete understanding of the pathogenesis of the major forms. This brief review shows the evolving nature of the classification of diabetes mellitus. No classification scheme is ideal, and all have some overlap and inconsistencies. The only diabetes in which it is possible to accurately diagnose by DNA sequencing, monogenic diabetes, remains undiagnosed in more than 90% of the individuals who have diabetes caused by one of the known gene mutations. The point of classification, or taxonomy, of disease, should be to give insight into both pathogenesis and treatment. It remains a source of frustration that all schemes of diabetes mellitus continue to fall short of this goal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning Apache Mahout classification

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist who has some experience with the Hadoop ecosystem and machine learning methods and want to try out classification on large datasets using Mahout, this book is ideal for you. Knowledge of Java is essential.

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES. On basis of morphology. On basis of chemical composition. On basis of structure of genome. On basis of mode of replication. Notes:

  7. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  8. AETIOLOGY AND CLINICAL PROFILE OF ORAL CANCERS IN PATIENTS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN RURAL KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulaseedharan Sreedharan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world. Oral cancer represents 14% of all cancer cases in Kerala. The aim of this study is to find out the aetiological factors, symptomatology, morphologic types and the distribution in the sub-sites of oral cavity. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of ENT, Government Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala from May 2009 to October 2013; 136 patients (88 males and 48 females with histopathologically confirmed oral cancers were studied. Variables such as age, sex, residing area, occupation, educational level, socio-economic status, substance abuse, oral hygiene, family history and premalignant conditions were assessed. The presenting complaints, the site, morphology and histopathology of the lesions were noted. RESULTS Mean age in this study was 57.83 with male-to-female ratio of 1.83:1. Majority of cases were from socially and economically weaker section, 62% patients were smokers, 45% patients were alcoholic, 41% patients were pan chewers and 90% had more than one bad habit; 72.05% patients had poor orodental hygiene. Most common symptom in our patients was growth in the mouth. Tongue and buccal mucosa were the most affected sites. Majority presented with ulcerative type and most of the cases were squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION Oral cancers are mainly seen in males of 55 – 64 years’ age group. Important aetiological factors identified in this study are substance abuse, poor oral hygiene and poor socio-economic status. Tobacco consumption is the most dominant risk factor. Most common symptom in our patients is growth in the mouth. Tongue and buccal mucosa are the most affected sites. Most of the cases were squamous cell carcinoma. The study of aetiology and common clinical presentations may help in prevention, early detection and management.

  9. Incidence, aetiology and injury characteristics of traumatic spinal cord injury in Stockholm, Sweden: A prospective, population-based update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Conran; Andersson, Nina; Bjelak, Sapko; Giesecke, Kajsa; Hultling, Claes; Nilsson Wikmar, Lena; Phillips, Julie; Seiger, Åke; Stenimahitis, Vasilios; Trok, Katarzyna; Åkesson, Elisabet; Wahman, Kerstin

    2017-05-16

    To update the incidence rate, aetiology and injury characteristics of acutely-injured adults with traumatic spinal cord injury in Stockholm, Sweden, using international standards of reporting. Prospective, (regional) population-based observation. Forty-nine consecutively enrolled individuals. A surveillance system of newly-injured adults with traumatic spinal cord injury was implemented for an 18-month period. The International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set was used to collect data on those who survived the first 7 days post-injury. After an 18-month period, 49 incident cases were registered, of whom 45 were included in this study. The crude incidence rate was 19.0 per million, consisting mainly of men (60%), and the mean age of the cohort was 55 years (median 58). Causes of injury were almost exclusively limited to falls and transport-related events, accounting for 58% and 40% of cases, respectively. The incidence has remained stable when compared with the previous study; however, significant differences exist for injury aetiology (p = 0.004) and impairment level (p = 0.01) in that more fall- and transport-related spinal cord injury occurred, and a larger proportion of persons was left with resultant tetraplegia, in the current study, compared with more sport-related injuries and those left with paraplegia in the previous study. The incidence rate appeared to remain stable in Stockholm, Sweden. However, significant changes in injury aetiology and impairment-level post injury were found, compared with the previous study. There remains a need for developing fall-related prevention strategies in rehabilitation settings as well as in population-based programmes.

  10. Towards secondary fingerprint classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available an accuracy figure of 76.8%. This small difference between the two figures is indicative of the validity of the proposed secondary classification module. Keywords?fingerprint core; fingerprint delta; primary classifi- cation; secondary classification I..., namely, the fingerprint core and the fingerprint delta. Forensically, a fingerprint core is defined as the innermost turning point where the fingerprint ridges form a loop, while the fingerprint delta is defined as the point where these ridges form a...

  11. Expected Classification Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Rudner

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Every time we make a classification based on a test score, we should expect some number..of misclassifications. Some examinees whose true ability is within a score range will have..observed scores outside of that range. A procedure for providing a classification table of..true and expected scores is developed for polytomously scored items under item response..theory and applied to state assessment data. A simplified procedure for estimating the..table entries is also presented.

  12. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers....

  13. 78 FR 68983 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... regulations to allow for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and... response to requests from the U.S. cotton industry and ICE, AMS will offer a futures classification option...

  14. Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH). A retrospective clinical study in Greek children. II. Possible medical aetiological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygidakis, N A; Dimou, G; Marinou, D

    2008-12-01

    This was to examine the potential medical aetiological factors involved in the development of MIH. During the years 2003--2005, all MIH cases diagnosed according to set criteria were selected from the new patients clinic of a Community Dental Centre for Children (Athens). The age, gender and teeth involved were recorded. A control group of socio-demographically matched controls was also identified. The potential aetiological factors were retrieved through personal interview with the parents and from each child and mother's medical book. Only verified aetiological factors were recorded. Evaluation of the correlation of affected teeth and the timing of the insult was performed in a separate group of 225 affected children aged 8-12 with their entire 12 'index' teeth erupted. From the 3,518, 5.5 to 12 years old children examined, 360 (10.2%) had MIH. Aetiology of MIH: 44 children (12.2%), presented without any relevant medical history, the remaining 316 (87.8%) recorded various medical problems associated with MIH, compared with 18.9% for controls. Perinatal (163, 33.6%) and postnatal (162, 33.9%) problems were the most frequently found and prenatal the least (33, 8.6%). For 42 children (11.7%) problems occurred in more than one chronological period, mainly during both the perinatal and postnatal period (11.1%). The most common prenatal problem was repeated episodes of high fever (12/33), in the perinatal period birth by Caesarean section (92/163) and other birth complications (34/163). Various respiratory conditions (88/162), repeated episodes of high fever (31/162) and neonatal illness (28/162) were the commonly reported problems in the postnatal period. Many MIH cases presented with more than one medical problem during the peri-and postnatal period. Children with MIH recorded 68.9% more frequent medical problems than controls (pMIH children with all their 'index' teeth erupted. Children with MIH present with more medical problems than controls during their prenatal

  15. Viral and bacterial aetiologies of male urethritis: findings of a high prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsson, M; Löwhagen, G-B; Bergström, T; Dubicanac, L; Welinder-Olsson, C; Alvengren, G; Tunbäck, P

    2010-03-01

    Male urethritis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, the aetiology is still unclear in many cases. In this study the prevalences of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), adenovirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum (including subtyping) were investigated. Samples from 112 male STI attendants with microscopically verified urethritis and from a control group of 103 men without clinical or microscopic signs of urethritis were analysed. Prevalences in the urethritis group compared with the controls were as follows: EBV 21%, 6% (P urethritis and may play a role in its pathogenesis.

  16. Gifles de la Tourett's Disease a Single case study A Discussion on Aetiology and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Izadi

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Gille de la Tourett's syndrome is reported and discussed 111 the light of conflicting views on the aetiology of the condition. It is hypothesized that if Tourette's syndrome is to be considered as a sort of reaction against adaption to an unhealthy environment, this reaction and its continuity can be attributed to permanent eNS damage (Probably in the area of corpora striata beginning in childhood. Treatment with haloperidol is suggested as a most effective method of symptomatic treatment.

  17. Growth hormone abuse and bodybuilding as aetiological factors in the development of bilateral internal laryngocoeles. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, James W; Khan, M Iqbal J

    2005-07-01

    A 36-year-old man presented with hoarseness and stridor. He was an elite professional bodybuilder and admitted to having abusing anabolic steroids and growth hormone in the recent past. A CT scan showed bilateral laryngocoeles. The patient was initially managed with intravenous corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, and the stridor resolved sufficiently to permit discharge from the hospital. He proceeded to undergo endoscopic marsupialisation of his laryngocoeles and to date has made a full recovery. This is the first reported case where anabolic steroid and growth hormone abuse combined with an elite bodybuilder's exercise regime has been implicated in the aetiology of bilateral laryngocoeles.

  18. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  19. [Specific developmental language disorder: a theoretical approach to its diagnosis, aetiology and clinical symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rebolledo, R; Giraldo-Prieto, M; Hincapié-Henao, L; Lopera, F; Pineda, D A

    This article presents an updated review about the definition, diagnostic criteria, classifications, etiology and the evolution of the specific language impairment (SLI). The specific language impairment is characterized by a developmental language delay and an impaired language, that persist over time and it is not explained by sensorial, motor and mental disabilities, neither by psycopathological disorders, socio-emotional deprivation, nor brain injury. The diagnosis is based on exclusional criteria. Some researchers propose different classifications considering the children performance in language comprehension and language production. Genetical linkage to the FOXP2 gen in the SPCH1 region of the chromosome 7 and to the chromosomes 13, 16 y 19 has been reported. The neuroimage studies have shown alterations in the volume and perfusion of some brain structures related to language. The manifestations of SLI may change during the development of the children and may disturb the self-esteem, the academic performance and the social abilities. The variability in the linguistic and cognitive performance, and the variety in the etiological findings in children with SLI, don't allow to settle the affected population as an homogeneous group. Different theoretical positions have emerged as a consequence of this condition.

  20. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    , of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle......Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  1. Muscles, exercise and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines....... The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones and brain. However, some myokines exert their effects within...... the muscle itself. Thus, myostatin, LIF, IL-6 and IL-7 are involved in muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, whereas BDNF and IL-6 are involved in AMPK-mediated fat oxidation. IL-6 also appears to have systemic effects on the liver, adipose tissue and the immune system, and mediates crosstalk between intestinal...

  2. A New Classification Approach Based on Multiple Classification Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongmei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A good classifier can correctly predict new data for which the class label is unknown, so it is important to construct a high accuracy classifier. Hence, classification techniques are much useful in ubiquitous computing. Associative classification achieves higher classification accuracy than some traditional rule-based classification approaches. However, the approach also has two major deficiencies. First, it generates a very large number of association classification rules, especially when t...

  3. Associations of muscle force, power, cross-sectional muscle area and bone geometry in older UK men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Ayse; Pye, Stephen R; Cook, Michael J; Adams, Judith E; Rawer, Rainer; Wu, Frederick C W; O'Neill, Terence W; Ward, Kate A

    2017-08-01

    negatively associated with age in UK men. In the lower limb, the measurement of jump force is more strongly related to bone outcomes than CSMA. It is important to consider jump force and power when understanding the aetiology of bone loss and mobility in ageing men. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  4. Accessory piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Develi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis muscle originates from facies pelvica of sacrum and inserts on the trochanter major. It is one of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip and a landmark point in the gluteal region since n. ischiadicus descends to the thigh by passing close to the muscle. This contiguity may be associated with the irritation of the nerve which is known as piriformis syndrome. A rare anatomic variation of the muscle which observed on 74 years old male cadaver is discussed in this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 182-183

  5. Genetic testing of aetiology of intellectual disability in a dedicated physical healthcare outpatient clinic for adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R A

    2016-02-01

    No guidelines exist for assessment of aetiology of intellectual disability in adults with intellectual disability by adult physicians, although robust guidelines exist for paediatric populations. It was speculated that the paediatric guidelines would also be suitable for adults. In rural/regional setting with limited clinical genetics, to perform a quality assurance evaluation on genetics assessment of aetiology of developmental disability in adults attending a dedicated healthcare clinic for adults with intellectual disability, compared results with paediatric standards, speculates if these seem appropriate for adults and speculates on a role for clinical genetics services. Retrospective chart audit of eligible patients looking at genetic clinical assessment, tests selected (molecular karyotype, G banding, metabolics), and yields of positive results. The results were compared with the recommended paediatric guidelines. Of 117 eligible adult patients, ideal genetic history was incomplete for 40% of patients without Down syndrome because of physician cause and lack of information. The number of abnormal genetic results increased from 46% to 66%, mainly from the molecular karyotype, though not all may have been clinically relevant. The improved yield from this test was similar to that in paediatric studies. Use of G banding and metabolic testing could be refined. Improvement can be made in clinical genetic assessment, but results generally support use of molecular karyotyping as first tier testing of cause of unknown intellectual disability in adults, as in the case for paediatric populations. The study highlights a necessary complementary role for clinical geneticists to interpret abnormal results. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  6. Molecular diagnosis of microbial aetiologies using SepsiTest™ in the daily routine of a diagnostic laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Heike; Locher, Franziska; Nolte, Oliver

    2013-08-01

    A universal PCR and sequencing test, SepsiTest™ (Molzym, Germany) was evaluated for its applicability during daily diagnostic routine in a privately operated laboratory. In total, 96 specimens originating from 66 patients under suspect of infectious endocarditis, infections of joints, encephalitis/meningitis, systemic infections and infections of unknown genesis were PCR analysed and compared to culture results. Samples comprised cultured and non-cultured blood, synovial fluid, synovial tissue, heart valves, pacemakers, spinal tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and swabs. PCR and culture were concordant in 26 negative and 8 positive cases (51.5%). A group of 25 patients was culture-negative but PCR-positive (37.9%). In at least 14 of these, common and/or rare aetiologies were identified, while for 4 patients the results of 16S PCR could not be unequivocally linked with the underlying disease. Benefits and limitations of the molecular test are discussed with special emphasis on technical and economic issues. In conclusion, SepsiTest™ proved to be a valuable tool for the diagnosis of aetiologies, particularly in cases of culture-negative patients who are under strong suspicion for an infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) does not play a major role in the aetiology of autism: genetic and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Katherine E; Brookes, Keeley J; Hill, Matthew J; Cochrane, Lynne E; Gill, Michael; Skuse, David; Correia, Catarina; Vicente, Astrid; Kent, Lindsey; Gallagher, Louise; Anney, Richard J L

    2010-05-03

    Oxytocin (OXT) has been hypothesized to play a role in aetiology of autism based on a demonstrated involvement in the regulation of social behaviours. It is postulated that OXT reduces activation of the amygdala, inhibiting social anxiety, indicating a neural mechanism for the effects of OXT in social cognition. Genetic variation at the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been reported to be associated with autism. We examined 18 SNPs at the OXTR gene for association in three independent autism samples from Ireland, Portugal and the United Kingdom. We investigated cis-acting genetic effects on OXTR expression in lymphocytes and amygdala region of the brain using an allelic expression imbalance (AEI) assay and by investigating the correlation between RNA levels and genotype in the amygdala region. No marker survived multiple correction for association with autism in any sample or in a combined sample (n=436). Results from the AEI assay performed in the lymphoblast cell lines highlighted two SNPs associated with relative allelic abundance in OXTR (rs237897 and rs237895). Two SNPs were found to be effecting cis-acting variation through AEI in the amygdala. One was weakly correlated with total gene expression (rs13316193) and the other was highlighted in the lymphoblast cell lines (rs237895). Data presented here does not support the role of common genetic variation in OXTR in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders in Caucasian samples. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Muscle dysmorphia: a critical review of the proposed criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, B

    2001-01-01

    While body-image related disorders such as anorexia nervosa have focused on thinness, only recently have clinical criteria for a disorder that centers around muscularity--muscle dysmorphia--been proposed. An individual affected by muscle dysmorphia is overly concerned with his or her degree of muscularity. This preoccupation is manifested in the individual's behavior (excessive weight lifting, excessive attention to diet, social impairment). This article examines the historical aspects and proposed criteria for muscle dysmorphia and contrasts them with those of anorexia nervosa. While the authors of the proposed criteria have suggested that muscle dysmorphia be classified as a subcategory of body dysmorphic disorder, both the historical and clinical aspects of this syndrome are more consistent with its classification as an obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  9. Isometric muscle fatigue of the paravertebral and upper extremity muscles after whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastovic, Pejana; Gojanovic, Marija Definis; Berberovic, Marina; Pavlovic, Marko; Lesko, Josip; Galic, Gordan; Pandza, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) result from injury of neck structures that most often occur during traffic accidents as a result of rapid acceleration-deceleration. The dominant symptoms manifest in the musculoskeletal system and include increased fatigue. Because of the frequency of whiplash injuries, a simple, cheap and useful diagnostic tool is needed to differentiate whiplash injury from healthy patients or those faking symptoms. To determine muscle fatigue in patients with whiplash injury in six body positions. Analytical cross-sectional study. Emergency center, university hospital. We studied patients with whiplash injury from vehicular traffic accidents who presented to the emergency center within 6 hours of sustaining the injury. We determined whiplash injury grade according to the Quebec Task Force (QTF) classification and measured isometric muscle endurance in six different body positions. Control subjects for each patient were matched by age, gender and anthropomorphic characteristics. Cut-off values were determined to distinguish patients with whiplash injury from controls and for determination of injury grade . QTF grade, time to muscle fatigue in seconds. From September 2013 to September 2016, we enrolled 75 patients with whiplash injury and 75 matching control subjects. In all six positions, the patients with whiplash injury felt muscle fatigue faster than equivalent controls (P whiplash injury grade in all six positions (P whiplash injury and grade. The size of the sample was small. An objective parameter such as electromyography is needed to confirm isometric muscle fatigue.

