Ishii, Tomohiro; Narita, Noriyuki; Endo, Hiroshi
This study aims to quantitatively clarify the physiological features in rhythmically coordinated jaw and neck muscle EMG activities while chewing gum using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in 20 healthy subjects. The chewing side masseter muscle EMG signal was used as the reference signal, while the other jaw (non-chewing side masseter muscle, bilateral anterior temporal muscles, and bilateral anterior digastric muscles) and neck muscle (bilateral sternocleidomastoid muscles) EMG signals were used as the examined signals in EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses. Chewing-related jaw and neck muscle activities were aggregated in the first peak of the power spectrum in rhythmic chewing. The gain in the peak frequency represented the power relationships between jaw and neck muscle activities during rhythmic chewing. The phase in the peak frequency represented the temporal relationships between the jaw and neck muscle activities, while the non-chewing side neck muscle presented a broad range of distributions across jaw closing and opening phases. Coherence in the peak frequency represented the synergistic features in bilateral jaw closing muscles and chewing side neck muscle activities. The coherence and phase in non-chewing side neck muscle activities exhibited a significant negative correlation. From above, the bilateral coordination between the jaw and neck muscle activities is estimated while chewing when the non-chewing side neck muscle is synchronously activated with the jaw closing muscles, while the unilateral coordination is estimated when the non-chewing side neck muscle is irregularly activated in the jaw opening phase. Thus, the occurrence of bilateral or unilateral coordinated features in the jaw and neck muscle activities may correspond to the phase characteristics in the non-chewing side neck muscle activities during rhythmical chewing. Considering these novel findings in healthy subjects, EMG-EMG
Boonstra, Tjeerd W.; Danna-Dos-Santos, Alessander; Xie, Hong-Bo; Roerdink, Melvyn; Stins, John F.; Breakspear, Michael
Understanding the mechanisms that reduce the many degrees of freedom in the musculoskeletal system remains an outstanding challenge. Muscle synergies reduce the dimensionality and hence simplify the control problem. How this is achieved is not yet known. Here we use network theory to assess the coordination between multiple muscles and to elucidate the neural implementation of muscle synergies. We performed connectivity analysis of surface EMG from ten leg muscles to extract the muscle networks while human participants were standing upright in four different conditions. We observed widespread connectivity between muscles at multiple distinct frequency bands. The network topology differed significantly between frequencies and between conditions. These findings demonstrate how muscle networks can be used to investigate the neural circuitry of motor coordination. The presence of disparate muscle networks across frequencies suggests that the neuromuscular system is organized into a multiplex network allowing for parallel and hierarchical control structures.
Albani, G; Sandrini, G; Kunig, G; Martin-Soelch, C; Mauro, A; Pignatti, R; Pacchetti, C; Dietz, [No Value; Leenders, KL
In this pilot study, EMG patterns of leg muscle activation were studied in five parkinsonian patients with (B1) and five without (B2) freezing. Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and tibialis anterior (TA) activity was analysed, by means of surface electromyography (EMG), during treadmill walking at two
Raphael, Karen G.; Janal, Malvin N.; Sirois, David A.; Dubrovsky, Boris; Wigren, Pia E.; Klausner, Jack J.; Krieger, Ana C.; Lavigne, Gilles J.
Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n=124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n=46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artifacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non SB-event periods was significantly higher (pcases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0–10 numerical scale) on post sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. PMID:24237356
Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Bostyn, Emma; Delemarre, Jolien; Lemahieu, Trees; Cagnie, Barbara
It is proposed that altered scapular muscle function can contribute to abnormal loading of the cervical spine. However, it is not clear if patients with idiopathic neck pain show altered activity of the scapular muscles. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature regarding the differences or similarities in scapular muscle activity, measured by electromyography ( = EMG), between patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain compared to pain-free controls. Case-control (neck pain/healthy) studies investigating scapular muscle EMG activity (amplitude, timing and fatigue parameters) were searched in Pubmed and Web of Science. 25 articles were included in the systematic review. During rest and activities below shoulder height, no clear differences in mean Upper Trapezius ( = UT) EMG activity exist between patients with idiopathic neck pain and a healthy control group. During overhead activities, no conclusion for scapular EMG amplitude can be drawn as a large variation of results were reported. Adaptation strategies during overhead tasks are not the same between studies. Only one study investigated timing of the scapular muscles and found a delayed onset and shorter duration of the SA during elevation in patients with idiopathic neck pain. For scapular muscle fatigue, no definite conclusions can be made as a wide variation and conflicting results are reported. Further high quality EMG research on scapular muscles (broader than the UT) is necessary to understand/draw conclusions on how scapular muscles react in the presence of idiopathic neck pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Staudenmann, D.; Stegeman, D.F.; van Dieen, J.H.
Conventional bipolar EMG provides imprecise muscle activation estimates due to possibly heterogeneous activity within muscles and due to improper alignment of the electrodes with the muscle fibers. Principal component analysis (PCA), applied on multi-channel monopolar EMG yielded substantial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybrid muscle activation is a modality used for muscle force enhancement, in which muscle contraction is generated from two different excitation sources: volitional and external, by means of electrical stimulation (ES. Under hybrid activation, the overall EMG signal is the combination of the volitional and ES-induced components. In this study, we developed a computational scheme to extract the volitional EMG envelope from the overall dynamic EMG signal, to serve as an input signal for control purposes, and for evaluation of muscle forces. Methods A "synthetic" database was created from in-vivo experiments on the Tibialis Anterior of the right foot to emulate hybrid EMG signals, including the volitional and induced components. The database was used to evaluate the results obtained from six signal processing schemes, including seven different modules for filtration, rectification and ES component removal. The schemes differed from each other by their module combinations, as follows: blocking window only, comb filter only, blocking window and comb filter, blocking window and peak envelope, comb filter and peak envelope and, finally, blocking window, comb filter and peak envelope. Results and conclusion The results showed that the scheme including all the modules led to an excellent approximation of the volitional EMG envelope, as extracted from the hybrid signal, and underlined the importance of the artifact blocking window module in the process. The results of this work have direct implications on the development of hybrid muscle activation rehabilitation systems for the enhancement of weakened muscles.
Valentina eLa Scaleia
Full Text Available During human walking there exists a functional neural coupling between arms and legs, and between cervical and lumbosacral pattern generators. Here we present a novel approach for associating the electromyographic (EMG activity from upper limb muscles with leg kinematics. Our methodology takes advantage of the high involvement of shoulder muscles in most locomotor-related movements and of the natural coordination between arms and legs. Nine healthy subjects were asked to walk at different constant and variable speeds (3-5 km/h, while EMG activity of shoulder (deltoid muscles and the kinematics of walking were recorded. To ensure a high level of EMG activity in deltoid, the subjects performed slightly larger arm swinging than they usually do. The temporal structure of the burst-like EMG activity was used to predict the spatiotemporal kinematic pattern of the forthcoming step. A comparison of actual and predicted stride leg kinematics showed a high degree of correspondence (r>0.9. This algorithm has been also implemented in pilot experiments for controlling avatar walking in a virtual reality setup and an exoskeleton during overground stepping. The proposed approach may have important implications for the design of human-machine interfaces and neuroprosthetic technologies such as those of assistive lower limb exoskeletons.
Taian M. Vieira
Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests the minimisation of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimising the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimise the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the centre of pressure (CoP. CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from ten healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects’ responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P<0.05 and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P<0.05. Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm. In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at
Herrington Lee C; Horsley Ian G; Rolf Christer
Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later veri...
Herrington Lee C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group. Results Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03 subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. Conclusions This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases
Horsley, Ian G; Herrington, Lee C; Rolf, Christer
The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group). Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03) subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases.
Naik, Ganesh R; Kumar, Dinesh K; Arjunan, Sridhar
This paper has experimentally verified and compared features of sEMG (Surface Electromyogram) such as ICA (Independent Component Analysis) and Fractal Dimension (FD) for identification of low level forearm muscle activities. The fractal dimension was used as a feature as reported in the literature. The normalized feature values were used as training and testing vectors for an Artificial neural network (ANN), in order to reduce inter-experimental variations. The identification accuracy using FD of four channels sEMG was 58%, and increased to 96% when the signals are separated to their independent components using ICA.
Castrillon, Eduardo; Dreyer Nielsen, Patricia; Haugland, Morten
, Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neuroscience (SCON), Aarhus, DENMARK; M. Haugland, DELTA, Copenhagen, DENMARK; W. Yachida, T. Arima, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, JAPAN; Group Author Abstracts: ABSTRACT: Objectives: Background: Bruxism has two different circadian manifestations (awake and sleep) that have...... been proposed to have different underlying pathophysiology. Objectives: To compare the characteristics of multiple days EMG assessment of the anterior temporalis muscles between patients with self-reported awake bruxism, sleep bruxism and healthy individuals. Methods: Methods: Participants...... with possible sleep bruxism (n=9) or awake bruxism (n=9) bruxism were included in an open study and compared with healthy individuals during awake (n=9) and sleep (n=7) states. All participants were assessed for a minimum of 4 days (awake or sleep) with a portable single-channel EMG recorder. The outcome...
Ngeo, Jimson G; Tamei, Tomoya; Shibata, Tomohiro
Surface electromyography (EMG) signals are often used in many robot and rehabilitation applications because these reflect motor intentions of users very well. However, very few studies have focused on the accurate and proportional control of the human hand using EMG signals. Many have focused on discrete gesture classification and some have encountered inherent problems such as electro-mechanical delays (EMD). Here, we present a new method for estimating simultaneous and multiple finger kinematics from multi-channel surface EMG signals. In this study, surface EMG signals from the forearm and finger kinematic data were extracted from ten able-bodied subjects while they were tasked to do individual and simultaneous multiple finger flexion and extension movements in free space. Instead of using traditional time-domain features of EMG, an EMG-to-Muscle Activation model that parameterizes EMD was used and shown to give better estimation performance. A fast feed forward artificial neural network (ANN) and a nonparametric Gaussian Process (GP) regressor were both used and evaluated to estimate complex finger kinematics, with the latter rarely used in the other related literature. The estimation accuracies, in terms of mean correlation coefficient, were 0.85 ± 0.07, 0.78 ± 0.06 and 0.73 ± 0.04 for the metacarpophalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and the distal interphalangeal (DIP) finger joint DOFs, respectively. The mean root-mean-square error in each individual DOF ranged from 5 to 15%. We show that estimation improved using the proposed muscle activation inputs compared to other features, and that using GP regression gave better estimation results when using fewer training samples. The proposed method provides a viable means of capturing the general trend of finger movements and shows a good way of estimating finger joint kinematics using a muscle activation model that parameterizes EMD. The results from this study demonstrates a potential control
Holtermann, A; Mork, P J; Andersen, L L
the serratus anterior with visual EMG biofeedback, while the activity of four parts of the serratus anterior and four parts of the trapezius muscle was recorded. One subject was able to selectively activate both the upper and the lower serratus anterior respectively. Moreover, three subjects managed...... to selectively activate the lower serratus anterior, and two subjects learned to selectively activate the upper serratus anterior. During selective activation of the lower serratus anterior, the activity of this muscle part was 14.4+/-10.3 times higher than the upper serratus anterior activity (P....05). The corresponding ratio for selective upper serratus vs. lower serratus anterior activity was 6.4+/-1.7 (Ptimes higher synergistic activity of the lower trapezius compared with the upper trapezius (P
Suica, Zorica; Romkes, Jacqueline; Tal, Amir; Maguire, Clare
To investigate the immediate effect of four-wheeled- walker(rollator)walking on lower-limb muscle activity and trunk-sway in healthy subjects. In this cross-sectional design electromyographic (EMG) data was collected in six lower-limb muscle groups and trunk-sway was measured as peak-to-peak angular displacement of the centre-of-mass (level L2/3) in the sagittal and frontal-planes using the SwayStar balance system. 19 subjects walked at self-selected speed firstly without a rollator then in randomised order 1. with rollator 2. with rollator with increased weight-bearing. Rollator-walking caused statistically significant reductions in EMG activity in lower-limb muscle groups and effect-sizes were medium to large. Increased weight-bearing increased the effect. Trunk-sway in the sagittal and frontal-planes showed no statistically significant difference between conditions. Rollator-walking reduces lower-limb muscle activity but trunk-sway remains unchanged as stability is likely gained through forces generated by the upper-limbs. Short-term stability is gained but the long-term effect is unclear and requires investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rogan, Slavko; Riesen, Jan; Taeymans, Jan
Good core muscles strength is essential for daily life and sports activities. However, the mechanism how core muscles may be effectively triggered by exercises is not yet precisely described in the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the rate of activation as measured by electromyography of the ventral, lateral and dorsal core muscle chains during core (trunk) muscle exercises. A total of 16 studies were included. Exercises with a vertical starting position, such as the deadlift or squat activated significantly more core muscles than exercises in the horizontal initial position.
Fu, Weijie; Wang, Xi; Liu, Yu
Previous studies have not used neurophysiological methodology to explore the damping effects on induced soft-tissue vibrations and muscle responses. This study aimed to investigate the changes in activation of the musculoskeletal system in response to soft-tissue vibrations with different applied compression conditions in a drop-jump landing task. Twelve trained male participants were instructed to perform drop-jump landings in compression shorts (CS) and regular shorts without compression (control condition, CC). Soft-tissue vibrations and EMG amplitudes of the leg within 50 ms before and after touchdown were collected synchronously. Peak acceleration of the thigh muscles was significantly lower in CS than in CC during landings from 45 or 60 cm and 30 cm heights (p soft-tissue vibration damping was associated with a decrease in muscular activity of the rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles during drop-jump landings from different heights.
Wibawa, A. D.; Verdonschot, N.; Halbertsma, J.P.K.; Burgerhof, J.G.M.; Diercks, R.L.; Verkerke, G. J.
Musculoskeletal modeling nowadays is becoming the most common tool for studying and analyzing human motion. Besides its potential in predicting muscle activity and muscle force during active motion, musculoskeletal modeling can also calculate many important kinetic data that are difficult to measure
Seven, Yasin B; Mantilla, Carlos B; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C
We hypothesized that a shift in diaphragm muscle (DIAm) EMG power spectral density (PSD) to higher frequencies reflects recruitment of more fatigable fast-twitch motor units and motor unit recruitment is reflected by EMG non-stationarity. DIAm EMG was recorded in anesthetized rats during eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia (10% O(2)-5% CO(2)), airway occlusion, and sneezing (maximal DIAm force). Although power in all frequency bands increased progressively across motor behaviors, PSD centroid frequency increased only during sneezing (pmotor units were recruited during different motor behaviors. Motor units augmented their discharge frequencies progressively beyond the non-stationary period; yet, EMG signal became stationary. In conclusion, non-stationarity of DIAm EMG reflects the period of motor unit recruitment, while a shift in the PSD towards higher frequencies reflects recruitment of more fatigable fast-twitch motor units. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kothari, Mohit; Stubbs, Peter William; Pedersen, Asger Roer
of using the suprahyoid muscle complex (SMC) using surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess changes to neural pathways by determining the reliability of measurements in healthy participants over days. Methods: Seventeen healthy participants were recruited. Measurements were performed twice with one week...... on stimulus type/intensity) had significantly different MEP values between day 1 and day 2 for single pulse and paired pulse TMS. A large stimulus artefact resulted in MEP responses that could not be assessed in four participants. Conclusions: The assessment of the SMC using sEMG following TMS was poorly...... reliable for ≈50% of participants. Although using sEMG to assess swallowing musculature function is easier to perform clinically and more comfortable to patients than invasive measures, as the measurement of muscle activity using TMS is unreliable, the use of sEMG for this muscle group is not recommended...
Kaneda, Koichi; Sato, Daisuke; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Nomura, Takeo
The present study used synchronized motion analysis to investigate the activity of hip and trunk muscles during deep-water running (DWR) relative to land walking (LW) and water walking (WW). Nine healthy men performed each exercise at self-determined slow, moderate, and fast paces, and surface electromyography was used to investigate activity of the adductor longus, gluteus maxima, gluteus medius, rectus abdominis, oblique externus abdominis, and erector spinae. The following kinematic parameters were calculated: the duration of one cycle, range of motion (ROM) of the hip joint, and absolute angles of the pelvis and trunk with respect to the vertical axis in the sagittal plane. The percentages of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC) of each muscle were higher during DWR than during LW and WW. The %MVC of the erector spinae during WW increased concomitant with the pace increment. The hip joint ROMs were larger in DWR than in LW and WW. Forward inclinations of the trunk were apparent for DWR and fast-paced WW. The pelvis was inclined forward in DWR and WW. In conclusion, the higher-level activities during DWR are affected by greater hip joint motion and body inclinations with an unstable floating situation.
Salonen, M A; Raustia, A M; Huggare, J A
A clinical stomatognathic, cephalometric and electromyographic (EMG) study was performed in relation to 14 subjects (10 women, 4 men), each with an edentulous maxilla and residual mandibular dentition before and six months after treatment with complete upper and partial lower dentures. The mean age of the subjects was 54.4 years (range 43-64 years). The mean period of edentulousness and age of dentures were 22.5 years (range 15-33 years) and 14.1 (range 1.5-30 years), respectively. Natural head position was recorded (using a fluid-level method) and measured from cephalograms. EMG activity was measured in relation to masseter and temporal muscles. A decrease in clinical dysfunction index was noted in 12 of 14 subjects (86%). There was no change in cervical inclination, but a slight extension of the head was noted after treatment. Rapid recovery of the masticatory muscles was reflected in increased EMG activity, especially when biting in the maximal intercuspal position. In cases of edentulous maxilla and residual mandibular anterior dentition, treatment with a complete upper and lower partial denture had a favorable effect on craniomandibular disorders and masticatory-muscle function.
Lovell, Gregory A; Blanch, Peter D; Barnes, Christopher J
To assess activation of muscles of hip adduction using EMG and force analysis during standard clinical tests, and compare athletes with and without a prior history of groin pain. Controlled laboratory study. 21 male athletes from an elite junior soccer program. Bilateral surface EMG recordings of the adductor magnus, adductor longus, gracilis and pectineus as well as a unilateral fine-wire EMG of the pectineus were made during isometric holds in six clinical examination tests. A load cell was used to measure force data. Test type was a significant factor in the EMG output for all four muscles (all muscles p stronger than Hips 45, Hips 90 and Side lay. BMI (body mass index) was a significant factor (p Muscle EMG varied significantly with clinical test position. Athletes with previous groin injury had a significant fall in some EMG outputs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ro, U J; Kim, N C; Kim, H S
The purpose of this study is to assess if EMG biofeedback training with progressive muscle relaxation training is effective in reducing the EMG level in patients with tension headaches. This study which lasted from 23 October to 30 December 1989, was conducted on 10 females who were diagnosed as patients with tension headaches and selected from among volunteers at C. University in Seoul. The process of the study was as follows: First, before the treatment, the baseline was measured for two weeks and the level of EMG was measured five times in five minutes. And then EMG biofeedback training was used for six weeks, 12 sessions in all, and progressive muscle relaxation was done at home by audio tape over eight weeks. Each session was composed of a 5-minute baseline, two 5-minute EMG biofeedback training periods and a 5-minute self-control stage. Each stage was followed by a five minute rest period. So each session took a total of 40 minutes. The EMG level was measured by EMG biofeedback (Autogenic-Cyborg: M 130 EMG module). The results were as follows: 1. The average age of the subjects was 44.1 years and the average history of headache was 10.6 years (range: 6 months-20 years). 2. The level of EMG was lowest between the third and the fourth week of the training except in Cases I and IV. 3. The patients began to show a nonconciliatory attitude at the first session of the fifth week of the training.
Quantitative differences among EMG activities of muscles innervated by subpopulations of hypoglossal and upper spinal motoneurons during non-REM sleep - REM sleep transitions: a window on neural processes in the sleeping brain.
Rukhadze, I; Kamani, H; Kubin, L
In the rat, a species widely used to study the neural mechanisms of sleep and motor control, lingual electromyographic activity (EMG) is minimal during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep and then phasic twitches gradually increase after the onset of REM sleep. To better characterize the central neural processes underlying this pattern, we quantified EMG of muscles innervated by distinct subpopulations of hypoglossal motoneurons and nuchal (N) EMG during transitions from non-REM sleep to REM sleep. In 8 chronically instrumented rats, we recorded cortical EEG, EMG at sites near the base of the tongue where genioglossal and intrinsic muscle fibers predominate (GG-I), EMG of the geniohyoid (GH) muscle, and N EMG. Sleep-wake states were identified and EMGs quantified relative to their mean levels in wakefulness in successive 10 s epochs. During non-REM sleep, the average EMG levels differed among the three muscles, with the order being N>GH>GG-I. During REM sleep, due to different magnitudes of phasic twitches, the order was reversed to GG-I>GH>N. GG-I and GH exhibited a gradual increase of twitching that peaked at 70-120 s after the onset of REM sleep and then declined if the REM sleep episode lasted longer. We propose that a common phasic excitatory generator impinges on motoneuron pools that innervate different muscles, but twitching magnitudes are different due to different levels of tonic motoneuronal hyperpolarization. We also propose that REM sleep episodes of average durations are terminated by intense activity of the central generator of phasic events, whereas long REM sleep episodes end as a result of a gradual waning of the tonic disfacilitatory and inhibitory processes.
Palmer, Phyllis M; McCulloch, Timothy M; Jaffe, Debra; Neel, Amy T
A sour bolus has been used as a modality in the treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia based on the hypothesis that this stimulus provides an effective preswallow sensory input that lowers the threshold required to trigger a pharyngeal swallow. The result is a more immediate swallow onset time. Additionally, the sour bolus may invigorate the oral muscles resulting in stronger contractions during the swallow. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the intramuscular electromyographic activity of the mylohyoid, geniohyoid, and anterior belly of the digastric muscles during sour and water boluses with regard to duration, strength, and timing of muscle activation. Muscle duration, swallow onset time, and pattern of muscle activation did not differ for the two bolus types. Muscle activation time was more tightly approximated across the onsets of the three muscles when a sour bolus was used. A sour bolus also resulted in a stronger muscle contraction as evidenced by greater electromyographic activity. These data support the use of a sour bolus as part of a treatment paradigm.
Baba, K; Yugami, K; Akishige, S; Ai, M
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of experimental alterations of nonworking-side occlusal contacts on jaw-elevator muscle activity. Individual devices were fabricated to simulate various lateral occlusal relationships. Twelve human subjects were asked to carry out submaximal lateral clenching, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter and anterior and posterior temporalis muscles was measured. Clenching in a lateral mandibular position under natural conditions induced an activity pattern with a clear dominance of the anterior and posterior temporalis muscles on the working side. Working-side dominance in the anterior temporalis was reduced moderately when an experimental nonworking-side occlusal contact was added. Dominance decreased dramatically when an experimental nonworking-side interference was added. The working-side activity in the posterior temporalis was also reduced dramatically by an experimental nonworking-side interference, but not by a nonworking-side occlusal contact. None of the experimental contact patterns had a significant effect on the masseter activity. These results suggest that the nonworking-side occlusal contacts have a significant effect on clenching-induced temporalis muscle activity.
Narayan, R; Kamat, A; Khanolkar, M; Kamat, S; Desai, S R; Dhume, R A
The present work is aimed to quantify the degree of relaxation of muscle under the effects of Kundalini Yoga with the help of EMG integrator. The data collected from 8 individuals (4 males 4 females) on the degree of muscle relaxation at the end of meditation revealed a significantly decreased muscle activity amounting to 58% of the basal level in both the sexes.
Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Parlevliet, Thierry; Cagnie, Barbara
The function of the scapula is important in normal neck function and might be disturbed in patients with neck pain. The surrounding muscular system is important for the function of the scapula. To date, it is not clear if patients with idiopathic neck pain show altered activity of these scapulothoracic muscles. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate differences in deeper and superficial lying scapulothoracic muscle activity between patients with idiopathic neck pain and healthy controls during arm elevation, and to identify the influence of scapular dyskinesis on muscle activity. Scapular dyskinesis was rated with the yes/no method. The deeper lying (Levator Scapulae, Pectoralis Minor (Pm) and Rhomboid major) and superficial lying (Trapezius and Serratus Anterior) scapulothoracic muscles' activity was investigated with fine-wire and surface EMG, respectively, in 19 female subjects with idiopathic neck pain (age 28.3±10.1years, average duration of neck pain 45.6±36.3months) and 19 female healthy control subjects (age 29.3±11.7years) while performing scaption and towel wall slide. Possible interactions or differences between subject groups, scapular dyskinesis groups or phases of the task were studied with a linear mixed model. Higher Pm activity during the towel wallslide (p=0.024, mean difference 8.8±3.3% MVIC) was shown in patients with idiopathic neck pain in comparison with healthy controls. For the MT, a significant group∗dyskinesis interaction effect was found during scaption which revealed that patients with neck pain and scapular dyskinesis showed lower Middle Trapezius (MT) activity in comparison with healthy controls with scapular dyskinesis (p=0.029, mean difference 5.1±2.2% MVIC). In the presence of idiopathic neck pain, higher Pm activity during the towel wallslide was found. Patients with neck pain and scapular dyskinesis showed lower MT activity in comparison with healthy controls with scapular dyskinesis during scaption
Osborne, Mark A; Schneider, Donald A
The purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle glycogen reduction prior to exercise would alter muscle fibre recruitment pattern and change either on-transient O2 uptake (VO2) kinetics or the VO2 slow component. Eight recreational cyclists (VO2peak, 55.6 +/- 1.3 ml kg (-1) min(-1)) were studied during 8 min of heavy constant-load cycling performed under control conditions (CON) and under conditions of reduced type I muscle glycogen content (GR). VO2 was measured breath-by-breath for the determination of VO2 kinetics using a double-exponential model with independent time delays. VO2 was higher in the GR trial compared to the CON trial as a result of augmented phase I and II amplitudes, with no difference between trials in the phase II time constant or the magnitude of the slow component. The mean power frequency (MPF) of electromyography activity for the vastus medialis increased over time during both trials, with a greater rate of increase observed in the GR trial compared to the CON trial. The results suggest that the recruitment of additional type II motor units contributed to the slow component in both trials. An increase in fat metabolism and augmented type II motor unit recruitment contributed to the higher VO2 in the GR trial. However, the greater rate of increase in the recruitment of type II motor units in the GR trial may not have been of sufficient magnitude to further elevate the slow component when VO2 was already high and approaching VO2peak .
Wijsman, J.L.P; Grundlehner, B.; Penders, J.; Hermens, Hermanus J.
Stress is a growing problem in society and can cause musculoskeletal complaints. It would be useful to measure stress for prevention of stress-related health problems. An experiment is described in which EMG signals of the upper trapezius muscle were measured with a wireless system during three
Gallina, A; Merletti, R; Gazzoni, M
The aim of this study was to investigate the position of the innervation zone (IZ) of the vastus medialis (VM) and its effect on the electromyographic (EMG) amplitude and mean frequency estimates. Eighteen healthy subjects performed maximal isometric knee extensions at three knee angles. Surface EMG signals were collected by using a 16 × 8 electrode grid placed on the VM muscle. The position of the IZ was estimated through visual analysis, and traditional bipolar signals were obtained from channels over and away from it; amplitude and mean frequency values were extracted and compared using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. The IZ is shaped as a line running from the proximal–lateral to the distal–medial aspect of the VM muscle. The presence of an IZ under the electrodes lowered the EMG amplitude (P < 0.001, F = 58.11) and increased the EMG mean frequency (P < 0.001, F = 26.47); variations of these parameters due to the knee flexion angle were less frequently observed in EMG signals collected over than away from the IZ. Electrodes placed ‘over the belly of the VM muscle’ are likely to collect EMG signals influenced by the presence of the IZ, thus hindering the detection of changes in muscle activity. (paper)
Full Text Available The analysis and classification of electromyography (EMG signals are very important in order to detect some symptoms of diseases, prosthetic arm/leg control, and so on. In this study, an EMG signal was analyzed using bispectrum, which belongs to a family of higher-order spectra. An EMG signal is the electrical potential difference of muscle cells. The EMG signals used in the present study are aggressive or normal actions. The EMG dataset was obtained from the machine learning repository. First, the aggressive and normal EMG activities were analyzed using bispectrum and the quadratic phase coupling of each EMG episode was determined. Next, the features of the analyzed EMG signals were fed into learning machines to separate the aggressive and normal actions. The best classification result was 99.75%, which is sufficient to significantly classify the aggressive and normal actions.
The analysis and classification of electromyography (EMG) signals are very important in order to detect some symptoms of diseases, prosthetic arm/leg control, and so on. In this study, an EMG signal was analyzed using bispectrum, which belongs to a family of higher-order spectra. An EMG signal is the electrical potential difference of muscle cells. The EMG signals used in the present study are aggressive or normal actions. The EMG dataset was obtained from the machine learning repository. First, the aggressive and normal EMG activities were analyzed using bispectrum and the quadratic phase coupling of each EMG episode was determined. Next, the features of the analyzed EMG signals were fed into learning machines to separate the aggressive and normal actions. The best classification result was 99.75%, which is sufficient to significantly classify the aggressive and normal actions. PMID:23193379
Marcelo Pinto Pereira
Full Text Available Manual lifting (ML capacity is still a matter of concern for industry administrators and electromyography (EMG seems to be a good alternative for the evaluation of muscles involved in this task. However, the reliability of these measures is very important. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of a pelvic belt on EMG activity of the erector spinus (ES and rectus femoralis (RF muscles during ML and during maximal voluntary contractions (MVC of trunk extension performed before (baseline and after ML. In addition, the variabilityin the EMG signal normalized by the following three different methods was evaluated: peak EMG activity, mean EMG activity, and EMG activity obtained during MVC. Eight volunteers performed ML of 15% and 25% of their body weight for 1 minute in the presence or absence of a pelvic belt. The coefficient of variation (CV of the EMG signal obtained for the ES and RF muscles was calculated during ML. Load cell traction values and the electromyographic variables RMS, median frequency, mean power frequency and total power of the ES muscle were obtained during MVC. The results showed lower CV (smaller variability when the EMG signal was normalized by peak activity, with this method thus being preferable. During MVC, only the load cell traction value differed from baseline after ML of 25% body weight without the pelvic belt (p=0.035, a finding suggesting rapid recovery of ES muscle after ML for 1 minute.
Full Text Available Abstract Background sEMG signal has been widely used in different applications in kinesiology and rehabilitation as well as in the control of human-machine interfaces. In general, the signals are recorded with bipolar electrodes located in different muscles. However, such configuration may disregard some aspects of the spatial distribution of the potentials like location of innervation zones and the manifestation of inhomogineties in the control of the muscular fibers. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of motor unit action potentials has recently been assessed with activation maps obtained from High Density EMG signals (HD-EMG, these lasts recorded with arrays of closely spaced electrodes. The main objective of this work is to analyze patterns in the activation maps, associating them with four movement directions at the elbow joint and with different strengths of those tasks. Although the activation pattern can be assessed with bipolar electrodes, HD-EMG maps could enable the extraction of features that depend on the spatial distribution of the potentials and on the load-sharing between muscles, in order to have a better differentiation between tasks and effort levels. Methods An experimental protocol consisting of isometric contractions at three levels of effort during flexion, extension, supination and pronation at the elbow joint was designed and HD-EMG signals were recorded with 2D electrode arrays on different upper-limb muscles. Techniques for the identification and interpolation of artifacts are explained, as well as a method for the segmentation of the activation areas. In addition, variables related to the intensity and spatial distribution of the maps were obtained, as well as variables associated to signal power of traditional single bipolar recordings. Finally, statistical tests were applied in order to assess differences between information extracted from single bipolar signals or from HD-EMG maps and to analyze
Lee, Sabrina S M; Miara, Maria de Boef; Arnold, Allison S; Biewener, Andrew A; Wakeling, James M
Recruitment patterns and activation dynamics of different motor units greatly influence the temporal pattern and magnitude of muscle force development, yet these features are not often considered in muscle models. The purpose of this study was to characterize the recruitment and activation dynamics of slow and fast motor units from electromyographic (EMG) recordings and twitch force profiles recorded directly from animal muscles. EMG and force data from the gastrocnemius muscles of seven goats were recorded during in vivo tendon-tap reflex and in situ nerve stimulation experiments. These experiments elicited EMG signals with significant differences in frequency content (p<0.001). The frequency content was characterized using wavelet and principal components analysis, and optimized wavelets with centre frequencies, 149.94 Hz and 323.13 Hz, were obtained. The optimized wavelets were used to calculate the EMG intensities and, with the reconstructed twitch force profiles, to derive transfer functions for slow and fast motor units that estimate the activation state of the muscle from the EMG signal. The resulting activation-deactivation time constants gave r values of 0.98-0.99 between the activation state and the force profiles. This work establishes a framework for developing improved muscle models that consider the intrinsic properties of slow and fast fibres within a mixed muscle, and that can more accurately predict muscle force output from EMG. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fuentes, Aler D; Martin, Conchita; Bull, Ricardo; Santander, Hugo; Gutiérrez, Mario F; Miralles, Rodolfo
There is scarce knowledge regarding the influence of a natural mediotrusive contact on mandibular and cervical muscular activity. The purpose of this study was to analyze the EMG activity of the anterior temporalis (AT) and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles during awake grinding in healthy subjects with or without a natural mediotrusive occlusal contact. Fifteen subjects with natural mediotrusive occlusal contact (Group 1) and 15 subjects without natural mediotrusive occlusal contact (Group 2) participated. Bilateral surface EMG activity of AT and SCM muscles was recorded during unilateral eccentric or concentric tooth grinding tasks. EMG activity was normalized against the activity recorded during maximal voluntary clenching in intercuspal position (IP) for AT muscles and during maximal intentional isometric head-neck rotation to each side, for SCM muscles. EMG activity of AT and SCM muscles showed no statistical difference between groups. EMG activity of AT muscle was higher in the working side (WS) than in the non-WS (NWS) in Group 1 during concentric grinding (0.492 vs 0.331, p = 0.047), whereas no difference was observed in Group 2. EMG activity of SCM was similar between working and NWSs in both groups and tasks. Asymmetry indexes (AIs) were not significantly different between groups. These findings in healthy subjects support the assumption that during awake tooth grinding, central nerve control predominates over peripheral inputs, and reinforce the idea of a functional link between the motor-neuron pools that control jaw and neck muscles.
Bodere, Celine; Woda, Alain
The bite stop (jig) is commonly used in clinical practice. It has been recommended as a simple means to routinely record or provide centric relation closure and, more recently, to reduce migraines and tension-type headaches. However, the reason for the jig effect has yet to be explained. This study tested the hypothesis that it works through a decrease in masticatory muscle activity. The effect of a jig placed on the maxillary anterior teeth was investigated by recording the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the superficial masseter and anterior temporal muscles at postural position and when swallowing on the jig. EMG recordings were obtained from 2 groups of pain patients (myofascial and neuropathic) and from 2 groups of pain-free patients (disc derangement and controls) unaware of the role of dental occlusion treatments. EMG activity in postural position was higher in pain groups than in pain-free groups. The jig strongly but temporarily decreased the postural EMG activity for masseter muscles in all groups except for the neuropathic group and for temporal muscles in the myofascial group. The EMG activity when swallowing with the jig was reduced in control, disc derangement, and myofascial groups; however, EMG "hyperactivity" in the neuropathic pain group seemed to be locked. The decrease of postural EMG activity, especially in the myofascial group, was short lasting and cannot be considered as evidence to support the hypothesis of a long-term muscle relaxation jig effect. However, the results may uphold certain short-term clinical approaches.
Ergeneci, Mert; Gokcesu, Kaan; Ertan, Erhan; Kosmas, Panagiotis
Wearable technology has gained increasing popularity in the applications of healthcare, sports science, and biomedical engineering in recent years. Because of its convenient nature, the wearable technology is particularly useful in the acquisition of the physiological signals. Specifically, the (surface electromyography) sEMG systems, which measure the muscle activation potentials, greatly benefit from this technology in both clinical and industrial applications. However, the current wearable sEMG systems have several drawbacks including inefficient noise cancellation, insufficient measurement quality, and difficult integration to customized applications. Additionally, none of these sEMG data acquisition systems can detect sEMG signals (i.e., contractions), which provides a valuable environment for further studies such as human machine interaction, gesture recognition, and fatigue tracking. To this end, we introduce an embedded, eight channel, noise canceling, wireless, wearable sEMG data acquisition system with adaptive muscle contraction detection. Our design consists of two stages, which are the sEMG sensors and the multichannel data acquisition unit. For the first stage, we propose a low cost, dry, and active sEMG sensor that captures the muscle activation potentials, a data acquisition unit that evaluates these captured multichannel sEMG signals and transmits them to a user interface. In the data acquisition unit, the sEMG signals are processed through embedded, adaptive methods in order to reject the power line noise and detect the muscle contractions. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate that our sEMG sensor outperforms a widely used commercially available product and our data acquisition system achieves 4.583 dB SNR gain with accuracy in the detection of the contractions.
Saito, Akira; Akima, Hiroshi
It is not understood how the knee joint angle affects the relationship between electromyography (EMG) and force of four individual quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the knee joint angle on the EMG-force relationship of the four individual QF muscles, particularly the vastus intermedius (VI), during isometric knee extensions. Eleven healthy men performed 20-100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at knee joint angles of 90°, 120° and 150°. Surface EMG of the four QF synergists was recorded and normalized by the root mean square during MVC. The normalized EMG of the four QF synergists at a knee joint angle of 150° was significantly lower than that at 90° and 120° (P knee joint angle of 150°. Furthermore, the neuromuscular activation of the VI was the most sensitive to change in muscle length among the four QF synergistic muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crago, Patrick E.; Makowski, Nathaniel S.; Cole, Natalie M.
Objective. Stimulation of muscle for research or clinical interventions is often superimposed on ongoing physiological activity without a quantitative understanding of the impact of the stimulation on the net muscle activity and the physiological response. Experimental studies show that total force during stimulation is less than the sum of the isolated voluntary and stimulated forces, but the occlusion mechanism is not understood. Approach. We develop a model of efferent motor activity elicited by superimposing stimulation during a physiologically activated contraction. The model combines action potential interactions due to collision block, source resetting, and refractory periods with previously published models of physiological motor unit recruitment, rate modulation, force production, and EMG generation in human first dorsal interosseous muscle to investigate the mechanisms and effectiveness of stimulation on the net muscle force and EMG. Main results. Stimulation during a physiological contraction demonstrates partial occlusion of force and the neural component of the EMG, due to action potential interactions in motor units activated by both sources. Depending on neural and stimulation firing rates as well as on force-frequency properties, individual motor unit forces can be greater, smaller, or unchanged by the stimulation. In contrast, voluntary motor unit EMG potentials in simultaneously stimulated motor units show progressive occlusion with increasing stimulus rate. The simulations predict that occlusion would be decreased by a reverse stimulation recruitment order. Significance. The results are consistent with and provide a mechanistic interpretation of previously published experimental evidence of force occlusion. The models also predict two effects that have not been reported previously—voluntary EMG occlusion and the advantages of a proximal stimulation site. This study provides a basis for the rational design of both future experiments and clinical
Zhang, Li; Song, Gaoqing
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of muscle oxygenation on EMG parameters during isometric and incremental exercises and to observe the relationship between EMG parameters and muscle oxygenation. Twelve rowers took part in the tests. Near infrared spectrometer was utilized for measurements of muscle oxygenation on lateral quadriceps. sEMG measurement is performed for EMG parameters during isometric and incremental exercises. Results indicated that Oxy-Hb decrease significantly correlated with IEMG, E/T ratio and frequency of impulse signal during 1/3 MVC and 2/3 MVC isometric exercise, and it is also correlated with IEMG, E/T ratio and frequency of impulse signal. Increase of IEMG occurred at the time after Oxy-Hb decrease during incremental exercise and highly correlated with BLa. It is concluded that no matter how heavy the intensity is, Oxy-Hb dissociation may play an important role in affecting EMG parameters of muscle fatigue during isometric exercise. 2) EMG parameters may be influenced by Oxy-Hb dissociation and blood lactate concentration during dynamic exercise.
Belbasis, Aaron; Fuss, Franz Konstantin
Muscle activity and fatigue performance parameters were obtained and compared between both a smart compression garment and the gold-standard, a surface electromyography (EMG) system during high-speed cycling in seven participants. The smart compression garment, based on force myography (FMG), comprised of integrated pressure sensors that were sandwiched between skin and garment, located on five thigh muscles. The muscle activity was assessed by means of crank cycle diagrams (polar plots) that displayed the muscle activity relative to the crank cycle. The fatigue was assessed by means of the median frequency of the power spectrum of the EMG signal; the fractal dimension (FD) of the EMG signal; and the FD of the pressure signal. The smart compression garment returned performance parameters (muscle activity and fatigue) comparable to the surface EMG. The major differences were that the EMG measured the electrical activity, whereas the pressure sensor measured the mechanical activity. As such, there was a phase shift between electrical and mechanical signals, with the electrical signals preceding the mechanical counterparts in most cases. This is specifically pronounced in high-speed cycling. The fatigue trend over the duration of the cycling exercise was clearly reflected in the fatigue parameters (FDs and median frequency) obtained from pressure and EMG signals. The fatigue parameter of the pressure signal (FD) showed a higher time dependency ( R 2 = 0.84) compared to the EMG signal. This reflects that the pressure signal puts more emphasis on the fatigue as a function of time rather than on the origin of fatigue (e.g., peripheral or central fatigue). In light of the high-speed activity results, caution should be exerted when using data obtained from EMG for biomechanical models. In contrast to EMG data, activity data obtained from FMG are considered more appropriate and accurate as an input for biomechanical modeling as they truly reflect the mechanical muscle
Full Text Available Muscle activity and fatigue performance parameters were obtained and compared between both a smart compression garment and the gold-standard, a surface electromyography (EMG system during high-speed cycling in seven participants. The smart compression garment, based on force myography (FMG, comprised of integrated pressure sensors that were sandwiched between skin and garment, located on five thigh muscles. The muscle activity was assessed by means of crank cycle diagrams (polar plots that displayed the muscle activity relative to the crank cycle. The fatigue was assessed by means of the median frequency of the power spectrum of the EMG signal; the fractal dimension (FD of the EMG signal; and the FD of the pressure signal. The smart compression garment returned performance parameters (muscle activity and fatigue comparable to the surface EMG. The major differences were that the EMG measured the electrical activity, whereas the pressure sensor measured the mechanical activity. As such, there was a phase shift between electrical and mechanical signals, with the electrical signals preceding the mechanical counterparts in most cases. This is specifically pronounced in high-speed cycling. The fatigue trend over the duration of the cycling exercise was clearly reflected in the fatigue parameters (FDs and median frequency obtained from pressure and EMG signals. The fatigue parameter of the pressure signal (FD showed a higher time dependency (R2 = 0.84 compared to the EMG signal. This reflects that the pressure signal puts more emphasis on the fatigue as a function of time rather than on the origin of fatigue (e.g., peripheral or central fatigue. In light of the high-speed activity results, caution should be exerted when using data obtained from EMG for biomechanical models. In contrast to EMG data, activity data obtained from FMG are considered more appropriate and accurate as an input for biomechanical modeling as they truly reflect the mechanical
Jammes, Y; Delliaux, S; Coulange, M; Jammes, C; Kipson, N; Brerro-Saby, C; Bregeon, F
Because previous researchers have reported a reduced lactic acid production that accompanies a delayed or an absent ventilatory threshold (VTh) in water-based exercise, we hypothesized that the metaboreflex, activated by muscle acidosis, might be absent in fin swimming. This motor response, delaying the occurrence of fatigue, is characterized by a decreased median frequency (MF) of electromyographic (EMG) power spectrum. Seven healthy subjects performed a maximal fin swimming exercise protocol with simultaneous recordings of surface EMGs in VASTUS MEDIALIS (VM), TIBIALIS ANTERIOR (TA) and GASTROCNEMIUS MEDIALIS (GM). We computed the root mean square (RMS) and MF and recorded the compound evoked muscle potential (M-wave) in VM. We also measured the propulsive force and oxygen uptake (VO (2)), and determined VTh. VTh was absent in 4/7 subjects and measured at 70-90% of VO (2max) in the other three. In the three studied muscles, the global EMG activity (RMS) increased while the MF decreased in proportion of VO (2), the MF changes being significantly higher in VM (-29%) and GM (-39%) than in TA (-19%). Because no M-wave changes were noted, the MF decline was attributed to the recruitment of low-frequency, fatigue-resistant motor units. Our most important finding is the persistence of the metaboreflex even in a situation of reduced muscle acidosis. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
Menegaldo, Luciano L
State-space control of myoelectric devices and real-time visualization of muscle forces in virtual rehabilitation require measuring or estimating muscle dynamic states: neuromuscular activation, tendon force and muscle length. This paper investigates whether regular (KF) and extended Kalman filters (eKF), derived directly from Hill-type muscle mechanics equations, can be used as real-time muscle state estimators for isometric contractions using raw electromyography signals (EMG) as the only available measurement. The estimators' amplitude error, computational cost, filtering lags and smoothness are compared with usual EMG-driven analysis, performed offline, by integrating the nonlinear Hill-type muscle model differential equations (offline simulations-OS). EMG activity of the three triceps surae components (soleus, gastrocnemius medialis and gastrocnemius lateralis), in three torque levels, was collected for ten subjects. The actualization interval (AI) between two updates of the KF and eKF was also varied. The results show that computational costs are significantly reduced (70x for KF and 17[Formula: see text] for eKF). The filtering lags presented sharp linear relationships with the AI (0-300 ms), depending on the state and activation level. Under maximum excitation, amplitude errors varied in the range 10-24% for activation, 5-8% for tendon force and 1.4-1.8% for muscle length, reducing linearly with the excitation level. Smoothness, measured by the ratio between the average standard variations of KF/eKF and OS estimations, was greatly reduced for activation but converged exponentially to 1 for the other states by increasing AI. Compared to regular KF, extended KF does not seem to improve estimation accuracy significantly. Depending on the particular application requirements, the most appropriate KF actualization interval can be selected.
Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Estigoni, Eduardo H; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Wahab, Ahmad Khairi Abdul; Davis, Glen M
The evoked electromyographic signal (eEMG) potential is the standard index used to monitor both electrical changes within the motor unit during muscular activity and the electrical patterns during evoked contraction. However, technical and physiological limitations often preclude the acquisition and analysis of the signal especially during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked contractions. Hence, an accurate quantification of the relationship between the eEMG potential and FES-evoked muscle response remains elusive and continues to attract the attention of researchers due to its potential application in the fields of biomechanics, muscle physiology, and rehabilitation science. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of eEMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue, particularly as a biofeedback descriptor of FES-evoked contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury. At the outset, 2867 citations were identified and, finally, fifty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria. Four hypotheses were proposed and evaluated to inform this review. The results showed that eEMG is effective at quantifying muscle force and fatigue during isometric contraction, but may not be effective during dynamic contractions including cycling and stepping. Positive correlation of up to r = 0.90 (p peak-to-peak amplitude of the eEMG and the decline in the force output during fatiguing isometric contractions has been reported. In the available prediction models, the performance index of the eEMG signal to estimate the generated muscle force ranged from 3.8% to 34% for 18 s to 70 s ahead of the actual muscle force generation. The strength and inherent limitations of the eEMG signal to assess muscle force and fatigue were evident from our findings with implications in clinical management of spinal cord injury (SCI) population.
Morufu Olusola Ibitoye
Full Text Available The evoked electromyographic signal (eEMG potential is the standard index used to monitor both electrical changes within the motor unit during muscular activity and the electrical patterns during evoked contraction. However, technical and physiological limitations often preclude the acquisition and analysis of the signal especially during functional electrical stimulation (FES-evoked contractions. Hence, an accurate quantification of the relationship between the eEMG potential and FES-evoked muscle response remains elusive and continues to attract the attention of researchers due to its potential application in the fields of biomechanics, muscle physiology, and rehabilitation science. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of eEMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue, particularly as a biofeedback descriptor of FES-evoked contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury. At the outset, 2867 citations were identified and, finally, fifty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria. Four hypotheses were proposed and evaluated to inform this review. The results showed that eEMG is effective at quantifying muscle force and fatigue during isometric contraction, but may not be effective during dynamic contractions including cycling and stepping. Positive correlation of up to r = 0.90 (p < 0.05 between the decline in the peak-to-peak amplitude of the eEMG and the decline in the force output during fatiguing isometric contractions has been reported. In the available prediction models, the performance index of the eEMG signal to estimate the generated muscle force ranged from 3.8% to 34% for 18 s to 70 s ahead of the actual muscle force generation. The strength and inherent limitations of the eEMG signal to assess muscle force and fatigue were evident from our findings with implications in clinical management of spinal cord injury (SCI population.
He, Qinghua; Peng, Chenglin; Wu, Baoming; Wang, He
Research of surface electromyogram(EMG) signal is important in rehabilitation medicine, sport medicine and clinical diagnosis, accurate detection of signal is the base of quantitative analysis of surface EMG signal. In this article were discussed how to reduce possible noise in the detection of surface EMG. Considerations on the design of electrode unit were presented. Instrumentation amplifier AD620 was employed to design a bipolar active electrode for use in surface EMG detection. The experiments showed that active electrode could be used to improve signal/noise ratio, reduce noise and detect surface EMG signal effectively.
Developing a real time method to estimate generation, extinction and propagation of muscle fibre action potentials from bi-dimensional and high density surface electromyogram (EMG). A multi-frame generalization of an optical flow technique including a source term is considered. A model describing generation, extinction and propagation of action potentials is fit to epochs of surface EMG. The algorithm is tested on simulations of high density surface EMG (inter-electrode distance equal to 5mm) from finite length fibres generated using a multi-layer volume conductor model. The flow and source term estimated from interference EMG reflect the anatomy of the muscle, i.e. the direction of the fibres (2° of average estimation error) and the positions of innervation zone and tendons under the electrode grid (mean errors of about 1 and 2mm, respectively). The global conduction velocity of the action potentials from motor units under the detection system is also obtained from the estimated flow. The processing time is about 1 ms per channel for an epoch of EMG of duration 150 ms. A new real time image processing algorithm is proposed to investigate muscle anatomy and activity. Potential applications are proposed in prosthesis control, automatic detection of optimal channels for EMG index extraction and biofeedback. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Barth, Beatrix; Mayer, Kerstin; Strehl, Ute; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine
The present study aimed at revealing neurophysiological effects induced by electromyography (EMG) based biofeedback, considered as a semi-active control condition in neurofeedback studies, in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. 20 adult ADHD patients trained their muscle activity in the left and right supraspinatus muscle over the course of 30 EMG biofeedback sessions. Changes induced by the EMG feedback were evaluated at a clinical and neurophysiological level; additionally, the relation between changes in EEG activity recorded at the vertex over the training course and changes of symptom severity over the treatment course were assessed in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying clinical effects of EMG biofeedback. Participants showed significant behavioral improvements on a self-rating scale. There was a significant increase in alpha power, but no significant changes in the delta frequency range; changes in the theta and beta frequency range were not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. No statistically significant correlation was found between changes in EEG frequency bands and changes in ADHD symptoms. The current results assessed by means of a single-electrode EEG constitute a starting point regarding a clearer understanding of mechanisms underlying clinical effects of EMG biofeedback. Although we did not reveal systematic effects induced by EMG feedback on brain activity it remains an open question whether EMG biofeedback induces changes in brain regions or parameters we did not gather in the present study (e.g. motor cortex). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hussain, M. S.; Mamun, Md.
Muscle fatigue is the decline in ability of a muscle to create force. Electromyography (EMG) is a medical technique for measuring muscle response to nervous stimulation. During a sustained muscle contraction, the power spectrum of the EMG shifts towards lower frequencies. These effects are due to muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue is often a result of unhealthy work practice. In this research, the effectiveness of the wavelet transform applied to the surface EMG (SEMG) signal as a means of understanding muscle fatigue during walk is presented. Power spectrum and bispectrum analysis on the EMG signal getting from right rectus femoris muscle is executed utilizing various wavelet functions (WFs). It is possible to recognize muscle fatigue appreciably with the proper choice of the WF. The outcome proves that the most momentous changes in the EMG power spectrum are symbolized by WF Daubechies45. Moreover, this research has compared bispectrum properties to the other WFs. To determine muscle fatigue during gait, Daubechies45 is used in this research to analyze the SEMG signal.
Howard, Róisín M; Conway, Richard; Harrison, Andrew J
The use of electromyography (EMG) is widely recognised as a valuable tool for enhancing the understanding of performance drivers and potential injury risk in sprinting. The timings of muscle activations relative to running gait cycle phases and the technology used to obtain muscle activation data during sprinting are of particular interest to scientists and coaches. This review examined the main muscles being analysed by surface EMG (sEMG), their activations and timing, and the technologies used to gather sEMG during sprinting. Electronic databases were searched using 'Electromyography' OR 'EMG' AND 'running' OR 'sprinting'. Based on inclusion criteria, 18 articles were selected for review. While sEMG is widely used in biomechanics, relatively few studies have used sEMG in sprinting due to system constraints. The results demonstrated a focus on the leg muscles, with over 70% of the muscles analysed in the upper leg. This is consistent with the use of tethered and data logging EMG systems and many sprints being performed on treadmills. Through the recent advances in wireless EMG technology, an increase in the studies on high velocity movements such as sprinting is expected and this should allow practitioners to perform the analysis in an ecologically valid environment.
Zu, Xiaoqi; Zhou, Qianxiang; Li, Yun
All movements are driven by muscle contraction, and it is easy to cause muscle fatigue. Evaluation of muscle fatigue is a hot topic in the area of astronaut life support training and rehabilitation. If muscle gets into fatigue condition, it may reduce work efficiency and has an impact on psychological performance. Therefore it is necessary to develop an accurate and usable method on muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb. In this study, we developed a method based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and subjective assessment (Borg scale) to evaluate local muscle fatigue. Fifteen healthy young male subjects participated in the experiment. They performed isometric muscle contractions of the upper limb. sEMG of the biceps brachii were recorded during the entire process of isotonic muscle contraction and Borg scales of muscle fatigue were collected in certain times. sEMG were divided into several parts, and then mean energy of each parts were calculated by the one-twelfth band octave method. Equations were derived based on the relationship between the mean energy of sEMG and Borg scale. The results showed that cubic curve could describe the degree of local muscle fatigue, and could be used to evaluate and monitor local muscle fatigue during the entire process.
Adewuyi, Adenike A; Hargrove, Levi J; Kuiken, Todd A
Pattern recognition control combined with surface electromyography (EMG) from the extrinsic hand muscles has shown great promise for control of multiple prosthetic functions for transradial amputees. There is, however, a need to adapt this control method when implemented for partial-hand amputees, who possess both a functional wrist and information-rich residual intrinsic hand muscles. We demonstrate that combining EMG data from both intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles to classify hand grasps and finger motions allows up to 19 classes of hand grasps and individual finger motions to be decoded, with an accuracy of 96% for non-amputees and 85% for partial-hand amputees. We evaluated real-time pattern recognition control of three hand motions in seven different wrist positions. We found that a system trained with both intrinsic and extrinsic muscle EMG data, collected while statically and dynamically varying wrist position increased completion rates from 73% to 96% for partial-hand amputees and from 88% to 100% for non-amputees when compared to a system trained with only extrinsic muscle EMG data collected in a neutral wrist position. Our study shows that incorporating intrinsic muscle EMG data and wrist motion can significantly improve the robustness of pattern recognition control for application to partial-hand prosthetic control.
