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Sample records for muscarinic receptor expression

  1. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expression in aganglionic bowel.

    Oue, T; Yoneda, A; Shima, H; Puri, P

    2000-01-01

    In Hirschsprung's disease (HD) there exists an overabundance of acetylcholine (ACh), which in turn stimulates excessive production of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) play an important role in smooth-muscle contraction. Recent studies have indicated five different subtypes of mAChRs encoded by five different genes, ml to m5. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of each mAChR subtype in aganglionic (AG) colon to further understand the pathophysiology of HD. Entire colon resected at the time of pull-through operation for HD was obtained from 14 patients. Specimens obtained at autopsy from 8 age-matched patients without gastrointestinal disease acted as controls. Frozen sections were used for indirect immunohistochemistry as well as in-situ hybridization. Immunohistochemistry was performed using specific antiserum against each mAChR subtype and in-situ hybridization was performed using specific oligonucleotide probes against ml to m5 subtypes. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was extracted from normoganglionic (NG) and AG bowel of HD patients and normal control bowel. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate mRNA levels of each mAChR subtype. To adjust the levels of mRNA expression, a housekeeping gene G3PDH, known to be expressed normally, was used as an internal control. Strong m2 and m3 immunoreactivity was observed in the mucosal layer, smooth-muscle layers, and myenteric plexus of NG bowel, whereas ml immunoreactivity was only detected in the mucosal layer. The most striking finding was the abundance of m3-immunoreactive fibers in muscle layers of NG bowel while there was a total lack of m3 fibers in smooth-muscle of AG bowel. Intense mRNA signals encoding m2 and m3 and to a lesser degree ml were detected in NG bowel, and these signals were weak in AG bowel. Immunoreactivity and mRNA expression of m4 and m5 was not detected in NG or AG bowel. The lack of m3-immunoreactive fibers in the

  2. GABAergic Neurons of the Rat Dorsal Hippocampus Express Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    van der Zee, E.A.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1993-01-01

    The expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-positive cells in the different strata of CA1, CA3, and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus is examined by way of quantitative immunofluorescent double labeling employing M35, the

  3. Enhanced muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in the corpus striatum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Mathew Jobin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acetylcholine (ACh, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, regulate the activities of central and peripheral functions through interactions with muscarinic receptors. Changes in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many major diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. Previous reports from our laboratory on streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats showed down regulation of muscarinic M1 receptors in the brainstem, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and pancreatic islets. In this study, we have investigated the changes of acetylcholine esterase (AChE enzyme activity, total muscarinic and muscarinic M1 receptor binding and gene expression in the corpus striatum of STZ – diabetic rats and the insulin treated diabetic rats. The striatum, a neuronal nucleus intimately involved in motor behaviour, is one of the brain regions with the highest acetylcholine content. ACh has complex and clinically important actions in the striatum that are mediated predominantly by muscarinic receptors. We observed that insulin treatment brought back the decreased maximal velocity (Vmax of acetylcholine esterase in the corpus striatum during diabetes to near control state. In diabetic rats there was a decrease in maximal number (Bmax and affinity (Kd of total muscarinic receptors whereas muscarinic M1 receptors were increased with decrease in affinity in diabetic rats. We observed that, in all cases, the binding parameters were reversed to near control by the treatment of diabetic rats with insulin. Real-time PCR experiment confirmed the increase in muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression and a similar reversal with insulin treatment. These results suggest the diabetes-induced changes of the cholinergic activity in the corpus striatum and the regulatory role of insulin on binding parameters and gene expression of total and muscarinic M1 receptors.

  4. The effects of abnormalities of glucose homeostasis on the expression and binding of muscarinic receptors in cerebral cortex of rats.

    Sherin, Antony; Peeyush, Kumar T; Naijil, George; Nandhu, Mohan Sobhana; Jayanarayanan, Sadanandan; Jes, Paul; Paulose, Cheramadathikudiyil Skaria

    2011-01-25

    Glucose homeostasis in humans is an important factor for the functioning of nervous system. Both hypo and hyperglycemia contributes to neuronal functional deficit. In the present study, effect of insulin induced hypoglycemia and streptozotocin induced diabetes on muscarinic receptor binding, cholinergic enzymes; AChE, ChAT expression and GLUT3 in the cerebral cortex of experimental rats were analysed. Total muscarinic, muscarinic M(1) receptor showed a significant decrease and muscarinic M(3) receptor subtype showed a significant increased binding in the cerebral cortex of hypoglycemic rats compared to diabetic and control. Real-Time PCR analysis of muscarinic M(1), M(3) receptor subtypes confirmed the receptor binding studies. Immunohistochemistry of muscarinic M(1), M(3) receptors using specific antibodies were also carried out. AChE and GLUT3 expression up regulated and ChAT expression down regulated in hypoglycemic rats compared to diabetic and control rats. Our results showed that hypo/hyperglycemia caused impaired glucose transport in neuronal cells as shown by altered expression of GLUT3. Increased AChE and decreased ChAT expression is suggested to alter cortical acetylcholine metabolism in experimental rats along with altered muscarinic receptor binding in hypo/hyperglycemic rats, impair cholinergic transmission, which subsequently lead to cholinergic dysfunction thereby causing learning and memory deficits. We observed a prominent cholinergic functional disturbance in hypoglycemic condition than in hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia exacerbated the neurochemical changes in cerebral cortex induced by hyperglycemia. These findings have implications for both therapy and identification of causes contributing to neuronal dysfunction in diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in Jurkat cells and their signaling.

    Alea, Mileidys Perez; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Fuxe, Kjell; Garriga, Pere

    2011-08-15

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors expression and signaling in the human Jurkat T cell line were investigated. Semiquantitative real-time PCR and radioligand binding studies, using a wide set of antagonist compounds, showed the co-existence of M(3), M(4), and M(5) subtypes. Stimulation of these subpopulations caused a concentration and time- dependent activation of second messengers and ERK signaling pathways, with a major contribution of the M(3) subtype in a G(q/11)-mediated response. In addition, we found that T-cell stimulation leads to increased expression of M(3) and M(5) both at transcriptional and protein levels in a PLC/PKCθ dependent manner. Our data clarifies the functional role of AChR subtypes in Jurkat cells and pave the way to future studies on the potential cross-talk among these subpopulations and their regulation of T lymphocytes immune function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von, E-mail: evonrose@medicine.umaryland.edu; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22 S. Greene Street, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Maryland Health Care System, 10 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  7. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer

  8. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Jean-Pierre Raufman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  9. MUSCARINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR-EXPRESSION IN ASTROCYTES IN THE CORTEX OF YOUNG AND AGED RATS

    VANDERZEE, EA; DEJONG, GI; STROSBERG, AD; LUITEN, PGM

    The present report describes the cellular and subcellular distribution pattern of immunoreactivity to M35, a monoclonal antibody raised against purified muscarinic acetylcholine receptor protein, in astrocytes in the cerebral cortex of young and aged rats. Most M35-positive astrocytes were localized

  10. Multiple promoters drive tissue-specific expression of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene

    Krejčí, Alena; Bruce, A. W.; Doležal, Vladimír; Tuček, Stanislav; Buckley, N. J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2004), s. 88-98 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : M2 muscarinic receptor * neuron-restrictive silence factor * promoter Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.824, year: 2004

  11. Differential receptor dependencies: expression and significance of muscarinic M1 receptors in the biology of prostate cancer.

    Mannan Baig, Abdul; Khan, Naveed A; Effendi, Vardah; Rana, Zohaib; Ahmad, H R; Abbas, Farhat

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports on acetylcholine muscarinic receptor subtype 3 (CHRM3) have shown its growth-promoting role in prostate cancer. Additional studies report the proliferative effect of the cholinergic agonist carbachol on prostate cancer by its agonistic action on CHRM3. This study shows that the type 1 acetylcholine muscarinic receptor (CHRM1) contributes toward the proliferation and growth of prostate cancer. We used growth and cytotoxic assays, the prostate cancer microarray database and CHRM downstream pathways' homology of CHRM subtypes to uncover multiple signals leading to the growth of prostate cancer. Growth assays showed that pilocarpine stimulates the proliferation of prostate cancer. Moreover, it shows that carbachol exerts an additional agonistic action on nicotinic cholinergic receptor of prostate cancer cells that can be blocked by tubocurarine. With the use of selective CHRM1 antagonists such as pirenzepine and dicyclomine, a considerable inhibition of proliferation of prostate cancer cell lines was observed in dose ranging from 15-60 µg/ml of dicyclomine. The microarray database of prostate cancer shows a dominant expression of CHRM1 in prostate cancer compared with other cholinergic subtypes. The bioinformatics of prostate cancer and CHRM pathways show that the downstream signalling include PIP3-AKT-CaM-mediated growth in LNCaP and PC3 cells. Our study suggests that antagonism of CHRM1 may be a potential therapeutic target against prostate cancer.

  12. Identification, expression and functional characterization of M4L, a muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor splice variant.

    Douglas A Schober

    Full Text Available Rodent genomic alignment sequences support a 2-exon model for muscarinic M4 receptor. Using this model a novel N-terminal extension was discovered in the human muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor. An open reading frame was discovered in the human, mouse and rat with a common ATG (methionine start codon that extended the N-terminus of the muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor subtype by 155 amino acids resulting in a longer variant. Transcriptional evidence for this splice variant was confirmed by RNA-Seq and RT-PCR experiments performed from human donor brain prefrontal cortices. We detected a human upstream exon indicating the translation of the mature longer M4 receptor transcript. The predicted size for the longer two-exon M4 receptor splice variant with the additional 155 amino acid N-terminal extension, designated M4L is 69.7 kDa compared to the 53 kDa canonical single exon M4 receptor (M4S. Western blot analysis from a mammalian overexpression system, and saturation radioligand binding with [3H]-NMS (N-methyl-scopolamine demonstrated the expression of this new splice variant. Comparative pharmacological characterization between the M4L and M4S receptors revealed that both the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites for both receptors were very similar despite the addition of an N-terminal extension.

  13. Identification, expression and functional characterization of M4L, a muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor splice variant.

    Schober, Douglas A; Croy, Carrie H; Ruble, Cara L; Tao, Ran; Felder, Christian C

    2017-01-01

    Rodent genomic alignment sequences support a 2-exon model for muscarinic M4 receptor. Using this model a novel N-terminal extension was discovered in the human muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor. An open reading frame was discovered in the human, mouse and rat with a common ATG (methionine start codon) that extended the N-terminus of the muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor subtype by 155 amino acids resulting in a longer variant. Transcriptional evidence for this splice variant was confirmed by RNA-Seq and RT-PCR experiments performed from human donor brain prefrontal cortices. We detected a human upstream exon indicating the translation of the mature longer M4 receptor transcript. The predicted size for the longer two-exon M4 receptor splice variant with the additional 155 amino acid N-terminal extension, designated M4L is 69.7 kDa compared to the 53 kDa canonical single exon M4 receptor (M4S). Western blot analysis from a mammalian overexpression system, and saturation radioligand binding with [3H]-NMS (N-methyl-scopolamine) demonstrated the expression of this new splice variant. Comparative pharmacological characterization between the M4L and M4S receptors revealed that both the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites for both receptors were very similar despite the addition of an N-terminal extension.

  14. Muscarinic receptor subtype mRNA expression in the human prostate: association with age, pathological diagnosis, prostate size, or potentially interfering medications?

    Witte, Lambertus P. W.; Teitsma, Christine A.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Michel, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    As the prostate abundantly expresses muscarinic receptors and antagonists for such receptors are increasingly used in the treatment of men with voiding function and large prostates, we have explored an association of the mRNA expression of human M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 receptors in human prostate

  15. Selective expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype M3 by mouse type III taste bud cells.

    Mori, Yusuke; Eguchi, Kohgaku; Yoshii, Kiyonori; Ohtubo, Yoshitaka

    2016-11-01

    Each taste bud cell (TBC) type responds to a different taste. Previously, we showed that an unidentified cell type(s) functionally expresses a muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor subtype, M3, and we suggested the ACh-dependent modification of its taste responsiveness. In this study, we found that M3 is expressed by type III TBCs, which is the only cell type that possesses synaptic contacts with taste nerve fibers in taste buds. The application of ACh to the basolateral membrane of mouse fungiform TBCs in situ increased the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration in 2.4 ± 1.4 cells per taste bud (mean ± SD, n = 14). After Ca 2+ imaging, we supravitally labeled type II cells (phospholipase C β2 [PLCβ2]-immunoreactive cells) with Lucifer yellow CH (LY), a fluorescent dye and investigated the positional relationship between ACh-responding cells and LY-labeled cells. After fixation, the TBCs were immunohistostained to investigate the positional relationships between immunohistochemically classified cells and LY-labeled cells. The overlay of the two positional relationships obtained by superimposing the LY-labeled cells showed that all of the ACh-responding cells were type III cells (synaptosomal-associated protein 25 [SNAP-25]-immunoreactive cells). The ACh responses required no added Ca 2+ in the bathing solution. The addition of 1 μM U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, decreased the magnitude of the ACh response, whereas that of 1 μM U73343, a negative control, had no effect. These results suggest that type III cells respond to ACh and release Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. We also discuss the underlying mechanism of the Ca 2+ response and the role of M3 in type III cells.

  16. Role of protein glycosylation on the expression of muscarinic receptors of N4TG1 neuroblastoma cells

    Ahmad, A.; Chiang, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) are glycoproteins. Experiments were conducted to determine whether active glycosylation of proteins in N4TG1 neuroblastoma cells could affect the expression of muscarinic receptors on the cell surface. The binding of radioactive N-methylscopolamine, a membrane impermeable ligand, to intact cells was used as a measure of mAChR. In the presence of the inhibitors of glycosylation, such as tunicamycin, monensin and amphomycin, N-linked glycosylation of proteins in the N4TG1 cells was inhibited, as measured by the incorporation of radioactive glucosamine or mannose in proteins. At the concentrations of tunicamycin and monensin used, the glycosylation of proteins after 3 hours were drastically reduced, but the number of mAChR in the cells was not altered. The apparent lack of effect within a short incubation period could be attributed to the presence of preformed oligosaccharide dolichol readily available for N-glycosylation. However, after 24 hours, tunicamycin (0.05 μg/ml) caused a decrease in the number of mAChR by 17% without having any effect on protein synthesis. Therefore, de novo glycosylation of proteins may be required for the expression of mAChR receptors in the N4TG1 neuroblastoma cell surface

  17. Muscarinic Receptor Agonists and Antagonists

    David R. Kelly

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive review of pharmacological and medical aspects of the muscarinic class of acetylcholine agonists and antagonists is presented. The therapeutic benefits of achieving receptor subtype selectivity are outlined and applications in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease are discussed. A selection of chemical routes are described, which illustrate contemporary methodology for the synthesis of chiral medicinal compounds (asymmetric synthesis, chiral pool, enzymes. Routes to bicyclic intrannular amines and intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions are highlighted.

  18. Eosinophils express muscarinic receptors and corticotropin-releasing factor to disrupt the mucosal barrier in ulcerative colitis.

    Wallon, Conny; Persborn, Mats; Jönsson, Maria; Wang, Arthur; Phan, Van; Lampinen, Maria; Vicario, Maria; Santos, Javier; Sherman, Philip M; Carlson, Marie; Ericson, Ann-Charlott; McKay, Derek M; Söderholm, Johan D

    2011-05-01

    Altered intestinal barrier function has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ulcerative colitis (UC) in genetic, functional, and epidemiological studies. Mast cells and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) regulate the mucosal barrier in human colon. Because eosinophils are often increased in colon tissues of patients with UC, we assessed interactions among mast cells, CRF, and eosinophils in the mucosal barrier of these patients. Transmucosal fluxes of protein antigens (horseradish peroxidase) and paracellular markers ((51)Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4000) were studied in noninflamed, colonic mucosal biopsy samples collected from 26 patients with UC and 53 healthy volunteers (controls); samples were mounted in Ussing chambers. We also performed fluorescence and electron microscopy of human tissue samples, assessed isolated eosinophils, and performed mechanistic studies using in vitro cocultured eosinophils (15HL-60), mast cells (HMC-1), and a colonic epithelial cell line (T84). Colon tissues from patients with UC had significant increases in permeability to protein antigens compared with controls. Permeability was blocked by atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), α-helical CRF(9-41) (a CRF receptor antagonist), and lodoxamide (a mast-cell stabilizer). Eosinophils were increased in number in UC tissues (compared with controls), expressed the most M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors of any mucosal cell type, and had immunoreactivity to CRF. In coculture studies, carbachol activation of eosinophils caused production of CRF and activation of mast cells, which increased permeability of T84 epithelial cells to macromolecules. We identified a neuroimmune intercellular circuit (from cholinergic nerves, via eosinophils to mast cells) that mediates colonic mucosal barrier dysfunction in patients with UC. This circuit might exacerbate mucosal inflammation. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Muscarinic M4 Receptors on Cholinergic and Dopamine D1 Receptor-Expressing Neurons Have Opposing Functionality for Positive Reinforcement and Influence Impulsivity

    Anna M. Klawonn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been implicated in reward learning and drug addiction. However, the roles of the various cholinergic receptor subtypes on different neuron populations remain elusive. Here we study the function of muscarinic M4 receptors (M4Rs in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R expressing neurons and cholinergic neurons (expressing choline acetyltransferase; ChAT, during various reward-enforced behaviors and in a “waiting”-impulsivity test. We applied cell-type-specific gene deletions targeting M4Rs in D1RCre or ChATCre mice. Mice lacking M4Rs in D1R-neurons displayed greater cocaine seeking and drug-primed reinstatement than their littermate controls in a Pavlovian conditioned place preference (CPP paradigm. Furthermore, the M4R-D1RCre mice initiated significantly more premature responses (PRs in the 5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task (5CSRTT than their littermate controls, indicating impaired waiting impulse control. In contrast, mice lacking M4Rs in cholinergic neurons did not acquire cocaine Pavlovian conditioning. The M4R-ChATCre mice were also unable to learn positive reinforcement to either natural reward or cocaine in an operant runway paradigm. Immediate early gene (IEG expression (cFos and FosB induced by repeated cocaine injections was significantly increased in the forebrain of M4R-D1RCre mice, whereas it remained normal in the M4R-ChATCre mice. Our study illustrates that muscarinic M4Rs on specific neural populations, either cholinergic or D1R-expressing, are pivotal for learning processes related to both natural reward and drugs of abuse, with opposing functionality. Furthermore, we found that neurons expressing both M4Rs and D1Rs are important for signaling impulse control.

  20. Muscarinic M4 Receptors on Cholinergic and Dopamine D1 Receptor-Expressing Neurons Have Opposing Functionality for Positive Reinforcement and Influence Impulsivity.

    Klawonn, Anna M; Wilhelms, Daniel B; Lindström, Sarah H; Singh, Anand Kumar; Jaarola, Maarit; Wess, Jürgen; Fritz, Michael; Engblom, David

    2018-01-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been implicated in reward learning and drug addiction. However, the roles of the various cholinergic receptor subtypes on different neuron populations remain elusive. Here we study the function of muscarinic M4 receptors (M4Rs) in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) expressing neurons and cholinergic neurons (expressing choline acetyltransferase; ChAT), during various reward-enforced behaviors and in a "waiting"-impulsivity test. We applied cell-type-specific gene deletions targeting M4Rs in D1RCre or ChATCre mice. Mice lacking M4Rs in D1R-neurons displayed greater cocaine seeking and drug-primed reinstatement than their littermate controls in a Pavlovian conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Furthermore, the M4R-D1RCre mice initiated significantly more premature responses (PRs) in the 5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task (5CSRTT) than their littermate controls, indicating impaired waiting impulse control. In contrast, mice lacking M4Rs in cholinergic neurons did not acquire cocaine Pavlovian conditioning. The M4R-ChATCre mice were also unable to learn positive reinforcement to either natural reward or cocaine in an operant runway paradigm. Immediate early gene (IEG) expression ( cFos and FosB ) induced by repeated cocaine injections was significantly increased in the forebrain of M4R-D1RCre mice, whereas it remained normal in the M4R-ChATCre mice. Our study illustrates that muscarinic M4Rs on specific neural populations, either cholinergic or D1R-expressing, are pivotal for learning processes related to both natural reward and drugs of abuse, with opposing functionality. Furthermore, we found that neurons expressing both M4Rs and D1Rs are important for signaling impulse control.

  1. Distinct interneuron types express m2 muscarinic receptor immunoreactivity on their dendrites or axon terminals in the hippocampus.

    Hájos, N; Papp, E C; Acsády, L; Levey, A I; Freund, T F

    1998-01-01

    In previous studies m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-immunoreactive interneurons and various types of m2-positive axon terminals have been described in the hippocampal formation. The aim of the present study was to identify the types of interneurons expressing m2 receptor and to examine whether the somadendritic and axonal m2 immunostaining labels the same or distinct cell populations. In the CA1 subfield, neurons immunoreactive for m2 have horizontal dendrites, they are located at the stratum oriens/alveus border and have an axon that project to the dendritic region of pyramidal cells. In the CA3 subfield and the hilus, m2-positive neurons are multipolar and are scattered in all layers except stratum lacunosum-moleculare. In stratum pyramidale of the CA1 and CA3 regions, striking axon terminal staining for m2 was observed, surrounding the somata and axon initial segments of pyramidal cells in a basket-like manner. The co-localization of m2 with neurochemical markers and GABA was studied using the "mirror" technique and fluorescent double-immunostaining at the light microscopic level and with double-labelling using colloidal gold-conjugated antisera and immunoperoxidase reaction (diaminobenzidine) at the electron microscopic level. GABA was shown to be present in the somata of most m2-immunoreactive interneurons, as well as in the majority of m2-positive terminals in all layers. The calcium-binding protein parvalbumin was absent from practically all m2-immunoreactive cell bodies and dendrites. In contrast, many of the terminals synapsing on pyramidal cell somata and axon initial segments co-localized parvalbumin and m2, suggesting a differential distribution of m2 receptor immunoreactivity on the axonal and somadendritic membrane of parvalbumin-containing basket and axo-axonic cells. The co-existence of m2 receptors with the calcium-binding protein calbindin and the neuropeptides cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide was rare throughout the

  2. Constitutive overexpression of muscarinic receptors leads to vagal hyperreactivity.

    Angelo Livolsi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alterations in muscarinic receptor expression and acetylcholinesterase (AchE activity have been observed in tissues from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS. Vagal overactivity has been proposed as a possible cause of SIDS as well as of vasovagal syncopes. The aim of the present study was to seek whether muscarinic receptor overexpression may be the underlying mechanism of vagal hyperreactivity. Rabbits with marked vagal pauses following injection of phenylephrine were selected and crossed to obtain a vagal hyperreactive strain. The density of cardiac muscarinic receptors and acetylcholinesterase (AchE gene expression were assessed. Blood markers of the observed cardiac abnormalities were also sought. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cardiac muscarinic M(2 and M(3 receptors were overexpressed in hyperreactive rabbits compared to control animals (2.3-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively and the severity of the phenylephrine-induced bradycardia was correlated with their densities. A similar overexpression of M(2 receptors was observed in peripheral mononuclear white blood cells, suggesting that cardiac M(2 receptor expression can be inferred with high confidence from measurements in blood cells. Sequencing of the coding fragment of the M(2 receptor gene revealed a single nucleotide mutation in 83% of hyperreactive animals, possibly contributing for the transcript overexpression. Significant increases in AchE expression and activity were also assessed (AchE mRNA amplification ratio of 3.6 versus normal rabbits. This phenomenon might represent a compensatory consequence of muscarinic receptors overexpression. Alterations in M(2 receptor and AchE expression occurred between the 5th and the 7th week of age, a critical period also characterized by a higher mortality rate of hyperreactive rabbits (52% in H rabbits versus 13% in normal rabbits and preceeded the appearance of functional disorders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that

  3. Convulsant bicuculline modifies CNS muscarinic receptor affinity

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Georgina

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the administration of the convulsant drug 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP, a GAD inhibitor, modifies not only GABA synthesis but also binding of the antagonist [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB to central muscarinic receptors, an effect due to an increase in affinity without modifications in binding site number. The cholinergic system has been implicated in several experimental epilepsy models and the ability of acetylcholine to regulate neuronal excitability in the neocortex is well known. To study the potential relationship between GABAergic and cholinergic systems with seizure activity, we analyzed the muscarinic receptor after inducing seizure by bicuculline (BIC, known to antagonize the GABA-A postsynaptic receptor subtype. Results We analyzed binding of muscarinic antagonist [3H]-QNB to rat CNS membranes after i.p. administration of BIC at subconvulsant (1.0 mg/kg and convulsant (7.5 mg/kg doses. Subconvulsant BIC dose failed to develop seizures but produced binding alteration in the cerebellum and hippocampus with roughly 40% increase and 10% decrease, respectively. After convulsant BIC dose, which invariably led to generalized tonic-clonic seizures, binding increased 36% and 15% to cerebellar and striatal membranes respectively, but decreased 12% to hippocampal membranes. Kd value was accordingly modified: with the subconvulsant dose it decreased 27% in cerebellum whereas it increased 61% in hippocampus; with the convulsant dose, Kd value decreased 33% in cerebellum but increased 85% in hippocampus. No change in receptor number site was found, and Hill number was invariably close to unity. Conclusion Results indicate dissimilar central nervous system area susceptibility of muscarinic receptor to BIC. Ligand binding was modified not only by a convulsant BIC dose but also by a subconvulsant dose, indicating that changes are not attributable to the seizure process

  4. Allosteric Modulation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Jakubík, Jan; El-Fakahany, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 9 (2010), s. 2838-2860 ISSN 1424-8247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/09/0681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : muscarinic acetylcholine receptors * allosteric modulation * Alzheimer´s disease Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS IN GUINEA-PIG UTERUS

    DOODS, HN; WILLIM, KD; BODDEKE, HWGM; ENTZEROTH, M

    1993-01-01

    To characterize the muscarinic receptor present in guinea-pig uterus smooth muscle the affinities of a series of 27 muscarinic receptor antagonists for M1 (rat cortex), M2 (rat heart), M3 (rat submandibular gland), m4 (transfected in CHO cells) and muscarinic binding sites in guinea-pig uterus

  6. Cardiac muscarinic receptor overexpression in sudden infant death syndrome.

    Angelo Livolsi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS remains the leading cause of death among infants less than 1 year of age. Disturbed expression of some neurotransmitters and their receptors has been shown in the central nervous system of SIDS victims but no biological abnormality of the peripheral vago-cardiac system has been demonstrated to date. The present study aimed to seek vago-cardiac abnormalities in SIDS victims. The cardiac level of expression of muscarinic receptors, as well as acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity were investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Left ventricular samples and blood samples were obtained from autopsies of SIDS and children deceased from non cardiac causes. Binding experiments performed with [(3H]NMS, a selective muscarinic ligand, in cardiac membrane preparations showed that the density of cardiac muscarinic receptors was increased as shown by a more than doubled B(max value in SIDS (n = 9 SIDS versus 8 controls. On average, the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity was also significantly increased (n = 9 SIDS versus 11 controls. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, it has been shown for the first time that cardiac muscarinic receptor overexpression is associated with SIDS. The increase of acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity appears as a possible regulatory mechanism.

  7. Effects of agonist efficacy on desensitization of phosphoinositide hydrolysis mediated by m1 and m3 muscarinic receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Hu, J.; Wang, S.Z.; el-Fakahany, E.E.

    1991-01-01

    Muscarinic receptor agonist-induced desensitization of phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and loss of receptors were studied in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the m1 and m3 muscarinic receptor genes. Long-term exposure to the full agonist carbamylcholine (CBC) resulted in a time-dependent attenuation of the maximal PI response and a decrease in agonist potency. This desensitization was accompanied by a parallel loss of maximal ligand binding without an alteration of the binding affinity. The time course of both receptor desensitization and down-regulation was similar in m1 and m3 CHO cells. The PI response to the partial agonist McN-A-343 (McN) in m1 cells was more sensitive to desensitization by CBC than the response to the latter agonist, and this desensitization was faster than receptor down-regulation. Desensitization of the PI response to McN was reflected as a decrease in the maximal response without a marked change in potency. McN induced slow desensitization of the PI response to CBC but a much faster desensitization of its own response. Our data provide evidence that although muscarinic agonist-induced desensitization of PI hydrolysis in CHO cells is due mainly to loss of receptors, there are other important factors which play a role in this process, e.g., receptor-effector uncoupling. The relative contribution of these different mechanisms depends on the efficacy of the agonists used for the receptor desensitization and activation steps

  8. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. ► Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. ► Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers – this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre-treatment with anti-MMP1 antibody. This study contributes to understanding

  9. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jraufman@medicine.umaryland.edu [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  10. Characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in human tissues

    Giraldo, E.; Martos, F.; Gomez, A.; Garcia, A.; Vigano, M.A.; Ladinsky, H.; Sanchez de La Cuesta, F.