  10. A Comprehensive Analysis of the SRS-Schwab Adult Spinal Deformity Classification and Confounding Variables: A Prospective, Non-US Cross-sectional Study in 292 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallager, Dennis Winge; Hansen, Lars Valentin; Dragsted, Casper Rokkjær; Peytz, Nina; Gehrchen, Martin; Dahl, Benny

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional analyses on a consecutive, prospective cohort. To evaluate the ability of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-Schwab Adult Spinal Deformity Classification to group patients by widely used health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) scores and examine possible confounding variables. The SRS-Schwab Adult Spinal Deformity Classification includes sagittal modifiers considered important for HRQOL and the clinical impact of the classification has been validated in patients from the International Spine Study Group database; however, equivocal results were reported for the Pelvic Tilt modifier and potential confounding variables were not evaluated. Between March 2013 and May 2014, all adult spinal deformity patients from our outpatient clinic with sufficient radiographs were prospectively enrolled. Analyses of HRQOL variance and post hoc analyses were performed for each SRS-Schwab modifier. Age, history of spine surgery, and aetiology of spinal deformity were considered potential confounders and their influence on the association between SRS-Schwab modifiers and aggregated Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores was evaluated with multivariate proportional odds regressions. P values were adjusted for multiple testing. Two hundred ninety-two of 460 eligible patients were included for analyses. The SRS-Schwab Classification significantly discriminated HRQOL scores between normal and abnormal sagittal modifier classifications. Individual grade comparisons showed equivocal results; however, Pelvic Tilt grade + versus +  + did not discriminate patients according to any HRQOL score. All modifiers showed significant proportional odds for worse aggregated ODI scores with increasing grade levels and the effects were robust to confounding. However, age group and aetiology had individual significant effects. The SRS-Schwab sagittal modifiers reliably grouped patients graded 0 versus + / +  + according to the most widely used HRQOL scores and the

  11. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  12. the sternalis muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-17

    Aug 17, 2009 ... CASE REPORT. CASE. 72. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2009. CASE R. Introduction ... tion is being given to imaging the medial breast, and the sternalis muscle will be revealed with increasing ... The origin of this muscle is uncertain, with pectoralis major, rectus abdominus and sternomastoid ...

  13. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  14. Cellular image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiang; Lin, Feng

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical...

  15. Bosniak classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Bosniak classification was originally based on computed tomographic (CT) findings. Magnetic resonance (MR) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) imaging may demonstrate findings that are not depicted at CT, and there may not always be a clear correlation between the findings...... at MR and CEUS imaging and those at CT. PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic accuracy of MR, CEUS, and CT when categorizing complex renal cystic masses according to the Bosniak classification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From February 2011 to June 2012, 46 complex renal cysts were prospectively evaluated by three...... readers. Each mass was categorized according to the Bosniak classification and CT was chosen as gold standard. Kappa was calculated for diagnostic accuracy and data was compared with pathological results. RESULTS: CT images found 27 BII, six BIIF, seven BIII, and six BIV. Forty-three cysts could...

  16. Bosniak Classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Bosniak classification is a diagnostic tool for the differentiation of cystic changes in the kidney. The process of categorizing renal cysts may be challenging, involving a series of decisions that may affect the final diagnosis and clinical outcome such as surgical management....... Purpose: To investigate the inter- and intra-observer agreement among experienced uroradiologists when categorizing complex renal cysts according to the Bosniak classification. Material and Methods: The original categories of 100 cystic renal masses were chosen as “Gold Standard” (GS), established...... to the calculated weighted κ all readers performed “very good” for both inter-observer and intra-observer variation. Most variation was seen in cysts catagorized as Bosniak II, IIF, and III. These results show that radiologists who evaluate complex renal cysts routinely may apply the Bosniak classification...

  17. Muscle as a secretory organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent e...... proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction. Therefore, it is likely that myokines may contribute in the mediation of the health benefits of exercise.......Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...

  18. Differential aetiology and impact of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt signalling in skeletal muscle on in vivo insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Poulsen, P.; Richter, Erik

    2010-01-01

    signalling was evaluated at three key levels, i.e. the insulin receptor, IRS-1 and V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene (Akt) levels, employing kinase assays and phospho-specific western blotting. RESULTS: Proximal insulin signalling was not associated with obesity, age or sex. However, birthweight...... for most measures of insulin signalling activity. Glucose disposal was positively associated with Akt-308 phosphorylation (p

  19. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...... exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings.......Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...

  20. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  1. Classification of iconic images

    OpenAIRE

    Zrianina, Mariia; Kopf, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Iconic images represent an abstract topic and use a presentation that is intuitively understood within a certain cultural context. For example, the abstract topic “global warming” may be represented by a polar bear standing alone on an ice floe. Such images are widely used in media and their automatic classification can help to identify high-level semantic concepts. This paper presents a system for the classification of iconic images. It uses a variation of the Bag of Visual Words approach wi...

  2. Casemix classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, R B

    1999-01-01

    The idea of using casemix classification to manage hospital services is not new, but has been limited by available technology. It was not until after the introduction of Medicare in the United States in 1965 that serious attempts were made to measure hospital production in order to contain spiralling costs. This resulted in a system of casemix classification known as diagnosis related groups (DRGs). This paper traces the development of DRGs and their evolution from the initial version to the All Patient Refined DRGs developed in 1991.

  3. Additional perspectives on chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka--lessons learned from the WHO CKDu population prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, Jennifer Hoponick; Elledge, Myles F; Womack, Donna S; Wickremashinghe, Rajitha; Wanigasuriya, Kamani P; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Lunyera, Joseph; Smith, Kristin; Raymer, James H; Levine, Keith E

    2014-07-28

    The recent emergence of an apparently new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) has become a serious public health crisis in Sri Lanka. CKDu is slowly progressive, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages, and is not attributable to hypertension, diabetes, or other known aetiologies. In response to the scope and severity of the emerging CKDu health crisis, the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization initiated a collaborative research project from 2009 through 2012 to investigate CKDu prevalence and aetiology. The objective of this paper is to discuss the recently published findings of this investigation and present additional considerations and recommendations that may enhance subsequent investigations designed to identify and understand CKDu risk factors in Sri Lanka or other countries.

  4. Additional perspectives on chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka – lessons learned from the WHO CKDu population prevalence study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The recent emergence of an apparently new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) has become a serious public health crisis in Sri Lanka. CKDu is slowly progressive, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages, and is not attributable to hypertension, diabetes, or other known aetiologies. In response to the scope and severity of the emerging CKDu health crisis, the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization initiated a collaborative research project from 2009 through 2012 to investigate CKDu prevalence and aetiology. The objective of this paper is to discuss the recently published findings of this investigation and present additional considerations and recommendations that may enhance subsequent investigations designed to identify and understand CKDu risk factors in Sri Lanka or other countries. PMID:25069485

  5. Information gathering for CLP classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP. If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requirements of Annex I of the CLP Regulation. CLP appoints that the harmonised classification will be performed for carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction substances (CMR substances and for respiratory sensitisers category 1 and for other hazard classes on a case-by-case basis. The first step of classification is the gathering of available and relevant information. This paper presents the procedure for gathering information and to obtain data. The data quality is also discussed.

  6. The paradox of atheoretical classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2016-01-01

    A distinction can be made between “artificial classifications” and “natural classifications,” where artificial classifications may adequately serve some limited purposes, but natural classifications are overall most fruitful by allowing inference and thus many different purposes. There is strong...... support for the view that a natural classification should be based on a theory (and, of course, that the most fruitful theory provides the most fruitful classification). Nevertheless, atheoretical (or “descriptive”) classifications are often produced. Paradoxically, atheoretical classifications may...... be very successful. The best example of a successful “atheoretical” classification is probably the prestigious Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) since its third edition from 1980. Based on such successes one may ask: Should the claim that classifications ideally are natural...

  7. A muscle model for hybrid muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klauer Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop model-based control strategies for Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES in order to support weak voluntary muscle contractions, a hybrid model for describing joint motions induced by concurrent voluntary-and FES induced muscle activation is proposed. It is based on a Hammerstein model – as commonly used in feedback controlled FES – and exemplarily applied to describe the shoulder abduction joint angle. Main component of a Hammerstein muscle model is usually a static input nonlinearity depending on the stimulation intensity. To additionally incorporate voluntary contributions, we extended the static non-linearity by a second input describing the intensity of the voluntary contribution that is estimated by electromyography (EMG measurements – even during active FES. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to describe the static input non-linearity. The output of the ANN drives a second-order linear dynamical system that describes the combined muscle activation and joint angle dynamics. The tunable parameters are adapted to the individual subject by a system identification approach using previously recorded I/O-data. The model has been validated in two healthy subjects yielding RMS values for the joint angle error of 3.56° and 3.44°, respectively.

  8. Sequence Classification: 778309 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|17505691|ref|NP_491292.1| UNCoordinate...d locomotion UNC-89, PHarynx Muscle abnormal PHM-1, uncoordinated protein 89 (unc-89) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/17505691 ...

  9. Ecosystem classification, Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Robin-Abbott; L.H. Pardo

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystem classification in this report is based on the ecoregions developed through the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) for North America (CEC 1997). Only ecosystems that occur in the United States are included. CEC ecoregions are described, with slight modifications, below (CEC 1997) and shown in Figures 2.1 and 2.2. We chose this ecosystem...

  10. The classification of phocomelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytherleigh-Strong, G; Hooper, G

    2003-06-01

    We studied 24 patients with 44 phocomelic upper limbs. Only 11 limbs could be grouped in the classification system of Frantz and O' Rahilly. The non-classifiable limbs were further studied and their characteristics identified. It is confirmed that phocomelia is not an intercalary defect.

  11. Principles for ecological classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis H. Grossman; Patrick Bourgeron; Wolf-Dieter N. Busch; David T. Cleland; William Platts; G. Ray; C. Robins; Gary Roloff

    1999-01-01

    The principal purpose of any classification is to relate common properties among different entities to facilitate understanding of evolutionary and adaptive processes. In the context of this volume, it is to facilitate ecosystem stewardship, i.e., to help support ecosystem conservation and management objectives.

  12. Mimicking human texture classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowitz, B.E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van den Broek, Egon; Pappas, T.N.; Schouten, Theo E.; Daly, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to mimic human (colorful) texture classification by a clustering algorithm three lines of research have been encountered, in which as test set 180 texture images (both their color and gray-scale equivalent) were drawn from the OuTex and VisTex databases. First, a k-means algorithm was

  13. Classification, confusion and misclassification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The classification of objects and phenomena in science and nature has fascinated academics since Carl Linnaeus, the Swedish botanist and zoologist, created his binomial description of living things in the 1700s and probably long before in accounts of others in textbooks long since gone. It must have concerned human ...

  14. Classifications in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, A.; Schmutz, V.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The categorical system of popular music, such as genre categories, is a highly differentiated and dynamic classification system. In this article we present work that studies different aspects of these categorical systems in popular music. Following the work of Paul DiMaggio, we focus on four

  15. Shark Teeth Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Creel, Sally; Lee, Velda

    2009-01-01

    On a recent autumn afternoon at Harmony Leland Elementary in Mableton, Georgia, students in a fifth-grade science class investigated the essential process of classification--the act of putting things into groups according to some common characteristics or attributes. While they may have honed these skills earlier in the week by grouping their own…

  16. Text document classification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novovičová, Jana

    č. 62 (2005), s. 53-54 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075302; GA AV ČR KSK1019101; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : document representation * categorization * classification Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  17. Classification in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen

    Classification is extensively used in the context of medical image analysis for the purpose of diagnosis or prognosis. In order to classify image content correctly, one needs to extract efficient features with discriminative properties and build classifiers based on these features. In addition...... on characterizing human faces and emphysema disease in lung CT images....

  18. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  19. NOUN CLASSIFICATION IN ESAHIE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work deals with noun classification in Esahie (Kwa, Niger ... phonological information influences the noun (form) class system of Esahie. ... between noun classes and (grammatical) Gender is interrogated (in the light of ..... the (A) argument6 precedes the verb and the (P) argument7 follows the verb in a simple.

  20. Dynamic Latent Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Shengtong; Martínez, Ana M.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    as possible. Motivated by this problem setting, we propose a generative model for dynamic classification in continuous domains. At each time point the model can be seen as combining a naive Bayes model with a mixture of factor analyzers (FA). The latent variables of the FA are used to capture the dynamics...

  1. Classification of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Hosbond, Susanne Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007 as an important component of the universal definition. In contrast to the plaque rupture-related type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction is considered to be caused by an imbalance between demand...

  2. Event Classification using Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.H.T. de; Schutte, K.; Kraaij, W.

    2013-01-01

    The semantic gap is one of the challenges in the GOOSE project. In this paper a Semantic Event Classification (SEC) system is proposed as an initial step in tackling the semantic gap challenge in the GOOSE project. This system uses semantic text analysis, multiple feature detectors using the BoW

  3. Muscles and their myokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-15

    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence that a physically active life plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, dementia and even depression. For most of the last century, researchers sought a link between muscle contraction and humoral changes in the form of an 'exercise factor', which could be released from skeletal muscle during contraction and mediate some of the exercise-induced metabolic changes in other organs such as the liver and the adipose tissue. We have suggested that cytokines or other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Given that skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, our discovery that contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins sets a novel paradigm: skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ producing and releasing myokines, which work in a hormone-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signalling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against several chronic diseases.

  4. A new classification of post-sternotomy dehiscence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, Jaime; Dantas, Daniel Chagas; Arnoni, Renato Tambellini; Farsky, Pedro Sílvio

    2015-01-01

    The dehiscence after median transesternal sternotomy used as surgical access for cardiac surgery is one of its complications and it increases the patient's morbidity and mortality. A variety of surgical techniques were recently described resulting to the need of a classification bringing a measure of objectivity to the management of these complex and dangerous wounds. The different related classifications are based in the primary causal infection, but recently the anatomical description of the wound including the deepness and the vertical extension showed to be more useful. We propose a new classification based only on the anatomical changes following sternotomy dehiscence and chronic wound formation separating it in four types according to the deepness and in two sub-groups according to the vertical extension based on the inferior insertion of the pectoralis major muscle. PMID:25859875

  5. NEW CLASSIFICATION OF ECOPOLICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOROBYOV V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Ecopolices are the newest stage of the urban planning. They have to be consideredsuchas material and energy informational structures, included to the dynamic-evolutionary matrix netsofex change processes in the ecosystems. However, there are not made the ecopolice classifications, developing on suchapproaches basis. And this determined the topicality of the article. Analysis of publications on theoretical and applied aspects of the ecopolices formation showed, that the work on them is managed mainly in the context of the latest scientific and technological achievements in the various knowledge fields. These settlements are technocratic. They are connected with the morphology of space, network structures of regional and local natural ecosystems, without independent stability, can not exist without continuous man support. Another words, they do not work in with an ecopolices idea. It is come to a head for objective, symbiotic searching of ecopolices concept with the development of their classifications. Purpose statement is to develop the objective evidence for ecopolices and to propose their new classification. Conclusion. On the base of the ecopolices classification have to lie an elements correlation idea of their general plans and men activity type according with natural mechanism of accepting, reworking and transmission of material, energy and information between geo-ecosystems, planet, man, ecopolices material part and Cosmos. New ecopolices classification should be based on the principles of multi-dimensional, time-spaced symbiotic clarity with exchange ecosystem networks. The ecopolice function with this approach comes not from the subjective anthropocentric economy but from the holistic objective of Genesis paradigm. Or, otherwise - not from the Consequence, but from the Cause.

  6. Efficient Fingercode Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Wei; Law, Kwok-Yan; Gollmann, Dieter; Chung, Siu-Leung; Li, Jian-Bin; Sun, Jia-Guang

    In this paper, we present an efficient fingerprint classification algorithm which is an essential component in many critical security application systems e. g. systems in the e-government and e-finance domains. Fingerprint identification is one of the most important security requirements in homeland security systems such as personnel screening and anti-money laundering. The problem of fingerprint identification involves searching (matching) the fingerprint of a person against each of the fingerprints of all registered persons. To enhance performance and reliability, a common approach is to reduce the search space by firstly classifying the fingerprints and then performing the search in the respective class. Jain et al. proposed a fingerprint classification algorithm based on a two-stage classifier, which uses a K-nearest neighbor classifier in its first stage. The fingerprint classification algorithm is based on the fingercode representation which is an encoding of fingerprints that has been demonstrated to be an effective fingerprint biometric scheme because of its ability to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint image. We enhance this approach by improving the efficiency of the K-nearest neighbor classifier for fingercode-based fingerprint classification. Our research firstly investigates the various fast search algorithms in vector quantization (VQ) and the potential application in fingerprint classification, and then proposes two efficient algorithms based on the pyramid-based search algorithms in VQ. Experimental results on DB1 of FVC 2004 demonstrate that our algorithms can outperform the full search algorithm and the original pyramid-based search algorithms in terms of computational efficiency without sacrificing accuracy.