Chang, Kang-Ming; Liu, Shin-Hong; Wu, Xuan-Han
Surface electromyography (sEMG) is an important measurement for monitoring exercise and fitness. Because if its high sampling frequency requirement, wireless transmission of sEMG data is a challenge. In this article a wireless sEMG measurement system with a sampling frequency of 2 KHz is developed based upon a MSP 430 microcontroller and Bluetooth transmission. Standard isotonic and isometric muscle contraction are clearly represented in the receiving user interface. Muscle fatigue detection is an important application of sEMG. Traditional muscle fatigue is detected from the median frequency of the sEMG power spectrum. The regression slope of the linear regression of median frequency is an important muscle fatigue index. A more negative slope value represents a higher muscle fatigue condition. To test the system performance, muscle fatigue detection was examined by having subjects run on a pedaled-multifunctional elliptical trainer for approximately 30 minutes at three loading levels. Ten subjects underwent a total of 60 exercise sessions to provide the experimental data. Results showed that the regression slope gradually decreases as expected, and there is a significant gender difference. PMID:22368481
Full Text Available Surface electromyography (sEMG is an important measurement for monitoring exercise and fitness. Because if its high sampling frequency requirement, wireless transmission of sEMG data is a challenge. In this article a wireless sEMG measurement system with a sampling frequency of 2 KHz is developed based upon a MSP 430 microcontroller and Bluetooth transmission. Standard isotonic and isometric muscle contraction are clearly represented in the receiving user interface. Muscle fatigue detection is an important application of sEMG. Traditional muscle fatigue is detected from the median frequency of the sEMG power spectrum. The regression slope of the linear regression of median frequency is an important muscle fatigue index. A more negative slope value represents a higher muscle fatigue condition. To test the system performance, muscle fatigue detection was examined by having subjects run on a pedaled-multifunctional elliptical trainer for approximately 30 minutes at three loading levels. Ten subjects underwent a total of 60 exercise sessions to provide the experimental data. Results showed that the regression slope gradually decreases as expected, and there is a significant gender difference.
Van Gestel, L.; Wambacq, H.; Aertbelien, E.; Meyns, P.; Bruyninckx, H.; Bar-On, L.; Molenaers, G.; De Cock, P.; Desloovere, K.
The aim of the current paper was to analyze the potential of the mean EMG frequency, recorded during 3D gait analysis (3DGA), for the evaluation of functional muscle strength in children with cerebral palsy (CP). As walking velocity is known to also influence EMG frequency, it was investigated to which extent the mean EMG frequency is a reflection…
Crone, Clarissa; Christiansen, Ingelise; Vissing, John
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare condition, which may mimic myopathy. A few reports have described that EMG in LEMS may show changes compatible with myopathy, and muscle biopsies have been described with type II as well as type I atrophy. The EMG results were, however, based on ...... on qualitative EMG examination and the histopathological methods were not always clear. The objective of this study was to investigate if the previous EMG findings could be confirmed with quantitative EMG (QEMG) and to describe muscle histology in LEMS.......Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare condition, which may mimic myopathy. A few reports have described that EMG in LEMS may show changes compatible with myopathy, and muscle biopsies have been described with type II as well as type I atrophy. The EMG results were, however, based...
Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E; Marchand-Pauvert, Veronique
1. The involvement of the motor cortex during human walking was evaluated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex at a variety of intensities. Recordings of EMG activity in tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles during walking were rectified and averaged. 2. TMS of low...... intensity (below threshold for a motor-evoked potential, MEP) produced a suppression of ongoing EMG activity during walking. The average latency for this suppression was 40.0 +/- 1.0 ms. At slightly higher intensities of stimulation there was a facilitation of the EMG activity with an average latency of 29.......5 +/- 1.0 ms. As the intensity of the stimulation was increased the facilitation increased in size and eventually a MEP was clear in individual sweeps. 3. In three subjects TMS was replaced by electrical stimulation over the motor cortex. Just below MEP threshold there was a clear facilitation at short...
Scalise, Lorenzo; Casaccia, Sara; Marchionni, Paolo; Ercoli, Ilaria; Primo Tomasini, Enrico
Electromiography (EMG) is the gold-standard technique used for the evaluation of muscle activity. This technique is used in biomechanics, sport medicine, neurology and rehabilitation therapy and it provides the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. Among the parameters measured with EMG, two very important quantities are: signal amplitude and duration of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue and maximum muscle power. Recently, a new measurement procedure, named Laser Doppler Myography (LDMi), for the non contact assessment of muscle activity has been proposed to measure the vibro-mechanical behaviour of the muscle. The aim of this study is to present the LDMi technique and to evaluate its capacity to measure some characteristic features proper of the muscle. In this paper LDMi is compared with standard superficial EMG (sEMG) requiring the application of sensors on the skin of each patient. sEMG and LDMi signals have been simultaneously acquired and processed to test correlations. Three parameters has been analyzed to compare these techniques: Muscle activation timing, signal amplitude and muscle fatigue. LDMi appears to be a reliable and promising measurement technique allowing the measurements without contact with the patient skin.
Scalise, Lorenzo; Casaccia, Sara; Marchionni, Paolo; Ercoli, Ilaria; Tomasini, Enrico Primo
Electromiography (EMG) is the gold-standard technique used for the evaluation of muscle activity. This technique is used in biomechanics, sport medicine, neurology and rehabilitation therapy and it provides the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. Among the parameters measured with EMG, two very important quantities are: signal amplitude and duration of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue and maximum muscle power. Recently, a new measurement procedure, named Laser Doppler Myography (LDMi), for the non contact assessment of muscle activity has been proposed to measure the vibro-mechanical behaviour of the muscle. The aim of this study is to present the LDMi technique and to evaluate its capacity to measure some characteristic features proper of the muscle. In this paper LDMi is compared with standard superficial EMG (sEMG) requiring the application of sensors on the skin of each patient. sEMG and LDMi signals have been simultaneously acquired and processed to test correlations. Three parameters has been analyzed to compare these techniques: Muscle activation timing, signal amplitude and muscle fatigue. LDMi appears to be a reliable and promising measurement technique allowing the measurements without contact with the patient skin
Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Zhang, Qin; Guiraud, David; Fattal, Charles
In patients with complete spinal cord injury, fatigue occurs rapidly and there is no proprioceptive feedback regarding the current muscle condition. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the muscle state and assess the expected muscle response to improve the current FES system toward adaptive force/torque control in the presence of muscle fatigue. Our team implanted neural and epimysial electrodes in a complete paraplegic patient in 1999. We carried out a case study, in the specific case of implanted stimulation, in order to verify the corresponding torque prediction based on stimulus evoked EMG (eEMG) when muscle fatigue is occurring during electrical stimulation. Indeed, in implanted stimulation, the relationship between stimulation parameters and output torques is more stable than external stimulation in which the electrode location strongly affects the quality of the recruitment. Thus, the assumption that changes in the stimulation-torque relationship would be mainly due to muscle fatigue can be made reasonably. The eEMG was proved to be correlated to the generated torque during the continuous stimulation while the frequency of eEMG also decreased during fatigue. The median frequency showed a similar variation trend to the mean absolute value of eEMG. Torque prediction during fatigue-inducing tests was performed based on eEMG in model cross-validation where the model was identified using recruitment test data. The torque prediction, apart from the potentiation period, showed acceptable tracking performances that would enable us to perform adaptive closed-loop control through implanted neural stimulation in the future.
Virmavirta, M; Perttunen, J; Komi, P V
Different profiles of ski jumping hills have been assumed to make the initiation of take-off difficult especially when moving from one hill to another. Neuromuscular adaptation of ski jumpers to the different jumping hills was examined by measuring muscle activation and plantar pressure of the primary take-off muscles on three different sized hills. Two young ski jumpers volunteered as subjects and they performed several trials from each hill (K-35 m, K-65 m and K-90 m) with the same electromyographic (EMG) electrode and insole pressure transducer set-up. The results showed that the differences in plantar pressure and EMGs between the jumping hills were smaller than expected for both jumpers. The small changes in EMG amplitudes between the hills support the assumption that the take-off was performed with the same intensity on different jumping hills and the timing of the gluteus EMG demonstrates well the similarity of the muscle activation on different hills. On the basis of the results obtained it seems that ski jumping training on small hills does not disturb the movement patterns for bigger hills and can also be helpful for special take-off training with low speed.
Tabard-Fougère, Anne; Rose-Dulcina, Kevin; Pittet, Vincent; Dayer, Romain; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Armand, Stéphane
Electromyography (EMG) is an important parameter in Clinical Gait Analysis (CGA), and is generally interpreted with timing of activation. EMG amplitude comparisons between individuals, muscles or days need normalization. There is no consensus on existing methods. The gold standard, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), is not adapted to pathological populations because patients are often unable to perform an MVIC. The normalization method inspired by the isometric grade 3 of manual muscle testing (isoMMT3), which is the ability of a muscle to maintain a position against gravity, could be an interesting alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the within- and between-day reliability of the isoMMT3 EMG normalizing method during gait compared with the conventional MVIC method. Lower limb muscles EMG (gluteus medius, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus) were recorded bilaterally in nine healthy participants (five males, aged 29.7±6.2years, BMI 22.7±3.3kgm -2 ) giving a total of 18 independent legs. Three repeated measurements of the isoMMT3 and MVIC exercises were performed with an EMG recording. EMG amplitude of the muscles during gait was normalized by these two methods. This protocol was repeated one week later. Within- and between-day reliability of normalization tasks were similar for isoMMT3 and MVIC methods. Within- and between-day reliability of gait EMG normalized by isoMMT3 was higher than with MVIC normalization. These results indicate that EMG normalization using isoMMT3 is a reliable method with no special equipment needed and will support CGA interpretation. The next step will be to evaluate this method in pathological populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the excessive spikes observed in the surface electromyography (sEMG spectrum recorded during whole-body vibration (WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and/or reflex activity. The occurrence of motion artifacts was tested by electrical recordings of the patella. The involvement of reflex activity was investigated by analyzing the magnitude of the isolated spikes during changes in voluntary background muscle activity. Eighteen physically active volunteers performed static squats while the sEMG was measured of five lower limb muscles during vertical WBV using no load and an additional load of 33 kg. In order to record motion artifacts during WBV, a pair of electrodes was positioned on the patella with several layers of tape between skin and electrodes. Spectral analysis of the patella signal revealed recordings of motion artifacts as high peaks at the vibration frequency (fundamental and marginal peaks at the multiple harmonics were observed. For the sEMG recordings, the root mean square of the spikes increased with increasing additional loads (p < 0.05, and was significantly correlated to the sEMG signal without the spikes of the respective muscle (r range: 0.54 - 0.92, p < 0.05. This finding indicates that reflex activity might be contained in the isolated spikes, as identical behavior has been found for stretch reflex responses evoked during direct vibration. In conclusion, the spikes visible in the sEMG spectrum during WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and possibly reflex activity.
Hyun Ju eChong
Full Text Available Despite increasing interest in keyboard playing as a strategy for repetitive finger exercises in fine motor skill development and hand rehabilitation, comparative analysis of task-specific finger movements relevant to keyboard playing has been less extensive. This study examined whether there were differences in surface EMG activity levels of forearm muscles associated with different keyboard playing tasks. Results demonstrated higher muscle activity with sequential keyboard playing in a random pattern compared to individuated playing or sequential playing in a successive pattern. Also, the speed of finger movements was found as a factor that affect muscle activity levels, demonstrating that faster tempo elicited significantly greater muscle activity than self-paced tempo. The results inform our understanding of the type of finger movements involved in different types of keyboard playing at different tempi so as to consider the efficacy and fatigue level of keyboard playing as an intervention for amateur pianists or individuals with impaired fine motor skills.
Huang, Chengjun; Chen, Xiang; Cao, Shuai; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Xu
Objective. To realize accurate muscle force estimation, a novel framework is proposed in this paper which can extract the input of the prediction model from the appropriate activation area of the skeletal muscle. Approach. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals from the biceps brachii muscle during isometric elbow flexion were collected with a high-density (HD) electrode grid (128 channels) and the external force at three contraction levels was measured at the wrist synchronously. The sEMG envelope matrix was factorized into a matrix of basis vectors with each column representing an activation pattern and a matrix of time-varying coefficients by a nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithm. The activation pattern with the highest activation intensity, which was defined as the sum of the absolute values of the time-varying coefficient curve, was considered as the major activation pattern, and its channels with high weighting factors were selected to extract the input activation signal of a force estimation model based on the polynomial fitting technique. Main results. Compared with conventional methods using the whole channels of the grid, the proposed method could significantly improve the quality of force estimation and reduce the electrode number. Significance. The proposed method provides a way to find proper electrode placement for force estimation, which can be further employed in muscle heterogeneity analysis, myoelectric prostheses and the control of exoskeleton devices.
Siddiqi, Ariba; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh
The protocol for estimating force of contraction by triceps surae (TS) muscles requires the immobilization of the ankle during dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. However, large variability in the results has been observed. To identify the cause of this variability, experiments were conducted where ankle dorsiflexion force and electromyogram (EMG) of the TS were recorded under two conditions: (i) toes were strapped and (ii) toes were unstrapped, with all other conditions such as immobilization of the ankle remaining unchanged. The root mean square (RMS) of the EMG and the force were analyzed and one-tail Student's t-test was performed for significance between the two conditions. The RMS of the EMG from TS muscles was found to be significantly higher (~55%) during dorsiflexion with toes unstrapped compared with when the toes were strapped. The torque corresponding to dorsiflexion was also higher with toes unstrapped. Our study has shown that it is important to strap the toes when measuring the torque at the ankle and EMG of the TS muscles.
Zhang, Ri-Hui; Kang, Zhi-Xin
To study training effect of upper limbs and lumbar muscles in the proceed of air striking of straight punch by analyzing boxing athletes' changes of electromyogram (EMG). We measured EMG of ten women boxing athletes' upper arm biceps (contractor muscle), upper arm triceps (antagonistic muscle), forearm flexor muscle (contractor muscle), forearm extensor muscle (antagonistic muscle), and lumbar muscles by ME6000 (Mega Electronics Ltd.). The stipulated exercise was to do air striking of straight punch with loads of 2.5 kg of dumbbell in the hand until exhausted. In the proceed of exercise-induce exhausted, the descend magnitude and speed of median frequency (MF) in upper limb antagonistic muscle exceeded to contracting muscle, moreover, the work percentage showed that contractor have done a larger percentage of work than antagonistic muscle. Compared with world champion's EMG, the majority of ordinary athletes' lumbar muscles MF revealed non-drop tendency, and the work percentage showed that lumbar muscles had a very little percentage of work. After comparing the EMG test index in upper limb and lumbar muscle of average boxing athletes with that of the world champion, we find the testees lack of the training of upper limb antagonistic muscle and lumbar muscle, and more trainings aimed at these muscles need to be taken.
Andrew David Vigotsky
Full Text Available Many strength and conditioning coaches utilize the good morning (GM to strengthen the hamstrings and spinal erectors. However, little research exists on its electromyography (EMG activity and kinematics, and how these variables change as a function of load. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how estimated hamstring length, integrated EMG (IEMG activity of the hamstrings and spinal erectors, and kinematics of the lumbar spine, hip, knee, and ankle are affected by changes in load. Fifteen trained male participants (age = 24.6 ± 5.3 years; body mass = 84.7 ± 11.3 kg; height = 180.9 ± 6.8 cm were recruited for this study. Participants performed five sets of the GM, utilizing 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM in a randomized fashion. IEMG activity of hamstrings and spinal erectors tended to increase with load. Knee flexion increased with load on all trials. Estimated hamstring length decreased with load. However, lumbar flexion, hip flexion, and plantar flexion experienced no remarkable changes between trials. These data provide insight as to how changing the load of the GM affects EMG activity, kinematic variables, and estimated hamstring length. Implications for hamstring injury prevention are discussed. More research is needed for further insight as to how load affects EMG activity and kinematics of other exercises.
de Ruiter, C.J.; Elzinga, M.J.; Verdijk, P.W.L.; van Mechelen, W.; de Haan, A.
We investigated the effects of low frequency fatigue (LFF) on post-exercise changes in rectified surface EMG (rsEMG) and single motor unit EMG (smuEMG) in vastus lateralis muscle (n=9). On two experimental days the knee extensors were fatigued with a 60-s-isometric contraction (exercise) at 50%
Vinzenz eVon Tscharner
Full Text Available The penniform gastrocnemius muscle contains multiple heads in the proximal regions and the aponeuroses are attached to the Achilles tendon. The multiple head structure lead to the assumption that different regions of the muscle must be activated compartment wise. The purpose of this study was to compare the correlation and coherence of EMG-currents within and between proximal and distal compartments of the medial gastrocnemius muscle, which reflect underling synchronization of motor units. It was hypothesized and shown that phase-inverted signals represent a property that discriminates compartments. However, the phase-inverted and non-inverted signals showed values of correlations that were indicative for highly synchronized signals. The correlation increased with the complexity of the task and was higher for the calf-rising movement than while balancing in a tiptoe position. Because the muscle fibers do not span the whole length of the muscles one has to conclude that the MUs were synchronized by synchronizing the various motor nerves. This study shows that it is essential to measure monopolar signals and use non-isometric contractions to observe synchronization of the EMG-signals. One could speculate that compartmental differences can only be observed if more complex movements that generate rotational forces at the knee or ankle are used.
Johnson, Lise A.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.
Functional electrical stimulation is a rehabilitation technology that can restore some degree of motor function in individuals who have sustained a spinal cord injury or stroke. One way to identify the spatio-temporal patterns of muscle stimulation needed to elicit complex upper limb movements is to use electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from able-bodied subjects as a template for electrical stimulation. However, this requires a transfer function to convert the recorded (or predicted) EMG signals into an appropriate pattern of electrical stimulation. Here we develop a generalized transfer function that maps EMG activity into a stimulation pattern that modulates muscle output by varying both the pulse frequency and the pulse amplitude. We show that the stimulation patterns produced by this transfer function mimic the active state measured by EMG insofar as they reproduce with good fidelity the complex patterns of joint torque and joint displacement.
Wijsman, J.L.P; Grundlehner, Bernard; Penders, Julien; Hermens, Hermanus J.
Stress is a growing problem in society and can, amongst others, induce musculoskeletal complaints, related to sustained muscle tension. The ability to measure stress with a wireless system would be useful in the prevention of stress-related health problems. The aim of this experiment was to derive
Barthélemy, Dorothy; Nielsen, Jens Bo
inhibitory interneurones, the suppression is in all likelihood caused by removal of a corticospinal contribution to the ongoing EMG activity. The data thus suggest that the motor cortex makes an active contribution, through the corticospinal tract, to the ongoing EMG activity in arm muscles during walking....
Afsharipour, Babak; Petracca, Francesco; Gasparini, Mauro; Merletti, Roberto
Musicians activate their muscles in different patterns, depending on their posture, the instrument being played, and their experience level. Bipolar surface electrodes have been used in the past to monitor such activity, but this method is highly sensitive to the location of the electrode pair. In this work, the spatial distribution of surface EMG (sEMG) of the right trapezius and right and left erector spinae muscles were studied in 16 violin players and 11 cello players. Musicians played their instrument one string at a time in sitting position with/without backrest support. A 64 sEMG electrode (16×4) grid, 10mm inter-electrode distance (IED), was placed over the middle and lower trapezius (MT and LT) of the bowing arm. Two 16×2 electrode grids (IED=10mm) were placed on the left and right erector spinae muscles. Subjects played each of the four strings of the instrument either in large (1bow/s) or detaché tip/tail (8bows/s) bowing in two sessions (two days). In each of two days, measurements were repeated after half an hour of exercise to see the effect of exercise on the muscle activity and signal stability. A "muscle activity index" (MAI) was defined as the spatial average of the segmented active region of the RMS map. Spatial maps were automatically segmented using the watershed algorithm and thresholding. Results showed that, for violin players, sliding the bow upward from the tip toward the tail results in a higher MAI for the trapezius muscle than a downward bow. On the contrary, in cello players, higher MAI is produced in the tail to tip movement. For both instruments, an increasing MAI in the trapezius was observed as the string position became increasingly lateral, from string 1 (most medial) toward string 4 (most lateral). Half an hour of performance did not cause significant differences between the signal quality and the MAI values measured before and after the exercise. The MAI of the left and right erector spinae was smaller in the case of
Full Text Available AIM: The role of parafunctional masticatory muscle activity in tooth loss has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to reveal the characteristic activity of masseter muscles in bite collapse patients while awake and asleep. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six progressive bite collapse patients (PBC group, six age- and gender-matched control subjects (MC group, and six young control subjects (YC group were enrolled. Electromyograms (EMG of the masseter muscles were continuously recorded with an ambulatory EMG recorder while patients were awake and asleep. Diurnal and nocturnal parafunctional EMG activity was classified as phasic, tonic, or mixed using an EMG threshold of 20% maximal voluntary clenching. RESULTS: Highly extended diurnal phasic activity was observed only in the PBC group. The three groups had significantly different mean diurnal phasic episodes per hour, with 13.29±7.18 per hour in the PBC group, 0.95±0.97 per hour in the MC group, and 0.87±0.98 per hour in the YC group (p<0.01. ROC curve analysis suggested that the number of diurnal phasic episodes might be used to predict bite collapsing tooth loss. CONCLUSION: Extensive bite loss might be related to diurnal masticatory muscle parafunction but not to parafunction during sleep. CLINICAL RELEVANCE SCIENTIFIC RATIONALE FOR STUDY: Although mandibular parafunction has been implicated in stomatognathic system breakdown, a causal relationship has not been established because scientific modalities to evaluate parafunctional activity have been lacking. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used a newly developed EMG recording system that evaluates masseter muscle activity throughout the day. Our results challenge the stereotypical idea of nocturnal bruxism as a strong destructive force. We found that diurnal phasic masticatory muscle activity was most characteristic in patients with progressive bite collapse. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The incidence of diurnal phasic contractions could be used for
Zhang, Yingchun; Wang, Dan; Timm, Gerald W.
A novel multi-channel surface electromyography (EMG)-based three-dimensional muscle activity imaging (MAI) technique has been developed by combining the bioelectrical source reconstruction approach and subject-specific finite element modeling approach. Internal muscle activities are modeled by a current density distribution and estimated from the intra-vaginal surface EMG signals with the aid of a weighted minimum norm estimation algorithm. The MAI technique was employed to minimally invasively reconstruct electrical activity in the pelvic floor muscles and urethral sphincter from multi-channel intra-vaginal surface EMG recordings. A series of computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of the present MAI technique. With appropriate numerical modeling and inverse estimation techniques, we have demonstrated the capability of the MAI technique to accurately reconstruct internal muscle activities from surface EMG recordings. This MAI technique combined with traditional EMG signal analysis techniques is being used to study etiologic factors associated with stress urinary incontinence in women by correlating functional status of muscles characterized from the intra-vaginal surface EMG measurements with the specific pelvic muscle groups that generated these signals. The developed MAI technique described herein holds promise for eliminating the need to place needle electrodes into muscles to obtain accurate EMG recordings in some clinical applications.
Kawakami, Shigehisa; Kumazaki, Yohei; Manda, Yosuke; Oki, Kazuhiro; Minagi, Shogo
Aim The role of parafunctional masticatory muscle activity in tooth loss has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to reveal the characteristic activity of masseter muscles in bite collapse patients while awake and asleep. Materials and Methods Six progressive bite collapse patients (PBC group), six age- and gender-matched control subjects (MC group), and six young control subjects (YC group) were enrolled. Electromyograms (EMG) of the masseter muscles were continuously recorded with an ambulatory EMG recorder while patients were awake and asleep. Diurnal and nocturnal parafunctional EMG activity was classified as phasic, tonic, or mixed using an EMG threshold of 20% maximal voluntary clenching. Results Highly extended diurnal phasic activity was observed only in the PBC group. The three groups had significantly different mean diurnal phasic episodes per hour, with 13.29±7.18 per hour in the PBC group, 0.95±0.97 per hour in the MC group, and 0.87±0.98 per hour in the YC group (pbruxism as a strong destructive force. We found that diurnal phasic masticatory muscle activity was most characteristic in patients with progressive bite collapse. Practical implications The incidence of diurnal phasic contractions could be used for the prognostic evaluation of stomatognathic system stability. PMID:25010348
Walterspacher, Stephan; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Röcker, Kai; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim
It is unknown which respiratory muscles are mainly activated by respiratory muscle training. This study evaluated Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading (IPTL), Inspiratory Flow Resistive Loading (IFRL) and Voluntary Isocapnic Hyperpnea (VIH) with regard to electromyographic (EMG) activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), parasternal muscles (PARA) and the diaphragm (DIA) in randomized order. Surface EMG were analyzed at the end of each training session and normalized using the peak EMG recorded during maximum inspiratory maneuvers (Sniff nasal pressure: SnPna, maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure: PImax). 41 healthy participants were included. Maximal activation was achieved for SCM by SnPna; the PImax activated predominantly PARA and DIA. Activations of SCM and PARA were higher in IPTL and VIH than for IFRL (p<0.05). DIA was higher applying IPTL compared to IFRL or VIH (p<0.05). IPTL, IFRL and VIH differ in activation of inspiratory respiratory muscles. Whereas all methods mainly stimulate accessory respiratory muscles, diaphragm activation was predominant in IPTL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chandrasekhar Potluri,; Madhavi Anugolu; Marco P. Schoen; D. Subbaram Naidu
In this work, an array of three surface Electrography (sEMG) sensors are used to acquired muscle extension and contraction signals for 18 healthy test subjects. The skeletal muscle force is estimated using the acquired sEMG signals and a Non-linear Wiener Hammerstein model, relating the two signals in a dynamic fashion. The model is obtained from using System Identification (SI) algorithm. The obtained force models for each sensor are fused using a proposed fuzzy logic concept with the intent to improve the force estimation accuracy and resilience to sensor failure or misalignment. For the fuzzy logic inference system, the sEMG entropy, the relative error, and the correlation of the force signals are considered for defining the membership functions. The proposed fusion algorithm yields an average of 92.49% correlation between the actual force and the overall estimated force output. In addition, the proposed fusionbased approach is implemented on a test platform. Experiments indicate an improvement in finger/hand force estimation.
Kawakami, Shigehisa; Kumazaki, Yohei; Manda, Yosuke; Oki, Kazuhiro; Minagi, Shogo
The role of parafunctional masticatory muscle activity in tooth loss has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to reveal the characteristic activity of masseter muscles in bite collapse patients while awake and asleep. Six progressive bite collapse patients (PBC group), six age- and gender-matched control subjects (MC group), and six young control subjects (YC group) were enrolled. Electromyograms (EMG) of the masseter muscles were continuously recorded with an ambulatory EMG recorder while patients were awake and asleep. Diurnal and nocturnal parafunctional EMG activity was classified as phasic, tonic, or mixed using an EMG threshold of 20% maximal voluntary clenching. Highly extended diurnal phasic activity was observed only in the PBC group. The three groups had significantly different mean diurnal phasic episodes per hour, with 13.29±7.18 per hour in the PBC group, 0.95±0.97 per hour in the MC group, and 0.87±0.98 per hour in the YC group (pstability.
Farina, Dario; Lorrain, Thomas; Negro, Francesco
Myoelectric control of active prostheses requires electrode systems that are easy to apply for daily repositioning of the electrodes by the user. In this study we propose the use of Smart Fabric and Interactive Textile (SFIT) systems as an alternative solution for recording high-density EMG signa...... classified with linear discriminant analysis. The average classification accuracy for the nine tasks was 89.1 1.9 %. These results show that SFIT systems can be used as an effective way for muscle-machine interfacing....
Chong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Soo Ji; Yoo, Ga Eul
Despite increasing interest in keyboard playing as a strategy for repetitive finger exercises in fine motor skill development and hand rehabilitation, comparative analysis of task-specific finger movements relevant to keyboard playing has been less extensive. This study examined, whether there were differences in surface EMG activity levels of forearm muscles associated with different keyboard playing tasks. Results demonstrated higher muscle activity with sequential keyboard playing in a random pattern compared to individuated playing or sequential playing in a successive pattern. Also, the speed of finger movements was found as a factor that affect muscle activity levels, demonstrating that faster tempo elicited significantly greater muscle activity than self-paced tempo. The results inform our understanding of the type of finger movements involved in different types of keyboard playing at different tempi. This helps to consider the efficacy and fatigue level of keyboard playing tasks when being used as an intervention for amateur pianists or individuals with impaired fine motor skills. PMID:26388798
Auchincloss, Cindy C; McLean, Linda
The neuromuscular function of the pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) is frequently evaluated using surface electrodes embedded on vaginal probes. The purpose of this study was to determine the between-trial and between-day reliability of EMG data recorded from the PFM using two different vaginal probes while subjects performed PFM maximum voluntary contractions and a coughing task. The Femiscan and the Periform vaginal probes were used to acquire EMG data while the subjects performed the tasks. Peak RMS amplitudes were computed for each instrument, task, and side of the pelvic floor using a sliding window technique. The between-trial reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation (CV). Between-trial reliability was determined using ICCs, Pearson's correlation coefficients, computing the mean absolute difference between days, and calculating the standard error the measurement (SEM) for each instrument and task. EMG amplitude differences were detected between the left and right PFM (pperformed separately for each side. Overall, between-trial reliability was fair to high for the Femiscan (ICC((3,1))=0.58-0.98, CV=8.5-20.7%) and good to high for the Periform (ICC((3,1))=0.80-0.98, CV=9.6-19.5%), however between-day reliability was generally poor for both vaginal probes (ICC((3,1))=0.08-0.84). The results suggest that although it is acceptable to use PFM surface EMG as a biofeedback tool for training purposes, it is not recommended for use to make between-subject comparisons or to use as an outcome measure between-days when evaluating PFM function.
Full Text Available To develop model-based control strategies for Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES in order to support weak voluntary muscle contractions, a hybrid model for describing joint motions induced by concurrent voluntary-and FES induced muscle activation is proposed. It is based on a Hammerstein model – as commonly used in feedback controlled FES – and exemplarily applied to describe the shoulder abduction joint angle. Main component of a Hammerstein muscle model is usually a static input nonlinearity depending on the stimulation intensity. To additionally incorporate voluntary contributions, we extended the static non-linearity by a second input describing the intensity of the voluntary contribution that is estimated by electromyography (EMG measurements – even during active FES. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used to describe the static input non-linearity. The output of the ANN drives a second-order linear dynamical system that describes the combined muscle activation and joint angle dynamics. The tunable parameters are adapted to the individual subject by a system identification approach using previously recorded I/O-data. The model has been validated in two healthy subjects yielding RMS values for the joint angle error of 3.56° and 3.44°, respectively.
Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.
Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Thorborg, Kristian
hip muscle activity during hip abduction and hip adduction exercises using elastic resistance and isotonic machines, using electromyography (EMG). METHODS: EMG activity was recorded from 11 muscles at the hip, thigh and trunk during hip adduction and hip abduction exercises in 16 untrained women......, using elastic resistance and isotonic exercise machines. These recordings were normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). The exercises were performed at four levels of perceived loading reported using the Borg CR10: light (Borg ≤2), moderate (Borg >2-... (r =0.62±0.54). The abduction exercise performed with elastic resistance displayed significantly higher gluteus medius nEMG recruitment than the in machine exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the Borg CR10 scale can be a useful tool for estimating intensity levels during...
Full Text Available The effect of three electrical stimulation (ES frequencies (10, 35, and 50 Hz on two muscle groups with different proportions of fast and slow twitch fibers (abductor pollicis brevis (APB and vastus lateralis (VL was explored. We evaluated the acute muscles’ responses individually and during hybrid activations (ES superimposed by voluntary activations. Surface electromyography (sEMG and force measurements were evaluated as outcomes. Ten healthy adults (mean age: 24.4 ± 2.5 years participated after signing an informed consent form approved by the university Institutional Review Board. Protocols were developed to: 1 compare EMG activities during each frequency for each muscle when generating 25% Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC force, and 2 compare EMG activities during each frequency when additional voluntary activation was superimposed over ES-induced 25% MVC to reach 50% and 75% MVC. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD was utilized to separate ES artifacts from voluntary muscle activation. For both muscles, higher stimulation frequency (35 and 50Hz induced higher electrical output detected at 25% of MVC, suggesting more recruitment with higher frequencies. Hybrid activation generated proportionally less electrical activity than ES alone. ES and voluntary activations appear to generate two different modes of muscle recruitment. ES may provoke muscle strength by activating more fatiguing fast acting fibers, but voluntary activation elicits more muscle coordination. Therefore, during the hybrid activation, less electrical activity may be detected due to recruitment of more fatigue-resistant deeper muscle fibers, not reachable by surface EMG.
石岡, 克; 河野, 正司; Ishioka, Masaru; Kohno, Shoji
This study was conducted to determine how the condition of occlusal support affects the back muscle force and masticatory muscle activity. Two groups of subjects were enlisted: sport-trained group and normal group. While electrodes of the electromyography (EMG) were attached to the surface of the masticatory muscles, each subject's back muscle force was recorded during upper body stretching using a back muscle force-measuring device. The task was performed under four different occlusal suppor...
Mohamed R. Al-Mulla
Full Text Available Surface Electromyography (sEMG activity of the biceps muscle was recorded from ten subjects performing isometric contraction until fatigue. A novel feature (1D spectro_std was used to extract the feature that modeled three classes of fatigue, which enabled the prediction and detection of fatigue. Initial results of class separation were encouraging, discriminating between the three classes of fatigue, a longitudinal classification on Non-Fatigue and Transition-to-Fatigue shows 81.58% correct classification with accuracy 0.74 of correct predictions while the longitudinal classification on Transition-to-Fatigue and Fatigue showed lower average correct classification of 66.51% with a positive classification accuracy 0.73 of correct prediction. Comparison of the 1D spectro_std with other sEMG fatigue features on the same dataset show a significant improvement in classification, where results show a significant 20.58% (p < 0.01 improvement when using the 1D spectro_std to classify Non-Fatigue and Transition-to-Fatigue. In classifying Transition-to-Fatigue and Fatigue results also show a significant improvement over the other features giving 8.14% (p < 0.05 on average of all compared features.
Hensbergen, E; Kernell, D
This article concerns the spontaneous motor behavior of cat hindlimb muscles and muscle regions using 24-h electromyographic (EMG) recordings. Previously, we found marked differences in average daily "duty time" (i.e., the percentage of total sampling time filled with EMG activity) between different
Omar Ahmed Hassanien
Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the role of MRN in diagnosis of suprascapular nerve injury and its relation with muscle injury after shoulder trauma in comparison with the EMG results. Patient & method: The study was carried on 30 patients following trauma to the shoulder, either direct trauma (80% or indirect trauma in 20% presented clinically with shoulder pain and limited movements and referred for MRI examination. The MRI results were correlated with EMG results for all cases. Results: Those 30 cases were divided into 13 cases with acute onset, 10 cases with subacute onset and 7 cases with chronic onset. In acute injuries, 5 cases (5/30 showed combined nerve and muscle injuries, 4 cases (4/30 showed nerve injury only and 5 cases (5/30 showed muscle injury only. In subacute injuries 5 cases (5/30 showed combined muscle and nerve injuries and 5 cases (5/30 showed muscle injury only, in chronic 7 cases (7/30 showed combined nerve and muscle injuries, where EMG showed sharp waves only in 7 cases which are all chronic. Conclusion: MRN is the best modality in diagnosis of nerve injuries and associated muscle injuries in one sitting with no obvious difficulties in the examination. MRN associating with the routine MRI elevated the sensitivity of diagnosis.
Popelianskiĭ, Ia Iu; Bogdanov, E I; Khamidullina, V Z
In 8 patients with radial neuropathy the authors studied histograms of distribution of potentials of motor units (PMU) by their duration, as well as of the number of intercrossings (T) and the mean amplitude of interference EMG of the musculus brachioradialis. The findings included a decrease in the T value and T/M ratio in the presence of an insignificant shift of the histograms and of the mean duration of PMU. With regard to the diagnosis of early neuropathies a reduction in the average value of T and T/M in the presence of ungraded voluntary tension of the muscle is diagnostically more important than changes in the duration of individual PMU.
Demoulin Christophe; George, Florian; Matheve, Thomas; Jidovtseff, Boris; Vanderthommen, Marc
The Sorensen test has been extensively studied and is a rapid, simple, and reproducible evaluation of the trunk extensor muscles . It is often considered as a fatigue test because fatigue-related electromyographic (EMG) parameters change throughout the test ; however, only recently it has been confirmed that this test induces a decrease of trunk extensor force during a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) , which best characterises muscle fatigue. The main aim of this stud...
Sarasola-Sanz, Andrea; Irastorza-Landa, Nerea; Lopez-Larraz, Eduardo; Bibian, Carlos; Helmhold, Florian; Broetz, Doris; Birbaumer, Niels; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander
Including supplementary information from the brain or other body parts in the control of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) has been recently proposed and investigated. Such enriched interfaces are referred to as hybrid BMIs (hBMIs) and have been proven to be more robust and accurate than regular BMIs for assistive and rehabilitative applications. Electromyographic (EMG) activity is one of the most widely utilized biosignals in hBMIs, as it provides a quite direct measurement of the motion intention of the user. Whereas most of the existing non-invasive EEG-EMG-hBMIs have only been subjected to offline testings or are limited to one degree of freedom (DoF), we present an EEG-EMG-hBMI that allows the simultaneous control of 7-DoFs of the upper limb with a robotic exoskeleton. Moreover, it establishes a biologically-inspired hierarchical control flow, requiring the active participation of central and peripheral structures of the nervous system. Contingent visual and proprioceptive feedback about the user's EEG and EMG activity is provided in the form of velocity modulation during functional task training. We believe that training with this closed-loop system may facilitate functional neuroplastic processes and eventually elicit a joint brain and muscle motor rehabilitation. Its usability is validated during a real-time operation session in a healthy participant and a chronic stroke patient, showing encouraging results for its application to a clinical rehabilitation scenario.
Vedsted, Pernille; Søgaard, Karen; Blangsted, Anne Katrine
trapezius (TRA) can reduce bilateral TRA activity but not extensor digitorum communis (EDC) activity; (2) biofeedback from EDC can reduce activity in EDC but not in TRA; (3) biofeedback is more effective in no time constraint than in the time constraint working condition. Eleven healthy women performed......Continuous electromyographic (EMG) activity level is considered a risk factor in developing muscle disorders. EMG biofeedback is known to be useful in reducing EMG activity in working muscles during computer work. The purpose was to test the following hypotheses: (1) unilateral biofeedback from...... computer work during two different working conditions (time constraint/no time constraint) while receiving biofeedback. Biofeedback was given from right TRA or EDC through two modes (visual/auditory) by the use of EMG or mechanomyography as biofeedback source. During control sessions (no biofeedback), EMG...
Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini; de Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes; Minato, Kin K
This paper describes the "EMG Driven Force Estimator (EMGD-FE)", a Matlab® graphical user interface (GUI) application that estimates skeletal muscle forces from electromyography (EMG) signals. Muscle forces are obtained by numerically integrating a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that simulates Hill-type muscle dynamics and that utilises EMG signals as input. In the current version, the GUI can estimate the forces of lower limb muscles executing isometric contractions. Muscles from other parts of the body can be tested as well, although no default values for model parameters are provided. To achieve accurate evaluations, EMG collection is performed simultaneously with torque measurement from a dynamometer. The computer application guides the user, step-by-step, to pre-process the raw EMG signals, create inputs for the muscle model, numerically integrate the ODEs and analyse the results. An example of the application's functions is presented using the quadriceps femoris muscle. Individual muscle force estimations for the four components as well the knee isometric torque are shown. The proposed GUI can estimate individual muscle forces from EMG signals of skeletal muscles. The estimation accuracy depends on several factors, including signal collection and modelling hypothesis issues.
De Felício, Cláudia Maria; Mapelli, Andrea; Sidequersky, Fernanda Vincia; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Sforza, Chiarella
Mandibular kinematic and standardized surface electromyography (sEMG) characteristics of masticatory muscles of subjects with short lasting TMD of mild-moderate severity were examined. Volunteers were submitted to clinical examination and questionnaire of severity. Ten subjects with TMD (age 27.3years, SD 7.8) and 10 control subjects without TMD, matched by age, were selected. Mandibular movements were recorded during free maximum mouth opening and closing (O-C) and unilateral, left and right, gum chewing. sEMG of the masseter and temporal muscles was performed during maximum teeth clenching either on cotton rolls or in intercuspal position, and during gum chewing. sEMG indices were obtained. Subjects with TMD, relative to control subjects, had lower relative mandibular rotation at the end of mouth opening, larger mean number of intersection between interincisal O-C paths during mastication and smaller asymmetry between working and balancing side, with participation beyond the expected of the contralateral muscles (Pkinematic parameters and the EMG indices of the static test, although some changes in the mastication were observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zwaan, Esther; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap
Selective motor control (SMC) is an important determinant of functioning in cerebral palsy (CP). Currently its assessment is based on subjective clinical tests with a low sensitivity. Electromyography (EMG) profiles during gait represent muscle coordination and might be used to assess SMC. EMG measurements during gait were processed into a measure of extensor synergy and thigh synergy. This was obtained in two groups of children with CP, and 30 typically developing children. Extensor synergy in CP was higher (0.95) than in healthy children (0.77), thigh synergy was almost equal in both groups. GMFM scores in the first group of 39 children with CP did not correlate to EMG based synergy measures. In a second group of 38 children with CP, a clear relation of clinical SMC score with extensor synergy was found, but only a weak relation with thigh synergy. Although an extensor synergy was validated at group level, our results present no convincing evidence for the use of EMG during gait to assess SMC in individual subjects with CP. Since gait involves both synergistic and selective contractions, the inherent motor control properties of this task will not allow for an assessment of selectivity comparable to the ability to perform isolated movements. Nevertheless, our results support the sensitive nature of EMG to represent an aberrant motor control in CP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stokes, Ian A F; Henry, Sharon M; Single, Richard M
This study investigated whether electromyographic signals recorded from the skin surface overlying the multifidus muscles could be used to quantify their activity. Comparison of electromyography signals recorded from electrodes on the back surface and from wire electrodes within four different slips of multifidus muscles of three human subjects performing isometric tasks that loaded the trunk from three different directions. It has been suggested that suitably placed surface electrodes can be used to record activity in the deep multifidus muscles. We tested whether there was a stronger correlation and more consistent regression relationship between signals from electrodes overlying multifidus and longissimus muscles respectively than between signals from within multifidus and from the skin surface electrodes over multifidus. The findings provided consistent evidence that the surface electrodes placed over multifidus muscles were more sensitive to the adjacent longissimus muscles than to the underlying multifidus muscles. The R(2) for surface versus intra-muscular comparisons was 0.64, while the average R(2) for surface-multifidus versus surface-longissimus comparisons was 0.80. Also, the magnitude of the regression coefficients was less variable between different tasks for the longissimus versus surface multifidus comparisons. Accurate measurement of multifidus muscle activity requires intra-muscular electrodes. Electromyography is the accepted technique to document the level of muscular activation, but its specificity to particular muscles depends on correct electrode placement. For multifidus, intra-muscular electrodes are required.
Müller, Christian; Nicoletti, Corinne; Omlin, Sarah; Brink, Mark; Läubli, Thomas
Former studies reported a relationship between increased nocturnal low level trapezius muscle activity and neck or shoulder pain but it has not been explored whether trapezius muscle relaxation is related to sleep stages. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether trapezius muscle activity is related to different sleep stages, as measured by polysomnography. Twenty one healthy subjects were measured on four consecutive nights in their homes, whereas the first night served as adaptation night. The measurements included full polysomnography (electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG), electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiography (ECG)), as well as surface EMG of the m. trapezius descendens of the dominant arm. Periods with detectable EMG activity of the trapezius muscle lasted on average 1.5% of the length of the nights and only in four nights it lasted longer than 5% of sleeping time. Neither rest time nor the length of periods with higher activity levels of the trapezius muscle did significantly differ between sleep stages. We found no evidence that nocturnal trapezius muscle activity is markedly moderated by the different sleep stages. Thus the results support that EMG measurements of trapezius muscle activity in healthy subjects can be carried out without concurrent polysomnographic recordings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Se In Jang
Full Text Available Acupuncture has been increasingly used in the treatment of muscle damage associated with sports activities. However, studies on the immediate effects of one-time acupuncture on the muscles of athletes are clearly lacking. Thus, this study aimed to examine the effects of acupuncture therapy on the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC electromyography (EMG of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles. This study was conducted among 20 healthy male college students who had no musculoskeletal disease. The participants were subjected to 3 different experimental conditions and subsequently grouped based on these conditions: real acupuncture, sham acupuncture, and control. A 7-day washout period was implemented to avoid any transient effects on the physiological and psychological conditions of the participants. Subsequently, an electromyogram patch was attached on the most developed area in the middle of the origin and insertion of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles. The percent MVIC, which was used to standardize the signal from the electromyogram, was determined, and the maximal value from the MVIC of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles was measured. The MVIC EMG activities of both femoris (F = 6.633, p = 0.003 and tibialis anterior (F = 5.216, p = 0.008 muscles were significantly different among all groups. Accordingly, the results of a posthoc test showed that the real acupuncture group had higher MVIC EMG activities in the femoris (p = 0.002 and tibialis anterior (p = 0.006 muscles compared with the control group. These results suggest that treatment with real acupuncture resulted in significantly higher MVIC EMG activities of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles than the other treatments. Hence, acupuncture may be helpful in the improvement of muscle strength among athletes in the physical fitness field.
Diederichsen, L.P.; Winther, A.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.
muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper......-105A degrees) at a speed of approximately 120A degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder...... trapezius and the infraspinatus and an increase in activity of lower trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles. Following subacromial injection a significantly increased muscle activity was seen in the lower trapezius, the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, this study shows...
McGlynn, F D; Bichajian, C; Tira, D E; Lundeen, H C; Mahan, P E; Nicholas, B V
This experiment attempted to study the separate and combined effects of occlusal interference and transient stress on masseteric activity among eight nonclinical human subjects. Before each of two sessions, subjects were fitted with an occlusal interference or an occlusally inert (control) molar clasp. During each session they viewed horrific and idyllic videotapes while masseter EMG was recorded bilaterally. Electrodermal measures validated that the horrific videotapes were stressful. Studies showed that the occlusal variable worked less well. The EMG was elevated contralateral to both clasps and during videotape viewing. The EMG effects from videotape viewing were relatively pronounced without the occlusal interference. Research implications are discussed.
Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen
The aim of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal effects of advanced biofeedback by inducing active and passive pauses on the trapezius activity pattern using high-density surface electromyography (HD-EMG). Thirteen healthy male subjects performed computer work with superimposed...... benefit of superimposed muscle contraction in relation to the spatial organization of muscle activity during computer work....
Plewa, Katherine; Samadani, Ali; Chau, Tom
Electromyography (EMG) is the standard modality for measuring muscle activity. However, the convenience and availability of low-cost accelerometer-based wearables makes mechanomyography (MMG) an increasingly attractive alternative modality for clinical applications. Literature to date has demonstrated a strong association between EMG and MMG temporal alignment in isometric and isokinetic contractions. However, the EMG-MMG relationship has not been studied in gait. In this study, the concurrence of EMG- and MMG-detected contractions in the tibialis anterior, lateral gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris muscles were investigated in children during self-paced gait. Furthermore, the distribution of signal power over the gait cycle was statistically compared between EMG-MMG modalities. With EMG as the reference, muscular contractions were detected based on MMG with balanced accuracies between 88 and 94% for all muscles except the gastrocnemius. MMG signal power differed from that of EMG during certain phases of the gait cycle in all muscles except the biceps femoris. These timing and power distribution differences between the two modalities may in part be related to muscle fascicle length changes that are unique to muscle motion during gait. Our findings suggest that the relationship between EMG and MMG appears to be more complex during gait than in isometric and isokinetic contractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The physiological equivalents of power output maintenance and recovery during repeated-sprint exercise (RSE remain to be fully elucidated. In an attempt to improve our understanding of the determinants of RSE performance we therefore aimed to determine its recovery following exhaustive exercise (which affected intramuscular and neural factors concomitantly with those of intramuscular concentrations of adenosine triphosphate [ATP], phosphocreatine [PCr] and pH values and electromyography (EMG activity (a proxy for net motor unit activity changes. Eight young men performed 10, 6-s all-out sprints on a cycle ergometer, interspersed with 30 s of recovery, followed, after 6 min of passive recovery, by five 6-s sprints, again interspersed by 30 s of passive recovery. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis were obtained at rest, immediately after the first 10 sprints and after 6 min of recovery. EMG activity of the vastus lateralis was obtained from surface electrodes throughout exercise. Total work (TW, [ATP], [PCr], pH and EMG amplitude decreased significantly throughout the first ten sprints (P<0.05. After 6 min of recovery, TW during sprint 11 recovered to 86.3±7.7% of sprint 1. ATP and PCr were resynthesized to 92.6±6.0% and 85.3±10.3% of the resting value, respectively, but muscle pH and EMG amplitude remained depressed. PCr resynthesis was correlated with TW done in sprint 11 (r = 0.79, P<0.05 and TW done during sprints 11 to 15 (r = 0.67, P<0.05. There was a ∼2-fold greater decrease in the TW/EMG ratio in the last five sprints (sprint 11 to 15 than in the first five sprints (sprint 1 to 5 resulting in a disproportionate decrease in mechanical power (i.e., TW in relation to EMG. Thus, we conclude that the inability to produce power output during repeated sprints is mostly mediated by intramuscular fatigue signals probably related with the control of PCr metabolism.
Kahl, Lorenz; Hofmann, Ulrich G
This work compared the performance of six different fatigue detection algorithms quantifying muscle fatigue based on electromyographic signals. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was obtained by an experiment from upper arm contractions at three different load levels from twelve volunteers. Fatigue detection algorithms mean frequency (MNF), spectral moments ratio (SMR), the wavelet method WIRM1551, sample entropy (SampEn), fuzzy approximate entropy (fApEn) and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA%DET) were calculated. The resulting fatigue signals were compared considering the disturbances incorporated in fatiguing situations as well as according to the possibility to differentiate the load levels based on the fatigue signals. Furthermore we investigated the influence of the electrode locations on the fatigue detection quality and whether an optimized channel set is reasonable. The results of the MNF, SMR, WIRM1551 and fApEn algorithms fell close together. Due to the small amount of subjects in this study significant differences could not be found. In terms of disturbances the SMR algorithm showed a slight tendency to out-perform the others. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H
) activity was recorded in nine muscles during a standardized forward lunge movement performed with dumbbells and elastic bands during (1) ballistic vs. controlled exertion, and (2) at low, medium and high loads (33%, 66% and 100% of 10 RM, respectively). The recorded EMG signals were normalized to MVC EMG...
Raphael, K G; Janal, M N; Sirois, D A; Dubrovsky, B; Wigren, P E; Klausner, J J; Krieger, A C; Lavigne, G J
Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n = 124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n = 46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artefacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non-SB event periods was significantly higher (P cases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0-10 numerical scale) on post-sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Farella, M; Palla, S; Erni, S; Gallo, L M; Michelotti, A
The aim of this study was to investigate masticatory muscle activity during deliberately performed functional and non-functional oral tasks. Electromyographic (EMG) surface activity was recorded unilaterally from the masseter, anterior temporalis and suprahyoid muscles in 11 subjects (5 men, 6 women; age = 34.6 ± 10.8 years), who were accurately instructed to perform 30 different oral tasks under computer guidance using task markers. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, repeated measurements analysis of variance (ANOVA) and hierarchical cluster analysis. The maximum EMG amplitude of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles was more often found during hard chewing tasks than during maximum clenching tasks. The relative contribution of masseter and anterior temporalis changed across the tasks examined (F ≥ 5.2; p ≤ 0.001). The masseter muscle was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more active than the anterior temporalis muscle during tasks involving incisal biting, jaw protrusion, laterotrusion and jaw cupping, the difference being statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The anterior temporalis muscle was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) more active than the masseter muscle during tasks performed in intercuspal position, during tooth grinding, and during hard chewing on the working side. Based upon the relative contribution of the masseter, anterior temporalis, and suprahyoid muscles, the investigated oral tasks could be grouped into six separate clusters. The findings provided further insight into muscle- and task-specific EMG patterns during functional and non-functional oral behaviors
Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Andersen, Lars Louis; Kirk, Niels
The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized...... to the maximal EMG activity during maximal voluntary contractions, and a p value 60% of maximal EMG activity). Type of exercise played a significant role...
Full Text Available The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n = 32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01. The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between
Ervilha, Ulysses Fernandes; Mochizuki, Luis; Figueira, Aylton; Hamill, Joseph
This study aimed to investigate the activation of lower limb muscles during barefoot and shod running with forefoot or rearfoot footfall patterns. Nine habitually shod runners were asked to run straight for 20 m at self-selected speed. Ground reaction forces and thigh and shank muscle surface electromyographic (EMG) were recorded. EMG outcomes (EMG intensity [iEMG], latency between muscle activation and ground reaction force, latency between muscle pairs and co-activation index between muscle pairs) were compared across condition (shod and barefoot), running cycle epochs (pre-strike, strike, propulsion) and footfall (rearfoot and forefoot) by ANOVA. Condition affected iEMG at pre-strike epoch. Forefoot and rearfoot strike patterns induced different EMG activation time patterns affecting co-activation index for pairs of thigh and shank muscles. All these timing changes suggest that wearing shoes or not is less important for muscle activation than the way runners strike the foot on the ground. In conclusion, the guidance for changing external forces applied on lower limbs should be pointed to the question of rearfoot or forefoot footfall patterns.
Graven-Nielsen, T; Svensson, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L
The relation between muscle pain, muscle activity, and muscle co-ordination is still controversial. The present human study investigates the influence of experimental muscle pain on resting, static, and dynamic muscle activity. In the resting and static experiments, the electromyography (EMG) activity and the contraction force of m. tibialis anterior were assessed before and after injection of 0.5 ml hypertonic saline (5%) into the same muscle. In the dynamic experiment, injections of 0.5 ml hypertonic saline (5%) were performed into either m. tibialis anterior (TA) or m. gastrocnemius (GA) and the muscle activity and co-ordination were investigated during gait on a treadmill by EMG recordings from m. TA and m. GA. At rest no evidence of EMG hyperactivity was found during muscle pain. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) during muscle pain was significantly lower than the control condition (P Fibromyalgia and Myofascial Pain. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993, pp. 311-327.) which predicts increased activity of antagonistic muscle and decreased activity of agonistic muscle during experimental and clinical muscle pain.
Vestergaard-Poulsen, P; Thomsen, C; Sinkjaer, T
The bioenergetics of human skeletal muscle can be studied by 31P NMR spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and by surface electromyography (SEMG). Simultaneous 31P-MRS and SEMG permit accurate and noninvasive studies of the correlation between metabolic and electrical changes in exercising and recovering human....... A nonmagnetic ergometer was used for ankle dorsiflexions that activated only the anterior tibial muscle as verified by post exercise imaging. The coil design and the adiabatic sech/tanh pulse improved sensitivity by 45% and 56% respectively, compared with standard techniques. Simultaneous electromyographic...... recordings did not deteriorate the NMR spectra. The VARPRO time domain fitting routine was very suitable for estimating 31P muscle spectra. With these methods it was possible to accurately estimate parameters describing metabolic and electrical changes during rest, exercise and the entire recovery period...