    1988-01-01

    The affinities of selective, pirenzepine and AF-DX 116, and classical, N-methylscopolamine and atropine, muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonists were investigated in displacement binding experiments with [ 3 H]Pirenzepine and [ 3 H]N-methylscopolamine in membranes from human autoptic tissues (forebrain, cerebellum, atria, ventricle and submaxillary salivary glands). Affinity estimates of N-methylscopolamine and atropine indicated a non-selective profile. Pirenzepine showed differentiation between the M 1 neuronal receptor of the forebrain and the receptors in other tissues while AF-DX 116 clearly discriminated between muscarinic receptors of heart and glands. The results in human tissues confirm the previously described selectivity profiles of pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 in rat tissues. These findings thus reveal the presence also in man of three distinct muscarinic receptor subtypes: the neuronal M 1 , the cardiac M 2 and the glandular M 3

  11. New pharmacological approaches to the cholinergic system: an overview on muscarinic receptor ligands and cholinesterase inhibitors.

    Greig, Nigel H; Reale, Marcella; Tata, Ada M

    2013-08-01

    The cholinergic system is expressed in neuronal and in non-neuronal tissues. Acetylcholine (ACh), synthesized in and out of the nervous system can locally contribute to modulation of various cell functions (e.g. survival, proliferation). Considering that the cholinergic system and its functions are impaired in a number of disorders, the identification of new pharmacological approaches to regulate cholinergic system components appears of great relevance. The present review focuses on recent pharmacological drugs able to modulate the activity of cholinergic receptors and thereby, cholinergic function, with an emphasis on the muscarinic receptor subtype, and additionally covers the cholinesterases, the main enzymes involved in ACh hydrolysis. The presence and function of muscarinic receptor subtypes both in neuronal and non-neuronal cells has been demonstrated using extensive pharmacological data emerging from studies on transgenic mice. The possible involvement of ACh in different pathologies has been proposed in recent years and is becoming an important area of study. Although the lack of selective muscarinic receptor ligands has for a long time limited the definition of therapeutic treatment based on muscarinic receptors as targets, some muscarinic ligands such as cevimeline (patents US4855290; US5571918) or xanomeline (patent, US5980933) have been developed and used in pre-clinical or in clinical studies for the treatment of nervous system diseases (Alzheimer' and Sjogren's diseases). The present review focuses on the potential implications of muscarinic receptors in different pathologies, including tumors. Moreover, the future use of muscarinic ligands in therapeutic protocols in cancer therapy will be discussed, considering that some muscarinic antagonists currently used in the treatment of genitourinary disease (e.g. darifenacin, patent, US5096890; US6106864) have also been demonstrated to arrest tumor progression in nude mice. The involvement of muscarinic

  12. Heterogeneity of muscarinic receptor subtypes in cerebral blood vessels

    Garcia-Villalon, A.L.; Krause, D.N.; Ehlert, F.J.; Duckles, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    The identity and distribution of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes and associated signal transduction mechanisms was characterized for the cerebral circulation using correlated functional and biochemical investigations. Subtypes were distinguished by the relative affinities of a panel of muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 [11-2-[[2-[diethylaminomethyl]- 1-piperidinyl]acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H- pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one], hexahydrosiladifenidol, methoctramine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide, dicyclomine, para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol and atropine. Muscarinic receptors characterized by inhibition of [3H]quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in membranes of bovine pial arteries were of the M2 subtype. In contrast pharmacological analysis of [3H]-quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in bovine intracerebral microvessels suggests the presence of an M4 subtype. Receptors mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rabbit pial arteries were of the M3 subtype, whereas muscarinic receptors stimulating endothelium-independent phosphoinositide hydrolysis in bovine pial arteries were of the M1 subtype. These findings suggest that characteristics of muscarinic receptors in cerebral blood vessels vary depending on the type of vessel, cellular location and function mediated

  13. Molecular alteration of a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor system during synaptogenesis

    Large, T.H.; Cho, N.J.; De Mello, F.G.; Klein, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    Biochemical properties of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor system of the avian retina were found to change during the period when synapses form in ovo. Comparison of ligand binding to membranes obtained before and after synaptogenesis showed a significant increase in the affinity, but not proportion, of the high affinity agonist-binding state. There was no change in receptor sensitivity to antagonists during this period. Pirenzepine binding, which can discriminate muscarinic receptor subtypes, showed the presence of a single population of low affinity sites (M2) before and after synaptogenesis. The change in agonist binding was not due to the late development of receptor function. However, detergent-solubilization of membranes eliminated differences in agonist binding between receptors from embryos and hatched chicks, suggesting a developmental change in interactions of the receptor with functionally related membrane components. A possible basis for altered interactions was obtained from isoelectric point data showing that the muscarinic receptor population underwent a transition from a predominantly low pI form (4.25) in 13 day embryos to a predominantly high pI form (4.50) in newly hatched chicks. The possibility that biochemical changes in the muscarinic receptor play a role in differentiation of the system by controlling receptor position on the surface of nerve cells is discussed

  14. Biochemical and immunological studies of the Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Gainer, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors were solubilized from bovine brain membranes with 3[3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate (CHAPS). A combination of 10 mM CHAPS and 1 M NaCl solubilized 15-40% of the specific receptor binding sites from these membranes. The solubilized receptors displayed high affinity binding of the muscarinic antagonist, [ 3 H]quinuclidinyl benzilate with a K/sub D/ = 300 pM. In addition, the solubilized and retained guanyl nucleotide regulation of agonist binding characteristic of membrane bound receptors. Gel filtration experiments showed that solubilized receptors from cortex and cerebellum had different elution profiles. Analysis by sucrose density gradient centrifugation showed that receptors in the lower molecular weight peak sedimented with a coefficient of 5S. Receptors in the larger molecular weight peak sedimented to the bottom of the gradient. Attempts to purify receptors by chromatography on propylbenzilycholine Sepharose were unsuccessful. The technique used to attach the ligand to the solid support, however, was used to synthesize a PrBCM-BSA conjugate and the conjugate used as an antigen in the production of anti-ligand antibodies. Two anti-PrBCM monoclonal antibodies were isolated that recognize muscarinic but not nicotinic cholinergic ligands. The abilities of the antibodies to recognize other muscarinic ligands indicated the antibodies recognized a portion of PrBCM involved in binding to the receptor. Construction of an antibody affinity resin resulted in the purification of this fragment a minimum of 170 fold

  15. Muscarinic receptor compensation in hippocampus of alzheimer patients. [Autoradiography

    Nordberg, A; Larsson, C; Adolfsson, R; Alafuzoff, I; Winblad, B [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1983-01-01

    The activity of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) (presynaptic marker) and number of muscarine-like receptor binding sites have been measured in the hippocampus from eight individuals with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) and ten controls. A negative correlation (r=0.80; p<0.05) was found between the ChAT activity and the number of muscarine-like receptors in the SDAT group but not in the controls. The findings might indicate an ongoing compensatory receptor mechanism as a response to changes in presynaptic cholinergic activity.

  16. Flavonoids with M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding Activity

    Meyyammai Swaminathan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-active compounds have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, a series of natural and synthetic flavones and flavonols was assayed in vitro for their ability to inhibit radioligand binding at human cloned M1 muscarinic receptors. Several compounds were found to possess competitive binding affinity (Ki = 40–110 µM, comparable to that of acetylcholine (Ki = 59 µM. Despite the fact that these compounds lack a positively-charged ammonium group under physiological conditions, molecular modelling studies suggested that they bind to the orthosteric site of the receptor, mainly through non-polar interactions.

  17. Two types of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila and other arthropods

    Collin, Caitlin Alexis; Hauser, Frank; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto I

    2013-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play a central role in the mammalian nervous system. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are activated by the agonists acetylcholine and muscarine, and blocked by a variety of antagonists. Mammals have five mAChRs (m1-m5......). In this study, we cloned two structurally related GPCRs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which, after expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells, proved to be muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. One mAChR (the A-type; encoded by gene CG4356) is activated by acetylcholine (EC50, 5 × 10(-8) M......) and muscarine (EC50, 6 × 10(-8) M) and blocked by the classical mAChR antagonists atropine, scopolamine, and 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB), while the other (the B-type; encoded by gene CG7918) is also activated by acetylcholine, but has a 1,000-fold lower sensitivity to muscarine, and is not blocked...

  18. Muscarinic receptors as targets for anti-inflammatory therapy.

    Sales, María Elena

    2010-11-01

    ACh, the main neurotransmitter in the neuronal cholinergic system, is synthesized by pre-ganglionic fibers of the sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system and by post-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers. There is increasing experimental evidence that ACh is widely expressed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic non-neuronal cells. The neuronal and non-neuronal cholinergic systems comprise ACh, choline acetyltransferase and cholinesterase, enzymes that synthesize and catabolize ACh, and the nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors (nAChRs and mAChRs, respectively), which are the targets for ACh action. This review analyzes the participation of the cholinergic system, particularly through mAChRs, in inflammation, and discusses the role of the different mAChR antagonists that have been used to treat skin inflammatory disorders, asthma and COPD, as well as intestinal inflammation and systemic inflammatory diseases, to assess the potential application of these compounds as therapeutic tools.

  19. Characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells using specific muscarinic receptor antagonists

    McLeskey, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    In cerebellar granule cell cultures, two muscarinic receptor mediated responses were observed: inhibition of adenylate cyclase (M-AC) and stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis (M-PI). These responses were antagonized by three purported specific muscarinic antagonists: pirenzipine and (-)QNX (specific for M-PI) and methoctramine (specific for M-AC). However, the specificity for the three antagonists in blocking these responses is not comparable to the specificity observed in binding studies on these cells or to that quoted in the literature. Two peaks of molecular sizes were found in these cells corresponding to the two molecular sizes of muscarinic receptive proteins reported in the literature. Muscarinic receptive proteins were alkylated with 3 H-propylbenzilylcholine mustard followed by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Pirenzipine and (-)QNX were able to block alkylation of the high molecular size peak, which corresponds to the receptive protein m 3 reported in the literature. Methoctramine was able to block alkylation of a portion of the lower molecular size peak, possibly corresponding to the m 2 and/or m 4 receptive proteins reported in the literature. Studies attempting to show the presence of receptor reserve for either of the two biochemical responses present in these cells by alkylation of the receptive protein with nonradiolabeled propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PBCM) were confounded by specificity of this agent for the lower molecular weight peak of muscarinic receptive protein. Thus the muscarinic receptive proteins coupled to M-AC were alkylated preferentially over the ones coupled to M-PI

  20. Perirhinal Cortex Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Impairs Taste Recognition Memory Formation

    Gutierrez, Ranier; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of perirhinal cortical cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission for taste recognition memory and learned taste aversion was assessed by microinfusions of muscarinic (scopolamine), NMDA (AP-5), and AMPA (NBQX) receptor antagonists. Infusions of scopolamine, but not AP5 or NBQX, prevented the consolidation of taste recognition…

  1. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes: localization and structure/function

    Brann, M R; Ellis, J; Jørgensen, H

    1993-01-01

    Based on the sequence of the five cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes (m1-m5), subtype selective antibody and cDNA probes have been prepared. Use of these probes has demonstrated that each of the five subtypes has a markedly distinct distribution within the brain and among peripheral tissues...... are described, as well as the implied structures of these functional domains....

  2. Role of muscarinic receptor antagonists in urgency and nocturia

    Michel, Martin C.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.

    2005-01-01

    The overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is defined as urgency, with or without urgency incontinence, usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia. Muscarinic receptor antagonists are the most established form of treatment for OAB, but until recently their effectiveness was only confirmed for symptoms

  3. Non-Neuronal Functions of the M2 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Ritva Tikkanen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter whose effects are mediated by two classes of receptors. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ion channels, whereas the muscarinic receptors belong to the large family of G protein coupled seven transmembrane helix receptors. Beyond its function in neuronal systems, it has become evident that acetylcholine also plays an important role in non-neuronal cells such as epithelial and immune cells. Furthermore, many cell types in the periphery are capable of synthesizing acetylcholine and express at least some of the receptors. In this review, we summarize the non-neuronal functions of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, especially those of the M2 muscarinic receptor in epithelial cells. We will review the mechanisms of signaling by the M2 receptor but also the cellular trafficking and ARF6 mediated endocytosis of this receptor, which play an important role in the regulation of signaling events. In addition, we provide an overview of the M2 receptor in human pathological conditions such as autoimmune diseases and cancer.

  4. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Jørgensen, Kristine B; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S; Kanui, Titus I; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1-5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse (Mus musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies with [(3)H]-N-methylscopolamine. The BLAST test revealed 95 % protein sequence homology showing the naked mole-rat to have the genetic potential to express all five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. A significant reduction in pain behavior was demonstrated after administration of 8.4 mg/kg in the formalin test. Administration of 50 mg/kg VU0152100 resulted in a non-significant tendency towards antinociception. The antinociceptive effects were reversed by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine. Binding studies indicated presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with a radioligand affinity comparable to that reported in mice. In conclusion, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes are present in the naked mole-rat and contribute to antinociception in the naked mole-rat.

  5. Alkylating derivative of oxotremorine interacts irreversibly with the muscarinic receptor

    Ehlert, F.J.; Jenden, D.J.; Ringdahl, B.

    1984-01-01

    A 2-chloroethylamine derivative of oxotremorine was studied in pharmacological experiments and muscarinic receptor binding assays. The compound, N-[4-(2-chloroethylmethylamino)-2-butynyl]-2-pyrrolidone (BM 123), forms an aziridinium ion in aqueous solution at neutral pH that stimulates contractions of guinea pig ileum with a potency similar to that of oxotremorine. Following the initial stimulation, there is a long lasting period of lack of sensitivity of the guinea pig ileum to muscarinic agonists. BM 123 also produces muscarinic effects in vivo. When homogenates of the rat cerebral cortex were incubated with BM 123 and assayed subsequently in muscarinic receptor binding assays, a loss of binding capacity for the muscarinic antagonist, [ 3 H]N-methylscopolamine ([ 3 H]NMS), was noted without a change in affinity. Similar observations were made in [ 3 H]1-3-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([ 3 H]-QNB) binding assays on the forebrains of mice that had been injected with BM 123 24 hr earlier. The loss in receptor capacity for both [ 3 H]NMS and [ 3 H]-QNB was prevented by atropine treatment. Kinetic studies of the interaction of BM 123 with homogenates of the rat cerebral cortex in vitro showed that the half-time for the loss of [ 3 H]-QNB binding sites increased from 10 to 45 min as the concentration of BM 123 decreased from 10 to 1 μM. In contrast to the aziridinium ion, the parent 2-chloroethylamine compound and the alcoholic hydrolysis product were largely devoid of pharmacological and binding activity

  6. Muscarinic receptors modulate dendrodendritic inhibitory synapses to sculpt glomerular output.

    Liu, Shaolin; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam; Wachowiak, Matt; Rothermel, Markus; Shipley, Michael T

    2015-04-08

    Cholinergic [acetylcholine (ACh)] axons from the basal forebrain innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the initial site of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Both nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are expressed in glomeruli. The activation of nAChRs directly excites both mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) and external tufted cells (ETCs), the two major excitatory neurons that transmit glomerular output. The functional roles of mAChRs in glomerular circuits are unknown. We show that the restricted glomerular application of ACh causes rapid, brief nAChR-mediated excitation of both MTCs and ETCs in the mouse olfactory bulb. This excitation is followed by mAChR-mediated inhibition, which is blocked by GABAA receptor antagonists, indicating the engagement of periglomerular cells (PGCs) and/or short axon cells (SACs), the two major glomerular inhibitory neurons. Indeed, selective activation of glomerular mAChRs, with ionotropic GluRs and nAChRs blocked, increased IPSCs in MTCs and ETCs, indicating that mAChRs recruit glomerular inhibitory circuits. Selective activation of glomerular mAChRs in the presence of tetrodotoxin increased IPSCs in all glomerular neurons, indicating action potential-independent enhancement of GABA release from PGC and/or SAC dendrodendritic synapses. mAChR-mediated enhancement of GABA release also presynaptically suppressed the first synapse of the olfactory system via GABAB receptors on sensory terminals. Together, these results indicate that cholinergic modulation of glomerular circuits is biphasic, involving an initial excitation of MTC/ETCs mediated by nAChRs followed by inhibition mediated directly by mAChRs on PGCs/SACs. This may phasically enhance the sensitivity of glomerular outputs to odorants, an action that is consistent with recent in vivo findings. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355680-13$15.00/0.

  7. Loss of muscarinic receptors and of stimulated phospholipid labeling in ibotenate-treated hippocampus

    Fisher, S.K.; Frey, K.A.; Agranoff, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    The stimulation of phospholipid labeling by muscarinic agonists has been examined in nerve ending preparations from lesioned hippocampus in order to investigate the synaptic locus of the effect. Unilateral injections of the neurotoxin, ibotenic acid, into the hippocampus resulted in an extensive loss of nerve cells from both the dentate gyrus and hippocampus on the lesioned side and a parallel loss of muscarinic receptors as revealed by [ 3 H]quinuclidinyl benzilate autoradiography. Homogenates and nerve ending fractions prepared from the lesioned side of the hippocampus possessed a reduced specific activity (expressed per milligram of protein) of glutamic acid decarboxylase as well as a reduced number of muscarinic receptors compared with the control side. By contrast, choline acetyltransferase activity was either unchanged or slightly increased on the lesioned side. Although there was a reduced yield (25%) of nerve endings from the lesioned side, the specific activity of 32 Pi incorporation into phospholipids in the absence of added carbachol was comparable to that of the control side. There was, however, a marked reduction in the carbachol stimulation of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol labeling in nerve ending fractions obtained from he lesioned hippocampus. These results indicate that the muscarinic receptors present in nerve ending fractions from hippocampus and implicated in stimulated phospholipid turnover are derived from cholinoceptive intrinsic neurons

  8. Muscarinic receptor blockade in ventral hippocampus and prelimbic cortex impairs memory for socially transmitted food preference.

    Carballo-Márquez, Anna; Vale-Martínez, Anna; Guillazo-Blanch, Gemma; Martí-Nicolovius, Margarita

    2009-05-01

    Acetylcholine is involved in learning and memory and, particularly, in olfactory tasks, but reports on its specific role in consolidation processes are somewhat controversial. The present experiment sought to determine the effects of blocking muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) and the prelimbic cortex (PLC) on the consolidation of social transmission of food preference, an odor-guided relational task that depends on such brain areas. Adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally infused with scopolamine (20 microg/site) immediately after social training and showed impairment, relative to vehicle-injected controls, in the expression of the task measured 24 h after learning. Results indicated that scopolamine in the PLC completely abolished memory, suggesting that muscarinic transmission in this cortical region is crucial for consolidation of recent socially acquired information. Muscarinic receptors in the vHPC contribute in some way to task consolidation, as the rats injected with scopolamine in the vHPC showed significantly lower trained food preference than control rats, but higher than both chance level and that of the PLC-injected rats. Behavioral measures such as social interaction, motivation to eat, neophobia, or exploration did not differ between rats infused with scopolamine or vehicle. Such data suggest a possible differential role of muscarinic receptors in the PLC and the vHPC in the initial consolidation of a naturalistic form of nonspatial relational memory. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Changes of muscarinic cholinergic receptors during aging process of primary cultured neutrons

    Fan Guohuang; Yi Ningyu; Xia Zongqin

    1996-01-01

    The dynamic changes of muscarinic receptor density and its reactivity during aging process in primary cultured neutrons were studied. Muscarinic receptor density was measured by 3 H-QNB binding assay, and muscarinic receptor reactivity was assessed by carbachol stimulation of cGMP formation, the latter was measured by RIA. After 2 weeks' incubation of neonatal rat brain cells, the nutrients began to rupture and the cell bodies shrank markedly showing senescent feature. The muscarinic receptor density reached peak at the 12th day in vitro (12 DIV), but the muscarinic receptor reactivity reached peak at 9 DIV and declined significantly at 12 DIV. The results demonstrated that during aging process of primary cultured neutrons, the decline of muscarinic receptor reactivity is likely prior to the decrease of receptor density

  10. Perirhinal Cortex Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Impairs Taste Recognition Memory Formation

    Gutiérrez, Ranier; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of perirhinal cortical cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission for taste recognition memory and learned taste aversion was assessed by microinfusions of muscarinic (scopolamine), NMDA (AP-5), and AMPA (NBQX) receptor antagonists. Infusions of scopolamine, but not AP5 or NBQX, prevented the consolidation of taste recognition memory using attenuation of neophobia as an index. In addition, learned taste aversion in both short- and long-term memory tests was exclusively impa...

  11. Outline of therapeutic interventions with muscarinic receptor-mediated transmission

    Jakubík, Jan; Šantrůčková, Eva; Randáková, Alena; Janíčková, Helena; Zimčík, Pavel; Rudajev, Vladimír; Michal, Pavel; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S177-S189 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10060 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cholinergic transmission * muscarinic receptors * therapy * Alzheimer's disease, * schizophrenia Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  12. Role of dopamine receptor and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blockade in the antiapomorphine action of neuroleptics

    Zharkovskii, A.M.; Langel, Yu.L.; Chereshka, K.S.; Zharkovskaya, T.A.

    1987-08-01

    The authors analyze the role of dopamine and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blocking components in the antistereotypic action of neuroleptics with different chemical structure. To determine dopamine-blocking activity in vitro, binding of /sup 3/H-spiperone with membranes of the rat striatum was measured. To study the blocking action of the substances on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, binding of /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzylate with brain membranes was chosen.

  13. COLOCALIZATION OF MUSCARINIC AND NICOTINIC RECEPTORS IN CHOLINOCEPTIVE NEURONS OF THE SUPRACHIASMATIC REGION IN YOUNG AND AGED RATS

    VANDERZEE, EA; STREEFLAND, C; STROSBERG, AD; SCHRODER, H; LUITEN, PGM; Schröder, H.

    1991-01-01

    In the present study muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the SCN region were demonstrated and analyzed, employing monoclonal antibodies to purified muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptor proteins. A near-total colocalization of the two acetylcholine receptor subclasses in

  14. Muscarinic receptor M4 positive allosteric modulators attenuate central effects of cocaine

    Dall, Camilla; Weikop, Pia; Dencker, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease affecting neurotransmission. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic signaling in the reward system, and muscarinic receptor stimulation can block direct reinforcing effects of cocaine. Here, we tested the hypothesis...... that specific muscarinic M4receptor stimulation can attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects and conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine, measures believed to predict the ability of cocaine and cocaine-associated cues to elicit relapse to drug taking. METHODS: We tested the M4-selective positive...

  15. Muscarinic receptor subtypes in porcine detrusor: comparison with humans and regulation by bladder augmentation

    Goepel, M.; Gronewald, A.; Krege, S.; Michel, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    The properties of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors of porcine and human bladder detrusor were compared in radioligand binding studies using [3H]quinuclidinylbenzylate as the radioligand. The receptor affinity for the radioligand and the density of muscarinic receptors was similar in male and

  16. Soman- or kainic acid-induced convulsions decrease muscarinic receptors but not benzodiazepine receptors

    Churchill, L.; Pazdernik, T.L.; Cross, R.S.; Nelson, S.R.; Samson, F.E.

    1990-01-01

    [3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors decreased in the rat forebrain after convulsions induced by a single dose of either soman, a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, or kainic acid, an excitotoxin. A Rosenthal plot revealed that the receptors decreased in number rather than affinity. When the soman-induced convulsions were blocked, the decrease in muscarinic receptors at 3 days was less extensive than when convulsions occurred and at 10 days they approached control levels in most of the brain areas. The most prominent decrements in QNB binding were in the piriform cortex where the decline in QNB binding is probably related to the extensive convulsion-associated neuropathology. The decrements in QNB binding after convulsions suggest that the convulsive state leads to a down-regulation of muscarinic receptors in some brain areas. In contrast to the decrease in QNB binding after convulsions, [3H]flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptors did not change even in the piriform cortex where the loss in muscarinic receptors was most prominent. Thus, it appears that those neuronal processes that bear muscarinic receptors are more vulnerable to convulsion-induced change than those with benzodiazepine receptors

  17. Visualization of cholinoceptive neurons in the rat neocortex : colocalization of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Zee, E.A. van der; Streefland, C.; Strosberg, A.D.; Schröder, H.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    The present investigation analyzes the cellular distribution of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat neocortex, by use of monoclonal antibodies raised against purified receptor proteins. The degree of colocalization of both types of receptors was determined by way of

  18. New advances in pharmacological approaches to the cholinergic system: an overview on muscarinic receptor ligands and cholinesterase inhibitors

    Greig, Nigel H.; Reale, Marcella; Tata, Ada Maria

    2016-01-01

    The cholinergic system is expressed in neuronal and in non-neuronal tissues. Acetylcholine (ACh), synthesized in and out of the nervous system can locally contribute to modulation of various cell functions (e.g. survival, proliferation). Considering that the cholinergic system and its functions are impaired in a number of disorders, the identification of new pharmacological approaches to regulate cholinergic system components appears of great relevance. The present review focuses on recent pharmacological drugs able to modulate the activity of cholinergic receptors and thereby, cholinergic function, with an emphasis on the muscarinic receptor subtype, and additionally covers the cholinesterases, the main enzymes involved in ACh hydrolysis. The presence and function of muscarinic receptor subtypes both in neuronal and non-neuronal cells has been demonstrated using extensive pharmacological data emerging from studies on transgenic mice. The possible involvement of ACh in different pathologies has been proposed in recent years and is becoming an important area of study. Although the lack of selective muscarinic receptor ligands has for a long time limited the definition of therapeutic treatment based on muscarinic receptors as targets, some muscarinic ligands such as cevimeline (patents US4855290; US5571918) or xanomeline (patent, US5980933) have been developed and used in pre-clinical or in clinical studies for the treatment of nervous system diseases (Alzheimer’ and Sjogren’s diseases). The present review focuses on the potential implications of muscarinic receptors in different pathologies, including tumors. Moreover, the future use of muscarinic ligands in therapeutic protocols in cancer therapy will be discussed, considering that some muscarinic antagonists currently used in the treatment of genitourinary disease (e.g. darifenacin, patent, US5096890; US6106864) have also been demonstrated to arrest tumor progression in nude mice. The involvement of muscarinic

  19. Effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists on cocaine discrimination in wild-type mice and in muscarinic receptor M1, M2, and M4 receptor knockout mice.

    Joseph, Lauren; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-06-30

    Muscarinic M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (S D ) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 receptors (M 1 -/- , M 2 -/- , M 4 -/- ), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline. Muscarinic receptor antagonists with no subtype selectivity (scopolamine), or preferential affinity at the M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 subtype (telenzepine, trihexyphenidyl; methoctramine, AQ-RA 741; tropicamide) were tested alone and in combination with cocaine. In intact animals, antagonists with high affinity at M 1 /M 4 receptors partially substituted for cocaine and increased the S D effect of cocaine, while M 2 -preferring antagonists did not substitute, and reduced the S D effect of cocaine. The cocaine-like effects of scopolamine were absent in M 1 -/- mice. The cocaine S D attenuating effects of methoctramine were absent in M 2 -/- mice and almost absent in M 1 -/- mice. The findings indicate that the cocaine-like S D effects of muscarinic antagonists are primarily mediated through M 1 receptors, with a minor contribution of M 4 receptors. The data also support our previous findings that stimulation of M 1 receptors and M 4 receptors can each attenuate the S D effect of cocaine, and show that this can also be achieved by blocking M 2 autoreceptors, likely via increased acetylcholine release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Muscarinic receptors mediate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats.