  7. Differential Classification of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mohr

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of biological markers, dementia classification remains complex both in terms of characterization as well as early detection of the presence or absence of dementing symptoms, particularly in diseases with possible secondary dementia. An empirical, statistical approach using neuropsychological measures was therefore developed to distinguish demented from non-demented patients and to identify differential patterns of cognitive dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease. Age-scaled neurobehavioral test results (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised and Wechsler Memory Scale from Alzheimer's (AD and Huntington's (HD patients, matched for intellectual disability, as well as normal controls were used to derive a classification formula. Stepwise discriminant analysis accurately (99% correct distinguished controls from demented patients, and separated the two patient groups (79% correct. Variables discriminating between HD and AD patient groups consisted of complex psychomotor tasks, visuospatial function, attention and memory. The reliability of the classification formula was demonstrated with a new, independent sample of AD and HD patients which yielded virtually identical results (classification accuracy for dementia: 96%; AD versus HD: 78%. To validate the formula, the discriminant function was applied to Parkinson's (PD patients, 38% of whom were classified as demented. The validity of the classification was demonstrated by significant PD subgroup differences on measures of dementia not included in the discriminant function. Moreover, a majority of demented PD patients (65% were classified as having an HD-like pattern of cognitive deficits, in line with previous reports of the subcortical nature of PD dementia. This approach may thus be useful in classifying presence or absence of dementia and in discriminating between dementia subtypes in cases of secondary or coincidental dementia.

  8. Muscle protein turnover in the elderly and its potential contribution to the development of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murton, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    The underlying aetiology of sarcopenia appears multifaceted and not yet fully defined, but ultimately involves the gradual loss of muscle protein content over time. The present evidence suggests that the loss of lean tissue in the elderly is exacerbated by low dietary protein intake. Moreover, acute stable-isotope-based methodologies have demonstrated that the muscle anabolic response to a given amount of protein may decline with age, a phenomenon that has been termed anabolic resistance. Although the mechanism responsible for the inability of muscle to mount a satisfactory anabolic response to protein provision with increasing age is presently unknown, it does not appear due to impaired digestion or absorption of dietary protein. Rather, the issue could reside with any combination of: a diminished delivery of amino acids to peripheral tissues, impaired uptake of amino acids into muscle cells, or an inability of amino acids to elicit intracellular events pivotal for anabolism to occur. Despite the presence of anabolic resistance to dietary protein, present evidence suggests that protein supplementation may be able to overcome these issues, particularly when combined with resistance exercise programmes. As such, protein supplementation may prove to be an effective approach to delay the loss of muscle mass with age and has led to calls for the recommended daily intake of protein to be increased for the elderly population.

  9. Muscle Bioenergetic Considerations for Intrinsic Laryngeal Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and…

  10. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  11. 78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 27 [AMS-CN-13-0043] RIN 0581-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and known as ``registration'' by the U.S...

  12. Survey on the importance of mange in the aetiology of skin lesions in goats in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorny, P; Van Wyngaarden, T; Vercruysse, J; Symoens, C; Jalia, A

    1994-05-01

    A survey on mange mite infestations in the aetiology of skin lesions in goats in Peninsular Malaysia is described. Skin lesions were observed in 25 (93%) of the 27 goat farms investigated. Mange mites were found in 22 (88%) of these goat herds. Chorioptes texanus was found in 20.7%, Psoroptes cuniculi in 19.3%, Sarcoptes scabiei in 18.6% and Demodex canis var. caprae in 0.4% of the samples, taken from the skin lesions. Thirteen cases of generalised manage were diagnosed, from which 9 were caused by S. scabiei, 2 by P. cuniculi and one by C. texanus. All other cases had more or less localised lesions. No significant differences could be found in incidence and distribution of skin lesions between age classes.

  13. Sport and early osteoarthritis: the role of sport in aetiology, progression and treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, F; Spalding, T; Andriolo, L; Berruto, M; Denti, M; Espregueira-Mendes, J; Menetrey, J; Peretti, G M; Seil, R; Filardo, G

    2016-06-01

    Sports activities are considered favourable for general health; nevertheless, a possible influence of sports practice on the development of early osteoarthritis (OA) is a cause for concern. A higher incidence of OA in knees and ankles of former high-impact sports players than in those of the normal population has been shown and it is still debatable whether the cause is either to be recognized generically in the higher number of injuries or in a joint overload. The possibility to address knee OA in its early phases may be strictly connected to the modification of specific extrinsic or intrinsic factors, related to the patient in order to save the joint from further disease progression; these include sport practice, equipment and load. Non-surgical therapies such as continuative muscles reinforce and training play a strong role in the care of athletes with early OA, particularly if professional. There is an overall agreement on the need of an early restoring of a proper meniscal, ligament and cartilage integrity in order to protect the knee and resume sports safely, whereas alignment is a point still strongly debatable especially for professional athletes. Remaining questions still to be answered are the risks of different sports in relation to one another, although an actual protective effect of low-impact sports, such as walking, swimming or cycling, has been recognized on the appearance or worsening of OA, the effect of continuing or ceasing to practice a sport on the natural history of early OA, and even following appropriate treatment is still unknown.

  14. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  15. 32 CFR 2700.22 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Derivative Classification § 2700.22 Classification guides. OMSN shall... direct derivative classification, shall identify the information to be protected in specific and uniform...

  16. Changing trends over the last decade in the aetiology of childhood blindness: a study from a tertiary referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Taylan; Er, Duygu; Yaman, Aylin; Berk, A Tulin

    2016-02-01

    To discern treatable and preventable causes of childhood blindness by evaluating the aetiologic factors, and to compare the distribution of the most commonly affected anatomic sites of severe visual impairment (SVI) with our previous published data. The charts of 11 871 patients followed between June 2002 and May 2014 were reviewed retrospectively, and 695 patients (5.9%) who had SVI or blindness in accordance with WHO criteria were enrolled. The results of ophthalmologic examinations and coexistence of any systemic disease were documented and checked against our published clinic data concerning the aetiology of childhood blindness before 2002. χ(2) test was used for statistics. Mean age was 47.0±51.9 months (median: 24 months). Cortical visual impairment (CVI) was present in 212 cases (30.5%) and 20.3% of those had a history of premature birth. The most common anatomic sites of SVI were retina (24.6%) and crystalline lens (17.1%). When compared with our previous data, we found a significant increase in the prevalence of CVI (p=0.046) and decrease in the frequency of SVI due to uveal disorders (pblindness secondary to retinopathy of prematurity reduced by a third (p=0.280), and a significant decrease in aphakia-related SVI (p=0.028) was achieved within the last decade. The prevalence of CVI was found to be relatively increased due to the significant reduction in the frequency of preventable causes of SVI. Furthermore our clinical practice for visual rehabilitation in aphakia has resulted in a considerable decrease in SVI in the last decade. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. The opposite end of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder continuum: genetic and environmental aetiologies of extremely low ADHD traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Corina U; Merwood, Andrew; van der Meer, Jolanda M J; Haworth, Claire M A; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2016-04-01

    Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is thought to reflect a continuously distributed quantitative trait, it is assessed through binary diagnosis or skewed measures biased towards its high, symptomatic extreme. A growing trend is to study the positive tail of normally distributed traits, a promising avenue, for example, to study high intelligence to increase power for gene-hunting for intelligence. However, the emergence of such a 'positive genetics' model has been tempered for ADHD due to poor phenotypic resolution at the low extreme. Overcoming this methodological limitation, we conduct the first study to assess the aetiologies of low extreme ADHD traits. In a population-representative sample of 2,143 twins, the Strength and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal behaviour (SWAN) questionnaire was used to assess ADHD traits on a continuum from low to high. Aetiological influences on extreme ADHD traits were estimated using DeFries-Fulker extremes analysis. ADHD traits were related to behavioural, cognitive and home environmental outcomes using regression. Low extreme ADHD traits were significantly influenced by shared environmental factors (23-35%) but were not significantly heritable. In contrast, high-extreme ADHD traits showed significant heritability (39-51%) but no shared environmental influences. Compared to individuals with high extreme or with average levels of ADHD traits, individuals with low extreme ADHD traits showed fewer internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems, better cognitive performance and more positive behaviours and positive home environmental outcomes. Shared environmental influences on low extreme ADHD traits may reflect passive gene-environment correlation, which arises because parents provide environments as well as passing on genes. Studying the low extreme opens new avenues to study mechanisms underlying previously neglected positive behaviours. This is different from the current deficit-based model of

  18. The relationship of transverse sinus stenosis to bony groove dimensions provides an insight into the aetiology of idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Stewart, V.R.; O' Flynn, E.A.M. [King' s College Hospital, Neuroradiology Department, Ruskin Wing, London (United Kingdom); Siddiqui, M.A. [Southern General Hospital, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Transverse sinus tapered narrowings are frequently identified in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH); however, it remains unclear whether they are primary stenoses or whether they occur secondary to raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Computed tomographic venography demonstrates both the morphology of the venous system and the adjacent bony grooves so it may provide an insight into the aetiology of these transverse sinus stenoses. Tapered transverse sinus narrowings (>50%) were studied in 19 patients without IIH and 14 patients with IIH. Computed tomography vascular studies were reviewed and the dimensions of the venous sinuses and bony grooves at the sites of maximum and minimum transverse sinus area dimensions were recorded. There was demonstrated to be a strong correlation of bony groove height with venous sinus height at the largest portions of the transverse sinus in both IIH patients and non-IIH subjects as well as at the transverse sinus narrowing in non-IIH subjects. There was a discordant relationship between bony groove height and venous sinus height at the site of transverse sinus stenoses in IIH patients. In 5/23 IIH transverse sinus stenoses, the bony groove height was proportionate to that seen in non-IIH subjects. There were a further 8/23 cases where the small or absent sinus was associated with an absent bony groove. Transverse sinus tapered narrowings in subjects without IIH and in the majority of patients with IIH were associated with proportionately small or absent grooves, and these are postulated to be primary or fixed. Some patients with IIH demonstrate tapered transverse sinus stenoses with disproportionately large bony grooves, suggesting a secondary or acquired narrowing. This implies a varied aetiology for the transverse sinus stenoses of IIH. (orig.)

  19. The relationship of transverse sinus stenosis to bony groove dimensions provides an insight into the aetiology of idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Stewart, V.R.; O'Flynn, E.A.M.; Siddiqui, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transverse sinus tapered narrowings are frequently identified in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH); however, it remains unclear whether they are primary stenoses or whether they occur secondary to raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Computed tomographic venography demonstrates both the morphology of the venous system and the adjacent bony grooves so it may provide an insight into the aetiology of these transverse sinus stenoses. Tapered transverse sinus narrowings (>50%) were studied in 19 patients without IIH and 14 patients with IIH. Computed tomography vascular studies were reviewed and the dimensions of the venous sinuses and bony grooves at the sites of maximum and minimum transverse sinus area dimensions were recorded. There was demonstrated to be a strong correlation of bony groove height with venous sinus height at the largest portions of the transverse sinus in both IIH patients and non-IIH subjects as well as at the transverse sinus narrowing in non-IIH subjects. There was a discordant relationship between bony groove height and venous sinus height at the site of transverse sinus stenoses in IIH patients. In 5/23 IIH transverse sinus stenoses, the bony groove height was proportionate to that seen in non-IIH subjects. There were a further 8/23 cases where the small or absent sinus was associated with an absent bony groove. Transverse sinus tapered narrowings in subjects without IIH and in the majority of patients with IIH were associated with proportionately small or absent grooves, and these are postulated to be primary or fixed. Some patients with IIH demonstrate tapered transverse sinus stenoses with disproportionately large bony grooves, suggesting a secondary or acquired narrowing. This implies a varied aetiology for the transverse sinus stenoses of IIH. (orig.)

  20. National study of microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma (MAC) in Scotland: investigation of genetic aetiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D; FitzPatrick, D; Hanson, I; Williamson, K; van Heyningen, V; Fleck, B; Jones, I; Chalmers, J; Campbell, H

    2002-01-01

    We report an epidemiological and genetic study attempting complete ascertainment of subjects with microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma (MAC) born in Scotland during a 16 year period beginning on 1 January 1981. A total of 198 cases were confirmed giving a minimum live birth prevalence of 19 per 100 000. One hundred and twenty-two MAC cases (61.6%) from 115 different families were clinically examined and detailed pregnancy, medical, and family histories obtained. A simple, rational, and apparently robust classification of the eye phenotype was developed based on the presence or absence of a defect in closure of the optic (choroidal) fissure. A total of 85/122 (69.7%) of cases had optic fissure closure defects (OFCD), 12/122 (9.8%) had non-OFCD, and 25/122 (20.5%) had defects that were unclassifiable owing to the severity of the corneal or anterior chamber abnormality. Segregation analysis assuming single and multiple incomplete ascertainment, respectively, returned a sib recurrence risk of 6% and 10% in the whole group and 8.1% and 13.3% in the OFCD subgroup. Significant recurrence risks were found in both unilateral and bilateral disease. In four families, one parent had an OFCD, two of which were new diagnoses in asymptomatic subjects. All recurrences in first degree relatives occurred in the OFCD group with a single first cousin recurrence seen in the non-OFCD group. A total of 84/122 of the MAC cases were screened for mutations in the coding regions of PAX6, CHX10, and SIX3. No pathogenic mutations were identified in the OFCD cases. A single PAX6 homeodomain missense mutation was identified in a subject with partial aniridia that had been initially misclassified as coloboma. PMID:11826019

  1. Are unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy distinguished by differences in anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength in elite female basketball players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaida, J E; Cook, J L; Bass, S L; Austen, S; Kiss, Z S

    2004-10-01

    Overuse injury to the patellar tendon (patellar tendinopathy) is a major reason for interrupted training and competition for elite athletes. In both sexes, the prevalence of unilateral and bilateral tendinopathy has been shown to differ. It has been proposed that bilateral pathology may have a different aetiology from unilateral pathology. Investigation of risk factors that may be unique to unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy in female athletes may reveal insights into the aetiology of this condition. To examine whether anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength distinguished elite female basketball players with unilateral or bilateral patellar tendinopathy. Body composition, anthropometry, and muscle strength were compared in elite female basketball players with unilateral (n = 8), bilateral (n = 7), or no (n = 24) patellar tendinopathy. Body composition was analysed using a dual energy x ray absorptiometer. Anthropometric measures were assessed using standard techniques. Knee extensor strength was measured at 180 degrees /s using an isokinetic dynamometer. z scores were calculated for the unilateral and bilateral groups (using the no tendinopathy group as controls). z scores were tested against zero. The tibia length to stature ratio was approximately 1.3 (1.3) SDs above zero in both the affected and non-affected legs in the unilateral group (ppatellar tendinopathy has identifiable risk factors whereas bilateral patellar tendinopathy may not. This suggests that the aetiology of these conditions may be different. However, interpretation must respect the limitation of small subject numbers.

  2. Inducible satellite cell depletion attenuates skeletal muscle regrowth following a scald-burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C; McKenna, Colleen F; Cambias, Lauren A; Brightwell, Camille R; Prasai, Anesh; Wang, Ye; El Ayadi, Amina; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E; Fry, Christopher S

    2017-11-01

    Severe burns result in significant skeletal muscle cachexia that impedes recovery. Activity of satellite cells, skeletal muscle stem cells, is altered following a burn injury and likely hinders regrowth of muscle. Severe burn injury induces satellite cell proliferation and fusion into myofibres with greater activity in muscles proximal to the injury site. Conditional depletion of satellite cells attenuates recovery of myofibre area and volume following a scald burn injury in mice. Skeletal muscle regrowth following a burn injury requires satellite cell activity, underscoring the therapeutic potential of satellite cells in the prevention of prolonged frailty in burn survivors. Severe burns result in profound skeletal muscle atrophy; persistent muscle atrophy and weakness are major complications that hamper recovery from burn injury. Many factors contribute to the erosion of muscle mass following burn trauma, and we have previously shown concurrent activation and apoptosis of muscle satellite cells following a burn injury in paediatric patients. To determine the necessity of satellite cells during muscle recovery following a burn injury, we utilized a genetically modified mouse model (Pax7 CreER -DTA) that allows for the conditional depletion of satellite cells in skeletal muscle. Additionally, mice were provided 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine to determine satellite cell proliferation, activation and fusion. Juvenile satellite cell-wild-type (SC-WT) and satellite cell-depleted (SC-Dep) mice (8 weeks of age) were randomized to sham or burn injury consisting of a dorsal scald burn injury covering 30% of total body surface area. Both hindlimb and dorsal muscles were studied at 7, 14 and 21 days post-burn. SC-Dep mice had >93% depletion of satellite cells compared to SC-WT (P satellite cell proliferation and fusion. Depletion of satellite cells impaired post-burn recovery of both muscle fibre cross-sectional area and volume (P satellite cells in the aetiology of lean

  3. Muscles and their myokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-01-01

    In the past, the role of physical activity as a life-style modulating factor has been considered as that of a tool to balance energy intake. Although it is important to avoid obesity, physical inactivity should be discussed in a much broader context. There is accumulating epidemiological evidence...... or endocrine effects should be classified as 'myokines'. Given that skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, our discovery that contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins sets a novel paradigm: skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ producing and releasing myokines, which work in a hormone......-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signalling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against several chronic diseases....

  4. Pneumatic Muscle Actuator Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lilly, John

    2000-01-01

    This research is relevant to the Air Fore mission because pneumatic muscle actuation devices arc advantageous for certain types of robotics as well as for strength and/or mobility assistance for humans...

  5. Brain–muscle interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Clipboard: Brain–muscle interface: The next-generation BMI. Radhika Rajan Neeraj Jain ... Keywords. Assistive devices; brain–machine interface; motor cortex; paralysis; spinal cord injury ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  6. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H

    1982-01-01

    glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically stimulated...

  7. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  8. Muscle function loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or head are damaged, you may have difficulty chewing and swallowing or closing your eyes. In these ... Medical Professional Muscle paralysis always requires immediate medical attention. If you notice gradual weakening or problems with ...