Thomas W. Nesser
Full Text Available Introduction: Unstable surface training is often used to activate core musculature during resistance training. Unfortunately, unstable surface training is risky and leads to detraining. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine core muscle activation during stable surface ground-based lifts. Methods: Fourteen recreational trained and former NCAA DI athletes (weight 84.2 ± 13.3 kg; height 176.0 ± 9.5 cm; age 20.9 ± 2.0 years volunteered for participation. Subjects completed two ground-based lifts: overhead press and push-press. Surface EMG was recorded from 4 muscles on the right side of the body (Rectus Abdominus (RA, External Oblique (EO, Transverse Abdominus (TA, and Erector Spinae (ES. Results: Paired sample T-tests identified significant muscle activation differences between the overhead press and the push-press included ES and EO. Average and peak EMG for ES was significantly greater in push-press (P<0.01. Anterior displacement of COP was significantly greater in push-press compared to overhead press during the eccentric phase. Conclusion: The push-press was identified as superior in core muscle activation when compared to the overhead pressing exercise. Keywords: torso, stability, weight lifting, resistance training
Full Text Available Background: Triathletes typically wear a wetsuit during the swim portion of an event, but it is not clear if muscle activity is influenced by wearing a wetsuit. Purpose: To investigate if shoulder muscle activity was influenced by wearing a full-sleeve wetsuit vs. no wetsuit during dryland swimming. Methods: Participants (n=10 males; 179.1±13.2 cm; 91.2±7.25 kg; 45.6±10.5 years completed two dry land swimming conditions on a swim ergometer: No Wetsuit (NW and with Wetsuit (W. Electromyography (EMG of four upper extremity muscles was recorded (Noraxon telemetry EMG, 500 Hz during each condition: Trapezius (TRAP, Triceps (TRI, Anterior Deltoid (AD and Posterior Deltoid (PD. Each condition lasted 90 seconds with data collected during the last 60 seconds. Resistance setting was self-selected and remained constant for both conditions. Stroke rate was controlled at 60 strokes per minute by having participants match a metronome. Average (AVG and Root Mean Square (RMS EMG were calculated over 45 seconds and each were compared between conditions using a paired t-test (α=0.05 for each muscle. Results: PD and AD AVG and RMS EMG were each greater (on average 40.0% and 66.8% greater, respectively during W vs. NW (p0.05. Conclusion: The greater PD and AD muscle activity while wearing a wetsuit might affect swimming performance and /or stroke technique on long distance event.
Full Text Available During a day of skiing thousands of repeated contractions take place. Previous research on prolonged recreational alpine skiing show that physiological changes occur and hence some level of fatigue is inevitable. In the present paper the effect of prolonged skiing on the recruitment and coordination of the muscle activity was investigated. Six subjects performed 24 standardized runs. Muscle activity during the first two (PREskiing and the last two (POSTskiing runs was measured from the vastus lateralis (VL and rectus femoris (RF using EMG and quantified using wavelet and principal component analysis. The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF on outside leg. A significant pronounced outside leg loading occurred during POSTskiing and the timing of muscle activity peaks occurred more towards turn completion. Specific EMG frequency changes were observed at certain time points throughout the time windows and not over the whole double turn. It is suggested that general muscular fatigue, where additional specific muscle fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers did not occur. The EMG frequency decrease and intensity changes for RF and VL are caused by altered timing (coordination within the turn towards a most likely more uncontrolled skiing technique. Hence, these data provide evidence to suggest recreational skiers alter their skiing technique before a potential change in muscle fiber recruitment occurs
Péter, Annamária; Hegyi, András; Stenroth, Lauri; Finni, Taija; Cronin, Neil J
Large forces are generated under the big toe in the push-off phase of walking. The largest flexor muscle of the big toe is the flexor hallucis longus (FHL), which likely contributes substantially to these forces. This study examined FHL function at different levels of isometric plantarflexion torque and in the push-off phase at different speeds of walking. FHL and calf muscle activity were measured with surface EMG and plantar pressure was recorded with pressure insoles. FHL activity was compared to the activity of the calf muscles. Force and impulse values were calculated under the big toe, and were compared to the entire pressed area of the insole to determine the relative contribution of big toe flexion forces to the ground reaction force. FHL activity increased with increasing plantarflexion torque level (F=2.8, P=0.024) and with increasing walking speed (F=11.608, Ppush-off phase of walking, peak force under the big toe increased at a higher rate than force under the other areas of the plantar surface (F=3.801, P=0.018), implying a greater relative contribution to total force at faster speeds. Moreover, substantial differences were found between isometric plantarflexion and walking concerning FHL activity relative to that of the calf muscles, highlighting the task-dependant behaviour of FHL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weinreich, André; Funcke, Jakob Maria
Drawing on recent findings, this study examines whether valence concordant electromyography (EMG) responses can be explained as an unconditional effect of mere stimulus processing or as somatosensory simulation driven by task-dependent processing strategies. While facial EMG over the Corrugator supercilii and the Zygomaticus major was measured, each participant performed two tasks with pictures of album covers. One task was an affective evaluation task and the other was to attribute the album covers to one of five decades. The Embodied Emotion Account predicts that valence concordant EMG is more likely to occur if the task necessitates a somatosensory simulation of the evaluative meaning of stimuli. Results support this prediction with regard to Corrugator supercilii in that valence concordant EMG activity was only present in the affective evaluation task but not in the non-evaluative task. Results for the Zygomaticus major were ambiguous. Our findings are in line with the view that EMG activity is an embodied part of the evaluation process and not a mere physical outcome.
Suetta, C; Aagaard, P; Magnusson, S P
quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (LCSA), contractile rate of force development (RFD, Delta force/Delta time), impulse (integral force dt), muscle activation deficit (interpolated twitch technique), maximal neuromuscular activity [electromyogram (EMG)], and antagonist muscle coactivation in elderly men......%), contractile RFD (W: 17-26%; M: 15-24%), impulse (W: 10-19%, M: 19-20%), maximal EMG amplitude (W: 22-25%, M: 22-28%), and an increased muscle activation deficit (-18%) compared with UN. Furthermore, women were less strong (AF: 40%; UN: 39%), had less muscle mass (AF: 33%; UN: 34%), and had a lower RFD (AF: 38......-50%; UN: 41-48%) compared with men. Similarly, maximum EMG amplitude was smaller for both agonists (AF: 51-63%; UN: 35-61%) and antagonist (AF: 49-64%; UN: 36-56%) muscles in women compared with men. However, when MVC and RFD were normalized to LCSA, there were no differences between genders. The present...
Narouei, Shideh; Imai, Atsushi; Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Kaneoka, Koji
The nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a dynamic lengthening hamstring exercise that requires trunk and hip muscles activation. Thigh muscles activation, specifically hamstring/quadriceps contractions has been previously examined during NHE. Trunk and hip muscles activity have not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to analyze of hip and trunk muscles activity during NHE. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data were collected during NHE. Ten healthy men with the age range of 21–36 years performed two sets of two repetitions with downward and upward motions each of NHE. EMG activity of fifteen trunk and hip muscles and knee kinematic data were collected. Muscle activity levels were calculated through repeated measure analysis of variance in downward and upward motions, through Paired t-test between downward and upward motions and gluteus maximus to erector spine activity ratio (Gmax/ES ratio) using Pearson correlation analyses were evaluated. Semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles activity levels were the greatest in both motions and back extensors and internal oblique muscles activity were greater than other muscles (Phamstrings contractions. It could be important for early assessment of subjects with hamstring injury risk. PMID:29740557
Narouei, Shideh; Imai, Atsushi; Akuzawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Kaneoka, Koji
The nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a dynamic lengthening hamstring exercise that requires trunk and hip muscles activation. Thigh muscles activation, specifically hamstring/quadriceps contractions has been previously examined during NHE. Trunk and hip muscles activity have not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to analyze of hip and trunk muscles activity during NHE. Surface electromyography (EMG) and kinematic data were collected during NHE. Ten healthy men with the age range of 21-36 years performed two sets of two repetitions with downward and upward motions each of NHE. EMG activity of fifteen trunk and hip muscles and knee kinematic data were collected. Muscle activity levels were calculated through repeated measure analysis of variance in downward and upward motions, through Paired t -test between downward and upward motions and gluteus maximus to erector spine activity ratio (Gmax/ES ratio) using Pearson correlation analyses were evaluated. Semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles activity levels were the greatest in both motions and back extensors and internal oblique muscles activity were greater than other muscles ( P hamstrings contractions. It could be important for early assessment of subjects with hamstring injury risk.
(VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles during two open chain exercises commonly used ... or gender, but the terminal knee extension exercise type x gender interaction effect was ... believe PFPS is caused by differences in the timing during.
Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich; Seifert, John G.; Wakeling, James M.
During a day of skiing thousands of repeated contractions take place. Previous research on prolonged recreational alpine skiing show that physiological changes occur and hence some level of fatigue is inevitable. In the present paper the effect of prolonged skiing on the recruitment and coordination of the muscle activity was investigated. Six subjects performed 24 standardized runs. Muscle activity during the first two (PREskiing) and the last two (POSTskiing) runs was measured from the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) using EMG and quantified using wavelet and principal component analysis. The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF on outside leg. A significant pronounced outside leg loading occurred during POSTskiing and the timing of muscle activity peaks occurred more towards turn completion. Specific EMG frequency changes were observed at certain time points throughout the time windows and not over the whole double turn. It is suggested that general muscular fatigue, where additional specific muscle fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers did not occur. The EMG frequency decrease and intensity changes for RF and VL are caused by altered timing (coordination) within the turn towards a most likely more uncontrolled skiing technique. Hence, these data provide evidence to suggest recreational skiers alter their skiing technique before a potential change in muscle fiber recruitment occurs. Key points The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF. General muscular fatigue, where additional specific fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers, did not occur. A modified skiing style towards a less functional and hence more uncontrolled skiing technique seems to be a key
Shiraz, Arsam; Leaker, Brian; Mosse, Charles Alexander; Solomon, Eskinder; Craggs, Michael; Demosthenous, Andreas
Conditional trans-rectal stimulation of the pudendal nerve could provide a viable solution to treat hyperreflexive bladder in spinal cord injury. A set threshold of the amplitude estimate of the external anal sphincter surface electromyography (sEMG) may be used as the trigger signal. The efficacy of such a device should be tested in a large scale clinical trial. As such, a probe should remain in situ for several hours while patients attend to their daily routine; the recording electrodes should be designed to be large enough to maintain good contact while observing design constraints. The objective of this study was to arrive at a design for intra-anal sEMG recording electrodes for the subsequent clinical trials while deriving the possible recording and processing parameters. Having in mind existing solutions and based on theoretical and anatomical considerations, a set of four multi-electrode probes were designed and developed. These were tested in a healthy subject and the measured sEMG traces were recorded and appropriately processed. It was shown that while comparatively large electrodes record sEMG traces that are not sufficiently correlated with the external anal sphincter contractions, smaller electrodes may not maintain a stable electrode tissue contact. It was shown that 3 mm wide and 1 cm long electrodes with 5 mm inter-electrode spacing, in agreement with Nyquist sampling, placed 1 cm from the orifice may intra-anally record a sEMG trace sufficiently correlated with external anal sphincter activity. The outcome of this study can be used in any biofeedback, treatment or diagnostic application where the activity of the external anal sphincter sEMG should be detected for an extended period of time.
Full Text Available Abstract Study design Controlled laboratory study. Objectives The purposes of this paper were to investigate (d whether vastus medialis obliquus (VMO, vastus lateralis longus (VLL and vastus lateralis obliquus (VLO EMG activity can be influenced by hip abduction performed by healthy subjects. Background Some clinicians contraindicate hip abduction for patellofemoral patients (with based on the premise that hip abduction could facilitate the VLL muscle activation leading to a VLL and VMO imbalance Methods and measures Twenty-one clinically healthy subjects were involved in the study, 10 women and 11 men (aged X = 23.3 ± 2.9. The EMG signals were collected using a computerized EMG VIKING II, with 8 channels and three pairs of surface electrodes. EMG activity was obtained from MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in a seated position and MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° with patients in side-lying position with the knee in full extension. The data were normalized in the MVIC knee extension at 50° of flexion in a seated position, and were submitted to ANOVA test with subsequent application of the Bonferroni multiple comparisons analysis test. The level of significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Results The VLO muscle demonstrated a similar pattern to the VMO muscle showing higher EMG activity in MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion compared with MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction for male (p Conclusion The results showed that no selective EMG activation was observed when comparison was made between the VMO, VLL and VLO muscles while performing MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction and MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in both male and female subjects. Our findings demonstrate that hip abduction do not facilitated VLL and VLO activity in relation to the VMO, however, this study included only healthy subjects performing maximum voluntary isometric contraction contractions, therefore much remains to be discovered by
de Luca, G.; Bergman, P.; de Luca, C.
The purpose of the project was to develop an advanced surface electromyographic (EMG) system that is portable, un-tethered, and able to detect high-fidelity EMG signals from multiple channels. The innovation was specifically designed to extend NASA's capability to perform neurological status monitoring for long-term, vigorous activities. These features are a necessary requirement of ground-based and in-flight studies planned for the International Space Station and human expeditions to Mars. The project consisted of developing 1) a portable EMG digital data logger using a handheld PC for acquiring the signal and storing the data from as many as 8 channels, and 2) an EMG electrode/skin interface to improve signal fidelity and skin adhesion in the presence of sweat and mechanical disturbances encountered during vigorous activities. The system, referred to as a MyoMonitor, was configured with a communication port for downloading the data from the data logger to the PC computer workstation. Software specifications were developed and implemented for programming of acquisition protocols, power management, and transferring data to the PC for processing and graphical display. The prototype MyoMonitor was implemented using a handheld PC that features a color LCD screen, enhanced keyboard, extended Lithium Ion battery and recharger, and 128 Mbytes of F ash Memory. The system was designed to be belt-worn,l thereby allowing its use under vigorous activities. The Monitor utilizes up to 8 differential surface EMG sensors. The prototype allowed greater than 2 hours of continuous 8-channel EMG data to be collected, or 17.2 hours of continuous single channel EMG data. Standardized tests in human subjects were conducted to develop the mechanical and electrical properties of the prototype electrode/interface system. Tests conducted during treadmill running and repetitive lifting demonstrated that the prototype interface significantly reduced the detrimental effects of sweat
Konstantin D. Bergmeister
Full Text Available Modern robotic hands/upper limbs may replace multiple degrees of freedom of extremity function. However, their intuitive use requires a high number of control signals, which current man-machine interfaces do not provide. Here, we discuss a broadband control interface that combines targeted muscle reinnervation, implantable multichannel electromyographic sensors, and advanced decoding to address the increasing capabilities of modern robotic limbs. With targeted muscle reinnervation, nerves that have lost their targets due to an amputation are surgically transferred to residual stump muscles to increase the number of intuitive prosthetic control signals. This surgery re-establishes a nerve-muscle connection that is used for sensing nerve activity with myoelectric interfaces. Moreover, the nerve transfer determines neurophysiological effects, such as muscular hyper-reinnervation and cortical reafferentation that can be exploited by the myoelectric interface. Modern implantable multichannel EMG sensors provide signals from which it is possible to disentangle the behavior of single motor neurons. Recent studies have shown that the neural drive to muscles can be decoded from these signals and thereby the user's intention can be reliably estimated. By combining these concepts in chronic implants and embedded electronics, we believe that it is in principle possible to establish a broadband man-machine interface, with specific applications in prosthesis control. This perspective illustrates this concept, based on combining advanced surgical techniques with recording hardware and processing algorithms. Here we describe the scientific evidence for this concept, current state of investigations, challenges, and alternative approaches to improve current prosthetic interfaces.
Khoddami, Seyyedeh Maryam; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Izadi, Farzad; Talebian Moghadam, Saeed
The purpose of this paper is to review the methods used for the assessment of muscular tension dysphonia (MTD). The MTD is a functional voice disorder associated with abnormal laryngeal muscle activity. Various assessment methods are available in the literature to evaluate the laryngeal hyperfunction. The case history, laryngoscopy, and palpation are clinical methods for the assessment of patients with MTD. Radiography and surface electromyography (EMG) are objective methods to provide physiological information about MTD. Recent studies show that surface EMG can be an effective tool for assessing muscular tension in MTD. PMID:24319372
Michael J. Asmussen
Full Text Available During dynamic or sustained isometric contractions, bursts of muscle activity appear in the electromyography (EMG signal. Theoretically, these bursts of activity likely occur because motor units are constrained to fire temporally close to one another and thus the impulses are “clustered” with short delays to elicit bursts of muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a sequence comprised of “clustered” motor unit action potentials (MUAP can explain spectral and amplitude changes of the EMG during a simulated motor task. This question would be difficult to answer experimentally and thus, required a model to study this type of muscle activation pattern. To this end, we modeled two EMG signals, whereby a single MUAP was either convolved with a randomly distributed impulse train (EMG-rand or a “clustered” sequence of impulses (EMG-clust. The clustering occurred in windows lasting 5–100 ms. A final mixed signal of EMG-clust and EMG-rand, with ratios (1:1–1:10, was also modeled. A ratio of 1:1 would indicate that 50% of MUAP were randomly distributed, while 50% of “clustered” MUAP occurred in a given time window (5–100 ms. The results of the model showed that clustering MUAP caused a downshift in the mean power frequency (i.e., ~30 Hz with the largest shift occurring with a cluster window of 10 ms. The mean frequency shift was largest when the ratio of EMG-clust to EMG-rand was high. Further, the clustering of MUAP also caused a substantial increase in the amplitude of the EMG signal. This model potentially explains an activation pattern that changes the EMG spectra during a motor task and thus, a potential activation pattern of muscles observed experimentally. Changes in EMG measurements during fatiguing conditions are typically attributed to slowing of conduction velocity but could, per this model, also result from changes of the clustering of MUAP. From a clinical standpoint, this type of muscle
Andersen, Lars L; Kjaer, Michael; Andersen, Christoffer H
selected strengthening exercises in women undergoing rehabilitation for chronic neck muscle pain (defined as a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia). SUBJECTS: The subjects were 12 female workers (age=30-60 years) with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia and a mean baseline pain intensity of 5......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Muscle-specific strength training has previously been shown to be effective in the rehabilitation of chronic neck muscle pain in women. The aim of this study was to determine the level of activation of the neck and shoulder muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) during...... muscle pain. Several of the strength exercises had high activation of neck and shoulder muscles in women with chronic neck pain. These exercises can be used equally in the attempt to achieve a beneficial treatment effect on chronic neck muscle pain....
Full Text Available Introduction: This study sought to assess the influence of proper foot arch on electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of foot arch on the activity of selected muscles and to determine whether electromyography might help to identify types of flat feet resulting from muscle- or ligament-related causes.
Full Text Available Finger enslaving is defined as the inability of the fingers to move or to produce force independently. Such finger enslaving has predominantly been investigated for isometric force tasks. The aim of this study was to assess whether the extent of force enslaving is dependent on relative finger movements. Ten right-handed subjects (22-30 years flexed the index finger while counteracting constant resistance forces (4, 6 and 8 N orthogonal to the fingertip. The other, non-instructed fingers were held in extension. EMG activities of the mm. flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS and extensor digitorum (ED in the regions corresponding to the index, middle and ring fingers were measured. Forces exerted by the non-instructed fingers increased substantially (by 0.2 to 1.4 N with flexion of the index finger, increasing the enslaving effect with respect to the static, pre-movement phase. Such changes in force were found 260-370 ms after the initiation of index flexion. The estimated MCP joint angle of the index finger at which forces exerted by the non-instructed fingers started to increase varied between 4° and 6°. In contrast to the finger forces, no significant changes in EMG activity of the FDS regions corresponding to the non-instructed fingers upon index finger flexion were found. This mismatch between forces and EMG of the non-instructed fingers, as well as the delay in force development are in agreement with connective tissue linkages being slack when the positions of the fingers are similar, but pulled taut when one finger moves relative to the others. Although neural factors cannot be excluded, our results suggest that mechanical connections between muscle-tendon structures were (at least partly responsible for the observed increase in force enslaving during index finger flexion.
Soewardi, Hartomo; Azka Rahmayani, Amalia
One of the most common problems in pottery manufacturing process is musculoskeletal disorders on workers. This disorder was caused by uncomfortable posture where the workers sit on the floor with one leg was folded and another was twisted for long duration. Back, waist, buttock, and right knee frequently experience the disorders. The objective of this research is to investigate the muscle contraction at such body part of workers in manufacturing process of pottery. Electromyography is used to investigate the muscle contraction based on the median frequency signal. Focus measurements is conducted on four muscles types. They are lower interscapular muscle on the right and left side, dorsal lumbar muscle, and lateral hamstring muscle. Statistical analysis is conducted to test differences of muscle contraction between female and male. The result of this research showed that the muscle which reached the highest contraction is dorsal lumbar muscle with the average of median frequency is 51,84 Hz. Then followed by lower interscapular muscle on the left side with the average of median frequency is 31,30 hz, lower interscapular muscle on the right side average of median frequency is 31,24 Hz, and lateral hamstring muscle average of median frequency is 21,77 Hz. Based on the statistic analysis result, there were no differences between male and female on left and right lower interscapular muscle and dorsal lumbar muscle but there were differences on lateral hamstring muscle with the significance level is 5%. Besides that, there were differences for all combination muscle types with the level of significance is 5%.
Estigoni, Eduardo H.; Fornusek, Che; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Smith, Richard M.; Davis, Glen M.
This study investigated whether the relationship between muscle torque and m-waves remained constant after short recovery periods, between repeated intervals of isometric muscle contractions induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES). Eight subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) were recruited for the study. All subjects had their quadriceps muscles group stimulated during three sessions of isometric contractions separated by 5 min of recovery. The evoked-electromyographic (eEMG) signals, as well as the produced torque, were synchronously acquired during the contractions and during short FES bursts applied during the recovery intervals. All analysed m-wave variables changed progressively throughout the three contractions, even though the same muscle torque was generated. The peak to peak amplitude (PtpA), and the m-wave area (Area) were significantly increased, while the time between the stimulus artefact and the positive peak (PosT) were substantially reduced when the muscles became fatigued. In addition, all m-wave variables recovered faster and to a greater extent than did torque after the recovery intervals. We concluded that rapid recovery intervals between FES-evoked exercise sessions can radically interfere in the use of m-waves as a proxy for torque estimation in individuals with SCI. This needs to be further investigated, in addition to seeking a better understanding of the mechanisms of muscle fatigue and recovery. PMID:25479324
de Ruiter, C J; Elzinga, M J H; Verdijk, P W L; van Mechelen, W; de Haan, A
We investigated the effects of low frequency fatigue (LFF) on post-exercise changes in rectified surface EMG (rsEMG) and single motor unit EMG (smuEMG) in vastus lateralis muscle (n = 9). On two experimental days the knee extensors were fatigued with a 60-s-isometric contraction (exercise) at 50% maximal force capacity (MFC). On the first day post-exercise (15 s, 3, 9, 15, 21 and 27 min) rsEMG and electrically-induced (surface stimulation) forces were investigated. SmuEMG was obtained on day two. During short ramp and hold (5 s) contractions at 50% MFC, motor unit discharges of the same units were followed over time. Post-exercise MFC and tetanic force (100 Hz stimulation) recovered to about 90% of the pre-exercise values, but recovery with 20 Hz stimulation was less complete: the 20-100 Hz force ratio (mean +/- SD) decreased from 0.65+/-0.06 (pre-exercise) to 0.56+/-0.04 at 27 min post-exercise (Pexercise rsEMG (% pre-exercise maximum) and motor unit discharge rate were 51.1 +/- 12.7% and 14.1 +/- 3.7 (pulses per second; pps) respectively, 15 s post-exercise the respective values were 61.4 +/- 15.4% (P0.05). Thereafter, rsEMG (at 50% MFC) remained stable but motor unit discharge rate significantly increased to 17.7 +/- 3.9 pps 27 min post-exercise. The recruitment threshold decreased (Pexercise to 25.2 +/- 6.7% 27 min post-exercise. The increase in discharge rate was significantly greater than could be expected from the decrease in recruitment threshold. Thus, post-exercise LFF was compensated by increased motor unit discharge rates which could only partly be accounted for by the small decrease in motor unit recruitment threshold.
Ying, Rex; Wall, Christine E
Analyses of muscular activity during rhythmic behaviors provide critical data for biomechanical studies. Electrical potentials measured from muscles using electromyography (EMG) require discrimination of noise regions as the first step in analysis. An experienced analyst can accurately identify the onset and offset of EMG but this process takes hours to analyze a short (10-15s) record of rhythmic EMG bursts. Existing computational techniques reduce this time but have limitations. These include a universal threshold for delimiting noise regions (i.e., a single signal value for identifying the EMG signal onset and offset), pre-processing using wide time intervals that dampen sensitivity for EMG signal characteristics, poor performance when a low frequency component (e.g., DC offset) is present, and high computational complexity leading to lack of time efficiency. We present a new statistical method and MATLAB script (EMG-Extractor) that includes an adaptive algorithm to discriminate noise regions from EMG that avoids these limitations and allows for multi-channel datasets to be processed. We evaluate the EMG-Extractor with EMG data on mammalian jaw-adductor muscles during mastication, a rhythmic behavior typified by low amplitude onsets/offsets and complex signal pattern. The EMG-Extractor consistently and accurately distinguishes noise from EMG in a manner similar to that of an experienced analyst. It outputs the raw EMG signal region in a form ready for further analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Fiorito, G; Hochner, B
The extreme flexibility of the octopus arm allows it to perform many different movements, yet octopuses reach toward a target in a stereotyped manner using a basic invariant motor structure: a bend traveling from the base of the arm toward the tip (Gutfreund et al., 1996a). To study the neuronal control of these movements, arm muscle activation [electromyogram (EMG)] was measured together with the kinematics of reaching movements. The traveling bend is associated with a propagating wave of muscle activation, with maximal muscle activation slightly preceding the traveling bend. Tonic activation was occasionally maintained afterward. Correlation of the EMG signals with the kinematic variables (velocities and accelerations) reveals that a significant part of the kinematic variability can be explained by the level of muscle activation. Furthermore, the EMG level measured during the initial stages of movement predicts the peak velocity attained toward the end of the reaching movement. These results suggest that feed-forward motor commands play an important role in the control of movement velocity and that simple adjustment of the excitation levels at the initial stages of the movement can set the velocity profile of the whole movement. A simple model of octopus arm extension is proposed in which the driving force is set initially and is then decreased in proportion to arm diameter at the bend. The model qualitatively reproduces the typical velocity profiles of octopus reaching movements, suggesting a simple control mechanism for bend propagation in the octopus arm.
Full Text Available Neuroprosthetic technology and robotic exoskeletons are being developed to facilitate stepping, reduce muscle efforts and promote motor recovery. Nevertheless, the guidance forces of an exoskeleton may influence the sensory inputs, sensorimotor interactions and resulting muscle activity patterns during stepping. The aim of this study was to report the muscle activation patterns in a sample of intact and injured subjects while walking with a robotic exoskeleton and, in particular, to quantify the level of muscle activity during assisted gait. We recorded electromyographic (EMG activity of different leg and arm muscles during overground walking in an exoskeleton in six healthy individuals and four spinal cord injury (SCI participants. In SCI patients, EMG activity of the upper limb muscles was augmented while activation of leg muscles was typically small. Contrary to our expectations, however, in neurologically intact subjects, EMG activity of leg muscles was similar or even larger during exoskeleton-assisted walking compared to normal overground walking. In addition, significant variations in the EMG waveforms were found across different walking conditions. The most variable pattern was observed in the hamstring muscles. Overall, the results are consistent with a non-linear reorganization of the locomotor output when using the robotic stepping devices. The findings may contribute to our understanding of human-machine interactions and adaptation of locomotor activity patterns.
Sylos-Labini, Francesca; La Scaleia, Valentina; d'Avella, Andrea; Pisotta, Iolanda; Tamburella, Federica; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Molinari, Marco; Wang, Shiqian; Wang, Letian; van Asseldonk, Edwin; van der Kooij, Herman; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cheron, Guy; Thorsteinsson, Freygardur; Ilzkovitz, Michel; Gancet, Jeremi; Hauffe, Ralf; Zanov, Frank; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P.
Neuroprosthetic technology and robotic exoskeletons are being developed to facilitate stepping, reduce muscle efforts, and promote motor recovery. Nevertheless, the guidance forces of an exoskeleton may influence the sensory inputs, sensorimotor interactions and resulting muscle activity patterns during stepping. The aim of this study was to report the muscle activation patterns in a sample of intact and injured subjects while walking with a robotic exoskeleton and, in particular, to quantify the level of muscle activity during assisted gait. We recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity of different leg and arm muscles during overground walking in an exoskeleton in six healthy individuals and four spinal cord injury (SCI) participants. In SCI patients, EMG activity of the upper limb muscles was augmented while activation of leg muscles was typically small. Contrary to our expectations, however, in neurologically intact subjects, EMG activity of leg muscles was similar or even larger during exoskeleton-assisted walking compared to normal overground walking. In addition, significant variations in the EMG waveforms were found across different walking conditions. The most variable pattern was observed in the hamstring muscles. Overall, the results are consistent with a non-linear reorganization of the locomotor output when using the robotic stepping devices. The findings may contribute to our understanding of human-machine interactions and adaptation of locomotor activity patterns. PMID:24982628
Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H
muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. METHODS: 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric......BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps...... tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions...
Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Alves, Marcelo Correa; Bérzin, Fausto
The aim of this study was to analyze the symmetry of the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the temporalis, masseter, and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles in volunteers divided into a control group and a temporomandibular disorder (TMD) group. The surface EMG recordings were made during mandibular rest position, maximal intercuspal position, and during the chewing cycle. Normalized EMG waves of paired muscles were compared by computing a percentage overlapping coefficient (POC). The difference between the groups and between the static and dynamic clenching tests was analyzed through repeated measures, ANOVA. Symmetry of the temporalis, masseter, and SCM muscles activity was smaller in the TMD group compared to the control group. The mandibular postures were also significantly different among themselves. The asymmetric activation of jaw and neck muscles was interpreted as a compensatory strategy to achieve stability for the mandibular and cervical systems during masticatory function.
Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H
tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions......BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps...... muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. METHODS: 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric...
Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K
We investigated the effect of age on the complexity of muscle activity and the variance in the force of isometric contraction. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from biceps brachii muscle and force of contraction were recorded from 96 subjects (20-70 years of age) during isometric contractions. There was a reduction in the complexity of sEMG associated with aging. The relationship of age and complexity was approximated using a bilinear fit, with the average knee point at 45 years. There was an age-associated increase in the coefficient of variation (CoV) of the force of muscle contraction, and this increase was correlated with the decrease in complexity of sEMG (r(2) = 0.76). There was an age-associated increase in CoV and also a reduction in the complexity of sEMG. The correlation between these 2 factors can be explained based on the age-associated increase in motor unit density. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Andersen, Lars L; Nielsen, Pernille K; Søgaard, Karen
The present study investigated the effect of chronic neck muscle pain (defined as trapezius myalgia) on neck/shoulder muscle function during concentric, eccentric and static contraction. Forty-two female office workers with trapezius myalgia (MYA) and 20 healthy matched controls (CON) participated...
Kalytczak, Marcelo Martins; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Bley, André Serra; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Politti, Fabiano
This study aimed to compare the concentric and eccentric activity and the temporal order of peak activity of the hip and knee muscles between women with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and healthy women during the single leg triple hop test (SLTHT). Electromyographic (EMG) and Kinematic data were collected from 14 healthy women (CG) and 14 women diagnosed with PFP (PFG) during a single session of the single leg triple hop test. Integral surface electromyography (iEMG) data of the hip and knee muscles in eccentric and concentric phases and the length of time that each muscle needed to reach the maximal peak of muscle activity were calculated. The iEMG in the eccentric phase was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the concentric phase, for the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles (CG and PFG) and for the vastus lateralis muscle (PFG). The vastus lateralis muscle was the first muscle to reach the highest peak of activity in the PFG, and the third to reach this peak in the CG. In the present study, the activity of the vastus lateralis muscle during the eccentric phase of the jump was greater than concentric phase, as a temporal anticipation of its peak in activity among women with PFP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Clint; Einarson, Einar; Thomson, Athol; Whiteley, Rodney
The hamstrings are seen to work during late swing phase (presumably to decelerate the extending shank) then during stance phase (presumably stabilizing the knee and contributing to horizontal force production during propulsion) of running. A better understanding of this hamstring activation during running may contribute to injury prevention and performance enhancement (targeting the specific role via specific contraction mode). Twenty active adult males underwent surface EMG recordings of their medial and lateral hamstrings while running on a reduced gravity treadmill. Participants underwent 36 different conditions for combinations of 50%-100% altering bodyweight (10% increments) & 6-16km/h (2km/h increments, i.e.: 36 conditions) for a minimum of 6 strides of each leg (maximum 32). EMG was normalized to the peak value seen for each individual during any stride in any trial to describe relative activation levels during gait. Increasing running speed effected greater increases in EMG for all muscles than did altering bodyweight. Peak EMG for the lateral hamstrings during running trials was similar for both swing and stance phase whereas the medial hamstrings showed an approximate 20% reduction during stance compared to swing phase. It is suggested that the lateral hamstrings work equally hard during swing and stance phase however the medial hamstrings are loaded slightly less every stance phase. Likely this helps explain the higher incidence of lateral hamstring injury. Hamstring injury prevention and rehabilitation programs incorporating running should consider running speed as more potent stimulus for increasing hamstring muscle activation than impact loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, Dong-Kyu; An, Duk-Hyun; Yoo, Won-Gyu; Hwang, Byong-Yong; Kim, Tae-Ho; Oh, Jae-Seop
Neural reorganization for movement therapy after a stroke is thought to be an important mechanism that facilitates motor recovery. However, there is a lack of evidence for the effectiveness of exercise programs in improving the lower limbs. We investigated the immediate effect of isolating the paretic limb using different foot positions ((i) foot parallel; both feet parallel, (ii) foot asymmetry; paretic foot backward by 10 cm, and (iii) foot lifting; nonparetic foot lifting by normalization to 25% of knee height) on weight-bearing distribution and electromyography (EMG) of the thigh muscle during squats. In total, 20 patients with hemiplegia and 16 healthy subjects randomly performed three squat conditions in which the knee joint was flexed to 30°. Weight distribution was measured using the BioRescue system. Muscle activity was measured using a surface EMG system. Patients with hemiplegia exhibited significantly decreased weight bearing on the paretic foot at 0° and 30° knee flexion compared with the nondominant foot of a healthy subject. The muscle activity of the quadriceps was significantly lower in patients with hemiplegia compared to healthy subjects. Weight bearing and EMG activity of the quadriceps femoris on the paretic or nondominant side significantly increased during a knee flexion of 30° with under the foot asymmetry and foot lifting positions compared with the parallel foot position. Isolating the paretic limb using the asymmetric foot positions and lifting of the foot during squats might help patients with hemiplegia to improve weight-bearing and achieve greater activation of the quadriceps muscle in the paretic limb.
Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L
The present study's aim was to evaluate muscle activity during leg exercises using elastic vs. isoinertial resistance at different exertion and loading levels, respectively. Twenty-four women and eighteen men aged 26-67 years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in nine muscles during a standardized forward lunge movement performed with dumbbells and elastic bands during (1) ballistic vs. controlled exertion, and (2) at low, medium and high loads (33%, 66% and 100% of 10 RM, respectively). The recorded EMG signals were normalized to MVC EMG. Knee joint angle was measured using electronic inclinometers. The following results were obtained. Loading intensity affected EMG amplitude in the order: lowBallistic contractions always produced greater EMG activity than slow controlled contractions, and for most muscles ballistic contractions with medium load showed similar EMG amplitude as controlled contractions with high load. At flexed knee joint positions with elastic resistance, quadriceps and gluteus EMG amplitude during medium-load ballistic contractions exceeded that recorded during high-load controlled contractions. Quadriceps and gluteus EMG amplitude increased at flexed knee positions. In contrast, hamstrings EMG amplitude remained constant throughout ROM during dumbbell lunge, but increased at more extended knee joint positions during lunges using elastic resistance. Based on these results, it can be concluded that lunges performed using medium-load ballistic muscle contractions may induce similar or even higher leg muscle activity than lunges using high-load slow-speed contractions. Consequently, lunges using elastic resistance appear to be equally effective in inducing high leg muscle activity as traditional lunges using isoinertial resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kaur, Manvinder; Mathur, Shilpi; Bhatia, Dinesh; Verma, Suresh
Electromyography (EMG) signals that represent the electrical activity of muscles can be used for various clinical and biomedical applications. These are complicated and highly varying signals that are dependent on anatomical location and physiological properties of the muscles. EMG signals acquired from the muscles require advanced methods for detection, decomposition and processing. This paper proposes a novel Graphical User Interface (GUI) siGnum developed in MATLAB that will apply efficient and effective techniques on processing of the raw EMG signals and decompose it in a simpler manner. It could be used independent of MATLAB software by employing a deploy tool. This would enable researcher's to gain good understanding of EMG signal and its analysis procedures that can be utilized for more powerful, flexible and efficient applications in near future.
Andrade, Letícia Souza; Mochizuki, Luís; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; da Silva, Renato André Sousa; Mota, Yomara Lima
To analyze the effect of Pilates principles on the EMG activity of abdominal and paraspinal muscles on stable and unstable surfaces. Surface EMG data about the rectus abdominis (RA), iliocostalis (IL) and lumbar multifidus (MU) of 19 participants were collected while performing three repetitions of a crunch exercise in the following conditions: 1) with no Pilates technique and stable surface (nP + S); 2) with no Pilates technique and unstable surface (nP + U); 3) with Pilates technique and stable surface (P + S); 4) with Pilates and unstable surface (P + U). The EMG Fanalysis was conducted using a custom-made Matlab(®) 10. There was no condition effect in the RA iEMG with stable and unstable surfaces (F(1,290) = 0 p = 0.98) and with and without principles (F(1,290) = 1.2 p = 0.27). IL iEMG was higher for the stable surface condition (F(1,290) = 32.3 p Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 21.9 p Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 84.9 p < 0.001). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Watanabe, K; Akima, H
The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship between surface electromyography (EMG) and knee joint angle of the vastus intermedius muscle (VI) with the synergistic muscles in the quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle group. Fourteen healthy men performed maximal voluntary contractions during isometric knee extension at four knee joint angles from 90°, 115°, 140°, and 165° (180° being full extension). During the contractions, surface EMG was recorded at four muscle components of the QF muscle group: the VI, vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles. The root mean square of the surface EMG at each knee joint angle was calculated and normalized by that at a knee joint angle of 90° for individual muscles. The normalized RMS of the VI muscle was significantly lower than those of the VL and RF muscles at the knee joint angles of 115° and 165° and those of the VL, VM, and RF muscles at the knee joint angle of 140° (Pneuromuscular activation of the VI muscle is regulated in a manner different from the alteration of the knee joint angle compared with other muscle components of the QF muscle group. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L
While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric contraction phase of a knee extension exercise performed with elastic tubing and in training machine and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). Knee joint angle was measured during the exercises using electronic inclinometers (range of motion 0-90°). When comparing the machine and elastic resistance exercises there were no significant differences in peak EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) during the concentric contraction phase. However, during the eccentric phase, peak EMG was significantly higher (ptubing (5.7±0.6) compared with knee extensions performed in training machine (5.9±0.5). Knee extensions performed with elastic tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions displayed reciprocal EMG-angle patterns during the range of motion. 5.
Silva, Luís; Marta, Sérgio; Vaz, João; Fernandes, Orlando; Castro, Maria António; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro
There is a lack of studies regarding EMG temporal analysis during dynamic and complex motor tasks, such as golf swing. The aim of this study is to analyze the EMG onset during the golf swing, by comparing two different threshold methods. Method A threshold was determined using the baseline activity recorded between two maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Method B threshold was calculated using the mean EMG activity for 1000ms before the 500ms prior to the start of the Backswing. Two different clubs were also studied. Three-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare methods, muscles and clubs. Two-way mixed Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) with absolute agreement was used to determine the methods reliability. Club type usage showed no influence in onset detection. Rectus abdominis (RA) showed the higher agreement between methods. Erector spinae (ES), on the other hand, showed a very low agreement, that might be related to postural activity before the swing. External oblique (EO) is the first being activated, at 1295ms prior impact. There is a similar activation time between right and left muscles sides, although the right EO showed better agreement between methods than left side. Therefore, the algorithms usage is task- and muscle-dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Johann P; Jing, Bo
The EMG activity of upper limb muscles during human gait has rarely been studied previously. It was examined in 20 normal volunteers in four conditions: walking on a treadmill (1) with unrestrained natural arm swing (Normal), (2) while volitionally holding the arms still (Held), (3) with the arms immobilized (Bound), and (4) with the arms swinging in phase with the ipsilateral legs, i.e. opposite-to-normal phasing (Anti-Normal). Normal arm swing involved weak rhythmical lengthening and shortening contractions of arm and shoulder muscles. Phasic muscle activity was needed to keep the unrestricted arms still during walking (Held), indicating a passive component of arm swing. An active component, possibly programmed centrally, existed as well, because some EMG signals persisted when the arms were immobilized during walking (Bound). Anti-Normal gait involved stronger EMG activity than Normal walking and was uneconomical. The present results indicate that normal arm swing has both passive and active components. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Most dentists complain of musculoskeletal disorders which can be caused by prolonged static posture, lack of suitable rest and other physical and psychological problems. Objective: We evaluated a chair with a new ergonomic design which incorporated forward leaning chest and arm supports. Methods: The chair was evaluated in the laboratory during task simulation and EMG analysis on 12 students and subjectively assessed by 30 professional dentists using an 18-item questionnaire. EMG activity of right and left trapezius muscles for 12 male students with no musculoskeletal disorders was measured while simulating common tasks like working on the teeth of the lower jaw. Results: Normalized EMG data showed significant reduction (p<0.05 in all EMG recordings of the trapezius muscle. Dentists also unanimously preferred the ergonomically designed chair. Conclusion: Such ergonomically designed chairs should be introduced as early as possible in student training before bad postural habits are acquired.
Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K; Naik, Ganesh R
This research paper reports an experimental study on identification of the changes in fractal properties of surface Electromyogram (sEMG) with the changes in the force levels during low-level finger flexions. In the previous study, the authors have identified a novel fractal feature, Maximum fractal length (MFL) as a measure of strength of low-level contractions and has used this feature to identify various wrist and finger movements. This study has tested the relationship between the MFL and force of contraction. The results suggest that changes in MFL is correlated with the changes in contraction levels (20%, 50% and 80% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)) during low-level muscle activation such as finger flexions. From the statistical analysis and by visualisation using box-plot, it is observed that MFL (p ≈ 0.001) is a more correlated to force of contraction compared to RMS (p≈0.05), even when the muscle contraction is less than 50% MVC during low-level finger flexions. This work has established that this fractal feature will be useful in providing information about changes in levels of force during low-level finger movements for prosthetic control or human computer interface.
Hsu, Chao-Jung; Kim, Janis; Tang, Rongnian; Roth, Elliot J; Rymer, William Z; Wu, Ming
To determine whether applying a mediolateral corrective force to the pelvis during treadmill walking would enhance muscle activity of the paretic leg and improve gait symmetry in individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis. Fifteen subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis participated in this study. A customized cable-driven robotic system based over a treadmill generated a mediolateral corrective force to the pelvis toward the paretic side during early stance phase. Three different amounts of corrective force were applied. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the paretic leg, spatiotemporal gait parameters and pelvis lateral displacement were collected. Significant increases in integrated EMG of hip abductor, medial hamstrings, soleus, rectus femoris, vastus medialis and tibialis anterior were observed when pelvic corrective force was applied, with pelvic corrective force at 9% of body weight inducing greater muscle activity than 3% or 6% of body weight. Pelvis lateral displacement was more symmetric with pelvic corrective force at 9% of body weight. Applying a mediolateral pelvic corrective force toward the paretic side may enhance muscle activity of the paretic leg and improve pelvis displacement symmetry in individuals post-stroke. Forceful weight shift to the paretic side could potentially force additional use of the paretic leg and improve the walking pattern. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brochier, T; Spinks, R L; Umilta, M A; Lemon, R N
During object grasp, a coordinated activation of distal muscles is required to shape the hand in relation to the physical properties of the object. Despite the fundamental importance of the grasping action, little is known of the muscular activation patterns that allow objects of different sizes and shapes to be grasped. In a study of two adult macaque monkeys, we investigated whether we could distinguish between EMG activation patterns associated with grasp of 12 differently shaped objects, chosen to evoke a wide range of grasping postures. Each object was mounted on a horizontal shuttle held by a weak spring (load force 1-2 N). Objects were located in separate sectors of a "carousel," and inter-trial rotation of the carousel allowed sequential presentation of the objects in pseudorandom order. EMG activity from 10 to 12 digit, hand, and arm muscles was recorded using chronically implanted electrodes. We show that the grasp of different objects was characterized by complex but distinctive patterns of EMG activation. Cluster analysis shows that these object-related EMG patterns were specific and consistent enough to identify the object unequivocally from the EMG recordings alone. EMG-based object identification required a minimum of six EMGs from simultaneously recorded muscles. EMG patterns were consistent across recording sessions in a given monkey but showed some differences between animals. These results identify the specific patterns of activity required to achieve distinct hand postures for grasping, and they open the way to our understanding of how these patterns are generated by the central motor network.
Aim The aim of this study was to identify adaptations in muscle activity distribution to spinal tissue creep in presence of muscle fatigue. Methods Twenty-three healthy participants performed a fatigue task before and after 30 minutes of passive spinal tissue deformation in flexion. Right and left erector spinae activity was recorded using large-arrays surface electromyography (EMG). To characterize muscle activity distribution, dispersion was used. During the fatigue task, EMG amplitude root mean square (RMS), median frequency and dispersion in x- and y-axis were compared before and after spinal creep. Results Important fatigue-related changes in EMG median frequency were observed during muscle fatigue. Median frequency values showed a significant main creep effect, with lower median frequency values on the left side under the creep condition (p≤0.0001). A significant main creep effect on RMS values was also observed as RMS values were higher after creep deformation on the right side (p = 0.014); a similar tendency, although not significant, was observed on the left side (p = 0.06). A significant creep effects for x-axis dispersion values was observed, with higher dispersion values following the deformation protocol on the left side (p≤0.001). Regarding y-axis dispersion values, a significant creep x fatigue interaction effect was observed on the left side (p = 0.016); a similar tendency, although not significant, was observed on the right side (p = 0.08). Conclusion Combined muscle fatigue and creep deformation of spinal tissues led to changes in muscle activity amplitude, frequency domain and distribution. PMID:26866911
Celhay, Isabel; Cordova, Rosa; Miralles, Rodolfo; Meza, Francisco; Erices, Pia; Barrientos, Camilo; Valenzuela, Saúl
To compare electromyographic (EMG) activity in young-adult subjects with different breathing types. This study included 50 healthy male subjects with complete natural dentition, and no history of orofacial pain or craniomandibular-cervical-spinal disorders. Subjects were classified into two groups: upper costal breathing type, and costo-diaphragmatic breathing. Bipolar surface electrodes were located on sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal, and latissimus dorsi muscles. Electromyographic activity was recorded during the following tasks: (1) normal quiet breathing; (2) speaking the word 'Mississippi'; (3) swallowing saliva; and (4) forced deep breathing. Sternocleidomastoid and latissimus dorsi EMG activity was not significantly different between breathing types, whereas diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal than costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P<0·05; Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test). Diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type.
Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per; Rosted, Anne
, maximal isometric strength, RFD, and muscle activation in elderly men and women recovering from long-term muscle disuse and subsequent hip surgery. The improvement in both muscle mass and neural function is likely to have important functional implications for elderly individuals........ Thirty subjects completed the trial. In the strength-training group, significant increases were observed in maximal isometric muscle strength (24%, P impulse (27-32%, P
Diederichsen, L.P.; Winther, A.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.
healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0A degrees......Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven...... muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper...
Kitamura, Junichi; Maruyama, Hideharu; Yamamura, Yoshinori; Kurihara, Teruyuki; Matsukura, Shigeru
Case 1 was a 25-year-old male who developed coma and the swelling of the left thigh after he was medicated with many kinds of major and minor tranquilizers. Serum CK and myoglobin levels were 26, 600 IU/l (normal value : less than 120 IU/l) and 196 ng/ml (normal value : less than 60 ng/ml), respectively. X-CT revealed low density area in the central portion of the adductor muscle of the left thigh. Case 2 was a 63-year-old male who developed paraplegia and the swelling of the right thigh. Serum CK and myoglobin levels were 39,960 IU/L and 406 ng/ml respectively. The biopsy of the right anterior tibialis muscle revealed non-specific ischemic myogenic changes. Electromyographic studies revealed two different changes. One was myogenic changes in the adductor muscle of the right thigh, which was not complicated by the compartment syndrome. The other was denervation changes in the right tibialis anterior, which was complicated by the compartment syndrome. MRI reflected the biopsy findings, such as the swelling of the myocytes and the interstitial tissues better than X-CT. ARML is one of emergency muscle disorders. Early diagnosis and adequate fluid therapy to prevent renal failure are indispensable and lifesaving. Both cases were treated successfully, and they became ambulatory upon discharge.
Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md.; Taha, Zahari
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of load on upper limb muscles and brain activities in light assembly task. The task was conducted at two levels of load (Low and high). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper limb muscle activities of twenty subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded with EMG to record brain activities from Fz, Pz, O1 and O2 channels. The EMG Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the right brachioradialis and the left upper trapezius activities were higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task. The EMG MPF values also decrease as time increases, that reflects muscle fatigue. Mean power of the EEG alpha bands for the Fz-Pz channels were found to be higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task, while for the O1-O2 channels, they were higher on the low-load task than on the high-load task. These results indicated that the load levels effect the upper limb muscle and brain activities. The high-load task will increase muscle activities on the right brachioradialis and the left upper tapezius muscles, and will increase the awareness and motivation of the subjects. Whilst the low-load task can generate drowsiness earlier. It signified that the longer the time and the more heavy of the task, the subjects will be more fatigue physically and mentally.
Khorievin, V I; Horkovenko, A V; Vereshchaka, I V
Squatting can be performed on ankle strategy when ankle joint is flexed more than a hip joint and on hip strategy when large changes occur at the hip joint. The relationships between changes ofjoint angles and electromyogram (EMG) of the leg muscles were studied in five healthy men during squatting that was performed at the ankle and hip strategies with a slow changes in the knee angle of 40 and 60 degrees. It is established that at ankle strategy the ankle muscles were activated ahead of joint angle changes and shifting the center of pressure (CT) on stabilographic platform, whereas activation of the thigh muscles began simultaneously with the change of the joint angles, showing the clear adaptation in successive trials and a linear relationships between the static EMG component and the angle changes of the ankle joint. In the case of hip strategy of squatting the thigh muscles were activated simultaneously with the change in the joint angles and the displacement of CT, whereas the ankle muscles were activated later than the thigh muscles, especially the muscle tibialis anterior, showing some adaptations in consecutive attempts. At the ankle strategy the EMG amplitude was greatest in thigh muscles, reproducing contour of changes in joint angles, whereas the ankle muscles were activated only slightly during changes of joint angles. In the case of hip strategy dominated the EMG amplitude of the muscle tibialis anterior, which was activated when driving down the trunk and fixation of the joint angles that was accompanied by a slight coactivation of the calf muscles with the step-like increase in the amplitude of the EMG of the thigh muscles. Choice of leg muscles to start the squatting on both strategies occurred without a definite pattern, which may indicate the existence of a wide range of options for muscle activity in a single strategy.
Alister du Rose
Full Text Available Control of the lumbar spine requires contributions from both the active and passive sub-systems. Identifying interactions between these systems may provide insight into the mechanisms of low back pain. However, as a first step it is important to investigate what is normal. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between the lumbar inter-vertebral range of motion and paraspinal muscle activity during weight-bearing flexion in healthy controls using quantitative fluoroscopy (QF and surface electromyography (sEMG. Contemporaneous lumbar sEMG and QF motion sequences were recorded during controlled active flexion of 60° using electrodes placed over Longissimus thoracis pars thoracis (TES, Longissimus thoracis pars lumborum (LES, and Multifidus (LMU. Normalised root mean square (RMS sEMG amplitude data were averaged over five epochs, and the change in amplitude between epochs was calculated. The sEMG ratios of LMU/LES LMU/TES and LES/TES were also determined. QF was used to measure the maximum inter-vertebral range of motion from L2-S1, and correlation coefficients were calculated between sEMG amplitude variables and these measurements. Intra- and inter-session sEMG amplitude repeatability was also assessed for all three paraspinal muscles. The sEMG amplitude measurements were highly repeatable, and sEMG amplitude changes correlated significantly with L4-5 and L5-S1 IV-RoMmax (r = −0.47 to 0.59. The sEMG amplitude ratio of LES/TES also correlated with L4-L5 IV-RoMmax (r = −0.53. The relationships found may be important when considering rehabilitation for low back pain.
du Rose, Alister; Breen, Alan
Control of the lumbar spine requires contributions from both the active and passive sub-systems. Identifying interactions between these systems may provide insight into the mechanisms of low back pain. However, as a first step it is important to investigate what is normal. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between the lumbar inter-vertebral range of motion and paraspinal muscle activity during weight-bearing flexion in healthy controls using quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) and surface electromyography (sEMG). Contemporaneous lumbar sEMG and QF motion sequences were recorded during controlled active flexion of 60° using electrodes placed over Longissimus thoracis pars thoracis (TES), Longissimus thoracis pars lumborum (LES), and Multifidus (LMU). Normalised root mean square (RMS) sEMG amplitude data were averaged over five epochs, and the change in amplitude between epochs was calculated. The sEMG ratios of LMU/LES LMU/TES and LES/TES were also determined. QF was used to measure the maximum inter-vertebral range of motion from L2-S1, and correlation coefficients were calculated between sEMG amplitude variables and these measurements. Intra- and inter-session sEMG amplitude repeatability was also assessed for all three paraspinal muscles. The sEMG amplitude measurements were highly repeatable, and sEMG amplitude changes correlated significantly with L4-5 and L5-S1 IV-RoMmax (r = -0.47 to 0.59). The sEMG amplitude ratio of LES/TES also correlated with L4-L5 IV-RoMmax (r = -0.53). The relationships found may be important when considering rehabilitation for low back pain.
Ma’arof Muhammad Izzat Nor
Full Text Available Motorcycling postures are generically speculated to be physical and physiologically demanding – which in-turn may lead to motorcycling fatigue, and then becoming a possible factor to road accident. The objective of this study was to measure the muscular activities of various motorcycling postures. High muscular activity reading will signifies that motorcycling is indeed physically and physiologically demanding to the motorcyclist. For this particular study, the following postures were tested: i forward lean, ii upright sitting, and iii neutral sitting (as control. Surface electromyography (sEMG measurement was conducted on the following muscles: i extensor carpi radialis, ii upper trapezius iii latissimus dorsi, and iv erector spinae. The results showed that for all test subjects, the muscular activities readings for the forward lean posture was actually close to neutral sitting’s. Whilst, the upright sitting had showed much higher muscular activities measurement instead. Conclusively, this study had proven that any types of discomforts associated with the forward lean posture is not originated from muscular activities. Whereas, confirming that any discomforts in regards to the upright sitting is indeed related to muscular activities. Further studies are warranted to discover the actual risk factors that causes physical and physiological discomforts for the forward lean motorcycling posture.