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nakazawa, Masaki; Gautam, Sudha Silwal; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2014-10-01

    This study determined if muscarinic receptors could mediate the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity induced in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats. Ten-week-old female Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rats (n = 12) and Wister Kyoto non-diabetic rats (n = 12) were maintained on a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Cystometric investigations of the unanesthetized rats were carried out at room temperature (27 ± 2°C) for 20 min. They were intravenously administered imidafenacin (0.3 mg/kg, n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6). After 5 min, the rats were transferred to a low temperature (4 ± 2°C) for 40 min where the cystometry was continued. The rats were then returned to room temperature for the final cystometric measurements. Afterwards, expressions of bladder muscarinic receptor M3 and M2 messenger ribonucleic acids and proteins were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats, imidafenacin did not reduce cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats, just after transfer to a low temperature, the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in imidafenacin-treated rats was reduced compared with vehicle-treated rats. Within the urinary bladders, the ratio of M3 to M2 receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats was significantly higher than that of the non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats. The proportion of muscarinic M3 receptor-positive area within the detrusor in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats was also significantly higher than that in non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats. Imidafenacin partially inhibits cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. In this animal model, muscarinic M3 receptors partially mediate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  1. Effect of aging on airway remodeling and muscarinic receptors in a murine acute asthma model

    Kang JY

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ji Young Kang, Sook Young Lee, Chin Kook Rhee, Seung Joon Kim, Soon Seog Kwon, Young Kyoon KimDepartment of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, KoreaBackground and objectives: The influence of aging on the development of asthma has not been studied thoroughly. The aim of this study was to investigate age-related airway responses involving lung histology and expression of muscarinic receptors in a murine model of acute asthma. Methods: Female BALB/c mice at the ages of 6 weeks and 6, 9, and 12 months were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA for 1 month (n = 8–12 per group. We analyzed inflammatory cells and T-helper (Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and parameters of airway remodeling and expression of muscarinic receptors in lung tissue. Results: Among the OVA groups, total cell and eosinophil numbers in BAL fluid were significantly higher in the older (6-, 9-, and 12-month-old mice than in the young (6-week-old mice. Interleukin (IL 4 (IL-4 concentration increased, but IL-5 and IL-13 concentrations showed a decreased tendency, with age. IL-17 concentration tended to increase with age, which did not reach statistical significance. periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining area, peribronchial collagen deposition, and area of α-smooth muscle staining were significantly higher in the 6-month older OVA group than in the young OVA group. The expression of the M3 and M2 muscarinic receptors tended to increase and decrease, respectively, with age. Conclusion: The aged mice showed an active and unique pattern not only on airway inflammation, but also on airway remodeling and expression of the muscarinic receptors during the development of acute asthma compared with the young mice. These findings suggest that the aging process affects the pathogenesis of acute asthma and age-specific approach might be more appropriate for better asthma control in a clinical practice.Keywords: aging, asthma

  2. Muscarinic supersensitivity and impaired receptor desensitization in G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5-deficient mice.

    Gainetdinov, R R; Bohn, L M; Walker, J K; Laporte, S A; Macrae, A D; Caron, M G; Lefkowitz, R J; Premont, R T

    1999-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) is a member of a family of enzymes that phosphorylate activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). To address the physiological importance of GRK5-mediated regulation of GPCRs, mice bearing targeted deletion of the GRK5 gene (GRK5-KO) were generated. GRK5-KO mice exhibited mild spontaneous hypothermia as well as pronounced behavioral supersensitivity upon challenge with the nonselective muscarinic agonist oxotremorine. Classical cholinergic responses such as hypothermia, hypoactivity, tremor, and salivation were enhanced in GRK5-KO animals. The antinociceptive effect of oxotremorine was also potentiated and prolonged. Muscarinic receptors in brains from GRK5-KO mice resisted oxotremorine-induced desensitization, as assessed by oxotremorine-stimulated [5S]GTPgammaS binding. These data demonstrate that elimination of GRK5 results in cholinergic supersensitivity and impaired muscarinic receptor desensitization and suggest that a deficit of GPCR desensitization may be an underlying cause of behavioral supersensitivity.

  3. Hypoxia increases exercise heart rate despite combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Rasmussen, Peter; Sørensen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia increases the heart rate (HR) response to exercise but the mechanism(s) remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during separate but not combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. Nine subjects performed incremental exercise...... combined β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor inhibition....

  4. Antipsychotic-induced catalepsy is attenuated in mice lacking the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Fink-Jensen, Anders; Schmidt, Lene S; Dencker, Ditte

    2011-01-01

    of the striatum, suggesting a role for muscarinic M4 receptors in the motor side effects of antipsychotics, and in the alleviation of these side effects by anticholinergics. Here we investigated the potential role of the muscarinic M4 receptor in catalepsy induced by antipsychotics (haloperidol and risperidone...

  5. Attenuation of cocaine's reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects via muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptor stimulation

    Thomsen, Morgane; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic function in brain pathways thought to mediate cocaine's abuse-related effects. Here, we sought to confirm and extend in the mouse species findings that nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonists can enhance cocaine's discriminative stimulus...... for cocaine addiction....

  6. Decrease in the number of rat brain dopamine and muscarinic receptors after chronic alcohol intake

    Syvaelahti, E.K.G.; Hietala, J.; Roeyttae, M.; Groenroos, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of 32 weeks' alcohol treatment on the number and affinity of dopamine and muscarinic receptor sites in rat striatum were measured using 3 H-spiperone and 3 H-quinuclidinylbenzilate ( 3 H-QNB) as radioligans. The number of dopamine receptor sites was 38 per cent and the number of muscarinic receptor sites 36 per cent lower in the alcohol group than in control rats. The differences in receptor affinities were less marked. In conclusion, a long-term alcohol intake with rather moderate doses seems to induce a pronounced down-regulation in dopamine and muscarinic receptor systems in rat striatum. (author)

  7. Two types of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila and other arthropods.

    Collin, Caitlin; Hauser, Frank; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto; de Valdivia, Ernesto Gonzalez; Li, Shizhong; Reisenberger, Julia; Carlsen, Eva M M; Khan, Zaid; Hansen, Niels O; Puhm, Florian; Søndergaard, Leif; Niemiec, Justyna; Heninger, Magdalena; Ren, Guilin R; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2013-09-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play a central role in the mammalian nervous system. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are activated by the agonists acetylcholine and muscarine, and blocked by a variety of antagonists. Mammals have five mAChRs (m1-m5). In this study, we cloned two structurally related GPCRs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which, after expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells, proved to be muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. One mAChR (the A-type; encoded by gene CG4356) is activated by acetylcholine (EC50, 5 × 10(-8) M) and muscarine (EC50, 6 × 10(-8) M) and blocked by the classical mAChR antagonists atropine, scopolamine, and 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB), while the other (the B-type; encoded by gene CG7918) is also activated by acetylcholine, but has a 1,000-fold lower sensitivity to muscarine, and is not blocked by the antagonists. A- and B-type mAChRs were also cloned and functionally characterized from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Recently, Haga et al. (Nature 2012, 482: 547-551) published the crystal structure of the human m2 mAChR, revealing 14 amino acid residues forming the binding pocket for QNB. These residues are identical between the human m2 and the D. melanogaster and T. castaneum A-type mAChRs, while many of them are different between the human m2 and the B-type receptors. Using bioinformatics, one orthologue of the A-type and one of the B-type mAChRs could also be found in all other arthropods with a sequenced genome. Protostomes, such as arthropods, and deuterostomes, such as mammals and other vertebrates, belong to two evolutionarily distinct lineages of animal evolution that split about 700 million years ago. We found that animals that originated before this split, such as cnidarians (Hydra), had two A-type mAChRs. From these data we propose a model for the evolution of mAChRs.

  8. Altered trafficking and unfolded protein response induction as a result of M3 muscarinic receptor impaired N-glycosylation.

    Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Alea, Mileidys Perez; Garcia-Mesa, Yoelvis; Garriga, Pere

    2011-12-01

    The human M(3) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is present in both the central and peripheral nervous system, and it is involved in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. We suggested a possible N-glycosylation map for the M(3) muscarinic receptor expressed in COS-7 cells. Here, we examined the role that N-linked glycans play in the folding and in the cell surface trafficking of this receptor. The five potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites in the muscarinic receptor were mutated and transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. The elimination of N-glycan attachment sites did not affect the cellular expression levels of the receptor. However, proper receptor localization to the plasma membrane was affected as suggested by reduced [(3)H]-N-methylscopolamine binding. Confocal microscopy confirmed this observation and showed that the nonglycosylated receptor was primarily localized in the intracellular compartments. The mutant variant showed an increase in phosphorylation of the α-subunit of eukaryote initiation factor 2, and other well-known endoplasmic reticulum stress markers of the unfolded protein response pathway, which further supports the proposal of the improper intracellular accumulation of the nonglycosylated receptor. The receptor devoid of glycans showed more susceptibility to events that culminate in apoptosis reducing cell viability. Our findings suggest up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and cleavage of caspase-3 effectors. Collectively, our data provide experimental evidence of the critical role that N-glycan chains play in determining muscarinic receptor distribution, localization, as well as cell integrity. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Organophosphorus pesticides decrease M2 muscarinic receptor function in guinea pig airway nerves via indirect mechanisms.

    Becky J Proskocil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on peripheral neurons via similar direct mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Intravenous administration of paraoxon, but not parathion, caused acute frequency-dependent potentiation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction and increased electrical field stimulation (EFS-induced contractions in isolated trachea independent of AChE inhibition. However, paraoxon had no effect on vagally-induced bradycardia in intact guinea pigs or EFS-induced contractions in isolated ileum, suggesting mechanisms other than pharmacologic antagonism of M2 receptors. Paraoxon did not alter M2 receptor expression in cultured cells at the mRNA or protein level as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and radio-ligand binding assays, respectively. Additionally, a biotin-labeled fluorophosphonate, which was used as a probe to identify molecular targets phosphorylated by OPs, did not phosphorylate proteins in guinea pig cardiac membranes that were recognized by M2 receptor antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that neither direct pharmacologic antagonism nor downregulated expression of M2 receptors contributes to OP inhibition of M2 function in airway nerves, adding to the growing evidence of non-cholinergic mechanisms of OP neurotoxicity.

  10. M1 muscarinic receptor facilitates cognitive function by interplay with AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit.

    Zhao, Lan-Xue; Ge, Yan-Hui; Xiong, Cai-Hong; Tang, Ling; Yan, Ying-Hui; Law, Ping-Yee; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2018-03-06

    M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M1 mAChRs) are the most abundant muscarinic receptors in the hippocampus and have been shown to have procognitive effects. AMPA receptors (AMPARs), an important subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors, are key components in neurocognitive networks. However, the role of AMPARs in procognitive effects of M1 mAChRs and how M1 mAChRs affect the function of AMPARs remain poorly understood. Here, we found that basal expression of GluA1, a subunit of AMPARs, and its phosphorylation at Ser845 were maintained by M1 mAChR activity. Activation of M1 mAChRs promoted membrane insertion of GluA1, especially to postsynaptic densities. Impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory by antagonism of M1 mAChRs paralleled the reduction of GluA1 expression, and improvement of learning and memory by activation of M1 mAChRs was accompanied by the synaptic insertion of GluA1 and its increased phosphorylation at Ser845. Furthermore, abrogation of phosphorylation of Ser845 residue of GluA1 ablated M1 mAChR-mediated improvement of learning and memory. Taken together, these results show a functional correlation of M1 mAChRs and GluA1 and the essential role of GluA1 in M1 mAChR-mediated cognitive improvement.-Zhao, L.-X., Ge, Y.-H., Xiong, C.-H., Tang, L., Yan, Y.-H., Law, P.-Y., Qiu, Y., Chen, H.-Z. M1 muscarinic receptor facilitates cognitive function by interplay with AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit.

  11. The allosteric site regulates the voltage sensitivity of muscarinic receptors.

    Hoppe, Anika; Marti-Solano, Maria; Drabek, Matthäus; Bünemann, Moritz; Kolb, Peter; Rinne, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Muscarinic receptors (M-Rs) for acetylcholine (ACh) belong to the class A of G protein-coupled receptors. M-Rs are activated by orthosteric agonists that bind to a specific site buried in the M-R transmembrane helix bundle. In the active conformation, receptor function can be modulated either by allosteric modulators, which bind to the extracellular receptor surface or by the membrane potential via an unknown mechanism. Here, we compared the modulation of M 1 -Rs and M 3 -Rs induced by changes in voltage to their allosteric modulation by chemical compounds. We quantified changes in receptor signaling in single HEK 293 cells with a FRET biosensor for the G q protein cycle. In the presence of ACh, M 1 -R signaling was potentiated by voltage, similarly to positive allosteric modulation by benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid. Conversely, signaling of M 3 -R was attenuated by voltage or the negative allosteric modulator gallamine. Because the orthosteric site is highly conserved among M-Rs, but allosteric sites vary, we constructed "allosteric site" M 3 /M 1 -R chimeras and analyzed their voltage dependencies. Exchanging the entire allosteric sites eliminated the voltage sensitivity of ACh responses for both receptors, but did not affect their modulation by allosteric compounds. Furthermore, a point mutation in M 3 -Rs caused functional uncoupling of the allosteric and orthosteric sites and abolished voltage dependence. Molecular dynamics simulations of the receptor variants indicated a subtype-specific crosstalk between both sites, involving the conserved tyrosine lid structure of the orthosteric site. This molecular crosstalk leads to receptor subtype-specific voltage effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Activation of muscarinic receptors protects against retinal neurons damage and optic nerve degeneration in vitro and in vivo models.

    Tan, Pan-Pan; Yuan, Hai-Hong; Zhu, Xu; Cui, Yong-Yao; Li, Hui; Feng, Xue-Mei; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Zhou, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist pilocarpine reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) of glaucoma mainly by stimulating ciliary muscle contraction and then increasing aqueous outflow. It is of our great interest to know whether pilocarpine has the additional properties of retinal neuroprotection independent of IOP lowering in vitro and in vivo models. In rat primary retinal cultures, cell viability was measured using an MTT assay and the trypan blue exclusion method, respectively. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were identified by immunofluorescence and quantified by flow cytometry. For the in vivo study, the retinal damage after retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats was evaluated by histopathological study using hematoxylin and eosin staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical study on cleaved caspase-3, caspase-3, and ChAT. Pretreatment of pilocarpine attenuated glutamate-induced neurotoxicity of primary retinal neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Protection of pilocarpine in both retinal neurons and RGCs was largely abolished by the nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine and the M1-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine. After ischemia/reperfusion injury in retina, the inner retinal degeneration occurred including ganglion cell layer thinning and neuron lost, and the optic nerve underwent vacuolar changes. These degenerative changes were significantly lessened by topical application of 2% pilocarpine. In addition, the protective effect of pilocarpine on the ischemic rat retina was favorably reflected by downregulating the expression of activated apoptosis marker cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-3 and upregulating the expression of cholinergic cell marker ChAT. Taken together, this highlights pilocarpine through the activation of muscarinic receptors appear to afford significant protection against retinal neurons damage and optic nerve degeneration at clinically relevant concentrations. These data also

  13. Connexins and M3 Muscarinic Receptors Contribute to Heterogeneous Ca2+ Signaling in Mouse Aortic Endothelium

    François-Xavier Boittin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Smooth muscle tone is controlled by Ca2+ signaling in the endothelial layer. Mouse endothelial cells are interconnected by gap junctions made of Connexin40 (Cx40 and Cx37, which allow the exchange of signaling molecules to coordinate their activity. Here, we investigated the role of Cx40 in the endothelial Ca2+ signaling of the mouse aorta. Methods: Ca2+ imaging was performed on intact aortic endothelium from both wild type (Cx40+/+ and Connexin40-deficient (Cx40 -/- mice. Results: Acetylcholine (ACh induced early fast and high amplitude Ca2+ transients in a fraction of endothelial cells expressing the M3 muscarinic receptors. Inhibition of intercellular communication using carbenoxolone or octanol fully blocked the propagation of ACh-induced Ca2+ transients toward adjacent cells in WT and Cx40-/- mice. As compared to WT, Cx40-/- mice displayed a reduced propagation of ACh-induced Ca2+ waves, indicating that Cx40 contributes to the spreading of Ca2+ signals. The propagation of those Ca2+ responses was not blocked by suramin, a blocker of purinergic ATP receptors, indicating that there is no paracrine effect of ATP release on the Ca2+ waves. Conclusions: Altogether our data show that Cx40 and Cx37 contribute to the propagation and amplification of the Ca2+ signaling triggered by ACh in endothelial cells expressing the M3 muscarinic receptors.

  14. Muscarinic receptor antagonists for overactive bladder treatment: does one fit all?

    Witte, Lambertus P. W.; Mulder, Wilhelmina M. C.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Michel, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review To review evidence and regulatory dosing recommendations for muscarinic receptor antagonists used in the treatment of overactive bladder symptom complex (darifenacin, fesoterodine oxybutynin propiverine solifenacin tolterodine trospium) in special patient populations. Recent

  15. Effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists on cocaine discrimination in wild-type mice and in muscarinic receptor M1, M2, and M4 receptor knockout mice

    Joseph, Lauren; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-01-01

    Muscarinic M1/M4 receptor stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (SD) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those...

  16. Bovine pancreatic polypeptide as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    Pan, G.Z.; Lu, L.; Qian, J.; Xue, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    In dispersed acini from rat pancreas, it was found that bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP) and its C-fragment hexapeptide amide (PP-6), at concentrations of 0.1 and 30 μM, respectively, could significantly inhibit amylase secretion stimulated by carbachol, and this inhibition by BPP was dose dependent. 45 Ca outflux induced by carbachol was also inhibited by BPP or PP-6, but they had no effect on cholecystokinin octapeptide- (CCK-8) or A23187-stimulated 45 Ca outflux. BPP was also capable of displacing the specific binding of [ 3 H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate to its receptors, and it possessed a higher affinity (K/sub i/35nM) than carbachol (K/sub i/ 1.8 μM) in binding with M-receptors. It is concluded from this study that BPP acts as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat pancreatic acini. In addition, BPP inhibited the potentiation of amylase secretion caused by the combination of carbachol plus secretin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. This may be a possible explanation of the inhibitory effect of BPP on secretin-induced pancreatic enzyme secretion shown in vivo, since pancreatic enzyme secretion stimulated by secretin under experimental conditions may be the result of potentiation of enzyme release produced by the peptide in combination with a cholinergic stimulant

  17. Vitamin C Deficiency Reduces Muscarinic Receptor Coronary Artery Vasoconstriction and Plasma Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration in Guinea Pigs

    Gry Freja Skovsted

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (vitC deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32 were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet vitC for 10–12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph. Vasomotor responses to potassium, carbachol, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, U46619, sarafotoxin 6c (S6c and endothelin-1 (ET-1 were recorded. Plasma vitC and tetrahydrobiopterin were measured by HPLC. Plasma vitC status reflected the diets with deficient animals displaying reduced tetrahydrobiopterin. Vasoconstrictor responses to carbachol were significantly decreased in vitC deficient coronary arteries independent of their general vasoconstrictor/vasodilator capacity (p < 0.001. Moreover, in vitC deficient animals, carbachol-induced vasodilator responses correlated with coronary artery diameter (p < 0.001. Inhibition of cyclooxygenases with indomethacin increased carbachol-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting an augmented carbachol-induced release of vasodilator prostanoids. Atropine abolished carbachol-induced vasomotion, supporting a specific muscarinic receptor effect. Arterial responses to SNP, potassium, S6c, U46619 and ET-1 were unaffected by vitC status. The study shows that vitC deficiency decreases tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations and muscarinic receptor mediated contraction in coronary arteries. This attenuated vasoconstrictor response may be linked to altered production of vasoactive arachidonic acid metabolites and reduced muscarinic receptor expression/signaling.

  18. Current status of muscarinic M1 and M4 receptors as drug targets for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Felder, Christian C; Goldsmith, Paul J; Jackson, Kimberley; Sanger, Helen E; Evans, David A; Mogg, Adrian J; Broad, Lisa M

    2018-01-25

    The cholinergic signalling system has been an attractive pathway to seek targets for modulation of arousal, cognition, and attention which are compromised in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. The acetylcholine muscarinic receptor M1 and M4 subtypes which are highly expressed in the central nervous system, in cortex, hippocampus and striatum, key areas of cognitive and neuropsychiatric control, have received particular attention. Historical muscarinic drug development yielded first generation agonists with modest selectivity for these two receptor targets over M2 and M3 receptors, the major peripheral sub-types hypothesised to underlie the dose-limiting clinical side effects. More recent compound screening and medicinal chemistry optimization of orthosteric and allosteric agonists, and positive allosteric modulators binding to sites distinct from the highly homologous acetylcholine binding pocket have yielded a collection of highly selective tool compounds for preclinical validation studies. Several M1 selective ligands have progressed to early clinical development and in time will hopefully lead to useful therapeutics for treating symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Antipsychotic-like effect of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist BuTAC in non-human primates

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Croy, Carrie Hughes; Dencker, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R)-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane...... (BuTAC) exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects...

  20. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: location of the ligand binding site

    Hulme, E.; Wheatley, M.; Curtis, C.; Birdsall, N.

    1987-01-01

    The key to understanding the pharmacological specificity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR's) is the location within the receptor sequence of the amino acid residues responsible for ligand binding. To approach this problem, they have purified mAChR's from rat brain to homogeneity by sequential ion-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and molecular weight fractionation. Following labelling of the binding site with an alkylating affinity label, 3 H-propylbenzilycholine mustard aziridinium ion ( 3 H-PrBCM), the mAChR was digested with a lysine-specific endoproteinase, and a ladder of peptides of increasing molecular weight, each containing the glycosylated N-terminus, isolated by chromatography on wheat-germ agglutinin sepharose. The pattern of labelling showed that a residue in the peptides containing transmembrane helices 2 and/or 3 of the mAChR was alkylated. The linkage was cleaved by 1 M hydroxylamine, showing that 3 H-PrBCM was attached to an acidic residue, whose properties strongly suggested it to be embedded in a hydrophobic intramembrane region of the mAChR. Examination of the cloned sequence of the mAChR reveals several candidate residues, the most likely of which is homologous to an aspartic acid residue thought to protonate the retinal Schiff's base in the congeneric protein rhodopsin

  1. Hyperfunction of muscarinic receptor maintains long-term memory in 5-HT4 receptor knock-out mice.

    Luis Segu

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from dementia of Alzheimer's type express less serotonin 4 receptors (5-HTR(4, but whether an absence of these receptors modifies learning and memory is unexplored. In the spatial version of the Morris water maze, we show that 5-HTR(4 knock-out (KO and wild-type (WT mice performed similarly for spatial learning, short- and long-term retention. Since 5-HTR(4 control mnesic abilities, we tested whether cholinergic system had circumvented the absence of 5-HTR(4. Inactivating muscarinic receptor with scopolamine, at an ineffective dose (0.8 mg/kg to alter memory in WT mice, decreased long-term but not short-term memory of 5-HTR(4 KO mice. Other changes included decreases in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the required enzyme for acetylcholine synthesis, in the septum and the dorsal hippocampus in 5-HTR(4 KO under baseline conditions. Training- and scopolamine-induced increase and decrease, respectively in ChAT activity in the septum in WT mice were not detected in the 5-HTR(4 KO animals. Findings suggest that adaptive changes in cholinergic systems may circumvent the absence of 5-HTR(4 to maintain long-term memory under baseline conditions. In contrast, despite adaptive mechanisms, the absence of 5-HTR(4 aggravates scopolamine-induced memory impairments. The mechanisms whereby 5-HTR(4 mediate a tonic influence on ChAT activity and muscarinic receptors remain to be determined.

  2. Autoradiographic visualization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in human and guinea pig lung

    Mak, J.C.; Barnes, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Muscarinic receptor subtypes have been localized in human and guinea pig lung sections by an autoradiographic technique, using [3H](-)quinuclidinyl benzilate [( 3H]QNB) and selective muscarinic antagonists. [3H]QNB was incubated with tissue sections for 90 min at 25 degrees C, and nonspecific binding was determined by incubating adjacent serial sections in the presence of 1 microM atropine. Binding to lung sections had the characterization expected for muscarinic receptors. Autoradiography revealed that muscarinic receptors were widely distributed in human lung, with dense labeling over submucosal glands and airway ganglia, and moderate labeling over nerves in intrapulmonary bronchi and of airway smooth muscle of large and small airways. In addition, alveolar walls were uniformly labeled. In guinea pig lung, labeling of airway smooth muscle was similar, but in contrast to human airways, epithelium was labeled but alveolar walls were not. The muscarinic receptors of human airway smooth muscle from large to small airways were entirely of the M3-subtype, whereas in guinea pig airway smooth muscle, the majority were the M3-subtype with a very small population of the M2-subtype present. In human bronchial submucosal glands, M1- and M3-subtypes appeared to coexist in the proportions of 36 and 64%, respectively. In human alveolar walls the muscarinic receptors were entirely of the M1-subtype, which is absent from the guinea pig lung. No M2-receptors were demonstrated in human lung. The localization of M1-receptors was confirmed by direct labeling with [3H]pirenzepine. With the exception of the alveolar walls in human lung, the localization of muscarinic receptor subtypes on structures in the lung is consistent with known functional studies

  3. Hydrostatic pressure and muscarinic receptors are involved in the release of inflammatory cytokines in human bladder smooth muscle cells.

    Liang, Zhou; Xin, Wei; Qiang, Liu; Xiang, Cai; Bang-Hua, Liao; Jin, Yang; De-Yi, Luo; Hong, Li; Kun-Jie, Wang

    2017-06-01

    Abnormal intravesical pressure results in a series of pathological changes. We investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure and muscarinic receptors on the release of inflammatory cytokines in rat and human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs). Animal model of bladder outlet obstruction was induced by urethra ligation. HBSMCs were subjected to elevated hydrostatic pressure and/or acetylcholine (Ach). Macrophage infiltration in the bladder wall was determined by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of inflammatory genes was measured by RT-PCR, ELISA and immunofluorescence. In obstructed bladder, inflammatory genes and macrophage infiltration were remarkably induced. When HBSMCs were subjected to 200-300 cm H 2 O pressure for 2-24 h in vitro, the expressions of IL-6 and RANTES were significantly increased. Hydrostatic pressure promoted the protein levels of phospho-NFκB p65 and phospho-ERK1/2 as well as muscarinic receptors. Moreover, NFκB or ERK1/2 inhibitors suppressed pressure-induced inflammatory genes mRNA. When cells were treated with 1 μM acetylcholine for 6 h, a significant increase in IL-6 mRNA expression was detected. Acetylcholine also enhanced pressure-induced phospho-NFκB p65 and IL-6 protein expression. Additionally, pressure-induced IL-6 was partially suppressed by muscarinic receptors antagonists. Hydrostatic pressure and muscarinic receptors were involved in the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in HBSMCs, indicating a pro-inflammatory effect of the two factors in the pathological process of BOO. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. M3 muscarinic receptor interaction with phospholipase C beta3 determines its signaling efficiency

    Kan, W.; Adjobo-Hermans, M.J.; Burroughs, M.; Faibis, G.; Malik, S.; Tall, G.G.; Smrcka, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta) enzymes are activated by G protein-coupled receptors through receptor-catalyzed guanine nucleotide exchange on Galphabetagamma heterotrimers containing Gq family G proteins. Here we report evidence for a direct interaction between M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R) and

  5. Muscarinic receptors in amygdala control trace fear conditioning.

    Amber N Baysinger

    Full Text Available Intelligent behavior requires transient memory, which entails the ability to retain information over short time periods. A newly-emerging hypothesis posits that endogenous persistent firing (EPF is the neurophysiological foundation for aspects or types of transient memory. EPF is enabled by the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs and is triggered by suprathreshold stimulation. EPF occurs in several brain regions, including the lateral amygdala (LA. The present study examined the role of amygdalar mAChRs in trace fear conditioning, a paradigm that requires transient memory. If mAChR-dependent EPF selectively supports transient memory, then blocking amygdalar mAChRs should impair trace conditioning, while sparing delay and context conditioning, which presumably do not rely upon transient memory. To test the EPF hypothesis, LA was bilaterally infused, prior to trace or delay conditioning, with either a mAChR antagonist (scopolamine or saline. Computerized video analysis quantified the amount of freezing elicited by the cue and by the training context. Scopolamine infusion profoundly reduced freezing in the trace conditioning group but had no significant effect on delay or context conditioning. This pattern of results was uniquely anticipated by the EPF hypothesis. The present findings are discussed in terms of a systems-level theory of how EPF in LA and several other brain regions might help support trace fear conditioning.