  9. IAEA Classification of Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Classifications of uranium deposits follow two general approaches, focusing on: • descriptive features such as the geotectonic position, the host rock type, the orebody morphology, …… : « geologic classification »; • or on genetic aspects: « genetic classification »

  10. Classification of Osteogenesis Imperfecta revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, F. S.; Pals, G.; van Rijn, R. R.; Nikkels, P. G. J.; Cobben, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    In 1979 Sillence proposed a classification of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) in OI types I, II, III and IV. In 2004 and 2007 this classification was expanded with OI types V-VIII because of distinct clinical features and/or different causative gene mutations. We propose a revised classification of OI

  11. The future of general classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2013-01-01

    Discusses problems related to accessing multiple collections using a single retrieval language. Surveys the concepts of interoperability and switching language. Finds that mapping between more indexing languages always will be an approximation. Surveys the issues related to general classification...... and contrasts that to special classifications. Argues for the use of general classifications to provide access to collections nationally and internationally....

  12. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis: Disease spectrum and classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siba P Raychaudhuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle inflammation and weakness are the key features of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs. In addition IIMs are frequently associated with cutaneous and pulmonary involvement. In clinical practice the three common inflammatory myopathies we come across are polymyositis (PM, dermatomyositis (DM and inclusion body myositis (IBM. The Bohan and Peter criteria combine clinical, laboratory, and pathologic features to define PM and DM. They did not recognize inclusion body myositis (IBM or other inflammatory myopathies, such as granulomatous and eosinophilic myositis. Thus the disease spectrum is wide and IIMs are a heterogeneous group of autoimmune disorders. To address these issues in this article we have discussed the currently developing newer classifications of IIMs.

  13. [Headache: classification and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbaat, P A T; Couturier, E G M

    2016-11-01

    There are many types of headache and, moreover, many people have different types of headache at the same time. Adequate treatment is possible only on the basis of the correct diagnosis. Technically and in terms of content the current diagnostics process for headache is based on the 'International Classification of Headache Disorders' (ICHD-3-beta) that was produced under the auspices of the International Headache Society. This classification is based on a distinction between primary and secondary headaches. The most common primary headache types are the tension type headache, migraine and the cluster headache. Application of uniform diagnostic concepts is essential to come to the most appropriate treatment of the various types of headache.

  14. Classification of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classification of hand eczema (HE) is mandatory in epidemiological and clinical studies, and also important in clinical work. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test a recently proposed classification system of HE in clinical practice in a prospective multicentre study. METHODS: Patients were...... recruited from nine different tertiary referral centres. All patients underwent examination by specialists in dermatology and were checked using relevant allergy testing. Patients were classified into one of the six diagnostic subgroups of HE: allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, atopic...... system investigated in the present study was useful, being able to give an appropriate main diagnosis for 89% of HE patients, and for another 7% when using two main diagnoses. The fact that more than half of the patients had one or more additional diagnoses illustrates that HE is a multifactorial disease....

  15. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  16. Anxiety, bulimia, drug and alcohol addiction, depression, and schizophrenia: what do you think about their aetiology, dangerousness, social distance, and treatment? A latent class analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannarini, S.; Boffo, M.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Mental illness stigma is a serious societal problem and a critical impediment to treatment seeking for mentally ill people. To improve the understanding of mental illness stigma, this study focuses on the simultaneous analysis of people's aetiological beliefs, attitudes (i.e. perceived

  17. The genetic aetiology of cannabis use initiation: A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies and a SNP-based heritability estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Vinkhuyzen, A.A.E.; Benyamin, B.; Lynskey, M.T.; Quaye, L.; Agrawal, A.; Gordon, S.D.; Montgomery, G.W.; Madden, P.A.F.; Heath, A.C.; Spector, T.D.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    While initiation of cannabis use is around 40% heritable, not much is known about the underlying genetic aetiology. Here, we meta-analysed two genome-wide association studies of initiation of cannabis use with >10000 individuals. None of the genetic variants reached genome-wide significance. We also

  18. Granular loess classification based

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browzin, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses how loess might be identified by two index properties: the granulometric composition and the dry unit weight. These two indices are necessary but not always sufficient for identification of loess. On the basis of analyses of samples from three continents, it was concluded that the 0.01-0.5-mm fraction deserves the name loessial fraction. Based on the loessial fraction concept, a granulometric classification of loess is proposed. A triangular chart is used to classify loess

  19. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINAL GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Romanova

    2013-01-01

    New types of criminal groups are emerging in modern society.  These types have their special criminal subculture. The research objective is to develop new parameters of classification of modern criminal groups, create a new typology of criminal groups and identify some features of their subculture. Research methodology is based on the system approach that includes using the method of analysis of documentary sources (materials of a criminal case), method of conversations with themembers of the...

  1. Decimal Classification Editions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenovia Niculescu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study approaches the evolution of Dewey Decimal Classification editions from the perspective of updating the terminology, reallocating and expanding the main and auxilary structure of Dewey indexing language. The comparative analysis of DDC editions emphasizes the efficiency of Dewey scheme from the point of view of improving the informational offer, through basic index terms, revised and developed, as well as valuing the auxilary notations.

  2. Decimal Classification Editions

    OpenAIRE

    Zenovia Niculescu

    2009-01-01

    The study approaches the evolution of Dewey Decimal Classification editions from the perspective of updating the terminology, reallocating and expanding the main and auxilary structure of Dewey indexing language. The comparative analysis of DDC editions emphasizes the efficiency of Dewey scheme from the point of view of improving the informational offer, through basic index terms, revised and developed, as well as valuing the auxilary notations.

  3. Classifications of track structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paretzke, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    When ionizing particles interact with matter they produce random topological structures of primary activations which represent the initial boundary conditions for all subsequent physical, chemical and/or biological reactions. There are two important aspects of research on such track structures, namely their experimental or theoretical determination on one hand and the quantitative classification of these complex structures which is a basic pre-requisite for the understanding of mechanisms of radiation actions. This paper deals only with the latter topic, i.e. the problems encountered in and possible approaches to quantitative ordering and grouping of these multidimensional objects by their degrees of similarity with respect to their efficiency in producing certain final radiation effects, i.e. to their ''radiation quality.'' Various attempts of taxonometric classification with respect to radiation efficiency have been made in basic and applied radiation research including macro- and microdosimetric concepts as well as track entities and stopping power based theories. In this paper no review of those well-known approaches is given but rather an outline and discussion of alternative methods new to this field of radiation research which have some very promising features and which could possibly solve at least some major classification problems

  4. An automated cirrus classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryspeerdt, Edward; Quaas, Johannes; Goren, Tom; Klocke, Daniel; Brueck, Matthias

    2018-05-01

    Cirrus clouds play an important role in determining the radiation budget of the earth, but many of their properties remain uncertain, particularly their response to aerosol variations and to warming. Part of the reason for this uncertainty is the dependence of cirrus cloud properties on the cloud formation mechanism, which itself is strongly dependent on the local meteorological conditions. In this work, a classification system (Identification and Classification of Cirrus or IC-CIR) is introduced to identify cirrus clouds by the cloud formation mechanism. Using reanalysis and satellite data, cirrus clouds are separated into four main types: orographic, frontal, convective and synoptic. Through a comparison to convection-permitting model simulations and back-trajectory-based analysis, it is shown that these observation-based regimes can provide extra information on the cloud-scale updraughts and the frequency of occurrence of liquid-origin ice, with the convective regime having higher updraughts and a greater occurrence of liquid-origin ice compared to the synoptic regimes. Despite having different cloud formation mechanisms, the radiative properties of the regimes are not distinct, indicating that retrieved cloud properties alone are insufficient to completely describe them. This classification is designed to be easily implemented in GCMs, helping improve future model-observation comparisons and leading to improved parametrisations of cirrus cloud processes.

  5. Detecting and Predicting Muscle Fatigue during Typing By SEMG Signal Processing and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghoochani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Repetitive strain injuries are one of the most prevalent problems in occupational diseases. Repetition, vibration and bad postures of the extremities are physical risk factors related to work that can cause chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Repetitive work on a computer with low level contraction requires the posture to be maintained for a long time, which can cause muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue in shoulders and neck is one of the most prevalent problems reported with computer users especially during typing. Surface electromyography (SEMG signals are used for detecting muscle fatigue as a non-invasive method. Material and Methods: Nine healthy females volunteered for signal recoding during typing. EMG signals were recorded from the trapezius muscle, which is subjected to muscle fatigue during typing.  After signal analysis and feature extraction, detecting and predicting muscle fatigue was performed by using the MLP artificial neural network. Results: Recorded signals were analyzed in time and frequency domains for feature extraction. Results of classification showed that the MLP neural network can detect and predict muscle fatigue during typing with 80.79 % ± 1.04% accuracy. Conclusion: Intelligent classification and prediction of muscle fatigue can have many applications in human factors engineering (ergonomics, rehabilitation engineering and biofeedback equipment for mitigating the injuries of repetitive works.

  6. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  7. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  8. Specific fibre composition and metabolism of the rectus abdominis muscle of bovine Charolais cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background An important variability of contractile and metabolic properties between muscles has been highlighted. In the literature, the majority of studies on beef sensorial quality concerns M. longissimus thoracis. M. rectus abdominis (RA) is easy to sample without huge carcass depreciation and may appear as an alternative to M. longissimus thoracis for fast and routine physicochemical analysis. It was considered interesting to assess the muscle fibres of M. rectus abdominis in comparison with M. longissimus thoracis (LT) and M. triceps brachii (TB) on the basis of metabolic and contractile properties, area and myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) proportions. Immuno-histochemical, histochemical, histological and enzymological techniques were used. This research concerned two populations of Charolais cattle: RA was compared to TB in a population of 19 steers while RA was compared to LT in a population of 153 heifers. Results RA muscle had higher mean fibre areas (3350 μm2 vs 2142 to 2639 μm2) than the two other muscles. In RA muscle, the slow-oxidative fibres were the largest (3957 μm2) and the fast-glycolytic the smallest (2868 μm2). The reverse was observed in TB muscle (1725 and 2436 μm2 respectively). In RA muscle, the distinction between fast-oxidative-glycolytic and fast-glycolytic fibres appeared difficult or impossible to establish, unlike in the other muscles. Consequently the classification based on ATPase and SDH activities seemed inappropriate, since the FOG fibres presented rather low SDH activity in this muscle in comparison to the other muscles of the carcass. RA muscle had a higher proportion of I fibres than TB and LT muscles, balanced by a lower proportion either of IIX fibres (in comparison to TB muscle) or of IIA fibres (in comparison to LT muscle). However, both oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities were lower in RA than in TB muscle, although the LDH/ICDH ratio was higher in RA muscle (522 vs 340). Oxidative enzyme activities were

  9. Imaging characteristics of malignant and benign lesions of skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Surov, A.

    2017-01-01

    There are many different tumors and tumor-like lesions with variable biological behavior that may affect the skeletal musculature. The aim of this study was to review the different intramuscular lesions and to provide a classification based on their radiological patterns. Intramuscular lesions can present as solid, liquid, semiliquid or fat equivalent manifestations and also as diffuse muscle enlargement and muscle calcification. Additionally, lesions with mixed patterns of the aforementioned alterations can also occur. Benign and malignant muscle lesions can often manifest with identical radiological patterns, which is why a certain differentiation is often difficult. A systematic radiological description and when possible assignment with respect to etiology and dignity depending on the patient history is necessary in order to recommend a subsequent histological confirmation or to avoid unnecessary confirmation. (orig.) [de

  10. A STUDY OF AETIOLOGY, CLINICAL FEATURES AND MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTHERN ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute pancreatitis is a common condition involving the pancreas. The estimated incidence is about 3% of cases presenting with pain abdomen in the UK. The hospital admission rate for acute pancreatitis is 9.8/100,000 per year in UK and annual incidence may range from 5-50/100,000 worldwide. Gall stone disease and alcohol account for greater than 80% of all patients with acute pancreatitis, with biliary disease accounting for 45% and alcohol found in 35% of patients. Given the wide spectrum of disease seen, the care of patients with pancreatitis must be highly individualised. Patients with mild acute pancreatitis generally can be managed with resuscitation and supportive care. Aetiological factors are sought and treated, if possible, but operative therapy essentially has no role in the care of these patients. Those with severe and necrotising pancreatitis require intensive therapy, which may include wide operative debridement of the infected pancreas or surgical management of local complications of the disease. AIM OF THE STUDY 1. To study the age and sex prevalence of acute pancreatitis. 2. To study the various aetiological factors of acute pancreatitis. 3. To study the clinical presentation and management of acute pancreatitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients admitted to the Department of General Surgery at M.K.C.G Medical College and Hospital, Berhampur were taken up for the study. Totally, 49 patients with 53 episodes of acute pancreatitis were studied from September 2013 to August 2015. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Acute pancreatitis is a common cause of acute abdomen in patients presenting to the surgical emergency department. Alcohol being the most common cause of acute pancreatitis in this part of the country, it has a male preponderance and most commonly presents in the 4th decade of life. It is mainly a clinical diagnosis supplanted with biochemical and radiological findings. The management is mainly conservative, with surgery

  11. Aetiological pathways to Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms in early adolescence: childhood dysregulated behaviour, maladaptive parenting and bully victimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Hall, James; Strauss, Vicky Y; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Developmental theories for the aetiology of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) suggest that both individual features (e.g., childhood dysregulated behaviour) and negative environmental experiences (e.g., maladaptive parenting, peer victimisation) may lead to the development of BPD symptoms during adolescence. Few prospective studies have examined potential aetiological pathways involving these two factors. We addressed this gap in the literature using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We assessed mother-reported childhood dysregulated behaviour at 4, 7 and 8 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); maladaptive parenting (maternal hitting, punishment, and hostility) at 8 to 9 years; and bully victimisation (child and mother report) at 8, 9 and 10 years. BPD symptoms were assessed at 11 years using the UK Childhood Interview for DSM-IV BPD. Control variables included adolescent depression (assessed with the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire-SMFQ) and psychotic symptoms (assessed with the Psychosis-Like Symptoms Interview-PLIKS) at 11 to 14 years, and mother's exposure to family adversity during pregnancy (assessed with the Family Adversity Scale-FAI). In unadjusted logistic regression analyses, childhood dysregulated behaviour and all environmental risk factors (i.e., family adversity, maladaptive parenting, and bully victimisation) were significantly associated with BPD symptoms at 11 years. Within structural equation modelling controlling for all associations simultaneously, family adversity and male sex significantly predicted dysregulated behaviour across childhood, while bully victimisation significantly predicted BPD, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Children displaying dysregulated behaviour across childhood were significantly more likely to experience maladaptive parenting (β = 0.075, p  bullying (β = 0.097, p  < 0.001). While significant indirect associations

  12. Classification of IRAS asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, E.F.; Matson, D.L.; Veeder, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Albedos and spectral reflectances are essential for classifying asteroids. For example, classes E, M and P are indistinguishable without albedo data. Colorometric data are available for about 1000 asteroids but, prior to IRAS, albedo data was available for only about 200. IRAS broke this bottleneck by providing albedo data on nearly 2000 asteroids. Hence, excepting absolute magnitudes, the albedo and size are now the most common asteroid physical parameters known. In this chapter the authors present the results of analyses of IRAS-derived asteroid albedos, discuss their application to asteroid classification, and mention several studies which might be done to exploit further this data set

  13. SPORT FOOD ADDITIVE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Prokopenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Correctly organized nutritive and pharmacological support is an important component of an athlete's preparation for competitions, an optimal shape maintenance, fast recovery and rehabilitation after traumas and defatigation. Special products of enhanced biological value (BAS for athletes nutrition are used with this purpose. Easy-to-use energy sources are administered into athlete's organism, yielded materials and biologically active substances which regulate and activate exchange reactions which proceed with difficulties during certain physical trainings. The article presents sport supplements classification which can be used before warm-up and trainings, after trainings and in competitions breaks.

  14. Radioactive facilities classification criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briso C, H.A.; Riesle W, J.

    1992-01-01

    Appropriate classification of radioactive facilities into groups of comparable risk constitutes one of the problems faced by most Regulatory Bodies. Regarding the radiological risk, the main facts to be considered are the radioactive inventory and the processes to which these radionuclides are subjected. Normally, operations are ruled by strict safety procedures. Thus, the total activity of the radionuclides existing in a given facility is the varying feature that defines its risk. In order to rely on a quantitative criterion and, considering that the Annual Limits of Intake are widely accepted references, an index based on these limits, to support decisions related to radioactive facilities, is proposed. (author)

  15. in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen E. Spangenburg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglyceride storage is altered across various chronic health conditions necessitating various techniques to visualize and quantify lipid droplets (LDs. Here, we describe the utilization of the BODIPY (493/503 dye in skeletal muscle as a means to analyze LDs. We found that the dye was a convenient and simple approach to visualize LDs in both sectioned skeletal muscle and cultured adult single fibers. Furthermore, the dye was effective in both fixed and nonfixed cells, and the staining seemed unaffected by permeabilization. We believe that the use of the BODIPY (493/503 dye is an acceptable alternative and, under certain conditions, a simpler method for visualizing LDs stored within skeletal muscle.

  16. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  17. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  18. Cutaneous Leiomyoma: Novel Histologic Findings for Classification and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Kamyab Hesari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle tumors rather benign or malignant can arise wherever the muscular tissue presents but cutaneous leiomyoma is one of the rare benign tumors of the which even the diagnostic criteria from the malignant type of the tumor is still in doubt. This study was aimed to compare the subtypes of cutaneous leiomyoma from different histologic aspects in order to find unique criteria for better classification and diagnosis. The six year data base of our center was reviewed and 25 patients with cutaneous leiomyoma were included in this study. Of 25 patients, 5 were female and 20 were male. 5 patients had angioleiomyoma (ALM and 20 had pilar leiomyoma (PLM. ALM had following characteristics: dilated vascular canals intermingled with compact smooth muscle bundles; well circumscribe counter and myxoid and hyaline changes through the tumor. In contrast, PLMs had following histologic features: poor defined outline, entrapped hair follicles and eccrine glands, acanthosis and elongated rete ridges with hyperpigmentation and smooth muscle bundles which are interdigitated with elongated rete ridges. Here we introduced some distinct histological features for each subtype of the cutaneous leiomyoma which can lead to create novel criteria for classification and diagnosis of the lesion.