Full Text Available A review study was conducted on existing lower-limb orthosis systems for rehabilitation which implemented pneumatic muscle type of actuators with the aim to clarify the current and on-going research in this field. The implementation of pneumatic artificial muscle will play an important role for the development of the advanced robotic system. In this research a derivation model for the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles using pneumatic artificial muscles of a lower limb orthosis will be verified with actual human’s muscle activities models. A healthy and young male 29 years old subject with height 174cm and weight 68kg was used as a test subject. Two mono-articular muscles Vastus Medialis (VM and Vastus Lateralis (VL were selected to verify the mono-articular muscle models and muscle synergy between anterior muscles. Two biarticular muscles Rectus Femoris (RF and Bicep Femoris (BF were selected to verify the bi-articular muscle models and muscle co-contraction between anterior-posterior muscles. The test was carried out on a treadmill with a speed of 4.0 km/h, which approximately around 1.25 m/s for completing one cycle of walking motion. The data was collected for about one minute on a treadmill and 20 complete cycles of walking motion were successfully recorded. For the evaluations, the mathematical model obtained from the derivation and the actual human muscle activation patterns obtained using the surface electromyography (sEMG system were compared and analysed. The results shown that, high correlation values ranging from 0.83 up to 0.93 were obtained in between the derivation model and the actual human muscle’s model for both mono- and biarticular muscles. As a conclusion, based on the verification with the sEMG muscle activities data and its correlation values, the proposed derivation models of the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular muscles were suitable to simulate and controls the pneumatic muscles actuated lower limb
Andersen, Christoffer H; Zebis, Mette K; Saervoll, Charlotte
A balanced level of muscle strength between the different parts of the scapular muscles is important to optimize performance and prevent injuries in athletes. Emerging evidence suggests that many athletes lack balanced strength in the scapular muscles. Evidence based recommendations are important...... for proper exercise prescription. This study determines scapular muscle activity during strengthening exercises for scapular muscles performed at low and high intensities (Borg-CR10 level 3 and 8). Surface electromyography (EMG) from selected scapular muscles was recorded during seven strengthening exercises...... and expressed as a percentage of the maximal EMG. Seventeen women (aged 24-55 years) without serious disorders participated. Several of the investigated exercises - press-up, prone flexion, one-arm row and prone abduction at Borg 3 and press-up, push-up plus and one-arm row at Borg 8 - predominantly activated...
NIKOLAOS AGGELOUSIS; NIKOLAOS MANTZOURANIS; THEOPHILOS PILIANIDIS; GEORGIOS DASTERIDIS
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different training programs on electromyographic activity (EMG), isometric strength and quadriceps hypertrophy in track and field athletes. 27 male adolescents athletes were divided in three (3) groups of nine (9), the Neuromuscular Group (NeuroGr), the Hypertrophy Group (HyperGr) and the Control Group (ControlG). The participants in both NeuroGr and HyperGr trained 3 times per week for 8 weeks while the athletes’of ControlGr did not tak...
Bodéré, Céline; Téa, Say Hack; Giroux-Metges, Marie Agnes; Woda, Alain
The existence of a pathophysiological link between tonic muscle activity and chronic muscle pain is still being debated. The purpose of this retrospective, controlled study was to evaluate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of masticatory muscles in subjects with different orofacial pain conditions. The temporal and masseter EMG activity at rest and the masseteric reflex were recorded in two groups of patients with either myofascial pain (n=33) or neuropathic pain (n=20), one group of non-pain patients with disc derangement disorders (n=27) and one control group of healthy, asymptomatic subjects (n=32). The EMG activities of both muscles at rest were significantly higher in the pain patient groups compared to the asymptomatic control group. There was no significant difference between the disc derangement disorder group and the control group. The masseteric reflex amplitude was reduced in all patient groups when compared with the control group. In pain patient groups, the increased EMG activity at rest and the reduction of the masseteric reflex amplitude were equally distributed in the pain and non-pain sides. In addition, subjects presenting with bilateral pain showed higher EMG activity at rest than those with unilateral pain. These results suggested that the modulation of muscle activity was not the direct consequence of a peripheral nociceptive mechanism and seemed to indicate that a central mechanism was at work. The contrast between the increased EMG activity at rest and the reduction of the masseteric reflex amplitude may reflect modulations of motoneurones that differed in tonic versus phasic conditions in chronic pain patients.
Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Ishida, Tomoya; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Hirokawa, Motoki; Ezawa, Yuya; Sugawara, Makoto; Tohyama, Harukazu; Yamanaka, Masanori
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the upper, middle, and lower trapezius muscles' activity in the different planes of shoulder elevation. [Subjects] Twenty male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity for each of the three regions of the trapezius muscles in the three different planes of elevation were collected while the participants maintained 30, 60, and 90 degrees of elevation in each plane. The EMG data were normalized with maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC), and compared among the planes at each angle of elevation. [Results] There were significantly different muscle activities among the elevation planes at each angle. [Conclusion] This study found that the three regions of the trapezius muscles changed their activity depending on the planes of shoulder elevation. These changes in the trapezius muscles could induce appropriate scapular motion to face the glenoid cavity in the correct directions in different planes of shoulder elevation.
Wang, Mei-Qing; He, Jian-Jun; Wang, Kelun; Svensson, Peter
To test whether changes in occlusal support differentially modulate masseter and anterior temporalis muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during controlled maximal voluntary clenching. Forty-seven healthy subjects (32 M and 15 F, 22.9+/-1.3 years) were recruited. Cotton-rolls were used to modify the occlusal contact relations and were positioned on the right, left, or both sides, and either in the molar or premolar regions, i.e. six different occlusal combinations. Surface EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from the masseter and anterior temporalis area and normalized with respect to maximal voluntary clenching in the intercuspal position. Analysis of variance and the paired t-test were used to test the data. Normalized EMG activity was influenced by changes in cotton-roll modified occlusal support, and there were differences between muscles (pocclusal support was moved from the molar to the premolar region. When occlusal support was moved from bilateral to unilateral contacts, EMG activity in the balancing-side anterior temporalis muscle and in bilateral masseter muscles decreased. Unilateral clenching on the molars, but not on the premolars, was associated with lower EMG activity in the balancing-side masseter and always associated with lower EMG activity in the balancing-side anterior temporalis compared to the working side (pocclusal support, which may have implications for stability of the mandible during intense clenching.
Behm, David G; Cappa, Dario; Power, Geoffrey A
Time constraints are cited as a barrier to regular exercise. If particular exercises can achieve multiple training functions, the number of exercises and the time needed to achieve a training goal may be decreased. It was the objective of this study to compare the extent of trunk muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during running and callisthenic activities. EMG activity of the external obliques, lower abdominals (LA), upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES), and lumbosacral erector spinae (LSES) was monitored while triathletes and active nonrunners ran on a treadmill for 30 min at 60% and 80% of their maximum heart rate (HR) reserve, as well as during 30 repetitions of a partial curl-up and 3 min of a modified Biering-Sørensen back extension exercise. The mean root mean square (RMS) amplitude of the EMG signal was monitored over 10-s periods with measures normalized to a maximum voluntary contraction rotating curl-up (external obliques), hollowing exercise (LA), or back extension (ULES and LSES). A main effect for group was that triathletes had greater overall activation of the external obliques (p runs, respectively, than with the curl-ups (p = 0.001). The back extension exercise provided less ULES (p = 0.009) and LSES (p = 0.0001) EMG activity than the 60% and 80% runs, respectively. In conclusion, triathletes had greater trunk activation than nonrunners did while running, which could have contributed to their better performance. Back-stabilizing muscles can be activated more effectively with running than with a prolonged back extension activity. Running can be considered as an efficient, multifunctional exercise combining cardiovascular and trunk endurance benefits.
Dieën, J.H. van; Westebring van der; Putten, E.P.; Kingma, I.; Looze, M.P. de
This study was designed to determine whether trunk extensor fatigue occurs during low-level activity and whether this is associated with a drop in muscle tissue oxygenation. Electromyography (EMG) feedback was used to impose constant activity in a part of the trunk extensor muscles. We hypothesized
Pesola, Arto J; Laukkanen, Arto; Haakana, Piia; Havu, Marko; Sääkslahti, Arja; Sipilä, Sarianna; Finni, Taija
Interventions targeting sedentary time are needed. We used detailed EMG recordings to study the short-term effectiveness of simple sedentary time-targeted tailored counseling on the total physical activity spectrum. This cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted between 2011 and 2013 (InPact, ISRCTN28668090), and short-term effectiveness of counseling is reported in the present study. A total of 133 office workers volunteered to participate, from which muscle activity data were analyzed from 48 (intervention, n = 24; control, n = 24). After a lecture, face-to-face tailored counseling was used to set contractually binding goals regarding breaking up sitting periods and increasing family based physical activity. Primary outcome measures were assessed 11.8 ± 1.1 h before and a maximum of 2 wk after counseling including quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity time, sum of the five longest muscle inactivity periods, and light muscle activity time during work, commute, and leisure time. Compared with those in the controls, counseling decreased the intervention group's muscle inactivity time by 32.6 ± 71.8 min from 69.1% ± 8.5% to 64.6% ± 10.9% (whole day, P work, P activity time increased by 20.6 ± 52.6 min, from 22.2% ± 7.9% to 25.0% ± 9.7% (whole day, P work, P work time, average EMG amplitude (percentage of EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) (%EMG MVC)) increased from 1.6% ± 0.9% to 1.8% ± 1.0% (P activity. During work time, average EMG amplitude increased by 13%, reaching an average of 1.8% of EMG MVC. If maintained, this observed short-term effect may have health-benefiting consequences.
Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K
Whether masticatory efficiency and electromyographic activity are influenced by type of artificial teeth and food is unclear. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the influence of extension base removable partial dentures (RPDs) with different cusp angles: anatomic (33 degrees), semianatomic (20 degrees), and nonanatomic (0 degrees) teeth on masticatory efficiency and muscle activity during the mastication of test foods with different textures. Twelve participants with RPDs were selected to perform masticatory efficiency and electromyographic tests. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were used to record the activities of the masseter and temporalis muscles during the mastication of different types of test foods. The maximal voltage and duration were measured on the integrated EMG signal in each muscle during food mastication, and the mean reading of both sides was then recorded. Analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test were used to perform statistical analyses (α=.05). The masticatory efficiency of RPDs with nonanatomic teeth was significantly inferior to that of RPDs with anatomic and semianatomic teeth (P.05). Also, muscle activity (according to EMG) with RPDs with NA teeth was significantly higher than that with anatomic and semianatomic teeth (P<.05). RPDs with NA teeth were associated with higher EMG muscle activity and reduced masticatory efficiency than anatomic or semianatomic teeth. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gupta, Ashutosh; Sayed, Tabassum; Garg, Ridhi; Shreyam, Richa
Electromyography is a method to evaluate levels of muscle activity. When a muscle contracts, an action potential is generated and this circulates along the muscular fibers. In electromyography, electrodes are connected to the skin and the electrical activity of muscles is measured and graph is plotted. The surface EMG signals picked up during the muscular activity are interfaced with a system. The EMG signals from individual suffering from Neuropathy and healthy individual, so obtained, are processed and analyzed using signal processing techniques. This project includes the investigation and interpretation of EMG signals of healthy and Neuropathic individuals using MATLAB. The prospective use of this study is in developing the prosthetic device for the people with Neuropathic disability.
Smith Toby O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS is a commonly reported cause of shoulder pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to examine whether a difference in electromyographic (EMG activity of the shoulder complex exists between people with SIS and healthy controls. Methods Medline, CINAHL, AMED, EMBASE, and grey literature databases were searched from their inception to November 2008. Inclusion, data extraction and trial quality were assessed in duplicate. Results Nine studies documented in eleven papers, eight comparing EMG intensity and three comparing EMG onset timing, representing 141 people with SIS and 138 controls were included. Between one and five studies investigated each muscle totalling between 20 and 182 participants. The two highest quality studies of five report a significant increase in EMG intensity in upper trapezius during scaption in subjects with SIS. There was evidence from 2 studies of a delayed activation of lower trapezius in patients with SIS. There was otherwise no evidence of a consistent difference in EMG activity between the shoulders of subjects with painful SIS and healthy controls. Conclusions A difference may exist in EMG activity within some muscles, in particular upper and lower trapezius, between people with SIS and healthy controls. These muscles may be targets for clinical interventions aiding rehabilitation for people with SIS. These differences should be investigated in a larger, high quality survey and the effects of therapeutically targeting these muscles in a randomised controlled trial.
Solheim, Jens Asmund Brevik; Bencke, Jesper
Purpose/Background Several studies have examined the effect of hamstring strength exercises upon hamstring strains in team sports that involve many sprints. However, there has been no cross comparison among muscle activation of these hamstring training exercises with actual sprinting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine different hamstring exercises and compare the muscle activity in the hamstring muscle group during various exercises with the muscular activity produced during maximal sprints. Methods Twelve male sports students (age 25 ± 6.2 years, 1.80 ± 7.1 m, body mass 81.1 ± 15.6 kg) participated in this study. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris to measure muscle activity during seven hamstrings exercises and sprinting together with 3D motion capture to establish at what hip and knee angles maximal muscle activation (EMG) occurs. Maximal EMG activity during sprints for each muscle was used in order to express each exercise as a percentage of max activation during sprinting. Results The main findings were that maximal EMG activity of the different hamstring exercises were on average between 40-65% (Semitendinosus), 18-40% (biceps femoris) and 40-75% (Semimembranosus) compared with the max EMG activity in sprints, which were considered as 100%. The laying kick together with the Nordic hamstring exercises and its variations had the highest muscle activations, while the cranes showed the lowest muscle activation (in all muscles) together with the standing kick for the semimembranosus. In addition, angles at which the peak EMG activity of the hamstring muscle occurs were similar for the Nordic hamstring exercises and different for the two crane exercises (hip angle), standing kick (hip angle) and the laying kick (knee angle) compared with the sprint. Conclusions Nordic hamstring exercises with its variation together with the laying kick activates the hamstrings at high levels and
T. Lang; R. Parker; T. Burgess
Pathophysiological mechanisms behind pain in chroniccervical musculoskeletal conditions (MSC) in office workers remainunclear. Chronic cervical pain has established links with temporomandibular(TM) disorders. Yet there is no current published evidence to reportwhether individuals with cervical dysfunction exhibit altered masseterand cervical extensor (CE) muscle activity. Objective: To explore CE andmasseter surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity and teeth clenchinghabits in females with c...
Kuzmina, G. I.
The effects of caloric and electric stimulation of the vestibular receptors on the EMG activity of limb muslces in anesthetized cats during cold induced shivering involved flexor muscles alone. Both types of stimulation suppressed bioelectrical activity more effectively in the ipsilateral muscles. The suppression of shivering activity seems to be due to the increased inhibitory effect of descending labyrinth pathways on the function of flexor motoneurons.
Coelho, A C; Cannon, D T; Cao, R; Porszasz, J; Casaburi, R; Knorst, M M; Rossiter, H B
A rapid switch from hyperbolic to isokinetic cycling allows the velocity-specific decline in maximal power to be measured, i.e., fatigue. We reasoned that, should the baseline relationship between isokinetic power (Piso) and electromyography (EMG) be reproducible, then contributions to fatigue may be isolated from 1) the decline in muscle activation (muscle activation fatigue); and 2) the decline in Piso at a given activation (muscle fatigue). We hypothesized that the EMG-Piso relationship is linear, velocity dependent, and reliable for instantaneous fatigue assessment at intolerance during and following whole body exercise. Healthy participants (n = 13) completed short (5 s) variable-effort isokinetic bouts at 50, 70, and 100 rpm to characterize baseline EMG-Piso. Repeated ramp incremental exercise tests were terminated with maximal isokinetic cycling (5 s) at 70 rpm. Individual baseline EMG-Piso relationships were linear (r(2) = 0.95 ± 0.04) and velocity dependent (analysis of covariance). Piso at intolerance (two legs, 335 ± 88 W) was ∼45% less than baseline [630 ± 156 W, confidence interval of the difference (CIDifference) 211, 380 W, P fatigue and muscle fatigue (one leg) were 97 ± 55 and 60 ± 50 W, respectively. Mean bias ± limits of agreement for reproducibility were as follows: baseline Piso 1 ± 30 W; Piso at 0-min recovery 3 ± 35 W; and EMG at Piso 3 ± 14%. EMG power is linear, velocity dependent, and reproducible. Deviation from this relationship at the limit of tolerance can quantify the "activation" and "muscle" related components of fatigue during cycling. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Full Text Available Objectives. The main objective was to determine how the depth of probe placement affects functional and resting bioelectrical activity of the PFM and whether the recorded signal might be dependent on the direction in which the probe is rotated. Participants. The study comprised of healthy, nulliparous women between the ages of 21 and 25. Outcome Measures. Bioelectric activity of the PFM was recorded from four locations of the vagina by surface EMG and vaginal probe. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between the results during functional sEMG activity. During resting sEMG activity, the highest bioelectrical activity of the PFM was observed in the L1 and the lowest in the L4 and a statistically significant difference between the highest and the lowest results of resting sEMG activity was observed (P=0.0043. Conclusion. Different electrodes placement during functional contraction of PFM does not affect the obtained results in sEMG evaluation. In order to diagnose the highest resting activity of PFM the recording plates should be placed toward the anterior vaginal wall and distally from the introitus. However, all of the PFM have similar bioelectrical activity and it seems that these muscles could be treated as a single muscle.
Roe, Seán M.; Johnson, Christopher D.; Tansey, Etain A.
The measurement and representation of the electrical activity of muscles [electromyography (EMG)] have a long history from the Victorian Era until today. Currently, EMG has uses both as a research tool, in noninvasively recording muscle activation, and clinically in the diagnosis and assessment of nerve and muscle disease and injury as well as in…
Nigg, B M; Stefanyshyn, D; Cole, G; Stergiou, P; Miller, J
The purposes of this study were (a) to determine group and individual differences in oxygen consumption during heel-toe running and (b) to quantify the differences in EMG activity for selected muscle groups of the lower extremities when running in shoes with different mechanical heel characteristics. Twenty male runners performed heel-toe running using two shoe conditions, one with a mainly elastic and a visco-elastic heel. Oxygen consumption was quantified during steady state runs of 6 min duration, running slightly above the aerobic threshold providing four pairs of oxygen consumption results for comparison. Muscle activity was quantified using bipolar surface EMG measurements from the tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, vastus medialis and the hamstrings muscle groups. EMG data were sampled for 5 s every minute for the 6 min providing 30 trials. EMG data were compared for the different conditions using an ANOVA (alpha=0.05). The findings of this study showed that changes in the heel material characteristics of running shoes were associated with (a) subject specific changes in oxygen consumption and (b) subject and muscle specific changes in the intensities of muscle activation before heel strike in the lower extremities. It is suggested that further study of these phenomena will help understand many aspects of human locomotion, including work, performance, fatigue and possible injuries.
Angelova, Silvija; Ribagin, Simeon; Raikova, Rositsa; Veneva, Ivanka
After a stroke, motor units stop working properly and large, fast-twitch units are more frequently affected. Their impaired functions can be investigated during dynamic tasks using electromyographic (EMG) signal analysis. The aim of this paper is to investigate changes in the parameters of the power/frequency function during elbow flexion between affected, non-affected, and healthy muscles. Fifteen healthy subjects and ten stroke survivors participated in the experiments. Electromyographic data from 6 muscles of the upper limbs during elbow flexion were filtered and normalized to the amplitudes of EMG signals during maximal isometric tasks. The moments when motion started and when the flexion angle reached its maximal value were found. Equal intervals of 0.3407 s were defined between these two moments and one additional interval before the start of the flexion (first one) was supplemented. For each of these intervals the power/frequency function of EMG signals was calculated. The mean (MNF) and median frequencies (MDF), the maximal power (MPw) and the area under the power function (APw) were calculated. MNF was always higher than MDF. A significant decrease in these frequencies was found in only three post-stroke survivors. The frequencies in the first time interval were nearly always the highest among all intervals. The maximal power was nearly zero during first time interval and increased during the next ones. The largest values of MPw and APw were found for the flexor muscles and they increased for the muscles of the affected arm compared to the non-affected one of stroke survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Donovan, Edward R; Keeney, Brooke K; Kung, Eric; Makan, Sirish; Wild, J Martin; Altshuler, Douglas L
Flying animals exhibit profound transformations in anatomy, physiology, and neural architecture. Although much is known about adaptations in the avian skeleton and musculature, less is known about neuroanatomy and motor unit integration for bird flight. Hummingbirds are among the most maneuverable and specialized of vertebrate fliers, and two unusual neuromuscular features have been previously reported: (1) the pectoralis major has a unique distribution pattern of motor end plates (MEPs) compared with all other birds and (2) electromyograms (EMGs) from the hummingbird's pectoral muscles, the pectoralis major and the supracoracoideus, show activation bursts composed of one or a few spikes that appear to have a very consistent pattern. Here, we place these findings in a broader context by comparing the MEPs, EMGs, and organization of the spinal motor neuron pools of flight muscles of Anna's hummingbird Calypte anna, zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, and, for MEPs, several other species. The previously shown MEP pattern of the hummingbird pectoralis major is not shared with its closest taxonomic relative, the swift, and appears to be unique to hummingbirds. MEP arrangements in previously undocumented wing muscles show patterns that differ somewhat from other avian muscles. In the parallel-fibered strap muscles of the shoulder, MEP patterns appear to relate to muscle length, with the smallest muscles having fibers that span the entire muscle. MEP patterns in pennate distal wing muscles were the same regardless of size, with tightly clustered bands in the middle portion of the muscle, not evenly distributed bands over the muscle's entire length. Muscle activations were examined during slow forward flight in both species, during hovering in hummingbirds, and during slow ascents in zebra finches. The EMG bursts of a wing muscle, the pronator superficialis, were highly variable in peak number, size, and distribution across wingbeats for both species. In the pectoralis
Johnston, Jamie A; Bobich, Lisa R; Santello, Marco
Fingertip forces result from the activation of muscles that cross the wrist and muscles whose origins and insertions reside within the hand (extrinsic and intrinsic hand muscles, respectively). Thus, tasks that involve changes in wrist angle affect the moment arm and length, hence the force-producing capabilities, of extrinsic muscles only. If a grasping task requires the exertion of constant fingertip forces, the Central Nervous System (CNS) may respond to changes in wrist angle by modulating the neural drive to extrinsic or intrinsic muscles only or by co-activating both sets of muscles. To distinguish between these scenarios, we recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the thumb and index finger as a function of wrist angle during a two-digit object hold task. We hypothesized that changes in wrist angle would elicit EMG amplitude modulation of the extrinsic and intrinsic hand muscles. In one experimental condition we asked subjects to exert the same digit forces at each wrist angle, whereas in a second condition subjects could choose digit forces for holding the object. EMG activity was significantly modulated in both extrinsic and intrinsic muscles as a function of wrist angle (both pextrinsic and intrinsic muscles as a muscle synergy. These findings are discussed within the theoretical frameworks of synergies and common neural input across motor nuclei of hand muscles. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ropars, Juliette; Lempereur, Mathieu; Vuillerot, Carole; Tiffreau, Vincent; Peudenier, Sylviane; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Pereon, Yann; Leboeuf, Fabien; Delporte, Ludovic; Delpierre, Yannick; Gross, Raphaël; Brochard, Sylvain
The aim of this prospective study was to investigate changes in muscle activity during gait in children with Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Dynamic surface electromyography recordings (EMGs) of 16 children with DMD and pathological gait were compared with those of 15 control children. The activity of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), medial hamstrings (HS), tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius soleus (GAS) muscles was recorded and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The overall muscle activity in the children with DMD was significantly different from that of the control group. Percentage activation amplitudes of RF, HS and TA were greater throughout the gait cycle in the children with DMD and the timing of GAS activity differed from the control children. Significantly greater muscle coactivation was found in the children with DMD. There were no significant differences between sides. Since the motor command is normal in DMD, the hyper-activity and co-contractions likely compensate for gait instability and muscle weakness, however may have negative consequences on the muscles and may increase the energy cost of gait. Simple rehabilitative strategies such as targeted physical therapies may improve stability and thus the pattern of muscle activity.
Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to investigate changes in muscle activity during gait in children with Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD. Dynamic surface electromyography recordings (EMGs of 16 children with DMD and pathological gait were compared with those of 15 control children. The activity of the rectus femoris (RF, vastus lateralis (VL, medial hamstrings (HS, tibialis anterior (TA and gastrocnemius soleus (GAS muscles was recorded and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The overall muscle activity in the children with DMD was significantly different from that of the control group. Percentage activation amplitudes of RF, HS and TA were greater throughout the gait cycle in the children with DMD and the timing of GAS activity differed from the control children. Significantly greater muscle coactivation was found in the children with DMD. There were no significant differences between sides. Since the motor command is normal in DMD, the hyper-activity and co-contractions likely compensate for gait instability and muscle weakness, however may have negative consequences on the muscles and may increase the energy cost of gait. Simple rehabilitative strategies such as targeted physical therapies may improve stability and thus the pattern of muscle activity.
Tobalske, Bret W; Biewener, Andrew A; Warrick, Douglas R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Powers, Donald R
Hummingbirds have the smallest body size and highest wingbeat frequencies of all flying vertebrates, so they represent one endpoint for evaluating the effects of body size on sustained muscle function and flight performance. Other bird species vary neuromuscular recruitment and contractile behavior to accomplish flight over a wide range of speeds, typically exhibiting a U-shaped curve with maxima at the slowest and fastest flight speeds. To test whether the high wingbeat frequencies and aerodynamically active upstroke of hummingbirds lead to different patterns, we flew rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus, 3 g body mass, 42 Hz wingbeat frequency) in a variable-speed wind tunnel (0-10 m s(-1)). We measured neuromuscular activity in the pectoralis (PECT) and supracoracoideus (SUPRA) muscles using electromyography (EMG, N=4 birds), and we measured changes in PECT length using sonomicrometry (N=1). Differing markedly from the pattern in other birds, PECT deactivation occurred before the start of downstroke and the SUPRA was deactivated before the start of upstroke. The relative amplitude of EMG signal in the PECT and SUPRA varied according to a U-shaped curve with flight speed; additionally, the onset of SUPRA activity became relatively later in the wingbeat at intermediate flight speeds (4 and 6 m s(-1)). Variation in the relative amplitude of EMG was comparable with that observed in other birds but the timing of muscle activity was different. These data indicate the high wingbeat frequency of hummingbirds limits the time available for flight muscle relaxation before the next half stroke of a wingbeat. Unlike in a previous study that reported single-twitch EMG signals in the PECT of hovering hummingbirds, across all flight speeds we observed 2.9+/-0.8 spikes per contraction in the PECT and 3.8+/-0.8 spikes per contraction in the SUPRA. Muscle strain in the PECT was 10.8+/-0.5%, the lowest reported for a flying bird, and average strain rate was 7.4+/-0.2 muscle
Virmavirta, M; Komi, P V
Plantar pressures and activation of the four muscles (VL - vastus lateralis, GL - gluteus, TA - tibialis anterior and GA - lat. gastrocnemius) were measured from ten ski jumpers under simulated laboratory conditions with training shoes (Lab TS) and with jumping boots (Lab JB) as well as in actual hill jumping conditions (Hill). The most significant differences between measured conditions were found in muscle activation patterns and plantar pressures prior to take-off. The centrifugal force due to the curvature of the inrun under actual hill jumping conditions caused extra pressure under the fore and rear parts of the feet (Pknee and hip extensor muscles.
Larsman, P; Thorn, S; Søgaard, K
The current study investigated the associations between work-related perceived stress and surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (muscle activity and muscle rest) during standardized simulated computer work (typing, editing, precision, and Stroop tasks). It was part of the European case......-control study, NEW (Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker). The present cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire survey and sEMG measurements among Danish and Swedish female computer users aged 45 or older (n=49). The results show associations between work-related perceived stress...... and trapezius muscle activity and rest during standardized simulated computer work, and provide partial empirical support for the hypothesized pathway of stress induced muscle activity in the association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulder....
Pereira, Ivye L R; Queiroz, Bergson; Loss, Jefferson; Amorim, César; Sacco, Isabel C N
The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic pattern of core muscles during intermediate Pilates mat exercises between healthy people and those with low back pain. We evaluated healthy participants (n = 19; mean ± standard deviation [SD]: age 28 ± 8 years, body mass 65 ± 10 kg, height 160.0 ± 9.1 cm) and a low back pain group (n = 13; mean ± SD: age 30 ± 9 years, body mass 67 ± 12 kg, height 170.0 ± 6.6 cm). Electromyographic analysis assessed the multifidus, external oblique, internal oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles during classical Pilates exercises (single leg stretch, criss-cross, and dead bug). We calculated the root mean square normalized by maximum voluntary contraction, and the time of peak activation was provided by a linear envelope and normalized by the total movement cycle. The criss-cross exercise presented the highest values of root mean square for trunk flexors (rectus abdominis and oblique) compared with the other exercises, followed by the single leg stretch and the dead bug, which had similar muscle activation. The single leg stretch presented more activation of the rectus abdominis and oblique, whereas the criss-cross and dead bug created more activation of the oblique compared with the multifidus and rectus. The Pilates exercises presented different muscle recruitment patterns, and allowed the activation of the lumbopelvic stabilizing muscles even in the first session for healthy individuals and those with chronic low back pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Farina, Dario; Leclerc, Frédéric; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Buttelli, Olivier; Madeleine, Pascal
The aim of the study was to confirm the hypothesis that the longer a contraction is sustained, the larger are the changes in the spatial distribution of muscle activity. For this purpose, surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded with a 13 x 5 grid of electrodes from the upper trapezius muscle of 11 healthy male subjects during static contractions with shoulders 90 degrees abducted until endurance. The entropy (degree of uniformity) and center of gravity of the EMG root mean square map were computed to assess spatial inhomogeneity in muscle activation and changes over time in EMG amplitude spatial distribution. At the endurance time, entropy decreased (mean+/-SD, percent change 2.0+/-1.6%; Pgrid) root mean square was positively correlated with the shift in the center of gravity (R(2)=0.51, P<0.05). Moreover, the shift in the center of gravity was negatively correlated to both initial and final (at the endurance) entropy (R(2)=0.54 and R(2)=0.56, respectively; P<0.01 in both cases), indicating that subjects with less uniform root mean square maps had larger shift of the center of gravity over time. The spatial changes in root mean square EMG were likely due to spatially-dependent changes in motor unit activation during the sustained contraction. It was concluded that the changes in spatial muscle activity distribution play a role in the ability to maintain a static contraction.
Falla, Deborah Lorraine; Andersen, Helle; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente
a topographical map of the distribution of muscle activity. The pain level rated by the patients at the beginning of the sustained contraction was 5.9+/-1.5. The peak pain intensity for the control group following the injection of hypertonic saline was 6.0+/-1.6. During the sustained contractions, the EMG...
Background: the currently used non-invasive seizure detection methods are not reliable. Muscle fibers are directly connected to the nerves, whereby electric signals are generated during activity. Therefore, an alarm system on electromyography (EMG) signals is a theoretical possibility. Objective...... on the amplitude of the signal. The other algorithm was based on information of the signal in the frequency domain, and it focused on synchronisation of the electrical activity in a single muscle during the seizure. Results: The amplitude-based algorithm reliably detected seizures in 2 of the patients, while...... the frequency-based algorithm was efficient for detecting the seizures in the third patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that EMG signals could be used to develop an automatic seizuredetection system. However, different patients might require different types of algorithms /approaches....
Chmielewska, Daria; Stania, Magdalena; Smykla, Agnieszka; Kwaśna, Krystyna; Błaszczak, Edward; Sobota, Grzegorz; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a 6-week sEMG-biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training program on pelvic floor muscle activity in young continent women. Pelvic floor muscle activity was recorded using a vaginal probe during five experimental trials. Biofeedback training was continued for 6 weeks, 3 times a week. Muscle strenghtening and endurance exercises were performed alternately. SEMG (surface electromyography) measurements were recorded on four different occasions: before training started, after the third week of training, after the sixth week of training, and one month after training ended. A 6-week sEMG-biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training program significantly decreased the resting activity of the pelvic floor muscles in supine lying and standing. The ability to relax the pelvic floor muscles after a sustained 60-second contraction improved significantly after the 6-week training in both positions. SEMG-biofeedback training program did not seem to affect the activity of the pelvic floor muscles or muscle fatigue during voluntary pelvic floor muscle contractions. SEMG-biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training might be recommended for physiotherapists to improve the effectiveness of their relaxation techniques.
Full Text Available There is a number of research work in the literature that have applied sEMG biofeedback as an instrument for muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, sEMG is a good tool for this research work and is used to record the myoelectric activity in the paraspinal muscles of those with AIS during habitual standing and sitting. After the sEMG evaluation, the root-mean-square (RMS sEMG values of the paraspinal muscles in the habitual postures reflect the spinal curvature situation of the PUMC Type Ia and IIc subjects. Both groups have a stronger average RMS sEMG value on the convex side of the affected muscle regions. Correction to posture as instructed by the physiotherapist has helped the subjects to achieve a more balanced RMS sEMG ratio in the trapezius and latissimus dorsi regions; the erector spinae in the thoracic region and/or erector spinae in the lumbar region. It is, therefore, considered that with regular practice of the suggested positions, those with AIS can use motor learning to achieve a more balanced posture. Consequently, the findings can be used in less intrusive early orthotic intervention and provision of care to those with AIS.
Kwok, Garcia; Yip, Joanne; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Yick, Kit-Lun
There is a number of research work in the literature that have applied sEMG biofeedback as an instrument for muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, sEMG is a good tool for this research work and is used to record the myoelectric activity in the paraspinal muscles of those with AIS during habitual standing and sitting. After the sEMG evaluation, the root-mean-square (RMS) sEMG values of the paraspinal muscles in the habitual postures reflect the spinal curvature situation of the PUMC Type Ia and IIc subjects. Both groups have a stronger average RMS sEMG value on the convex side of the affected muscle regions. Correction to posture as instructed by the physiotherapist has helped the subjects to achieve a more balanced RMS sEMG ratio in the trapezius and latissimus dorsi regions; the erector spinae in the thoracic region and/or erector spinae in the lumbar region. It is, therefore, considered that with regular practice of the suggested positions, those with AIS can use motor learning to achieve a more balanced posture. Consequently, the findings can be used in less intrusive early orthotic intervention and provision of care to those with AIS.
Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yingchun; Zhu, Xiangjun; Zhou, Ping; Liu, Chenguang; Rymer, William Z
A novel spatiotemporal muscle activity imaging (sMAI) approach has been developed using the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to reconstruct internal muscle activities from non-invasive multi-channel surface electromyogram (sEMG) recordings. A distributed bioelectric dipole source model is employed to describe the internal muscle activity space, and a linear relationship between the muscle activity space and the sEMG measurement space is then established. The EKF is employed to recursively solve the ill-posed inverse problem in the sMAI approach, in which the weighted minimum norm (WMN) method is utilized to calculate the initial state and a new nonlinear method is developed based on the propagating features of muscle activities to predict the recursive state. A series of computer simulations was conducted to test the performance of the proposed sMAI approach. Results show that the localization error rapidly decreases over 35% and the overlap ratio rapidly increases over 45% compared to the results achieved using the WMN method only. The present promising results demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing the proposed EKF-based sMAI approach to accurately reconstruct internal muscle activities from non-invasive sEMG recordings.
Determination of optimal whole body vibration amplitude and frequency parameters with plyometric exercise and its influence on closed-chain lower extremity acute power output and EMG activity in resistance trained males
Hughes, Nikki J.
The optimal combination of Whole body vibration (WBV) amplitude and frequency has not been established. Purpose. To determine optimal combination of WBV amplitude and frequency that will enhance acute mean and peak power (MP and PP) output EMG activity in the lower extremity muscles. Methods. Resistance trained males (n = 13) completed the following testing sessions: On day 1, power spectrum testing of bilateral leg press (BLP) movement was performed on the OMNI. Days 2 and 3 consisted of WBV testing with either average (5.8 mm) or high (9.8 mm) amplitude combined with either 0 (sham control), 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Hz frequency. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), bicep femoris (BF) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles for EMG analysis. MP and PP output and EMG activity of the lower extremity were assessed pre-, post-WBV treatments and after sham-controls on the OMNI while participants performed one set of five repetitions of BLP at the optimal resistance determined on Day 1. Results. No significant differences were found between pre- and sham-control on MP and PP output and on EMG activity in RF, VL, BF and GA. Completely randomized one-way ANOVA with repeated measures demonstrated no significant interaction of WBV amplitude and frequency on MP and PP output and peak and mean EMGrms amplitude and EMG rms area under the curve. RF and VL EMGrms area under the curve significantly decreased (p plyometric exercise does not induce alterations in subsequent MP and PP output and EMGrms activity of the lower extremity. Future studies need to address the time of WBV exposure and magnitude of external loads that will maximize strength and/or power output.
Ohashi, Jun-Ya; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed
Surface electromyograms(EMG) during test contractions (TCs) were studied to assess the muscle strain in simulated mushroom picking. Additionally, the duration of the TC for the effective assessment was investigated. Nine female subjects performed standardized shoulder abduction and a stooped...... posture for one minute as TCs. Each experiment consisted of a 60-min rest, three work periods (W1-W3), a 30-min rest, and two work periods (W4 and W5) separated by a 30-min rest period. The duration of each work period was about 20 min. A total of 18 TCs was performed between the work periods and every 10...
Honert, Eric C; Zelik, Karl E
Inverse dynamics joint kinetics are often used to infer contributions from underlying groups of muscle-tendon units (MTUs). However, such interpretations are confounded by multiarticular (multi-joint) musculature, which can cause inverse dynamics to over- or under-estimate net MTU power. Misestimation of MTU power could lead to incorrect scientific conclusions, or to empirical estimates that misguide musculoskeletal simulations, assistive device designs, or clinical interventions. The objective of this study was to investigate the degree to which ankle joint power overestimates net plantarflexor MTU power during the Push-off phase of walking, due to the behavior of the flexor digitorum and hallucis longus (FDHL)-multiarticular MTUs crossing the ankle and metatarsophalangeal (toe) joints. We performed a gait analysis study on six healthy participants, recording ground reaction forces, kinematics, and electromyography (EMG). Empirical data were input into an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model to estimate ankle power. This model enabled us to parse contributions from mono- and multi-articular MTUs, and required only one scaling and one time delay factor for each subject and speed, which were solved for based on empirical data. Net plantarflexing MTU power was computed by the model and quantitatively compared to inverse dynamics ankle power. The EMG-driven model was able to reproduce inverse dynamics ankle power across a range of gait speeds (R2 ≥ 0.97), while also providing MTU-specific power estimates. We found that FDHL dynamics caused ankle power to slightly overestimate net plantarflexor MTU power, but only by ~2-7%. During Push-off, FDHL MTU dynamics do not substantially confound the inference of net plantarflexor MTU power from inverse dynamics ankle power. However, other methodological limitations may cause inverse dynamics to overestimate net MTU power; for instance, due to rigid-body foot assumptions. Moving forward, the EMG-driven modeling approach presented
Eric C Honert
Full Text Available Inverse dynamics joint kinetics are often used to infer contributions from underlying groups of muscle-tendon units (MTUs. However, such interpretations are confounded by multiarticular (multi-joint musculature, which can cause inverse dynamics to over- or under-estimate net MTU power. Misestimation of MTU power could lead to incorrect scientific conclusions, or to empirical estimates that misguide musculoskeletal simulations, assistive device designs, or clinical interventions. The objective of this study was to investigate the degree to which ankle joint power overestimates net plantarflexor MTU power during the Push-off phase of walking, due to the behavior of the flexor digitorum and hallucis longus (FDHL-multiarticular MTUs crossing the ankle and metatarsophalangeal (toe joints.We performed a gait analysis study on six healthy participants, recording ground reaction forces, kinematics, and electromyography (EMG. Empirical data were input into an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model to estimate ankle power. This model enabled us to parse contributions from mono- and multi-articular MTUs, and required only one scaling and one time delay factor for each subject and speed, which were solved for based on empirical data. Net plantarflexing MTU power was computed by the model and quantitatively compared to inverse dynamics ankle power.The EMG-driven model was able to reproduce inverse dynamics ankle power across a range of gait speeds (R2 ≥ 0.97, while also providing MTU-specific power estimates. We found that FDHL dynamics caused ankle power to slightly overestimate net plantarflexor MTU power, but only by ~2-7%.During Push-off, FDHL MTU dynamics do not substantially confound the inference of net plantarflexor MTU power from inverse dynamics ankle power. However, other methodological limitations may cause inverse dynamics to overestimate net MTU power; for instance, due to rigid-body foot assumptions. Moving forward, the EMG-driven modeling
Full Text Available The voluntary step execution task is a popular measure for identifying fall risks among elderly individuals in the community setting because most falls have been reported to occur during movement. However, the neurophysiological functions during this movement are not entirely understood. Here, we used electromyography (EMG to explore the relationship between EMG-EMG coherence, which reflects common oscillatory drive to motoneurons, and motor performance associated with stepping tasks: simple reaction time (SRT and choice reaction time (CRT tasks. Ten healthy elderly adults participated in the study. Participants took a single step forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus. EMG-EMG coherence was analyzed for 1000 ms before the presentation of the stimulus (stationary standing position from proximal and distal tibialis anterior (TA and soleus (SOL muscles. The main result showed that all paired EMG-EMG coherences in the alpha and beta frequency bands were greater in the SRT than the CRT task. This finding suggests that the common oscillatory drive to the motoneurons during the SRT task occurred prior to taking a step, whereas the lower value of corticospinal activity during the CRT task prior to taking a step may indicate an involvement of inhibitory activity, which is consistent with observations from our previous study (Watanabe et al., 2016. Furthermore, the beta band coherence in intramuscular TA tended to positively correlate with the number of performance errors that are associated with fall risks in the CRT task, suggesting that a reduction in the inhibitory activity may result in a decrease of stepping performance. These findings could advance the understanding of the neurophysiological features of postural adjustments in elderly individuals.
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p243 Lower limb muscles activation was assessed during cycling to exhaustion using frequency band analysis. Nine cyclists were evaluated in two days. On the first day, cyclists performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise to measure peak power output, which was used on the second day to define the workload for a constant load time to exhaustion cycling exercise (maximal aerobic power output from day 1. Muscle activation of vastus lateralis (VL, long head of biceps femoris (BF, lateral head of gastrocnemius (GL, and tibialis anterior (TA from the right lower limb was recorded during the time to exhaustion cycling exercise. A series of nine band-pass Butterworth digital filters was used to analyze muscle activity amplitude for each band. The overall amplitude of activation and the high and low frequency components were defined to assess the magnitude of fatigue effects on muscle activity via effect sizes. The profile of the overall muscle activation during the test was analyzed using a second order polynomial, and the variability of the overall bands was analyzed by the coefficient of variation for each muscle in each instant of the test. Substantial reduction in the high frequency components of VL and BF activation was observed. The overall and low frequency bands presented trivial to small changes for all muscles. High relationship between the second order polynomial fitting and muscle activity was found (R2 > 0.89 for all muscles. High variability (~25% was found for muscle activation at the four instants of the fatigue test. Changes in the spectral properties of the EMG signal were only substantial when extreme changes in fatigue state were induced.
Anderson, Kenneth; Behm, David G
The objective of this study was to determine differences in electromyographic (EMG) activity of the soleus (SOL), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), abdominal stabilizers (AS), upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES), and lumbo-sacral erector spinae (LSES) muscles while performing squats of varied stability and resistance. Stability was altered by doing the squat movement on a Smith machine, a free squat, and while standing on two balance discs. Fourteen male subjects performed the movements. Activities of the SOL, AS, ULES, and LSES were highest during the unstable squat and lowest with the Smith machine protocol (p squats on unstable surfaces may permit a training adaptation of the trunk muscles responsible for supporting the spinal column (i.e., erector spinae) as well as the muscles most responsible for maintaining posture (i.e., SOL).
Salek-Haddadi, Afraim; Mayer, Thomas; Hamandi, Khalid; Symms, Mark; Josephs, Oliver; Fluegel, Dominique; Woermann, Friedrich; Richardson, Mark P; Noppeney, Uta; Wolf, Peter; Koepp, Matthias J
To characterize the spatial relationship between activations related to language-induced seizure activity, language processing, and motor control in patients with reading epilepsy. We recorded and simultaneously monitored several physiological parameters [voice-recording, electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG)] during blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in nine patients with reading epilepsy. Individually tailored language paradigms were used to induce and record habitual seizures inside the MRI scanner. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used for structural brain analysis. Reading-induced seizures occurred in six out of nine patients. One patient experienced abundant orofacial reflex myocloni during silent reading in association with bilateral frontal or generalized epileptiform discharges. In a further five patients, symptoms were only elicited while reading aloud with self-indicated events. Consistent activation patterns in response to reading-induced myoclonic seizures were observed within left motor and premotor areas in five of these six patients, in the left striatum (n = 4), in mesiotemporal/limbic areas (n = 4), in Brodmann area 47 (n = 3), and thalamus (n = 2). These BOLD activations were overlapping or adjacent to areas physiologically activated during language and facial motor tasks. No subtle structural abnormalities common to all patients were identified using VBM, but one patient had a left temporal ischemic lesion. Based on the findings, we hypothesize that reflex seizures occur in reading epilepsy when a critical mass of neurons are activated through a provoking stimulus within corticoreticular and corticocortical circuitry subserving normal functions.
Maenhout, Annelies; Benzoor, Maya; Werin, Maria; Cools, Ann
Plyometric shoulder exercises are commonly used to progress from slow analytical strength training to more demanding high speed power training in the return to play phase after shoulder injury. The aim of this study was first, to investigate scapular muscle activity in plyometric exercises to support exercise selection in practice and second, to enhance understanding of how scapular muscles are recruited during the back and forth movement phase of these exercises. Thirty-two healthy subjects performed 10 plyometric exercises while surface EMG-activity of the scapular muscles (upper (UT), middle (MT) and lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA)) was registered. A high speed camera tracked start and end of the back and forth movement. Mean scapular EMG activity during the 10 exercises ranged from 14.50% to 76.26%MVC for UT, from 15.19% to 96.55%MVC for MT, from 13.18% to 94.35%MVC for LT and from 13.50% to 98.50%MVC for SA. Anova for repeated measures showed significant differences in scapular muscle activity between exercises (pPlyometric shoulder exercises require moderate (31-60%MVC) to high (>60%MVC) scapular muscle activity. Highest MT/LT activity was present in prone plyometric external rotation and flexion. Highest SA activity was found in plyometric external rotation and flexion with Xco and plyometric push up on Bosu. Specific exercises can be selected that recruit minimal levels of UT activity (plyometric external rotation and horizontal abduction or plyometric push up on the Bosu. The results of this study support exercise selection for clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schweizer, Katrin; Romkes, Jacqueline; Brunner, Reinald
This study provides an overview on the association between premature plantarflexor muscle activity (PPF), muscle strength, and equinus gait in patients with various pathologies. The purpose was to evaluate whether muscular weakness and biomechanical alterations are aetiological factors for PPF during walking, independent of the underlying pathology. In a retrospective design, 716 patients from our clinical database with 46 different pathologies (orthopaedic and neurologic) were evaluated. Gait analysis data of the patients included kinematics, kinetics, electromyographic activity (EMG) data, and manual muscle strength testing. All patients were clustered three times. First, patients were grouped according to their primary pathology. Second, all patients were again clustered, this time according to their impaired joints. Third, groups of patients with normal EMG or PPF, and equinus or normal foot contact were formed to evaluate the association between PPF and equinus gait. The patient groups derived by the first two cluster methods were further subdivided into patients with normal or reduced muscle strength. Additionally, the phi correlation coefficient was calculated between PPF and equinus gait. Independent of the clustering, PPF was present in all patient groups. Weak patients revealed PPF more frequently. The correlations of PPF and equinus gait were lower than expected, due to patients with normal EMG during loading response and equinus. These patients, however, showed higher gastrocnemius activity prior to foot strike together with lower peak tibialis anterior muscle activity in loading response. Patients with PPF and a normal foot contact possibly apply the plantarflexion-knee extension couple during loading response. While increased gastrocnemius activity around foot strike seems essential for equinus gait, premature gastrocnemius activity does not necessarily produce an equinus gait. We conclude that premature gastrocnemius activity is strongly associated
Scheuermann, B W; Hoelting, B D; Noble, M L; Barstow, T J
1. We hypothesized that either the recruitment of additional muscle motor units and/or the progressive recruitment of less efficient fast-twitch muscle fibres was the predominant contributor to the additional oxygen uptake (VO2) observed during heavy exercise. Using surface electromyographic (EMG) techniques, we compared the VO2 response with the integrated EMG (iEMG) and mean power frequency (MPF) response of the vastus lateralis with the VO2 response during repeated bouts of moderate (below the lactate threshold, LT) intensity cycle ergometer exercise. 2. Seven male subjects (age 29 +/- 7 years, mean +/- S.D.) performed three transitions to a work rate (WR) corresponding to 90 % LT and two transitions to a work rate that would elicit a VO2 corresponding to 50 % of the difference between peak VO2 and the LT (i.e. Delta50 %, > LT1 and > LT2). 3. The VO2 slow component was significantly reduced by prior heavy intensity exercise (> LT1, 410 +/- 196 ml min(-1); > LT2, 230 +/- 191 ml min-1). The time constant (tau), amplitude (A) and gain (DeltaVO2/DeltaWR) of the primary VO2 response (phase II) were not affected by prior heavy exercise when a three-component, exponential model was used to describe the V2 response. 4. Integrated EMG and MPF remained relatively constant and at the same level throughout both > LT1 and > LT2 exercise and therefore were not associated with the VO2 slow component. 5. These data are consistent with the view that the increased O2 cost (i.e. VO2 slow component) associated with performing heavy exercise is coupled with a progressive increase in ATP requirements of the already recruited motor units rather than to changes in the recruitment pattern of slow versus fast-twitch motor units. Further, the lack of speeding of the kinetics of the primary VO2 component with prior heavy exercise, thought to represent the initial muscle VO2 response, are inconsistent with O2 delivery being the limiting factor in V > O2 kinetics during heavy exercise.
Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical exposure to the trapezius muscle activity in female weavers for a prolonged period in the workstation A (suggested by previous studies and workstation B (proposed by the present study. Methods: Electromyography data were collected from nine females during four hours for each ergonomically designed workstation at the Ergonomics Laboratory, Hamadan, Iran. The design criteria for ergonomically designed workstations were: 1 weaving height (20 and 3 cm above elbow height for workstations A and B, respectively, and 2 seat type (10° and 0° forwardsloping seat for workstations A and B, respectively. Results: The amplitude probability distribution function (APDF analysis showed that the left and right upper trapezius muscle activity was almost similar at each workstation. Trapezius muscle activity in the workstation A was significantly greater than workstations B (P<0.001. Conclusion: In general, use of workstation B leads to significantly reduced muscle activity levels in the upper trapezius as compared to workstation A in weavers. Despite the positive impact of workstation B in reducing trapezius muscle activity, it seems that constrained postures of the upper arm during weaving may be associated with musculoskeletal symptoms.
Full Text Available Thanks to new techniques in Pediatric Neurology , nowadays we are more able to detect and differentiate different diseases of the nerves and muscles in children . Although these techniques are sometimes more sensitive and specific than EMG in children, but EMG and NCV study has its specific role in pediatric neurology and this is because of more availability and feasibility of these tests in children . One of the main Limitations of EMG techniques especially in pediatric age group is the pain induced by the insertion of needle electrodes into muscle as well as electrical stimulations needed to do NCV and other studies. So, all the experts in the field are trying to find some methods to reduce the pain induced by this technique . I have tried to introduce some of these methods after a brief explanation about pediatric EMG technique.
Chan, Mandy Ky; Chow, Ka Wai; Lai, Alfred Ys; Mak, Noble Kc; Sze, Jason Ch; Tsang, Sharon Mh
Core stabilization has been utilized for rehabilitation and prevention of lower limb musculoskeletal injuries. Previous studies showed that activation of the abdominal core muscles enhanced the hip muscle activity in hip extension and abduction exercises. However, the lack of the direct measurement and quantification of the activation level of the abdominal core muscles during the execution of the hip exercises affect the level of evidence to substantiate the proposed application of core exercises to promote training and rehabilitation outcome of the hip region. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of abdominal core activation, which is monitored directly by surface electromyography (EMG), on hip muscle activation while performing different hip exercises, and to explore whether participant characteristics such as gender, physical activity level and contractile properties of muscles, which is assessed by tensiomyography (TMG), have confounding effect to the activation of hip muscles in enhanced core condition. Surface EMG of bilateral internal obliques (IO), upper gluteus maximus (UGMax), lower gluteus maximus (LGMax), gluteus medius (GMed) and biceps femoris (BF) of dominant leg was recorded in 20 young healthy subjects while performing 3 hip exercises: Clam, side-lying hip abduction (HABD), and prone hip extension (PHE) in 2 conditions: natural core activation (NC) and enhanced core activation (CO). EMG signals normalized to percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) were compared between two core conditions with the threshold of the enhanced abdominal core condition defined as >20%MVIC of IO. Enhanced abdominal core activation has significantly promoted the activation level of GMed in all phases of clam exercise (P recruitment in Clam, HABD and PHE exercises, and this enhancement is correlated with higher physical activity and stiffer hip muscle. Our results suggest the potential application of abdominal core activation for
Full Text Available It has been largely proved that while judging a force humans mainly rely on the motor commands produced to interact with that force (i.e., sense of effort. Despite of a large bulk of previous investigations interested in understanding the contributions of the descending and ascending signals in force perception, very few attempts have been made to link a measure of neural output (i.e., EMG to the psychophysical performance. Indeed, the amount of correlation between EMG activity and perceptual decisions can be interpreted as an estimate of the contribution of central signals involved in the sensation of force. In this study we investigated this correlation by measuring the muscular activity of eight arm muscles while participants performed a quasi-isometric force detection task. Here we showed a method to quantitatively describe muscular activity ("muscle-metric function" that was directly comparable to the description of the participants' psychophysical decisions about the stimulus force. We observed that under our experimental conditions, muscle-metric absolute thresholds and the shape of the muscle-metric curves were closely related to those provided by the psychophysics. In fact a global measure of the muscles considered was able to predict approximately 60% of the perceptual decisions total variance. Moreover the inter-subjects differences in psychophysical sensitivity showed high correlation with both participants' muscles sensitivity and participants' joint torques. Overall, our findings gave insights into both the role played by the corticospinal motor commands while performing a force detection task and the influence of the gravitational muscular torque on the estimation of vertical forces.
Akiba, M.; Miyamoto, Y. (Osaka Industrial University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)
Excitory impulses for motor systems are controlled by the psychophysiological nervous systems in the body either autonomically or voluntarily. Involved in the voluntary control loop are motor cortex, basal gangalia, thalamus, cerebellum, etc. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether it is possible to reduce or emphasize the muscle contraction voluntarily through electromyogram (EMG) feedback training. EMG can indicate the excitory impulses of motor units. In the experiments, electrodes were placed on the skin above muscles. A significant reduction effect was observed for subjects trained in relaxation of the forehead musculature through EMG feedback. Results of the experiments suggested that biofeedback training for relaxation of the forehead tensional muscle might be effective in eliminating muscle contraction, and that feedback training for activation of damaged muscles might be effective in emphasizing muscle contraction. 4 refs., 9 figs.