  6. Muscarinic receptors in amygdala control trace fear conditioning.

    Baysinger, Amber N; Kent, Brianne A; Brown, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent behavior requires transient memory, which entails the ability to retain information over short time periods. A newly-emerging hypothesis posits that endogenous persistent firing (EPF) is the neurophysiological foundation for aspects or types of transient memory. EPF is enabled by the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) and is triggered by suprathreshold stimulation. EPF occurs in several brain regions, including the lateral amygdala (LA). The present study examined the role of amygdalar mAChRs in trace fear conditioning, a paradigm that requires transient memory. If mAChR-dependent EPF selectively supports transient memory, then blocking amygdalar mAChRs should impair trace conditioning, while sparing delay and context conditioning, which presumably do not rely upon transient memory. To test the EPF hypothesis, LA was bilaterally infused, prior to trace or delay conditioning, with either a mAChR antagonist (scopolamine) or saline. Computerized video analysis quantified the amount of freezing elicited by the cue and by the training context. Scopolamine infusion profoundly reduced freezing in the trace conditioning group but had no significant effect on delay or context conditioning. This pattern of results was uniquely anticipated by the EPF hypothesis. The present findings are discussed in terms of a systems-level theory of how EPF in LA and several other brain regions might help support trace fear conditioning.

  7. The pharmacological rationale for combining muscarinic receptor antagonists and beta-adrenoceptor agonists in the treatment of airway and bladder disease

    Dale, Philippa R.; Cernecka, Hana; Schmidt, Martina; Dowling, Mark R.; Charlton, Steven J.; Pieper, Michael P.; Michel, Martin C.

    Muscarinic receptor antagonists and beta-adrenoceptor agonists are used in the treatment of obstructive airway disease and overactive bladder syndrome. Here we review the pharmacological rationale for their combination. Muscarinic receptors and beta-adrenoceptors are physiological antagonists for

  8. G-protein mediates voltage regulation of agonist binding to muscarinic receptors: effects on receptor-Na+ channel interaction

    Cohen-Armon, M.; Garty, H.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors previous experiments in membranes prepared from rat heart and brain led them to suggest that the binding of agonist to the muscarinic receptors and to the Na + channels is a coupled event mediated by guanine nucleotide binding protein(s) [G-protein(s)]. These in vitro findings prompted us to employ synaptoneurosomes from brain stem tissue to examine (i) the binding properties of [ 3 H] acetylcholine at resting potential and under depolarization conditions in the absence and presence of pertussis toxin; (ii) the binding of [ 3 H]batrachotoxin to Na + channel(s) in the presence of the muscarinic agonists; and (iii) muscarinically induced 22 Na + uptake in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin, which blocks Na + channels. The findings indicate that agonist binding to muscarinic receptors is voltage dependent, that this process is mediated by G-protein(s), and that muscarinic agonists induce opening of Na + channels. The latter process persists even after pertussis toxin treatment, indicating that it is not likely to be mediated by pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein(s). The system with its three interacting components-receptor, G-protein, and Na + channel-is such that at resting potential the muscarinic receptor induces opening of Na + channels; this property may provide a possible physiological mechanism for the depolarization stimulus necessary for autoexcitation or repetitive firing in heart or brain tissues

  9. The binding of [3H]AF-DX 384 to rat ileal smooth muscle muscarinic receptors

    Entzeroth, M.; Mayer, N.

    1991-01-01

    The tritiated cardioselective muscarinic antagonist AF-DX 384 (5,11-dihydro-11-[2-[-(8-dipropylamino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl-ethyl-amino-carbonyl]-6H-pyrido [2,3-b] [1,4]benzodiazepin-6-one) was used to label muscarinic receptors in the rat ileum. Saturation binding to membrane suspensions revealed a high affinity binding site with a Kd of 9.2 nM. The maximal number of binding sites labeled in this tissue (Bmax) is 237 fmol/mg protein. The association and dissociation kinetics were well represented by single exponential reactions, and the dissociation constant obtained from the ratio of rate constants was in agreement with that derived from saturation experiments. Specific binding was inhibited by muscarinic antagonists with a rank order of potencies of atropine (pKi: 8.80) greater than 4-DAMP (pKi: 8.23) = AF-DX 384 (pKi: 8.20) greater than AF-DX 116 (pKi: 7.09) = hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pKi: 6.97) greater than pirenzepine (pKi: 6.49) and is consistent with the interaction of [3H]AF-DX 384 with muscarinic receptors of the M2 subtype. It can be concluded that [3H]AF-DX 384 can be used to selectively label M2 muscarinic receptors in heterogeneous receptor populations

  10. Effect of paraoxon on muscarinic, dopamine and γ-aminobutyric acid receptors of brain and sensitivity to muscarinic antagonists

    Fernando, J.C.R.; Hoskins, B.; Ho, I.K.

    1986-01-01

    Several acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors decrease muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) receptors in the brain, alteration of dopamine (DA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors after AChE inhibition was also reported. In view of the important interactions among DA, GABA and ACh systems, whether this is a common effect of AChE inhibitors should be established. They report the effect of the AChE inhibitor, paraoxon, on DA, GABA and mACh receptors in the rat. The binding of 3 H-QNB (for mACh), 3 H-spiperone (for DA) and 3 H-muscimol (for GABA) to striatal and hippocampal membranes was analyzed. Also, behavioral sensitivity to atropine was studied. Twenty-four hr after a single dose (0.75 mg/kg, s.c.) of paraoxon, the density of mACh receptors in the striatum was decreased but, at 3 days, no change was seen. In the hippocampus, the mACh receptors were not affected. Repeated treatment with paraoxon (0.3 mg/kg, 48 hourly) for 2 weeks reduced the mACh receptor density in both regions. Neither single nor repeated paraoxon treatment had an effect on DA or GABA receptors. After single or repeated dosing with paraoxon, myoclonus induced by atropine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was enhanced. The results show rapid downregulation of mACh receptors by paraoxon. DA or GABA, however, appear not to be affected under these treatment regimens

  11. Adenosine receptors and muscarinic receptors cooperate in acetylcholine release modulation in the neuromuscular synapse.

    Santafe, M M; Priego, M; Obis, T; Garcia, N; Tomàs, M; Lanuza, M A; Tomàs, J

    2015-07-01

    Adenosine receptors (ARs) are present in the motor terminals at the mouse neuromuscular junction. ARs and the presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) share the functional control of the neuromuscular junction. We analysed their mutual interaction in transmitter release modulation. In electrophysiological experiments with unaltered synaptic transmission (muscles paralysed by blocking the voltage-dependent sodium channel of the muscle cells with μ-conotoxin GIIIB), we found that: (i) a collaborative action between different AR subtypes reduced synaptic depression at a moderate activity level (40 Hz); (ii) at high activity levels (100 Hz), endogenous adenosine production in the synaptic cleft was sufficient to reduce depression through A1 -type receptors (A1 Rs) and A2 A-type receptors (A2 A Rs); (iii) when the non-metabolizable 2-chloroadenosine (CADO) agonist was used, both the quantal content and depression were reduced; (iv) the protective effect of CADO on depression was mediated by A1 Rs, whereas A2 A Rs seemed to modulate A1 Rs; (v) ARs and mAChRs absolutely depended upon each other for the modulation of evoked and spontaneous acetylcholine release in basal conditions and in experimental conditions with CADO stimulation; (vi) the purinergic and muscarinic mechanisms cooperated in the control of depression by sharing a common pathway although the purinergic control was more powerful than the muscarinic control; and (vii) the imbalance of the ARs created by using subtype-selective and non-selective inhibitory and stimulatory agents uncoupled protein kinase C from evoked transmitter release. In summary, ARs (A1 Rs, A2 A Rs) and mAChRs (M1 , M2 ) cooperated in the control of activity-dependent synaptic depression and may share a common protein kinase C pathway. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comparative study of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors of human and rat cortical glial cells

    Demushkin, V.P.; Burbaeva, G.S.; Dzhaliashvili, T.A.; Plyashkevich, Y.G.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was a comparative studyof muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in human and rat glial cells. ( 3 H)Quinuclidinyl-benzylate (( 3 H)-QB), atropine, platiphylline, decamethonium, carbamylcholine, tubocurarine, and nicotine were used. The glial cell fraction was obtained from the cerebral cortex of rats weighing 130-140 g and from the frontal pole of the postmortem brain from men aged 60-70 years. The use of the method of radioimmune binding of ( 3 H)-QB with human and rat glial cell membranes demonstrated the presence of a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in the glial cells

  13. Attenuation of cocaine's reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects via muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptor stimulation

    Thomsen, Morgane; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig

    2010-01-01

    substituted for cocaine and enhanced its discriminative stimulus. Conversely, muscarinic agonists blunted cocaine discrimination and abolished cocaine self-administration with varying effects on food-maintained behavior. Specifically, increasing selectivity for the M(1) subtype (oxotremorine ...'s abuse-related effects, whereas non-M(1)/M(4) receptors probably contribute to undesirable effects of muscarinic stimulation. These data provide the first demonstration of anticocaine effects of systemically applied, M(1) receptor agonists and suggest the possibility of a new approach to pharmacotherapy...

  14. Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of muscarinic receptor subtypes and their role in representational memory

    Messer, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution of muscarinic receptors in rat brain slices. Agonist and selective antagonist binding were examined by measuring the ability for unlabeled ligands to inhibit [ 3 H]-1-QNB labeling of muscarinic receptors. The distribution of high affinity pirenzepine binding sites (M 1 subtype) was distinct from the distribution of high affinity carbamylcholine sites, which corresponded to the M 2 subtype. In a separate assay, the binding profile for pirenzepine was shown to differ from the profile for scopolamine, a classical muscarinic antagonist. Muscarinic antagonists, when injected into the Hippocampus, impaired performance of a representational memory task. Pirenzepine, the M 1 selective antagonist, produced representational memory deficits. Scopolamine, a less selective muscarinic antagonist, caused increases in running times in some animals which prevented a definitive interpretation of the nature of the impairment. Pirenzepine displayed a higher affinity for the hippocampus and was more effective in producing a selective impairment of representational memory than scopolamine. The data indicated that cholinergic activity in the hippocampus was necessary for representation memory function

  15. Cholinergic nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in dementia of Alzheimer, Parkinson and Lewy body types.

    Perry, E K; Smith, C J; Court, J A; Perry, R H

    1990-01-01

    Cholinergic nicotinic and muscarinic receptor binding were measured in post mortem human brain tissue, using low (nM) concentrations of (3H)-nicotine to detect predominately the high affinity nicotinic site and (3H)-N-methylscopolamine in the presence and absence of 3 x 10(-4) M carbachol to measure both the low and high affinity agonist subtypes of the muscarinic receptor group. Consistent with most previous reports, the nicotinic but not muscarinic binding was reduced in the different forms of dementia associated with cortical cholinergic deficits, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) and Down's syndrome (over 50 years). Analysis of (3H)-nicotine binding displaced by a range of carbachol concentrations (10(-9)-10(-3) M) indicated 2 binding sites for nicotine and that the high affinity rather than low affinity site was reduced in Alzheimer's disease. In all 3 cortical areas investigated (temporal, parietal and occipital) there were increases in the low affinity muscarinic site in Parkinson's disease and SDLT but not Alzheimer's disease or middle-aged Down's syndrome. This observation raised the question of whether the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (evident in the latter but not former 2 disorders) is incompatible with denervation-induced muscarinic supersensitivity in cholinoceptive neurons which include cortical pyramids generally affeted by tangle formation.

  16. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill.

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-07-13

    In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl) carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  17. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  18. Pet measurements of postsynaptic muscarinic and beta adrenergic receptors in the heart

    Syrota, A.

    1991-01-01

    There is ample evidence from both experimental and clinical studies that changes in β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor density can be associated with such cardiac diseases as congestive heart failure, myocardial ischemia and infarction, cardiomyopathy, diabetes, or thyroid-induced muscle disease. Changes in B-adrenergic density also have been shown in the denervated transplanted heart. These alterations of cardiac receptors have been demonstrated in vitro on homogenates from samples collected mainly during surgery or post mortem. Recent developments of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) techniques and of radioligands suitable for cardiac receptor binding studies in vivo have made possible both the imaging and the measurement of receptor density. From these studies, important information is now available concerning physiologic and pathologic conditions, as well as alterations induced by treatment. For the investigation of myocardial B-adrenergic receptors we have used [ 11 C] CGP 12177, a potent hydrophilic antagonist of the 3-adrenergic receptor. The quantification of myocardial muscarinic receptors in vivo has been obtained with [ 11 C] MQNB, a nonmetabolized hydrophilic antagonist of the muscarinic receptor. Receptor density and affinity have been measured by a kinetic, nonequilibrium approach in an experimental protocol that provides sufficient data to determine values for all parameters from a single experiment

  19. Increased cocaine self-administration in M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice

    Schmidt, Lene Sørensen; Thomsen, Morgane; Weikop, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The reinforcing effects of cocaine are mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system. Behavioral and neurochemical studies have shown that the cholinergic muscarinic M4 receptor subtype plays an important role in regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Objectives Here we investigated...... of drug addiction...

  20. Quantitative autoradiography of muscarinic and benzodiazepine receptors in the forebrain of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta

    Schlegel, J.R.; Kriegstein, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of muscarinic and benzodiazepine receptors was investigated in the turtle forebrain by the technique of in vitro receptor autoradiography. Muscarinic binding sites were labeled with 1 nM 3 H-quinuclidinyl benzilate ( 3 H-QNB), and benzodiazepine sites were demonstrated with the aid of 1 nM 3 H-flunitrazepam ( 3 H-FLU). Autoradiograms generated on 3 H-Ultrofilm apposed to tissue slices revealed regionally specific distributions of muscarinic and benzodiazepine binding sites that are comparable with those for mammalian brain. Dense benzodiazepine binding was found in the anterior olfactory nucleus, the lateral and dorsal cortices, and the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR), a structure with no clear mammalian homologue. Muscarinic binding sites were most dense in the striatum, accumbens, DVR, lateral geniculate, and the anterior olfactory nucleus. Cortical binding sites were studied in greater detail by quantitative analysis of autoradiograms generated by using emulsion-coated coverslips. Laminar gradients of binding were observed that were specific for each radioligand; 3 H-QNB sites were most dense in the inner molecular layer in all cortical regions, whereas 3 H-FLU binding was generally most concentrated in the outer molecular layer and was least dense through all layers in the dorsomedial cortex. Because pyramidal cells are arranged in register in turtle cortex, the laminar patterns of receptor binding may reflect different receptor density gradients along pyramidal cell dendrites

  1. Divergence of allosteric effects of rapacuronium on binding and function of muscarinic receptors

    Jakubík, Jan; Randáková, Alena; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 15 (2009), s. 1-20 ISSN 1471-2210 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/09/0681; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * allosteric modulation * rapacuronium Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  2. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Act in Synergy to Facilitate Learning and Memory

    Leaderbrand, Katherine; Chen, Helen J.; Corcoran, Kevin A.; Guedea, Anita L.; Jovasevic, Vladimir; Wess, Jurgen; Radulovic, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how episodic memories are formed and retrieved is necessary if we are to treat disorders in which they malfunction. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the hippocampus and cortex underlie memory formation, but there is conflicting evidence regarding their role in memory retrieval. Additionally, there is no consensus on…

  3. Binding of N-methylscopolamine to the extracellular domain of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    Jakubík, Jan; Randáková, Alena; Zimčík, Pavel; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Jan 16 (2017), č. článku 40381. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : muscarinic acetylcholine receptors * N-methylscopolamine * ligand binding * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  4. Molecular Modeling of the M3 Acetylcholine Muscarinic Receptor and Its Binding Site

    Marlet Martinez-Archundia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the results of a combined computational and site mutagenesis study designed to provide new insights into the orthosteric binding site of the human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. For this purpose a three-dimensional structure of the receptor at atomic resolution was built by homology modeling, using the crystallographic structure of bovine rhodopsin as a template. Then, the antagonist N-methylscopolamine was docked in the model and subsequently embedded in a lipid bilayer for its refinement using molecular dynamics simulations. Two different lipid bilayer compositions were studied: one component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC and two-component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine/palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylserine (POPC-POPS. Analysis of the results suggested that residues F222 and T235 may contribute to the ligand-receptor recognition. Accordingly, alanine mutants at positions 222 and 235 were constructed, expressed, and their binding properties determined. The results confirmed the role of these residues in modulating the binding affinity of the ligand.

  5. Agonist and antagonist binding to rat brain muscarinic receptors: influence of aging

    Gurwitz, D.; Egozi, Y.; Henis, Y.I.; Kloog, Y.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the binding properties of muscarinic receptors in six brain regions in mature and old rats of both sexes by employing direct binding of [ 3 H]-antagonist as well as of the labeled natural neurotransmitter, [ 3 H]-acetylcholine [( 3 H]-AcCh). In addition, age-related factors were evaluated in the modulation processes involved in agonist binding. The results indicate that as the rat ages the density of the muscarinic receptors is altered differently in the various brain regions: it is decreased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and olfactory bulb of both male and female rats, but is increased (58%) in the brain stem of senescent males while no significant change is observed for females. The use of the highly sensitive technique measuring direct binding of [ 3 H]-AcCh facilitated the separate detection of age-related changes in the two classes (high- and low-affinity) of muscarinic agonist binding sites. In old female rats the density of high-affinity [ 3 H]-AcCh binding sites was preserved in all tissues studied, indicating that the decreases in muscarinic receptor density observed with [ 3 H]-antagonist represent a loss of low-affinity agonist binding sites. In contrast, [ 3 H]-AcCh binding is decreased in the hypothalamus and increased in the brain stem of old male rats. These data imply sexual dimorphism of the aging process in central cholinergic mechanisms

  6. Role of membrane cholesterol in differential sensitivity of muscarinic receptor subtypes to persistently bound xanomeline

    Randáková, Alena; Dolejší, Eva; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zimčík, Pavel; Doležal, Vladimír; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Jakubík, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 133, May 1 (2018), s. 129-144 ISSN 0028-3908 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05696S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-16182S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : muscarinic acetylcholine receptors * membrane cholesterol * xanomeline * receptor activation * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 5.012, year: 2016

  7. The Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) inhibits ERK phosphorylation by muscarinic receptor modulation in rat pituitary GH3 cells

    Secondo, Agnese; De Mizio, Mariarosaria; Zirpoli, Laura; Santillo, Mariarosaria; Mondola, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) belongs to a family of isoenzymes that are able to dismutate the oxygen superoxide in hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. This enzyme is secreted by many cellular lines and it is also released trough a calcium-dependent depolarization mechanism involving SNARE protein SNAP 25. Using rat pituitary GH3 cells that express muscarinic receptors we found that SOD1 inhibits P-ERK1/2 pathway trough an interaction with muscarinic M1 receptor. This effect is strengthened by oxotremorine, a muscarinic M agonist and partially reverted by pyrenzepine, an antagonist of M1 receptor; moreover this effect is independent from increased intracellular calcium concentration induced by SOD1. Finally, P-ERK1/2 inhibition was accompanied by the reduction of GH3 cell proliferation. These data indicate that SOD1 beside the well studied antioxidant properties can be considered as a neuromodulator able to affect mitogen-activated protein kinase in rat pituitary cells trough a M1 muscarinic receptor

  8. Drugs Interfering with Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Their Effects on Place Navigation

    Jan Svoboda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs have been found to regulate many diverse functions, ranging from motivation and feeding to spatial navigation, an important and widely studied type of cognitive behavior. Systemic administration of non-selective antagonists of mAChRs, such as scopolamine or atropine, have been found to have adverse effects on a vast majority of place navigation tasks. However, many of these results may be potentially confounded by disruptions of functions other than spatial learning and memory. Although studies with selective antimuscarinics point to mutually opposite effects of M1 and M2 receptors, their particular contribution to spatial cognition is still poorly understood, partly due to a lack of truly selective agents. Furthermore, constitutive knock-outs do not always support results from selective antagonists. For modeling impaired spatial cognition, the scopolamine-induced amnesia model still maintains some limited validity, but there is an apparent need for more targeted approaches such as local intracerebral administration of antagonists, as well as novel techniques such as optogenetics focused on cholinergic neurons and chemogenetics aimed at cells expressing metabotropic mAChRs.

  9. Blocking muscarinic receptors in the olfactory bulb impairs performance on an olfactory short term memory task

    Sasha eDevore

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic inputs to cortical processing networks have long been associated with attentional and top-down processing. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that cholinergic inputs to the main olfactory bulb (OB can modulate both neural and behavioral odor discrimination. Previous experiments from our laboratory and others demonstrate that blockade of nicotinic receptors directly impairs olfactory discrimination, whereas blockade of muscarinic receptors only measurably impairs olfactory perception when task demands are made more challenging, such as when very low-concentration odors are used or rats are required to maintain sensory memory over long durations. To further investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in the OB, we developed an olfactory delayed match-to-sample task using a digging-based behavioral paradigm. We find that rats are able to maintain robust short-term odor memory for tens to hundreds of seconds. To investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in task performance, we bilaterally infused scopolamine into the OB. We find that high dosages of scopolamine (38 mM impair performance on the task across all delays tested, including the baseline condition with no delay, whereas lower dosages (7.6 mM and 22.8 mM had no measureable effects. These results indicate that general execution of the match-to-sample task, even with no delay, is at least partially dependent on muscarinic signaling in the OB.

  10. Regional distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the telencephalon of the pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica)

    Waechtler, K.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was studied autoradiographically in croystat sections of the pigeon telencephalon using 3 H-quinuclidinylbenzylate as a ligand. Highest receptor density was observed in the hyperstriatum ventrale, palaeostriatum augmentatum, septum, and parts of the archistriatum. In sites of known sensory input of neostriatum (field L) and ectostriatum low receptor binding was observed. Acetylcholinesterase distribution is in good agreement with the receptor picture only in the basal telencephalon. In the pallium differences in the pattern of these two components can be seen. (author)

  11. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding sites differentiated by their affinity for pirenzepine do not interconvert

    Gil, D.W.; Wolfe, B.B.

    1986-01-01

    Although it has been suggested by many investigators that subtypes of muscarinic cholinergic receptors exist, physical studies of solubilized receptors have indicated that only a single molecular species may exist. To test the hypothesis that the putative muscarinic receptor subtypes in rat forebrain are interconvertible states of the same receptor, the selective antagonist pirenzepine (PZ) was used to protect muscarinic receptors from blockade by the irreversible muscarinic receptor antagonist propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PBCM). If interconversion of high (M1) and low (M2) affinity binding sites for PZ occurs, incubation of cerebral cortical membranes with PBCM in the presence of PZ should not alter the proportions of M1 and M2 binding sites that are unalkylated (i.e., protected). If, on the other hand, the binding sites are not interconvertible, PZ should be able to selectively protect M1 sites and alter the proportions of unalkylated M1 and M2 binding sites. In the absence of PZ, treatment of cerebral cortical membranes with 20 nM PBCM at 4 degrees C for 50 min resulted in a 69% reduction in the density of M1 binding sites and a 55% reduction in the density of M2 binding sites with no change in the equilibrium dissociation constants of the radioligands [ 3 H]quinuclidinyl benzilate or [ 3 H]PZ. The reasons for this somewhat selective effect of PBCM are not apparent. In radioligand binding experiments using cerebral cortical membranes, PZ inhibited the binding of [ 3 H]quinuclidinyl benzilate in a biphasic manner

  12. Antipsychotic-like effect of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist BuTAC in non-human primates.

    Maibritt B Andersen

    Full Text Available Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (BuTAC exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. The present data suggests that, the muscarinic receptor ligand BuTAC exhibits antipsychotic-like behaviour in primates. The behavioural data of BuTAC as well as the new biochemical data further substantiate the rationale for the use of muscarinic M1/M2/M4-preferring receptor agonists as novel pharmacological tools in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  13. Decreased ipsilateral [123I]iododexetimide binding to cortical muscarinic receptors in unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats

    Knol, Remco J.J.; Bruin, Kora de; Opmeer, Brent; Voorn, Pieter; Jonker, Allert J.; Eck-Smit, Berthe L.F. van; Booij, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Dysfunction of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system is present in Parkinson’s disease, Parkinson’s disease related dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, and is thought to contribute to cognitive deficits in these patients. In vivo imaging of the cholinergic system in these diseases may be of value to monitor central cholinergic disturbances and to select cases in which treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors could be beneficial. The muscarinic receptor tracer [ 123 I]iododexetimide, predominantly reflecting M 1 receptor binding, may be an appropriate tool for imaging of the cholinergic system by means of SPECT. In this study, we used [ 123 I]iododexetimide to study the effects of a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion (an animal model of Parkinson’s disease) on the muscarinic receptor availability in the rat brain. Methods: Rats (n = 5) were injected in vivo at 10–13 days after a confirmed unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. Muscarinic receptor availability was measured bilaterally in multiple brain areas on storage phosphor images by region of interest analysis. Results: Autoradiography revealed a consistent and statistically significant lower [ 123 I]iododexetimide binding in all examined neocortical areas on the ipsilateral side of the lesion as compared to the contralateral side. In hippocampal and subcortical areas, such asymmetry was not detected. Conclusions: This study suggests that evaluation of muscarinic receptor availability in dopamine depleted brains using [ 123 I]iododexetimide is feasible. We conclude that 6-hydroxydopamine lesions induce a decrease of neocortical muscarinic receptor availability. We hypothesize that this arises from down regulation of muscarinic postsynaptic M 1 receptors due to hyperactivation of the cortical cholinergic system in response to dopamine depletion. Advances in knowledge: In rats, dopamine depletion provokes a decrease in neocortical muscarinic receptor availability, which is evaluable by [ 123 I

  14. ZMS regulation of M2 muscarinic receptor mRNA stability requires protein factor

    Zhang Yongfang; Xia Zongqin; Hu Ya'er

    2010-01-01

    Aim The aim of this work is to study the elevation mechanism of ZMS on muscarinic M2 receptor mRNA expression. Methods Actinomycin D was added to cultured CHOm2 cells to stop the de novo synthesis of M2 receptor mRNA and samples were taken at various times to determine the time course of mRNA of M2 receptor with real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Half-life of M2 receptor mRNA and the effect of ZMS on the half-life was obtained from the slope of the exponential curves. Cycloheximide was added at 4 h prior to and 24 h after the addition of ZMS to examine the effect of de novo protein synthesis on the action of ZMS. Results The half-life of m2 mRNA was prolonged by ZMS treatment without cycloheximide (4.75±0.54 h and 2.13 h±0.23 h for ZMS and vehicle treated groups, respectively, P<0.05). When cycloheximide was added to the culture medium 4h prior to the addition of ZMS, the effect of ZMS in prolonging the half-life of m2 mRNA disappeared (3.06 h±0.23 h and 3.00 h±l.20 h for cells with and without ZMS, respectively). However, when the ZMS was added to the medium 24h prior to the addition of cycloheximide, the action of ZMS was not abolished by cycloheximide (half-life was 5.43 h±1.13 h and 2.46 h±0.09 h for cells with and without ZMS, respectively). Conclusion These data suggest that de novo protein synthesis was required for the increase in M2 mRNA stability induced by ZMS. (authors)

  15. Involvement of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons and M1 and M4 Muscarinic Receptors in Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.

    Ztaou, Samira; Maurice, Nicolas; Camon, Jeremy; Guiraudie-Capraz, Gaëlle; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Beurrier, Corinne; Liberge, Martine; Amalric, Marianne

    2016-08-31

    Over the last decade, striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) have reemerged as key actors in the pathophysiology of basal-ganglia-related movement disorders. However, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. In this study, we address the role of ChI activity in the expression of parkinsonian-like motor deficits in a unilateral nigrostriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model using optogenetic and pharmacological approaches. Dorsal striatal photoinhibition of ChIs in lesioned ChAT(cre/cre) mice expressing halorhodopsin in ChIs reduces akinesia, bradykinesia, and sensorimotor neglect. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) blockade by scopolamine produces similar anti-parkinsonian effects. To decipher which of the mAChR subtypes provides these beneficial effects, systemic and intrastriatal administration of the selective M1 and M4 mAChR antagonists telenzepine and tropicamide, respectively, were tested in the same model of Parkinson's disease. The two compounds alleviate 6-OHDA lesion-induced motor deficits. Telenzepine produces its beneficial effects by blocking postsynaptic M1 mAChRs expressed on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) at the origin of the indirect striatopallidal and direct striatonigral pathways. The anti-parkinsonian effects of tropicamide were almost completely abolished in mutant lesioned mice that lack M4 mAChRs specifically in dopamine D1-receptor-expressing neurons, suggesting that postsynaptic M4 mAChRs expressed on direct MSNs mediate the antiakinetic action of tropicamide. The present results show that altered cholinergic transmission via M1 and M4 mAChRs of the dorsal striatum plays a pivotal role in the occurrence of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The striatum, where dopaminergic and cholinergic systems interact, is the pivotal structure of basal ganglia involved in pathophysiological changes underlying Parkinson's disease. Here, using optogenetic and pharmacological approaches, we investigated the involvement of striatal

  16. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes as Potential Drug Targets for the Treatment of Schizophrenia, Drug Abuse and Parkinson's Disease

    Dencker, Ditte; Thomsen, Morgane; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2011-01-01

    's disease and drug abuse. Dopaminergic systems are regulated by cholinergic, especially muscarinic, input. Not surprisingly, increasing evidence implicates muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated pathways as potential targets for the treatment of these disorders classically viewed as "dopamine based...... site. Such agents may lead to the development of novel classes of drugs useful for the treatment of psychosis, drug abuse and Parkinson's disease. The present review highlights recent studies carried out using muscarinic receptor knock-out mice and new subtype-selective allosteric ligands to assess...... the roles of M(1), M(4), and M(5) receptors in various central processes that are under strong dopaminergic control. The outcome of these studies opens new perspectives for the use of novel muscarinic drugs for several severe disorders of the CNS....