  19. Upper limb congenital muscular hypertrophy and aberrant muscle syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Emmanuel; Chaves, Camilo; Bachy, Manon; Fitoussi, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Congenital muscle hypertrophy of the upper limb is a very rare condition with unknown aetiology. This descriptive observational and retrospective series included eight children followed by a multidisciplinary team from 2005 to 2017. The diagnosis was based on a cluster of clinical and radiological characteristics after elimination of differential diagnoses. Patients were categorized according to: anomalies of the wrist, anomalies of long fingers of intrinsic or extrinsic origin; and anomalies of the thumb with or without first web space contracture. Treatment begins in young children with hand orthoses to limit muscle contraction and joint malposition. The purpose of surgical treatment was to release contractures and to restore muscle balance through, in the main, finger intrinsic releases and first web releases. At the 2-year follow-up, we found that limited surgical procedures improved finger, thumb and wrist positions. We conclude that muscle hypertrophy is the main cause of deformity and that selective releases of contracted musculo-tendinous units and skin lengthening are effective. IV.

  20. Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by an abnormal existence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, typically occuring within the pelvis of women in reproductive age. We report two cases with endometriosis of the abdominal wall; the first one in the rectus abdominis muscle and the second one in the surgical scar of previous caesarean incision along with the rectus abdominis muscle. Pre-operative evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging. The masses were dissected free from the surrounding tissue and excised with clear margins. Diagnosis of the excised lesions were verified by histopathology. (author)

  1. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    in the structure of fibrous collagen and myofibers at high-resolution. The results demonstrate that the collagen composition in the extra cellular matrix of Gadus morhua fish muscle is much more complex than previously anticipated, as it contains type III, IV, V  and VI collagen in addition to type I. The vascular....... Consequently, functional structures, ensuring "tissue maintenance" must form a major role of connective tissue, in addition that is to the force transmitting structures one typically finds in muscle. Vascular structures have also been shown to change their mechanical properties with age and it has been shown...

  2. Phenomenology and classification of dystonia: a consensus update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Alberto; Bhatia, Kailash; Bressman, Susan B; Delong, Mahlon R; Fahn, Stanley; Fung, Victor S C; Hallett, Mark; Jankovic, Joseph; Jinnah, Hyder A; Klein, Christine; Lang, Anthony E; Mink, Jonathan W; Teller, Jan K

    2013-06-15

    This report describes the consensus outcome of an international panel consisting of investigators with years of experience in this field that reviewed the definition and classification of dystonia. Agreement was obtained based on a consensus development methodology during 3 in-person meetings and manuscript review by mail. Dystonia is defined as a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. Dystonic movements are typically patterned and twisting, and may be tremulous. Dystonia is often initiated or worsened by voluntary action and associated with overflow muscle activation. Dystonia is classified along 2 axes: clinical characteristics, including age at onset, body distribution, temporal pattern and associated features (additional movement disorders or neurological features); and etiology, which includes nervous system pathology and inheritance. The clinical characteristics fall into several specific dystonia syndromes that help to guide diagnosis and treatment. We provide here a new general definition of dystonia and propose a new classification. We encourage clinicians and researchers to use these innovative definition and classification and test them in the clinical setting on a variety of patients with dystonia. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Muscle force depends on the amount of transversal muscle loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Tobias; Till, Olaf; Stutzig, Norman; Günther, Michael; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-06-03

    Skeletal muscles are embedded in an environment of other muscles, connective tissue, and bones, which may transfer transversal forces to the muscle tissue, thereby compressing it. In a recent study we demonstrated that transversal loading of a muscle with 1.3Ncm(-2) reduces maximum isometric force (Fim) and rate of force development by approximately 5% and 25%, respectively. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of increasing transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics. Therefore, we performed isometric experiments on rat M. gastrocnemius medialis (n=9) without and with five different transversal loads corresponding to increasing pressures of 1.3Ncm(-2) to 5.3Ncm(-2) at the contact area between muscle and load. Muscle loading was induced by a custom-made plunger which was able to move in transversal direction. Increasing transversal muscle loading resulted in an almost linear decrease in muscle force from 4.8±1.8% to 12.8±2% Fim. Compared to an unloaded isometric contraction, rate of force development decreased from 20.2±4.0% at 1.3Ncm(-2) muscle loading to 34.6±5.7% at 5.3Ncm(-2). Experimental observation of the impact of transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics may help to better understand muscle tissue properties. Moreover, applying transversal loads to muscles opens a window to analyze three-dimensional muscle force generation. Data presented in this study may be important to develop and validate muscle models which enable simulation of muscle contractions under compression and enlighten the mechanisms behind. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Supply chain planning classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  5. Waste classification sampling plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsman, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this sampling is to explain the method used to collect and analyze data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream so that the correct waste classification for the waste stream can be made, and to collect samples for studies of decontamination methods that could be used to remove fixed contamination present on the waste. The scope of this plan is to establish the technical basis for collecting samples and compiling quantitative data on the radioactive constituents present in waste generated during deactivation activities in B-Cell. Sampling and radioisotopic analysis will be performed on the fixed layers of contamination present on structural material and internal surfaces of process piping and tanks. In addition, dose rate measurements on existing waste material will be performed to determine the fraction of dose rate attributable to both removable and fixed contamination. Samples will also be collected to support studies of decontamination methods that are effective in removing the fixed contamination present on the waste. Sampling performed under this plan will meet criteria established in BNF-2596, Data Quality Objectives for the B-Cell Waste Stream Classification Sampling, J. M. Barnett, May 1998

  6. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases...... the accuracy at the same time. The test example is classified using simpler and smaller model. The training examples in a particular cluster share the common vocabulary. At the time of clustering, we do not take into account the labels of the training examples. After the clusters have been created......, the classifier is trained on each cluster having reduced dimensionality and less number of examples. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the existing classification models for the task of suspicious email detection and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups...

  7. Classification of smooth Fano polytopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Mikkel

    A simplicial lattice polytope containing the origin in the interior is called a smooth Fano polytope, if the vertices of every facet is a basis of the lattice. The study of smooth Fano polytopes is motivated by their connection to toric varieties. The thesis concerns the classification of smooth...... Fano polytopes up to isomorphism. A smooth Fano -polytope can have at most vertices. In case of vertices an explicit classification is known. The thesis contains the classification in case of vertices. Classifications of smooth Fano -polytopes for fixed exist only for . In the thesis an algorithm...... for the classification of smooth Fano -polytopes for any given is presented. The algorithm has been implemented and used to obtain the complete classification for ....

  8. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements...... classification inherited a lot of its structure from the existing system and rendered requirements that transcended the framework laid out by the existing system almost invisible. As a result, the requirements classification became a defining element of the requirements-engineering process, though its main...... effects remained largely implicit. The requirements classification contributed to constraining the requirements-engineering process by supporting the software engineers in maintaining some level of control over the process. This way, the requirements classification provided the software engineers...

  9. Active Learning for Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Text classification approaches are used extensively to solve real-world challenges. The success or failure of text classification systems hangs on the datasets used to train them, without a good dataset it is impossible to build a quality system. This thesis examines the applicability of active learning in text classification for the rapid and economical creation of labelled training data. Four main contributions are made in this thesis. First, we present two novel selection strategies to cho...

  10. Unsupervised Classification Using Immune Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Muallim, M. T.; El-Kouatly, R.

    2012-01-01

    Unsupervised classification algorithm based on clonal selection principle named Unsupervised Clonal Selection Classification (UCSC) is proposed in this paper. The new proposed algorithm is data driven and self-adaptive, it adjusts its parameters to the data to make the classification operation as fast as possible. The performance of UCSC is evaluated by comparing it with the well known K-means algorithm using several artificial and real-life data sets. The experiments show that the proposed U...

  11. Effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okanobu, Hirotaka; Kono, Reika; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the position of rectus muscle pulleys in Japanese eyes and to evaluate the effect of oblique muscle surgery on rectus muscle pulleys. Quasi-coronal plane MRI was used to determine area centroids of the 4 rectus muscles. The area centroids of the rectus muscles were transformed to 2-dimensional coordinates to represent pulley positions. The effects of oblique muscle surgery on the rectus muscle pulley positions in the coronal plane were evaluated in 10 subjects with cyclovertical strabismus and, as a control, pulley locations in 7 normal Japanese subjects were calculated. The mean positions of the rectus muscle pulleys in the coronal plane did not significantly differ from previous reports on normal populations, including Caucasians. There were significant positional shifts of the individual horizontal and vertical rectus muscle pulleys in 3 (100%) patients with inferior oblique advancement, but not in eyes with inferior oblique recession and superior oblique tendon advancement surgery. The surgical cyclorotatory effect was significantly correlated with the change in the angle of inclination formed by the line connecting the vertical rectus muscles (p=0.0234), but weakly correlated with that of the horizontal rectus muscles. The most important factor that affects the pulley position is the amount of ocular torsion, not the difference in surgical procedure induced by oblique muscle surgery. (author)

  12. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The incidence, aetiology and outcome of acute seizures in children admitted to a rural Kenyan district hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitland Kathryn

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute seizures are a common cause of paediatric admissions to hospitals in resource poor countries and a risk factor for neurological and cognitive impairment and epilepsy. We determined the incidence, aetiological factors and the immediate outcome of seizures in a rural malaria endemic area in coastal Kenya. Methods We recruited all children with and without seizures, aged 0–13 years and admitted to Kilifi District hospital over 2 years from 1st December 2004 to 30th November 2006. Only incident admissions from a defined area were included. Patients with epilepsy were excluded. The population denominator, the number of children in the community on 30th November 2005 (study midpoint, was modelled from a census data. Results Seizures were reported in 900/4,921(18.3% incident admissions and at least 98 had status epilepticus. The incidence of acute seizures in children 0–13 years was 425 (95%CI 386, 466 per 100,000/year and was 879 (95%CI 795, 968 per 100,000/year in children Conclusion There is a high incidence of acute seizures in children living in this malaria endemic area of Kenya. The most important causes are diseases that are preventable with available public health programs.

  14. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in adolescents – aetiology and treatment based on case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Banaszak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is a disease characterised by an abrupt drop in glomerular filtration rate in a short period of time, which is caused by crescent formation seen in at least 50% of glomeruli. Two cases presented below illustrate rapid progressive glomerulonephritis in adolescents as a disease of heterogeneous aetiology that can develop both in the course of primary glomerulopathies and glomerulopathies secondary to systemic vasculitis. In the first case of an 11-year-old girl, nephritic syndrome with renal failure was accompanied by the presence of anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies in the serum, which in combination with the histopathological picture of the kidneys indicating pauci-immune rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis was the basis for the diagnosis of renal limited vasculitis. In the second case of a 16-year-old boy, an adverse course of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis with features of severe and persistent glomerular filtration impairment was an indication for the verification of the diagnosis and identification of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis based on a biopsy examination. Prompt diagnosis and inclusion of combined immunosuppressive therapy provided the chance to preserve renal function.

  15. Beginning of a journey: unraveling the mystery of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, Jacob; Seneviratne, Ruwanika

    2017-06-30

    Globally, chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) is observed in several areas and among specific ethnic or occupational groups. Given the widespread environmental pollution and the proportions of agriculture workers world-wide, CKDu may be the next global public health issue demanding attention. Recent escalation of CKDu in Sri Lanka has caused a serious public health crisis in the country, made worse by lack of national data. The specific geographic distribution, preponderance among farming population, similar histology findings and absence of usual risk factors for kidney disease indicate undetected nephrotoxic agents playing a role in causation. Some of the challenges for the country are uncoordinated preventive efforts, diverse opinions among stakeholders on causality and fragmented research efforts with limited focus on potential causes of CKDu. As a result, accurate estimation of the CKDu burden, identification of causative agents and implementation of effective actions have been delayed. Stakeholder engagement, with involvement of international experts has been the starting point for finalizing a working case definition to establish community based surveillance as a future platform to conduct long-term research. The country is now poised to contribute to global knowledge by solving the mystery of 'u' in CKDu. This commentary highlights the importance and the mechanisms of making an effective breakthrough as early as possible; failing which CKDu can progress rapidly as demonstrated by the situation in Sri Lanka.

  16. Prevalence and aetiology of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralisation among children aged 8-10 years in Tirana, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysi, D; Kuscu, O O; Droboniku, E; Toti, C; Xhemnica, L; Caglar, E

    2016-03-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) describes the clinical appearance of enamel hypomineralisation of systemic origin affecting one or more permanent first molars (PFMs) that are frequently associated with affected incisors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and aetiology of MIH in children living in Tirana, Albania. The study was conducted at the Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, and Tirana Dental Public Health Service. A total of 1,575 school children aged 8-10 years were examined by 7 calibrated examiners (dentists) (kappa: 0.86). The Weerheijm criteria were used for the diagnosis of demarcated opacities, post-eruption breakdown, atypical restorations, and extracted PFMs due to MIH. Prevalence of MIH was found to be 14% (n=227). In the 227 children with MIH, tooth 36 was the most affected PFM, and tooth 46 the least affected. Tooth 21 was the most affected incisor and tooth 32 the least affected incisor by MIH. MIH(+) children had significanly more childhood diseases in the first 3 years of life (p=0.006). Among the children who used antibiotics, MIH(+) cases were 1.41 (1.06-1.87) times higher than in children who did not usedantibiotics, MIH(-) cases. MIH was found to be common among 8-10 year-old Tirana children.

  17. Can digit ratio (2D:4D) studies be helpful in explaining the aetiology of idiopathic gynecomastia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Antoszewski, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    Aetiology of idiopathic form of gynecomastia is unknown and it has not been established if it is related to factors present at the prenatal period or if it is caused by yet unidentified environmental conditions. The aim of this study is to compare digit ratio (2D:4D) in men with idiopathic gynecomastia and unaffected male and female controls from the general population. The study involved 250 subjects (50 men with idiopathic gynecomastia, 100 control men and 100 control women). Eight measurements were taken: body height, waist and hip circumferences, II and IV digits' lengths (right and left), and body weight, and 4 indices were calculated: BMI, WHR, and 2D:4D for the right and left hand. 2D:4D in men with gynecomastia ([median (I-III quartiles)]: 1.03 (1.01-1.04) for right hand and 1.03 (1.01-1.03) for left hand) was significantly different than the ratio in control men [0.97 (0.95-0.99)] for right and left hand) (pgynecomastia were characterized with higher values of the following variables: weight, waist and hip circumferences, BMI and WHR. Their body height was significantly greater than in women (pgynecomastia and justify introducing the new group: "gynecomastia related to the prenatal sex hormones disturbances". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The spectrum and aetiology of mycotic infections from a tertiary care hospital from Western part of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandham, Nageswari Rajesh; Jadhav, Savita Vivek; Sardar, Moumita; Vyawahare, Chanda; Misra, Rabind Ranath

    2013-10-01

    In the past few years, there has been an increase in infections caused by fungal aetiology. This is mainly due to increase in sizes of populations which are at risk. Also, fungi which were previously considered as non-pathogenic have been increasingly implicated. Hence, this study was taken up. To assess the magnitude of mycotic infections in this set up. To assess the spectrum of fungi which are involved in various infections. Total 704 samples taken over two and half period were included. They consisted of various samples like sputum, blood, urine, sterile body fluids, corneal scrapings. These were processed by conventional mycological techniques. These included direct microscopy after Gram staining and KOH mount, culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA), corn meal agar, brain heart infusion (BHI), brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) and others, as required. For non-albicans Candida, the automated Vitek 2 C system was used. Various moulds and yeasts were identified up to genus level and species level. Of 704 samples, 336 (48%) were positive for fungal culture. Of these, 244 isolates were yeast like fungi, 81 were moulds, 7 were yeasts and 4 were dimorphic. Among blood stream infections, non-albicans Candida were the commonest isolates. In the urine samples, C. albicans was the commonest isolate. From corneal scrapings, only moulds and dimorphic fungi were isolated. Incidence of non- albicans Candidal infections is increasing. Culture and identification of mycotic infections is essential for commencement of suitable antifungal therapy.

  19. Chronic Diseases in North-West Tanzania and Southern Uganda. Public Perceptions of Terminologies, Aetiologies, Symptoms and Preferred Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soori Nnko

    Full Text Available Research has shown that health system utilization is low for chronic diseases (CDs other than HIV. We describe the knowledge and perceptions of CDs identified from rural and urban communities in north-west Tanzania and southern Uganda.Data were collected through a quantitative population survey, a quantitative health facility survey and focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews (IDIs in subgroups of population survey participants. The main focus of this paper is the findings from the FGDs and IDIs.We conducted 24 FGDs, involving approximately 180 adult participants and IDIs with 116 participants (≥18 years. CDs studied included: asthma/chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD, diabetes, epilepsy, hypertension, cardiac failure and HIV- related disease. The understanding of most chronic conditions involved a combination of biomedical information, gleaned from health facility visits, local people who had suffered from a complaint or knew others who had and beliefs drawn from information shared in the community. The biomedical contribution shows some understanding of the aetiology of a condition and the management of that condition. However, local beliefs for certain conditions (such as epilepsy suggest that biomedical treatment may be futile and therefore work counter to biomedical prescriptions for management.Current perceptions of selected CDs may represent a barrier that prevents people from adopting efficacious health and treatment seeking behaviours. Interventions to improve this situation must include efforts to improve the quality of existing health services, so that people can access relevant, reliable and trustworthy services.