Bourne, Matthew N; Williams, Morgan D; Opar, David A; Al Najjar, Aiman; Kerr, Graham K; Shield, Anthony J
To determine which strength training exercises selectively activate the biceps femoris long head (BF LongHead ) muscle. We recruited 24 recreationally active men for this two-part observational study . Part 1: We explored the amplitudes and the ratios of lateral (BF) to medial hamstring (MH) normalised electromyography (nEMG) during the concentric and eccentric phases of 10 common strength training exercises. Part 2: We used functional MRI (fMRI) to determine the spatial patterns of hamstring activation during two exercises which (1) most selectively and (2) least selectively activated the BF in part 1. Eccentrically, the largest BF/MH nEMG ratio occurred in the 45° hip-extension exercise; the lowest was in the Nordic hamstring (Nordic) and bent-knee bridge exercises. Concentrically, the highest BF/MH nEMG ratio occurred during the lunge and 45° hip extension; the lowest was during the leg curl and bent-knee bridge. fMRI revealed a greater BF (LongHead) to semitendinosus activation ratio in the 45° hip extension than the Nordic (phamstring muscles (p≤0.002). We highlight the heterogeneity of hamstring activation patterns in different tasks. Hip-extension exercise selectively activates the long hamstrings, and the Nordic exercise preferentially recruits the semitendinosus. These findings have implications for strategies to prevent hamstring injury as well as potentially for clinicians targeting specific hamstring components for treatment (mechanotherapy). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Ariffin, Muhammad Shahimi; Rambely, Azmin Sham; Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd
An investigation of khatrah technique in archery was carried out. An electromyography (EMG) experiment was conducted towards six wrist muscles which are flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnaris and extensor digitorum communis for both arms. The maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and activity data were recorded. The bow arm produced a higher muscle force compared to draw arm muscles during release phase. However, the muscle forces produced by bow arm had a consistency in term of pattern throughout the phases. In conclusion, the forces generated by the professional archer produced a force benchmark at the wrist joint to alleviate the risk of injury.
Carpenter Mark G
Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical multifidus muscles insert onto the lower cervical facet capsular ligaments and the cervical facet joints are the source of pain in some chronic whiplash patients. Reflex activation of the multifidus muscle during a whiplash exposure could potentially contribute to injuring the facet capsular ligament. Our goal was to determine the onset latency and activation amplitude of the cervical multifidus muscles to a simulated rear-end collision and a loud acoustic stimuli. Methods Wire electromyographic (EMG electrodes were inserted unilaterally into the cervical multifidus muscles of 9 subjects (6M, 3F at the C4 and C6 levels. Seated subjects were then exposed to a forward acceleration (peak acceleration 1.55 g, speed change 1.8 km/h and a loud acoustic tone (124 dB, 40 ms, 1 kHz. Results Aside from one female, all subjects exhibited multifidus activity after both stimuli (8 subjects at C4, 6 subjects at C6. Neither onset latencies nor EMG amplitude varied with stimulus type or spine level (p > 0.13. Onset latencies and amplitudes varied widely, with EMG activity appearing within 160 ms of stimulus onset (for at least one of the two stimuli in 7 subjects. Conclusion These data indicate that the multifidus muscles of some individuals are active early enough to potentially increase the collision-induced loading of the facet capsular ligaments.
Calé-Benzoor, Maya; Maenhout, Annelies; Arnon, Michal; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Werrin, Mia; Cools, Ann
The purpose of the study was to evaluate performance quality of shoulder plyometric exercises, and examine the relationship to scapular muscle activation during an intense exercise bout. Observational study. University laboratory. 32 healthy university students (male/female: 14/18) volunteers. Subjects performed 10 plyometric exercises. Surface EMG of upper (UT), middle (MT) and lower (LT) trapezius and serratus anterior (SA) was registered. A quality assessment questionnaire was administered at the beginning and end of the exercise bout. Muscle activation at the beginning and end was evaluated by t-test. Mixed repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to test the effects of criterion-quality, time, muscles, exercises, and their interactions. Increased EMG activation was noted in 34/40 cases, (21/40 significant (p plyometric exercises. Ability to keep a consistent arc of motion was the most sensitive marker of decline of performance quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walterspacher, Stephan; Gückler, Julia; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim; Dreher, Michael
Respiratory muscle dysfunction is a key component of weaning failure. Balancing respiratory muscle loading and unloading by applying different ventilation modes along with spontaneous breathing episodes are established weaning strategies. However, the effects of body positioning on the respiratory muscles during weaning remains unclear. This study aimed at assessing respiratory drive by surface electromyography (EMG) of the diaphragm (EMG dia ) and parasternal muscles (EMG para ) in tracheotomized patients during prolonged weaning in 3 randomized body positions-supine, 30° semirecumbent, and 80° sitting-during mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing. Nine patients were included for analysis. Cardiorespiratory parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, dyspnea) did not change under each condition (all P>.05). EMG para and EMG dia did not change under mechanical ventilation (both P>.05). EMG dia changed under spontaneous breathing from supine to sitting (0.45±0.26 vs 0.32±0.19; P=.012) and between semirecumbent to sitting (0.41±0.23 vs 0.32±0.19; P=.039), whereas EMG para did not change. This is the first study to show that body positioning influences respiratory drive to the diaphragm in tracheotomized patients with prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation during unassisted breathing. Sitting position reduces respiratory drive compared with semirecumbent and supine positioning and might therefore be favored during spontaneous breathing trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saeterbakken, Atle H; Fimland, Marius S
The purpose of the study was to compare force output and muscle activity of leg and trunk muscles in isometric squats executed on stable surface (i.e., floor), power board, BOSU ball, and balance cone. Fifteen healthy men (23.3 ± 2.7 years, mass: 80.5 ± 8.5 kg, height: 1.81 ± 0.09 m) volunteered. The force output and electromyographic (EMG) activities of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, soleus, rectus abdominis, oblique external, and erector spinae were assessed. The order of the surfaces was randomized. One familiarization session was executed before the experimental test. Compared with stable surface (749 ± 222 N), the force output using power board was similar (-7%, p = 0.320) but lower for BOSU ball (-19%, p = 0.003) and balance cone (-24%, p ≤ 0.001). The force output using BOSU ball and balance cone was approximately 13% (p = 0.037) and approximately 18% (p = 0.001) less than the power board. There were similar EMG activities between the surfaces in all muscles except for rectus femoris, in which stable squat provided greater EMG activity than did the other exercises (p = 0.004-0.030). Lower EMG activity was observed in the rectus femoris using balance cone compared with the BOSU ball (p = 0.030). In conclusion, increasing the instability of the surface during maximum effort isometric squats usually maintains the muscle activity of lower-limb and superficial trunk muscles although the force output is reduced. This suggests that unstable surfaces in the squat may be beneficial in rehabilitation and as a part of periodized training programs, because similar muscle activity can be achieved with reduced loads.
Jaramillo, Jeffrey P; Johanson, M Elise; Kiratli, B Jenny
Video gaming as a therapeutic tool has largely been studied within the stroke population with some benefits reported in upper limb motor performance, balance, coordination, and cardiovascular status. To date, muscle activation of upper limb muscles in persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) has not been studied during video game play. In this paper, we provide descriptive and comparative data for muscle activation and strength during gaming for players with tetraplegia and paraplegia, as well as, compare these results with data from traditional arm exercises (ie, biceps curl and shoulder press) with light weights which are commonly prescribed for a home program. Fourteen individuals with chronic SCI (9 tetraplegia, 5 paraplegia). We measured upper limb muscle activation with surface electromyography (EMG) during Wii Sports video game play. Muscle activation was recorded from the playing arm during 4 selected games and normalized to a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Heart rate and upper limb motion were recorded simultaneously with EMG. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze differences in muscle activation between participants with paraplegia versus tetraplegia and compare gaming with traditional arm exercises with light weights. A Friedman 2-way analysis of variance identified key muscle groups active during game play. Overall muscle activation across the games was not different between those with paraplegia and tetraplegia. Heart rate during video game play for tennis and boxing were on average 10 to 20 beats/minute above resting heart rate. The magnitude of EMG was relatively greater for traditional arm exercises with light weights compared with game play. The selected Wii games were able to elicit upper extremity muscle activation and elevated heart rates for individuals with SCI that may be used to target therapeutic outcomes.
Väätäinen, U; Airaksinen, O; Jaroma, H; Kiviranta, I
The alterations in thigh muscle properties of chondromalacia patellae patients during isometric and dynamic endurance tests were studied using a variokinetic knee testing system linked to surface EMG. A total of 41 patients (chondromalacia group) with arthroscopically certified chondromalacia of the patella were studied. The control group consisted of 31 healthy adult volunteers with no history of knee pain or trauma. Peak torque values were 21% (p chondromalacia group than in the control group. The decrease in the ratio between integrated EMG (IEMG) and measured force were found in all parts of the quadriceps femoris muscle in patients with chondromalacia of the patella in isometric extension. No change in the normalized IEMG levels of the thigh muscles were found between chondromalacia patients and controls in dynamic endurance test. The severity of the chondromalacia of the patella did not affect the level of electromyographic activation in thigh muscles. The ratio of normalized EMG levels of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis did not differ between the groups. The present study showed that chondromalacia patellae patients have reduced force and electromyographic activation levels of quadriceps femoris muscle. Especially, the explosive strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle is reduced.
Uzun, S; Pourmoghaddam, A; Hieronymus, M; Thrasher, T A
Wheelchair basketball is the most popular exercise activity among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular endurance and fatigue in wheelchair basketball athletes with SCI using surface electromyography (SEMG) and maximal torque values. SEMG characteristics of 10 wheelchair basketball players (WBP) were compared to 13 able-bodied basketball players and 12 sedentary able-bodied subjects. Participants performed sustained isometric elbow flexion at 50% maximal voluntary contraction until exhaustion. Elbow flexion torque and SEMG signals were recorded from three elbow flexor muscles: biceps brachii longus, biceps brachii brevis and brachioradialis. SEMG signals were clustered into 0.5-s epochs with 50% overlap. Root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MDF) of SEMG signals were calculated for each muscle and epoch as traditional fatigue monitoring. Recurrence quantification analysis was used to extract the percentage of determinism (%DET) of SEMG signals. The slope of the %DET for basketball players and WBP showed slower increase with time than the sedentary able-bodied control group for three different elbow flexor muscles, while no difference was observed for the slope of the %DET between basketball and WBP. This result indicated that the athletes are less fatigable during the task effort than the nonathletes. Normalized MDF slope decay exhibited similar results between the groups as %DET, while the slope of the normalized RMS failed to show any significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05). MDF and %DET could be useful for the evaluation of muscle fatigue in wheelchair basketball training. No conclusions about special training for WBP could be determined.
Moss Wesley R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Static stretching may result in various strength and power deficiencies. Prior research has not determined, however, if static stretching causes a change in muscle activation during a functional task requiring dynamic stability. The purpose of this study was to determine if static stretching has an effect on mean pre and postlanding muscle (vastus medialis VM, vastus lateralis VL, medial hamstring MH, and biceps femoris BF activity. Methods 26 healthy, physically active subjects were recruited, from which 13 completed a 14-day static stretching regimen for the quadriceps and hamstrings. Using the data from the force plate and EMG readings, a mean of EMG amplitude was calculated for 150 msec before and after landing. Each trial was normalized to an isometric reference position. Means were calculated for the VM, VL, MH, and BF from 5 trials in each session. Measures were collected pre, immediately following the 1st stretching session, and following 2 weeks of stretching. Results A 14-day static stretching regimen resulted in no significant differences in pre or postlanding mean EMG amplitude during a drop landing either acutely or over a 14-day period. Conclusions Static stretching, done acutely or over a 14-day period does not result in measurable differences of mean EMG amplitude during a drop landing. Static stretching may not impede dynamic stability of joints about which stretched muscles cross.
Full Text Available Grasping is a highly complex movement that requires the coordination of a number of hand joints and muscles. Previous studies showed that spinal premotor interneurons (PreM-INs in the primate cervical spinal cord have divergent synaptic effects on hand motoneurons and that they might contribute to hand-muscle synergies. However, the extent to which these PreM-IN synaptic connections functionally contribute to modulating hand-muscle activity is not clear. In this paper, we explored the contribution of spinal PreM-INs to hand-muscle activation by quantifying the synaptic linkage (SL and functional linkage (FL of the PreM-INs with hand-muscle activities. The activity of 23 PreM-INs was recorded from the cervical spinal cord (C6–T1, with EMG signals measured simultaneously from hand and arm muscles in two macaque monkeys performing a precision grip task. Spike-triggered averages (STAs of rectified EMGs were compiled for 456 neuron–muscle pairs; 63 pairs showed significant post-spike effects (i.e., SL. Conversely, 231 of 456 pairs showed significant cross-correlations between the IN firing rate and rectified EMG (i.e., FL. Importantly, a greater proportion of the neuron–muscle pairs with SL showed FL (43/63 pairs, 68% compared with the pairs without SL (203/393, 52%, and the presence of SL was significantly associated with that of FL. However, a significant number of pairs had SL without FL (SL∩!FL, n = 20 or FL without SL (!SL∩FL, n = 203, and the proportions of these incongruities exceeded the number expected by chance. These results suggested that spinal PreM-INs function to significantly modulate hand-muscle activity during precision grip, but the contribution of other neural structures is also needed to recruit an adequate combination of hand-muscle motoneurons.
Woźniak, Krzysztof; Piątkowska, Dagmara; Szyszka-Sommerfeld, Liliana; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga
Background Electromyography (EMG) is the most objective tool for assessing changes in the electrical activity of the masticatory muscles. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the tone of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles in growing children before and after 6 months of treatment with functional removable orthodontic appliances. Material/Methods The sample conisted of 51 patients with a mean age 10.7 years with Class II malocclusion. EMG recordings were performed by using a DAB-Bluetooth instrument (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany). Recordings were performed in mandibular rest position, during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and during maximum effort. Results The results of the study indicated that the electrical activity of the muscles in each of the clinical situations was the same in the group of girls and boys. The factor that determined the activity of the muscles was their type. In mandibular rest position and in MVC, the activity of the temporalis muscles was significantly higher that that of the masseter muscels. The maximum effort test indicated a higher fatigue in masseter than in temporalis muscles. Conclusions Surface electromyography is a useful tool for monitoring muscle activity. A 6-month period of functional therapy resulted in changes in the activity of the masticatory muscles. PMID:25600247
Del Vecchio, Alessandro; Negro, Francesco; Felici, Francesco; Farina, Dario
The surface interference EMG signal provides some information on the neural drive to muscles. However, the association between neural drive to muscle and muscle activation has long been debated with controversial indications due to the unavailability of motor unit population data. In this study, we clarify the potential and limitations of interference EMG analysis to infer motor unit recruitment strategies with an experimental investigation of several concurrently active motor units and of the associated features of the surface EMG. For this purpose, we recorded high-density surface EMG signals during linearly increasing force contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, up to 70% of maximal force. The recruitment threshold (RT), conduction velocity (MUCV), median frequency (MDF MU ), and amplitude (RMS MU ) of action potentials of 587 motor units from 13 individuals were assessed and associated with features of the interference EMG. MUCV was positively associated with RT ( R 2 = 0.64 ± 0.14), whereas MDF MU and RMS MU showed a weaker relation with RT ( R 2 = 0.11 ± 0.11 and 0.39 ± 0.24, respectively). Moreover, the changes in average conduction velocity estimated from the interference EMG predicted well the changes in MUCV ( R 2 = 0.71), with a strong association to ankle dorsiflexion force ( R 2 = 0.81 ± 0.12). Conversely, both the average EMG MDF and RMS were poorly associated with motor unit recruitment. These results clarify the limitations of EMG spectral and amplitude analysis in inferring the neural strategies of muscle control and indicate that, conversely, the average conduction velocity could provide relevant information on these strategies. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The surface EMG provides information on the neural drive to muscles. However, the associations between EMG features and neural drive have been long debated due to unavailability of motor unit population data. Here, by using novel highly accurate decomposition of the EMG, we related motor unit
Min, Kyuengbo; Shin, Duk; Lee, Jongho; Kakei, Shinji
Electromyogram signal (EMG) measurement frequently experiences uncertainty attributed to issues caused by technical constraints such as cross talk and maximum voluntary contraction. Due to these problems, individual EMGs exhibit uncertainty in representing their corresponding muscle activations. To regulate this uncertainty, we proposed an EMG refinement, which refines EMGs with regulating the contribution redundancy of the signals from EMGs to approximating torques through EMG-driven torque estimation (EDTE) using the muscular skeletal forward dynamic model. To regulate this redundancy, we must consider the synergistic contribution redundancy of muscles, including "unmeasured" muscles, to approximating torques, which primarily causes redundancy of EDTE. To suppress this redundancy, we used the concept of muscle synergy, which is a key concept of analyzing the neurophysiological regulation of contribution redundancy of muscles to exerting torques. Based on this concept, we designed a muscle-synergy-based EDTE as a framework for EMG refinement, which regulates the abovementioned uncertainty of individual EMGs in consideration of unmeasured muscles. In achieving the proposed EMG refinement, the most considerable point is to suppress a large change such as overestimation attributed to enhancement of the contribution of particular muscles to estimating torques. Therefore it is reasonable to refine EMGs by minimizing the change in EMGs. To evaluate this model, we used a Bland-Altman plot, which quantitatively evaluates the proportional bias of refined signals to EMGs. Through this evaluation, we showed that the proposed EDTE minimizes the bias while approximating torques. Therefore this minimization optimally regulates the uncertainty of EMGs and thereby leads to optimal EMG refinement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kang, Sun-Young; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Kwon, Ohyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Choi, Boram
The direction of fiber alignment within a muscle is known to influence the effectiveness of muscle contraction. However, most of the commonly used clinical gluteus maximus (GM) exercises do not consider the direction of fiber alignment within the muscle. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of hip abduction position on the EMG (electromyography) amplitude and onset time of the GM and hamstrings (HAM) during prone hip extension with knee flexion (PHEKF) exercise. Surface EMG signals were recorded from the GM and HAM during PHEKF exercise in three hip abduction positions: 0°, 15°, and 30°. Thirty healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this study. The results show that GM EMG amplitude was greatest in the 30° hip abduction position, followed by 15° and then 0° hip abduction during PHEKF exercise. On the other hand, the HAM EMG amplitude at 0° hip abduction was significantly greater than at 15° and 30° hip abduction. Additionally, GM EMG onset firing was delayed relative to that of the HAM at 0° hip abduction. On the contrary, the GM EMG onset occurred earlier than the HAM in the 15° and 30° hip abduction positions. These findings indicate that performing PHEKF exercise in the 30° hip abduction position may be recommended as an effective way to facilitate the GM muscle activity and advance the firing time of the GM muscle in asymptomatic individuals. This finding provides preliminary evidence that GM EMG amplitude and onset time can be modified by the degree of hip abduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Millard Brianna M.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe lower extremity muscle activity during the lacrosse shot. Participants (n=5 females, age 22±2 years, body height 162.6±15.2 cm, body mass 63.7±23.6 kg were free from injury and had at least one year of lacrosse experience. The lead leg was instrumented with electromyography (EMG leads to measure muscle activity of the rectus femoris (RF, biceps femoris (BF, tibialis anterior (TA, and medial gastrocnemius (GA. Participants completed five trials of a warm-up speed shot (Slow and a game speed shot (Fast. Video analysis was used to identify the discrete events defining specific movement phases. Full-wave rectified data were averaged per muscle per phase (Crank Back Minor, Crank Back Major, Stick Acceleration, Stick Deceleration. Average EMG per muscle was analyzed using a 4 (Phase x 2 (Speed ANOVA. BF was greater during Fast vs. Slow for all phases (p0.05. RF and GA were each influenced by the interaction of Phase and Speed (p<0.05 with GA being greater during Fast vs. Slow shots during all phases and RF greater during Crank Back Minor and Major as well as Stick Deceleration (p<0.05 but only tended to be greater during Stick Acceleration (p=0.076 for Fast vs. Slow. The greater muscle activity (BF, RF, GA during Fast vs. Slow shots may have been related to a faster approach speed and/or need to create a stiff lower extremity to allow for faster upper extremity movements.
Evaluation of Bioelectrical Activity of Pelvic Floor Muscles and Synergistic Muscles Depending on Orientation of Pelvis in Menopausal Women with Symptoms of Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Preliminary Observational Study
Full Text Available Objectives. Evaluation of resting and functional bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM and the synergistic muscles, depending on the orientation of the pelvis, in anterior (P1 and posterior (P2 pelvic tilt. Design. Preliminary, prospective observational study. Setting. Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Participants. Thirty-two menopausal and postmenopausal women with stress urinary incontinence were recruited. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, sixteen women aged 55 to 70 years were enrolled in the study. Primary Outcome Measures. Evaluation of resting and functional bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles by electromyography (sEMG and vaginal probe. Secondary Outcome Measures. Evaluation of activity of the synergistic muscles by sEMG and surface electrodes. Results. No significant differences between orientations P1 and P2 were found in functional and resting sEMG activity of the PFM. During resting and functional PFM activity, higher electrical activity in P2 than in P1 has been recorded in some of the synergistic muscles. Conclusions. This preliminary study does not provide initial evidence that pelvic tilt influences PFM activation. Although different activity of synergistic muscles occurs in various orientations of the pelvic tilt, it does not have to affect the sEMG activity of the PFM.
Evaluating Diagnostic Value of Electrophysiological Testing (EMG-NCV Compared to the Activity Level of Acetylcholinesterase in Serum and Red Blood Cells of Patients with Moderate to Severe Organophosphate Poisoning
Full Text Available Background Organophosphate compounds cause poisoning and death more than any other insecticide. These toxins can cause peripheral neuropathy which is delayed for about 3 - 6 weeks and no method has been known for predicting the incidence. It has been claimed that electrophysiological tests (EMG - NCV can help in predicting the disorder. Objectives The main purpose of this research was to study EMG - NCV tests in patients with moderate to severe organophosphate poisoning. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted on patients with moderate to severe organophosphate poisoning from 2014 to 2016 in Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad. The minimum sample size was calculated as 68 patients and then all data was collected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria using data collection form designed by the researcher, and finally data were analyzed using SPSS V.21 software, descriptive tests (including mean, median, mode and analytical tests (K square, ANOVA. Results Of all 78 patients with the mean age of 27.50 ± 10.0, 45 were female and the rest were male. Totally 29.5% of the patients had abnormal EMG - NCV. Although no significant differences were observed between electro diagnostic tests (EMG - NCV and age, gender, clinical symptoms and levels of acetylcholinesterase serum activity, the relationship between EMG - NCV and RBC levels of acetylcholinesterase activity was significant. Conclusions Electrophysiological tests are not associated with clinical symptoms (muscle weakness and they cannot be considered as a determining factor to discharge the patients; therefore, careful examination of the patients or evaluating the level of AChE activity in red blood cells is needed.
Turcio, Karina Helga Leal; Zuim, Paulo Renato Junqueira; Guiotti, Aimée Maria; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Brandini, Daniela Atili
To compare electrical activity in the anterior temporal and masseter muscles on the habitual (HMS) and non-habitual mastication side (NHMS), during mastication and in the mandibular postural position. In addition, the increase in electrical activity during mastication was assessed for the HMS and NHMS, analysing both working (WSM) and non-working side during mastication (NWSM). A total of 28 healthy women (18-32 years) participated in the study. They were submitted to Kazazoglu's test to identify the HMS. Bioresearch 'Bio EMG' software and bipolar surface electrodes were used in the exams. The exams were conducted in the postural position and during the unilateral mastication of raisins, on both the HMS and NHMS. The working and non-working side on HMS and NHMS were assessed separately. The obtained data were then statistically analysed with SPSS 20.0, using the Paired Samples Test at a significance level of 95%. The differences in the average EMG values between HMS and NHMS were not statistically significant in the postural position (Temporal p=0.2; Masseter p=0.4) or during mastication (Temporal WSM p=0.8; Temporal NWSM p=0.8; Masseter WSM p=0.6; Masseter NWSM p=0.2). Differences in the increase in electrical activity between the masseter and temporal muscles occurred on the working side, on the HMS and NHMS (p=0.0), but not on the non-working side: HMS (p=0.9) and NHMS (p=0.3). The increase in electrical activity was about 35% higher in the masseter than in the temporal muscle. Mastication side preference does not significantly impact electrical activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during mastication or in postural position. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine modulation of pre- activity related to different types and heights of deep jump. Sixteen male soccer players without experience in deep jumps training (the national competition; 15.0 ± 0.5yrs; weight 61.9 ± 6.1kg; height 1.77 ± 0.07m, who participated in the study, performed three types of deep jump (bounce landing, counter landing, and bounce drop jump from three different heights (40cm, 60cm, and 80cm. Surface EMG device (1000Hz was used to estimate muscle activity (maximal amplitude of EMG - AmaxEMG; integral EMG signal - iEMG of five muscles (mm.gastrocnemii, m.soleus, m.tibialis anterior, m.vastus lateralis within 150ms before touchdown. All the muscles, except m. gastrocnemius medialis, showed systematic increase in pre-activity when platform height was raised. For most of the lower extremity muscles, the most significant differences were between values of pre-activity obtained for 40 cm and 80 cm platforms. While the amount of muscle pre-activity in deep jumps from the heights above and beneath the optimal one did not differ significantly from that generated in deep jumps from the optimal drop height of 60 cm, the patterns of muscle pre-activity obtained for the heights above the optimal one did differ from those obtained for the optimal drop height. That suggests that deep jumps from the heights above the optimal one do not seem to be an adequate exercise for adjusting muscle activity for the impact. Muscle pre-activity in bounce drop jumps differed significantly from that in counter landing and bounce landing respectively, which should indicate that a higher amount of pre-activity generated during bounce drop jumps was used for performing take-offs. As this study included the subjects who were not familiar with deep jumps training, the prospective studies should reveal the results of athletes with previous experience
Hay, Dean C; Wachowiak, Mark P; Graham, Ryan B
Advances in time-frequency analysis can provide new insights into the important, yet complex relationship between muscle activation (ie, electromyography [EMG]) and motion during dynamic tasks. We use wavelet coherence to compare a fundamental cyclical movement (lumbar spine flexion and extension) to the surface EMG linear envelope of 2 trunk muscles (lumbar erector spinae and internal oblique). Both muscles cohere to the spine kinematics at the main cyclic frequency, but lumbar erector spinae exhibits significantly greater coherence than internal oblique to kinematics at 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 Hz. Coherence phase plots of the 2 muscles exhibit different characteristics. The lumbar erector spinae precedes trunk extension at 0.25 Hz, whereas internal oblique is in phase with spine kinematics. These differences may be due to their proposed contrasting functions as a primary spine mover (lumbar erector spinae) versus a spine stabilizer (internal oblique). We believe that this method will be useful in evaluating how a variety of factors (eg, pain, dysfunction, pathology, fatigue) affect the relationship between muscles' motor inputs (ie, activation measured using EMG) and outputs (ie, the resulting joint motion patterns).
Falla, Deborah Lorraine; Andersen, Helle; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente
The study compared the distribution of electromyographic (EMG) signal amplitude in the upper trapezius muscle in 10 women with fibromyalgia and in 10 healthy women before and after experimentally-induced muscle pain. Surface EMG signals were recorded over the right upper trapezius muscle with a 10...
Jin Su Kim; Sung Bum Pan
Biometrics is a technology that recognizes user's information by using unique physical features of his or her body such as face, fingerprint, and iris. It also uses behavioral features such as signature, electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyogram (EMG), and electroencephalogram (EEG). Among them, the EMG signal is a sign generated when the muscles move, which can be used in various fields such as motion recognition, personal identification, and disease diagnosis. In this paper, we analyze EMG-ba...
Full Text Available The intention of this study was to systematically analyze the impact of biomechanical variables in terms of different vibration frequencies, amplitudes and knee angles on quadriceps femoris and hamstring activity during exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV. 51 healthy men and women (age 55 ± 8 years voluntary participated in the study and were randomly allocated to five different vibration-frequency groups. Each subject performed 9 static squat positions (3 amplitudes x 3 knee angles on a side alternating vibration platform. Surface electromyography (EMG was used to record the neuromuscular activity of the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscles. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs were performed prior to the measurements to normalize the EMG signals. A three-way mixed ANOVA was performed to analyze the different effects of the biomechanical variables on muscle activity. Depending on the biomechanical variables, EMG muscle activity ranged between 18.2 and 74.1 % MVC in the quadriceps femoris and between 5.2 and 27. 3 % MVC in the hamstrings during WBV. The highest levels of muscle activation were found at high frequencies and large amplitudes. Especially in the quadriceps femoris muscle, a WBV frequency of 30 Hz led to a significant increase in muscle activity compared to the other tested frequencies. However, it seems that knee angle is only relevant for the quadriceps femoris muscle. The results of this study should give more information for developing individual training protocols for WBV treatment in different practical applications
Kallenberg, L.A.C.; Preece, S.; Hermens, Hermanus J.
Muscle activity can be assessed non-invasively by means of surface electrodes places at the skin overlyin a muscle. When multiy-channel array electrodes are used, it is possible to extract motor unit action potentials (MUAP's) from the EMG signals with a segmentation approach based on the Continuous
Semmler, J G
It is well known that unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle damage and soreness, which can produce long-lasting effects on muscle function. How this muscle damage influences muscle activation is poorly understood. The purpose of this brief review is to highlight the effect of eccentric exercise on the activation of muscle by the nervous system, by examining the change in motor unit activity obtained from surface electromyography (EMG) and intramuscular recordings. Previous research shows that eccentric exercise produces unusual changes in the EMG–force relation that influences motor performance during isometric, shortening and lengthening muscle contractions and during fatiguing tasks. When examining the effect of eccentric exercise at the single motor unit level, there are substantial changes in recruitment thresholds, discharge rates, motor unit conduction velocities and synchronization, which can last for up to 1 week after eccentric exercise. Examining the time course of these changes suggests that the increased submaximal EMG after eccentric exercise most likely occurs through a decrease in motor unit conduction velocity and an increase in motor unit activity related to antagonist muscle coactivation and low-frequency fatigue. Furthermore, there is a commonly held view that eccentric exercise produces preferential damage to high-threshold motor units, but the evidence for this in humans is limited. Further research is needed to establish whether there is preferential damage to high-threshold motor units after eccentric exercise in humans, preferably by linking changes in motor unit activity with estimates of motor unit size using selective intramuscular recording techniques.
Fong, Shirley S M; Tam, Y T; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Ng, Shamay S M; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Chan, Eleanor W Y; Guo, X
This study aimed to examine the effects of kinesiology taping (KT) and different TRX suspension workouts on the amplitude of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the core muscles among people with chronic low back pain (LBP). Each participant (total n = 21) was exposed to two KT conditions: no taping and taping, while performing four TRX suspension exercises: (1) hamstring curl, (2) hip abduction in plank, (3) chest press, and (4) 45-degree row. Right transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrAIO), rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and superficial lumbar multifidus (LMF) activity was recorded with surface EMG and expressed as a percentage of the EMG amplitude recorded during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the respective muscles. Hip abduction in plank increased TrAIO, RA, and LMF EMG amplitude compared with other TRX positions (P hamstring curl was effective in inducing a high EMG amplitude of LMF (P 0.05). Hip abduction in plank most effectively activated abdominal muscles, whereas the hamstring curl most effectively activated the paraspinal muscles. Applying KT conferred no immediate benefits in improving the core muscle activation during TRX training in adults with chronic LBP.
Larsen, C M; Juul-Kristensen, B; Olsen, H B
Neuromuscular control of the scapular muscles is important in the etiology of shoulder pain. Electromyographical (EMG) biofeedback in healthy people has been shown to support a selective activation of the lower compartment of the trapezius muscle, specifically. The aim of the present paper was to...
Serner, Andreas; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis
INTRODUCTION: Exercise programmes are used in the prevention and treatment of adductor-related groin injuries in soccer; however, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the intensity of frequently used exercises. OBJECTIVE: Primarily to investigate muscle activity of adductor longus during six...... traditional and two new hip adduction exercises. Additionally, to analyse muscle activation of gluteals and abdominals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 healthy male elite soccer players, training >5 h a week, participated in the study. Muscle activity using surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured bilaterally...
Truong Quang Dang Khoa
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the relationship between dental occlusion and arm strength; in particular, the imbalance in the jaw can cause loss in arm strength phenomenon. One of the goals of this study was to record the maximum forces that the subjects can resist against the pull-down force on their hands while biting a spacer of adjustable height on the right or left side of the jaw. Then EMG measurement was used to determine the EMG-Force relationship of the jaw, neck and arms muscles. This gave us useful insights on the arms strength loss due to the biomechanical effects of the imbalance in the jaw mechanism. Methods In this study to determine the effects of the imbalance in the jaw to the strength of the arms, we conducted experiments with a pool of 20 healthy subjects of both genders. The subjects were asked to resist a pull down force applied on the contralateral arm while biting on a firm spacer using one side of the jaw. Four different muscles – masseter muscles, deltoid muscles, bicep muscles and trapezoid muscles – were involved. Integrated EMG (iEMG and Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD were used to analyze the EMG signals. Results The results showed that (1 Imbalance in the jaw causes loss of arm strength contra-laterally; (2 The loss is approximately a linear function of the height of the spacers. Moreover, the iEMG showed the intensity of muscle activities decreased when the degrees of jaw imbalance increased (spacer thickness increased. In addition, the tendency of Higuchi fractal dimension decreased for all muscles. Conclusions This finding indicates that muscle fatigue and the decrease in muscle contraction level leads to the loss of arm strength.
Golkar, Mahsa A; Jalaleddini, Kian; Kearney, Robert E
An accurate model for ElectroMyoGram (EMG)-torque dynamics has many uses. One of its applications which has gained high attention among researchers is its use, in estimating the muscle contraction level for the efficient control of prosthesis. In this paper, the dynamic relationship between the surface EMG and torque during isometric contractions at the human ankle was studied using system identification techniques. Subjects voluntarily modulated their ankle torque in dorsiflexion direction, by activating their tibialis anterior muscle, while tracking a pseudo-random binary sequence in a torque matching task. The effects of contraction bandwidth, described by torque spectrum, on EMG-torque dynamics were evaluated by varying the visual command switching time. Nonparametric impulse response functions (IRF) were estimated between the processed surface EMG and torque. It was demonstrated that: 1) at low contraction bandwidths, the identified IRFs had unphysiological anticipatory (i.e., non-causal) components, whose amplitude decreased as the contraction bandwidth increased. We hypothesized that this non-causal behavior arose, because the EMG input contained a component due to feedback from the output torque, i.e., it was recorded from within a closed-loop. Vision was not the feedback source since the non-causal behavior persisted when visual feedback was removed. Repeating the identification using a nonparametric closed-loop identification algorithm yielded causal IRFs at all bandwidths, supporting this hypothesis. 2) EMG-torque dynamics became faster and the bandwidth of system increased as contraction modulation rate increased. Thus, accurate prediction of torque from EMG signals must take into account the contraction bandwidth sensitivity of this system.
Cioffi, Iacopo; Farella, Mauro; Festa, Paola; Martina, Roberto; Palla, Sandro; Michelotti, Ambrosina
To investigate the effects of the application of an acute alteration of the occlusion (ie, interference) on the habitual masseter electromyographic (EMG) activity of females with temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-related muscular pain during wakefulness. Seven female volunteers with masticatory myofascial pain participated in a crossover randomized clinical trial. Gold foils were glued on an occlusal contact area (active occlusal interference, AI) or on the vestibular surface of the same molar (dummy interference, DI) and left for 8 days. The masseter electromyogram was recorded during wakefulness in the natural environment by portable recorders under interference-free, dummy-interference, and active-interference conditions. The number, amplitude, and duration of EMG signal fractions with amplitudes above 10% of the maximum voluntary contraction (activity periods, APs) were computed in all experimental conditions. Muscle pain, headache, and perceived stress were each assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS), and an algometer was used to assess masseter and temporalis pressure pain thresholds. Data were analyzed by means of analysis of variance. The frequency and duration of the recorded APs did not differ significantly between the experimental conditions (P>.05), but a small and significant reduction of the EMG mean amplitude of the APs occurred with AI (P.05). An active occlusal interference in female volunteers with masticatory muscle pain had little influence on the masseter EMG activity pattern during wakefulness and did not affect the pressure tenderness of the masseter and temporalis.
Bressel, Eadric; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Thompson, Brennan; Fontana, Fabio E
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of verbal instruction, surface stability, and load intensity on trunk muscle activity levels during the free weight squat exercise. Twelve trained males performed a free weight squat under four conditions: (1) standing on stable ground lifting 50% of their 1-repetition maximum (RM), (2) standing on a BOSU balance trainer lifting 50% of their 1-RM, (3) standing on stable ground lifting 75% of their 1-RM, and (4) receiving verbal instructions to activate the trunk muscles followed by lifting 50% of their 1-RM. Surface EMG activity from muscles rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TA/IO), and erector spinae (ES) were recorded for each condition and normalized for comparisons. Muscles RA, EO, and TA/IO displayed greater peak activity (39-167%) during squats with instructions compared to the other squat conditions (P=0.04-0.007). Peak EMG activity of muscle ES was greater for the 75% 1-RM condition than squats with instructions or lifting 50% of 1-RM (P=0.04-0.02). The results indicate that if the goal is to enhance EMG activity of the abdominal muscles during a multi-joint squat exercise then verbal instructions may be more effective than increasing load intensity or lifting on an unstable surface. However, in light of other research, conscious co-activation of the trunk muscles during the squat exercise may lead to spinal instability and hazardous compression forces in the lumbar spine.
Falla, Deborah; Gizzi, Leonardo; Tschapek, Marika; Erlenwein, Joachim; Petzke, Frank
This study investigated change in the distribution of lumbar erector spinae muscle activity and pressure pain sensitivity across the low back in individuals with low back pain (LBP) and healthy controls. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from multiple locations over the lumbar erector spinae muscle with a 13×5 grid of electrodes from 19 people with chronic nonspecific LBP and 17 control subjects as they performed a repetitive lifting task. The EMG root mean square (RMS) was computed for each location of the grid to form a map of the EMG amplitude distribution. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded before and after the lifting task over a similar area of the back. For the control subjects, the EMG RMS progressively increased more in the caudal region of the lumbar erector spinae during the repetitive task, resulting in a shift in the distribution of muscle activity. In contrast, the distribution of muscle activity remained unaltered in the LBP group despite an overall increase in EMG amplitude. PPT was lower in the LBP group after completion of the repetitive task compared to baseline (average across all locations: pre: 268.0±165.9 kPa; post: 242.0±166.7 kPa), whereas no change in PPT over time was observed for the control group (320.1±162.1 kPa; post: 322.0±179.5 kPa). The results demonstrate that LBP alters the normal adaptation of lumbar erector spinae muscle activity to exercise, which occurs in the presence of exercise-induced hyperalgesia. Reduced variability of muscle activity may have important implications for the provocation and recurrence of LBP due to repetitive tasks. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Louis
phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. METHODS: Sixty-two adolescent female elite......BACKGROUND: Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular...... football and handball players (16.7±1.3years) participated in the study. Using surface electromyography (EMG) assessment, the neuromuscular activity of medial hamstring muscle (semitendinosus, ST), lateral hamstring muscle (biceps femoris, BF) and quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis, VL) were monitored...
Madeleine, Pascal; Vedsted, Pernille; Blangsted, Anne Katrine
The purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate the effects of surface electromyography (EMG)- and mechanomyography (MMG)-based audio and visual biofeedback during computer work. Standardized computer work was performed for 3 min with/without time constraint and biofeedback in a randomize...... alternative to EMG in ergonomics. A lowering of the trapezius muscle activity may contribute to diminish the risk of work related musculoskeletal disorders development.......The purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate the effects of surface electromyography (EMG)- and mechanomyography (MMG)-based audio and visual biofeedback during computer work. Standardized computer work was performed for 3 min with/without time constraint and biofeedback in a randomized......) values as well as the work performance in terms of number of completed graph/mouse clicks/errors, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the usefulness of the biofeedback were assessed. The duration of muscle activity above the threshold was significantly lower with MMG compared with EMG as source...
Sjøgaard, Gisela; Jensen, Bente R.; Hargens, Allan R.
Intramuscular pressure (IMP) and electromyography (EMG) mirror muscle force in the nonfatigued muscle during static contractions. The present study explores whether the constant IMP-EMG relationship with increased force may be extended to dynamic contractions and to fatigued muscle. IMP and EMG...... with speed of abduction. In the nonfatigued supraspinatus muscle, a linear relationship was found between IMP and EMG; in contrast, during fatigue and recovery, significant timewise changes of the IMP-to-EMG ratio occurred. The results indicate that IMP should be included along with EMG when mechanical load...... sharing between muscles is evaluated during dynamic and fatiguing contractions....
Zużewicz, Krystyna; Roman-Liu, Danuta; Konarska, Maria; Bartuzi, Paweł; Matusiak, Krzysztof; Korczak, Dariusz; Lozia, Zbigniew; Guzek, Marek
The aim of the study was to verify whether simultaneous responses from the muscular and circulatory system occur in the driver's body under simulated conditions of a crash threat. The study was carried out in a passenger car driving simulator. The crash was included in the driving test scenario developed in an urban setting. In the group of 22 young male subjects, two physiological signals - ECG and EMG were continuously recorded. The length of the RR interval in the ECG signal was assessed. A HRV analysis was performed in the time and frequency domains for 1-minute record segments at rest (seated position), during undisturbed driving as well as during and several minutes after the crash. For the left and right side muscles: m. trapezius (TR) and m. flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), the EMG signal amplitude was determined. The percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was compared during driving and during the crash. As for the ECG signal, it was found that in most of the drivers changes occurred in the parameter values reflecting HRV in the time domain. Significant changes were noted in the mean length of RR intervals (mRR). As for the EMG signal, the changes in the amplitude concerned the signal recorded from the FDS muscle. The changes in ECG and EMG were simultaneous in half of the cases. Such parameters as mRR (ECG signal) and FDS-L amplitude (EMG signal) were the responses to accident risk. Under simulated conditions, responses from the circulatory and musculoskeletal systems are not always simultaneous. The results indicate that a more complete driver's response to a crash in road traffic is obtained based on parallel recording of two physiological signals (ECG and EMG).
Masood, Tahir; Kalliokoski, Kari; Bojsen-Møller, Jens
BACKGROUND: Achilles tendon pathologies may alter the coordinative strategies of synergistic calf muscles. We hypothesized that both surface electromyography and positron emission tomography would reveal differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic legs in Achilles tendinopathy patients and b...
Kakoty, Nayan M; Hazarika, Shyamanta M
With the advancement in machine learning and signal processing techniques, electromyogram (EMG) signals have increasingly gained importance in man-machine interaction. Multifingered hand prostheses using surface EMG for control has appeared in the market. However, EMG based control is still rudimentary, being limited to a few hand postures based on higher number of EMG channels. Moreover, control is non-intuitive, in the sense that the user is required to learn to associate muscle remnants actions to unrelated posture of the prosthesis. Herein lies the promise of a low channel EMG based grasp classification architecture for development of an embedded intelligent prosthetic controller. This paper reports classification of six grasp types used during 70% of daily living activities based on two channel forearm EMG. A feature vector through principal component analysis of discrete wavelet transform coefficients based features of the EMG signal is derived. Classification is through radial basis function kernel based support vector machine following preprocessing and maximum voluntary contraction normalization of EMG signals. 10-fold cross validation is done. We have achieved an average recognition rate of 97.5%. © 2011 IEEE
Balouchestani, Mohammadreza; Krishnan, Sridhar
In this work, we present an advanced K-means clustering algorithm based on Compressed Sensing theory (CS) in combination with the K-Singular Value Decomposition (K-SVD) method for Clustering of long-term recording of surface Electromyography (sEMG) signals. The long-term monitoring of sEMG signals aims at recording of the electrical activity produced by muscles which are very useful procedure for treatment and diagnostic purposes as well as for detection of various pathologies. The proposed algorithm is examined for three scenarios of sEMG signals including healthy person (sEMG-Healthy), a patient with myopathy (sEMG-Myopathy), and a patient with neuropathy (sEMG-Neuropathr), respectively. The proposed algorithm can easily scan large sEMG datasets of long-term sEMG recording. We test the proposed algorithm with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Correlation Coefficient (LCC) dimensionality reduction methods. Then, the output of the proposed algorithm is fed to K-Nearest Neighbours (K-NN) and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) classifiers in order to calclute the clustering performance. The proposed algorithm achieves a classification accuracy of 99.22%. This ability allows reducing 17% of Average Classification Error (ACE), 9% of Training Error (TE), and 18% of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The proposed algorithm also reduces 14% clustering energy consumption compared to the existing K-Means clustering algorithm.
KOOLE, P; DEJONGH, HJ; BOERING, G
Electromyographic activity was synchronously recorded by surface and intramuscular electrodes in the same muscle. The activity of the left masseter, left temporalis, and both bellies of the anterior digastric muscle was studied by this double registration technique. In rest position no
Kim, Gye-Yeop; Kin, Se-Hun
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of lumbar stability exercises on chronic low back pain by using sling exercise and push-ups. [Subjects] Thirty adult subjects with chronic back pain participated, with 10 adults being assigned to each of 3 exercise groups: general physical therapy (PT), lumbar stability using sling exercises (Sling Ex), and sling exercise plus push-ups (Sling Ex+PU). Each group trained for 30 minutes 3 times a week for 6 weeks. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of the lumbar muscles, and cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle on computed tomography (CT) were evaluated before and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of therapy. [Results] A significant decrease in ODI was seen in all therapy groups, and this change was greater in the Sling Ex and Sling Ex+PU groups than in the PT group. No changes in sEMG activity were noted in the PT group, whereas significant increases in the sEMG activities of all lumbar muscles were found in the other 2 groups. The increases in the sEMG activities of the rectus abdominis and internal and external oblique muscles of the abdomen were greater in the Sling Ex+PU group than in the other 2 groups. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that Sling Ex+PU, similar to normal lumbar stabilization exercise, is effective in activating and improving the function of the lumbar muscles. These results suggest that Sling Ex+PU has a positive impact on stabilization of the lumbar region.
Full Text Available Introduction: The present study assessed whether motor imagery (MI produces electromyographic activation in specific muscles of the upper limb during a hand grasping and arm-lifting task in healthy volunteers, patients after stroke, or with Parkinson's disease. Electromyographic (EMG activation was compared under three conditions: MI, physical execution (PE, and rest. The task is clinically relevant unilateral executed movement using open muscle chains.Methods: In a cross-sectional study EMG activation was measured in four muscles: M. deltoideus pars clavicularis, M. biceps brachii, M. extensor digitorum, M. flexor carpi radialis. MI ability was evaluated with mental rotation, mental chronometry and the Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire. Cognitive performance was screened with the Mini-Mental State Examination.Results: Twenty-two participants (11 females, age 52.6 ±15.8, age range 21 to 72 were included: ten healthy volunteers, seven patients after stroke (time after stroke onset 16.3 ± 24.8 months, and five patients with Parkinson's disease (disease duration 60.4 ± 24.5 months. Overall Mini-Mental State Examination scores ranged between 27 and 30. An increased EMG activation during MI compared to rest condition was observed in M. deltoideus pars clavicularis and M. biceps brachii across all participants (p-value = 0.001, p = 0.007. Seven participants (two healthy volunteers, three patients after stroke and two patients with Parkinson's disease showed a EMG activation during MI of the hand grasping and arm-lifting task in at least one of the target muscles. No correlation between EMG activation during MI and scores of three MI ability assessments were found.Conclusions: The findings suggest that MI can yield subliminal EMG activation. However, that might vary on individual basis. It remains unclear what parameters contribute to or inhibit an EMG activation during MI. Future investigations should determine factors that influence
Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel
To what extent do people behave in immersive virtual environments as they would in similar situations in a physical environment? There are many ways to address this question, ranging from questionnaires, behavioral studies, and the use of physiological measures. Here, we compare the onsets of muscle activity using surface electromyography (EMG) while participants were walking under three different conditions: on a normal floor surface, on a narrow ribbon along the floor, and on a narrow platf...
Higashihara, Ayako; Nagano, Yasuharu; Ono, Takashi; Fukubayashi, Toru
The purpose of this study was to quantify activation of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstring (MH) during overground sprinting. Lower-extremity kinematics and electromyography (EMG) of the BF and MH were recorded in 13 male sprinters performing overground sprinting at maximum effort. Mean EMG activity was calculated in the early stance, late stance, mid-swing, and late-swing phases. Activation of the BF was significantly greater during the early stance phase than the late stance phase (p<0.01). Activation of the BF muscle was significantly lower during the first half of the mid-swing phase than the other phases (p<0.05). The MH had significantly greater EMG activation relative to its recorded maximum values compared to that for the BF during the late stance (p<0.05) and mid-swing (p<0.01) phases. These results indicate that the BF shows high activation before and after foot contact, while the MH shows high activation during the late stance and mid-swing phases. We concluded that the activation properties of the BF and MH muscles differ within the sprinting gait cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dafkin, Chloe; Green, Andrew; Olivier, Benita; McKinon, Warrick; Kerr, Samantha
To assess if there is a circadian variation in electromyographical (EMG) muscle activity during gait in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients and healthy control participants. Gait assessment was done in 14 RLS patients and 13 healthy control participants in the evening (PM) and the morning (AM). Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally from the tibialis anterior (TA), lateral gastrocnemius (GL), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. A circadian variation during the stance phase in only TA (PM > AM, p Controls, p < 0.05) during early stance and decreased GL activity (RLS < Controls, p < 0.01) during terminal stance in comparison to control participants in the evening. No other significant differences were noted between RLS patients and control participants. Activation of GL during the swing phase was noted in 79% of RLS patients and in 23% of control participants in the morning compared to 71% and 38% in the evening, respectively. EMG muscle activity shows no circadian variation in RLS patients. Evening differences in gait muscle activation patterns between RLS patients and control participants are evident. These results extend our knowledge about alterations in spinal processing during gait in RLS. A possible explanation for these findings is central pattern generator sensitization caused by increased sensitivity in cutaneous afferents in RLS patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Luczak, Joshua; Bosak, Andy; Riemann, Bryan L.
Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals (n = 12) and novice female resistance trained exercisers (n = 12) from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric) was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases). While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs. PMID:26464884
Full Text Available Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals ( and novice female resistance trained exercisers ( from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases. While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs.
Portable EMG devices, Biofeedback and Contingent Electrical Stimulation applications in Bruxism Eduardo Enrique, Castrillon Watanabe, DDS, MSc, PhD Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Department of Dentistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neuroscience...... Summary: Bruxism is a parafunctional activity, which involves the masticatory muscles and probably it is as old as human mankind. Different methods such as portable EMG devices have been proposed to diagnose and understand the pathophysiology of bruxism. Biofeedback / contingent electrical stimulation...... characteristics make it complicated to assess bruxism using portable EMG devices. The possibility to assess bruxism like EMG activity on a portable device made it possible to use biofeedback and CES approaches in order to treat / manage bruxism. The available scientific information about CES effects on bruxism...
Maddigan, Meaghan E; Button, Duane C; Behm, David G
The back squat is a traditional resistance training exercise, whereas the resisted sled exercise is a relatively new resistance exercise. However, as there are no studies comparing muscle activation between the exercises, the objective of this study was to examine activity of leg and trunk muscles for both exercises. Ten healthy resistance-trained men participated in a randomized crossover design study consisting of 2 preparation sessions and 2 testing sessions. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, lower erector spinae, and the transversus abdominis/internal obliques (TrA/IO) were monitored during a 20-step maximum push with the weighted sled apparatus and a 10 repetition maximum with a bilateral back squat. There were nonsignificant trends for the rectus femoris (p = 0.092: 8.6-16.7%) and biceps femoris (p = 0.09: 10.5-32.8%) to demonstrate higher activity with the sled and squat exercises, respectively. There were main effects for condition with 61.2% greater gastrocnemius EMG with the sled exercise (p = 0.01) and 74.5% greater erector spinae EMG activity with the squat (p = 0.002). There were no significant differences between the exercises for the TrA/IO. In summary, the sled and squat exercises provided similar EMG activity for the quadriceps, hamstrings, and TrA/IO. The squat provided higher lower erector spinae activation, whereas the sled had superior gastrocnemius activation. Depending on the movement-training specificity of the sport, either exercise may be used in a training program while acknowledging the differences in gastrocnemius and erector spinae activity.
Full Text Available Although activity of the rectus femoris (RF differs from that of the other synergists in quadriceps femoris muscle group during physical activities in humans, it has been suggested that the activation pattern of the vastus intermedius (VI is similar to that of the RF. The purpose of present study was to examine activation of the VI during isometric hip flexion. Ten healthy men performed isometric hip flexion contractions at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction at hip joint angles of 90°, 110° and 130°. Surface electromyography (EMG was used to record activity of the four quadriceps femoris muscles and EMG signals were root mean square processed and normalized to EMG amplitude during an isometric knee extension with maximal voluntary contraction. The normalized EMG was significantly higher for the VI than for the vastus medialis during hip flexion at 100% of maximal voluntary contraction at hip joint angles of 110° and 130° (P < 0.05. The onset of VI activation was 230-240 ms later than the onset of RF activation during hip flexion at each hip joint angle, which was significantly later than during knee extension at 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (P < 0.05. These results suggest that the VI is activated later than the RF during hip flexion. Activity of the VI during hip flexion might contribute to stabilize the knee joint as an antagonist and might help to smooth knee joint motion, such as in the transition from hip flexion to knee extension during walking, running and pedaling.
McBride, Jeffrey M; Porcari, John P; Scheunke, Mark D
This investigation was designed to determine if vibration during fatiguing resistance exercise would alter associated patterns of muscle activity. A cross-over design was employed with 8 subjects completing a resistance exercise bout once with a vibrating dumbbell (V) (44 Hz, 3 mm displacement) and once without vibration (NV). For both exercise bouts, 10 sets were performed with a load that induced concentric muscle failure during the 10th repetition. The appropriate load for each set was determined during a pretest. Each testing session was separated by 1 week. Electromyography (EMG) was obtained from the biceps brachii muscle at 12 different time points during a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at a 170 degrees elbow angle after each set of the dumbbell exercise. The time points were as follows: pre (5 minutes before the resistance exercise bout), T1-T10 (immediately following each set of resistance exercise), and post (15 minutes after the resistance exercise bout). EMG was analyzed for median power frequency (MPF) and maximum (mEMG). NV resulted in a significant decrease in MPF at T1-T4 (p recruitment of high threshold motor units during fatiguing contractions. This may indicate the usage of vibration with resistance exercise as an effective tool for strength training athletes.
Shirley S. M. Fong
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of kinesiology taping (KT and different TRX suspension workouts on the amplitude of electromyographic (EMG activity in the core muscles among people with chronic low back pain (LBP. Each participant (total n=21 was exposed to two KT conditions: no taping and taping, while performing four TRX suspension exercises: (1 hamstring curl, (2 hip abduction in plank, (3 chest press, and (4 45-degree row. Right transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrAIO, rectus abdominis (RA, external oblique (EO, and superficial lumbar multifidus (LMF activity was recorded with surface EMG and expressed as a percentage of the EMG amplitude recorded during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the respective muscles. Hip abduction in plank increased TrAIO, RA, and LMF EMG amplitude compared with other TRX positions (P0.05. Hip abduction in plank most effectively activated abdominal muscles, whereas the hamstring curl most effectively activated the paraspinal muscles. Applying KT conferred no immediate benefits in improving the core muscle activation during TRX training in adults with chronic LBP.
Ray, C A; Hume, K M; Gracey, K H; Mahoney, E T
Elevation of muscle temperature has been shown to increase muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during isometric exercise in humans. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of muscle cooling on MSNA responses during exercise. Eight subjects performed ischemic isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction to fatigue followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI), with and without local cooling of the forearm. Local cooling of the forearm decreased forearm muscle temperature from 31.8 +/- 0.4 to 23.1 +/- 0.8 degrees C (P = 0.001). Time to fatigue was not different during the control and cold trials (156 +/- 11 and 154 +/- 5 s, respectively). Arterial pressures and heart rate were not significantly affected by muscle cooling during exercise, although heart rate tended to be higher during the second minute of exercise (P = 0.053) during muscle cooling. Exercise-induced increases in MSNA were delayed during handgrip with local cooling compared with control. However, MSNA responses at fatigue and PEMI were not different between the two conditions. These findings suggest that muscle cooling delayed the activation of the muscle metaboreflex during ischemic isometric exercise but did not prevent its full expression during fatiguing contraction. These results support the concept that muscle temperature can play a role in the regulation of MSNA during exercise.