  17. Muscarinic receptors in separate populations of noradrenaline- and adrenaline-containing chromaffin cells

    Michelena, P.; Moro, M.A.; Castillo, C.J.; Garcia, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    We have performed binding experiments of (a)[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate to partially purified membranes from noradrenaline- and adrenaline-containing chromaffin cells and (b) [3H]N-methyl-quinuclidinyl benzilate to acutely isolated, or 48-h cultured, chromaffin cells subpopulations. Using this approach, we obtained enough evidence to conclude (1st) that muscarinic receptors are present in both noradrenaline- and adrenaline containing cells; (2nd) that noradrenaline cells contain in fact 2-3 fold higher density of those receptors; and (3rd) that those receptors undergo plastic changes upon chronic culturing of the cells

  18. Uncoupling of M1 muscarinic receptor/G-protein interaction by amyloid beta(1-42)

    Janíčková, Helena; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zimčík, Pavel; Jakubík, Jan; Tanila, H.; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, April (2013), s. 272-283 ISSN 0028-3908 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Alzheimer ´s Disease * muscarinic receptors * G-proteins Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.819, year: 2013

  19. Classical and atypical agonists activate M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors through common mechanisms

    Randáková, Alena; Dolejší, Eva; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zimčík, Pavel; Doležal, Vladimír; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Jakubík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 97, Jul 2015 (2015), s. 27-39 ISSN 1043-6618 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : muscarinic acetylcholine receptors * atypical agonists * xanomeline * activation mechanism Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.816, year: 2015

  20. Acute food deprivation reverses morphine-induced locomotion deficits in M5 muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    Steidl, Stephan; Lee, Esther; Wasserman, David; Yeomans, John S

    2013-09-01

    Lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT), one of two sources of cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), block conditioned place preference (CPP) for morphine in drug-naïve rats. M5 muscarinic cholinergic receptors, expressed by midbrain dopamine neurons, are critical for the ability of morphine to increase nucleus accumbens dopamine levels and locomotion, and for morphine CPP. This suggests that M5-mediated PPT cholinergic inputs to VTA dopamine neurons critically contribute to morphine-induced dopamine activation, reward and locomotion. In the current study we tested whether food deprivation, which reduces PPT contribution to morphine CPP in rats, could also reduce M5 contributions to morphine-induced locomotion in mice. Acute 18-h food deprivation reversed the phenotypic differences usually seen between non-deprived wild-type and M5 knockout mice. That is, food deprivation increased morphine-induced locomotion in M5 knockout mice but reduced morphine-induced locomotion in wild-type mice. Food deprivation increased saline-induced locomotion equally in wild-type and M5 knockout mice. Based on these findings, we suggest that food deprivation reduces the contribution of M5-mediated PPT cholinergic inputs to the VTA in morphine-induced locomotion and increases the contribution of a PPT-independent pathway. The contributions of cholinergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons to the effects of acute food deprivation are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Autoradiography of H-3-pirenzepine and H-3-AFDX-384 in Mouse Brain Regions: Possible Insights into M-1, M-2, and M-4 Muscarinic Receptors Distribution

    Valuskova, P.; Farar, V.; Forczek, Sándor; Křížová, I.; Mysliveček, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, FEB 20 (2018), č. článku 124. ISSN 1663-9812 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : 3 h-afdx-384 * 3 H-pirenzepine * 3 h-qnb * Autoradiography * M muscarinic receptor 1 * M muscarinic receptor 2 * M muscarinic receptor 4 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 4.400, year: 2016

  2. Why does the agonist [18F]FP-TZTP bind preferentially to the M2 muscarinic receptor?

    Ravasi, L.; Kiesewetter, D.O.; Shimoji, K.; Lucignani, G.; Eckelman, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Preferential binding of FP-TZTP at the M 2 receptor in vivo led to investigation of [ 18 F]FP-TZTP as a potential PET tracer for Alzheimer's disease, in which a substantial reduction of M 2 receptors has been observed in autopsy studies. We hereby investigated in vitro the FP-TZTP behavior to further elucidate the properties of FP-TZTP that lead to its M 2 selectivity. Chinese hamster ovarian cells expressing the five subtypes of human muscarinic receptor as well as the wild type were harvested in culture to assess equilibrium binding. Specific binding was calculated by subtraction of non-specific binding from total binding. Internal specific binding was calculated by subtraction of external specific binding from the total specific binding. Saturation assays were also performed to calculate B max , K i , and IC 50 . In addition, equilibrium binding and dissociation kinetic studies were performed on rat brain tissue. Selected regions of interest were drawn on the digital autoradiograms and [ 18 F]FP-TZTP off-rates were determined by measurement of the rate of release into a buffer solution of [ 18 F]FP-TZTP from slide-bound cells that had been preincubated with [ 18 F]FP-TZTP. At equilibrium in vitro, M 2 subtype selectivity of [ 18 F]FP-TZTP was not evident. We demonstrated that ATP-dependent mechanisms are not responsible for FP-TZTP M 2 selectivity. In vitro off-rate studies from rat brain tissue showed that the off-rate of FP-TZTP varied with the percentage of M 2 subtype in the tissue region. The slower dissociation kinetics of FP-TZTP from M 2 receptors compared with the four other muscarinic receptor subtypes may be a factor in its M 2 selectivity. (orig.)

  3. Neuronal M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are essential for somatotroph proliferation and normal somatic growth.

    Gautam, Dinesh; Jeon, Jongrye; Starost, Matthew F; Han, Sung-Jun; Hamdan, Fadi F; Cui, Yinghong; Parlow, Albert F; Gavrilova, Oksana; Szalayova, Ildiko; Mezey, Eva; Wess, Jürgen

    2009-04-14

    The molecular pathways that promote the proliferation and maintenance of pituitary somatotrophs and other cell types of the anterior pituitary gland are not well understood at present. However, such knowledge is likely to lead to the development of novel drugs useful for the treatment of various human growth disorders. Although muscarinic cholinergic pathways have been implicated in regulating somatotroph function, the physiological relevance of this effect and the localization and nature of the receptor subtypes involved in this activity remain unclear. We report the surprising observation that mutant mice that selectively lack the M(3) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype in the brain (neurons and glial cells; Br-M3-KO mice) showed a dwarf phenotype associated with a pronounced hypoplasia of the anterior pituitary gland and a marked decrease in pituitary and serum growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. Remarkably, treatment of Br-M3-KO mice with CJC-1295, a synthetic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) analog, rescued the growth deficit displayed by Br-M3-KO mice by restoring normal pituitary size and normal serum GH and IGF-1 levels. These findings, together with results from M(3) receptor/GHRH colocalization studies and hypothalamic hormone measurements, support a model in which central (hypothalamic) M(3) receptors are required for the proper function of hypothalamic GHRH neurons. Our data reveal an unexpected and critical role for central M(3) receptors in regulating longitudinal growth by promoting the proliferation of pituitary somatotroph cells.

  4. Long-term activation upon brief exposure to xanomleline is unique to M1 and M4 subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Eva Šantrůčková

    Full Text Available Xanomeline is an agonist endowed with functional preference for M1/M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. It also exhibits both reversible and wash-resistant binding to and activation of these receptors. So far the mechanisms of xanomeline selectivity remain unknown. To address this question we employed microfluorometric measurements of intracellular calcium levels and radioligand binding to investigate differences in the short- and long-term effects of xanomeline among muscarinic receptors expressed individually in Chinese hamster ovary cells. 1/One-min exposure of cells to xanomeline markedly increased intracellular calcium at hM1 and hM4, and to a lesser extent at hM2 and hM3 muscarinic receptors for more than 1 hour. 2/Unlike the classic agonists carbachol, oxotremorine, and pilocarpine 10-min exposure to xanomeline did not cause internalization of any receptor subtype. 3/Wash-resistant xanomeline selectively prevented further increase in intracellular calcium by carbachol at hM1 and hM4 receptors. 4/After transient activation xanomeline behaved as a long-term antagonist at hM5 receptors. 5/The antagonist N-methylscopolamine (NMS reversibly blocked activation of hM1 through hM4 receptors by xanomeline. 6/NMS prevented formation of xanomeline wash-resistant binding and activation at hM2 and hM4 receptors and slowed them at hM1, hM3 and hM5 receptors. Our results show commonalities of xanomeline reversible and wash-resistant binding and short-time activation among the five muscarinic receptor subtypes. However long-term receptor activation takes place in full only at hM1 and hM4 receptors. Moreover xanomeline displays higher efficacy at hM1 and hM4 receptors in primary phasic intracellular calcium release. These findings suggest the existence of particular activation mechanisms specific to these two receptors.

  5. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    Jørgensen, Kristine B.; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1–5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse (Mus...... musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies...

  6. Cholinergic regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    Kristensen, Bo; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing......Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing...

  7. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects ...

  8. An allosteric enhancer of M4muscarinic acetylcholine receptor function inhibits behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine

    Dencker, Ditte; Weikop, Pia; Sørensen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The mesostriatal dopamine system plays a key role in mediating the reinforcing effects of psychostimulant drugs like cocaine. The muscarinic M4 acetylcholine receptor subtype is centrally involved in the regulation of dopamine release in striatal areas. Consequently, striatal M4 receptors could...

  9. Coupling of g proteins to reconstituted monomers and tetramers of the M2 muscarinic receptor.

    Redka, Dar'ya S; Morizumi, Takefumi; Elmslie, Gwendolynne; Paranthaman, Pranavan; Shivnaraine, Rabindra V; Ellis, John; Ernst, Oliver P; Wells, James W

    2014-08-29

    G protein-coupled receptors can be reconstituted as monomers in nanodiscs and as tetramers in liposomes. When reconstituted with G proteins, both forms enable an allosteric interaction between agonists and guanylyl nucleotides. Both forms, therefore, are candidates for the complex that controls signaling at the level of the receptor. To identify the biologically relevant form, reconstituted monomers and tetramers of the purified M2 muscarinic receptor were compared with muscarinic receptors in sarcolemmal membranes for the effect of guanosine 5'-[β,γ-imido]triphosphate (GMP-PNP) on the inhibition of N-[(3)H]methylscopolamine by the agonist oxotremorine-M. With monomers, a stepwise increase in the concentration of GMP-PNP effected a lateral, rightward shift in the semilogarithmic binding profile (i.e. a progressive decrease in the apparent affinity of oxotremorine-M). With tetramers and receptors in sarcolemmal membranes, GMP-PNP effected a vertical, upward shift (i.e. an apparent redistribution of sites from a state of high affinity to one of low affinity with no change in affinity per se). The data were analyzed in terms of a mechanistic scheme based on a ligand-regulated equilibrium between uncoupled and G protein-coupled receptors (the "ternary complex model"). The model predicts a rightward shift in the presence of GMP-PNP and could not account for the effects at tetramers in vesicles or receptors in sarcolemmal membranes. Monomers present a special case of the model in which agonists and guanylyl nucleotides interact within a complex that is both constitutive and stable. The results favor oligomers of the M2 receptor over monomers as the biologically relevant state for coupling to G proteins. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Physiological roles of CNS muscarinic receptors gained from knockout mice

    Thomsen, Morgane; Sørensen, Gunnar; Dencker, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    receptors modulating neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release in many brain regions, shaping neuronal plasticity, and affecting functions ranging from motor and sensory function to cognitive processes. As gene targeting technology evolves including the use of conditional, cell type specific strains......, knockout mice are likely to continue to provide valuable insights into brain physiology and pathophysiology, and advance the development of new medications for a range of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addictions, as well as non-opioid analgesics...

  11. Synergistic Action of Presynaptic Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Adenosine Receptors in Developmental Axonal Competition at the Neuromuscular Junction.

    Nadal, Laura; Garcia, Neus; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria Angel; Cilleros, Victor; Tomàs, Josep Maria

    2016-01-01

    The development of the nervous system involves the initial overproduction of synapses, which promotes connectivity. Hebbian competition between axons with different activities leads to the loss of roughly half of the overproduced elements and this refines connectivity. We used quantitative immunohistochemistry to investigate, in the postnatal day 7 (P7) to P9 neuromuscular junctions, the involvement of muscarinic receptors (muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors and the M1, M2, and M4 subtypes) and adenosine receptors (A1 and A2A subtypes) in the control of axonal elimination after the mouse levator auris longus muscle had been exposed to selective antagonists in vivo. In a previous study we analyzed the role of each of the individual receptors. Here we investigate the additive or occlusive effects of their inhibitors and thus the existence of synergistic activity between the receptors. The main results show that the A2A, M1, M4, and A1 receptors (in this order of ability) delayed axonal elimination at P7. M4 produces some occlusion of the M1 pathway and some addition to the A1 pathway, which suggests that they cooperate. M2 receptors may modulate (by allowing a permissive action) the other receptors, mainly M4 and A1. The continued action of these receptors (now including M2 but not M4) finally promotes axonal loss at P9. All 4 receptors (M2, M1, A1, and A2A, in this order of ability) are necessary. The M4 receptor (which in itself does not affect axon loss) seems to modulate the other receptors. We found a synergistic action between the M1, A1, and A2A receptors, which show an additive effect, whereas the potent M2 effect is largely independent of the other receptors (though can be modulated by M4). At P9, there is a full mutual dependence between the A1 and A2A receptors in regulating axon loss. In summary, postnatal axonal elimination is a regulated multireceptor mechanism that involves the cooperation of several muscarinic and adenosine receptor subtypes.

  12. Effects of dopamine D1-like and D2-like antagonists on cocaine discrimination in muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    Thomsen, Morgane; Caine, Simon Barak

    2016-04-05

    Muscarinic and dopamine brain systems interact intimately, and muscarinic receptor ligands, like dopamine ligands, can modulate the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus (S(D)) effects of cocaine. To enlighten the dopamine/muscarinic interactions as they pertain to the S(D) effects of cocaine, we evaluated whether muscarinic M1, M2 or M4 receptors are necessary for dopamine D1 and/or D2 antagonist mediated modulation of the S(D) effects of cocaine. Knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors, as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline in a food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure. Effects of pretreatments with the dopamine D1 antagonist SCH 23390 and the dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride were evaluated. In intact mice, both SCH 23390 and eticlopride attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect, as expected. SCH 23390 similarly attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect in M1 knockout mice, but not in mice lacking M2 or M4 receptors. The effects of eticlopride were comparable in each knockout strain. These findings demonstrate differences in the way that D1 and D2 antagonists modulate the S(D) effects of cocaine, D1 modulation being at least partially dependent upon activity at the inhibitory M2/M4 muscarinic subtypes, while D2 modulation appeared independent of these systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The A- and B-type muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from Drosophila melanogaster couple to different second messenger pathways

    Ren, Guilin Robin; Folke, Jonas; Hauser, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by the agonists acetylcholine and muscarine and blocked by several antagonists, among them atropine. In mammals five mAChRs (m1-m5) exist of which m1, m3, and m5 are coupled to members of the Gq...

  14. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor M3 Mutation Causes Urinary Bladder Disease and a Prune-Belly-like Syndrome.

    Weber, Stefanie; Thiele, Holger; Mir, Sevgi; Toliat, Mohammad Reza; Sozeri, Betül; Reutter, Heiko; Draaken, Markus; Ludwig, Michael; Altmüller, Janine; Frommolt, Peter; Stuart, Helen M; Ranjzad, Parisa; Hanley, Neil A; Jennings, Rachel; Newman, William G; Wilcox, Duncan T; Thiel, Uwe; Schlingmann, Karl Peter; Beetz, Rolf; Hoyer, Peter F; Konrad, Martin; Schaefer, Franz; Nürnberg, Peter; Woolf, Adrian S

    2011-11-11

    Urinary bladder malformations associated with bladder outlet obstruction are a frequent cause of progressive renal failure in children. We here describe a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (CHRM3) (1q41-q44) homozygous frameshift mutation in familial congenital bladder malformation associated with a prune-belly-like syndrome, defining an isolated gene defect underlying this sometimes devastating disease. CHRM3 encodes the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, which we show is present in developing renal epithelia and bladder muscle. These observations may imply that M3 has a role beyond its known contribution to detrusor contractions. This Mendelian disease caused by a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mutation strikingly phenocopies Chrm3 null mutant mice. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Activation of multiple G-proteins by muscarinic M1 and M2 receptors

    Michal, Pavel; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. S1 (2006), s. 404-404 ISSN 1671-4083. [World Congress of Pharmacology /15./. 02.07.2006-07.07.2006, Beijing] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP305/05/P209; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/05/0452; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:NIH(US) NS25743 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * multiple G-protein coupling Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  16. Differentiation-associated decrease in muscarinic receptor sensitivity in human neuroblastoma cells

    Heikkilae, J.E.; Scott, J.G.; Suominen, L.A.; Akerman, K.E.O.

    1987-01-01

    Muscarinic receptor-linked increases in intracellular free Ca 2+ as measured with quin-2 and Ca 2+ release from monolayers of cells have been measured in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Induction of differentiation with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) leads to a decrease in the sensitivity of the cells to low concentrations of agonists with respect to the induced increase in cytosolic free Ca 2+ and stimulation of Ca 2+ efflux. No decrease in agonist binding affinity was observed when the displacement of a labelled antagonist, 3 H-NMS, by a non-labelled agonist was studied

  17. Presynaptic muscarinic receptors: Change of sensitivity during long-term drug treatment

    Marchi, M.; Raiteri, M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate some of the characteristics of auto- and heteroreceptors from different brain areas in male rats; their alteration in sensitivity following chronic drug treatment is monitored. The synaptosomes were prelabeled with tritium-choline or tritium-dopamine and the release of tritium-acetylcholine and tritium-DA was studied in superfusion. It is shown that the difference in susceptibility between auto- and heteroreceptors with respect to changes of sensitivity may represent a further criterion to discriminate between muscarinic receptor subtypes

  18. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-07

    The interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of behavioral responses has been previously established. In the brain, M2 receptors are found predominantly in presynaptic cholinergic neurons as autoreceptors, and in dopaminergic neurons as heteroceptors, suggesting a control role of acetylcholine and dopamine release, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the role of M2 receptors on the yawning and genital grooming of rats induced by apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist, focusing on the interaction between cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Initially, the effect of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, on yawning and genital grooming induced by apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.) was analyzed. Atropine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before induction of the behavioral responses by apomorphine. Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were quantified over a 60 min period. Apomorphine-induced yawning was increased by low dose (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but not by high doses (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) of atropine. Genital grooming was antagonized by 2 mg/kg i.p. of atropine and showed no changes at the other doses tested. Tripitramine, a selective M2 cholinergic antagonist, was used as a tool for distinguishing between M2 and all other muscarinic receptor subtypes in yawning and genital grooming. Tripitramine doses of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 μmol/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.). Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were also quantified over a 60 min period. Tripitramine 0.01 μmol/kg increased all parameters. Higher doses, which possibly block all subtypes of muscarinic receptor, did not modify the response of apomorphine, suggesting a non-selective effect of tripitramine at these doses. Given that low doses of tripitramine increased the behavioral responses induced by apomorphine and that the main distribution of the M2

  19. Dual effects of muscarinic M2 acetylcholine receptors on the synthesis of cyclic AMP in CHO cells: dependence on time, receptor density and receptor agonists

    Michal, Pavel; Lysíková, Michaela; Tuček, Stanislav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 6 (2001), s. 1217-1228 ISSN 0007-1188 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/99/0214; GA AV ČR IAA7011910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : cyclic AMP * muscarinic receptors * CHO cells Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.502, year: 2001

  20. Effects of selective activation of M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors on object recognition memory performance in rats.

    Galloway, Claire R; Lebois, Evan P; Shagarabi, Shezza L; Hernandez, Norma A; Manns, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine signaling through muscarinic receptors has been shown to benefit memory performance in some conditions, but pan-muscarinic activation also frequently leads to peripheral side effects. Drug therapies that selectively target M1 or M4 muscarinic receptors could potentially improve memory while minimizing side effects mediated by the other muscarinic receptor subtypes. The ability of three recently developed drugs that selectively activate M1 or M4 receptors to improve recognition memory was tested by giving Long-Evans rats subcutaneous injections of three different doses of the M1 agonist VU0364572, the M1 positive allosteric modulator BQCA or the M4 positive allosteric modulator VU0152100 before performing an object recognition memory task. VU0364572 at 0.1 mg/kg, BQCA at 1.0 mg/kg and VU0152100 at 3.0 and 30.0 mg/kg improved the memory performance of rats that performed poorly at baseline, yet the improvements in memory performance were the most statistically robust for VU0152100 at 3.0 mg/kg. The results suggested that selective M1 and M4 receptor activation each improved memory but that the likelihood of obtaining behavioral efficacy at a given dose might vary between subjects even in healthy groups depending on baseline performance. These results also highlighted the potential of drug therapies that selectively target M1 or M4 receptors to improve memory performance in individuals with impaired memory.

  1. A novel muscarinic receptor ligand which penetrates the blood brain barrier and displays in vivo selectivity for the m2 subtype

    Gitler, M.S.; Cohen, V.I.; De La Cruz, R.; Boulay, S.F.; Jin, B.; Zeeberg, B.R.; Reba, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves selective loss of muscarinic m2, but not m1, subtype neuroreceptors in the posterior parietal cortex of the human brain. Emission tomographic study of the loss of m2 receptors in AD is limited by the fact that there is currently no available m2-selective radioligand which can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. In our efforts to prepare such a radioligand, the authors have used competition studies against currently existing muscarinic receptor radioligands to infer the in vitro and in vivo properties of a novel muscarinic receptor ligand, 5-[[4-[4-(diisobutylamino)butyl]-1-phenyl]acetyl]-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,e][1,4]diazepin-11-one (DIBD). In vitro competition studies against [ 3 H](R)-3-quinuclidinylbenzilate ([ 3 H]QNB) and [ 3 H]N-methylscopolamine ([ 3 H]NMS), using membranes derived from transfected cells expressing only m1, m2, m3, or m4 receptor subtypes, indicate that DIBD is selective for m2/m4 over m1/m3. In vivo competition studies against (R,R)-[ 125 I]IQNB indicate that DIBD crosses the blood brain barrier (BBB). The relationship of the regional percentage decrease in (R,R)-[ 125 I]IQNB versus the percentage of each of the receptor subtypes indicates that DIBD competes more effectively in those brain regions which are known to be enriched in the m2, relative to the m1, m3, and m4, receptor subtype; however, analysis of the data using a mathematical model shows that caution is required when interpreting the in vivo results. The authors conclude that a suitably radiolabeled derivative of DIBD may be of potential use in emission tomographic study of changes in m2 receptors in the central nervous system

  2. Permanent alterations in muscarinic receptors and pupil size produced by chronic atropinization in kittens

    Smith, E.L.; Redburn, D.A.; Harwerth, R.S.; Maguire, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Chronic mydriasis was induced in six kittens (four monocular, two binocular) and two adult cats (both monocular) by the daily topical application of atropine. Both the kittens and the adult cats were atropinized for a 13-week period with the treatment regimen beginning at the time of eye opening for the kittens. Pupil size measurements, obtained 1 year after the atropinization were discontinued, revealed that, although the pupils of the adult cats were normal, the pupils of the kittens' treated eyes were consistently smaller than pupils in control eyes. The status of the muscarinic receptors in the kittens' irides was investigated using 3 H-QNB binding assays. In comparison with iris muscle homogenates from the control eyes, those from the treated eyes demonstrated an eightfold increase in the number of receptor binding sites. The results indicate that pupil size can be altered permanently by chronic mydriasis initiated early in the life of a kitten and that the permanent change in pupil size may result, in part, from a type of permanent supersensitivity response in the muscle following chronic blockade of muscarinic transmission by atropine

  3. The M3 muscarinic receptor is required for optimal adaptive immunity to helminth and bacterial infection.

    Matthew Darby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is regulated by cholinergic signalling through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We show here that signalling through the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R plays an important role in adaptive immunity to both Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, as M3R-/- mice were impaired in their ability to resolve infection with either pathogen. CD4 T cell activation and cytokine production were reduced in M3R-/- mice. Immunity to secondary infection with N. brasiliensis was severely impaired, with reduced cytokine responses in M3R-/- mice accompanied by lower numbers of mucus-producing goblet cells and alternatively activated macrophages in the lungs. Ex vivo lymphocyte stimulation of cells from intact BALB/c mice infected with N. brasiliensis and S. typhimurium with muscarinic agonists resulted in enhanced production of IL-13 and IFN-γ respectively, which was blocked by an M3R-selective antagonist. Our data therefore indicate that cholinergic signalling via the M3R is essential for optimal Th1 and Th2 adaptive immunity to infection.

  4. Negative cooperativity in binding of muscarinic receptor agonists and GDP as a measure of agonist efficacy.

    Jakubík, J; Janíčková, H; El-Fakahany, E E; Doležal, V

    2011-03-01

    Conventional determination of agonist efficacy at G-protein coupled receptors is measured by stimulation of guanosine-5'-γ-thiotriphosphate (GTPγS) binding. We analysed the role of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) in the process of activation of the M₂ muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and provide evidence that negative cooperativity between agonist and GDP binding is an alternative measure of agonist efficacy. Filtration and scintillation proximity assays measured equilibrium binding as well as binding kinetics of [³⁵S]GTPγS and [³H]GDP to a mixture of G-proteins as well as individual classes of G-proteins upon binding of structurally different agonists to the M₂ muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Agonists displayed biphasic competition curves with the antagonist [³H]-N-methylscopolamine. GTPγS (1 µM) changed the competition curves to monophasic with low affinity and 50 µM GDP produced a similar effect. Depletion of membrane-bound GDP increased the proportion of agonist high-affinity sites. Carbachol accelerated the dissociation of [³H]GDP from membranes. The inverse agonist N-methylscopolamine slowed GDP dissociation and GTPγS binding without changing affinity for GDP. Carbachol affected both GDP association with and dissociation from G(i/o) G-proteins but only its dissociation from G(s/olf) G-proteins. These findings suggest the existence of a low-affinity agonist-receptor conformation complexed with GDP-liganded G-protein. Also the negative cooperativity between GDP and agonist binding at the receptor/G-protein complex determines agonist efficacy. GDP binding reveals differences in action of agonists versus inverse agonists as well as differences in activation of G(i/o) versus G(s/olf) G-proteins that are not identified by conventional GTPγS binding. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. SPET imaging of central muscarinic receptors with (R,R)[123I]-I-QNB: methodological considerations

    Norbury, R.; Travis, M.J.; Erlandsson, K.; Waddington, W.; Owens, J.; Ell, P.J.; Murphy, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    Investigations on the effect of normal healthy ageing on the muscarinic system have shown conflicting results. Also, in vivo determination of muscarinic receptor binding has been hampered by a lack of subtype selective ligands and differences in methods used for quantification of receptor densities. Recent in vitro and in vivo work with the muscarinic antagonist (R,R)-I-QNB indicates this ligand has selectivity for m 1 and m 4 muscarinic receptor subtypes. Therefore, we used (R,R)[ 123 I]-I-QNB and single photon emission tomography to study brain m 1 and m 4 muscarinic receptors in 25 healthy female subjects (11 younger subjects, age range 26-32 years and 14 older subjects, age range 57-82 years). Our aims were to ascertain the viability of tracer administration and imaging within the same day, and to evaluate whether normalization to whole brain, compared to normalization to cerebellum, could alter the clinical interpretation of results. Images were analyzed using the simplified reference tissue model and by two ratio methods: normalization to whole brain and normalization to cerebellum. Significant correlations were observed between kinetic analysis and normalization to cerebellum, but not to whole brain. Both the kinetic analysis and normalization to cerebellum showed age-related reductions in muscarinic binding in frontal, orbitofrontal, and parietal regions. Normalization to whole brain, however, failed to detect age-related changes in any region. Here we show that, for this radiotracer, normalizing to a region of negligible specific binding (cerebellum) significantly improves sensitivity when compared to global normalization

  6. Costimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate and muscarinic neuronal receptors modulates gap junctional communication in striatal astrocytes

    Rouach, N.; Tencé, M.; Glowinski, J.; Giaume, C.