  20. Do environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of carcinoma in situ testis and the testicular dysgenesis syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, S B; Hoei-Hansen, C E; Fisher, J S; Leffers, H; Rajpert-de Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis of the Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome (TDS), first suggested in 2001, propose that several disorders of the male reproductive system such as infertility, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer are all symptoms of TDS, which is most likely initiated during early foetal development, and may be provoked by external factors such as endocrine disruptors in addition to genetic predisposition. Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), considered the most severe symptom of TDS, have increased in incidence during the last 60 years, to become the most common malignancy in young Caucasian men aged 17-45 years. TGCTs of young men originate from carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells. In the last few years, progress has been made identifying candidate genes involved in the neoplastic development of CIS, which may elucidate the timing of the initiation of CIS, currently thought to originate in foetal life from primordial germ cells or early gonocytes. Histological dysgenetic features are frequently seen in testes affected with the TDS components testis cancer or cryptorchidism. A TDS-like phenotype can be induced in male rats by in utero exposure to high concentrations of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) suggesting that ubiquitously present environmental endocrine disruptors may play a role in the aetiology of human TDS. So far, no animal model has been able to mimick all the symptoms of TDS including TGCTs although CIS-like cells have been found in a spontaneous testicular neoplasm in a rabbit.

  1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutations: do they play a role in the aetiology of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, T E; Weiner Miller, P; Garrett, J E; Cutting, G R

    2002-05-01

    Previous work suggests that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations may be implicated in the aetiology of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilosis (ABPA). To compare the frequency of CF gene mutations in asthmatics with ABPA of varying severity with asthmatics who were skin prick test (SPT)-positive to Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) without evidence of ABPA and asthmatics SPT-negative to Af. Thirty-one Caucasian patients with ABPA were identified, together with asthmatics SPT positive to Af without evidence of ABPA (n = 23) and SPT negative to Af (n = 28). Genomic DNA was tested for 16 CF mutations accounting for approximately 85% of CF alleles in Caucasian New Zealanders. Four (12.9%) ABPA patients were found to be carriers of a CF mutation (DeltaF508 n = 3, R117H n = 1), one (4.3%) asthmatic SPT positive to Af without ABPA (DeltaF508), and one (3.6%) asthmatic SPT negative to Af (R117H). All patients with a CF mutation had normal sweat chloride (< 40 mM). There was no significant difference between the frequency of CF mutations in the ABPA patients and asthmatics without ABPA. However, the frequency of CF mutations in the ABPA patients was significantly different (P = 0.0125) to the expected carrier rate in the general population. These results lend further support to a possible link between CF mutations and ABPA.

  2. Low-back electromyography (EMG data-driven load classification for dynamic lifting tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deema Totah

    Full Text Available Numerous devices have been designed to support the back during lifting tasks. To improve the utility of such devices, this research explores the use of preparatory muscle activity to classify muscle loading and initiate appropriate device activation. The goal of this study was to determine the earliest time window that enabled accurate load classification during a dynamic lifting task.Nine subjects performed thirty symmetrical lifts, split evenly across three weight conditions (no-weight, 10-lbs and 24-lbs, while low-back muscle activity data was collected. Seven descriptive statistics features were extracted from 100 ms windows of data. A multinomial logistic regression (MLR classifier was trained and tested, employing leave-one subject out cross-validation, to classify lifted load values. Dimensionality reduction was achieved through feature cross-correlation analysis and greedy feedforward selection. The time of full load support by the subject was defined as load-onset.Regions of highest average classification accuracy started at 200 ms before until 200 ms after load-onset with average accuracies ranging from 80% (±10% to 81% (±7%. The average recall for each class ranged from 69-92%.These inter-subject classification results indicate that preparatory muscle activity can be leveraged to identify the intent to lift a weight up to 100 ms prior to load-onset. The high accuracies shown indicate the potential to utilize intent classification for assistive device applications.Active assistive devices, e.g. exoskeletons, could prevent back injury by off-loading low-back muscles. Early intent classification allows more time for actuators to respond and integrate seamlessly with the user.

  3. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle P Blum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle

  4. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kyle P; Lamotte D'Incamps, Boris; Zytnicki, Daniel; Ting, Lena H

    2017-09-01

    Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions

  5. Reliability of Oronasal Fistula Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Thomas J; Allori, Alexander C; Matic, Damir B; Beals, Stephen P; Fisher, David M; Samson, Thomas D; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Tse, Raymond W

    2018-01-01

    Objective Oronasal fistula is an important complication of cleft palate repair that is frequently used to evaluate surgical quality, yet reliability of fistula classification has never been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of oronasal fistula classification both within individual surgeons and between multiple surgeons. Design Using intraoral photographs of children with repaired cleft palate, surgeons rated the location of palatal fistulae using the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System. Intrarater and interrater reliability scores were calculated for each region of the palate. Participants Eight cleft surgeons rated photographs obtained from 29 children. Results Within individual surgeons reliability for each region of the Pittsburgh classification ranged from moderate to almost perfect (κ = .60-.96). By contrast, reliability between surgeons was lower, ranging from fair to substantial (κ = .23-.70). Between-surgeon reliability was lowest for the junction of the soft and hard palates (κ = .23). Within-surgeon and between-surgeon reliability were almost perfect for the more general classification of fistula in the secondary palate (κ = .95 and κ = .83, respectively). Conclusions This is the first reliability study of fistula classification. We show that the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System is reliable when used by an individual surgeon, but less reliable when used among multiple surgeons. Comparisons of fistula occurrence among surgeons may be subject to less bias if they use the more general classification of "presence or absence of fistula of the secondary palate" rather than the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System.

  6. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...

  7. Relationships between lower limb muscle architecture and activities and participation of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, In-Hee; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the structure of skeletal muscle of lower extremities on function, activity, and participation of children with cerebral palsy. The subjects were 38 hospitalized patients and 13 infants with normal development. The following clinical measures were used for assessment of activity daily living and functional level of gross motor: Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), Wee Functional Independence Measure (WeeFIM), International Classification of Functioning Child and Youth (ICF CY). Muscle thickness and strength of knee extensor and ankle extensor were collected using ultrasonography and manual muscle tester. Following the results of ICF CY evaluation for body function, activity, learning and application of knowledge, communication and environmental factors showed a decline (Psocial acknowledgement (Pfunction, daily activity and participation; the score of ICF-CY was shown to decline due to the high score for differences in thickness of muscle, muscle strength, WeeFIM, and GMFM. The thickness and muscle strength of lower extremities affect main functions of the body and improvement of muscle strength of lower extremities may have positive effects on social standards such as activity and participation of cerebral palsy.

  8. Lipolysis in Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Annette Karen Lundbeck

    chemical structure of DAG. We took advantage of the fact that insulin sensitivity is increased after exercise, and that mice knocked out (KO) of HSL accumulate DAG after exercise, and measured insulin stimulated glucose uptake after treadmill running in skeletal muscle from HSL KO mice and wildtype control...

  9. Metabolic Diseases of Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here and still get the great care and treatment I received in Michigan.” MDA Is Here to Help You T he Muscular Dystrophy Association offers a vast array of services to help you and your family deal with metabolic diseases of muscle. The staff at your local MDA office is ...

  10. Automated diagnosis of myositis from muscle ultrasound: Exploring the use of machine learning and deep learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlina, Philippe; Billings, Seth; Joshi, Neil; Albayda, Jemima

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the use of ultrasound coupled with machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques for automated or semi-automated classification of myositis. Eighty subjects comprised of 19 with inclusion body myositis (IBM), 14 with polymyositis (PM), 14 with dermatomyositis (DM), and 33 normal (N) subjects were included in this study, where 3214 muscle ultrasound images of 7 muscles (observed bilaterally) were acquired. We considered three problems of classification including (A) normal vs. affected (DM, PM, IBM); (B) normal vs. IBM patients; and (C) IBM vs. other types of myositis (DM or PM). We studied the use of an automated DL method using deep convolutional neural networks (DL-DCNNs) for diagnostic classification and compared it with a semi-automated conventional ML method based on random forests (ML-RF) and "engineered" features. We used the known clinical diagnosis as the gold standard for evaluating performance of muscle classification. The performance of the DL-DCNN method resulted in accuracies ± standard deviation of 76.2% ± 3.1% for problem (A), 86.6% ± 2.4% for (B) and 74.8% ± 3.9% for (C), while the ML-RF method led to accuracies of 72.3% ± 3.3% for problem (A), 84.3% ± 2.3% for (B) and 68.9% ± 2.5% for (C). This study demonstrates the application of machine learning methods for automatically or semi-automatically classifying inflammatory muscle disease using muscle ultrasound. Compared to the conventional random forest machine learning method used here, which has the drawback of requiring manual delineation of muscle/fat boundaries, DCNN-based classification by and large improved the accuracies in all classification problems while providing a fully automated approach to classification.

  11. Automated diagnosis of myositis from muscle ultrasound: Exploring the use of machine learning and deep learning methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Burlina

    Full Text Available To evaluate the use of ultrasound coupled with machine learning (ML and deep learning (DL techniques for automated or semi-automated classification of myositis.Eighty subjects comprised of 19 with inclusion body myositis (IBM, 14 with polymyositis (PM, 14 with dermatomyositis (DM, and 33 normal (N subjects were included in this study, where 3214 muscle ultrasound images of 7 muscles (observed bilaterally were acquired. We considered three problems of classification including (A normal vs. affected (DM, PM, IBM; (B normal vs. IBM patients; and (C IBM vs. other types of myositis (DM or PM. We studied the use of an automated DL method using deep convolutional neural networks (DL-DCNNs for diagnostic classification and compared it with a semi-automated conventional ML method based on random forests (ML-RF and "engineered" features. We used the known clinical diagnosis as the gold standard for evaluating performance of muscle classification.The performance of the DL-DCNN method resulted in accuracies ± standard deviation of 76.2% ± 3.1% for problem (A, 86.6% ± 2.4% for (B and 74.8% ± 3.9% for (C, while the ML-RF method led to accuracies of 72.3% ± 3.3% for problem (A, 84.3% ± 2.3% for (B and 68.9% ± 2.5% for (C.This study demonstrates the application of machine learning methods for automatically or semi-automatically classifying inflammatory muscle disease using muscle ultrasound. Compared to the conventional random forest machine learning method used here, which has the drawback of requiring manual delineation of muscle/fat boundaries, DCNN-based classification by and large improved the accuracies in all classification problems while providing a fully automated approach to classification.

  12. Classification of mood disorders in DSM-V and DSM-VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Peter R

    2008-10-01

    For any diagnostic system to be clinically useful, and go beyond description, it must provide an understanding that informs about aetiology and/or outcome. DSM-III and DSM-IV have provided reliability; the challenge for DSM-V and DSM-VI will be to provide validity. For DSM-V this will not be achieved. Believers in DSM-III and DSM-IV have impeded progress towards a valid classification system, so DSM-V needs to retain continuity with its predecessors to retain reliability and enhance research, but position itself to inform a valid diagnostic system by DSM-VI. This review examines the features of a diagnostic system and summarizes what is really known about mood disorders. The review also questions whether what are called mood disorders are primarily disorders of mood. Finally, it provides suggestions for DSM-VI.

  13. Pathophysiology and aetiology of impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: does it matter for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, K; Holst, Jens Juul

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the development of type 2 diabetes, glucose levels increase into the prediabetic states of isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), or combined IFG/IGT. A better understanding of the aetiology and pathophysiology of the prediabetic states...... might give a basis for the development of individualised prevention and treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes. Several studies have examined mechanisms and potential aetiological factors leading to the development of the different prediabetic states. The pathophysiology of i-IFG seems to include...... the following key defects: reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity, stationary beta cell dysfunction and/or chronic low beta cell mass, altered glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion and inappropriately elevated glucagon secretion. Conversely, the prediabetic state i-IGT is characterised by reduced peripheral insulin...

  14. Anatomy of the Platysma Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Lim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the anatomy the platysma systematically.The term "platysma AND anatomy" was used to search PubMed and Scopus, producing 394 and 214 papers, respectively. After excluding 95 duplicate titles, 513 abstracts and 98 full papers were reviewed. Among these 98 papers, 83 were excluded and 5 were added. Ultimately, 20 papers were analyzed.The most common aging-related change of the platysma was shortening (70.7%), followed by thinning (25.2%). The platysma most commonly originated from the upper portion of thorax anterior to clavicle (67.7%), followed by the subcutaneous tissue of the subclavicular and acromial regions (22.6%) and pectoralis (9.7%). The platysma ascended upward and medially (68.5%) or ascended from the clavicle to the face (31.5%). The platysma most commonly inserted on the cheek skin (57.5%), followed by the cutaneous muscles around the mouth (18.6%), the mandibulocutaneous ligament or zygoma (18.6%), and the parotid fascia or periosteum of the mandible (5.3%). The platysma was most commonly innervated by the cervical branch of the facial nerve (38.2%) or the cervical branch and mandibular branch of the facial nerve (60.5%), followed by the cervical plexus (0.6%), the cervical motor nucleus (0.6%), and the glossopharyngeal nerve (0.1%). The most common action of the platysma was drawing the lips inferiorly (83.3%) or posteriorly (12.9%). Four papers classified the platysma into subtypes; however, these classification strategies used arbitrary standards.Further studies will be necessary to establish the thickness of the platysma and to characterize age-related changes of the platysma.

  15. Classification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. To simplify their management, a number of schemes have evolved for classifying radioactive waste according to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of significance to those facilities managing this waste. These schemes have led to a variety of terminologies, differing from country to country and even between facilities in the same country. This situation makes it difficult for those concerned to communicate with one another regarding waste management practices. This document revises and updates earlier IAEA references on radioactive waste classification systems given in IAEA Technical Reports Series and Safety Series. Guidance regarding exemption of materials from regulatory control is consistent with IAEA Safety Series and the RADWASS documents published under IAEA Safety Series. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tab

  16. Nonlinear estimation and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Mark; Holmes, Christopher; Mallick, Bani; Yu, Bin

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in many disciplines face the formidable task of analyzing massive amounts of high-dimensional and highly-structured data This is due in part to recent advances in data collection and computing technologies As a result, fundamental statistical research is being undertaken in a variety of different fields Driven by the complexity of these new problems, and fueled by the explosion of available computer power, highly adaptive, non-linear procedures are now essential components of modern "data analysis," a term that we liberally interpret to include speech and pattern recognition, classification, data compression and signal processing The development of new, flexible methods combines advances from many sources, including approximation theory, numerical analysis, machine learning, signal processing and statistics The proposed workshop intends to bring together eminent experts from these fields in order to exchange ideas and forge directions for the future

  17. Automatic diabetic retinopathy classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, María. A.; Arbeláez, Pablo A.

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a disease in which the retina is damaged due to augmentation in the blood pressure of small vessels. DR is the major cause of blindness for diabetics. It has been shown that early diagnosis can play a major role in prevention of visual loss and blindness. This work proposes a computer based approach for the detection of DR in back-of-the-eye images based on the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our CNN uses deep architectures to classify Back-of-the-eye Retinal Photographs (BRP) in 5 stages of DR. Our method combines several preprocessing images of BRP to obtain an ACA score of 50.5%. Furthermore, we explore subproblems by training a larger CNN of our main classification task.

  18. Trunk muscle activation in a person with clinically complete thoracic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkefors, Anna; Carpenter, Mark G; Cresswell, Andrew G; Thorstensson, Alf

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess if, and how, upper body muscles are activated in a person with high thoracic spinal cord injury, clinically classified as complete, during maximal voluntary contractions and in response to balance perturbations. Data from one person with spinal cord injury (T3 level) and one able-bodied person were recorded with electromyography from 4 abdominal muscles using indwelling fine-wire electrodes and from erector spinae and 3 upper trunk muscles with surface electrodes. Balance perturbations were carried out as forward or backward support surface translations. The person with spinal cord injury was able to activate all trunk muscles, even those below the injury level, both in voluntary efforts and in reaction to balance perturbations. Trunk movements were qualitatively similar in both participants, but the pattern and timing of muscle responses differed: upper trunk muscle involvement and occurrence of co-activation of ventral and dorsal muscles were more frequent in the person with spinal cord injury. These findings prompt further investigation into trunk muscle function in paraplegics, and highlight the importance of including motor tests for trunk muscles in persons with thoracic spinal cord injury, in relation to injury classification, prognosis and rehabilitation.

  19. TS-EUROTRAIN: A European-wide investigation and training network on the aetiology and pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J Forde

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS is characterised by the presence of multiple motor and phonic tics with a fluctuating course of intensity, frequency and severity. Up to 90% of patients with GTS present with comorbid conditions, most commonly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, thus providing an excellent model for the exploration of shared aetiology across disorders. TS-EUROTRAIN (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN, Grant Agr.No.316978 is a Marie Curie Initial Training Network (http://ts-eurotrain.eu that aims to elucidate the complex aetiology of the onset and clinical course of GTS, investigate the neurobiological underpinnings of GTS and related disorders, translate research findings into clinical applications and establish a pan-European infrastructure for the study of GTS. This includes the challenges of (i assembling a large genetic database for the evaluation of the genetic architecture with high statistical power; (ii exploring the role of gene-environment interactions including the effects of epigenetic phenomena; (iii employing endophenotype-based approaches to understand the shared aetiology between GTS, OCD and ADHD; (iv establishing a developmental animal model for GTS; (v gaining new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms of GTS via cross-sectional and longitudinal neuroimaging studies; and (vi partaking in outreach activities including the dissemination of scientific knowledge about GTS to the public. Fifteen partners from academia and industry and twelve PhD candidates pursue the project. Our ultimate aims are to elucidate the complex aetiology and neurobiological underpinnings of GTS, translate research findings into clinical applications and establish Pan-European infrastructure for the study of GTS and associated disorders.