Yoo, Ji Won; Lee, Dong Ryul; Cha, Young Joo; You, Sung Hyun
The purpose of the present study was to compare therapeutic effects of an electromyography (EMG) biofeedback augmented by virtual reality (VR) and EMG biofeedback alone on the triceps and biceps (T:B) muscle activity imbalance and elbow joint movement coordination during a reaching motor taskOBJECTIVE: To compare therapeutic effects of an electromyography (EMG) biofeedback augmented by virtual reality (VR) and EMG biofeedback alone on the triceps and biceps muscle activity imbalance and elbow joint movement coordination during a reaching motor task in normal children and children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). 18 children with spastic CP (2 females; mean±standard deviation = 9.5 ± 1.96 years) and 8 normal children (3 females; mean ± standard deviation = 9.75 ± 2.55 years) were recruited from a local community center. All children with CP first underwent one intensive session of EMG feedback (30 minutes), followed by one session of the EMG-VR feedback (30 minutes) after a 1-week washout period. Clinical tests included elbow extension range of motion (ROM), biceps muscle strength, and box and block test. EMG triceps and biceps (T:B) muscle activity imbalance and reaching movement acceleration coordination were concurrently determined by EMG and 3-axis accelerometer measurements respectively. Independent t-test and one-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed at p augmented by virtual reality exercise games in children with spastic CP. The augmented EMG and VR feedback produced better neuromuscular balance control in the elbow joint than the EMG biofeedback alone.
Lee, Yun-Ju; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H
Cyclic activation of the external and internal oblique muscles contributes to twisting moments during normal gait. During pushing while walking, it is not well understood how these muscles respond to presence of predictable (cyclic push-off forces) and unpredictable (external) perturbations that occur in pushing tasks. We hypothesized that the predictable perturbations due to the cyclic push-off forces would be associated with cyclic muscle activity, while external perturbations would be counteracted by cocontraction of the oblique abdominal muscles. Eight healthy male subjects pushed at two target forces and two handle heights in a static condition and while walking without and with external perturbations. For all pushing tasks, the median, the static (10th percentile) and the peak levels (90th percentile) of the electromyographic amplitudes were determined. Linear models with oblique abdominal EMGs and trunk angles as input were fit to the twisting moments, to estimate trunk stiffness. There was no significant difference between the static EMG levels in pushing while walking compared to the peak levels in pushing while standing. When pushing while walking, the additional dynamic activity was associated with the twisting moments, which were actively modulated by the pairs of oblique muscles as in normal gait. The median and static levels of trunk muscle activity and estimated trunk stiffness were significantly higher when perturbations occurred than without perturbations. The increase baseline of muscle activity indicated cocontraction of the antagonistic muscle pairs. Furthermore, this cocontraction resulted in an increased trunk stiffness around the longitudinal axis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Joo-Hee; Kang, Sun-Young; Lee, Sa-Gyeom; Jeon, Hye-Seon
This study investigates changes in the posture angles of the neck and trunk, together with changes in the muscle activation of users, at the start of and at 5, 10, and 15 minutes of smartphone use. Eighteen males participated in this study. Surface electromyography (EMG) and a digital camera were used to measure the muscle activation and angular changes of the neck and trunk of participants during smartphone use for a period of 16 minutes. Neck and trunk flexion significantly increased at 5, 10, and 15 minutes (p smartphone usage. The EMG activation and 10th%amplitude probability distribution function (APDF) values of the bilateral cervical erector spinae at 5-6, 10-11, and 15-16 minutes of usage (p Smartphone use induced more flexed posture on the neck and trunk than other visual display terminal (VDT) work. Smartphone use also changed posture and muscle activation within a relatively short amount of time, just 5 minutes. Pain after 16 minutes of smartphone use was also observed. Thus, clinicians should consider the influences of smartphone use in posture and muscle activity in evaluation, intervention, and prevention of neck and trunk conditions.
Vestergaard-Poulsen, P; Thomsen, C; Sinkjaer, T
A large number of studies have shown amplitude and spectral changes of the electromyogram during exercise, leading to several theories of how these changes might be related to the underlying metabolic changes. The amplitude and spectral changes are generally interpreted as changes in motor unit...... of the muscle. Simultaneous 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and surface electromyography were performed during sustained static exercise and recovery in healthy volunteers and a patient with McArdle's disease. A clear dissociation between the median power frequency of the surface electromyogram...... and pH was seen in the healthy volunteers during recovery and during exercise in the patient with McArdle's disease. The results indicate that proton or lactate accumulation is not primarily responsible for the spectral changes of the surface electromyogram as previously suggested. The motor unit...
Full Text Available Electromyography (EMG is a well known technique used for recording electrical activity produced by human muscles. In the last few decades, EMG signals are used as a control input for prosthetic hands. There are several multifunctional myoelectric prosthetic hands for amputees on the market, but so forth, none of these devices permits the natural control of more than two degrees of freedom. In this paper we present our implementation of the pattern classification using custom made components (electrodes and an embedded EMG amplifier. The components were evaluated in offline and online tests, in able bodied as well as amputee subjects. This type of control is based on computing the time domain features of the EMG signals recorded from the forearm and using these features as input for a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA classifier estimating the intention of the prosthetic user. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III - 41007
Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus Due
PURPOSE: This study evaluates whether focusing on using specific muscles during bench press can selectively activate these muscles. METHODS: Altogether 18 resistance-trained men participated. Subjects were familiarized with the procedure and performed one-maximum repetition (1RM) test during...... electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded for the triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscles. Subsequently, peak EMG of the filtered signals were normalized to maximum maximorum EMG of each muscle. RESULTS: In both muscles, focusing on using the respective muscles increased muscle activity at relative loads...... between 20 and 60 %, but not at 80 % of 1RM. Overall, a threshold between 60 and 80 % rather than a linear decrease in selective activation with increasing intensity appeared to exist. The increased activity did not occur at the expense of decreased activity of the other muscle, e.g. when focusing...
Full Text Available In the current study, the running pattern of the lower extremity was examined while being perturbed through tubes attached between the ankles and the lower back to analyze influences on the running pattern variability before and after a varied running intervention. 3D-kinematics, joint coupling and electromyography (EMG, as well as their variability, were analyzed in ten healthy male participants during treadmill running (10.5 km·h-1. Pre- and post-tests each consisted of 2 x 30 min treadmill running (one with and one without tubes. The results showed major acute effects on EMG and kinematics, as well as joint coordination variability, due to the constraints (p < 0.05. After the intervention, a process of normalization of most kinematic and EMG parameters occurred; however, EMG variability, kinematic variability and joint coordination variability were reduced during tube running below normal running level (p < 0.05. The findings further indicate rapid kinematic adaptations while muscle activity appears to require longer practice to adapt. The constraint serves to acutely increase variability, but may lead to reduced variability when applied for a longer period of time
Hazell, Tom J; Kenno, Kenji A; Jakobi, Jennifer M
The purpose of this investigation was to examine if the addition of a light external load would enhance whole-body vibration (WBV)-induced increases in muscle activity during dynamic squatting in 4 leg muscles. Thirteen recreationally active male university students performed a series of dynamic squats (unloaded with no WBV, unloaded with WBV, loaded with no WBV, and loaded with WBV). The load was set to 30% of body mass and WBV included 25-, 35-, and 45-Hz frequencies with 4-mm amplitude. Muscle activity was recorded with surface electromyography (EMG) on the vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GC) and is reported as EMGrms (root mean square) normalized to %maximal voluntary exertion. During unloaded dynamic squats, exposure to WBV (45 Hz) significantly (p squat exercise in all muscles but decreased the TA. This loaded level of muscle activity was further increased with WBV (45 Hz) in all muscles. The WBV-induced increases in muscle activity in the loaded condition (approximately 3.5%) were of a similar magnitude to the WBV-induced increases during the unloaded condition (approximately 2.5%) demonstrating the addition of WBV to unloaded or loaded dynamic squatting results in an increase in muscle activity. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of using external loads with exposure to WBV.
Ruiz-Muñoz, Maria; González-Sánchez, Manuel; Martín-Martín, Jaime; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I
To analyse the torque variation level that could be explained by the muscle activation (EMG) amplitude of the three major foot dorsiflexor muscles (tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), extensor hallucis longus (EHL)) during isometric foot dorsiflexion at different intensities. In a cross-sectional study, forty-one subjects performed foot dorsiflexion at 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) with the hip and knee flexed 90° and the ankle in neutral position (90° between leg and foot). Three foot dorsiflexions were performed for each intensity. Outcome variables were: maximum (100% MVC) and relative torque (75%, 50%, 25% MVC), maximum and relative EMG amplitude. A linear regression analysis was calculated for each intensity of the isometric foot dorsiflexion. The degree of torque variation (dependent variable) from the independent variables explain (EMG amplitude of the three major foot dorsiflexor muscles) the increases when the foot dorsiflexion intensity is increased, with values of R 2 that range from 0.194 (during 25% MVC) to 0.753 (during 100% MVC). The reliability of the outcome variables was excellent. The EMG amplitude of the three main foot dorsiflexors exhibited more variance in the dependent variable (torque) when foot dorsiflexion intensity increases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Matsuda, Shinpei; Yamaguchi, Taihiko; Mikami, Saki; Okada, Kazuki; Gotouda, Akihito; Sano, Kazuo
The aim of this study was to elucidate characteristics of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) during sleep by comparing masseteric EMG (electromyogram) activities of RMMA with gum chewing. The parts of five or more consecutive phasic bursts in RMMA of 23 bruxers were analyzed. Wilcoxon signed-rank test for matched pairs and Spearman's correlation coefficient by the rank test were used for statistical analysis. Root mean square value of RMMA phasic burst was smaller than that during gum chewing, but correlates to that of gum chewing. The cycle of RMMA was longer than that of gum chewing due to the longer burst duration of RMMA, and variation in the cycles of RMMA was wider. These findings suggest that the longer but smaller EMG burst in comparison with gum chewing is one of the characteristics of RMMA. The relation between size of RMMA phasic bursts and gum chewing is also suggested.
Murtagh, Misha; Brooks, Darrell; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen
In white-water kayaking, the legs play a vital part in turning, stabilising and bracing actions. To date, there has been no reported information on neuromuscular activation of the legs in an authentic white-water environment. The aim of the current study was to identify lower body muscle activation, using 'in-boat' electromyography (EMG), whilst navigating a white-water run. Ten experienced male kayakers (age 31.5 ± 12.5 yr, intermediate to advanced experience) completed three successful runs of an international standard white-water course (grade 3 rapids), targeting right and left sides of the course, in a zigzag formation. Surface EMG (sEMG) outputs were generated, bilaterally, for the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius, expressed as a percentage of a dynamic maximal voluntary contraction (dMVC). Only RF showed significantly higher activation than any muscle on the left side of the body, and only on the left side of the course (P = .004; ETA(2) = 0.56). Other results showed no significant difference between muscle activation in the right and left legs during each run, nor when assessed at either the right or left side of the course (P > .05). These findings indicate that contralateral symmetry in lower limb muscle activation is evident during white-water kayaking. This symmetry may provide a stable base to allow more asymmetrical upper body and trunk movements to be fully optimised. Lower body symmetry development should be considered useful in targeted training programmes for white-water kayakers.
Iguchi, Hiroko; Magara, Jin; Nakamura, Yuki; Tsujimura, Takanori; Ito, Kayoko; Inoue, Makoto
This study aimed to investigate how the activity of the masseter (Mas) and suprahyoid (Hyoid) muscles is influenced by the physical properties of food, how changes in the rheological properties of food differ between different foods during the process of food reduction, and how different salivary flow rates affect bolus-making capability during masticatory behavior in healthy humans. Ten healthy adults participated in this study. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from the Mas and Hyoid muscles, and 15 g of steamed rice and rice cake was prepared as test foods. In the ingestion test, the subjects were asked to eat each food in their usual manner. The chewing duration, number of chewing cycles before the first swallow, Mas and Hyoid EMG activity, and chewing cycle time were compared between the foods. Total chewing duration was divided into three substages: early, middle, and late; chewing cycle time and EMG activity per chewing cycle of each substage were compared between the foods and among the substages. In the spitting test, the rheological properties of the bolus at the end of each substage were compared between the foods and among the substages. Finally, stimulated salivary flow rates were measured and the relationships between salivary flow rate and chewing duration, EMG activity, and changes in physical food characteristics were investigated. There were significant differences in total chewing duration and the number of chewing cycles, but not in chewing cycle time, between the foods, which had similar hardness values. The EMG activity levels of the Mas and Hyoid per chewing cycle for the rice cake were significantly greater than for the steamed rice throughout the recording periods. While Mas activity did not change among the substages during chewing, Hyoid EMG activity decreased as chewing progressed. Chewing cycle time also gradually decreased as chewing progressed. The hardness of both foods initially increased, then gradually decreased
Full Text Available Pathophysiological mechanisms behind pain in chroniccervical musculoskeletal conditions (MSC in office workers remainunclear. Chronic cervical pain has established links with temporomandibular(TM disorders. Yet there is no current published evidence to reportwhether individuals with cervical dysfunction exhibit altered masseterand cervical extensor (CE muscle activity. Objective: To explore CE andmasseter surface electromyographic (sEMG activity and teeth clenchinghabits in females with chronic cervical dysfunction and no TM disorder.Design: Descriptive cross-sectional correlational study with singleblinding.Participants: University students and staff with or without chroniccervical pain and no TM involvement. Methods: Descriptive and paindata captured from Research Diagnostic Criteria for TM disorders, NeckDisability Index, Computer Usage, Brief Pain Inventory, and EuroQoL-5Dquestionnaires. Female participants allocated to a chronic cervical (n = 20 and a control group (n = 22. Investigator blindedto the study groups recorded sEMG of bilateral masseter and CE muscles (C4/5 level at rest and during light teeth clenching.Results: No differences in socio-demographic profile; or in masseter or CE sEMG activity at rest or during light clench betweengroups. The pain group had higher scores for pain, reported a daytime teeth clenching habit, and had worse scores for the healthrelatedquality of life (HRQoL sub-sections for pain, anxiety/depression, and lower scores for perceived health status. Conclusion:No relationship established between cervico-mandibular sEMG activity and reported disability in females with chronic cervicaldysfunction and no TM disorder. Association between biopsychosocial factors of teeth clenching and anxiety/depression highlightscomplex pathophysiological mechanisms in chronic recurrent cervical pain.
Lan, Yiyun; Yao, Jun; Dewald, Julius P A
Many stroke patients are subject to limited hand functions in the paretic arm due to a significant loss of Corticospinal Tract (CST) fibers. A possible solution for this problem is to classify surface Electromyography (EMG) signals generated by hand movements and uses that to implement Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). However, EMG usually presents an abnormal muscle coactivation pattern shown as increased coupling between muscles within and/or across joints after stroke. The resulting Abnormal Muscle Synergies (AMS) could make the classification more difficult in individuals with stroke, especially when attempting to use the hand together with other joints in the paretic arm. Therefore, this study is aimed at identifying the impact of AMS following stroke on EMG pattern recognition between two hand movements. In an effort to achieve this goal, 7 chronic hemiparetic chronic stroke subjects were recruited and asked to perform hand opening and closing movements at their paretic arm while being either fully supported by a virtual table or loaded with 25% of subject's maximum shoulder abduction force. During the execution of motor tasks EMG signals from the wrist flexors and extensors were simultaneously acquired. Our results showed that increased synergy-induced activity at elbow flexors, induced by increasing shoulder abduction loading, deteriorated the performance of EMG pattern recognition for hand opening for those with a weak grasp strength and EMG activity. However, no such impact on hand closing has yet been observed possibly because finger/wrist flexion is facilitated by the shoulder abduction-induced flexion synergy.
Pantall, Annette; Teulier, Caroline; Ulrich, Beverly D
Infants with myelomeningocele (MMC) increase step frequency in response to modifications to the treadmill surface. The aim was to investigate how these modifications impacted the electromyographic (EMG) patterns. We analyzed EMG from 19 infants aged 2-10 months, with MMC at the lumbosacral level. We supported infants upright on the treadmill for 12 trials, each 30 seconds long. Modifications included visual flow, unloading, weights, Velcro and lcriction. Surface electrodes recorded EMG from tibialis anterior, lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris. We determined muscle bursts for each stride cycle and from these calculated various parameters. Results indicated that each of the five sensory conditions generated different motor patterns. Visual flow and friction which we previously reported increased step frequency impacted lateral gastrocnemius most. Weights, which significantly decreased step frequency increased burst duration and co-activity of the proximal muscles. We also observed an age effect, with all conditions increasing muscle activity in younger infants whereas in older infants visual flow and unloading stimulated most activity. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that infants with myelomeningocele at levels which impact the myotomes of major locomotor muscles find ways to respond and adapt their motor output to changes in sensory input. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappatode; Pirauá, André Luiz Torres; Beltrão, Natália Barros; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti
Scapular dyskinesis is the term used to describe changes in the positioning or movement of the scapula. Such dysfunction is associated with changes in the activation of the scapular muscles. However, the influence of the axial muscles on the scapular muscles activity of subjects with scapular dyskinesis is unknown. This study aimed to compare the electromyography (EMG) activity of periscapular muscles and its correlation with the external oblique muscle during the execution of push-up performed in different surfaces, in volunteers with and without scapular dyskinesis. Thirty-six men, divided in two groups (control and dyskinesis), performed push-up on stable and unstable surface. The EMG activity of serratus anterior (SA_5th and SA_7th fibers), upper (UT) and lower (LT) trapezius, external oblique (EO) was recorded during execution of each task condition. Statistical analyzes were performed using two way ANOVA repeated measures and Pearson correlation. It was observed effect of interaction between factors, being evidenced increased activity of UT, SA_7th and OE for the control group and decreased activity of SA_5th, SA_7th and EO for dyskinesis group during execution of push-up on unstable surface. In both groups positive correlations (r > 0.47) were observed between EMG activity of SA and EO. In the exercises tested, there seems to be an anatomical and functional relationship between the SA and EO muscles. The use of the unstable surface promotes increased neuromuscular demand, but the neuromuscular strategies appear to differ between groups.
Frisk, Rasmus F.; Jensen, Peter; Kirk, Henrik
applied unload perturbations at the ankle, thereby removing sensory feedback naturally activated during push-off. Reduction of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the soleus muscle caused by unloads was compared and related to kinematics and ankle joint stiffness measurements. Similar measures were...... feedback to ongoing soleus muscle activation during push-off than uninjured individuals. Increased passive stiffness around the ankle joint is likely to diminishn sensory feedback during gait, and/or sensory feedback is less integrated with central motor commands in the activation of spinal motor neurons...
Terrill, Philip I; Leong, Matthew; Barton, Katrina; Freakley, Craig; Downey, Carl; Vanniekerk, Mark; Jorgensen, Greg; Douglas, James
Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep (PLMS) can cause significant disturbance to sleep, resulting in daytime sleepiness and reduced quality of life. In conventional clinical practice, PLMS are measured using overnight electromyogram (EMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, although historically they have also been measured using piezo-electric gauges placed over the muscle. However, PLMS counts (PLM index) do not correlate well with clinical symptomology. In this study, we propose that because EMG and piezo derived signals measure muscle activation rather than actual movement, they may count events with no appreciable movement of the limb and therefore no contribution to sleep disturbance. The aim of this study is thus to determine the percentage of clinically scored limb movements which are not associated with movement of the great toe measured using accelerometry. 9 participants were studied simultaneously with an overnight diagnostic polysomnogram (including EMG and piezo instrumentation of the right leg) and high temporal resolution accelerometry of the right great toe. Limb movements were scored, and peak acceleration during each scored movement was quantified. Across the participant population, 54.9% (range: 26.7-76.3) and 39.0% (range: 4.8-69.6) of limb movements scored using piezo and EMG instrumentation respectively, were not associated with toe movement measured with accelerometry. If sleep disturbance is the consequence of the limb movements, these results may explain why conventional piezo or EMG derived PLMI is poorly correlated with clinical symptomology.
Otter, A.R. den; Geurts, A.C.H.; Mulder, T.; Duysens, J.E.J.
OBJECTIVE: To establish whether functional recovery of gait in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis coincides with changes in the temporal patterning of lower extremity muscle activity and coactivity during treadmill walking. METHODS: Electromyographic (EMG) data from both legs, maximum walking
Den Otter, AR; Mulder, T; Duysens, J
Objective: To establish whether functional recovery of gait in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis coincides with changes in the temporal patterning of lower extremity muscle activity and coactivity during treadmill walking. Methods: Electromyographic (EMG) data from both legs, maximum walking
Tucci, Helga T; Ciol, Marcia A; de Araújo, Rodrigo C; de Andrade, Rodrigo; Martins, Jaqueline; McQuade, Kevin J; Oliveira, Anamaria S
Controlled laboratory study. To assess the activation of 7 shoulder muscles under 2 closed kinetic chain (CKC) tasks for the upper extremity using submaximal isometric effort, thus providing relative quantification of muscular isometric effort for these muscles across the CKC exercises, which may be applied to rehabilitation protocols for individuals with shoulder weakness. CKC exercises favor joint congruence, reduce shear load, and promote joint dynamic stability. Additionally, knowledge about glenohumeral and periscapular muscle activity elicited during CKC exercises may help clinicians to design protocols for shoulder rehabilitation. Using surface electromyography, activation level was measured across 7 shoulder muscles in 20 healthy males, during the performance of a submaximal isometric wall press and bench press. Signals were normalized to the maximal voluntary isometric contraction, and, using paired t tests, data were analyzed between the exercises for each muscle. Compared to the wall press, the bench press elicited higher activity for most muscles, except for the upper trapezius. Levels of activity were usually low but were above 20% maximal voluntary isometric contraction for the serratus anterior on both tasks, and for the long head triceps brachii on the bench press. Both the bench press and wall press, as performed in this study, led to relatively low EMG activation levels for the muscles measured and may be considered for use in the early phases of rehabilitation.
Calatayud, Joaquin; Colado, Juan C; Martin, Fernando; Casaña, José; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Lars L
While the traditional clean and jerk maneuver implies simultaneous participation of a large number of muscle groups, the use of this exercise with some variations to enhance core muscle activity remains uninvestigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activity during clean and jerk lift when performed with a barbell, sandbag and a water bag at same absolute load. Descriptive, repeated-measures study. Twenty-one young fit male university students (age: 25 ± 2.66 years; height: 180.71 ± 5.42 cm; body mass: 80.32 ± 9.8 kg; body fat percentage: 12.41 ± 3.56 %) participated. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from the anterior deltoid (AD), external oblique (OBLIQ), lumbar erector spinae (LUMB), and gluteus medius (GM) and were expressed as a percentage of the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). There were no significantly significant differences for AD muscle activity between conditions, whereas muscle activation values for OBLIQ (60%MVIC), GM (29%MVIC) and LUMB (85%MVIC) were significantly higher during the water bag power clean and jerk maneuver when compared with the other conditions. The clean and jerk is an exercise that may be used to enhance core muscle activity. Performing the maneuver with water bags resulted in higher core muscle activity compared with sandbag and standard barbell versions. 3.
do Nascimento, Breno Gontijo; Vimieiro, Claysson Bruno Santos; Nagem, Danilo Alves Pinto; Pinotti, Marcos
Powered orthosis is a special class of gait assist device that employs a mechanical or electromechanical actuator to enhance movement of hip, knee, or ankle articulations. Pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) has been suggested as a pneumatic actuator because its performance is similar to biological muscle. The electromyography (EMG) signal interpretation is the most popular and simplest method to establish the patient voluntary control of the orthosis. However, this technique is not suitable for patients presenting neurological lesions causing absence or very low quality of EMG signal. For those cases, an alternative control strategy should be provided. The aim of the present study is to develop a gait assistance orthosis for lower limb powered by PAMs controlled by a voluntary activation method based on the angular behavior of hip joint. In the present study, an orthosis that has been molded in a patient was employed and, by taking her anthropometric parameters and movement constraints, the adaptation of the existing orthosis to the powered orthosis was planned. A control system was devised allowing voluntary control of a powered orthosis suitable for patients presenting neurological lesions causing absence or very low quality of EMG signal. A pilot clinical study was reported where a patient, victim of poliovirus, successfully tested a hip orthosis especially modified for the gait test evaluation in the parallel bar system. The hip orthosis design and the control circuitry parameters were able to be set to provide satisfactory and comfortable use of the orthosis during the gait cycle.
Haudum, Anita; Birklbauer, Jürgen; Müller, Erich
We examined the effect of an acute bout of treadmill running with rubber tube (RT) and without rubber tube (NT) elastic constraints on electromyographic (EMG), 3D kinematics variability, and blood lactate concentration (LA). In the RT test, the constraints were attached to the hips and ankles. The selected variables were compared between 30 min of NT running and 30 minutes of RT running in 13 healthy recreationally trained male runners who had no prior exposure to RT. Statistical analysis revealed significantly higher EMG variability (p running influences muscle recruitment and variability, but has only a minor influence on kinematics. Changes in LA were significant, although relatively small. The observed adaptations in EMG and kinematics suggest that the RTs provide a possibility to create within movement variability in various sports, and thus, variable training conditions may foster strategies to increase the ability to flexibly adapt to different and new situations. Key pointsAdaptation to training device occurred quite rapidly.Changes in muscle activity were more pronounced than kinematic changes due to the training device.Training device may be used to increase within-movement variability.Participants may learn to flexibly adapt to variable constraints.
Jeppesen, Jesper; Otto, Marit; Frederiksen, Yoon
OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is defined by dream enactment due to a failure of normal muscle atonia. Visual assessment of this muscle activity is time consuming and rater-dependent. METHODS: An EMG computer algorithm for scoring 'tonic', 'phasic' and 'any......' submental muscle activity during REM sleep was evaluated compared with human visual ratings. Subsequently, 52 subjects were analyzed with the algorithm. Duration and maximal amplitude of muscle activity, and self-awareness of RBD symptoms were assessed. RESULTS: The computer algorithm showed high congruency...... sleep without atonia. CONCLUSIONS: Our proposed algorithm was able to detect and rate REM sleep without atonia allowing identification of RBD. Increased duration and amplitude of muscle activity bouts were characteristics of RBD. Quantification of REM sleep without atonia represents a marker of RBD...
Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Søgaard, Karen; Christensen, Hanne
hand keying task-interspaced with short (30 s) and long (4 min) breaks-in sessions with and without a combination of cognitive and emotional stressors. Adding psychosocial loads to the same physical work did not increase the activity of the trapezius muscle on either the keying or the control side......The overall aim was to investigate the effect of psychosocial loads on trapezius muscle activity during computer keying work and during short and long breaks. In 12 female subjects, surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from the upper trapezius muscle during a standardized one...... resting level. During both short and long breaks, exposure to psychosocial loads also did not increase the activity of the trapezius muscle either on the side of the keying or the control hand. Of note is that during long breaks the muscle activity of the keying side as well as that of the control side...
Konow, Nicolai; Herrel, Anthony; Ross, Callum F.; Williams, Susan H.; German, Rebecca Z.; Sanford, Christopher P. J.; Gintof, Chris
Although chewing has been suggested to be a basal gnathostome trait retained in most major vertebrate lineages, it has not been studied broadly and comparatively across vertebrates. To redress this imbalance, we recorded EMG from muscles powering anteroposterior movement of the hyoid, and dorsoventral movement of the mandibular jaw during chewing. We compared muscle activity patterns (MAP) during chewing in jawed vertebrate taxa belonging to unrelated groups of basal bony fishes and artiodactyl mammals. Our aim was to outline the evolution of coordination in MAP. Comparisons of activity in muscles of the jaw and hyoid that power chewing in closely related artiodactyls using cross-correlation analyses identified reorganizations of jaw and hyoid MAP between herbivores and omnivores. EMG data from basal bony fishes revealed a tighter coordination of jaw and hyoid MAP during chewing than seen in artiodactyls. Across this broad phylogenetic range, there have been major structural reorganizations, including a reduction of the bony hyoid suspension, which is robust in fishes, to the acquisition in a mammalian ancestor of a muscle sling suspending the hyoid. These changes appear to be reflected in a shift in chewing MAP that occurred in an unidentified anamniote stem-lineage. This shift matches observations that, when compared with fishes, the pattern of hyoid motion in tetrapods is reversed and also time-shifted relative to the pattern of jaw movement. PMID:21705368
Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K
The paper reports the use of fractal theory and fractal dimension to study the non-linear properties of surface electromyogram (sEMG) and to use these properties to classify subtle hand actions. The paper reports identifying a new feature of the fractal dimension, the bias that has been found to be useful in modelling the muscle activity and of sEMG. Experimental results demonstrate that the feature set consisting of bias values and fractal dimension of the recordings is suitable for classification of sEMG against the different hand gestures. The scatter plots demonstrate the presence of simple relationships of these features against the four hand gestures. The results indicate that there is small inter-experimental variation but large inter-subject variation. This may be due to differences in the size and shape of muscles for different subjects. The possible applications of this research include use in developing prosthetic hands, controlling machines and computers.
DeFOREST, Bradley A; Cantrell, Gregory S; Schilling, Brian K
Muscular activity, vertical displacement and ground reaction forces of back squats (BS), rear-leg elevated split squats (RLESS) and split squats (SS) were examined. Nine resistance-trained men reported for two sessions. The first session consisted of the consent process, practice, and BS 1-repetition maximum testing. In the second session, participants performed the three exercises while EMG, displacment and ground reaction force data (one leg on plate) were collected. EMG data were collected from the gluteus maximus (GMX), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MGas) of the left leg (non-dominant, front leg for unilateral squats). Load for BS was 85% one repetition maximum, and RLESS and SS were performed at 50% of BS load. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare all variables for the three exercises, with Bonferroni adjustments for post hoc multiple comparisons, in addition to calculation of standardized mean differences (ES). Muscle activity was similar between exercises except for biceps femoris, which was significantly higher during RLESS than SS during both concentric and eccentric phases (ES = 2.11; p=0.012 and ES= 2.19; p=0.008), and significantly higher during BS than the SS during the concentric phase (ES = 1.78; p=0.029). Vertical displacement was similar between all exercises. Peak vertical force was similar between BS and RLESS and significantly greater during RLESS than SS (ES = 3.03; p=0.001). These findings may be helpful in designing resistance training programs by using RLESS if greater biceps femoris activity is desired.
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H
. Electromyographic (EMG) amplitude and median power frequency (MPF) of specific shoulder and neck muscles was analysed and the Borg CR10 scale was used to rate perceived loading immediately after each set of exercise. During the failure set normalized EMG was significantly lower during the first repetition...
Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Yang-Gon; Park, Ji-Hyuk; Oh, Jae-Seop
Abdominal strengthening exercises are important for stroke patients; however, there is a lack of research on therapeutic exercises for increasing abdominal muscle activity in stroke patients. We investigated the effects of non-paretic arm exercises using a tubing band on abdominal muscle activity in stroke patients. In total, 18 hemiplegic subjects (13 males, 5 females) were recruited. All subjects performed non-paretic arm exercises involving three different shoulder movements (extension, flexion, and horizontal abduction) using an elastic tubing band. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and internal oblique (IO) muscles bilaterally during non-paretic arm exercises. EMG activities of abdominal muscles during non-paretic arm extension and horizontal abduction were increased significantly versus shoulder flexion when subjects performed the arm exercise in a seated position. Muscle activity of the EO was significantly greater in the paretic than the non-paretic side during non-paretic arm extension and horizontal abduction. We suggest that non-paretic arm extension and horizontal abduction exercises using an elastic tubing band may be effective in increasing abdominal muscle activity.
Halum, Stacey L; Shemirani, Nima L; Merati, Albert L; Jaradeh, Safwan; Toohill, Robert J
We reviewed a large series of cricopharyngeal (CP) muscle electromyography (EMG) results and compared them with the EMG results from the inferior constrictor (IC), thyroarytenoid, (TA), cricothyroid (CT), and posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles. We performed a retrospective review of all CP muscle EMG reports from studies performed between January 1996 and June 2003. All of the tested elements from the CP muscle EMG reports were recorded. The EMG results were recorded for the ipsilateral IC, TA, CT, and PCA muscles if they were simultaneously tested. Each muscle result was classified as normal, neurogenic inactive axonal injury (IAI), or neurogenic active axonal injury (AAI), and the muscle findings were compared. A patient chart review was performed to determine a clinical correlation. Fifty-nine patients underwent CP muscle EMG. Eighteen patients had bilateral EMG studies, making a total of 77 CP muscle studies. Nineteen sets of CP muscle results were normal, 43 demonstrated neurogenic IAI, and 15 demonstrated neurogenic AAI. The ipsilateral IC and CP muscles had the same innervation status in 27 of 28 studies (p muscle was studied simultaneously with the CP muscle, 31 of 50 studies had the same innervation status (p = .005). The ipsilateral CT and CP muscles demonstrated the same innervation status in 40 of 50 studies (p muscle findings and between the CP and CT muscle findings were both stronger than the correlation between the CP and TA muscle findings (p muscle findings have the strongest correlation with IC muscle findings, followed by the CT and TA muscles. This outcome does not support theories indicating that the recurrent laryngeal nerve innervates the CP muscle in all cases.
Allahyari, Teimour; Mortazavi, Narges; Khalkhali, Hamid Reza; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulder regions are common among carpet weavers. Working for prolonged hours in a static and awkward posture could result in an increased muscle activity and may lead to musculoskeletal disorders. Ergonomic workstation improvements can reduce muscle fatigue and the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study is to assess and to compare upper trapezius and middle deltoid muscle activity in 2 traditional and improved design carpet weaving workstations. These 2 workstations were simulated in a laboratory and 12 women carpet weavers worked for 3 h. Electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded during work in bilateral upper trapezius and bilateral middle deltoid. The root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MF) values were calculated and used to assess muscle load and fatigue. Repeated measure ANOVA was performed to assess the effect of independent variables on muscular activity and fatigue. The participants were asked to report shoulder region fatigue on the Borg's Category-Ratio scale (Borg CR-10). Root mean square values in workstation A are significantly higher than in workstation B. Furthermore, EMG amplitude was higher in bilateral trapezius than in bilateral deltoid. However, muscle fatigue was not observed in any of the workstations. The results of the study revealed that muscle load in a traditional workstation was high, but fatigue was not observed. Further studies investigating other muscles involved in carpet weaving tasks are recommended. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Ashmawy, Tarek Mohy; El Talawy, Dina Bahgat; Shaheen, Nasser Hussein
To objectively evaluate the effect of mini-implant- supported mandibular overdentures on electromyographic activity (EMG) of the masseter muscle during chewing of hard and soft foods. Twelve completely edentulous patients (4 females and 8 males) with maladaptive experience of wearing mandibular dentures received new maxillary and mandibular dentures. After 3 months of adaptation, four mini dental implants (MDIs) were inserted in the interforaminal region of the mandible, and the new mandibular dentures were connected to the implants immediately with O/ring attachments. The activity of masseter muscle (EMG) and the duration of chewing cycle were measured during chewing hard (carrot) and soft (gum) foods. The measurements were made 3 months after wearing each of the following prostheses: the new conventional dentures; and the MDI-retained mandibular overdentures. The EMG of masseter muscle increased and the DC decreased with MDI-retained mandibular overdentures when compared to conventional dentures. Hard food (carrot) was associated with increased EMG and decreased DC when compared to soft food (gum) for both conventional dentures and MDI-retained mandibular overdentures. Mini-implant-supported mandibular overdentures are associated with increased activity of masseter muscle and decreased duration of chewing cycle for both hard and soft foods when compared to conventional dentures.
Søgaard, Karen; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed
The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess changes in myalgic trapezius activation, muscle oxygenation, and pain intensity during repetitive and stressful work tasks in response to 10 weeks of training. In total, 39 women with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia were randomly...... levels of pain. SST lowered the relative EMG amplitude by 36%, and decreased pain during resting and working conditions by 52 and 38%, respectively, without affecting trapezius oxygenation. In conclusion, GFT performed as leg-bicycling decreased pain development during repetitive work tasks, possibly due...... assigned to: (1) general fitness training performed as leg-bicycling (GFT); (2) specific strength training of the neck/shoulder muscles (SST) or (3) reference intervention without physical exercise. Electromyographic activity (EMG), tissue oxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy), and pain intensity were...
Saeterbakken, Atle H; Andersen, Vidar; Kolnes, Maria K; Fimland, Marius S
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of adding elastic bands to free-weight squats on the neuromuscular activation of core muscles. Twenty-five resistance trained women with 4.6 ± 2.1 years of resistance training experience participated in the study. In randomized order, the participants performed 6 repetition maximum in free-weight squats, with and without elastic bands (i.e., matched relative intensity between exercises). During free-weight squats with elastic bands, some of the free weights were replaced with 2 elastic bands attached to the lowest part of the squat rack. Surface electromyography (EMG) activity was measured from the erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominis, whereas a linear encoder measured the vertical displacement. The EMG activities were compared between the 2 lifting modalities for the whole repetition and separately for the eccentric, concentric, and upper and lower eccentric and concentric phases. In the upper (greatest stretch of the elastic band), middle, and lower positions in squats with elastic bands, the resistance values were approximately 117, 105, and 93% of the free weight-only trial. Similar EMG activities were observed for the 2 lifting modalities for the erector spinae (p = 0.112-0.782), external oblique (p = 0.225-0.977), and rectus abdominis (p = 0.315-0.729) in all analyzed phases. In conclusion, there were no effects on the muscle activity of trunk muscles of substituting some resistance from free weights with elastic bands in the free-weight squat.
Paulo H. Marchetti
Full Text Available In order to understand the potential selective activation of the rectus abdominis muscle, we conducted two experiments. In the first, subjects performed two controlled isometric exercises: the curl up (supine trunk raise and the leg raise (supine bent leg raise at low intensity (in which only a few motor units are recruited. In the second experiment, subjects performed the same exercises, but they were required to maintain a certain force level in order to induce fatigue. We recorded the electromyographic (EMG activities of the lower and upper portions of the rectus abdominis muscle during the exercises and used spatial-temporal and frequency analyses to describe muscle activation patterns. At low-intensity contractions, the ratio between the EMG intensities of the upper and lower portions during the curl up exercise was significantly larger than during the leg raise exercise (p = 0.02. A cross-correlation analysis indicated that the signals of the abdominal portions were related to each other and this relation did not differ between the tasks (p = 0.12. In the fatiguing condition, fatigue for the upper portion was higher than for the lower portion during the curl up exercise (p = 0.008. We conclude that different exercises evoked, to a certain degree, individualized activation of each part of the rectus abdominis muscle, but different portions of the rectus abdominis muscle contributed to the same task, acting like a functional unit. These results corroborate the relevance of varying exercise to modify activation patterns of the rectus abdominis muscle
Piyus, Ceethal K.; Anjaly Cherian, V.; Nageswaran, Sharmila
Annually, 15 million in world population experiences stroke. Nearly 9 million stroke survivors every year experience mild to severe disability. The loss of upper extremity function in stroke survivors still remains a major rehabilitation challenge. The proposed EMG Abstract—Annually, 15 million in world population experiences stroke. Nearly 9 million stroke survivors every year experience mild to severe disability. The loss of upper extremity function in stroke survivors still remains a major rehabilitation challenge. The proposed EMG based FES system can be used for effective upper limb motor re-education in post stroke upper limb rehabilitation. The governing feature of the designed system is its synchronous activation, in which the FES stimulation is dependent on the amplitude of the EMG signal acquired from the unaffected upper limb muscle of the hemiplegic patient. This proportionate operation eliminates the undesirable damage to the patient’s skin by generating stimulus in proportion to voluntary EMG signals. This feature overcomes the disadvantages of currently available manual motor re-education systems. This model can be used in home-based post stroke rehabilitation, to effectively improve the upper limb functions.
Full Text Available Using the AnyBody human modeling system with identical weights and varying grip distance (40.0 cm, 50.0 cm, and 60.0 cm, the stress distribution for the pectoralis and the muscle of upper extremity during a bench press was simulated, and the surface myoelectricity (EMG method was validated. Methods. The physical parameters driving the model of the human body were selected as weights of 35.0% (25.0 kg and grip distances. Conclusion. The validation of AnyBody software was proved as a high validity by using EMG test of four muscles’ activity compared to AnyBody software. During a bench press, the pectoralis major is the main muscle, the pectoralis major discharge increases with the height of barbell increases, and the pectoralis major discharge decreases as the short grip width increases. When the grip width equals the shoulder width, the value of pectoralis minor is lowest; when the grip width is smaller or larger than the shoulder width, the value is larger. As the short grip distance increases, the discharge of posterior deltoid muscle and triceps surface myoelectricity increases; thus, as the short grip distance increases, the deltoid muscle and triceps assist the pectoralis major during a bench press.
Miller, Jonathan D; Herda, Trent J; Trevino, Michael A; Sterczala, Adam J; Ciccone, Anthony B; Nicoll, Justin X
To examine twitch force potentiation and twitch contraction duration, as well as electromyographic amplitude (EMG RMS ) and motor unit mean firing rates (MFR) at targeted forces between young and old individuals in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI). Ultrasonography was used to assess muscle quality. Twenty-two young (YG) (age=22.6±2.7years) and 14 older (OD) (age=62.1±4.7years) individuals completed conditioning contractions at 10% and 50% maximal voluntary contraction, (MVC) during which EMG RMS and MFRs were assessed. Evoked twitches preceded and followed the conditioning contractions. Ultrasound images were taken to quantify muscle quality (cross-sectional area [CSA] and echo intensity [EI]). No differences were found between young and old for CSA, pre-conditioning contraction twitch force, or MFRs (P>0.05). However, OD individuals exhibited greater EI and contraction duration (PMFRs. Ultrasonography suggested age-related changes in muscle structure contributed to altered contractile properties in the OD. Greater muscle activation requirements can have negative implications on fatigue resistance at low to moderate intensities in older individuals. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ochi, Akira; Yokoyama, Shinya; Abe, Tomokazu; Yamada, Kazumasa; Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Ichihashi, Noriaki
This study aimed at comparing the patterns of muscle activation used in stepping to regain balance during a forward fall between subjects with and without a history of falling and at identifying the causes of functional deficits in recovery stepping. Elderly women with and without a history of falling (fallers: n = 12, mean age ± SD = 82.8 ± 4.5 years; non-fallers: n = 17, age = 81.4 ± 3.4 years) participated in the study. The subjects were suspended in a forward-leaning position by a lean-control cable with a load of 15 % of body weight and instructed to regain standing balance upon release by taking a single step forward. Electromyography (EMG) data were obtained from five lower extremity muscles on the stepping side, and the muscle activation patterns were compared between fallers and non-fallers. Fallers had a shorter step length and slower step velocity than non-fallers. The EMG time-to-peak for the gastrocnemius muscle, which provides push-off prior to foot lift-off, was slower for fallers than for non-fallers, whereas the EMG onset times of the biceps femoris and gastrocnemius muscles were similar between the groups. The fallers exhibited significantly delayed muscle deactivation of the upper leg and increased co-contraction between the rectus femoris and biceps femoris during the stepping phase than did the non-fallers. These findings suggest that the muscle activation pattern during the regain balance may reflect an inability to step forward rapidly in elderly women with a history of falls.
Steffi L. Colyer, Polly M. McGuigan
Full Text Available Textile electromyography (EMG electrodes embedded in clothing allow muscle excitation to be recorded in previously inaccessible settings; however, their ability to accurately and reliably measure EMG during dynamic tasks remains largely unexplored. To quantify the validity and reliability of textile electrodes, 16 recreationally active males completed two identical testing sessions, within which three functional movements (run, cycle and squat were performed twice: once wearing EMG shorts (measuring quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteals myoelectric activity and once with surface EMG electrodes attached to the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus. EMG signals were identically processed to provide average rectified EMG (normalized to walking and excitation length. Results were compared across measurement systems and demonstrated good agreement between the magnitude of muscle excitation when EMG activity was lower, but agreement was poorer when excitation was higher. The length of excitation bursts was consistently longer when measured using textile vs. surface EMG electrodes. Comparable between-session (day-to-day repeatability was found for average rectified EMG (mean coefficient of variation, CV: 42.6 and 41.2% and excitation length (CV: 12.9 and 9.8% when using textile and surface EMG, respectively. Additionally, similar within-session repeatability (CV was recorded for average rectified EMG (13.8 and 14.1% and excitation length (13.0 and 12.7% for textile and surface electrodes, respectively. Generally, textile EMG electrodes appear to be capable of providing comparable muscle excitation information and reproducibility to surface EMG during dynamic tasks. Textile EMG shorts could therefore be a practical alternative to traditional laboratory-based methods allowing muscle excitation information to be collected in more externally-valid training environments.
MacLellan, Michael J
Human locomotor patterns require precise adjustments to successfully navigate complex environments. Studies suggest that the central nervous system may control such adjustments through supraspinal signals modifying a basic locomotor pattern at the spinal level. To explore this proposed control mechanism in the leading and trailing limbs during obstructed walking, healthy young adults stepped over obstacles measuring 0.1 and 0.2 m in height. Unobstructed walking with no obstacle present was also performed as a baseline. Full body three-dimensional kinematic data were recorded and electromyography (EMG) was collected from 14 lower limb muscles on each side of the body. EMG data were analyzed using two techniques: by mapping the EMG data to the approximate location of the motor neuron pools on the lumbosacral enlargement of the spinal cord and by applying a nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm to unilateral and bilateral muscle activations separately. Results showed that obstacle clearance may be achieved not only with the addition of a new activation pattern in the leading limb, but with a temporal shift of a pattern present during unobstructed walking in both the leading and trailing limbs. An investigation of the inter-limb coordination of these patterns suggested a strong bilateral linkage between lower limbs. These results highlight the modular organization of muscle activation in the leading and trailing limbs, as well as provide a mechanism of control when implementing a locomotor adjustment when stepping over an obstacle.
Steenstrup, B; Giralte, F; Bakker, E; Grise, P
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of postural awareness by using the Wii Fit Plus© on the quality of the baseline (automatic) activity of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) measured by intravaginal surface electromyography (sEMG). Four healthy continent female subjects, all able to perform a voluntary contraction, undertook 2 sets of 3 various exercises offered by the software Wii Fit Plus© using the Wii balance board© (WBB): one set without any visual control and the second set with postural control and sEMG visual feedback. Simultaneously, we recorded the sEMG activity of the PFM. Mean baseline activity of PFM in standing position at start was 2.87 mV, at submaximal voluntary contraction the sEMG activity raised at a mean of 14.43 mV (7.87-21.89). In the first set of exercises on the WBB without any visual feedback, the automatic activity of the PFM increased from 2.87 mV to 8.75 mV (7.96-9.59). In the second set, with visual postural and sEMG control, mean baseline sEMG activity even raised at 11.39 mV (10.17-11.58). Among women able of a voluntary contraction of PFM, visualisation of posture with the help of the WBB and of sEMG activity of the PFM during static and dynamic Wii Fit Plus© activities, may improve the automatic activation of the PFMs. 4. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lienhard, Karin; Cabasson, Aline; Meste, Olivier; Colson, Serge S
The objective was to investigate the influence of surface electromyography (sEMG) processing methods on the quantification of muscle activity during whole-body vibration (WBV) exercises. sEMG activity was recorded while the participants performed squats on the platform with and without WBV. The spikes observed in the sEMG spectrum at the vibration frequency and its harmonics were deleted using state-of-the-art methods, i.e. (1) a band-stop filter, (2) a band-pass filter, and (3) spectral linear interpolation. The same filtering methods were applied on the sEMG during the no-vibration trial. The linear interpolation method showed the highest intraclass correlation coefficients (no vibration: 0.999, WBV: 0.757-0.979) with the comparison measure (unfiltered sEMG during the no-vibration trial), followed by the band-stop filter (no vibration: 0.929-0.975, WBV: 0.661-0.938). While both methods introduced a systematic bias (P interpolation method and the band-stop filter was comparable. The band-pass filter was in poor agreement with the other methods (ICC: 0.207-0.697), unless the sEMG(RMS) was corrected for the bias (ICC ⩾ 0.931, %LOA ⩽ 32.3). In conclusion, spectral linear interpolation or a band-stop filter centered at the vibration frequency and its multiple harmonics should be applied to delete the artifacts in the sEMG signals during WBV. With the use of a band-stop filter it is recommended to correct the sEMG(RMS) for the bias as this procedure improved its performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jang, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Suhn-yeop; Oh, Duck-won
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of augmented trunk stabilization with external compression support (ECS) on the electromyography (EMG) activity of shoulder and scapular muscles and shoulder abductor strength during isometric shoulder abduction. Twenty-six women volunteered for the study. Surface EMG was used to monitor the activity of the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), and middle deltoid (MD), and shoulder abductor strength was measured using a dynamometer during three experimental conditions: (1) no external support (condition-1), (2) pelvic support (condition-2), and (3) pelvic and thoracic supports (condition-3) in an active therapeutic movement device. EMG activities were significantly lower for UT and higher for MD during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p strength was significantly higher during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p isometric shoulder abduction and increasing shoulder abductor strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vocal production requires complex planning and coordination of respiratory, laryngeal, and vocal tract movements, which are incompletely understood in most mammals. Rats produce a variety of whistles in the ultrasonic range that are of communicative relevance and of importance as a model system, but the sources of acoustic variability were mostly unknown. The goal was to identify sources of fundamental frequency variability. Subglottal pressure, tracheal airflow, and electromyographic (EMG) data from two intrinsic laryngeal muscles were measured during 22-kHz and 50-kHz call production in awake, spontaneously behaving adult male rats. During ultrasound vocalization, subglottal pressure ranged between 0.8 and 1.9 kPa. Pressure differences between call types were not significant. The relation between fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure within call types was inconsistent. Experimental manipulations of subglottal pressure had only small effects on fundamental frequency. Tracheal airflow patterns were also inconsistently associated with frequency. Pressure and flow seem to play a small role in regulation of fundamental frequency. Muscle activity, however, is precisely regulated and very sensitive to alterations, presumably because of effects on resonance properties in the vocal tract. EMG activity of cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscle was tonic in calls with slow or no fundamental frequency modulations, like 22-kHz and flat 50-kHz calls. Both muscles showed brief high-amplitude, alternating bursts at rates up to 150 Hz during production of frequency-modulated 50-kHz calls. A differentiated and fine regulation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles is critical for normal ultrasound vocalization. Many features of the laryngeal muscle activation pattern during ultrasound vocalization in rats are shared with other mammals. PMID:21832032
Sorbie, Graeme G; Hunter, Henry H; Grace, Fergal M; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien S; Ugbolue, Ukadike Chris
The study describes the differences in surface electromyography (EMG) activity of two forearm muscles in the lead and trail arm at specific phases of the golf swing using a 7-iron with three different grip sizes among amateur and professional golfers. Fifteen right-handed male golfers performed five golf swings using golf clubs with three different grip sizes. Surface EMG was used to measure muscle activity of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) on both forearms. There were no significant differences in forearm muscle activity when using the three golf grips within the group of 15 golfers (p > 0.05). When using the undersize grip, club head speed significantly increased (p = 0.044). During the backswing and downswing phases, amateurs produced significantly greater forearm muscle activity with all three grip sizes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, forearm muscle activity is not affected by grip sizes. However, club head speed increases when using undersize grips.
Duff, S V; Sargent, B; Kutch, J J; Berggren, J; Leiby, B E; Fetters, L
Examine the feasibility of increasing muscle activation with electromyographically (EMG)-triggered musical-video as reinforcement for children with perinatal brachial plexus injury (PBPI). Six children with PBPI (9.3 ± 6.3 months; 5 female, 1 male) and 13 typically developing (TD) controls (7.8 ± 3.5 months; 4 female, 9 males) participated. The left arm was affected in 5/6 children with PBPI. We recorded the integral (Vs) of biceps activation with surface EMG during two conditions per arm in one session: (1) 100 second (s) baseline without reinforcement and (2) 300 s reinforcement (musical-video triggered to play with biceps activation above threshold [V]). We examined the relation between the mean integral with reinforcement and hand preference. Mean biceps activation significantly increased from baseline in the affected arm of the group with PBPI by the 2nd (p < .008) and 3rd (p < .0004) 100 s intervals of reinforcement. Six of 6 children with PBPI and 12/13 TD controls increased activation in at least one arm. A lower integral was linked with hand preference for the unaffected right side in the PBPI group. This study supports contingent reinforcement as a feasible method to increase muscle activation. Future work will examine training dose and intensity to increase arm function.
Liikavainio, Tuomas; Bragge, Timo; Hakkarainen, Marko; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Arokoski, Jari P
The aim was to examine the biomechanics of level- and stair-walking in men with knee osteoarthritis (OA) at different pre-determined gait speeds and to compare the results with those obtained from healthy control subjects. Special emphasis was placed on the estimation of joint loading. Fifty-four men with knee OA (50-69 years) and 53 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. The participants walked barefoot in the laboratory (1.2 m/s+/-5%), corridor (1.2; 1.5 and 1.7 m/s+/-5%), and climbing and coming down stairs (0.5 and 0.8 m/s+/-5%) separately. Joint loading was assessed with skin mounted accelerometers (SMAs) attached just above and below the more affected knee joint. The 3-D ground reaction forces (GRFs) and muscle activation with surface-electromyography (EMG) from vastus medialis (VM) and biceps femoris (BF) were also measured simultaneously. There were no differences in SMA variables between groups during level-walking, but maximal loading rate (LR(max)) was higher bilaterally in the controls (Pstair descent at faster speed. The distinctions in muscle activation both at level- and stair ambulation in VM and BF muscles revealed that the patients used different strategies to execute the same walking tasks. It is concluded that the differences in measured SMA and GRF parameters between the knee OA patients and the controls were only minor at constant gait speeds. It is speculated that the faster speeds in the stair descent subjected the compensatory mechanisms to the maximum highlighting the differences between groups.
Alison M Greig
Full Text Available This study explored inter-relationships between vertebral fracture, thoracic kyphosis and trunk muscle control in elderly people with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased risk of further vertebral fractures; but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several factors may explain this association, including changes in postural alignment (thoracic kyphosis and altered trunk muscle contraction patterns. Both factors may increase risk of further fracture because of increased vertebral loading and impaired balance, which may increase falls risk. This study compared postural adjustments in 24 individuals with osteoporosis with and without vertebral fracture and with varying degrees of thoracic kyphosis. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity (EMG associated with voluntary arm movements was recorded and compared between individuals with and without vertebral fracture, and between those with low and high thoracic kyphosis. Overall, elderly participants in the study demonstrated co-contraction of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles during forwards arm movements, but those with vertebral fractures demonstrated a more pronounced co-contraction than those without fracture. Individuals with high thoracic kyphosis demonstrated more pronounced alternating flexor and extensor EMG bursts than those with less kyphosis. Co-contraction of trunk flexor and extensor muscles in older individuals contrasts the alternating bursts of antagonist muscle activity in previous studies of young individuals. This may have several consequences, including altered balance efficacy and the potential for increased compressive loads through the spine. Both of these outcomes may have consequences in a population with fragile vertebrae who are susceptible to fracture.
Full Text Available The paper discusses a generalized approach to bilateral control for EMG driven exoskeleton systems. In this paper we consider a semi-automatic mechatronic system that is controlled via human muscle activity (EMG level. The problem is to understand how the movement of the exoskeleton effects on the control. The considered system can be described in terms of bilateral control. This means the existence of force feedback from the object via the exoskeleton links and drives to operator. The simulation of the considered model was held on the MATLAB Simulink. The mathematical model of the bilateral system with exoskeleton and operator was developed. Transient functions for different dynamic parameters were obtained. It was shown that force feedback is essential for the R&D of such systems.
Kinnaird, Catherine R.; Ferris, Daniel P.