    2002-01-01

    Cocultures of neurons and astrocytes from the rat striatum were used to determine whether the stimulation of neuronal receptors could affect the level of intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions in astrocytes. The costimulation of N-methyl-D-asparte (NMDA) and muscarinic receptors led to a prominent reduction of astrocyte gap junctional communication (GJC) in coculture. This treatment was not effective in astrocyte cultures, these cells being devoid of NMDA receptors. Both types ...

  7. Synthesis of dibenzodioxazocines and their effects on cholinesterases and muscarinic cholinergic receptors.

    Gaál, J; Batke, J; Borsodi, A; Rózsa, L; Somogyi, G

    1989-01-01

    A new family of tricyclic compounds, the dibenzodioxazocines were synthesized. These compounds were the following: 2-chloro-12-(2-piperidino-ethyl)-dibenzo d,g 1,3,6 dioxazocine hydrochloride: EGYT-2347, 2-chloro-12-(3-dimethylamino-2-methyl-propyl)-dibenzo [d,g] [1,3,6]-dibenzodioxazocine hydrochloride: EGYT-2509, 2-chloro-12-(3-dimethylamino-propyl)-dibenzo [d,g] [1,3,6] dioxazocine-maleate: EGYT-2474 and 2-chloro-12-2-(4-methyl-piperazino)-ethyl-dibenzo [d,g] [1,3,6]-dioxazocine-dihydrochloride: EGYT-2541. These compounds are inhibitors of both butyryl- and acetylcholinesterase to and they exhibited relatively good anticholinergic properties in receptor binding experiments. The most selective inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase is the compound EGYT-2347 (Ki = 1.5 x 10(-7) M) which strongly binds to rat brain muscarinic cholinergic receptor (KD = 4.1 x 10(-8) M).

  8. The detection of the non-M2 muscarinic receptor subtype in the rat heart atria and ventricles

    Mysliveček, J.; Klein, M.; Nováková, M.; Říčný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 378, č. 1 (2008), s. 103-116 ISSN 0028-1298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : heart * muscarinic receptors * PLC activity Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 2.830, year: 2008

  9. Immunocytochemical demonstration of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors at the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes of rat diaphragm endplates

    Malomouzh, A. I.; Arkhipova, S. S.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Vyskočil, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2011), s. 185-188 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110905; GA ČR GA202/09/0806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : skeletal muscle * M1 muscarinic receptor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.555, year: 2011

  10. Allosteric modulation by persistent binding of xanomeline of the interaction of competitive ligands with the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Jakubík, Jan; Tuček, Stanislav; El-Fakahany, E. E.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 301, č. 3 (2002), s. 1033-1041 ISSN 0022-3565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP305/01/D119 Grant - others:NIH(US) NS25743 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : xanomeline * M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.991, year: 2002

  11. Muscarinic receptor-mediated inositol tetrakisphosphate response in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    Sanborn, B.B.; Schneider, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate (IP 3 ), a product of the phosphoinositide cycle, mobilizes intracellular Ca 2+ in many cell types. New evidence suggests that inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP 4 ), an IP 3 derivative, may act as another second messenger to further alter calcium homeostasis. However, the function and mechanism of action of IP 4 are presently unresolved. We now report evidence of muscarinic receptor-mediated accumulation of IP 4 in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, a classic neurosecretory system in which calcium movements have been well studied. Muscarine stimulated an increase in [ 3 H]IP 4 and [ 3 H]IP 3 accumulation in chromaffin cells and this effect was completely blocked by atropine. [ 3 H]IP 4 accumulation was detectable within 15 sec, increased to a maximum by 30 sec and thereafter declined. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, an inhibitor of IP 3 and IP 4 hydrolysis, enhanced accumulation of these inositol polyphosphates. The results provide the first evidence of a rapid inositol tetrakisphosphate response in adrenal chromaffin cells, which should facilitate the future resolution of the relationship between IP 4 and calcium homeostasis

  12. Identification of four areas each enriched in a unique muscarinic receptor subtype

    Hoss, W.; Ellerbrock, B.R.; Goldman, P.S.; Collins, D.A.; Messer, W.S. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The affinities of muscarinic agonists and antagonists were determined by autoradiography and image analysis in selected areas of the rat brain. IC 50 values and Hill coefficients for the inhibition of the binding of 0.2 nM [ 3 H]-QNB to dentate gyrus, superior colliculus, rhomboid thalamus and substantia nigra were measured in coronal sections. Pirenzepine displayed a high affinity for receptors in the dentate gyrus and AF-DX 116, the superior colliculus. Both pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 had high affinities for the substantia nigra and low affinities for the rhomboid thalamus. Gallamine displayed a 50-fold preference for superior colliculus over dentate gyrus receptors. Amitriptyline was less selective, showing a modest preference for substantia nigra receptors and 4-DAMP was essentially nonselective. Carbachol was the most selective agonist with a 4000-fold preference for superior colliculus over dentate gyrus receptors. Other agonists except RS 86 were also selective for superior colliculus receptors in the order carbachol >> arecoline > bethanechol > McN A343 = oxotremorine = pilocarpine

  13. Muscarinic and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor binding characteristics of saw palmetto extract in rat lower urinary tract.

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Oki, Tomomi; Sugiyama, Tomomi; Umegaki, Keizo; Uchida, Shinya; Yamada, Shizuo

    2007-06-01

    To elucidate the in vitro and ex vivo effects of saw palmetto extract (SPE) on autonomic receptors in the rat lower urinary tract. The in vitro binding affinities for alpha 1-adrenergic, muscarinic, and purinergic receptors in the rat prostate and bladder were measured by radioligand binding assays. Rats received vehicle or SPE (0.6 to 60 mg/kg/day) orally for 4 weeks, and alpha 1-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor binding in tissues of these rats were measured. Saw palmetto extract inhibited specific binding of [3H]prazosin and [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methyl chloride (NMS) but not alpha, beta-methylene adenosine triphosphate [2,8-(3)H]tetrasodium salt in the rat prostate and bladder. The binding activity of SPE for muscarinic receptors was four times greater than that for alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. Scatchard analysis revealed that SPE significantly reduced the maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) for each radioligand in the prostate and bladder under in vitro condition. Repeated oral administration of SPE to rats brought about significant alteration in Bmax for prostatic [3H]prazosin binding and for bladder [3H]NMS binding. Such alteration by SPE was selective to the receptors in the lower urinary tract. Saw palmetto extract exerts significant binding activity on autonomic receptors in the lower urinary tract under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  14. Involvement of a subpopulation of neuronal M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the antipsychotic-like effects of the M1/M4 preferring muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline

    Dencker, Ditte; Wörtwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Disturbances in central dopaminergic neurotransmission are believed to be centrally involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Central dopaminergic and cholinergic systems interact and the cholinergic muscarinic agonist xanomeline has shown antipsychotic effects in clinical studies. Preclinic...

  15. Immunocytochemical localization of choline acetyltransferase and muscarinic ACh receptors in the antenna during development of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta.

    Clark, Julie; Meisner, Shannon; Torkkeli, Päivi H

    2005-04-01

    Immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies was used to investigate the locations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sections of the developing antennae of the moth Manduca sexta. The results were correlated with a previous morphological investigation in the developing antennae which allowed us to locate different cell types at various stages of development. Our findings indicated that the muscarinic cholinergic system was not restricted to the sensory neurons but was also present in glial and epidermal cells. By day 4-5 of adult development, immunoreactivity against both antibodies was present in the axons of the antennal nerve, and more intense labeling was present in sections from older pupae. At days 4-9, the cell bodies of the sensory neurons in the basal part of the epidermis were also intensely immunolabeled by the anti-mAChR antibody. In mature flagella, large numbers of cells, some with processes into hairs, were strongly labeled by both antibodies. Antennal glial cells were intensely immunolabeled with both antibodies by days 4-5, but in later stages, it was not possible to discriminate between glial and neural staining. At days 4-9, we observed a distinctly labeled layer of epidermal cells close to the developing cuticle. The expression of both ChAT and mAChRs by neurons in moth antennae may allow the regulation of excitability by endogenous ACh. Cholinergic communication between neurons and glia may be part of the system that guides axon elongation during development. The cholinergic system in the apical part of the developing epidermis could be involved in cuticle formation.

  16. The Effects of Nicotinic and Muscarinic Receptor Activation on Patch-Clamped Cells in the Optic Tectum of Rana Pipiens

    Yu, C.-J.; Debski, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    Both nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are present in the optic tectum. To begin to understand how the activation of these receptors affects visual activity patterns, we have determined the types of physiological responses induced by their activation. Using tectal brain slices from the leopard frog, we found that application of nicotine (100 μM) evoked long-lasting responses in 60% of patch-clamped tectal cells. Thirty percent of these responses consisted of an increase in sponta...

  17. Molecular basis of the functional heterogeneity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Numa, S.; Fukuda, K.; Kubo, T.; Maeda, A.; Akiba, I.; Bujo, H.; Nakai, J.; Mishina, M.; Higashida, H.

    1988-01-01

    The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) mediates a variety of cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides, and modulation of potassium channels, through the action of guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins). The question then arises as to whether multiple mAChR species exist that are responsible for the various biochemical and physiological effects. In fact, pharmacologically distinguishable forms of the mAChR occur in different tissues and have been provisionally classified into M 1 (I), M 2 cardiac (II), and M 2 glandular (III) subtypes on the basis of their difference in apparent affinity for antagonists. Here, the authors have made attempts to understand the molecular basis of the functional heterogeneity of the mAChR, using recombinant DNA technology

  18. Changes in acetylcholine content, release and muscarinic receptors in rat hippocampus under cold stress

    Fatranska, M.; Budai, D.; Gulya, K; Kvetnansky, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim was to study the mechanism of the previously established decrease in acetylcholine (ACh) concentration in the rat hippocampus under cold stress. Male rats were exposed for 14 days to cold (5 degree C) or kept (controls) at room temperature (24 degree C). Acetylcholine content, release and muscarinic receptor binding were investigated in the hippocampus. Cold exposure resulted in a decrease of ACh concentration in the dorsal hippocampus. Moreover, the potassium-evoked release of ACh from hippocampal slices was increased and an increase of maximal binding capacity of [ 3 H](-) quinuclidinyl benzilate in the dorsal hippocampus of cold exposed animals was also observed. Thus the decrease of hippocampal ACh concentration under cold exposure is probably due to its increased release. On balance then, our results demonstrate that cold stress in the rat induces significant activation of the hippocampal cholinergic system

  19. Vitamin C deficiency reduces muscarinic receptor coronary artery vasoconstriction and plasma tetrahydrobiopterin concentration in guinea pigs

    Skovsted, Gry Freja; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries...... exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32) were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet) or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet) vitC for 10-12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph. Vasomotor responses to potassium......-1 were unaffected by vitC status. The study shows that vitC deficiency decreases tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations and muscarinic receptor mediated contraction in coronary arteries. This attenuated vasoconstrictor response may be linked to altered production of vasoactive arachidonic acid...

  20. Functional Characterization of CCHamide and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Signalling in Drosophila melanogaster

    Ren, Guilin Robin

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large and ancient superfamily of membraneproteins responsible for the transduction of extracellular signals to the inside of the cells. In thisPh.D. thesis, Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) was used as a model organism to investigate a numberof topics...... is a newly discovered insect peptide hormone. The function of this novel peptide hasnot been well characterised. In this Ph.D. thesis, I identified CCHamide-2 peptides in endocrinecells of the gut and neurones of the brain of larvae and endocrine cells of the gut of adultDrosophila. Behavioural assays...... little is known about muscarinic acetylcholine receptorsignalling in insects. In this study, I found that two types of mAChRs occur in D. melanogaster, onecoupling to Gq (A-type) and the other to Gi (B-type). Both A- and B-type Dm-mAChRs can beactivated by acetylcholine (ACh), but the classical...

  1. Comparative Effects of Oral Chlorpyrifos Exposure on Cholinesterase Activity and Muscarinic Receptor Binding in Neonatal and Adult Rat Heart

    Howard, Marcia D.; Mirajkar, Nikita; Karanth, Subramanya; Pope, Carey N.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme responsible for inactivating acetylcholine (ACh) at cholinergic synapses. A number of OP toxicants have also been reported to interact directly with muscarinic receptors, in particular the M2 muscarinic subtype. Parasympathetic innervation to the heart primarily regulates cardiac function by activating M2 receptors in the sinus node, atrial-ventricular node and conducting tissues. Thus, OP insecticides can potentially influence cardiac function in a receptor–mediated manner indirectly by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase and directly by binding to muscarinic M2 receptors. Young animals are generally more sensitive than adults to the acute toxicity of OP insecticides and age related differences in potency of direct binding to muscarinic receptors by some OP toxicants have been reported. We thus compared the effects of the common OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on functional signs of toxicity and cardiac ChE activity and muscarinic receptor binding in neonatal and adult rats. Dosages were based on acute lethality (i.e., 0.5 and 1 × LD10: neonates, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg; adults, 68 and 136 mg/kg). Dose- and time-related changes in body weight and cholinergic signs of toxicity (involuntary movements) were noted in both age groups. With 1 × LD10, relatively similar maximal reductions in ChE activity (95%) and muscarinic receptor binding (≈ 30%) were noted, but receptor binding reductions appeared earlier in adults and were more prolonged in neonates. In vitro inhibition studies indicated that ChE in neonatal tissues was markedly more sensitive to inhibition by the active metabolite of chlorpyrifos (i.e., chlorpyrifos oxon, CPO) than enzyme in adult tissues (IC50 values: neonates, 17 nM; adults, 200 nM). Chelation of free calcium with EDTA had relatively little effect on in vitro cholinesterase inhibition, suggesting that differential A-esterase activity was not

  2. Noninvasive quantification of muscarinic receptors in vivo with positron emission tomography in the dog heart

    Delforge, J.; Janier, M.; Syrota, A.; Crouzel, C.; Vallois, J.M.; Cayla, J.; Lancon, J.P.; Mazoyer, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    The in vivo quantification of myocardial muscarinic receptors has been obtained in six closed-chest dogs by using positron emission tomography. The dogs were injected with a trace amount of 11C-labeled methylquinuclidinyl benzilate (MQNB), a nonmetabolized antagonist of the muscarinic receptor. This was followed 30 minutes later by an injection of an excess of unlabeled MQNB (displacement experiment). Two additional injections of unlabeled MQNB with [11C]MQNB and without [11C]MQNB (second displacement experiment) were administered after 70 and 120 minutes, respectively. This protocol allowed a separate evaluation of the quantity of available receptors (B'max) as well as the association and dissociation rate constants (k+1 and k-1) in each dog. The parameters were calculated by using a nonlinear mathematical model in regions of interest over the left ventricle and the interventricular septum. The average value of B'max was 42 +/- 11 pmol/ml tissue, the rate constants k+1, k-1, and Kd were 0.6 +/- 0.1 ml.pmol-1.min-1, 0.27 +/- 0.03 ml.pmol-1.min-1, and 0.49 +/- 0.14 pmol.ml-1, respectively, taking into account the MQNB reaction volume estimated to 0.15 ml/ml tissue. Although [11C]MQNB binding would appear irreversible, our findings indicate that the association of the antagonist is very rapid and that the dissociation is far from negligible. The dissociated ligand, however, has a high probability of rebinding to a free receptor site instead of escaping into the microcirculation. We deduce that the positron emission tomographic images obtained after injecting a trace amount of [11C]MQNB are more representative of blood flow than of receptor density or affinity. We also suggest a simplified protocol consisting of a tracer injection of [11C]MQNB and a second injection of an excess of cold MQNB, which is sufficient to measure B'max and Kd in humans

  3. The M1 muscarinic receptor and its second messenger coupling in human neuroblastoma cells and transfected murine fibroblast cells

    Mei, Lin.

    1989-01-01

    The data of this study indicate that pirenzepine (PZ)-high affinity muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) are coupled to the hydrolysis of inositol lipids and not to the adenylate cyclase system in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The maximal carbachol(CCh)-stimulated [ 3 H]IP 1 accumulation in the SH-SY5Y cells was decreased in the presence of 1μg/ml pertussis toxin, suggesting that a pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein may be involved in the coupling. Several cell clones which express only M 1 mAChR were generated by transfecting the murine fibroblast B82 cells with the cloned rat genomic m 1 gene. The transfected B82 cells (cTB10) showed specific [ 3 H](-)QNB binding activity. The mAChRs in these cells are of the M 1 type defined by their high affinity for PZ and low affinity for AF-DX 116 and coupled to hydrolysis of inositol lipids, possibly via a pertussis toxin sensitive G protein. The relationship between the M 1 mAChR density and the receptor-mediated hydrolysis of inositol lipids was studied in 7 clones. The M 1 mAChR densities in these cells characterized by [ 3 H](-)MQNB binding ranged from 12 fmol/10 6 cells in LK3-1 cells to 260 fmol/10 6 cells in the LK3-8 cells

  4. Blocking muscarinic receptors in the olfactory bulb impairs performance on an olfactory short-term memory task.

    Devore, Sasha; Manella, Laura C; Linster, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs to cortical processing networks have long been associated with attentional and top-down processing. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that cholinergic inputs to the main olfactory bulb (OB) can modulate both neural and behavioral odor discrimination. Previous experiments from our laboratory and others demonstrate that blockade of nicotinic receptors directly impairs olfactory discrimination, whereas blockade of muscarinic receptors only measurably impairs olfactory perception when task demands are made more challenging, such as when very low-concentration odors are used or rats are required to maintain sensory memory over long durations. To further investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in the OB, we developed an olfactory delayed match-to-sample task using a digging-based behavioral paradigm. We find that rats are able to maintain robust short-term odor memory for 10-100 s. To investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in task performance, we bilaterally infused scopolamine into the OB. We find that high dosages of scopolamine (38 mM) impair performance on the task across all delays tested, including the baseline condition with no delay, whereas lower dosages (7.6 mM and 22.8 mM) had no measureable effects. These results indicate that general execution of the match-to-sample task, even with no delay, is at least partially dependent on muscarinic signaling in the OB.

  5. Unraveling a molecular determinant for clathrin-independent internalization of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Wan, Min; Zhang, Wenhua; Tian, Yangli; Xu, Chanjuan; Xu, Tao; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Rongying

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis and postendocytic sorting of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is important for the regulation of both their cell surface density and signaling profile. Unlike the mechanisms of clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE), the mechanisms underlying the control of GPCR signaling by clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) remain largely unknown. Among the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), the M4 mAChR undergoes CDE and recycling, whereas the M2 mAChR is internalized through CIE and targeted to lysosomes. Here we investigated the endocytosis and postendocytic trafficking of M2 mAChR based on a comparative analysis of the third cytoplasmic domain in M2 and M4 mAChRs. For the first time, we identified that the sequence 374KKKPPPS380 servers as a sorting signal for the clathrin-independent internalization of M2 mAChR. Switching 374KKKPPPS380 to the i3 loop of the M4 mAChR shifted the receptor into lysosomes through the CIE pathway; and therefore away from CDE and recycling. We also found another previously unidentified sequence that guides CDE of the M2 mAChR, 361VARKIVKMTKQPA373, which is normally masked in the presence of the downstream sequence 374KKKPPPS380. Taken together, our data indicate that endocytosis and postendocytic sorting of GPCRs that undergo CIE could be sequence-dependent. PMID:26094760

  6. Presynaptic Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors and TrkB Receptor Cooperate in the Elimination of Redundant Motor Nerve Terminals during Development.

    Nadal, Laura; Garcia, Neus; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Cilleros, Victor; Tomàs, Josep

    2017-01-01

    The development of the nervous system involves the overproduction of synapses but connectivity is refined by Hebbian activity-dependent axonal competition. The newborn skeletal muscle fibers are polyinnervated but, at the end of the competition process, some days later, become innervated by a single axon. We used quantitative confocal imaging of the autofluorescent axons from transgenic B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-YFP)16 Jrs/J mice to investigate the possible cooperation of the muscarinic autoreceptors (mAChR, M 1 -, M 2 - and M 4 -subtypes) and the tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptor in the control of axonal elimination after the mice Levator auris longus (LAL) muscle had been exposed to several selective antagonist of the corresponding receptor pathways in vivo . Our previous results show that M 1 , M 2 and TrkB signaling individually increase axonal loss rate around P9. Here we show that although the M 1 and TrkB receptors cooperate and add their respective individual effects to increase axonal elimination rate even more, the effect of the M 2 receptor is largely independent of both M 1 and TrkB receptors. Thus both, cooperative and non-cooperative signaling mechanisms contribute to developmental synapse elimination.

  7. Ventricular, but not atrial, M2-muscarinic receptors increase in the canine pacing-overdrive model of heart failure.

    Wilkinson, M; Giles, A; Armour, J A; Cardinal, R

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the effects of heart failure induced by chronic rapid ventricular pacing (six weeks) on canine atrial and ventricular muscarinic receptors. Dogs (n = 4) were fitted with a bipolar pacing electrode connected to a Medtronic pacemaker set at 240 stimuli/min. Pacing was maintained for six weeks. Tissue samples obtained from the left atrium and ventral wall of the left ventricle were frozen at -70 degrees C. Control tissue was obtained from normal dogs (n = 6) following anesthesia and thoracotomy. M2-muscarinic receptors were characterized and quantified in tissue micropunches using the hydrophilic ligand [3H] N-methyl-scopolamine (NMS). Cardiac tissue bound [3H] NMS with the specificity of an M2 subtype. Tachycardia-induced heart failure did not affect atrial muscarinic receptors but signify left ventricular myocytes (control 160.0 +/- 10.0 fmol/mg protein versus heart failure 245.0 +/- 25.0 fmol/mg protein; P failure was accompanied by an increase (+ 53%) in ventricular, but not atrial, M2 receptors compared with normal dogs.

  8. Determinants of positive cooperativity between strychnine-like allosteric modulators and N-methylscopolamine at muscarinic receptors

    Jakubík, Jan; Doležal, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1-2 (2006), s. 111-112 ISSN 0895-8696 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/05/0452; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * strychnine -like allosteric modulators * cooperativity Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.965, year: 2006

  9. Muscarinic cholinergic and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the epithelium and muscularis of the human ileum

    Lepor, H.; Rigaud, G.; Shapiro, E.; Baumann, M.; Kodner, I.J.; Fleshman, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the binding and functional properties of muscarinic cholinergic (MCh) and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the human ileum to provide insight into pharmacologic strategies for managing urinary and fecal incontinence after bladder and rectal replacement with intestinal segments. MCh and alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites were characterized in the epithelium and muscularis of eight human ileal segments with 3H-N-methylscopolamine and 3H-rauwolscine, respectively. The dissociation constant for 3H-N-methylscopolamine in the epithelium and muscularis was 0.32 +/- 0.07 nmol/L and 0.45 +/- 0.10 nmol/L, respectively (p = 0.32). The MCh receptor content was approximately eightfold greater in the muscularis compared with the epithelium (p = 0.008). The dissociation constant for 3H-rauwolscine in the muscularis and epithelium was 2.55 +/- 0.42 nmol/L and 2.03 +/- 0.19 nmol/L, respectively (p = 0.29). The alpha 2-adrenoceptor density was twofold greater in the epithelium compared with the muscularis (p = 0.05). Noncumulative concentration-response experiments were performed with carbachol, an MCh agonist, and UK-14304, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic agonist. The epithelium did not contract in the presence of high concentrations of carbachol and UK-14304. The muscularis preparations were responsive only to carbachol. The muscularis contains primarily MCh receptors mediating smooth muscle contraction. The alpha 2-adrenoceptors are localized primarily to the epithelium and may regulate water secretion in the intestine. The distribution and functional properties of ileal MCh and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors provide a theoretic basis for the treatment of incontinence after bladder and rectal replacement with intestinal segments

  10. Characterization of muscarinic and P2X receptors in the urothelium and detrusor muscle of the rat bladder

    Masaki Ogoda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscarinic and purinergic (P2X receptors play critical roles in bladder urothelium under physiological and pathological conditions. Aim of present study was to characterize these receptors in rat bladder urothelium and detrusor muscle using selective radioligands of [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methyl chloride ([3H]NMS and αβ-methylene ATP [2,8-3H]tetrasodium salt ([3H]αβ-MeATP. Similar binding parameters for each radioligand were observed in urothelium and detrusor muscle. Pretreatment with N-(2-chloroethyl-4-piperidinyl diphenylacetate (4-DAMP mustard mustard revealed co-existence of M2 and M3 receptors, with the number of M2 receptors being larger in the urothelium and detrusor muscle. Intravesical administration of imidafenacin and Dpr-P-4 (N → O (active metabolite of propiverine displayed significant binding of muscarinic receptors in the urothelium and detrusor muscle. The treatment with cyclophosphamide (CYP or resiniferatoxin (RTX resulted in a significant decrease in maximal number of binding sites (Bmax for [3H]NMS and/or [3H]αβ-MeATP in the urothelium and detrusor muscle. These results demonstrated that 1 pharmacological characteristics of muscarinic and P2X receptors in rat bladder urothelium were similar to those in the detrusor muscle, 2 that densities of these receptors were significantly altered by pretreatments with CYP and RTX, and 3 that these receptors may be pharmacologically affected by imidafenacin and Dpr-P-4 (N → O which are excreted in the urine.

  11. Highly specific detection of muscarinic M3 receptor, G protein interaction and intracellular trafficking in human detrusor using Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA).

    Berndt-Paetz, Mandy; Herbst, Luise; Weimann, Annett; Gonsior, Andreas; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2018-05-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) regulate a number of important physiological functions. Alteration of mAChR expression or function has been associated in the etiology of several pathologies including functional bladder disorders (e.g bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis - BPS/IC). In a previous study we found specific mAChR expression patterns associated with BPS/IC, while correlation between protein and gene expression was lacking. Posttranslational regulatory mechanisms, e.g. altered intracellular receptor trafficking, could explain those differences. In addition, alternative G protein (GP) coupling could add to the pathophysiology via modulation of muscarinic signaling. In our proof-of-principle study, we addressed these questions in situ. We established PLA in combination with confocal laserscanning microscopy (CLSM) and 3D object reconstruction for highly specific detection and analysis of muscarinic 3 receptors (M3), G protein (GP) coupling and intracellular trafficking in human detrusor samples. Paraffin sections of formalin-fixed bladder tissue (FFPE) of BPS/IC patients receiving transurethral biopsy were examined by Cy3-PLA for M3 expression, coupling of M3 to GPs (G αq/11 , G αs , G αi ) and interaction of M3 with endocytic regulator proteins. Membranes were labeled with wheat germ agglutinin-Alexa Fluor ® 488, nuclei were stained with DAPI. Object density and co-localization were analyzed in 3D-reconstruction of high resolution confocal z-stacks. Confocal image stack processing resulted in well demarcated objects. Calculated receptor densities correlated significantly with existing confocal expression data, while significantly improved specificity of M3 detection by PLA was verified using bladder tissue samples from transgenic mice. 50-60% of the M3 receptor complexes were plasma membrane associated in human bladder detrusor. Application of PLA for M3 and GPs allowed visualization of M3-GP interactions and revealed individual GP

  12. The effects of nicotinic and muscarinic receptor activation on patch-clamped cells in the optic tectum of Rana pipiens.

    Yu, C-J; Debski, E A

    2003-01-01

    Both nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are present in the optic tectum. To begin to understand how the activation of these receptors affects visual activity patterns, we have determined the types of physiological responses induced by their activation. Using tectal brain slices from the leopard frog, we found that application of nicotine (100 microM) evoked long-lasting responses in 60% of patch-clamped tectal cells. Thirty percent of these responses consisted of an increase in spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) and had both a glutamatergic and GABAergic component as determined by the use of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (50 microM) and bicuculline (25 microM), respectively. Remaining response types consisted of an inward membrane current (16%) and an increase in sPSCs combined with an inward membrane current (14%). All responses could be elicited in the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.5 microM). Muscarinic receptor-mediated responses, induced by carbachol (100 microM) application after nicotinic receptor desensitization, produced responses in 70% of tectal cells. In contrast to responses elicited by nicotine, carbachol-induced responses could be evoked multiple times without significant decrement. Responses consisted of either an outward current (57%), a decrease in sPSCs (5%) or an increase in sPSCs, with (almost 6%) or without (almost 3%) an outward current. The response elicited by carbachol was not predicted by the response of the cell to nicotine. Our results suggest that nicotinic receptors are found predominantly at presynaptic locations in the optic tectum while muscarinic receptors are most often present at postsynaptic sites. We conclude that both of these receptor types could substantially modulate visual activity by changing either the input to tectal neurons or the level of their response to that input.