  20. Has the aetiology of ischaemic stroke changed in the past decades? Analysis and comparison of data from current and historical stroke databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Larsen, Á; García-García, J; Ayo-Martín, O; Hernández-Fernández, F; Díaz-Maroto, I; Fernández-Díaz, E; Monteagudo, M; Segura, T

    2016-09-16

    We aimed to determine whether the aetiology of ischaemic stroke has changed in recent years and, if so, to ascertain the possible reasons for these changes. We analysed the epidemiological history and vascular risk factors of all patients diagnosed with ischaemic stroke at Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete (CHUA) from 2009 to 2014. Ischaemic stroke subtypes were established using the TOAST criteria. Our results were compared to data from the classic Stroke Data Bank (SDB); in addition, both series were compared to those of other hospital databases covering the period between the two. We analysed 1664 patients (58% were men) with a mean age of 74 years. Stroke aetiology in both series (CHUA, SDB) was as follows: atherosclerosis (12%, 9%), small-vessel occlusion (13%, 25%), cardioembolism (32%, 19%), stroke of other determined aetiology (3%, 4%), and stroke of undetermined aetiology (40%, 44%). Sixty-three percent of the patients from the CHUA and 42% of the patients from the SDB were older than 70 years. Cardioembolic strokes were more prevalent in patients older than 70 years in both series. Untreated hypertension was more frequent in the SDB (SDB = 31% vs CHUA = 10%). The analysis of other databases shows that the prevalence of cardioembolic stroke is increasing worldwide. Our data show that the prevalence of lacunar strokes is decreasing worldwide whereas cardioembolic strokes are increasingly more frequent in both our hospital and other series compared to the SDB. These differences may be explained by population ageing and the improvements in management of hypertension and detection of cardioembolic arrhythmias in stroke units. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical manifestation and aetiology of a genital associated disease in Olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) at Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Knauf, Sascha

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate a genitally associated disease and to describe its clinical manifestation and aetiology in baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in the United Republic of Tanzania. Lake Manyara National Park is located in the northern part of the country, 160 km northwest of the Mt. Kilimanjaro. It is among the smallest protected areas, but belongs to the extended ecosystem of the Serengeti, Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Lake Manyara and Tarangire National Park. The...

  2. Intramuscular Connective Tissue Differences in Spastic and Control Muscle: A Mechanical and Histological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Marije; Smeulders, Mark J.; Kreulen, Michiel; Huijing, Peter A.; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) of the spastic type is a neurological disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with exaggerated tendon jerks. Secondary to the spasticity, muscle adaptation is presumed to contribute to limitations in the passive range of joint motion. However, the mechanisms underlying these limitations are unknown. Using biopsies, we compared mechanical as well as histological properties of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (FCU) from CP patients (n = 29) and healthy controls (n = 10). The sarcomere slack length (mean 2.5 µm, SEM 0.05) and slope of the normalized sarcomere length-tension characteristics of spastic fascicle segments and single myofibre segments were not different from those of control muscle. Fibre type distribution also showed no significant differences. Fibre size was significantly smaller (1933 µm2, SEM 190) in spastic muscle than in controls (2572 µm2, SEM 322). However, our statistical analyses indicate that the latter difference is likely to be explained by age, rather than by the affliction. Quantities of endomysial and perimysial networks within biopsies of control and spastic muscle were unchanged with one exception: a significant thickening of the tertiary perimysium (3-fold), i.e. the connective tissue reinforcement of neurovascular tissues penetrating the muscle. Note that this thickening in tertiary perimysium was shown in the majority of CP patients, however a small number of patients (n = 4 out of 23) did not have this feature. These results are taken as indications that enhanced myofascial loads on FCU is one among several factors contributing in a major way to the aetiology of limitation of movement at the wrist in CP and the characteristic wrist position of such patients. PMID:24977410

  3. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage...

  4. Seismic texture classification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinther, R.

    1997-12-31

    The seismic texture classification method, is a seismic attribute that can both recognize the general reflectivity styles and locate variations from these. The seismic texture classification performs a statistic analysis for the seismic section (or volume) aiming at describing the reflectivity. Based on a set of reference reflectivities the seismic textures are classified. The result of the seismic texture classification is a display of seismic texture categories showing both the styles of reflectivity from the reference set and interpolations and extrapolations from these. The display is interpreted as statistical variations in the seismic data. The seismic texture classification is applied to seismic sections and volumes from the Danish North Sea representing both horizontal stratifications and salt diapers. The attribute succeeded in recognizing both general structure of successions and variations from these. Also, the seismic texture classification is not only able to display variations in prospective areas (1-7 sec. TWT) but can also be applied to deep seismic sections. The seismic texture classification is tested on a deep reflection seismic section (13-18 sec. TWT) from the Baltic Sea. Applied to this section the seismic texture classification succeeded in locating the Moho, which could not be located using conventional interpretation tools. The seismic texture classification is a seismic attribute which can display general reflectivity styles and deviations from these and enhance variations not found by conventional interpretation tools. (LN)

  5. Efficient AUC optimization for classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.; Jaroszewicz, S.; Kok, J.N.; Koronacki, J.; Lopez de Mantaras, R.; Matwin, S.; Mladenic, D.; Skowron, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we show an efficient method for inducing classifiers that directly optimize the area under the ROC curve. Recently, AUC gained importance in the classification community as a mean to compare the performance of classifiers. Because most classification methods do not optimize this

  6. Dewey Decimal Classification: A Quagmire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaluddin, Ahmad Fouad

    1980-01-01

    A survey of 660 Pennsylvania school librarians indicates that, though there is limited professional interest in the Library of Congress Classification system, Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) appears to be firmly entrenched. This article also discusses the relative merits of DDC, the need for a uniform system, librarianship preparation, and…

  7. Latent class models for classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, J.K.; Magidson, J.

    2003-01-01

    An overview is provided of recent developments in the use of latent class (LC) and other types of finite mixture models for classification purposes. Several extensions of existing models are presented. Two basic types of LC models for classification are defined: supervised and unsupervised

  8. A Molecular Neurobiological Approach to Understanding the Aetiology of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Myalgic Encephalomyelitis or Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease) with Treatment Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Jean A; Puri, Basant K

    2018-02-06

    Currently, a psychologically based model is widely held to be the basis for the aetiology and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID). However, an alternative, molecular neurobiological approach is possible and in this paper evidence demonstrating a biological aetiology for CFS/ME/SEID is adduced from a study of the history of the disease and a consideration of the role of the following in this disease: nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, oxidative and nitrosative stress, the blood-brain barrier and intestinal permeability, cytokines and infections, metabolism, structural and chemical brain changes, neurophysiological changes and calcium ion mobilisation. Evidence is also detailed for biologically based potential therapeutic options, including: nutritional supplementation, for example in order to downregulate the nitric oxide-peroxynitrite cycle to prevent its perpetuation; antiviral therapy; and monoclonal antibody treatment. It is concluded that there is strong evidence of a molecular neurobiological aetiology, and so it is suggested that biologically based therapeutic interventions should constitute a focus for future research into CFS/ME/SEID.

  9. 45 CFR 601.5 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 601.5 Derivative classification. Distinct... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Derivative classification. 601.5 Section 601.5... classification guide, need not possess original classification authority. (a) If a person who applies derivative...

  10. 12 CFR 403.4 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.4 Derivative classification. (a) Use of derivative classification. (1) Unlike original classification which is an initial determination, derivative classification... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 403.4 Section 403.4...

  11. 32 CFR 2001.15 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification guides. 2001.15 Section 2001.15..., NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.15 Classification guides. (a) Preparation of classification guides. Originators of classification...

  12. Central Sensitization-Based Classification for Temporomandibular Disorders: A Pathogenetic Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Monaco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS and central pain pathways in temporomandibular disorders (TMD is a growing evidence. Authors include some forms of TMD among central sensitization syndromes (CSS, a group of pathologies characterized by central morphofunctional alterations. Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI is useful for clinical diagnosis. Clinical examination and CSI cannot identify the central site(s affected in these diseases. Ultralow frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ULFTENS is extensively used in TMD and in dental clinical practice, because of its effects on descending pain modulation pathways. The Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD are the most accurate tool for diagnosis and classification of TMD. However, it includes CSI to investigate central aspects of TMD. Preliminary data on sensory ULFTENS show it is a reliable tool for the study of central and autonomic pathways in TMD. An alternative classification based on the presence of Central Sensitization and on individual response to sensory ULFTENS is proposed. TMD may be classified into 4 groups: (a TMD with Central Sensitization ULFTENS Responders; (b TMD with Central Sensitization ULFTENS Nonresponders; (c TMD without Central Sensitization ULFTENS Responders; (d TMD without Central Sensitization ULFTENS Nonresponders. This pathogenic classification of TMD may help to differentiate therapy and aetiology.

  13. Conditional Mutual Information Based Feature Selection for Classification Task

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novovičová, Jana; Somol, Petr; Haindl, Michal; Pudil, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4756 (2007), s. 417-426 ISSN 0302-9743 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Pattern classification * feature selection * conditional mutual information * text categorization Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005

  14. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  15. The role of maternal stress in early pregnancy in the aetiology of gastroschisis: an incident case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Palmer

    Full Text Available The incidence of gastroschisis, a congenital anomaly where the infant abdominal wall is defective and intestines protrude from the abdominal cavity, is increasing in many countries. The role of maternal stress in some adverse birth outcomes is now well established. We tested the hypothesis that major stressful life events in the first trimester are risk factors for gastroschisis, and social support protective, in a case-control study in the United Kingdom.Gastroschisis cases and three controls per case (matched for maternal age were identified at routine 18-20 week fetal anomaly ultrasound scan, in 2007-2010. Face to face questionnaire interviews were carried out during the antenatal period (median 24 weeks gestation asking about serious stressful events and social support in the first trimester. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression.Two or more stressful life events in the first trimester (adjusted OR 4.9; 95% CI 1.2-19.4, and moving address in the first trimester (aOR 4.9; 95% CI 1.7-13.9 were strongly associated with risk of gastroschisis, independent of behavioural risk factors including smoking, alcohol, and poor diet. Perceived availability of social support was not associated with reduced risk of gastroschisis (aOR 0.8; 95% CI 0.2-3.1.Stressful maternal life events in the first trimester of pregnancy including change of address were strongly associated with a substantial increase in the risk of gastroschisis, independent of stress related high risk behaviours such as smoking, alcohol consumption and poor diet. This suggests that stress pathways are involved in the aetiology of gastroschisis.

  16. Treating infants with frigg: linking disease aetiologies, medicinal plant use and care-seeking behaviour in southern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidor-Toneu, Irene; Martin, Gary J; Puri, Rajindra K; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Hawkins, Julie A

    2017-01-13

    Although most Moroccans rely to some extent on traditional medicine, the practice of frigg to treat paediatric ailments by elderly women traditional healers known as ferraggat, has not yet been documented. We describe the role of these specialist healers, document the medicinal plants they use, and evaluate how and why their practice is changing. Ethnomedicinal and ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews and observations of medical encounters. Information was collected from traditional healers, namely ferraggat, patients, herbalists and public health professionals. Patients' and healers' narratives about traditional medicine were analysed and medicinal plant lists were compiled from healers and herbalists. Plants used were collected, vouchered and deposited in herbaria. Ferragat remain a key health resource to treat infant ailments in the rural High Atlas, because mothers believe only they can treat what are perceived to be illnesses with a supernatural cause. Ferragat possess baraka, or the gift of healing, and treat mainly three folk ailments, taqait, taumist and iqdi, which present symptoms similar to those of ear infections, tonsillitis and gastroenteritis. Seventy plant species were used to treat these ailments, but the emphasis on plants may be a recent substitute for treatments that used primarily wool and blood. This change in materia medica is a shift in the objects of cultural meaningfulness in response to the increasing influence of orthodox Islam and state-sponsored modernisation, including public healthcare and schooling. Religious and other sociocultural changes are impacting the ways in which ferraggat practice. Treatments based on no-longer accepted symbolic elements have been readily abandoned and substituted by licit remedies, namely medicinal plants, which play a legitimisation role for the practice of frigg. However, beliefs in supernatural ailment aetiologies, as well as lack or difficult access to biomedical

  17. Muscle cooling delays activation of the muscle metaboreflex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C A; Hume, K M; Gracey, K H; Mahoney, E T

    1997-11-01

    Elevation of muscle temperature has been shown to increase muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during isometric exercise in humans. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of muscle cooling on MSNA responses during exercise. Eight subjects performed ischemic isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction to fatigue followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI), with and without local cooling of the forearm. Local cooling of the forearm decreased forearm muscle temperature from 31.8 +/- 0.4 to 23.1 +/- 0.8 degrees C (P = 0.001). Time to fatigue was not different during the control and cold trials (156 +/- 11 and 154 +/- 5 s, respectively). Arterial pressures and heart rate were not significantly affected by muscle cooling during exercise, although heart rate tended to be higher during the second minute of exercise (P = 0.053) during muscle cooling. Exercise-induced increases in MSNA were delayed during handgrip with local cooling compared with control. However, MSNA responses at fatigue and PEMI were not different between the two conditions. These findings suggest that muscle cooling delayed the activation of the muscle metaboreflex during ischemic isometric exercise but did not prevent its full expression during fatiguing contraction. These results support the concept that muscle temperature can play a role in the regulation of MSNA during exercise.

  18. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    OpenAIRE

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    David Tod1 Christian Edwards2 Ieuan Cranswick1 1School of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, Merseyside, 2Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Worcester, Worcester, Worcestershire, UK Abstract: Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scient...

  19. MUSCLE TENSION DYSPHONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Hočevar Boltežar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Muscle tension dysphonia (MTD is the cause of hoarseness in almost one half of the patients with voice disorders. The otorhinolaryngologic examination discovers no evident organic lesions in the larynx at least in the beginning of the voice problems. The reason for the hoarse voice is a disordered and maladjusted activity of the muscles taking part in phonation and/or articulation. In some patients, the irregular function of the larynx results in mucosal lesions on vocal folds. The factors participating in the development of MTD, directly or indirectly influence the quality of laryngeal mucosa, the activity of the phonatory muscles and/or increase of the vocal load. In the diagnostics and treatment of the MTD a phoniatrician, a speech and language therapist and a psychologist closely cooperate with the patient who must take an active role. The treatment is a long-lasting one but resulted in a high percentage of clinical success.Conclusions. Most likely, MTD is not a special disease but only a reflection of any disorder in the complicated system of regulation and realization of phonation. The prognosis of treatment is good when all unfavourable factors participating in development of MTD are eliminated and a proper professional voice- and psychotherapy started.

  20. Dismorfia muscular Muscle dysmorphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Seleri Marques Assunção

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Preocupações mórbidas com a imagem corporal eram tidas até recentemente como problemas eminentemente femininos. Atualmente estas preocupações também têm sido encontradas no sexo masculino. A dismorfia muscular é um subtipo do transtorno dismórfico corporal que ocorre principalmente em homens que, apesar da grande hipertrofia muscular, consideram-se pequenos e fracos. Além de estar associada a prejuízos sociais, ocupacionais, recreativos e em outras áreas do funcionamento do indivíduo, a dismorfia muscular é também um fator de risco para o abuso de esteróides anabolizantes. Este artigo aborda aspectos epidemiológicos, etiológicos e padrões clínicos da dismorfia muscular, além de tecer comentários sobre estratégias de tratamento para este transtorno.Morbid concern over body image was considered, until recently, a female issue. Nowadays, it has been viewed as a common male disorder. Muscle dysmorphia, a subtype of a body dysmorphic disorder, affects men who, despite having clear muscular hypertroph,y see themselves as frail and small. Besides being associated to major social, leisure and occupational dysfunction, muscle dysmorphia is also a risk factor for the abuse of steroids. This article describes epidemiological, etiological and clinical characteristics of muscle dysmorphia and comments on its treatment strategy.

  1. Molecular characterization of muscle-parasitizing didymozoid from a chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Okamoto, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    Didymozoids found in the muscles of marine fish are almost always damaged because they are usually found after being sliced. Therefore, identifying muscle-parasitizing didymozoids is difficult because of the difficulty in collecting non-damaged worms and observing their organs as key points for morphological identification. Moreover, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids are not easily found because they parasitize at the trunk muscles. Therefore, muscle-parasitizing didymozoid classification has not progressed because there are few opportunities to detect them. Our recent report was the first to describe the usefulness of sequencing analysis for discrimination among muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Recently, we found a didymozoid in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. The present study genetically compares the present isolate with other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. The present isolate differs markedly from the previously unidentified didymozoid from an Atlantic mackerel S. scombrus by phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA. It also differs from other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from other host species based on phylogenetic analyses of 18S, 28S rDNAs, and coxI loci. These results suggest that sequencing analysis is useful for the discrimination of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Combining the present data with earlier data for sequencing analysis, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from seven marine fish species were classified as seven species. We proposed appellations for six distinct muscle-parasitizing didymozoids for future analysis: sweetlips fish type from Diagramma pictum and Plectorhinchus cinctus, red sea bream type from Pagrus major, flying fish type from Cypselurus heterurus, Atlantic mackerel type from Scomber scombrus, chub mackerel type from S. japonicus, and purple rockcod type from Epinephelus cyanopodus.