Locomotor adaptation in humans is not well understood. To provide insight into the neural reorganization that occurs following a significant disruption to one's learned neuromuscular map relating a given motor command to its resulting muscular action, we tied the mechanical action of a robotic exoskeleton to the electromyography (EMG) profile of the soleus muscle during walking. The powered exoskeleton produced an ankle dorsiflexion torque proportional to soleus muscle recruitment thus limiting the soleus' plantar flexion torque capability. We hypothesized that neurologically intact subjects would alter muscle activation patterns in response to the antagonistic exoskeleton by decreasing soleus recruitment. Subjects practiced walking with the exoskeleton for two 30-min sessions. The initial response to the perturbation was to “fight” the resistive exoskeleton by increasing soleus activation. By the end of training, subjects had significantly reduced soleus recruitment resulting in a gait pattern with almost no ankle push-off. In addition, there was a trend for subjects to reduce gastrocnemius recruitment in proportion to the soleus even though only the soleus EMG was used to control the exoskeleton. The results from this study demonstrate the ability of the nervous system to recalibrate locomotor output in response to substantial changes in the mechanical output of the soleus muscle and associated sensory feedback. This study provides further evidence that the human locomotor system of intact individuals is highly flexible and able to adapt to achieve effective locomotion in response to a broad range of neuromuscular perturbations. PMID:23307949
Gordon, Keith E; Kinnaird, Catherine R; Ferris, Daniel P
Locomotor adaptation in humans is not well understood. To provide insight into the neural reorganization that occurs following a significant disruption to one's learned neuromuscular map relating a given motor command to its resulting muscular action, we tied the mechanical action of a robotic exoskeleton to the electromyography (EMG) profile of the soleus muscle during walking. The powered exoskeleton produced an ankle dorsiflexion torque proportional to soleus muscle recruitment thus limiting the soleus' plantar flexion torque capability. We hypothesized that neurologically intact subjects would alter muscle activation patterns in response to the antagonistic exoskeleton by decreasing soleus recruitment. Subjects practiced walking with the exoskeleton for two 30-min sessions. The initial response to the perturbation was to "fight" the resistive exoskeleton by increasing soleus activation. By the end of training, subjects had significantly reduced soleus recruitment resulting in a gait pattern with almost no ankle push-off. In addition, there was a trend for subjects to reduce gastrocnemius recruitment in proportion to the soleus even though only the soleus EMG was used to control the exoskeleton. The results from this study demonstrate the ability of the nervous system to recalibrate locomotor output in response to substantial changes in the mechanical output of the soleus muscle and associated sensory feedback. This study provides further evidence that the human locomotor system of intact individuals is highly flexible and able to adapt to achieve effective locomotion in response to a broad range of neuromuscular perturbations.
Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Colado, Juan Carlos; Andersen, Lars L
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether using different focus affects electromyographic (EMG) amplitude and contraction duration during bench press performed at explosive and controlled speeds. Eighteen young male individuals were familiarized with the procedure and performed the one-maximum repetition (1RM) test in the first session. In the second session, participants performed the bench press exercise at 50% of the 1RM with 3 different attentional focuses (regular focus on moving the load vs contracting the pectoralis vs contracting the triceps) at 2 speed conditions (controlled vs maximal speed). During the controlled speed condition, focusing on using either the pectoralis or the triceps muscles increased pectoralis normalized EMG (nEMG) by 6% (95% CI 3-8%; p = 0.0001) and 4% nEMG (95% CI 1-7%; p = 0.0096), respectively, compared with the regular focus condition. Triceps activity was increased by 4% nEMG (95% CI 0-7%; p = 0.0308) at the controlled speed condition during the triceps focus. During the explosive speed condition, the use of different focuses had no effect. The different attentional focus resulted in comparable contraction duration for the measured muscles when the exercise was performed explosively. Using internal focus to increase EMG amplitude seems to function only during conditions of controlled speed.
Full Text Available Introduction. Osteoporosis and osteopenia are related to changes in the quantity and quality of skeletal muscle and contribute to a decreased level of muscle strength. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of Nordic walking training on muscle strength and the electromyographic (EMG activity of the lower body in women with low bone mass. Material and methods. The participants of the study were 27 women with low bone mass. The sample was randomly divided into two groups: a control group and an experimental group. Women from the experimental group participated in 12 weeks of regular Nordic walking training. Functional strength was assessed with a 30-second chair stand test. The EMG activities of the gluteus maximus (GMax, rectus femoris (RF, biceps femoris (BF, soleus (SOL, and lumbar (LB muscles were measured using a surface electromyogram. Results. Nordic walking training induced a significant increase in the functional strength (p = 0.006 of the lower body and activity of GMax (p = 0.013 and a decrease in body mass (p = 0.006 in women with reduced bone mass. There was no statistically significant increase in the EMG activities of the RF, BF, SOL, or LB muscles. The study did not indicate any significant changes in functional muscle strength, the EMG activity of the lower body, or anthropometry in women from the control group. Conclusions. Nordic walking training induces positive changes in lower body strength and the electromyographic activity of the gluteus maximus as well as a decrease in body mass in women with low bone mass.
Nederhand, Marcus Johannes
As an important consequence of our research, we question the relevance of the criteria of the WAD injury severity classification system. We showed that the musculoskeletal signs in WAD grade II are not characterized by muscle spasm, (i.e. increase of muscle activity), but rather by a decrease in
Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dongqing; Yu, Zaiyang; Chen, Xiang; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping
This study examines the electromyogram (EMG)-torque relation for chronic stroke survivors using a novel EMG complexity representation. Ten stroke subjects performed a series of submaximal isometric elbow flexion tasks using their affected and contralateral arms, respectively, while a 20-channel linear electrode array was used to record surface EMG from the biceps brachii muscles. The sample entropy (SampEn) of surface EMG signals was calculated with both global and local tolerance schemes. A regression analysis was performed between SampEn of each channel's surface EMG and elbow flexion torque. It was found that a linear regression can be used to well describe the relation between surface EMG SampEn and the torque. Each channel's root mean square (RMS) amplitude of surface EMG signal in the different torque level was computed to determine the channel with the highest EMG amplitude. The slope of the regression (observed from the channel with the highest EMG amplitude) was smaller on the impaired side than on the nonimpaired side in 8 of the 10 subjects, regardless of the tolerance scheme (global or local) and the range of torques (full or matched range) used for comparison. The surface EMG signals from the channels above the estimated muscle innervation zones demonstrated significantly lower levels of complexity compared with other channels between innervation zones and muscle tendons. The study provides a novel point of view of the EMG-torque relation in the complexity domain, and reveals its alterations post stroke, which are associated with complex neural and muscular changes post stroke. The slope difference between channels with regard to innervation zones also confirms the relevance of electrode position in surface EMG analysis.
Rendos, Nicole K; Heredia Vargas, Héctor M; Alipio, Taislaine C; Regis, Rebeca C; Romero, Matthew A; Signorile, Joseph F
Rendos, NK, Heredia Vargas, HM, Alipio, TC, Regis, RC, Romero, MA, and Signorile, JF. Differences in muscle activity during cable resistance training are influenced by variations in handle types. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2001-2009, 2016-There has been a recent resurgence in the use of cable machines for resistance training allowing movements that more effectively simulate daily activities and sports-specific movements. By necessity, these devices require a machine/human interface through some type of handle. Considerable data from material handling, industrial engineering, and exercise training studies indicate that handle qualities, especially size and shape, can significantly influence force production and muscular activity, particularly of the forearm muscles, which affect the critical link in activities that require object manipulation. The purpose for this study was to examine the influence of three different handle conditions: standard handle (StandH), ball handle with the cable between the index and middle fingers (BallIM), and ball handle with the cable between the middle and ring fingers (BallMR), on activity levels (rmsEMG) of the triceps brachii lateral and long heads (TriHLat, TriHLong), brachioradialis (BR), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum (ED) during eight repetitions of standing triceps pushdown performed from 90° to 0° elbow flexion at 1.5 s per contractile stage. Handle order was randomized. No significant differences were seen for triceps or BR rmsEMG across handle conditions; however, relative patterns of activation did vary for the forearm muscles by handle condition, with more coordinated activation levels for the FCR and ED during the ball handle conditions. In addition, the rmsEMG for the ED was significantly higher during the BallIM than any other condition and during the BallMR than the StandH. These results indicate that the use of ball handles with the cable passing between different fingers
Liu, Jie; Ying, Dongwen; Zev Rymer, William; Zhou, Ping
Objective: After neurological injuries such as spinal cord injury, voluntary surface electromyogram (EMG) signals recorded from affected muscles are often corrupted by interferences, such as spurious involuntary spikes and background noises produced by physiological and extrinsic/accidental origins, imposing difficulties for signal processing. Conventional methods did not well address the problem caused by interferences. It is difficult to mitigate such interferences using conventional methods. The aim of this study was to develop a subspace-based denoising method to suppress involuntary background spikes contaminating voluntary surface EMG recordings. Approach: The Karhunen-Loeve transform was utilized to decompose a noisy signal into a signal subspace and a noise subspace. An optimal estimate of EMG signal is derived from the signal subspace and the noise power. Specifically, this estimator is capable of making a tradeoff between interference reduction and signal distortion. Since the estimator partially relies on the estimate of noise power, an adaptive method was presented to sequentially track the variation of interference power. The proposed method was evaluated using both semi-synthetic and real surface EMG signals. Main results: The experiments confirmed that the proposed method can effectively suppress interferences while keep the distortion of voluntary EMG signal in a low level. The proposed method can greatly facilitate further signal processing, such as onset detection of voluntary muscle activity. Significance: The proposed method can provide a powerful tool for suppressing background spikes and noise contaminating voluntary surface EMG signals of paretic muscles after neurological injuries, which is of great importance for their multi-purpose applications.
Patrícia Silva de Camargo
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare intra and intergroup the immediate effect of the auricular and LR8 systemic acupuncture on the electromyographic activity of the trapezius with the trigger points. This is an experimental clinical trial; 40 people were split in 4 distinct groups (n = 10: GI mustard seed application in the auricular acupoint; GII bilateral needle application in the LR8 acupoint; GIII combination of the techniques; GIV/Control Group mustard seed application in an acupoint not linked to the muscle tension. The EMG was used to assess the muscle contraction for 5 seconds during the resting time and during the isometric contraction time. The EMG signal was first collect without the acupuncture intervention; then both techniques were applied for 5 minutes; and the EMG was collected again right after these applications. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used, the t test was paired with the Wilcoxon test to the intragroup comparison; One-way analysis of variance test for intergroup comparison. There was no statistical difference in the intragroup comparison for the groups. The same happened to the intergroup comparison before and after application. Systemic and auricular acupuncture did not promote immediate changes in the EMG activity of the trapezius muscle in individuals with MTrPs.
Full Text Available Purpose. This study investigates the acute and longitudinal effects of resistance training on occupational muscle activity in office workers with chronic pain. Methods. 30 female office workers with chronic neck and shoulder pain participated for 10 weeks in high-intensity elastic resistance training for 2 minutes per day (n=15 or in control receiving weekly email-based information on general health (n=15. Electromyography (EMG from the splenius and upper trapezius was recorded during a normal workday. Results. Adherence to training and control interventions were 86% and 89%, respectively. Compared with control, training increased isometric muscle strength 6% (P<0.05 and decreased neck/shoulder pain intensity by 40% (P<0.01. The frequency of periods with complete motor unit relaxation (EMG gaps decreased acutely in the hours after training. By contrast, at 10-week follow-up, training increased average duration of EMG gaps by 71%, EMG gap frequency by 296% and percentage time below 0.5%, and 1.0% EMGmax by 578% and 242%, respectively, during the workday in m. splenius. Conclusion. While resistance training acutely generates a more tense muscle activity pattern, the longitudinal changes are beneficial in terms of longer and more frequent periods of complete muscular relaxation and reduced pain.
Kang, Jeong-Il; Moon, Young-Jun; Choi, Hyun; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Kwon, Hye-Min; Park, Jun-Su
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect on activities, shoulder muscle fatigue, upper limb disability of two exercise types performed by patients in the post- immobilization period of rotator cuff repair. [Subjects and Methods] The intervention program was performed by 20 patients from 6 weeks after rotator cuff repair. Ten subjects each were randomly allocated to a group performing open kinetic chain exercise and a group preforming closed kinetic chain exercise. Muscle activity and median frequency were measured by using sEMG and the Upper Extremity Function Assessment before and after conducting the intervention and changes in the results were compared. [Results] There was a significant within group increases in the activities of the shoulder muscles, except for the posterior deltoid. The median power frequencies (MFD) of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and anterior deltoid significantly increased in the open kinetic chain exercise group, but that of the posterior deltoid decreased. There were significant differences in the changes in the upper limb disability scores of the two groups, in the shoulder muscle activities, except for that of the posterior deltoid, in the comparison of the change in the muscle activities of the two groups, and in the MDFs of all shoulder muscles. [Conclusion] The Median power frequencies of all these muscles after closed kinetic chain exercise increased indicating that muscle fatigue decreased. Therefore, research into exercise programs using closed kinetic chain exercises will be needed to establish exercise methods for reducing muscle fatigue.
Haight, Maryellen J.; And Others
A study was conducted involving eight hyperkinetic males (11-15 years old) to determine if Ss receiving electromyography (EMG) biofeedback training would show a reduction in frontalis muscle tension, hyperactivity, and lability, and increases in self-esteem and visual and auditory attention span. Individual 45- and 30-minute relaxation exercises…
Oliver, Gretchen D; Plummer, Hillary
The aims of the present study were to examine quantitatively ground reaction forces, kinematics, and muscle activations during the windmill softball pitch, and to determine relationships between knee valgus and muscle activations, ball velocity and muscle activation as well as ball velocity and ground reaction forces. It was hypothesized that there would be an inverse relationship between degree of knee valgus and muscle activation, a direct relationship between ground reaction forces and ball velocity, and non-stride leg muscle activations and ball velocity. Ten female windmill softball pitchers (age 17.6 ± 3.47 years, stature 1.67 ± 0.07 m, weight 67.4 ± 12.2 kg) participated. Dependent variables were ball velocity, surface electromyographic (sEMG), kinematic, and kinetic data while the participant was the independent variable. Stride foot contact reported peak vertical forces of 179% body weight. There were positive relationships between ball velocity and ground reaction force (r = 0.758, n = 10, P = 0.029) as well as ball velocity and non-stride leg gluteus maximus (r = 0.851, n = 10, P = 0.007) and medius (r = 0.760, n = 10, P = 0.029) muscle activity, while there was no notable relationship between knee valgus and muscle activation. As the windmill softball pitcher increased ball velocity, her vertical ground reaction forces also increased. Proper conditioning of the lumbopelvic-hip complex, including the gluteals, is essential for injury prevention. From the data presented, it is evident that bilateral strength and conditioning of the gluteal muscle group is salient in the windmill softball pitch as an attempt to decrease incidence of injury.
Lavender, S; Trafimow, J; Andersson, G B; Mayer, R S; Chen, I H
This study was performed to quantify the electromyographic trunk muscle activities in response to variations in moment magnitude and direction while in forward-flexed postures. Recordings were made over eight trunk muscles in 19 subjects who maintained forward-flexed postures of 30 degrees and 60 degrees. In each of the two flexed postures, external moments of 20 Nm and 40 Nm were applied via a chest harness. The moment directions were varied in seven 30 degrees increments to a subject's right side, such that the direction of the applied load ranged from the upper body's anterior midsagittal plane (0 degree) to the posterior midsagittal plane (180 degrees). Statistical analyses yielded significant moment magnitude by moment-direction interaction effects for the EMG output from six of the eight muscles. Trunk flexion by moment-direction interactions were observed in the responses from three muscles. In general, the primary muscle supporting the torso and the applied load was the contralateral (left) erector spinae. The level of electromyographic activity in the anterior muscles was quite low, even with the posterior moment directions.
Juul-Kristensen, B; Johansen, Kl; Hendriksen, P
OBJECTIVES: To study knee muscle activity and static postural sway in girls with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH). METHOD: Sixteen girls with GJH and 11 girls with non-GJH (NGJH) aged 14 years, randomly recruited among schoolchildren, participated in this study. GJH inclusion criteria were......: Beighton score minimum 6/9 and one hypermobile knee; for NGJH: Beighton score maximum 5/9 and no knees with hypermobility. The participants performed a static two-legged balance test with eyes open (2EO) and eyes closed (2EC) and a one-legged stance test with eyes open (1EO). Postural sway (centre......) of Q, H, and G muscle activity was calculated. Knee function was self-reported using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for children (KOOS-Child). RESULTS: GJH had a significantly lower lateral HQ CCI and a higher medial/lateral HQ CCI ratio in all balance tasks. Group mean EMG varied...
Persian Abstract Amir Hossein Barati
Full Text Available Objective: Genu varum is considered a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis. Being aware of the changes in muscles activity in various standing positions among genu varum patients, can provide insight for preventing osteoarthritis in this population. This study is undertaken to compare muscles activity in various standing positions between young healthy and genu varum male individuals. Methods: 80 healthy male university students, 40 normal and 40 subjects with genu varum deformity, participated in this study. Deformity of genu varum was assessed with caliper and Goniometer. Each subject stood in five different positions and muscles activity was recorded with EMG device. For data analysis, Matlab and SPSS software were employed and Mixed variance analysis test (Mixed ANOVA was run to compare the dependent variables at a significance level of P ≤ 0.05. Results: Significant differences were observed between the two groups for muscles activity of the tensor fasia latae (at single leg with closed eye position, tertius fibulae and gluteus medius muscles (at single leg with closed eye and upward head postions( p≤0.05 while no significant differences were observed in other muscles. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, it can be suggested that frontal knee angle may affect muscles activity. Perhaps one of the reasons for higher injury risk and knee osteoarthritis in genu varum population is the increase in muscles activity. Therefor, It is proposed that focusing on corrective exercises can reduce these risks.
Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK
Our first aim was to characterize spontaneous motor unit activity in thenar muscles influenced by chronic cervical spinal cord injury. Thenar surface electromyography (EMG), intramuscular EMG, and abduction and flexion forces were recorded. Subjects were instructed to relax for 2 min. Units still
Marini, Ida; Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio; Bortolotti, Francesco; Bartolucci, Maria Lavinia; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Michelotti, Ambra
It has been hypothesized that different plantar sensory inputs could influence the whole body posture and dental occlusion but there is a lack of evidence on this possible association. To investigate the effects of experimental insoles redistributing plantar pressure on body posture, mandibular kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of masticatory muscles on healthy subjects. A pilot study was conducted on 19 healthy volunteers that wore custom-made insoles normalizing the plantar pressure distribution for 2 weeks. Body posture parameters were measured by means of an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric analysis; mandibular kinematics was analyzed by means of gothic arch tracings; superficial EMG activity of head and neck muscles was performed. Measurements were carried out 10 days before the insertion of the insoles, immediately before the insertion, the day after, 7 and 14 days after, in four different exteroceptive conditions. The outcomes of the present study show that insoles do not modify significantly over time the parameters of body posture, SEMG activity of head and neck muscles and mandibular kinematics. In this pilot study the experimental insoles did not significantly influence the body posture, the mandibular kinematics and the activity of masticatory muscles during a 14-day follow up period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gallagher, S.; Pollard, J.; Porter, W.L. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Laboratory
Underground coal miners who work in low-seam mines frequently handle materials in kneeling or squatting postures. To assess quadriceps and hamstring muscle demands in these postures, nine participants performed lateral load transfers in kneeling and squatting postures, during which electromyographic (EMG) data were collected. EMG activity was obtained at five points throughout the transfer for three quadriceps muscles and two hamstring muscles from each thigh. ANOVA results indicated that EMG data for nine of 10 thigh muscles were affected by an interaction between posture and angular position of the load lifted (p <0.001). Muscles of the right thigh were most active during the lifting portion of the task (lifting a block from the participant's right) and activity decreased as the block was transferred to the left. Left thigh muscles showed the opposite pattern. EMG activity for the majority of thigh muscles was affected by the size of the base of support provided by different postures, with lower EMG activity observed with a larger base of support and increased activity in postures where base of support was reduced (p<0.05). Thigh EMG activity was lowest in postures with fully flexed knees, which may explain worker preference for this posture. However, such postures are also associated with increased risk of meniscal damage.
Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro
A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.
Natália Batista Albuquerque Goulart
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n5p555 Artistic Gymnasts (AG execute specific movements that require substantial movement control and force production at the ankle joint. This high demand might change the neuromechanical properties of the ankle joint muscles in these athletes compared to non-athlete girls (NAG. The aim of this study was to compare muscle activation and torque production at the ankle joint between AG and NAG. Ten AG (11.70 ± 1.06 years of age and 10 NAG (11.70 ± 1.49 years of age participated in the study. Electromyographic (EMG signals of medial gastrocnemius (MG, soleus (SO and tibialis anterior (TA were obtained simultaneously to the maximal isometric plantarflexion (PFT and dorsiflexion (DFT torques of the dominant limb during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC at five different joint angles (20°, 10°, 0°, -10° e -20°. Neuromuscular efficiency was also calculated by the Torque/EMG ratio. AG presented higher PFT (p0.05. In addition, AG showed higher values for plantar flexion neuromuscular efficiency and smaller values of dorsiflexion neuromuscular efficiency compared to the NAG (p<0.01. Higher sports demands of AG determined higher PFT, higher plantar flexor efficiency, smaller DFT but similar activation of MG, SO and TA compared to NAG.
Nathaniel D. M. Jenkins
Full Text Available This study compared electromyographic (EMG amplitude, the number of repetitions completed, and exercise volume during three sets to failure of high- (80% 1RM versus low-load (30% 1RM forearm flexion resistance exercise on a subject-by-subject basis. Fifteen men were familiarized, completed forearm flexion 1RM testing. Forty-eight to 72 h later, the subjects completed three sets to failure of dumbbell forearm flexion resistance exercise with 80% (n = 8 or 30% (n = 7 1RM. EMG amplitude was calculated for every repetition, and the number of repetitions performed and exercise volume were recorded. During sets 1, 2, and 3, one of eight subjects in the 80% 1RM group demonstrated a significant linear relationship for EMG amplitude versus repetition. For the 30% 1RM group, seven, five, and four of seven subjects demonstrated significant linear relationships during sets 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean EMG amplitude responses show that the fatigue-induced increases in EMG amplitude for the 30% 1RM group and no change in EMG amplitude for the 80% 1RM group resulted in similar levels of muscle activation in both groups. The numbers of repetitions completed were comparatively greater, while exercise volumes were similar in the 30% versus 80% 1RM group. Our results, in conjunction with those of previous studies in the leg extensors, suggest that there may be muscle specific differences in the responses to high- versus low-load exercise.
Hides, Julie A; Beall, Paula; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Stanton, Warren; Miokovic, Tanja; Richardson, Carolyn
To investigate the pattern of muscle activation of the individual hip adductor muscles using a standardised simulated unilateral weight-bearing task. A repeated measures design. Laboratory. 20 healthy individuals (11 females, 9 males) participated in the study. Age ranged from 20 to 25 years. Surface electromyography recordings from adductor magnus and adductor longus muscles were taken at levels representing 10-50% of body weight during a simulated weight-bearing task. Electromyography (EMG) data were normalised to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. The adductor magnus was recruited at significantly higher levels than the adductor longus muscle during a simulated weight-bearing task performed across 10-50% of body weight (p bearing task. This information should be considered when selecting exercises for management and prevention of groin strains. Closed chain exercises with weight-bearing through the lower limb are more likely to recruit the adductor magnus muscle over the adductor longus muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Priego Quesada, Jose I; Carpes, Felipe P; Bini, Rodrigo R; Salvador Palmer, Rosario; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, Rosa M
While different studies showed that better fitness level adds to the efficiency of the thermoregulatory system, the relationship between muscular effort and skin temperature is still unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the relationship between neuromuscular activation and skin temperature during cycle exercise. Ten physically active participants performed an incremental workload cycling test to exhaustion while neuromuscular activations were recorded (via surface electromyography - EMG) from rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis. Thermographic images were recorded before, immediately after and 10 min after finishing the cycling test, at four body regions of interest corresponding to the muscles where neuromuscular activations were monitored. Frequency band analysis was conducted to assess spectral properties of EMG signals in order to infer on priority in recruitment of motor units. Significant inverse relationship between changes in skin temperature and changes in overall neuromuscular activation for vastus lateralis was observed (r0.7 and p<0.01). Participants with larger overall activation and reduced low frequency component for vastus lateralis activation presented a better adaptive response of their thermoregulatory system by showing fewer changes in skin temperature after incremental cycling test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ólafsdóttir, Jóna Marín; Fice, Jason B; Mang, Daniel W H; Brolin, Karin; Davidsson, Johan; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Siegmund, Gunter P
To quantify trunk muscle activation levels during whole body accelerations that simulate precrash events in multiple directions and to identify recruitment patterns for the development of active human body models. Four subjects (1 female, 3 males) were accelerated at 0.55 g (net Δv = 4.0 m/s) in 8 directions while seated on a sled-mounted car seat to simulate a precrash pulse. Electromyographic (EMG) activity in 4 trunk muscles was measured using wire electrodes inserted into the left rectus abdominis, internal oblique, iliocostalis, and multifidus muscles at the L2-L3 level. Muscle activity evoked by the perturbations was normalized by each muscle's isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) activity. Spatial tuning curves were plotted at 150, 300, and 600 ms after acceleration onset. EMG activity remained below 40% MVC for the three time points for most directions. At the 150- and 300 ms time points, the highest EMG amplitudes were observed during perturbations to the left (-90°) and left rearward (-135°). EMG activity diminished by 600 ms for the anterior muscles, but not for the posterior muscles. These preliminary results suggest that trunk muscle activity may be directionally tuned at the acceleration level tested here. Although data from more subjects are needed, these preliminary data support the development of modeled trunk muscle recruitment strategies in active human body models that predict occupant responses in precrash scenarios.
Wang, Jianhui; Qi, Lin; Wang, Xiao
The upper-limb rehabilitation robot is regard as a useful tool to help patients with hemiplegic to do repetitive exercise. The surface electromyography (sEMG) contains motion information as the electric signals are generated and related to nerve-muscle motion. These sEMG signals, representing human's intentions of active motions, are introduced into the rehabilitation robot system to recognize upper-limb movements. Traditionally, the feature extraction is an indispensable part of drawing significant information from original signals, which is a tedious task requiring rich and related experience. This paper employs a deep learning scheme to extract the internal features of the sEMG signals using an advanced Extreme Learning Machine based auto-encoder (ELMAE). The mathematical information contained in the multi-layer structure of the ELM-AE is used as the high-level representation of the internal features of the sEMG signals, and thus a simple ELM can post-process the extracted features, formulating the entire multi-layer ELM (ML-ELM) algorithm. The method is employed for the sEMG based neural intentions recognition afterwards. The case studies show the adopted deep learning algorithm (ELM-AE) is capable of yielding higher classification accuracy compared to the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) scheme in 5 different types of upper-limb motions. This indicates the effectiveness and the learning capability of the ML-ELM in such motion intent recognition applications.
M Eriksson Crommert
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if trunk muscle activation patterns during rapid bilateral shoulder flexions are affected by movement amplitude. Eleven healthy males performed shoulder flexion movements starting from a position with arms along sides (0° to either 45°, 90° or 180°. EMG was measured bilaterally from transversus abdominis (TrA, obliquus internus (OI with intra-muscular electrodes, and from rectus abdominis (RA, erector spinae (ES and deltoideus with surface electrodes. 3D kinematics was recorded and inverse dynamics was used to calculate the reactive linear forces and torque about the shoulders and the linear and angular impulses. The sequencing of trunk muscle onsets at the initiation of arm movements was the same across movement amplitudes with ES as the first muscle activated, followed by TrA, RA and OI. All arm movements induced a flexion angular impulse about the shoulders during acceleration that was reversed during deceleration. Increased movement amplitude led to shortened onset latencies of the abdominal muscles and increased level of activation in TrA and ES. The activation magnitude of TrA was similar in acceleration and deceleration where the other muscles were specific to acceleration or deceleration. The findings show that arm movements need to be standardized when used as a method to evaluate trunk muscle activation patterns and that inclusion of the deceleration of the arms in the analysis allow the study of the relationship between trunk muscle activation and direction of perturbing torque during one and the same arm movement.
Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y.; Rymer, William Z.
The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy. PMID:26916510
Chiu, Loren Z F; vonGaza, Gabriella L; Jean, Liane M Y
Muscle utilisation in squat exercise depends on technique. The purpose of this study was to compare net joint moments (NJMs) and muscle activation during squats without and with restricted leg dorsiflexion. Experienced men (n = 5) and women (n = 4) performed full squats at 80% one repetition maximum. 3D motion analysis, force platform and (EMG) data were collected. Restricting anterior leg rotation reduced anterior leg (P = 0.001) and posterior thigh (P squat depth, ankle plantar flexor (P squats. Hip extensor NJM (P = 0.14) was not different between squat types at maximum squat depth. Vastus lateralis (P > 0.05), vastus medialis (P > 0.05) and rectus femoris (P > 0.05) EMG were not different between squat types. Unrestricted squats have higher ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor NJM than previously reported from jumping and landing. However, ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor NJM are lower in restricted squats than previous studies of jumping and landing. The high NJM in unrestricted squat exercise performed through a full range of motion suggests this squat type would be more effective to stimulate adaptations in the lower extremity musculature than restricted squats.
Sennels, Søren; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Andersen, Ole Trier
In order to use the volitional electromyography (EMG) as a control signal for the stimulation of the same muscle, it is necessary to eliminate the stimulation artifacts and the muscle responses caused by the stimulation. The stimulation artifacts, caused by the electric field in skin and tissue...
Graham, Ryan B; Wachowiak, Mark P; Gurd, Brendon J
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a transcription factor co-activator that helps coordinate mitochondrial biogenesis within skeletal muscle following exercise. While evidence gleaned from submaximal exercise suggests that intracellular pathways associated with the activation of PGC-1α, as well as the expression of PGC-1α itself are activated to a greater extent following higher intensities of exercise, we have recently shown that this effect does not extend to supramaximal exercise, despite corresponding increases in muscle activation amplitude measured with electromyography (EMG). Spectral analyses of EMG data may provide a more in-depth assessment of changes in muscle electrophysiology occurring across different exercise intensities, and therefore the goal of the present study was to apply continuous wavelet transforms (CWTs) to our previous data to comprehensively evaluate: 1) differences in muscle electrophysiological properties at different exercise intensities (i.e. 73%, 100%, and 133% of peak aerobic power), and 2) muscular effort and fatigue across a single interval of exercise at each intensity, in an attempt to shed mechanistic insight into our previous observations that the increase in PGC-1α is dissociated from exercise intensity following supramaximal exercise. In general, the CWTs revealed that localized muscle fatigue was only greater than the 73% condition in the 133% exercise intensity condition, which directly matched the work rate results. Specifically, there were greater drop-offs in frequency, larger changes in burst power, as well as greater changes in burst area under this intensity, which were already observable during the first interval. As a whole, the results from the present study suggest that supramaximal exercise causes extreme localized muscular fatigue, and it is possible that the blunted PGC-1α effects observed in our previous study are the result of fatigue-associated increases in
Ryan B Graham
Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α is a transcription factor co-activator that helps coordinate mitochondrial biogenesis within skeletal muscle following exercise. While evidence gleaned from submaximal exercise suggests that intracellular pathways associated with the activation of PGC-1α, as well as the expression of PGC-1α itself are activated to a greater extent following higher intensities of exercise, we have recently shown that this effect does not extend to supramaximal exercise, despite corresponding increases in muscle activation amplitude measured with electromyography (EMG. Spectral analyses of EMG data may provide a more in-depth assessment of changes in muscle electrophysiology occurring across different exercise intensities, and therefore the goal of the present study was to apply continuous wavelet transforms (CWTs to our previous data to comprehensively evaluate: 1 differences in muscle electrophysiological properties at different exercise intensities (i.e. 73%, 100%, and 133% of peak aerobic power, and 2 muscular effort and fatigue across a single interval of exercise at each intensity, in an attempt to shed mechanistic insight into our previous observations that the increase in PGC-1α is dissociated from exercise intensity following supramaximal exercise. In general, the CWTs revealed that localized muscle fatigue was only greater than the 73% condition in the 133% exercise intensity condition, which directly matched the work rate results. Specifically, there were greater drop-offs in frequency, larger changes in burst power, as well as greater changes in burst area under this intensity, which were already observable during the first interval. As a whole, the results from the present study suggest that supramaximal exercise causes extreme localized muscular fatigue, and it is possible that the blunted PGC-1α effects observed in our previous study are the result of fatigue
Hurst, Howard Thomas; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Rylands, Lee; Metcalfe, John
This study aimed to investigate the influence of different mountain bike wheel diameters on muscle activity and whether larger diameter wheels attenuate muscle vibrations during cross-country riding. Nine male competitive mountain bikers (age 34.7 ± 10.7 years; stature 177.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass 73.2 ± 8.6 kg) participated in the study. Riders performed one lap at race pace on 26, 27.5 and 29 inch wheeled mountain bikes. sEMG and acceleration (RMS) were recorded for the full lap and during ascent and descent phases at the gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, biceps brachii and triceps brachii. No significant main effects were found by wheel size for each of the four muscle groups for sEMG or acceleration during the full lap and for ascent and descent (P > .05). When data were analysed between muscle groups, significant differences were found between biceps brachii and triceps brachii (P biking. However, more activity was observed in the biceps brachii during 26 inch wheel descending. This is possibly due to an increased need to manoeuvre the front wheel over obstacles.
van den Tillaar, Roland; Ettema, Gertjan
The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics and muscle activation patterns of regular free-weight bench press (counter movement) with pure concentric lifts in the ascending phase of a successful one repetition maximum (1-RM) attempt in the bench press. Our aim was to evaluate if diminishing potentiation could be the cause of the sticking region. Since diminishing potentiation cannot occur in pure concentric lifts, the occurrence of a sticking region in this type of muscle actions would support the hypothesis that the sticking region is due to a poor mechanical position. Eleven male participants (age 21.9 ± 1.7 yrs, body mass 80.7 ± 10.9 kg, body height 1.79 ± 0.07 m) conducted 1-RM lifts in counter movement and in pure concentric bench presses in which kinematics and EMG activity were measured. In both conditions, a sticking region occurred. However, the start of the sticking region was different between the two bench presses. In addition, in four of six muscles, the muscle activity was higher in the counter movement bench press compared to the concentric one. Considering the findings of the muscle activity of six muscles during the maximal lifts it was concluded that the diminishing effect of force potentiation, which occurs in the counter movement bench press, in combination with a delayed muscle activation unlikely explains the existence of the sticking region in a 1-RM bench press. Most likely, the sticking region is the result of a poor mechanical force position.
Jin Su Kim
Full Text Available Biometrics is a technology that recognizes user's information by using unique physical features of his or her body such as face, fingerprint, and iris. It also uses behavioral features such as signature, electrocardiogram (ECG, electromyogram (EMG, and electroencephalogram (EEG. Among them, the EMG signal is a sign generated when the muscles move, which can be used in various fields such as motion recognition, personal identification, and disease diagnosis. In this paper, we analyze EMG-based biometrics and implement a motion recognition and personal identification system. The system extracted features using non-uniform filter bank and Waveform Length (WL, and reduces the dimension using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA. Afterward, it classified the features using Euclidean Distance (ED, Support Vector Machine (SVM and K Nearest Neighbors (KNN. As a result of the motion recognition experiment, 95% of acquired EMG data and 84.66% of UCI data were obtained and as a result of the personal recognition experiment, 85% of acquired EMG data and 88.66% of UCI data were obtained.
Shafik, Ahmed; El-Sibai, Olfat
Neither the cause of vaginismus nor the muscles involved are precisely identified. To define the involved muscles and their role in the pathogenesis of vaginismus. The EMG activity of the levator ani (LA), puborectalis (PR) and bulbocavernosus (BC) muscles was studied in seven female patients (age (years): 25.6(mean)+/-1.2(S.D.)) and seven healthy volunteers who matched the patients in age. Recordings were performed at rest and during induction of vaginismus by a vaginal dilator. Upon approximating the vaginal dilator to the vaginal introitus or introducing it into the vagina of the healthy volunteers, the EMG activity of the LA, PR and BC muscles showed no significant difference from the basal activity. In the patients, the basal EMG activity of the examined muscles was significantly higher than that of the healthy volunteers (Pvaginismus induction, the muscles showed a significant increase of the EMG activity (P0.05) in the LA, PR and BC muscles, respectively. The muscle response was momentary lasting a mean of 31.2+/-5.7s. It was reproducible provided an off-time of a mean of 13.2+/-2.3s was observed. The pelvic floor muscles of vaginismus patients exhibited increased EMG activity at rest and on vaginismus induction; the cause is unknown. The concept of a disordered sacral reflex arc is put forward but needs further studies to be verified.
Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars L; Myklebust, Grethe; Kallemose, Thomas; Lauridsen, Hanne B; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette K
Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. Sixty-two adolescent female elite football and handball players (16.7±1.3years) participated in the study. Using surface electromyography (EMG) assessment, the neuromuscular activity of medial hamstring muscle (semitendinosus, ST), lateral hamstring muscle (biceps femoris, BF) and quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis, VL) were monitored during three standardized screening tests - i.e. one-legged horizontal hop (OLH), drop vertical jump (DJ) and sidecutting (SC). Neuromuscular pre-activity was measured in the time interval 10ms prior to initial contact on a force plate. For neuromuscular hamstring muscle pre-activity, correlation analysis (Spearman correlation coefficient) showed low-to-moderate correlations between SC and 1) DJ (rs=0.34-0.36, Phamstring pre-activity share some common variance during the examined tests. However, a lack of strong correlation suggests that we cannot generalize one risk factor during one test to another test. The present data demonstrate that one-legged horizontal hop and drop vertical jump testing that are commonly used in the clinical setting does not resemble the specific neuromuscular activity patterns known to exist during sidecutting, a well known high risk movement for non-contact ACL injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Meyns, P; Van de Crommert, H W A A; Rijken, H; van Kuppevelt, D H J M; Duysens, J
Case series. To determine the optimal testing speed at which the recovery of the EMG (electromyographic) activity should be assessed during and after body weight supported (BWS) locomotor training. Tertiary hospital, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Four participants with incomplete chronic SCI were included for BWS locomotor training; one AIS-C and three AIS-D (according to the ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) Impairment Scale or AIS). All were at least 5 years after injury. The SCI participants were trained three times a week for a period of 6 weeks. They improved their locomotor function in terms of higher walking speed, less BWS and less assistance needed. To investigate which treadmill speed for EMG assessment reflects the functional improvement most adequately, all participants were assessed weekly using the same two speeds (0.5 and 1.5 km h(-1), referred to as low and high speed, respectively) for 6 weeks. The change in root mean square EMG (RMS EMG) was assessed in four leg muscles; biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius medialis and tibialis anterior. The changes in RMS EMG occurred at similar phases of the step cycle for both walking conditions, but these changes were larger when the treadmill was set at a low speed (0.5 km h(-1)). Improvement in gait is feasible with BWS treadmill training even long after injury. The EMG changes after treadmill training are more optimally expressed using a low rather than a high testing treadmill speed.
Poston, Brach; Danna-Dos Santos, Alessander; Jesunathadas, Mark; Hamm, Thomas M; Santello, Marco
The ability to modulate digit forces during grasping relies on the coordination of multiple hand muscles. Because many muscles innervate each digit, the CNS can potentially choose from a large number of muscle coordination patterns to generate a given digit force. Studies of single-digit force production tasks have revealed that the electromyographic (EMG) activity scales uniformly across all muscles as a function of digit force. However, the extent to which this finding applies to the coordination of forces across multiple digits is unknown. We addressed this question by asking subjects (n = 8) to exert isometric forces using a three-digit grip (thumb, index, and middle fingers) that allowed for the quantification of hand muscle coordination within and across digits as a function of grasp force (5, 20, 40, 60, and 80% maximal voluntary force). We recorded EMG from 12 muscles (6 extrinsic and 6 intrinsic) of the three digits. Hand muscle coordination patterns were quantified in the amplitude and frequency domains (EMG-EMG coherence). EMG amplitude scaled uniformly across all hand muscles as a function of grasp force (muscle x force interaction: P = 0.997; cosines of angle between muscle activation pattern vector pairs: 0.897-0.997). Similarly, EMG-EMG coherence was not significantly affected by force (P = 0.324). However, coherence was stronger across extrinsic than that across intrinsic muscle pairs (P = 0.0039). These findings indicate that the distribution of neural drive to multiple hand muscles is force independent and may reflect the anatomical properties or functional roles of hand muscle groups.
Al-Enaizan, N; Davey, K J; Lyons, M F; Cadden, S W
The aim of this experimental study was to determine whether minimal levels of electromyographic activity in the masseter muscle are altered when individuals are in a verified hypnotic state. Experiments were performed on 17 volunteer subjects (8 male, 9 female) all of whom gave informed consent. The subjects were dentate and had no symptoms of pain or masticatory dysfunction. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were made from the masseter muscles and quantified by integration following full-wave rectification and averaging. The EMGs were obtained (i) with the mandible in 'resting' posture; (ii) with the mandible voluntarily lowered (but with the lips closed); (iii) during maximum voluntary clenching (MVC). The first two recordings were made before, during and after the subjects were in a hypnotic state. Susceptibility to hypnosis was assessed with Spiegel's eye-roll test, and the existence of the hypnotic state was verified by changes in ventilatory pattern. On average, EMG levels expressed as percentages of MVC were less: (i) when the jaw was deliberately lowered as opposed to being in the postural position: (ii) during hypnosis compared with during the pre- and post-hypnotic periods. However, analysis of variance followed by post hoc tests with multiple comparison corrections (Bonferroni) revealed that only the differences between the level during hypnosis and those before and after hypnosis were statistically significant (P hypnosis, it appears that part of that EMG is of biological origin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Comparação entre a atividade EMG do peitoral maior, deltóide anterior e tríceps braquial durante os exercícios supino reto e crucifixo Comparación entre la actividad EMG del pectoral mayor, deltoide anterior y tríceps braquial durante los ejercicios supino recto y cruz Comparison among the EMG activity of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoidis and triceps brachii during the bench press and peck deck exercises (200/2005
Valdinar de Araújo Rocha Júnior
máquina (CR. Las actividades EMG de los músculos PM, DA y TB fueron evaluados durante la realización de 10 repeticiones máximas en CR y SP en 13 hombres entrenados. Los resultados no revelaron diferencias en la actividad de PM y DA entre los ejercicios. La actividad de TB fue mayor en la realización de SP en comparación con CR. Durante SP, la actividad de PM fue mayor en relación a TB, sin diferencias entre PM y DA o DA y TB. En CR, la actividad de PM y DA fueron mayores en relación a TB, sin diferencias entre DA y PM. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos en el presente estudio se puede concluir que en caso de que el objetivo de entrenamiento sea promover estímulos para DA o PM, ambos ejercicios pueden ser usados, dependiendo de la disponibilidad de materiales y/o de la especificidad de la actividad motora en la cual se procure mejorar el desempeño.The identification of the characteristics of each movement and its adjustment to the training goals are tasks that demand the interaction of many knowledge areas. These tasks are essential to the success in sports activities and training programs designed with athletic, aesthetic or healthy purposes. The objective of the present study was to compare the electromyograhic (EMG activity of the pectoralis major (PM, anterior deltoids (DA and triceps brachii (TB muscles during the barbell bench press (SP and the peck deck (PD exercises. EMG activity of TB, PM and DA were assessed during 10 maximum repetitions performed in SP and PD in 13 trained men. The results did not show any differences between exercises for PM and DA activity; however, TB activity was higher for SP than PD exercise. During SP, the PM muscle activity was higher than TB. There were no differences between PM and DA, or between DA and TB. During the PD exercise, the PM and DA muscle activities were higher than TB. There were no differences between PM and DA. It was concluded that the prime movers of both exercise are DA and PM, and there are no
Katherine Muterspaugh Steele
Full Text Available One theory for how humans control movement is that muscles are activated in weighted groups or synergies. Studies have shown that electromyography (EMG from a variety of tasks can be described by a low-dimensional space thought to reflect synergies. These studies use algorithms, such as nonnegative matrix factorization, to identify synergies from EMG. Due to experimental constraints, EMG can rarely be taken from all muscles involved in a task. However, it is unclear if the choice of muscles included in the analysis impacts estimated synergies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the number and choice of muscles on synergy analyses. We used a musculoskeletal model to calculate muscle activations required to perform an isometric upper-extremity task. Synergies calculated from the activations from the musculoskeletal model were similar to a prior experimental study. To evaluate the impact of the number of muscles included in the analysis, we randomly selected subsets of between 5 and 29 muscles and compared the similarity of the synergies calculated from each subset to a master set of synergies calculated from all muscles. We determined that the structure of synergies is dependent upon the number and choice of muscles included in the analysis. When five muscles were included in the analysis, the similarity of the synergies to the master set was only 0.57 ± 0.54; however, the similarity improved to over 0.8 with more than ten muscles. We identified two methods, selecting dominant muscles from the master set or selecting muscles with the largest maximum isometric force, which significantly improved similarity to the master set and can help guide future experimental design. Analyses that included a small subset of muscles also over-estimated the variance accounted for (VAF by the synergies compared to an analysis with all muscles. Thus, researchers should use caution using VAF to evaluate synergies when EMG is measured from a small
Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Teng, Terry Te-Yi; Huang, Chiung Shing; Chen, Yu-Ray
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of early physical rehabilitation by comparing the differences of surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles after surgical correction of skeletal class III malocclusion. The prospective study included 63 patients; the experimental groups contained 31 patients who received early systematic physical rehabilitation; the control group (32 patients) did not receive physiotherapy. The amplitude of sEMG in the masticatory muscles reached 72.6-121.3% and 37.5-64.6% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively at 6 weeks after orthognathic surgery (OGS). At 6 months after OGS, the sEMG reached 135.1-233.4% and 89.6-122.5% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively. Most variables in the sEMG examination indicated that recovery of the masticatory muscles in the experimental group was better than the control group as estimated in the early phase (T1 to T2) and the total phase (T1 to T3); there were no significant differences between the mean recovery percentages in the later phase (T2 to T3). Early physical rehabilitative therapy is helpful for early recovery of muscle activity in masticatory muscles after OGS. After termination of physical therapy, no significant difference in recovery was indicated in patients with or without early physiotherapy. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soylu, Abdullah Ruhi; Arpinar-Avsar, Pinar
The effects of fatigue on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) parameters were examined by using force and surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of the biceps brachii muscles (BBM) of 12 subjects. The purpose of the study was to find the sEMG time interval of the MVC recordings which is not affected by the muscle fatigue. At least 10s of force and sEMG signals of BBM were recorded simultaneously during MVC. The subjects reached the maximum force level within 2s by slightly increasing the force, and then contracted the BBM maximally. The time index of each sEMG and force signal were labeled with respect to the time index of the maximum force (i.e. after the time normalization, each sEMG or force signal's 0s time index corresponds to maximum force point). Then, the first 8s of sEMG and force signals were divided into 0.5s intervals. Mean force, median frequency (MF) and integrated EMG (iEMG) values were calculated for each interval. Amplitude normalization was performed by dividing the force signals to their mean values of 0s time intervals (i.e. -0.25 to 0.25s). A similar amplitude normalization procedure was repeated for the iEMG and MF signals. Statistical analysis (Friedman test with Dunn's post hoc test) was performed on the time and amplitude normalized signals (MF, iEMG). Although the ANOVA results did not give statistically significant information about the onset of the muscle fatigue, linear regression (mean force vs. time) showed a decreasing slope (Pearson-r=0.9462, pfatigue starts after the 0s time interval as the muscles cannot attain their peak force levels. This implies that the most reliable interval for MVC calculation which is not affected by the muscle fatigue is from the onset of the EMG activity to the peak force time. Mean, SD, and range of this interval (excluding 2s gradual increase time) for 12 subjects were 2353, 1258ms and 536-4186ms, respectively. Exceeding this interval introduces estimation errors in the maximum amplitude calculations
Five overdenture wearers with a small number of remaining natural teeth were selected to evaluate the effect of the afferent input from periodontal mechanoreceptors on masseter activity in man. As a control, a full denture wearer was included. The subjects were instructed to chew a piece of gum, and/or tap their teeth. Surface EmG from the bilateral masseter muscles were recorded and analysed. When functional pressure was applied, during chewing, to the abutment teeth as well as to mucosa through the denture base, masseter activities were encouraged. Following application of anaesthesia to the periodontal membrane of the abutments, masseter activities were reduced. The duration of the silent period (SP) appearing in the EMG burst following tooth tapping was significantly increased with root support compared to mucosal support only. With topical anaesthesia of the periodontal tissues, SP duration decreased significantly. In conclusion, it has become apparent that the pressure sensibility of abutment teeth bearing functional pressure under an overdenture base is capable of facilitating masseter activity, as one of the sources of oral sensory input during mastication.
Ferris, Daniel P; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Hannaford, Blake
We developed a pneumatically powered orthosis for the human ankle joint. The orthosis consisted of a carbon fiber shell, hinge joint, and two artificial pneumatic muscles. One artificial pneumatic muscle provided plantar flexion torque and the second one provided dorsiflexion torque. Computer software adjusted air pressure in each artificial muscle independently so that artificial muscle force was proportional to rectified low-pass-filtered electromyography (EMG) amplitude (i.e., proportional myoelectric control). Tibialis anterior EMG activated the artificial dorsiflexor and soleus EMG activated the artificial plantar flexor. We collected joint kinematic and artificial muscle force data as one healthy participant walked on a treadmill with the orthosis. Peak plantar flexor torque provided by the orthosis was 70 Nm, and peak dorsiflexor torque provided by the orthosis was 38 Nm. The orthosis could be useful for basic science studies on human locomotion or possibly for gait rehabilitation after neurological injury.
SUMMARY The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy, deep muscular relaxation therapy and compare the efficacy of both in cases of tension headache. During two week basal-data recording period all patients were taught deep muscular relaxation by Jacobson′s technique. Simultaneously patients were instructed to keep headache diary. Headache diary yielded three different parameters a) number of headache-free days per week, b) peak headache intensity (or each week and c) average daily headache activity score per week. These parameters were used to find out therapeutic efficacy of each treatment. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. EMG Biofeedback group was given frontalis EMG feedback through EMG J 33 muscle trainer of Cyborg Corporation (U.S.A.). Patients in each group were given 20 sessions (two sessions per week); each session lasting 30 minutes. Patients were instructed to practice at least one 30 minute session of relaxation at home. The data were subjected to statistical calculation. The results indicate that frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy and deep muscle relaxation therapy are significantly effective in cases of tension headache. Both treatments are equally effective. The findings are discussed in relation to Indian situation. PMID:21965970
Gada, M T
The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy, deep muscular relaxation therapy and compare the efficacy of both in cases of tension headache. During two week basal-data recording period all patients were taught deep muscular relaxation by Jacobson's technique. Simultaneously patients were instructed to keep headache diary. Headache diary yielded three different parameters a) number of headache-free days per week, b) peak headache intensity (or each week and c) average daily headache activity score per week. These parameters were used to find out therapeutic efficacy of each treatment. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. EMG Biofeedback group was given frontalis EMG feedback through EMG J 33 muscle trainer of Cyborg Corporation (U.S.A.). Patients in each group were given 20 sessions (two sessions per week); each session lasting 30 minutes. Patients were instructed to practice at least one 30 minute session of relaxation at home. The data were subjected to statistical calculation. The results indicate that frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy and deep muscle relaxation therapy are significantly effective in cases of tension headache. Both treatments are equally effective. The findings are discussed in relation to Indian situation.
Full Text Available Introduction: Shoulder injuries are common among athletes in sports that involve overhead throwing of the ball such as handball. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the timing and activation intensity of shoulder muscles during handball penalty throwing in individuals with shoulder pain and in control subjects. Materials and Methods: Using BTS FREE EMG 300 system with bipolar surface electrodes, the timing (onset and intensity of the activation of the shoulder muscles were measured including upper trapezius, anterior, middle and posterior deltoid, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, supraspinatus and triceps during penalty throwing. Multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for between group comparisons with the significance level P< 0.05. Results: The activation intensity of upper trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles in the healthy individuals were about 50.74% and 43.42% higher than in patients. Middle deltoid in healthy individuals was about 38.05% smaller than that in patients. In control group, supraspinatus muscle started earlier (23.5 ms than the shoulder motion initiation. Triceps muscle was activated about 18.5 ms later than shoulder motion initiation. In patients, supraspinatus muscle started sooner (11 ms and triceps brachialis muscle started later than the other muscles (22.16 ms. Conclusion: The coordination of shoulder muscles i.e. the onset and intensity of muscle activity is disturbed in the patient group during throwing. Hence, strength and stretching programs are recommended for athletes to reduce the risk of shoulder pain syndrome. The rehabilitation program can be focused on modifying the pattern of activity in upper trapezius, supraspinatus, latissimus dorsi and deltoid muscles in addition to pain control in the rehabilitation centers.
Signorile, Joseph F; Rendos, Nicole K; Heredia Vargas, Hector H; Alipio, Taislaine C; Regis, Rebecca C; Eltoukhy, Moataz M; Nargund, Renu S; Romero, Matthew A
Signorile, JF, Rendos, NK, Heredia Vargas, HH, Alipio, TC, Regis, RC, Eltoukhy, MM, Nargund, RS, and Romero, MA. Differences in muscle activation and kinematics between cable-based and selectorized weight training. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 313-322, 2017-Cable resistance training machines are showing resurgent popularity and allow greater number of degrees of freedom than typical selectorized equipment. Given that specific kinetic chains are used during distinct activities of daily living (ADL), cable machines may provide more effective interventions for some ADL, whereas others may be best addressed using selectorized equipment. This study examined differences in activity levels (root mean square of the EMG [rmsEMG]) of 6 major muscles (pectoralis major, PM; anterior deltoid, AD; biceps brachii, BB; rectus abdominis, RA; external obliques, EO; and triceps brachii, TB) and kinematics of multiple joints between a cable and standard selectorized machines during the biceps curl, the chest press, and the overhead press performed at 1.5 seconds per contractile stage. Fifteen individuals (9 men, 6 women; mean age ± SD, 24.33 ± 4.88 years) participated. Machine order was randomized. Significant differences favoring cable training were seen for PM and AD during biceps curl; BB, AD, and EO for chest press; and BB and EO during overhead press (p ≤ 0.05). Greater starting and ending angles were seen for the elbow and shoulder joints during selectorized biceps curl, whereas hip and knee starting and ending angles were greater for cable machine during chest and overhead presses (p < 0.0001). Greater range of motion (ROM) favoring the cable machine was also evident (p < 0.0001). These results indicate that utilization patterns of selected muscles, joint angles, and ROMs can be varied because of machine application even when similar exercises are used, and therefore, these machines can be used selectively in training programs requiring specific motor or biomechanical
Full Text Available Abstract Background Elastic taping applied on the triceps surae has been commonly used to improve the performance of lower extremities. However, little objective evidence has been documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of elastic taping on the triceps surae during a maximal vertical jump. It was hypothesized that elastic taping to the triceps surae would increase muscle activity and cause positive effect to jump height. Methods Thirty-one healthy adults (19 males and 12 females with mean age, body weight and height for 25.3 ± 3.8 years old, 64.1 ± 6.2 kg, and 169.4 ± 7.3 cm, respectively were recruited. All participants performed vertical jump tests prior to (without taping and during elastic taping. Two elastic tapes, Kinesio tape and Mplacebo tape from two different manufacturers, were applied to the participants, respectively. Results The results showed that the vertical ground reaction force increased when Kinesio tape was applied even when the height of jump remained about constant. However, the height of the jump decreased, and there was no difference on the vertical ground reaction force in Mplacebo taping group. Although the EMG activity of medial gastrocnemius tended to increase in Kinesio taping group, we did not see differences in EMG activity for the medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and soleus muscles in either group. Conclusions Based on the varied effects of Kinesio tape and Mplacebo tape, different intervention technique was suggested for specific purpose during vertical jump movement. Mplacebo tape was demanded for the benefits of stabilization, protection, and the restriction of motion at the ankle joint. On the other hand, the findings may implicate benefits for medial gastrocnemius muscle strength and push-off force when using Kinesio tape.