  13. Topographical distribution of decrements and recovery in muscarinic receptors from rat brains repeatedly exposed to sublethal doses of soman

    Churchill, L.; Pazdernik, T.L.; Jackson, J.L.; Nelson, S.R.; Samson, F.E.; McDonough, J.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    [3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to rat brain muscarinic receptors decreased after repeated exposure to soman, a potent organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. The topographical distribution of this decrement was analyzed by quantitative receptor autoradiography. After 4 weeks of soman, three times a week, quinuclidinyl benzilate binding decreased to 67 to 80% of control in frontal and parietal cortex, caudate-putamen, lateral septum, hippocampal body, dentate gyrus, superior colliculus, nucleus of the fifth nerve, and central grey. Minor or no decreases were observed in thalamic or hypothalamic nuclei, reticular formation, pontine nuclei, inferior colliculus, nucleus of the seventh nerve, and cerebellum. Scatchard analyses of saturation curves using frontal cortex sections from soman-treated rats revealed a decrease in maximal quinuclidinyl benzilate binding from that in control rats and a return toward control levels by 24 days without any significant change in affinity. These brain areas showing significant decrements in muscarinic receptors recovered with a similar time course. An estimate of the time for 50% recovery for some of the brain areas was 14 days for superior colliculus, 16 days for cortex, and 19 days for hippocampal body. The application of quantitative receptor autoradiography to analyze receptor alterations has been valuable in localizing the telencephalon as a region more susceptible to change in receptor concentration

  14. Topographical distribution of decrements and recovery in muscarinic receptors from rat brains repeatedly exposed to sublethal doses of soman

    Churchill, L.; Pazdernik, T.L.; Jackson, J.L.; Nelson, S.R.; Samson, F.E.; McDonough, J.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    (3H)Quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to rat brain muscarinic receptors decreased after repeated exposure to soman, a potent organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. The topographical distribution of this decrement was analyzed by quantitative receptor autoradiography. After 4 weeks of soman, three times a week, quinuclidinyl benzilate binding decreased to 67 to 80% of control in frontal and parietal cortex, caudate-putamen, lateral septum, hippocampal body, dentate gyrus, superior colliculus, nucleus of the fifth nerve, and central grey. Minor or no decreases were observed in thalamic or hypothalamic nuclei, reticular formation, pontine nuclei, inferior colliculus, nucleus of the seventh nerve, and cerebellum. Scatchard analyses of saturation curves using frontal cortex sections from soman-treated rats revealed a decrease in maximal quinuclidinyl benzilate binding from that in control rats and a return toward control levels by 24 days without any significant change in affinity. These brain areas showing significant decrements in muscarinic receptors recovered with a similar time course. An estimate of the time for 50% recovery for some of the brain areas was 14 days for superior colliculus, 16 days for cortex, and 19 days for hippocampal body. The application of quantitative receptor autoradiography to analyze receptor alterations has been valuable in localizing the telencephalon as a region more susceptible to change in receptor concentration.

  15. Z-(-,-)-[76Br]BrQNP: a high affinity PET radiotracer for central and cardiac muscarinic receptors

    Strijckmans, V.; Coulon, C.; Loc'h, C.; Maziere, B.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Knapp, F.F.

    1996-01-01

    Racemic E-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl α-(1-bromo-1-1-propen-3-yl)-α -hydroxy-α-phenylacetate (BrQNP) was prepared and evaluated in vivo as a potential candidate for imaging muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptors by Positron Emission Tomography. Initial in vivo blocking studies utilizing Z-(-,-)-[ 125 I]IQNP as a radiolabelled muscarinic probe demonstrated that a preinjection of cold E-BrQNP effectively blocks the uptake of the radiolabelled probe in the brain and heart, by 71% and 86% respectively. Z-(-,-)-[ 76 Br]BrQNP was prepared by electrophilic substitution from a tributylstannyl precursor. Peracetic acid and chloramine T was evaluated as oxidizing agents. After purification by SPE and RP-HPLC, radiolabelling yields of 85% and 95% were obtained with peracetic acid and chloramine T, respectively. The final radiochemical yield was 70% for both oxidizing agents. (author)

  16. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    (EPS) at therapeutically relevant doses. In the present study, we examined whether the xanomeline-induced functional dopamine antagonism found in rodent studies could also be observed in nonhuman primates. In addition, we studied whether the lack of EPS observed in rodents also applies to primates......Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects...

  17. Biological sex influences learning strategy preference and muscarinic receptor binding in specific brain regions of prepubertal rats.

    Grissom, Elin M; Hawley, Wayne R; Hodges, Kelly S; Fawcett-Patel, Jessica M; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-04-01

    According to the theory of multiple memory systems, specific brain regions interact to determine how the locations of goals are learned when rodents navigate a spatial environment. A number of factors influence the type of strategy used by rodents to remember the location of a given goal in space, including the biological sex of the learner. We recently found that prior to puberty male rats preferred a striatum-dependent stimulus-response strategy over a hippocampus-dependent place strategy when solving a dual-solution task, while age-matched females showed no strategy preference. Because the cholinergic system has been implicated in learning strategy and is known to be sexually dimorphic prior to puberty, we explored the relationship between learning strategy and muscarinic receptor binding in specific brain regions of prepubertal males and female rats. We confirmed our previous finding that at 28 days of age a significantly higher proportion of prepubertal males preferred a stimulus-response learning strategy than a place strategy to solve a dual-solution visible platform water maze task. Equal proportions of prepubertal females preferred stimulus-response or place strategies. Profiles of muscarinic receptor binding as assessed by autoradiography varied according to strategy preference. Regardless of biological sex, prepubertal rats that preferred stimulus-response strategy exhibited lower ratios of muscarinic receptor binding in the hippocampus relative to the dorsolateral striatum compared to rats that preferred place strategy. Importantly, much of the variance in this ratio was related to differences in the ventral hippocampus to a greater extent than the dorsal hippocampus. The ratios of muscarinic receptors in the hippocampus relative to the basolateral amygdala also were lower in rats that preferred stimulus-response strategy over place strategy. Results confirm that learning strategy preference varies with biological sex in prepubertal rats with males

  18. Autoantibodies against Muscarinic Type 3 Receptor in Sjögren's Syndrome Inhibit Aquaporin 5 Trafficking

    Lee, Byung Ha; Gauna, Adrienne E.; Perez, Geidys; Park, Yun-jong; Pauley, Kaleb M.; Kawai, Toshihisa; Cha, Seunghee

    2013-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that mainly targets the salivary and lacrimal glands. It has been controversial whether anti-muscarinic type 3 receptor (α-M3R) autoantibodies in patients with SjS inhibit intracellular trafficking of aquaporin-5 (AQP5), water transport protein, leading to secretory dysfunction. To address this issue, GFP-tagged human AQP5 was overexpressed in human salivary gland cells (HSG-hAQP5) and monitored AQP5 trafficking to the plasma membrane following carbachol (CCh, M3R agonist) stimulation. AQP5 trafficking was indeed mediated by M3R stimulation, shown in partial blockage of trafficking by M3R-antagonist 4-DAMP. HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma for 24 hours significantly reduced AQP5 trafficking with CCh, compared with HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with healthy control (HC) plasma. This inhibition was confirmed by monoclonal α-M3R antibody and pre-absorbed plasma. Interestingly, HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma showed no change in cell volume, compared to the cells incubated with HC plasma showing shrinkage by twenty percent after CCh-stimulation. Our findings clearly indicate that binding of anti-M3R autoantibodies to the receptor, which was verified by immunoprecipitation, suppresses AQP5 trafficking to the membrane and contribute to impaired fluid secretion in SjS. Our current study urges further investigations of clinical associations between SjS symptoms, such as degree of secretory dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and/or bladder irritation, and different profiles (titers, isotypes, and/or specificity) of anti-M3R autoantibodies in individuals with SjS. PMID:23382834

  19. Exposure to Gulf War Illness chemicals induces functional muscarinic receptor maladaptations in muscle nociceptors.

    Cooper, B Y; Johnson, R D; Nutter, T J

    2016-05-01

    Chronic pain is a component of the multisymptom disease known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There is evidence that pain symptoms could have been a consequence of prolonged and/or excessive exposure to anticholinesterases and other GW chemicals. We previously reported that rats exposed, for 8 weeks, to a mixture of anticholinesterases (pyridostigmine bromide, chlorpyrifos) and a Nav (voltage activated Na(+) channel) deactivation-inhibiting pyrethroid, permethrin, exhibited a behavior pattern that was consistent with a delayed myalgia. This myalgia-like behavior was accompanied by persistent changes to Kv (voltage activated K(+)) channel physiology in muscle nociceptors (Kv7, KDR). In the present study, we examined how exposure to the above agents altered the reactivity of Kv channels to a muscarinic receptor (mAChR) agonist (oxotremorine-M). Comparisons between muscle nociceptors harvested from vehicle and GW chemical-exposed rats revealed that mAChR suppression of Kv7 activity was enhanced in exposed rats. Yet in these same muscle nociceptors, a Stromatoxin-insensitive component of the KDR (voltage activated delayed rectifier K(+) channel) exhibited decreased sensitivity to activation of mAChR. We have previously shown that a unique mAChR-induced depolarization and burst discharge (MDBD) was exaggerated in muscle nociceptors of rats exposed to GW chemicals. We now provide evidence that both muscle and vascular nociceptors of naïve rats exhibit MDBD. Examination of the molecular basis of the MDBD in naïve animals revealed that while the mAChR depolarization was independent of Kv7, the action potential burst was modulated by Kv7 status. mAChR depolarizations were shown to be dependent, in part, on TRPA1. We argue that dysfunction of the MDBD could be a functional convergence point for maladapted ion channels and receptors consequent to exposure to GW chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction of consensus binding mode geometries for related chemical series of positive allosteric modulators of adenosine and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Sakkal, Leon A; Rajkowski, Kyle Z; Armen, Roger S

    2017-06-05

    Following insights from recent crystal structures of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, binding modes of Positive Allosteric Modulators (PAMs) were predicted under the assumption that PAMs should bind to the extracellular surface of the active state. A series of well-characterized PAMs for adenosine (A 1 R, A 2A R, A 3 R) and muscarinic acetylcholine (M 1 R, M 5 R) receptors were modeled using both rigid and flexible receptor CHARMM-based molecular docking. Studies of adenosine receptors investigated the molecular basis of the probe-dependence of PAM activity by modeling in complex with specific agonist radioligands. Consensus binding modes map common pharmacophore features of several chemical series to specific binding interactions. These models provide a rationalization of how PAM binding slows agonist radioligand dissociation kinetics. M 1 R PAMs were predicted to bind in the analogous M 2 R PAM LY2119620 binding site. The M 5 R NAM (ML-375) was predicted to bind in the PAM (ML-380) binding site with a unique induced-fit receptor conformation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Blockade of muscarinic receptors impairs the retrieval of well-trained memory

    Shogo eSoma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh is known to play an important role in memory functions, and its deficit has been proposed to cause the cognitive decline associated with advanced age and Alzheimer’s disease (the cholinergic hypothesis. Although many studies have tested the cholinergic hypothesis for recently acquired memory, only a few have investigated the role of ACh in the retrieval process of well-trained cognitive memory, which describes the memory established from repetition and daily routine. To examine this point, we trained rats to perform a two-alternative forced-choice visual detection task. Each trial was started by having the rats pull upward a central-lever, which triggered the presentation of a visual stimulus to the right or left side of the display monitor, and then pulling upward a stimulus-relevant choice-lever located on both sides. Rats learned the task within 10 days, and the task training was continued for a month. Task performance was measured with or without systemic administration of a muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR antagonist, scopolamine (SCOP, prior to the test. After 30 min of SCOP administration, rats stopped manipulating any lever even though they explored the lever and surrounding environment, suggesting a loss of the task-related associative memory. Three hours later, rats were recovered to complete the trial, but the rats selected the levers irrespective of the visual stimulus, suggesting they remembered a series of lever-manipulations in association with a reward, but not association between the reward and visual stimulation. Furthermore, an m1-AChR, but not nicotinic AChR antagonist caused a similar deficit in the task execution. SCOP neither interfered with locomotor activity nor drinking behavior, while it influenced anxiety. These results suggest that the activation of mAChRs at basal ACh levels is essential for the recall of well-trained cognitive memory.

  2. Characterization of cholinergic muscarinic receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in brain from immature rats

    Balduini, W.; Murphy, S.D.; Costa, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphoinositides elicited by stimulation of cholinergic muscarinic receptors has been studied in brain from neonatal (7-day-old) rats in order to determine: (1) whether the neonatal rat could provide a good model system to study this signal-transduction pathway; and (2) whether potential differences with adult nerve tissue would explain the differential, age-related effects of cholinergic agonists. Accumulation of [3H] inositol phosphates in [3H]inositol prelabeled slices from neonatal and adult rats was measured as an index of phosphoinositide metabolism. Full (acetylcholine, methacholine, carbachol) and partial (oxotremorine, bethanechol) agonists had qualitatively similar, albeit quantitatively different, effects in neonatal and adult rats. Atropine and pirenzepine effectively blocked the carbachol-induced response with inhibition constants of 1.2 and 20.7 nM, respectively. In all brain areas, response to all agonists was higher in neonatal than adult rats, and in hippocampus and cerebral cortex the response was higher than in cerebellum or brainstem. The relative intrinsic activity of partial agonists was higher in the latter two areas (0.6-0.7) than in the former two (0.3-0.4). Carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in brain areas correlated well with the binding of [3H]QNB (r2 = 0.627) and, particularly, with [3H]pirenzepine (r2 = 0.911). In cerebral cortex the effect of carbachol was additive to that of norepinephrine and glutamate. The presence of calcium (250-500 microM) was necessary for maximal response to carbachol to be elicited; the EC50 value for Ca2+ was 65.4 microM. Addition of EDTA completely abolished the response. Removal of sodium ions from the incubation medium reduced the response to carbachol by 50%

  3. Muscarinic receptor binding increases in anterior thalamus and cingulate cortex during discriminative avoidance learning

    Vogt, B.A.; Gabriel, M.; Vogt, L.J.; Poremba, A.; Jensen, E.L.; Kubota, Y.; Kang, E.

    1991-01-01

    Training-induced neuronal activity develops in the mammalian limbic system during discriminative avoidance conditioning. This study explores behaviorally relevant changes in muscarinic ACh receptor binding in 52 rabbits that were trained to one of five stages of conditioned response acquisition. Sixteen naive and 10 animals yoked to criterion performance served as control cases. Upon reaching a particular stage of training, the brains were removed and autoradiographically assayed for 3H-oxotremorine-M binding with 50 nM pirenzepine (OxO-M/PZ) or for 3H-pirenzepine binding in nine limbic thalamic nuclei and cingulate cortex. Specific OxO-M/PZ binding increased in the parvocellular division of the anterodorsal nucleus early in training when the animals were first exposed to pairing of the conditional and unconditional stimuli. Elevated binding in this nucleus was maintained throughout subsequent training. In the parvocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVp), OxO-M/PZ binding progressively increased throughout training, reached a peak at the criterion stage of performance, and returned to control values during extinction sessions. Peak OxO-M/PZ binding in AVp was significantly elevated over that for cases yoked to criterion performance. In the magnocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVm), OxO-M/PZ binding was elevated only during criterion performance of the task, and it was unaltered in any other limbic thalamic nuclei. Specific OxO-M/PZ binding was also elevated in most layers in rostral area 29c when subjects first performed a significant behavioral discrimination. Training-induced alterations in OxO-M/PZ binding in AVp and layer Ia of area 29c were similar and highly correlated

  4. Acetylcholine muscarinic receptors and response to anti-cholinesterase therapy in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Brown, Derek; Chisholm, Jennifer A.; Patterson, Jim; Wyper, David; Owens, Jonathan; Pimlott, Sally

    2003-01-01

    An acetylcholine deficit remains the most consistent neurotransmitter abnormality found in Alzheimer's disease and various therapeutic agents have been targeted at this. In this study we investigated the action of Donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor that has few side-effects. In particular we set out to investigate whether muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) availability influences the response to this therapy. We used the novel single-photon emission tomography (SPET) tracer (R,R)[ 123 I]I-quinuclidinyl benzilate (R,R[ 123 I]I-QNB), which has high affinity for the M1 subtype of mAChR. Regional cerebral perfusion was also assessed using technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. We investigated 20 patients on Donepezil treatment and ten age-matched controls. The results showed a reduction in (R,R)[ 123 I]I-QNB binding in the caudal anterior cingulate in patients compared with controls and relatively high binding in the putamen and rostral anterior cingulate, suggesting a relative sparing of mAChR in these regions. The main finding of the study was that mAChR availability as assessed by (R,R)[ 123 I]I-QNB binding did not distinguish responders from non-responders. Interestingly, we found that the extent of cognitive improvement showed no positive correlation with (R,R)[ 123 I]I-QNB binding in any brain region but was inversely related to binding in the insular cortex. This suggests that, within the advised cognitive performance band for use of Donepezil, response is greater in those patients with evidence of a more marked cholinergic deficit. A larger study should investigate this. (orig.)

  5. Mercury Vapour Long-Lasting Exposure: Lymphocyte Muscarinic Receptors as Neurochemical Markers of Accidental Intoxication

    E. Roda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic poisoning may result in home setting after mercury (Hg vapours inhalation from damaged devices. We report a chronic, nonoccupational Hg poisoning due to 10-year indoor exposure to mercury spillage. Case Report. A 72-year-old man with polyneuropathy of suspected toxic origin. At hospitalization, toxicological clinical evaluations confirmed the altered neurological picture documented across the last decade. Periodic blood and urine Hg levels (BHg, UHg monitoring were performed from admission (t0, until 1 year later (t2, paralleled by blood neurochemical markers assessment, that is, lymphocytes muscarinic receptors (l-MRs. At t0: BHg and UHg were 27 and 1.4 microg/L, respectively (normal values: BHg 1–4.5; UHg 0.1–4.5, associated with l-MRs increase, 185.82 femtomoL/million lymphocytes (normal range: 8.0–16.0. At t1 (two days after DMSA-mobilization test, BHg weak reduction, paralleled by UHg 3.7-fold increase, was measured together with further l-MRs enhancement (205.43 femtomoL/million lymphocytes. At t2 (eight months after two cycles of DMSA chelating therapy ending, gradual improving of clinical manifestations was accompanied by progressive decrease of BHg and UHg (4.0 and 2.8 microg/L, resp. and peripheral l-MRs neurochemical marker (24.89 femtomoL/million lymphocytes. Conclusion. l-MRs modulatory effect supports their use as peripheral neurochemical marker in Hg poisoning diagnosis and chelation therapy monitoring.

  6. Muscarinic M1 receptor inhibition reduces gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and promotes gastric prostaglandin E2 synthesis in healthy volunteers

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Eskerod, O

    1995-01-01

    stimulated gastric and basal duodenal bicarbonate secretion by about 50% (p basal and vagally stimulated PGE2 output increased significantly (p ...The selective muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, considerably stimulates duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the rat and increases gastric luminal release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in humans. This study, therefore, looked at the effect of pirenzepine on bicarbonate secretion...... sham feeding and acid exposure (HCl 0.1 M; 20 ml; 5 min) of the duodenal bulb increased mucosal bicarbonate secretion from 191 (14) mumol/cm x h to 266 (27) mumol/cm x h (p basal and vagally...

  7. Membrane cholesterol content influences binding properties of muscarinic M2 receptors and differentially impacts activation of second messenger pathways

    Michal, Pavel; Rudajev, Vladimír; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 606, 1-3 (2009), s. 50-60 ISSN 0014-2999 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/05/0452; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110703; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:National Institutes of Health(US) NS25743; EC(XE) LipiDiDiet Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : muscarinic * cholesterol * receptors Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.585, year: 2009

  8. Distinct muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes mediate pre- and postsynaptic effects in rat neocortex

    Gigout Sylvain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholinergic transmission has been implicated in learning, memory and cognition. However, the cellular effects induced by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs activation are poorly understood in the neocortex. We investigated the effects of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh and various agonists and antagonists on neuronal activity in rat neocortical slices using intracellular (sharp microelectrode and field potential recordings. Results CCh increased neuronal firing but reduced synaptic transmission. The increase of neuronal firing was antagonized by pirenzepine (M1/M4 mAChRs antagonist but not by AF-DX 116 (M2/M4 mAChRs antagonist. Pirenzepine reversed the depressant effect of CCh on excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP but had marginal effects when applied before CCh. AF-DX 116 antagonized the depression of EPSP when applied before or during CCh. CCh also decreased the paired-pulse inhibition of field potentials and the inhibitory conductances mediated by GABAA and GABAB receptors. The depression of paired-pulse inhibition was antagonized or prevented by AF-DX 116 or atropine but only marginally by pirenzepine. The inhibitory conductances were unaltered by xanomeline (M1/M4 mAChRs agonist, yet the CCh-induced depression was antagonized by AF-DX 116. Linopirdine, a selective M-current blocker, mimicked the effect of CCh on neuronal firing. However, linopirdine had no effect on the amplitude of EPSP or on the paired-pulse inhibition, indicating that M-current is involved in the increase of neuronal excitability but neither in the depression of EPSP nor paired-pulse inhibition. Conclusions These data indicate that the three effects are mediated by different mAChRs, the increase in firing being mediated by M1 mAChR, decrease of inhibition by M2 mAChR and depression of excitatory transmission by M4 mAChR. The depression of EPSP and increase of neuronal firing might enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, whereas the

  9. Evaluation of the Interaction between NMDA Receptors of Nucleus Accumbens and Muscarinic Receptors in Memory

    Saba Taheri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Whereas studies have indicated the interaction between NMDA and cholinergic systems, this study was performed with the aim of determining the role of NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc in scopolamine-induced amnesia.Methods: In this study, at first rats were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride plus xylazine, and then placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. Two stainless-steel cannulas were placed 2mm above nucleus accumbens shell. All animals were allowed to recover for one week, before beginning the behavioral testing. Then, animals were trained in a step-through type inhibitory avoidance task. The drugs were injected after successful training and before testing. The animals were tested 24h after training, and the step-through latency time was measured as the memory criterion in male Wistar rats. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test were used for analysis of the data. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Intra-nucleus accumbens (intra-NAc injection of scopolamine or NMDA caused impairment in memory in rats. Although, co-administration of an ineffective dose of NMDA with an ineffective dose of scopolamine had no significant effect on memory performance, effective doses of NMDA prevented the amnesic effect of scopolamine on inhibitory avoidance memory. On the other hand, intra-NAc injection of NMDA receptor antagonist, i.e., MK-801 caused no change in memory performance by itself, and its co-administration with an effective dose of scopolamine could not prevent the impairing effect of the latter drug. Conclusion: The finding of this study indicated that NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens are involved in the modulation of scopolamine-induced amnesia.

  10. Muscarinic receptor plasticity in the brain of senescent rats: down-regulation after repeated administration of diisopropyl fluorophosphate

    Pintor, A.; Fortuna, S.; Volpe, M.T.; Michalek, H.

    1988-01-01

    Potential age-related differences in the response of Fischer 344 rats to subchronic treatment with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) were evaluated in terms of brain cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition and muscarinic receptor sites. Male 3- and 24-month old rats were sc injected with sublethal doses of DFP for 2 weeks and killed 48 hrs after the last treatment. In the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum of control rats a significant age-related reduction of ChE and of maximum number of 3 H-QNB binding sites (Bmax) was observed. The administration of DFP to senescent rats resulted in more pronounced and longer lasting syndrome of cholinergic stimulation, with marked body weight loss and 60% mortality. The percentage inhibition of brain ChE induced by DFP did not differ between young and senescent rats. As expected, in young rats DFP caused a significant decrease of Bmax, which in the cerebral cortex reached about 40%. In the surviving senescent rats, the percentage decrease of Bmax due to DFP with respect to age-matched controls was very similar to that of young animals, especially in the cerebral cortex. Thus there is great variability in the response of aged rats to DFP treatment, from total failure of adaptive mechanisms resulting in death to considerable muscarinic receptor plasticity

  11. Muscarinic receptor plasticity in the brain of senescent rats: down-regulation after repeated administration of diisopropyl fluorophosphate

    Pintor, A.; Fortuna, S.; Volpe, M.T.; Michalek, H.

    1988-01-01

    Potential age-related differences in the response of Fischer 344 rats to subchronic treatment with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) were evaluated in terms of brain cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition and muscarinic receptor sites. Male 3- and 24-month old rats were sc injected with sublethal doses of DFP for 2 weeks and killed 48 hrs after the last treatment. In the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum of control rats a significant age-related reduction of ChE and of maximum number of /sup 3/H-QNB binding sites (Bmax) was observed. The administration of DFP to senescent rats resulted in more pronounced and longer lasting syndrome of cholinergic stimulation, with marked body weight loss and 60% mortality. The percentage inhibition of brain ChE induced by DFP did not differ between young and senescent rats. As expected, in young rats DFP caused a significant decrease of Bmax, which in the cerebral cortex reached about 40%. In the surviving senescent rats, the percentage decrease of Bmax due to DFP with respect to age-matched controls was very similar to that of young animals, especially in the cerebral cortex. Thus there is great variability in the response of aged rats to DFP treatment, from total failure of adaptive mechanisms resulting in death to considerable muscarinic receptor plasticity.

  12. Autoantibodies Enhance Agonist Action and Binding to Cardiac Muscarinic Receptors in Chronic Chagas’ Disease

    Hernández, Ciria C.; Nascimento, José H.; Chaves, Elen A.; Costa, Patrícia C.; Masuda, Masako O.; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Campos de Carvalho, Antônio C.; Giménez, Luis E.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic Chagasic patient immunoglobulins (CChP-IgGs) recognize an acidic amino acid cluster at the second extracellular loop (el2) of cardiac M2-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M2AChRs). These residues correspond to a common binding site for various allosteric agents. We characterized the nature of the M2AChR/CChP-IgG interaction in functional and radioligand binding experiments applying the same mainstream strategies previously used for the characterization of other allosteric agents. Dose-response curves of acetylcholine effect on heart rate were constructed with data from isolated heart experiments in the presence of CChP or normal blood donor (NBD) sera. In these experiments, CChP sera but not NBD sera increased the efficacy of agonist action by augmenting the onset of bradyarrhythmias and inducing a Hill slope of 2.5. This effect was blocked by gallamine, an M2AChR allosteric antagonist. Correspondingly, CChP-IgGs increased acetylcholine affinity twofold and showed negative cooperativity for [3H]-N-methyl scopolamine ([3H]-NMS) in allosterism binding assays. A peptide corresponding to the M2AChR-el2 blocked this effect. Furthermore, dissociation assays showed that the effect of gallamine on the [3H]-NMS off-rate was reverted by CChP-IgGs. Finally, concentration-effect curves for the allosteric delay of W84 on [3H]-NMS dissociation right shifted from an IC50 of 33 nmol/L to 78 nmol/L, 992 nmol/L, and 1670 nmol/L in the presence of 6.7 × 10−8, 1.33 × 10−7, and 2.0 × 10−7 mol/L of anti-el2 affinity-purified CChP-IgGs. Taken together, these findings confirmed a competitive interplay of these ligands at the common allosteric site and revealed the novel allosteric nature of the interaction of CChP-IgGs at the M2AChRs as a positive cooperativity effect on acetylcholine action. PMID:18702010

  13. Hook-up of GluA2, GRIP and liprin-α for cholinergic muscarinic receptor-dependent LTD in the hippocampus

    Wu Long-Jun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanism underlying muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent LTD (mAChR-LTD in the hippocampus is less studied. In a recent study, a novel mechanism is described. The induction of mAChR-LTD required the activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP, and the expression was mediated by AMPA receptor endocytosis via interactions between GluA2, GRIP and liprin-α. The hook-up of these proteins may result in the recruitment of leukocyte common antigen-related receptor (LAR, a PTP that is known to be involved in AMPA receptor trafficking. Interestingly, the similar molecular interaction cannot be applied to mGluR-LTD, despite the fact that the same G-protein involved in LTD is activated by both mAChR and mGluR. This discovery provides key molecular insights for cholinergic dependent cognitive function, and mAChR-LTD can serve as a useful cellular model for studying the roles of cholinergic mechanism in learning and memory.