  2. An interobserver reliability comparison between the Orthopaedic Trauma Association's open fracture classification and the Gustilo and Anderson classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, A; Enninghorst, N; Sisak, K; Balogh, Z J

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate interobserver reliability of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association's open fracture classification system (OTA-OFC). Patients of any age with a first presentation of an open long bone fracture were included. Standard radiographs, wound photographs, and a short clinical description were given to eight orthopaedic surgeons, who independently evaluated the injury using both the Gustilo and Anderson (GA) and OTA-OFC classifications. The responses were compared for variability using Cohen's kappa. The overall interobserver agreement was ĸ = 0.44 for the GA classification and ĸ = 0.49 for OTA-OFC, which reflects moderate agreement (0.41 to 0.60) for both classifications. The agreement in the five categories of OTA-OFC was: for skin, ĸ = 0.55 (moderate); for muscle, ĸ = 0.44 (moderate); for arterial injury, ĸ = 0.74 (substantial); for contamination, ĸ = 0.35 (fair); and for bone loss, ĸ = 0.41 (moderate). Although the OTA-OFC, with similar interobserver agreement to GA, offers a more detailed description of open fractures, further development may be needed to make it a reliable and robust tool. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:242-6. ©2018 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  3. Congenital muscular dystrophies--problems of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenard, H G

    1991-04-01

    The classification of congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD), based on perceived clinical and morphological similarities or differences, is controversial. CMD without cerebral involvement has sometimes been divided into a mild and a severe form. This distinction is, however, arbitrary and not uncontested. Whether Ullrich's disease, formerly called atonic-sclerotic dystrophy, is a disease entity and if so, whether it is a primary muscle disorder, is uncertain. CMD without cerebral involvement is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion in the great majority of cases. CMDs with cerebral involvement are usually classified into at least three forms: the Fukuyama type of CMD, occurring almost exclusively in Japanese patients; CMD with hypomyelination, sometimes also called the occidental type of cerebromuscular dystrophy; and Walker-Warburg syndrome. Muscle-eye-brain disease, described in a number of Finnish patients, may or may not belong in this last category. In CMD with cerebral involvement inheritance is also autosomal recessive. It is possible that single sporadic cases are phenocopies due to infectious or other exogenous causes. Reports of clinical and morphological findings from an increasing number of patients show a high degree of variability within and, on the other hand, certain similarities between the forms of CMD with cerebral involvement. In addition, neuroradiological changes are also found with increasing frequency in CMD patients without clinical neuropsychological abnormalities. It is not unreasonable to speculate that molecular genetic techniques will reveal in the near future a variable defect in one gene locus or defects in a few gene loci as the cause of the various clinical forms of CMDs.

  4. Classification of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.; Garcia C, R.M.; Maya M, M.E.; Ita T, A. De; Palacios G, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) and the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy techniques are used with the purpose to achieve a complete identification of phases and mixture of phases of a crystalline material as titanium dioxide. The problem for solving consists of being able to distinguish a sample of titanium dioxide being different than a titanium dioxide pigment. A standard sample of titanium dioxide with NIST certificate is used, which indicates a purity of 99.74% for the TiO 2 . The following way is recommended to proceed: a)To make an analysis by means of X-ray diffraction technique to the sample of titanium dioxide pigment and on the standard of titanium dioxide waiting not find differences. b) To make a chemical analysis by the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy via in a microscope, taking advantage of the high vacuum since it is oxygen which is analysed and if it is concluded that the aluminium oxide appears in a greater proportion to 1% it is established that is a titanium dioxide pigment, but if it is lesser then it will be only titanium dioxide. This type of analysis is an application of the nuclear techniques useful for the tariff classification of merchandise which is considered as of difficult recognition. (Author)

  5. Classification of new particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, G.

    1976-01-01

    A classification of the new particles is proposed. Hadrons are constructed from quarks corresponding to several different representations of an SU 3 color group, with confined color. The new family of resonances, related to psi/J, is assigned to color-antisextet quarks Q. These new quarks Q do not form mixed mesons q-barQ with old antiquarks but can form mixed baryons Qqq. We speculate on the relation between color and mass. High-mass recurrences of the psi/J family are expected to have associated large changes in the cross section for electron-positron annihilation (ΔR > 4). A conjectured mass formula, which relates the masses of psi/J and ω, predicts the masses of possible recurrences of the psi/J particle. Other experimental implications at presently available energies are discussed, especially the necessity for an isovector partner for psi/J, and for pseudoscalar mesons at 1.8--2.2 GeV, some of which can decay into two photons

  6. A canonical correlation analysis based EMG classification algorithm for eliminating electrode shift effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe Fan; Zhong Wang; Guanglin Li; Ruomei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Motion classification system based on surface Electromyography (sEMG) pattern recognition has achieved good results in experimental condition. But it is still a challenge for clinical implement and practical application. Many factors contribute to the difficulty of clinical use of the EMG based dexterous control. The most obvious and important is the noise in the EMG signal caused by electrode shift, muscle fatigue, motion artifact, inherent instability of signal and biological signals such as Electrocardiogram. In this paper, a novel method based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was developed to eliminate the reduction of classification accuracy caused by electrode shift. The average classification accuracy of our method were above 95% for the healthy subjects. In the process, we validated the influence of electrode shift on motion classification accuracy and discovered the strong correlation with correlation coefficient of >0.9 between shift position data and normal position data.

  7. Adverse events following cervical manipulative therapy: consensus on classification among Dutch medical specialists, manual therapists, and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Hendrikus A; Lakke, Sandra E; Schmitt, Maarten A; Van der Schans, Cees P

    2017-12-01

    To obtain consensus-based agreement on a classification system of adverse events (AE) following cervical spinal manipulation. The classification system should be comprised of clear definitions, include patients' and clinicians' perspectives, and have an acceptable number of categories. Design : A three-round Delphi study. Participants : Thirty Dutch participants (medical specialists, manual therapists, and patients) participated in an online survey. Procedure : Participants inventoried AE and were asked about their preferences for either a three- or a four-category classification system. The identified AE were classified by two analysts following the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). Participants were asked to classify the severity for all AE in relation to the time duration. Consensus occurred in a three-category classification system. There was strong consensus for 16 AE in all severities (no, minor, and major AE) and all three time durations [hours, days, weeks]. The 16 AE included anxiety, flushing, skin rash, fainting, dizziness, coma, altered sensation, muscle tenderness, pain, increased pain during movement, radiating pain, dislocation, fracture, transient ischemic attack, stroke, and death. Mild to strong consensus was reached for 13 AE. A consensus-based classification system of AE is established which includes patients' and clinicians' perspectives and has three categories. The classification comprises a precise description of potential AE in accordance with internationally accepted classifications. After international validation, clinicians and researchers may use this AE classification system to report AE in clinical practice and research.

  8. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  9. Vitamin D and muscle trophicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues-Faria, Carla; Boirie, Yves; Walrand, Stéphane

    2017-05-01

    We review recent findings on the involvement of vitamin D in skeletal muscle trophicity. Vitamin D deficiencies are associated with reduced muscle mass and strength, and its supplementation seems effective to improve these parameters in vitamin D-deficient study participants. Latest investigations have also evidenced that vitamin D is essential in muscle development and repair. In particular, it modulates skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, discrepancies still exist about an enhancement or a decrease of muscle proliferation and differentiation by the vitamin D. Recently, it has been demonstrated that vitamin D influences skeletal muscle cell metabolism as it seems to regulate protein synthesis and mitochondrial function. Finally, apart from its genomic and nongenomic effects, recent investigations have demonstrated a genetic contribution of vitamin D to muscle functioning. Recent studies support the importance of vitamin D in muscle health, and the impact of its deficiency in regard to muscle mass and function. These 'trophic' properties are of particular importance for some specific populations such as elderly persons and athletes, and in situations of loss of muscle mass or function, particularly in the context of chronic diseases.

  10. Music classification with MPEG-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crysandt, Holger; Wellhausen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Driven by increasing amount of music available electronically the need and possibility of automatic classification systems for music becomes more and more important. Currently most search engines for music are based on textual descriptions like artist or/and title. This paper presents a system for automatic music description, classification and visualization for a set of songs. The system is designed to extract significant features of a piece of music in order to find songs of similar genre or a similar sound characteristics. The description is done with the help of MPEG-7 only. The classification and visualization is done with the self organizing map algorithm.

  11. Editorial Commentary: Single-Image Slice Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments Do Not Predict 3-Dimensional Muscle Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-01-01

    No single-image magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment-Goutallier classification, Fuchs classification, or cross-sectional area-is predictive of whole-muscle volume or fatty atrophy of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Rather, 3-dimensional MRI measurement of whole-muscle volume and fat-free muscle volume is required and is associated with shoulder strength, which is clinically relevant. Three-dimensional MRI may represent a new gold standard for assessment of the rotator cuff musculature using imaging and may help to predict the feasibility of repair of a rotator cuff tear as well as the postoperative outcome. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional MRI assessment of muscle volume is labor intensive and is not widely available for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Systema Naturae. Classification of living things.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Shipunov

    2007-01-01

    Original classification of living organisms containing four kingdoms (Monera, Protista, Vegetabilia and Animalia), 60 phyla and 254 classes, is presented. The classification is based on latest available information.

  13. Nuclear Positioning in Muscle Development and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eric eFolker; Mary eBaylies

    2013-01-01

    Muscle disease as a group is characterized by muscle weakness, muscle loss, and impaired muscle function. Although the phenotype is the same, the underlying cellular pathologies, and the molecular causes of these pathologies, are diverse. One common feature of many muscle disorders is the mispositioning of myonuclei. In unaffected individuals myonuclei are spaced throughout the periphery of the muscle fiber such that the distance between nuclei is maximized. However, in diseased muscles, th...

  14. Pneumatic Artificial Muscles Based on Biomechanical Characteristics of Human Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the pneumatic artificial muscles based on biomechanical characteristics of human muscles. A wearable device and a rehabilitation robot that assist a human muscle should have characteristics similar to those of human muscle. In addition, since the wearable device and the rehabilitation robot should be light, an actuator with a high power to weight ratio is needed. At present, the McKibben type is widely used as an artificial muscle, but in fact its physical model is highly nonlinear. Therefore, an artificial muscle actuator has been developed in which high-strength carbon fibres have been built into the silicone tube. However, its contraction rate is smaller than the actual biological muscles. On the other hand, if an artificial muscle that contracts axially is installed in a robot as compactly as the robot hand, big installing space is required. Therefore, an artificial muscle with a high contraction rate and a tendon-driven system as a compact actuator were developed, respectively. In this study, we report on the basic structure and basic characteristics of two types of actuators.

  15. Recurrent diabetic muscle infarction, a rare complication of diabetes: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Bhat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare complication of diabetes mellitus that presents as a localized, exquisitely painful swelling and limited range of motion of the involved extremity. The onset is usually acute, persists for several weeks and resolves spontaneously over several weeks to months without the need for intervention. However, as diabetes mellitus is an immunocompromised state and any painful swelling in the limbs is often taken as infectious in aetiology, the patient is inadvertently investigated with invasive procedures and is started on unnecessary antibiotics, adding to the burden of management. Keeping in view the low threshold for starting antibiotics in painful limb swelling in diabetes mellitus in our setting, we hereby describe a case of recurrent painful diabetic muscle infarction, first involving the right upper and later the right lower limb, managed with physical rest and analgesics. This case emphasizes that the treating physician keep this rare complication of diabetes mellitus in consideration in the respective clinical scenario and adopt a less aggressive (a noninvasive method like ultrasound rather than a more aggressive (an invasive method like muscle biopsy approach in diagnosis and take a similar approach towards management.

  16. Progression in nuclear classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuying

    1999-01-01

    In this book, summarize the author's achievements of nuclear classification by new method in latest 30 years, new foundational law of nuclear layer in matter world is found. It is explained with a hypothesis of a nucleus which it is made up of two nucleon's clusters with deuteron and triton. Its concrete content is: to advance a new method which analyze data of nuclei with natural abundance using relationship between the numbers of proton and neutron. The relationship of each nucleus increases to 4 sets: S+H=Z H+Z=N Z+N=A and S-H=K. To expand the similarity between proton and neutron to the similarity among p,n, deuteron, triton, and He-5 clusters. According to the distribution law of same kind of nuclei, it obtains that the upper limits of stable region both should be '44s'. New foundational law of nuclear system is 1,2,4,8,16,8,4,2,1. In order to explain new law, a hypothesis which nucleus is made up of deuteron and triton is developing and nuclear field of whole number is built up. And it relates that unity of matter motion, which is the most foundational form atomic nuclear systematic is similar to the most first-class form chromosome numbers of mankind. These achievements will shake the foundations of traditional nuclear science. These achievements will supply new tasks in developing nuclear theory. And shake the ground of which magic number is the basic of nuclear science. It opens up a new field on foundational research. The book will supply new knowledge for researcher, teachers and students in universities and polytechnic schools. Scientific workers read in works of research and technical exploit. It can be stored up for library and laboratory of society and universities. In nowadays of prosperity our nation by science and education, the book is readable for workers of scientific technology and amateurs of natural science

  17. Classification and clinical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are at least nine classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis (PsA that have been proposed and used in clinical studies. With the exception of the ESSG and Bennett rules, all of the other criteria sets have a good performance in identifying PsA patients. As the CASPAR criteria are based on a robust study methodology, they are considered the current reference standard. However, if there seems to be no doubt that they are very good to classify PsA patients (very high specificity, they might be not sensitive enough to diagnose patients with unknown early PsA. The vast clinical heterogeneity of PsA makes its assessment very challenging. Peripheral joint involvement is measured by 78/76 joint counts, spine involvement by the instruments used for ankylosing spondylitis (AS, dactylitis by involved digit count or by the Leeds dactylitis index, enthesitis by the number of affected entheses (several indices available and psoriasis by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI. Peripheral joint damage can be assessed by a modified van der Heijde-Sharp scoring system and axial damage by the methods used for AS or by the Psoriatic Arthritis Spondylitis Radiology Index (PASRI. As in other arthritides, global evaluation of disease activity and severity by patient and physician and assessment of disability and quality of life are widely used. Finally, composite indices that capture several clinical manifestations of PsA have been proposed and a new instrument, the Psoriatic ARthritis Disease Activity Score (PASDAS, is currently being developed.

  18. The classification of easement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Danica D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Easement means, a right enjoyed by the owner of land over the lands of another: such as rights of way, right of light, rights of support, rights to a flow of air or water etc. The dominant tenement is the land owned by the possessor of the easement, and the servient tenement is the land over which the right is enjoyed. An easement must exist for the accommodation and better enjoyment to which it is annexed, otherwise it may amount to mere licence. An easement benefits and binds the land itself and therefore countinious despite any change of ownership of either dominant or servient tenement, although it will be extinguished if the two tenemants come into common ownership. An easement can only be enjoyed in respect of land. This means two parcels of land. First there must be a 'dominant tenement' and a 'servient tenement'. Dominant tenement to which the benefit of the easement attaches, and another (servient tenement which bears the burden of the easement. A positive easement consist of a right to do something on the land of another; a negative easement restrict the use of owner of the serviant tenement may make of his land. An easement may be on land or on the house made on land. The next classification is on easement on the ground, and the other one under the ground. An easement shall be done in accordance with the principle of restrictions. This means that the less burden the servient tenement. When there is doubt about the extent of the actual easement shall take what easier the servient tenement. The new needs of the dominant estate does not result in the expansion of servitude. In the article is made comparison between The Draft Code of property and other real estate, and The Draft of Civil Code of Serbia.

  19. Whole-body muscle MRI in 20 patients suffering from late onset Pompe disease: Involvement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Robert-Yves; Laforet, Pascal; Wary, Claire; Mompoint, Dominique; Laloui, Kenza; Pellegrini, Nadine; Annane, Djillali; Carlier, Pierre G; Orlikowski, David

    2011-11-01

    To describe muscle involvement on whole-body MRI scans in adult patients at different stages of late-onset Pompe disease. Twenty patients aged 37 to 75 were examined. Five were bedridden and required ventilatory support. Axial and coronal T1 turbo-spin-echo sequences were performed on 1.5T or 3T systems. MRI was scored for 47 muscles using Mercuri's classification. Whole-body scans were obtained with a mean in-room time of 29 min. Muscle changes consisted of internal bright signals of fatty replacement without severe retraction of the muscles' corpus. Findings were consistent with previous descriptions of spine extensors and pelvic girdle, but also provided new information on recurrent muscle changes particularly in the tongue and subscapularis muscle. Moreover thigh involvement was more heterogeneous than previously described, in terms of distribution across muscles as well as with respect to the overall clinical presentation. Whole-body MRI provides a very evocative description of muscle involvement in Pompe disease in adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Accessory muscle of the flexor digitorum superficialis and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edie Benedito Caetano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anatomical variations of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS muscle and tendon unit are frequently reported by anatomists and clinicians. Anatomical muscle variations of the FDS and its tendons may include variations of muscle belly, presence of accessory or duplicate tendons, abnormal tendon connections, and absence of muscle or tendon components. Such variations may or may not have clinical implications. This report presents a case not described previously: a unilateral accessory muscle of the flexor digitorum superficialis which was connected by a thick tendon to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle; it was directed proximally to the insertion of the medial epicondyle of the humerus, next to the superficialis head of the pronator teres muscle. The belly of the accessory muscle was positioned anterior to the median and anterior interosseous nerve. This anatomical variation is known as type V in the classification of Elliot et al. The knowledge of these anatomical variations helps hand surgeons interpret the clinical examination, particularly in the evaluation of patients who have suffered tendon injuries or show sign s of possible peripheral nerve entrapment.