Kallenberg, L.A.C.; Hermens, Hermanus J.
Surface electromyography parameters such as root-mean-square value (RMS) and median power frequency (FMED) are commonly used to assess the input of the central nervous system (CNS) to a muscle. However, RMS and FMED are influenced not only by CNS input, but also by peripheral muscle properties. The
Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.
Butterfield, Timothy A; Herzog, Walter
Muscle strain injuries are some of the most frequent injuries in sports and command a great deal of attention in an effort to understand their etiology. These injuries may be the culmination of a series of subcellular events accumulated through repetitive lengthening (eccentric) contractions during exercise, and they may be influenced by a variety of variables including fiber strain magnitude, peak joint torque, and starting muscle length. To assess the influence of these variables on muscle injury magnitude in vivo, we measured fiber dynamics and joint torque production during repeated stretch-shortening cycles in the rabbit tibialis anterior muscle, at short and long muscle lengths, while varying the timing of activation before muscle stretch. We found that a muscle subjected to repeated stretch-shortening cycles of constant muscle-tendon unit excursion exhibits significantly different joint torque and fiber strains when the timing of activation or starting muscle length is changed. In particular, measures of fiber strain and muscle injury were significantly increased by altering activation timing and increasing the starting length of the muscle. However, we observed differential effects on peak joint torque during the cyclic stretch-shortening exercise, as increasing the starting length of the muscle did not increase torque production. We conclude that altering activation timing and muscle length before stretch may influence muscle injury by significantly increasing fiber strain magnitude and that fiber dynamics is a more important variable than muscle-tendon unit dynamics and torque production in influencing the magnitude of muscle injury.
Zakir Hossain, M.; Grill, Wolfgang
A non-intrusive novel detection scheme has been implemented to detect the lateral muscle extension, force of the skeletal muscle and the motor action potential (EMG) synchronously. This allows the comparison of muscle dynamics and EMG signals as a basis for modeling and further studies to determine which architectural parameters are most sensitive to changes in muscle activity. For this purpose the transmission time for ultrasonic chirp signal in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 2.5 MHz passing through the muscle under observation and respective motor action potentials are recorded synchronously to monitor and quantify biomechanical parameters related to muscle performance. Additionally an ultrasonic force sensor has been employed for monitoring. Ultrasonic traducers are placed on the skin to monitor muscle expansion. Surface electrodes are placed suitably to pick up the potential for activation of the monitored muscle. Isometric contraction of the monitored muscle is ensured by restricting the joint motion with the ultrasonic force sensor. Synchronous monitoring was initiated by a software activated audio beep starting at zero time of the subsequent data acquisition interval. Computer controlled electronics are used to generate and detect the ultrasonic signals and monitor the EMG signals. Custom developed software and data analysis is employed to analyze and quantify the monitored data. Reaction time, nerve conduction speed, latent period between the on-set of EMG signals and muscle response, degree of muscle activation and muscle fatigue development, rate of energy expenditure and motor neuron recruitment rate in isometric contraction, and other relevant parameters relating to muscle performance have been quantified with high spatial and temporal resolution.
Karimi, Zanyar; Allahyari, Teimour; Azghani, Mahmood Reza; Khalkhali, Hamidreza
The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of unstable footwear on lower leg muscle activity, volume change and subjective discomfort during prolonged standing. Ten healthy subjects were recruited to stand for 2 h in three footwear conditions: barefoot, flat-bottomed shoe and unstable shoe. During standing, lower leg discomfort and EMG activity of medial gastrocnemius (MG) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were continuously monitored. Changes in lower leg volume over standing time also were measured. Lower leg discomfort rating reduced significantly while subjects standing on unstable shoe compared to the flat-bottomed shoe and barefoot condition. For lower leg volume, less changes also were observed with unstable shoe. The activity level and variation of right MG muscle was greater with unstable shoe compared to the other footwear conditions; however regarding the left MG muscle, significant difference was found between unstable shoe and flat-bottomed shoe only for activity level. Furthermore no significant differences were observed for the activity level and variation of TA muscles (right/left) among all footwear conditions. The findings suggested that prolonged standing with unstable footwear produces changes in lower leg muscles activity and leads to less volume changes. Perceived discomfort also was lower for this type of footwear and this might mean that unstable footwear can be used as ergonomic solution for employees whose work requires prolonged standing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: Trigger points may result in referral pain of their close areas. Recent evidence suggests that latent trigger points although they are not sensitive enough to cause pain, can interfere with the normal muscle function. These myofascial trigger points are estimated as an electro-physiological phenomenon. However, there are a few studies which investigated the effect of these points on the muscle activity. Muscle activity is a determinant factor in injuries which may cause or worsen shoulder-neck pain. The aim of the study was to evaluate upper trapezius muscle activity and delay time at the presence of active trigger point during scapular plane elevation (scaption. Materials & Methods: In a case-control comparative study in spring 2012, Seventeen women with active trigger points (mean age 26.76 y and 17 healthy women (mean age 26.18 y in bio-mechanic laboratory of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation sciences (USWR participated in the study. Using surface EMG, the amplitude of muscle activity and the onset time of upper trapezius during scaption, were recorded and analyzed. Results: The maximum amplitude of the upper trapezius muscle activity (during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of 90°scaption in patients showed significant decrease in comparison with the healthy subjects (P=0.01.Also, the onset time of upper trapezius muscle activation time in the patient group was significantly delayed in comparison to the healthy group (P=0.04. Conclusion: At the presence of trigger points in Upper trapezius muscle, muscle activation pattern changes trigger points can change the amplitude and timing of muscle activity and may consequently lead to abnormal patterns of motion of the shoulder girdle. These findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of shoulder disorders.
Menz Hylton B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have found that flat-arched foot posture is related to altered lower limb muscle function compared to normal- or high-arched feet. However, the results from these studies were based on highly selected populations such as those with rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare lower limb muscle function of normal and flat-arched feet in people without pain or disease. Methods Sixty adults aged 18 to 47 years were recruited to this study. Of these, 30 had normal-arched feet (15 male and 15 female and 30 had flat-arched feet (15 male and 15 female. Foot posture was classified using two clinical measurements (the arch index and navicular height and four skeletal alignment measurements from weightbearing foot x-rays. Intramuscular fine-wire electrodes were inserted into tibialis posterior and peroneus longus under ultrasound guidance, and surface EMG activity was recorded from tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius while participants walked barefoot at their self-selected comfortable walking speed. Time of peak amplitude, peak and root mean square (RMS amplitude were assessed from stance phase EMG data. Independent samples t-tests were performed to assess for significant differences between the normal- and flat-arched foot posture groups. Results During contact phase, the flat-arched group exhibited increased activity of tibialis anterior (peak amplitude; 65 versus 46% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction and decreased activity of peroneus longus (peak amplitude; 24 versus 37% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. During midstance/propulsion, the flat-arched group exhibited increased activity of tibialis posterior (peak amplitude; 86 versus 60% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction and decreased activity of peroneus longus (RMS amplitude; 25 versus 39% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Effect sizes for these significant findings ranged from 0.48 to 1
Arima, Taro; Takeuchi, Tamiyo; Tomonaga, Akio; Yachida, Wataru; Ohata, Noboru; Svensson, Peter
AimThe choice of biomaterials for occlusal splints may significantly influence biological outcome. In dentistry, hard acrylic occlusal splints (OS) have been shown to have a temporary and inhibitory effect on jaw-muscle activity, such as tooth clenching and grinding during sleep, i.e., sleep bruxism (SB). Traditionally, this inhibitory effect has been explained by changes in the intraoral condition rather than the specific effects of changes in occlusion. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of another type of occlusal surface, such as a soft-material OS in addition to a hard-type OS in terms of changes in jaw-muscle activity during sleep. Materials and methodsSeven healthy subjects (mean ± SD, six men and one woman: 28.9 ± 2.7 year old), participated in this study. A soft-material OS (ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer) was fabricated for each subject and the subjects used the OS for five continuous nights. The EMG activity during sleep was compared to baseline (no OS). Furthermore, the EMG activity during the use of a hard-type OS (Michigan-type OS, acrylic resin), and hard-type OS combined with contingent electrical stimulation (CES) was compared to baseline values. Each session was separated by at least two weeks (washout). Jaw-muscle activity during sleep was recorded with single-channel ambulatory devices (GrindCare, MedoTech, Herlev, Denmark) in all sessions for five nights. ResultsJaw-muscle activity during sleep was 46.6 ± 29.8 EMG events/hour at baseline and significantly decreased during the hard-type OS (17.4 ± 10.5, P = 0.007) and the hard-type OS + CES (10.8 ± 7.1, P = 0.002), but not soft-material OS (36.3 ± 24.5, P = 0.055). Interestingly, the soft-material OS (coefficient of variance = 98.6 ± 35.3%) was associated with greater night-to-night variations than baseline (39.0 ± 11.8%) and the hard-type OS + CES (53.3 ± 13.7%, P < 0.013). ConclusionThe present pilot study in small sample showed that a soft
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir; Olsen, Henrik Baare; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling; Boyle, Eleanor; Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, Gisela
Neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew-members is common. This study quantified the physical workload on neck and shoulder muscles using electromyography (EMG) measures during helicopter flight. Nine standardized sorties were performed, encompassing: cruising from location A to location B (AB) and performing search and rescue (SAR). SAR was performed with Night Vision Goggles (NVG), while AB was performed with (AB+NVG) and without NVG (AB-NVG). EMG was recorded for: trapezius (TRA), upper neck extensors (UNE), and sternocleido-mastoid (SCM). Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) were performed for normalization of EMG (MVE). Neck posture of pilots and crew-members was monitored and pain intensity of neck, shoulder, and back was recorded. Mean muscle activity for UNE was ∼10% MVE and significantly higher than TRA and SCM, and SCM was significantly lower than TRA. There was no significant difference between AB-NVG and AB+NVG. Muscle activity in the UNE was significantly higher during SAR+NVG than AB-NVG. Sortie time (%) with non-neutral neck posture for SAR+NVG and AB-NVG was: 80.4%, 74.5% (flexed), 55.5%, 47.9% (rotated), 4.5%, 3.7% (lateral flexed). Neck pain intensity increased significantly from pre- (0.7±1.3) to post-sortie (1.6±1.9) for pilots (p=0.028). If sustained, UNE activity of ∼10% MVE is high, and implies a risk for neck disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, Zhao Feng; Kumar, Dinesh Kant; Arjunan, Sridhar Poosapadi
Mechanomyogram is the recording of the acoustic activity associated with the muscle contraction. While discovered nearly a decade ago with the intention of providing an alternate to the surface electromyogram, it has not yet been investigated thoroughly and there are no current applications associated with MMG. This paper reports an experimental study of MMG against force of contraction and muscle fatigue during cyclic contraction. The results indicate that there is a relationship between the intensity of the MMG recording and force of contraction. A change in the intensity of MMG is also observed with the onset of muscle fatigue. However, the inter-subject variation is very large. The results also indicate that the spectrum of the MMG is very inconsistent and not a useful feature of the signal.
Campbell, Brian M; Stodden, David F; Nixon, Megan K
The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation levels of select lower extremity muscles during the pitching motion. Bilateral surface electromyography data on 5 lower extremity muscles (biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius) were collected on 11 highly skilled baseball pitchers and compared with individual maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) data. The pitching motion was divided into 4 distinct phases: phase 1, initiation of pitching motion to maximum stride leg knee height; phase 2, maximum stride leg knee height to stride foot contact (SFC); phase 3, SFC to ball release; and phase 4, ball release to 0.5 seconds after ball release (follow-through). Results indicated that trail leg musculature elicited moderate to high activity levels during phases 2 and 3 (38-172% of MVIC). Muscle activity levels of the stride leg were moderate to high during phases 2-4 (23-170% of MVIC). These data indicate a high demand for lower extremity strength and endurance. Specifically, coaches should incorporate unilateral and bilateral lower extremity exercises for strength improvement or maintenance and to facilitate dynamic stabilization of the lower extremities during the pitching motion.
Güler, Nihal Fatma; Hardalaç, Firat
In this work, a microcontroller-based EMG designed and tested on 40 patients. When the patients are in rest, the fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis was applied to EMG signals recorded from right leg peroneal region. The histograms are constructed from the results of the FFT analysis. The analysis results shows that the amplitude of fibrillation potential of the muscle fiber of 30 patients measured from peroneal region is low and the duration is short. This is the reason why the motor nerves degenerated and 10 patients were found to be healthy.
Lehecka, B J; Edwards, Michael; Haverkamp, Ryan; Martin, Lani; Porter, Kambry; Thach, Kailey; Sack, Richard J; Hakansson, Nils A
Gluteal strength plays a role in injury prevention, normal gait patterns, eliminating pain, and enhancing athletic performance. Research shows high gluteal muscle activity during a single-leg bridge compared to other gluteal strengthening exercises; however, prior studies have primarily measured muscle activity with the active lower extremity starting in 90 ° of knee flexion with an extended contralateral knee. This standard position has caused reports of hamstring cramping, which may impede optimal gluteal strengthening. The purpose of this study was to determine which modified position for the single-leg bridge is best for preferentially activating the gluteus maximus and medius. Cross-Sectional. Twenty-eight healthy males and females aged 18-30 years were tested in five different, randomized single-leg bridge positions. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on subjects' gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris of their bridge leg (i.e., dominant or kicking leg), as well as the rectus femoris of their contralateral leg. Subjects performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for each tested muscle prior to performing five different bridge positions in randomized order. All bridge EMG data were normalized to the corresponding muscle MVIC data. A modified bridge position with the knee of the bridge leg flexed to 135 ° versus the traditional 90 ° of knee flexion demonstrated preferential activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius compared to the traditional single-leg bridge. Hamstring activation significantly decreased (p bridge by flexing the active knee to 135 ° instead of 90 ° minimizes hamstring activity while maintaining high levels of gluteal activation, effectively building a bridge better suited for preferential gluteal activation. 3.
Smith, Lauren H; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of linear regression models to decode patterns of muscle coactivation from intramuscular electromyogram (EMG) and provide simultaneous myoelectric control of a virtual 3-DOF wrist/hand system. Performance was compared to the simultaneous control of conventional myoelectric prosthesis methods using intramuscular EMG (parallel dual-site control)-an approach that requires users to independently modulate individual muscles in the residual limb, which can be challenging for amputees. Linear regression control was evaluated in eight able-bodied subjects during a virtual Fitts' law task and was compared to performance of eight subjects using parallel dual-site control. An offline analysis also evaluated how different types of training data affected prediction accuracy of linear regression control. The two control systems demonstrated similar overall performance; however, the linear regression method demonstrated improved performance for targets requiring use of all three DOFs, whereas parallel dual-site control demonstrated improved performance for targets that required use of only one DOF. Subjects using linear regression control could more easily activate multiple DOFs simultaneously, but often experienced unintended movements when trying to isolate individual DOFs. Offline analyses also suggested that the method used to train linear regression systems may influence controllability. Linear regression myoelectric control using intramuscular EMG provided an alternative to parallel dual-site control for 3-DOF simultaneous control at the wrist and hand. The two methods demonstrated different strengths in controllability, highlighting the tradeoff between providing simultaneous control and the ability to isolate individual DOFs when desired.
Sainton, Patrick; Nicol, Caroline; Cabri, Jan; Barthelemy-Montfort, Joëlle; Berton, Eric; Chavet, Pascale
In running, body weight reduction is reported to result in decreased lower limb muscle activity with no change in the global activation pattern (Liebenberg et al. in J Sports Sci 29:207-214). Our study examined the acute effects on running mechanics and lower limb muscle activity of short-term unweighing and reloading conditions while running on a treadmill with a lower body positive pressure (LBPP) device. Eleven healthy males performed two randomized running series of 9 min at preferred speed. Each series included three successive running conditions of 3 min [at 100 % body weight (BW), 60 or 80 % BW, and 100 % BW]. Vertical ground reaction force and center of mass accelerations were analyzed together with surface EMG activity recorded from six major muscles of the left lower limb for the first and last 30 s of each running condition. Effort sensation and mean heart rate were also recorded. In both running series, the unloaded running pattern was characterized by a lower step frequency (due to increased flight time with no change in contact time), lower impact and active force peaks, and also by reduced loading rate and push-off impulse. Amplitude of muscle activity overall decreased, but pre-contact and braking phase extensor muscle activity did not change, whereas it was reduced during the subsequent push-off phase. The combined neuro-mechanical changes suggest that LBPP technology provides runners with an efficient support during the stride. The after-effects recorded after reloading highlight the fact that 3 min of unweighing may be sufficient for updating the running pattern.
Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel
To what extent do people behave in immersive virtual environments as they would in similar situations in a physical environment? There are many ways to address this question, ranging from questionnaires, behavioral studies, and the use of physiological measures. Here, we compare the onsets of muscle activity using surface electromyography (EMG) while participants were walking under three different conditions: on a normal floor surface, on a narrow ribbon along the floor, and on a narrow platform raised off the floor. The same situation was rendered in an immersive virtual environment (IVE) Cave-like system, and 12 participants did the three types of walking in a counter-balanced within-groups design. The mean number of EMG activity onsets per unit time followed the same pattern in the virtual environment as in the physical environment-significantly higher for walking on the platform compared to walking on the floor. Even though participants knew that they were in fact really walking at floor level in the virtual environment condition, the visual illusion of walking on a raised platform was sufficient to influence their behavior in a measurable way. This opens up the door for this technique to be used in gait and posture related scenarios including rehabilitation.
Kim, Si-hyun; Kwon, Oh-yun; Park, Kyue-nam; Kim, Moon-Hwan
The aim of this study was to compare the activity of the erector spinae (ES) and hamstring muscles and the amount and onset of lumbar motion during standing knee flexion between individuals with and without lumbar extension rotation syndrome. Sixteen subjects with lumbar extension rotation syndrome (10 males, 6 females) and 14 healthy subjects (8 males, 6 females) participated in this study. During the standing knee flexion, surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscle activity, and surface EMG electrodes were attached to both the ES and hamstring (medial and lateral) muscles. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to measure kinematic data of the lumbar spine. An independent-t test was conducted for the statistical analysis. The group suffering from lumbar extension rotation syndrome exhibited asymmetric muscle activation of the ES and decreased hamstring activity. Additionally, the group with lumbar extension rotation syndrome showed greater and earlier lumbar extension and rotation during standing knee flexion compared to the control group. These data suggest that asymmetric ES muscle activation and a greater amount of and earlier lumbar motion in the sagittal and transverse plane during standing knee flexion may be an important factor contributing to low back pain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lidegaard, Mark; Jensen, Rene B; Andersen, Christoffer H
PURPOSE: This study investigates the acute and longitudinal effects of resistance training on occupational muscle activity in office workers with chronic pain. METHODS: 30 female office workers with chronic neck and shoulder pain participated for 10 weeks in high-intensity elastic resistance...... training for 2 minutes per day (n = 15) or in control receiving weekly email-based information on general health (n = 15). Electromyography (EMG) from the splenius and upper trapezius was recorded during a normal workday. RESULTS: Adherence to training and control interventions were 86% and 89...
Spedden, Meaghan Elizabeth; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Geertsen, Svend Sparre
Aging is accompanied by impaired motor function, but age-related changes in neural networks responsible for generating movement are not well understood. We aimed to investigate the functional oscillatory coupling between activity in the sensorimotor cortex and ankle muscles during static contract......Aging is accompanied by impaired motor function, but age-related changes in neural networks responsible for generating movement are not well understood. We aimed to investigate the functional oscillatory coupling between activity in the sensorimotor cortex and ankle muscles during static...... contraction. Fifteen young (20–26 yr) and fifteen older (65–73 yr) subjects were instructed to match a target force by performing static ankle dorsi- or plantar flexion, while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded from the cortex and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from dorsi...
Lewis, Sandra; Holmes, Paul; Woby, Steve; Hindle, Jackie; Fowler, Neil
Individuals with low back pain (LBP) often exhibit elevated paraspinal muscle activity compared to asymptomatic controls during static postures such as standing. This hyperactivity has been associated with a delayed rate of stature recovery in individuals with mild LBP. This study aimed to explore this association further in a more clinically relevant population of NHS patients with LBP and to investigate if relationships exist with a number of psychological factors. Forty seven patients were recruited from waiting lists for physiotherapist-led rehabilitation programmes. Paraspinal muscle activity while standing was assessed via surface electromyogram (EMG) and stature recovery over a 40-min unloading period was measured on a precision stadiometer. Self-report of pain, disability, anxiety, depression, pain-related anxiety, fear of movement, self-efficacy and catastrophising were recorded. Correlations were found between muscle activity and both pain (r=0.48) and disability (r=0.43). Muscle activity was also correlated with self-efficacy (r=-0.45), depression (r=0.33), anxiety (r=0.31), pain-related anxiety (r=0.29) and catastrophising (r=0.29) and was a mediator between self-efficacy and pain. Pain was a mediator in the relationship between muscle activity and disability. Stature recovery was not found to be related to pain, disability, muscle activity or any of the psychological factors. The findings confirm the importance of muscle activity within LBP, in particular as a pathway by which psychological factors may impact on clinical outcome. The mediating role of muscle activity between psychological factors and pain suggests that interventions that are able to reduce muscle tension may be of particular benefit to patients demonstrating such characteristics, which may help in the targeting of treatment for LBP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Annicele da Silva Andrade
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect possible differences in the EMG (electromiography activity, chewing rate (CR, cycle duration (CD and preferred chewing side (PCS between children with and without unilateral posterior crossbite. Thirty-seven children aged from 7 to 10 years were selected from the clinic of the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Piracicaba Dental School, Brazil, and divided into two groups: unilateral posterior crossbite (UPCB group, n = 17, and normal occlusion (NOccl group, n = 20. The PCS was determined using a visual spot-checking method. The EMG activity was recorded during mastication, and two chewing sequences of 20 s were evaluated to establish each subject's CR (cycles/sec and CD. UPCB and NOccl groups did not have a PCS. The EMG activity and the cycle characteristics did not differ between the groups. The correlations between CD, CR and EMG activity were statistically significant for the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles only in the NOccl group, in which there was also a significant correlation between the EMG activity of masseter and anterior temporalis. In conclusion, these findings suggest that although children with and without UPCB presented a bilateral masticatory pattern with similar CR and CD, balanced EMG activity of masseter and anterior temporalis muscles was observed only in the NOccl group. These results indicate that in children, UPCB can alter the coordination of masticatory muscles during mastication.
Sennels, Søren; Fin, Biering-Sørensen; Andersen, Ole Trier
Using the voluntary EMG as a control signal for the stimulation of the same muscle necessitates elimination of stimulus artifacts and the muscle response caused by the stimulation. The stimulus artifacts are easily eliminated by shutting down the amplifier during stimulation. The muscle response ...
Grazi, Lorenzo; Crea, Simona; Parri, Andrea; Molino Lova, Raffaele; Micera, Silvestro; Vitiello, Nicola
We present a novel assistive control strategy for a robotic hip exoskeleton for assisting hip flexion/extension, based on a proportional Electromyography (EMG) strategy. The novelty of the proposed controller relies on the use of the Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) EMG signal instead of a hip flexor muscle, to control the hip flexion torque. This strategy has two main advantages: first, avoiding the placement of the EMG electrodes at the human–robot interface can reduce discomfort issues for the user and motion artifacts of the recorded signals; second, using a powerful signal for control, such as the GM, could improve the reliability of the control system. The control strategy has been tested on eight healthy subjects, walking with the robotic hip exoskeleton on the treadmill. We evaluated the controller performance and the effect of the assistance on muscle activities. The tuning of the assistance timing in the controller was subject dependent and varied across subjects. Two muscles could benefit more from the assistive strategy, namely the Rectus Femoris (directly assisted) and the Tibialis Anterior (indirectly assisted). A significant correlation was found between the timing of the delivered assistance (i.e., synchronism with the biological hip torque), and reduction of the hip flexors muscular activity during walking; instead, no significant correlations were found for peak torque and peak power. Results suggest that the timing of the assistance is the most significant parameter influencing the effectiveness of the control strategy. The findings of this work could be important for future studies aimed at developing assistive strategies for walking assistance exoskeletons. PMID:29491830
Grazi, Lorenzo; Crea, Simona; Parri, Andrea; Molino Lova, Raffaele; Micera, Silvestro; Vitiello, Nicola
We present a novel assistive control strategy for a robotic hip exoskeleton for assisting hip flexion/extension, based on a proportional Electromyography (EMG) strategy. The novelty of the proposed controller relies on the use of the Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) EMG signal instead of a hip flexor muscle, to control the hip flexion torque. This strategy has two main advantages: first, avoiding the placement of the EMG electrodes at the human-robot interface can reduce discomfort issues for the user and motion artifacts of the recorded signals; second, using a powerful signal for control, such as the GM, could improve the reliability of the control system. The control strategy has been tested on eight healthy subjects, walking with the robotic hip exoskeleton on the treadmill. We evaluated the controller performance and the effect of the assistance on muscle activities. The tuning of the assistance timing in the controller was subject dependent and varied across subjects. Two muscles could benefit more from the assistive strategy, namely the Rectus Femoris (directly assisted) and the Tibialis Anterior (indirectly assisted). A significant correlation was found between the timing of the delivered assistance (i.e., synchronism with the biological hip torque), and reduction of the hip flexors muscular activity during walking; instead, no significant correlations were found for peak torque and peak power. Results suggest that the timing of the assistance is the most significant parameter influencing the effectiveness of the control strategy. The findings of this work could be important for future studies aimed at developing assistive strategies for walking assistance exoskeletons.
Full Text Available We present a novel assistive control strategy for a robotic hip exoskeleton for assisting hip flexion/extension, based on a proportional Electromyography (EMG strategy. The novelty of the proposed controller relies on the use of the Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM EMG signal instead of a hip flexor muscle, to control the hip flexion torque. This strategy has two main advantages: first, avoiding the placement of the EMG electrodes at the human–robot interface can reduce discomfort issues for the user and motion artifacts of the recorded signals; second, using a powerful signal for control, such as the GM, could improve the reliability of the control system. The control strategy has been tested on eight healthy subjects, walking with the robotic hip exoskeleton on the treadmill. We evaluated the controller performance and the effect of the assistance on muscle activities. The tuning of the assistance timing in the controller was subject dependent and varied across subjects. Two muscles could benefit more from the assistive strategy, namely the Rectus Femoris (directly assisted and the Tibialis Anterior (indirectly assisted. A significant correlation was found between the timing of the delivered assistance (i.e., synchronism with the biological hip torque, and reduction of the hip flexors muscular activity during walking; instead, no significant correlations were found for peak torque and peak power. Results suggest that the timing of the assistance is the most significant parameter influencing the effectiveness of the control strategy. The findings of this work could be important for future studies aimed at developing assistive strategies for walking assistance exoskeletons.
Gruevski, Kristina M; Hodder, Joanne N; Keir, Peter J
To determine the effect of anti-phase, in-phase bimanual and unimanual simulated industrial pushing tasks and frequency on upper extremity muscle activity. Research investigating symmetrical (in-phase) and asymmetrical (anti-phase) pushing exertions is limited despite a high prevalence in industry. Fifteen female participants completed five pushing tasks using a dual handle apparatus at three frequencies: 15 cycles per minute (cpm), 30 cpm, and self-selected. Tasks included two bimanual symmetrical pushes (constrained and unconstrained), two bimanual asymmetrical pushes (reciprocating and continuous), and one right unimanual push. Surface electromyography (EMG) from the right anterior, middle, and posterior deltoid (AD, MD, and PD); right and left trapezius (RT and LT); right pectoralis major (PM); and right and left external obliques (REO and LEO) was collected and normalized to maximum voluntary effort. There was a task by frequency interaction in the AD, MD, PD, and RT ( p pushes and constrained, in-phase pushes had the highest muscle activity demands and the least amount of variability in muscle activity and therefore may present the greatest risk of injury. Anti-phase pushing is known to have a greater cognitive demand, and this study demonstrated that it also has a greater physical demand when performed continuously.
Basarab-Horwath, I; Dewhurst, D G; Dixon, R; Meehan, A S; Odusanya, S
An automated microprocessor-based data acquisition and analysis system has been developed specifically to quantify electromyographic (EMG) activity induced by the convulsant agent catechol in the anaesthetized rat. The stimulus and EMG response are recorded on magnetic tape. On playback, the stimulus triggers a digital oscilloscope and, via interface circuitry, a BBC B microcomputer. The myoelectric activity is digitized by the oscilloscope before being transferred under computer control via a RS232 link to the microcomputer. This system overcomes the problems of dealing with signals of variable latency and allows quantification of latency, amplitude, area and frequency of occurrence of specific components within the signal. The captured data can be used to generate either signal or superimposed high resolution graphic reproductions of the original waveforms. Although this system has been designed for a specific application, it could easily be modified to allow analysis of any complex waveform.
Sovelius, Roope; Oksa, Juha; Rintala, Harri; Huhtala, Heini; Siitonen, Simo
Fighter pilots who are frequently exposed to severe cold ambient temperatures experience neck pain disabilities and occupational disorders more often than those who are not so exposed. We hypothesized that a cold-induced increase in muscle strain might lead to in-flight neck injuries. The aims of this study were to measure the level of cooling before takeoff and to determine muscle strain under Gz loading (0 to +4 Gz) at different temperatures. Test subjects' (n = 14) skin temperature (T(skin)) over the trapezoids was measured before the walk to the aircraft and again in the cockpit (air temperature -14 degrees C). The subjects then performed trampoline exercises in two different ambient temperatures (-2 degrees C and +21 degrees C) after a 30-min period at the respective temperatures. EMG activity of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), cervical erector spinae (CES), trapezoid (TRA), thoracic erector spinae (TES) muscles, and Tskin of the SCM and TRA were measured. Tskin over the trapezoids decreased from 30.1 +/- 1.7 degrees C to 27.8 +/- 2.6 degrees C (p < 0.001) before takeoff. The change of muscle strain in cold was +11.0% in SCM, +14.9% in CES, +3.7% in TRA, and -1.7% in TES. Change was statistically significant in the cervical, uncovered area (SCM, CES). The linear regression model indicated a 2.6% increase in muscle strain per every decreased degree centigrade in skin temperature over the SCM. Superficial cooling over the neck muscles was significant prior to takeoff. Muscle loading in the cold caused higher EMG activity. A major increase in muscle strain was seen in the cervical muscles. These findings suggest a cold-induced increase in muscle strain during in-flight Gz loading.
Matthew D. Jeffriess, Adrian B. Schultz, Tye S. McGann, Samuel J. Callaghan, Robert G. Lockie
Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of preventative ankle taping on planned change-of-direction and reactive agility performance and peak ankle muscle activity in basketballers. Twenty male basketballers (age = 22.30 ± 3.97 years; height = 1.84 ± 0.09 meters; body mass = 85.96 ± 11.88 kilograms with no ankle pathologies attended two testing sessions. Within each session, subjects completed six planned and six reactive randomized trials (three to the left and three to the right for each condition of the Y-shaped agility test, which was recorded by timing lights. In one session, subjects had both ankles un-taped. In the other, both ankles were taped using a modified subtalar sling. Peak tibialis anterior, peroneus longus (PL, peroneus brevis (PB, and soleus muscle activity was recorded for both the inside and outside legs across stance phase during the directional change, which was normalized against 10-meter sprint muscle activity (nEMG. Both the inside and outside cut legs during the change-of-direction step were investigated. Repeated measures ANOVA determined performance time and nEMG differences between un-taped and taped conditions. There were no differences in planned change-of-direction or reactive agility times between the conditions. Inside cut leg PL nEMG decreased when taped for the planned left, reactive left, and reactive right cuts (p = 0.01. Outside leg PB and soleus nEMG increased during the taped planned left cut (p = 0.02. There were no other nEMG changes during the cuts with taping. Taping did not affect change-of-direction or agility performance. Inside leg PL activity was decreased, possibly due to the tape following the line of muscle action. This may reduce the kinetic demand for the PL during cuts. In conclusion, ankle taping did not significantly affect planned change-of-direction or reactive agility performance, and did not demonstrate large changes in activity of the muscle complex in healthy basketballers.
Wexler, B E; Warrenburg, S; Schwartz, G E; Janer, L D
Dichotic stimulus pairs were constructed with one word that was emotionally neutral and another that evoked either negative or positive feelings. Temporal and spectral overlap between the members of each pair was so great that the two words fused into a single auditory percept. Subjects were consciously aware of hearing only one word from most pairs; sometimes the emotion-evoking word was heard consciously, other times the neutral word was heard consciously. Subjects were instructed to let their thoughts wander in response to the word they heard, during which time EEG alpha activity over left and right frontal regions, and muscle activity (EMG) in the corrugator ("frowning") and zygomatic ("smiling") regions were recorded. Both EEG and EMG provided evidence of emotion-specific responses to stimuli that were processed without conscious awareness. Moreover both suggested relatively greater right hemisphere activity with unconscious rather than conscious processing.
Ursula S Hofstoetter
Full Text Available Epidural electrical stimulation of the lumbar spinal cord is currently regaining momentum as a neuromodulation intervention in spinal cord injury (SCI to modify dysregulated sensorimotor functions and augment residual motor capacity. There is ample evidence that it engages spinal circuits through the electrical stimulation of large-to-medium diameter afferent fibers within lumbar and upper sacral posterior roots. Recent pilot studies suggested that the surface electrode-based method of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (SCS may produce similar neuromodulatory effects as caused by epidural SCS. Neurophysiological and computer modeling studies proposed that this noninvasive technique stimulates posterior-root fibers as well, likely activating similar input structures to the spinal cord as epidural stimulation. Here, we add a yet missing piece of evidence substantiating this assumption. We conducted in-depth analyses and direct comparisons of the electromyographic (EMG characteristics of short-latency responses in multiple leg muscles to both stimulation techniques derived from ten individuals with SCI each. Post-activation depression of responses evoked by paired pulses applied either epidurally or transcutaneously confirmed the reflex nature of the responses. The muscle responses to both techniques had the same latencies, EMG peak-to-peak amplitudes, and waveforms, except for smaller responses with shorter onset latencies in the triceps surae muscle group and shorter offsets of the responses in the biceps femoris muscle during epidural stimulation. Responses obtained in three subjects tested with both methods at different time points had near-identical waveforms per muscle group as well as same onset latencies. The present results strongly corroborate the activation of common neural input structures to the lumbar spinal cord-predominantly primary afferent fibers within multiple posterior roots-by both techniques and add to unraveling the
Tanja S. H. Wingenbach
Full Text Available According to embodied cognition accounts, viewing others’ facial emotion can elicit the respective emotion representation in observers which entails simulations of sensory, motor, and contextual experiences. In line with that, published research found viewing others’ facial emotion to elicit automatic matched facial muscle activation, which was further found to facilitate emotion recognition. Perhaps making congruent facial muscle activity explicit produces an even greater recognition advantage. If there is conflicting sensory information, i.e., incongruent facial muscle activity, this might impede recognition. The effects of actively manipulating facial muscle activity on facial emotion recognition from videos were investigated across three experimental conditions: (a explicit imitation of viewed facial emotional expressions (stimulus-congruent condition, (b pen-holding with the lips (stimulus-incongruent condition, and (c passive viewing (control condition. It was hypothesised that (1 experimental condition (a and (b result in greater facial muscle activity than (c, (2 experimental condition (a increases emotion recognition accuracy from others’ faces compared to (c, (3 experimental condition (b lowers recognition accuracy for expressions with a salient facial feature in the lower, but not the upper face area, compared to (c. Participants (42 males, 42 females underwent a facial emotion recognition experiment (ADFES-BIV while electromyography (EMG was recorded from five facial muscle sites. The experimental conditions’ order was counter-balanced. Pen-holding caused stimulus-incongruent facial muscle activity for expressions with facial feature saliency in the lower face region, which reduced recognition of lower face region emotions. Explicit imitation caused stimulus-congruent facial muscle activity without modulating recognition. Methodological implications are discussed.
Wingenbach, Tanja S H; Brosnan, Mark; Pfaltz, Monique C; Plichta, Michael M; Ashwin, Chris
According to embodied cognition accounts, viewing others' facial emotion can elicit the respective emotion representation in observers which entails simulations of sensory, motor, and contextual experiences. In line with that, published research found viewing others' facial emotion to elicit automatic matched facial muscle activation, which was further found to facilitate emotion recognition. Perhaps making congruent facial muscle activity explicit produces an even greater recognition advantage. If there is conflicting sensory information, i.e., incongruent facial muscle activity, this might impede recognition. The effects of actively manipulating facial muscle activity on facial emotion recognition from videos were investigated across three experimental conditions: (a) explicit imitation of viewed facial emotional expressions (stimulus-congruent condition), (b) pen-holding with the lips (stimulus-incongruent condition), and (c) passive viewing (control condition). It was hypothesised that (1) experimental condition (a) and (b) result in greater facial muscle activity than (c), (2) experimental condition (a) increases emotion recognition accuracy from others' faces compared to (c), (3) experimental condition (b) lowers recognition accuracy for expressions with a salient facial feature in the lower, but not the upper face area, compared to (c). Participants (42 males, 42 females) underwent a facial emotion recognition experiment (ADFES-BIV) while electromyography (EMG) was recorded from five facial muscle sites. The experimental conditions' order was counter-balanced. Pen-holding caused stimulus-incongruent facial muscle activity for expressions with facial feature saliency in the lower face region, which reduced recognition of lower face region emotions. Explicit imitation caused stimulus-congruent facial muscle activity without modulating recognition. Methodological implications are discussed.
Wingenbach, Tanja S. H.; Brosnan, Mark; Pfaltz, Monique C.; Plichta, Michael M.; Ashwin, Chris
According to embodied cognition accounts, viewing others’ facial emotion can elicit the respective emotion representation in observers which entails simulations of sensory, motor, and contextual experiences. In line with that, published research found viewing others’ facial emotion to elicit automatic matched facial muscle activation, which was further found to facilitate emotion recognition. Perhaps making congruent facial muscle activity explicit produces an even greater recognition advantage. If there is conflicting sensory information, i.e., incongruent facial muscle activity, this might impede recognition. The effects of actively manipulating facial muscle activity on facial emotion recognition from videos were investigated across three experimental conditions: (a) explicit imitation of viewed facial emotional expressions (stimulus-congruent condition), (b) pen-holding with the lips (stimulus-incongruent condition), and (c) passive viewing (control condition). It was hypothesised that (1) experimental condition (a) and (b) result in greater facial muscle activity than (c), (2) experimental condition (a) increases emotion recognition accuracy from others’ faces compared to (c), (3) experimental condition (b) lowers recognition accuracy for expressions with a salient facial feature in the lower, but not the upper face area, compared to (c). Participants (42 males, 42 females) underwent a facial emotion recognition experiment (ADFES-BIV) while electromyography (EMG) was recorded from five facial muscle sites. The experimental conditions’ order was counter-balanced. Pen-holding caused stimulus-incongruent facial muscle activity for expressions with facial feature saliency in the lower face region, which reduced recognition of lower face region emotions. Explicit imitation caused stimulus-congruent facial muscle activity without modulating recognition. Methodological implications are discussed. PMID:29928240
Jing, Ewe Hui; Shan, Lim Shaiu; Effendi, M. S. M.; Rosli, Muhamad Farizuan
The existing design of primary school classroom chair and table had brought low back pain, neck pain and shoulder pain problems respectively among students in primary school. The purpose of this study is to relate the electromyography (EMG) analysis with the most critical area of the body during sitting and writing. Six male and six female primary school students from SK Seri Perlis with no back pain, neck pain and shoulder pain problems involved were invited as respondents in this study. EMG experiment was carried out by first determined the critical point at T9 and L3 from thoracic and lumbar segment respectively for ECG electrode placement and performed with a series of sitting trials for analysis. The sitting trials performed were slouch to lumbopelvic sitting and slouch to thoracic sitting follow by instruction. Next, the electrode placement was identified at C2-C3 on cervical spine for neck and at midpoint between C7 to the lateral edge of acromion spanning for shoulder respectively. These points were identified for a series of writing task performing for the EMG analysis. There were two type of writing task which included writing by looking at the whiteboard and paper placed on the table. The subjects were instructed to rest during the experiment when necessary. During lumbopelvic sitting posture, the average muscle activation on lumbar area was at the highest peak. The peak indicated that there was critical effect from the experimental finding. The performance of writing task from whiteboard gave rise a higher impact on neck muscle while writing task from paper had a greater impact on shoulder muscle. The critical affected muscle on these areas was proven on these written tasks. The EMG experiment showed that the existing design of primary school classroom chair and table had brought impact on lumbar, neck and shoulder towards the students who were using. A future recommendation suggests that to redesign primary school classroom chair and table which
Fuentes, Aler D; Sforza, Chiarella; Miralles, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Cláudia L; Mapelli, Andrea; Lodetti, Gianluigi; Martin, Conchita
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of a natural mediotrusive contact influences electromyographic (EMG) pattern activity in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Bilateral surface EMG activity of the anterior temporalis (AT), masseter (MM), and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles was recorded in 43 subjects during unilateral chewing and tooth grinding. Thirteen patients had TMD and a natural mediotrusive contact (Group 1), 15 had TMD without a natural mediotrusive contact (Group 2), and 15 were healthy subjects without mediotrusive contacts (Group 3). All subjects were examined according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD). All EMG values were standardized as the percentage of EMG activity recorded during maximum isometric contraction on cotton rolls. EMG activity from all muscles measured showed no significant differences between groups during chewing and grinding. Overall, in all groups, the EMG activity during chewing was higher in the working side than the non-working side in AT and MM muscles. During grinding, these differences were only found in masseter muscles (mainly in eccentric grinding). SCM EMG activity did not show significant differences during chewing and grinding tasks. Symmetry, muscular balance, and absence of lateral jaw displacement were common findings in all groups. EMG results suggest that the contribution of a natural mediotrusive occlusal contact to EMG patterns in TMD patients is minor. Therefore, the elimination of this occlusal feature for therapeutic purposes could be not indicated.
Shim, Je-Myung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Ha-Roo; Kim, Bo-In; Jung, Ju-Hyeon
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Nordic pole walking on the electromyographic activities of upper extremity and lower extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups as follows: without Nordic pole walking group (n=13) and with Nordic pole walking group (n=13). The EMG data were collected by measurement while the subjects walking on a treadmill for 30 minutes by measuring from one heel strike to the next. [Results] Both the average values and maximum values of the muscle activity of the upper extremity increased in both the group that used Nordic poles and the group that did not use Nordic poles, and the values showed statistically significant differences. There was an increase in the average value for muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi, but the difference was not statistically significant, although there was a statistically significant increase in its maximum value. The average and maximum values for muscle activity of the lower extremity did not show large differences in either group, and the values did not show any statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] The use of Nordic poles by increased muscle activity of the upper extremity compared with regular walking but did not affect the lower extremity.
Frisk, Rasmus F; Jensen, Peter; Kirk, Henrik; Bouyer, Laurent J; Lorentzen, Jakob; Nielsen, Jens B
Exaggerated sensory activity has been assumed to contribute to functional impairment following lesion of the central motor pathway. However, recent studies have suggested that sensory contribution to muscle activity during gait is reduced in stroke patients and children with cerebral palsy (CP). We investigated whether this also occurs in CP adults and whether daily treadmill training is accompanied by alterations in sensory contribution to muscle activity. Seventeen adults with CP and 12 uninjured individuals participated. The participants walked on a treadmill while a robotized ankle-foot orthosis applied unload perturbations at the ankle, thereby removing sensory feedback naturally activated during push-off. Reduction of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the soleus muscle caused by unloads was compared and related to kinematics and ankle joint stiffness measurements. Similar measures were obtained after 6 wk of gait training. We found that sensory contribution to soleus EMG activation was reduced in CP adults compared with uninjured adults. The lowest contribution of sensory feedback was found in participants with lowest maximal gait speed. This was related to increased ankle plantar flexor stiffness. Six weeks of gait training did not alter the contribution of sensory feedback. We conclude that exaggerated sensory activity is unlikely to contribute to impaired gait in CP adults, because sensory contribution to muscle activity during gait was reduced compared with in uninjured individuals. Increased passive stiffness around the ankle joint is likely to diminish sensory feedback during gait so that a larger part of plantar flexor muscle activity must be generated by descending motor commands. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Findings suggest that adults with cerebral palsy have less contribution of sensory feedback to ongoing soleus muscle activation during push-off than uninjured individuals. Increased passive stiffness around the ankle joint is likely to diminish sensory
Nor Aziyatul Izni Mohd Rosli
Full Text Available Gender recognition is trivial for a physiotherapist, but it is considered a challenge for computers. The electromyography (EMG and heart rate variability (HRV were utilized in this work for gender recognition during exercise using a stepper. The relevant features were extracted and selected. The selected features were then fused to automatically predict gender recognition. However, the feature selection for gender classification became a challenge to ensure better accuracy. Thus, in this paper, a feature selection approach based on both the performance and the diversity between the two features from the rank-score characteristic (RSC function in a combinatorial fusion approach (CFA (Hsu et al. was employed. Then, the features from the selected feature sets were fused using a CFA. The results were then compared with other fusion techniques such as naive bayes (NB, decision tree (J48, k-nearest neighbor (KNN and support vector machine (SVM. Besides, the results were also compared with previous researches in gender recognition. The experimental results showed that the CFA was efficient and effective for feature selection. The fusion method was also able to improve the accuracy of the gender recognition rate. The CFA provides much better gender classification results which is 94.51% compared to Barani’s work (90.34%, Nazarloo’s work (92.50%, and other classifiers.
Thomas W. Nesser; Neil Fleming; Matthew J. Gage
Introduction: Unstable surface training is often used to activate core musculature during resistance training. Unfortunately, unstable surface training is risky and leads to detraining. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine core muscle activation during stable surface ground-based lifts. Methods: Fourteen recreational trained and former NCAA DI athletes (weight 84.2 ± 13.3 kg; height 176.0 ± 9.5 cm; age 20.9 ± 2.0 years) volunteered for participation. Subjects completed two grou...
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir
for normalization of EMG (MVE). Neck posture of pilots and crew-members was monitored and pain intensity of neck, shoulder, and back was recorded. Mean muscle activity for UNE was ∼10% MVE and significantly higher than TRA and SCM, and SCM was significantly lower than TRA. There was no significant difference...... between AB-NVG and AB+NVG. Muscle activity in the UNE was significantly higher during SAR+NVG than AB-NVG. Sortie time (%) with non-neutral neck posture for SAR+NVG and AB-NVG was: 80.4%, 74.5% (flexed), 55.5%, 47.9% (rotated), 4.5%, 3.7% (lateral flexed). Neck pain intensity increased significantly from...
Bussey, Melanie D; Aldabe, Daniela; Adhia, Divya; Mani, Ramakrishnan
Normalizing to a reference signal is essential when analysing and comparing electromyography signals across or within individuals. However, studies have shown that MVC testing may not be as reliable in persons with acute and chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to compare the test-retest reliability of the muscle activity in the biceps femoris and gluteus maximus between a novel sub-MVC and standard MVC protocols. This study utilized a single individual repeated measures design with 12 participants performing multiple trials of both the sub-MVC and MVC tasks on two separate days. The participant position in the prone leg raise task was standardised with an ultrasonic sensor to improve task precession between trials/days. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the maximal muscle activity was examined using ICC and SEM. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the EMG activity in the BF and GM were high (0.70-0.89) to very high (≥0.90) for both test procedures. %SEM was <5-10% for both tests on a given day but higher in the day-to-day comparisons. The lower amplitude of the sub-MVC is a likely contributor to increased %SEM (8-13%) in the day-to-day comparison. The findings show that the sub-MVC modified prone double leg raise results in GM and BF EMG measures similar in reliability and precision to the standard MVC tasks. Therefore, the modified prone double leg raise may be a useful substitute for traditional MVC testing for normalizing EMG signals of the BF and GM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sonnesen, Liselotte; Svensson, Peter
clenching, during evoked pain and stress between deep bite patients and controls was investigated. DESIGN: In 30 deep bite patients and in 30 sex-/age-matched controls with neutral occlusion EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from masseter and anterior temporalis muscles before and during evoked pain......OBJECTIVE: The effect of experimental jaw-muscle pain and stress on masticatory muscle activity in TMD-patients has been discussed. Furthermore, associations between TMD and deep bite patients have been studied. Accordingly in the present study, comparison of EMG responses at rest, maximal...... and before and during a stress task. Evoked pain was induced by injections of glutamate into the masseter (local pain) and brachioradialis (remote pain) muscles and resting EMG activity was recorded before and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10min. A precision task was used to simulate a stressful condition and EMG...
Lina Maria López-Soto
Full Text Available Objetivo: caracterizar la actividad y fuerza muscular de pacientes con deglución atípica ( DA ; N=88 con competencia labial ( CL o incompetencia labial ( IL vs un grupo control (Ctrl; N =90. Materiales y métodos: estudio analítico de casos y controles se realizó una electromiografía de superficie (s EMG de los músculos orbicular, mental y maseteros; se determinaron las fuerzas compresiva del orbicular de los labios ( FC o, contráctil del masetero derecho ( FC md e izquierdo ( FC mi, extensora del músculo lingual ( FEl por mioescanografía y la fuerza de resistencia del orbicular de los labios ( FR o por dinamometría. Resultados: La amplitud del registro s EMG del músculo orbicular de los labios, en con - tracción máxima, fue menor (p<0.01 en el grupo DA (596,40±175,83 con respecto a los controles(659,83±203,79; la fuerza de los músculos estudiados en el grupo experimental fue menor (p<0,01 que en los controles ( FC o: DA : 0,31±0,13; Ctrl: 0,38±0,11; FC md: DA : 0,40±0,08; Ctrl: 0,50±0,11; FC mi: DA : 0,41±0,08; Ctrl: 0,58±0,59; FEl ; DA : 0,52±0,14; Ctrl: 0,65±0,14; y FR o: DA : 2,47±0,61; Ctrl: 2,73±0,60. Los pacientes con DA - IL presen - taron mayor actividad muscular del orbicular en deglución ( DA-IL : 197,01±85,84; DA-CL : 160,54±97,03; Ctrl: 147,18±80,10. Conclusiones: Los pacientes con DA difieren en la fuerza de los músculos estudiados y en la actividad muscular del orbicular con respecto a los controles. Los pacientes con DA-CL y DA-IL difieren en la actividad y fuerza muscular del orbicular.
Kim, A Rum; Kim, Kyung Min; Byun, Mi Ran; Hwang, Jun-Ha; Park, Jung Il; Oh, Ho Taek; Kim, Hyo Kyeong; Jeong, Mi Gyeong; Hwang, Eun Sook; Hong, Jeong-Ho
Muscle weakness is one of the most common symptoms in aged individuals and increases risk of mortality. Thus, maintenance of muscle mass is important for inhibiting aging. In this study, we investigated the effect of catechins, polyphenol compounds in green tea, on muscle regeneration. We found that (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) activate satellite cells by induction of Myf5 transcription factors. For satellite cell activation, Akt kinase was significantly induced after ECG treatment and ECG-induced satellite cell activation was blocked in the presence of Akt inhibitor. ECG also promotes myogenic differentiation through the induction of myogenic markers, including Myogenin and Muscle creatine kinase (MCK), in satellite and C2C12 myoblast cells. Finally, EGCG administration to mice significantly increased muscle fiber size for regeneration. Taken together, the results suggest that catechins stimulate muscle stem cell activation and differentiation for muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Conradsen, Isa; Wolf, Peter; Sams, Thomas
Purpose: Tonic seizures and the tonic phase of tonic–clonic epileptic seizures are defined as “sustained tonic” muscle contraction lasting a few seconds to minutes. Visual inspection of the surface electromyogram (EMG) during seizures contributed considerably to a better understanding and accurat...
Patients suffering tendon tears in the glenohumeral cuff muscles show activation of muscles which pull the arm downwards during arm elevation tasks. This so-called co-activation deviates from healthy controls and is triggered by pain. Goal of this thesis was to demonstrate that deviating muscle
Zaheer, Farah; Roy, Serge H; De Luca, Carlo J
Technologies for decomposing the electromyographic (EMG) signal into its constituent motor unit action potential trains have become more practical by the advent of a non-invasive methodology using surface EMG (sEMG) sensors placed on the skin above the muscle of interest (De Luca et al 2006 J. Neurophysiol. 96 1646–57 and Nawab et al 2010 Clin. Neurophysiol. 121 1602–15). This advancement has widespread appeal among researchers and clinicians because of the ease of use, reduced risk of infection, and the greater number of motor unit action potential trains obtained compared to needle sensor techniques. In this study we investigated the influence of the sensor site on the number of identified motor unit action potential trains in six lower limb muscles and one upper limb muscle with the intent of locating preferred sensor sites that provided the greatest number of decomposed motor unit action potential trains, or motor unit yield. Sensor sites rendered varying motor unit yields throughout the surface of a muscle. The preferred sites were located between the center and the tendinous areas of the muscle. The motor unit yield was positively correlated with the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected sEMG. The signal-to-noise ratio was inversely related to the thickness of the tissue between the sensor and the muscle fibers. A signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was found to be the minimum required to obtain a reliable motor unit yield. (paper)
Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen
Muscle activity is for decades considered to provide health benefits irrespectively of the muscle activity pattern performed and whether it is during e.g. sports, transportation, or occupational work tasks. Accordingly, the international recommendations for public health-promoting physical activity do not distinguish between occupational and leisure time physical activity. However, in this body of literature, attention has not been paid to the extensive documentation on occupational physical activity imposing a risk of impairment of health - in particular musculoskeletal health in terms of muscle pain. Focusing on muscle activity patterns and musculoskeletal health it is pertinent to elucidate the more specific aspects regarding exposure profiles and body regional pain. Static sustained muscle contraction for prolonged periods often occurs in the neck/shoulder area during occupational tasks and may underlie muscle pain development in spite of rather low relative muscle load. Causal mechanisms include a stereotype recruitment of low threshold motor units (activating type 1 muscle fibers) characterized by a lack of temporal as well as spatial variation in recruitment. In contrast during physical activities at leisure and sport the motor recruitment patterns are more dynamic including regularly relatively high muscle forces - also activating type 2 muscles fibers - as well as periods of full relaxation even of the type 1 muscle fibers. Such activity is unrelated to muscle pain development if adequate recovery is granted. However, delayed muscle soreness may develop following intensive eccentric muscle activity (e.g. down-hill skiing) with peak pain levels in thigh muscles 1-2 days after the exercise bout and a total recovery within 1 week. This acute pain profile is in contrast to the chronic muscle pain profile related to repetitive monotonous work tasks. The painful muscles show adverse functional, morphological, hormonal, as well as metabolic characteristics. Of
encephalopathy,18 and the decrement in muscle power associated with muscle damage.6 ... A high degree of intra-individual variability in plasma. CK activity was ..... 21. Komi PV. Stretch-shortening cycle exercise: a powerful model to study.
Cattarello, Paolo; Merletti, Roberto; Petracca, Francesco
Wrist and finger flexor muscles of the left hand were evaluated using high-density surface EMG (HDsEMG) in 17 violin players. Pressure sensors also were m