  14. Differential involvement of cortical muscarinic and NMDA receptors in short- and long-term taste aversion memory.

    Ferreira, G; Gutiérrez, R; De La Cruz, V; Bermúdez-Rattoni, F

    2002-09-01

    In conditioned taste aversion, an animal avoids a taste previously associated with toxic effects, and this aversive memory formation requires an intact insular cortex. In this paper, we investigated the possible differential involvement of cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors in the insular cortex in short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) of taste aversion in rats. Taste aversion was induced by intraperitoneal administration of lithium chloride (a malaise-inducing drug) 15 min after experience with an unfamiliar taste. In order to test STM and LTM of taste aversion, taste stimulus was again presented 4 h and 72 h after lithium injection, respectively. During the acquisition, microinjection of the muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine, in the insular cortex before, but not after, the presentation of the new taste, abolished STM as well as LTM. Blockade of the NMDA receptor, in the insular cortex, by AP5 before, but not after, the presentation of the taste stimulus, impaired LTM but left STM intact. Moreover, when injected 1 h after malaise induction (i.e., during taste-illness association), AP5 disrupted both STM and LTM. These results suggest that activation of muscarinic receptors in the insular cortex is involved in the acquisition of taste memory, whereas NMDA receptors participate in taste memory consolidation. These data demonstrate that different neurochemical mechanisms subserve different memory phases. NMDA receptors are also probably involved in processing the visceral input, thus allowing subsequent taste-illness association. This indicates that in the same cortical area the same neurotransmitter system can be involved in distinct processes: taste memory consolidation vs. taste-illness association.

  15. The distribution of cerebral muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in vivo in patients with dementia. A controlled study with 123IQNB and single photon emission computed tomography

    Weinberger, D.R.; Gibson, R.; Coppola, R.; Jones, D.W.; Molchan, S.; Sunderland, T.; Berman, K.F.; Reba, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    A high-affinity muscarinic receptor antagonist, 123IQNB (3-quinuclidinyl-4-iodobenzilate labeled with iodine 123), was used with single photon emission computed tomography to image muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in 14 patients with dementia and in 11 healthy controls. High-resolution single photon emission computed tomographic scanning was performed 21 hours after the intravenous administration of approximately 5 mCi of IQNB. In normal subjects, the images of retained ligand showed a consistent regional pattern that correlated with postmortem studies of the relative distribution of muscarinic receptors in the normal human brain, having high radioactivity counts in the basal ganglia, occipital cortex, and insular cortex, low counts in the thalamus, and virtually no counts in the cerebellum. Eight of 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease had obvious focal cortical defects in either frontal or posterior temporal cortex. Both patients with a clinical diagnosis of Pick's disease had obvious frontal and anterior temporal defects. A region of interest statistical analysis of relative regional activity revealed a significant reduction bilaterally in the posterior temporal cortex of the patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with controls. This study demonstrates the practicability of acetylcholine receptor imaging with 123IQNB and single photon emission computed tomography. The data suggest that focal abnormalities in muscarinic binding in vivo may characterize some patients with Alzheimer's disease and Pick's disease, but further studies are needed to address questions about partial volume artifacts and receptor quantification

  16. Differential regulation by agonist and phorbol ester of cloned m1 and m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in mouse Y1 adrenal cells and in Y1 cells deficient in cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    Scherer, N.M.; Nathanson, N.M.

    1990-01-01

    Cloned muscarinic acetylcholine m1 and m2 receptors were expressed in stably transfected mouse Y1 adrenal cells and in a variant Y1 line, Kin-8, which is deficient in cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity (PKA - ). m1 and m2 receptors were rapidly internalized following exposure of transfected PKA + or PKA - cells to the muscarinic agonist carbachol. Thus, agonist-dependent internalization of m1 and m2 did not require PKA activity. A differential effect of PKA on regulation by agonist of the m2 receptor, but not the m1 receptor, was unmasked in PKA - cells. These data indicate that the basal activity of PKA may modulate the agonist-dependent internalization of the m2 receptor, but not the m1 receptor. The internalization of the m1 and m2 receptors in both PKA + and PKA - cells was accompanied by desensitization of functional responses. Exposure of PKA + cells to 10 -7 M phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase C, resulted in a 30 ± 9% decrease in the number of m1 receptors on the cell surface. The m2 receptor was not internalized following treatment of either PKA + or PKA - cells with PMA. Thus, the m1 and m2 receptors show differential sensitivity to internalization by PMA. Agonist-dependent internalization of the m1 receptor appeared to be independent of activation of PKC because (1) agonist-dependent internalization of m1 was not attenuated in PKA - cells, (2) the rate and extent of internalization of m1 in cells exposed to PMA were less than those in cells exposed to agonist, and (3) treatment of cells with concanavalin A selectivity blocked internalization of m1 in cells exposed to PMA, but not to agonist. The effects of agonist and PMA on receptor internalization were not additive. Exposure of PKA + or PKA - cells to PMA reduced the magnitude of pilocarpine-stimulated PI hydrolysis by about 25%

  17. PASSIVE-AVOIDANCE TRAINING INDUCES ENHANCED LEVELS OF IMMUNOREACTIVITY FOR MUSCARINIC ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTOR AND COEXPRESSED PKC-GAMMA AND MAP-2 IN RAT CORTICAL-NEURONS

    VANDERZEE, EA; DOUMA, BRK; BOHUS, B; LUITEN, PGM

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neocortical immunoreactivity (ir) for muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), protein kinase C gamma (PKC gamma), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), and the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PARV) induced by the performance of a one-trial passive shock avoidance (PSA) task

  18. Changes of cooperativity between N-methylscopolamine and allosteric modulators alcuronium and gallamine induced by mutations of external loops of muscarinic M(3) receptors

    Krejčí, Alena; Tuček, Stanislav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2001), s. 761-767 ISSN 0026-895X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/99/0214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * allosteric modulators Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.297, year: 2001

  19. A novel mechanism of hippocampal LTD involving muscarinic receptor-triggered interactions between AMPARs, GRIP and liprin-α

    Dickinson Bryony A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term depression (LTD in the hippocampus can be induced by activation of different types of G-protein coupled receptors, in particular metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs and muscarinic acethycholine receptors (mAChRs. Since mGluRs and mAChRs activate the same G-proteins and isoforms of phospholipase C (PLC, it would be expected that these two forms of LTD utilise the same molecular mechanisms. However, we find a distinct mechanism of LTD involving GRIP and liprin-α. Results Whilst both forms of LTD require activation of tyrosine phosphatases and involve internalisation of AMPARs, they use different molecular interactions. Specifically, mAChR-LTD, but not mGluR-LTD, is blocked by peptides that inhibit the binding of GRIP to the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 and the binding of GRIP to liprin-α. Thus, different receptors that utilise the same G-proteins can regulate AMPAR trafficking and synaptic efficacy via distinct molecular mechanisms. Conclusion Our results suggest that mAChR-LTD selectively involves interactions between GRIP and liprin-α. These data indicate a novel mechanism of synaptic plasticity in which activation of M1 receptors results in AMPAR endocytosis, via a mechanism involving interactions between GluA2, GRIP and liprin-α.

  20. Muscarinic M2 receptors directly activate Gq/11 and Gs G-proteins

    Michal, Pavel; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 320, č. 2 (2007), s. 607-614 ISSN 0022-3565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP305/05/P209; GA ČR GA305/05/0452; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:NIH(US) NS25743 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : muscarinic * siRNA * G-proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.003, year: 2007

  1. Iodine-123 N-methyl-4-iododexetimide: a new radioligand for single-photon emission tomographic imaging of myocardial muscarinic receptors

    Hicks, R.J.; Kassiou, M.; Eu, P.; Katsifis, A.G.; Garra, M.; Power, J.; Najdovski, L.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Cardiac muscarinic receptor ligands suitable for positron emission tomography have previously been characterised. Attempts to develop radioligands of these receptors suitable for single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) imaging have not been successful due to high lung retention and high non-specific binding of previously investigated potential tracers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution and in vivo imaging characteristics of a new radiopharmaceutical, [ 123 I]N-methyl-4-iododexetimide. Biodistribution studies performed in rats showed high cardiac uptake (2.4% ID/g) 10 min after injection with a heart to lung activity ratio of 5:1. Specificity and stereoselectivity of cardiac binding were demonstrated using blocking experiments in rats. Dynamic imaging studies in anaesthetised greyhounds demonstrated rapid and high myocardial uptake and low lung binding with stable heart to lung activity ratios of >2.5:1 between 10 and 30 min, making SPET imaging feasible. Administration of an excess of an unlabelled muscarinic antagonist, methyl-quinuclidinyl benzylate rapidly displaced myocardial activity to background levels and the pharmacologically inactive enantiomer, [ 123 I]N-methyl-4-iodolevetimide, had no detectable cardiac uptake, indicating specific and stereoselective muscarinic receptor binding. SPET revealed higher activity in the inferior than in the anterior wall, this being consistent with previously described regional variation of cardiac parasympathetic innervation. [ 123 I]N-methyl-4-iododexetimide shows promise as an imaging agent for muscarinic receptor distribution in the heart and may be helpful in evaluating diverse cardiac diseases associated with altered muscarinic receptor function, including heart failure and diabetic heart disease. (orig.)

  2. Ligand binding and functional characterization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on the TE671/RD human cell line

    Bencherif, M.; Lukas, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Cells of the TE671/RD human clonal line express a finite number ((Bmax) of about 350 fmol/mg of membrane protein) of apparently noninteracting, high-affinity binding sites (KD of 0.07 nM and a Hill coefficient close to unity, nH = 0.94) for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) radio antagonist, tritium-labeled quinuclidinyl benzilate [ 3 H-QNB]. The rank order potency of selective antagonists that inhibit specific 3 HQNB binding is: atropine greater than 4-DAMP (4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide) greater than pirenzepine greater than methoctramine greater than AFDx-116 (11-2[2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-[piperidinyl] acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepin-6-one). Functional studies indicate that phosphoinositide (PIns) hydrolysis in TE671/RD cells is increased by carbachol (EC50 of 10 microM), but not by nicotine (to concentrations as high as 1 mM). Agonist-stimulated PIns metabolism is inhibited by antagonists with the same rank order potency as for inhibition of 3 HQNB binding. Functional responses are augmented in the presence of a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog, are strongly inhibited after 24-hr exposure to cholera toxin, but are only slightly inhibited after long-term exposure to pertussis toxin or forskolin. These studies identify a pharmacologically-defined M3-subtype of mAChR strongly coupled via a cholera toxin-sensitive mechanism to PIns hydrolysis in these cells. Within 1 hr of treatment of TE671/RD cells with 1 mM dibutyryl cyclic AMP or with 10 microM phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), there is a 30 to 50% decrease in carbachol-stimulated PIns responsiveness that recovers to control values after 5 days of continued drug treatment. However, a comparable and more persistent inhibition of mAChR function is observed on cell treatment with 20 nM PMA

  3. Ligand binding and functional characterization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on the TE671/RD human cell line

    Bencherif, M.; Lukas, R.J. (Division of Neurobiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Cells of the TE671/RD human clonal line express a finite number ((Bmax) of about 350 fmol/mg of membrane protein) of apparently noninteracting, high-affinity binding sites (KD of 0.07 nM and a Hill coefficient close to unity, nH = 0.94) for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) radio antagonist, tritium-labeled quinuclidinyl benzilate ({sup 3}H-QNB). The rank order potency of selective antagonists that inhibit specific {sup 3}HQNB binding is: atropine greater than 4-DAMP (4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide) greater than pirenzepine greater than methoctramine greater than AFDx-116 (11-2(2-((diethylamino)methyl)-1-(piperidinyl) acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepin-6-one). Functional studies indicate that phosphoinositide (PIns) hydrolysis in TE671/RD cells is increased by carbachol (EC50 of 10 microM), but not by nicotine (to concentrations as high as 1 mM). Agonist-stimulated PIns metabolism is inhibited by antagonists with the same rank order potency as for inhibition of {sup 3}HQNB binding. Functional responses are augmented in the presence of a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog, are strongly inhibited after 24-hr exposure to cholera toxin, but are only slightly inhibited after long-term exposure to pertussis toxin or forskolin. These studies identify a pharmacologically-defined M3-subtype of mAChR strongly coupled via a cholera toxin-sensitive mechanism to PIns hydrolysis in these cells. Within 1 hr of treatment of TE671/RD cells with 1 mM dibutyryl cyclic AMP or with 10 microM phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), there is a 30 to 50% decrease in carbachol-stimulated PIns responsiveness that recovers to control values after 5 days of continued drug treatment. However, a comparable and more persistent inhibition of mAChR function is observed on cell treatment with 20 nM PMA.

  4. Mechanism of the G-protein mimetic nanobody binding to a muscarinic G-protein-coupled receptor.

    Miao, Yinglong; McCammon, J Andrew

    2018-03-20

    Protein-protein binding is key in cellular signaling processes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of protein-protein binding, however, are challenging due to limited timescales. In particular, binding of the medically important G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with intracellular signaling proteins has not been simulated with MD to date. Here, we report a successful simulation of the binding of a G-protein mimetic nanobody to the M 2 muscarinic GPCR using the robust Gaussian accelerated MD (GaMD) method. Through long-timescale GaMD simulations over 4,500 ns, the nanobody was observed to bind the receptor intracellular G-protein-coupling site, with a minimum rmsd of 2.48 Å in the nanobody core domain compared with the X-ray structure. Binding of the nanobody allosterically closed the orthosteric ligand-binding pocket, being consistent with the recent experimental finding. In the absence of nanobody binding, the receptor orthosteric pocket sampled open and fully open conformations. The GaMD simulations revealed two low-energy intermediate states during nanobody binding to the M 2 receptor. The flexible receptor intracellular loops contribute remarkable electrostatic, polar, and hydrophobic residue interactions in recognition and binding of the nanobody. These simulations provided important insights into the mechanism of GPCR-nanobody binding and demonstrated the applicability of GaMD in modeling dynamic protein-protein interactions.

  5. Effects of trihexyphenidyl and L-dopa on brain muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding measured by positron emission tomography

    Shinotoh, H; Asahina, M; Hirayama, K [Dept. of Neurology, School of Medicine, Chiba Univ., Chiba (Japan); Inoue, O; Suhara, T; Tateno, Y [Division of Clinical Research, National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1994-01-01

    The effects of pharmacological intervention on brain muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) binding were assessed in seven patients with Parkinson's disease by positron emission tomography and carbon-11 labelled N-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilate ([[sup 11]C]NMPB). [[sup 11]C]NMPB was injected twice, approximately 2 hours apart, in each patient, to assess the effect of single doses of 4 mg of trihexyphenidyl (n=5) or 400 mg of L-dopa with 57 mg of benserazide (n=2) on the binding parameter of mAChRs (K[sub 3]). There was a mean 28% inhibition of K[sub 3] values in the brain in the presence of trihexyphenidyl, which was assumed to reflect mAChR occupancy. No significant change in K[sub 3] was observed in the presence of L-dopa. This study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring mAChR occupancy by an anticholinergic medication with PET.

  6. Preparation of an imaging agent for cerebral muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, (R,S)131I-QNB

    Ding Shiyu; Chen Zhengping; Ji Shuren; Lu Chunxiong; Zhou Xiang; Fang Ping; Wu Chunying; Wang Bocheng; Xiang Jingde; Lin Yansong

    2003-01-01

    The method to synthesize a high affinity muscarinic receptor antagonist (R,S)I-QNB[(R)-(-)-l-azabicyclo [2,2,2]oct-3-yl-(S)-(+)-α-hydroxy-α-(4-[127I]iodophenyl)-α-phenyl acetate] from 4-nitrobenzophenone with improvement compared to literatures was reported in this article. IR, MS and 1 HNMR characterized the final product. (R,S) 131 I-QNB was prepared using Cu(I) assisted iodine exchange labeling, and showed by TLC that the radiolabeling yield (RLY) was over 80%, and radiochemical purity (RCP) was over 95%. Stability of the labelled compound was also determined. It was found that (R,S) 131 I-QNB dried by nitrogen blowing can stay at 4-10 degree C for a week without change of RCP

  7. Evidence for inhibitory nicotinic and facilitatory muscarinic receptors in cholinergic nerve terminals of the rat urinary bladder.

    Somogyi, G T; de Groat, W C

    1992-02-01

    Cholinergic prejunctional modulatory receptors on parasympathetic nerves in the rat urinary bladder were studied by measuring 3H-acetylcholine (ACh) release in muscle strips from the bladder body. Electrical field stimulation markedly increased 3H-ACh overflow in strips preloaded with 3H-choline. Oxotremorine (1 microM), an M2 receptor agonist and DMPP (10 microM) a nicotinic (N) receptor agonist decreased the release of ACh (50% and 55% respectively); whereas McN-A 343 (50 microM) an M1 receptor agonist increased the release (33%), indicating the presence of three types of modulatory receptors. The anticholinesterase agent, physostigmine in concentrations of 1, 5 and 25 microM and neostigmine (5 microM) increased ACh release (44-710%). However a low concentration of physostigmine (0.05 microM) decreased release. Pirenzepine, an M1 muscarinic antagonist or atropine blocked the increased ACh release in physostigmine-treated strips, but in normal strips pirenzepine did not change release and atropine increased release. McN-A 343 or prolonged application (15 min) of DMPP increased ACh release (376% and 391% respectively) in physostigmine-treated strips. The response to McN-A 343 was blocked by pirenzepine. d-Tubocurarine (DTC), a nicotinic receptor blocker, enhanced ACh release in the presence of physostigmine but proved to be ineffective in normal preparations. These findings suggest that all three cholinergic receptors (M1 facilitatory, N inhibitory and M2 inhibitory) are activated by endogenous ACh in physostigmine treated preparations whereas only M2-inhibitory receptors are activated in normal preparations. It will be important in future studies to determine whether M1 and M2 mechanisms can also be activated under more physiological conditions in the bladder and whether they are present at other cholinergic synapses.

  8. Combined treatment with a β3 -adrenergic receptor agonist and a muscarinic receptor antagonist inhibits detrusor overactivity induced by cold stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nagai, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshiro; Saito, Tetsuichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Nakazawa, Masaki; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2017-04-01

    This study determined if combined treatment with the muscarinic receptor (MR) antagonist solifenacin and the β 3 -adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist mirabegron could inhibit detrusor overactivity induced by cold stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Thirty-two female 10-week-old SHRs were fed an 8% NaCl-supplemented diet for 4 weeks. Cystometric measurements of the unanesthetized, unrestricted rats were performed at room temperature (RT, 27 ± 2°C) for 20 min. The rats were then intravenously administered vehicle, 0.1 mg/kg solifenacin alone, 0.1 mg/kg mirabegron alone, or the combination of 0.1 mg/kg mirabegron and 0.1 mg/kg solifenacin (n = 8 each group). Five minutes later, the treated rats were exposed to low temperature (LT, 4 ± 2°C) for 40 min. Finally, the rats were returned to RT. After the cystometric investigations, the β 3 -ARs and M 3 -MRs expressed within the urinary bladders were analyzed. Just after transfer from RT to LT, vehicle-, solifenacin-, and mirabegron-treated SHRs exhibited detrusor overactivity that significantly decreased voiding interval and bladder capacity. However, treatment with the combination of solifenacin and mirabegron partially inhibited the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity patterns. The decreases of voiding interval and bladder capacity in the combination-treated rats were significantly inhibited compared to other groups. Within the urinary bladders, there were no differences between expression levels of M 3 -MR and β 3 -AR mRNA. The tissue distribution of M 3 -MRs was similar to that of the β 3 -ARs. This study suggested that the combination of solifenacin and mirabegron act synergistically to inhibit the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in SHRs. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:1026-1033, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Expression Profiles of Neuropeptides, Neurotransmitters, and Their Receptors in Human Keratocytes In Vitro and In Situ.

    Słoniecka, Marta; Le Roux, Sandrine; Boman, Peter; Byström, Berit; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Keratocytes, the quiescent cells of the corneal stroma, play a crucial role in corneal wound healing. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are usually associated with neuronal signaling, but have recently been shown to be produced also by non-neuronal cells and to be involved in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to assess the endogenous intracellular and secreted levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), and of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh), catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), and glutamate, as well as the expression profiles of their receptors, in human primary keratocytes in vitro and in keratocytes of human corneal tissue sections in situ. Cultured keratocytes expressed genes encoding for SP and NKA, and for catecholamine and glutamate synthesizing enzymes, as well as genes for neuropeptide, adrenergic and ACh (muscarinic) receptors. Keratocytes in culture produced SP, NKA, catecholamines, ACh, and glutamate, and expressed neurokinin-1 and -2 receptors (NK-1R and NK-2R), dopamine receptor D2, muscarinic ACh receptors, and NDMAR1 glutamate receptor. Human corneal sections expressed SP, NKA, NK-1R, NK-2R, receptor D2, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), M3, M4 and M5 muscarinic ACh receptors, glutamate, and NMDAR1, but not catecholamine synthesizing enzyme or the α1 and β2 adrenoreceptors, nor M1 receptor. In addition, expression profiles assumed significant differences between keratocytes from the peripheral cornea as compared to those from the central cornea, as well as differences between keratocytes cultured under various serum concentrations. In conclusion, human keratocytes express an array of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cells furthermore express receptors for neuropeptides/neurotransmitters, which suggests that they are susceptible to stimulation by these substances in the cornea, whether of neuronal or non-neuronal origin. As it has been shown that neuropeptides

  10. Beta3 adrenoceptors substitute the role of M(2) muscarinic receptor in coping with cold stress in the heart: evidence from M(2)KO mice.

    Benes, Jan; Novakova, Martina; Rotkova, Jana; Farar, Vladimir; Kvetnansky, Richard; Riljak, Vladimir; Myslivecek, Jaromir

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the role of beta3-adrenoceptors (AR) in cold stress (1 or 7 days in cold) in animals lacking main cardioinhibitive receptors-M2 muscarinic receptors (M(2)KO). There was no change in receptor number in the right ventricles. In the left ventricles, there was decrease in binding to all cardiostimulative receptors (beta1-, and beta2-AR) and increase in cardiodepressive receptors (beta3-AR) in unstressed KO in comparison to WT. The cold stress in WT animals resulted in decrease in binding to beta1- and beta2-AR (to 37%/35% after 1 day in cold and to 27%/28% after 7 days in cold) while beta3-AR were increased (to 216% of control) when 7 days cold was applied. MR were reduced to 46% and 58%, respectively. Gene expression of M2 MR in WT was not changed due to stress, while M3 was changed. The reaction of beta1- and beta2-AR (binding) to cold was similar in KO and WT animals, and beta3-AR in stressed KO animals did not change. Adenylyl cyclase activity was affected by beta3-agonist CL316243 in cold stressed WT animals but CL316243 had almost no effects on adenylyl cyclase activity in stressed KO. Nitric oxide activity (NOS) was not affected by BRL37344 (beta3-agonist) both in WT and KO animals. Similarly, the stress had no effects on NOS activity in WT animals and in KO animals. We conclude that the function of M2 MR is substituted by beta3-AR and that these effects are mediated via adenylyl cyclase rather than NOS.

  11. An interspecies comparison of mercury inhibition on muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum

    Basu, Niladri; Stamler, Christopher J.; Loua, Kovana Marcel; Chan, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous pollutant that can disrupt neurochemical signaling pathways in mammals. It is well documented that inorganic Hg (HgCl 2 ) and methyl Hg (MeHg) can inhibit the binding of radioligands to the muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor in rat brains. However, little is known concerning this relationship in specific anatomical regions of the brain or in other species, including humans. The purpose of this study was to explore the inhibitory effects of HgCl 2 and MeHg on [ 3 H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([ 3 H]-QNB) binding to the mACh receptor in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex regions from human, rat, mouse, mink, and river otter brain tissues. Saturation binding curves were obtained from each sample to calculate receptor density (B max ) and ligand affinity (K d ). Subsequently, samples were exposed to HgCl 2 or MeHg to derive IC50 values and inhibition constants (K i ). Results demonstrate that HgCl 2 is a more potent inhibitor of mACh receptor binding than MeHg, and the receptors in the cerebellum are more sensitive to Hg-mediated mACh receptor inhibition than those in the cerebral cortex. Species sensitivities, irrespective of Hg type and brain region, can be ranked from most to least sensitive: river otter > rat > mink > mouse > humans. In summary, our data demonstrate that Hg can inhibit the binding [ 3 H]-QNB to the mACh receptor in a range of mammalian species. This comparative study provides data on interspecies differences and a framework for interpreting results from human, murine, and wildlife studies

  12. Characterization of the effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on muscarinic receptor subtypes mediating the contraction of guinea-pig isolated gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

    Xiao, Hong-Tao; Liao, Zhi; Meng, Xian-Min; Yan, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Shu-Jie; Mo, Zheng-Ji

    2009-07-01

    The aim was to characterize the effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride, which mediates the relaxation of guinea-pig isolated gastrointestinal smooth muscle, on muscarinic receptor subtypes. Radioimmune assay was used to determine cAMP levels in isolated guinea-pig gastrointestinal smooth muscle to compare the selective effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on muscarinic receptor subtypes. The results indicated that the relaxing effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on isolated gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction induced by acetylcholine was stronger than that of atropine (based on PA2 values). In the radioimmune assay, penehyclidine hydrochloride increased the cAMP content in isolated guinea-pig stomach smooth muscle and decreased the cAMP content in isolated guinea-pig intestinal smooth muscle, but the difference was not statistically significant at a dose of 10 mumol/l. The results suggest that penehyclidine hydrochloride has little or no effect on M2 receptor subtypes in guinea-pig gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

  13. Regional distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the telencephalon of the pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica). [Use of TH-quinuclidinylbenzylate

    Waechtler, K.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was studied autoradiographically in croystat sections of the pigeon telencephalon using TH-quinuclidinylbenzylate as a ligand. Highest receptor density was observed in the hyperstriatum ventrale, palaeostriatum augmentatum, septum, and parts of the archistriatum. In sites of known sensory input of neostriatum (field L) and ectostriatum low receptor binding was observed. Acetylcholinesterase distribution is in good agreement with the receptor picture only in the basal telencephalon. In the pallium differences in the pattern of these two components can be seen.

  14. Role of ventrolateral orbital cortex muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in modulation of capsaicin-induced orofacial pain-related behaviors in rats.

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Erfanparast, Amir; Abbas Farshid, Amir; Delkhosh-Kasmaie, Fatmeh

    2017-11-15

    Acetylcholine, as a major neurotransmitter, mediates many brain functions such as pain. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of microinjection of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists and agonists into the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLOC) on capsaicin-induced orofacial nociception and subsequent hyperalgesia. The right side of VLOC was surgically implanted with a guide cannula in anaesthetized rats. Orofacial pain-related behaviors were induced by subcutaneous injection of a capsaicin solution (1.5µg/20µl) into the left vibrissa pad. The time spent face rubbing with ipsilateral forepaw and general behavior were recorded for 10min, and then mechanical hyperalgesia was determined using von Frey filaments at 15, 30, 45 and 60min post-capsaicin injection. Alone intra-VLOC microinjection of atropine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) and mecamylamine (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) at a similar dose of 200ng/site did not alter nocifensive behavior and hyperalgesia. Microinjection of oxotremorine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist) at doses of 50 and 100ng/site and epibatidine (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist) at doses of 12.5, 25, 50 and 100ng/site into the VLOC suppressed pain-related behaviors. Prior microinjections of 200ng/site atropine and mecamylamine (200ng/site) prevented oxotremorine (100ng/site)-, and epibatidine (100ng/site)-induced antinociception, respectively. None of the above-mentioned chemicals changed general behavior. These results showed that the VLOC muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors might be involved in modulation of orofacial nociception and hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain regional acetylcholinesterase activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rats after repeated administration of cholinesterase inhibitors and its withdrawal

    Kobayashi, Haruo; Suzuki, Tadahiko; Sakamoto, Maki; Hashimoto, Wataru; Kashiwada, Keiko; Sato, Itaru; Akahori, Fumiaki; Satoh, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    Activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and specific binding of [ 3 H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), [ 3 H]pirenzepine (PZP) and [ 3 H]AF-DX 384 to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) preparations in the striatum, hippocampus and cortex of rats were determined 1, 6 and 11 days after the last treatment with an organophosphate DDVP, a carbamate propoxur or a muscarinic agonist oxotremorine as a reference for 7 and 14 days. AChE activity was markedly decreased in the three regions 1 day after the treatment with DDVP for 7 and 14 days with a gradual recovery 6 to 11 days, and much less decreased 1, 6 and 11 days after the treatment with propoxur for 7 days but not for 14 days in the hippocampus and cortex. The binding of [ 3 H]-QNB, PZP and AF-DX 384 in the three regions was generally decreased by the treatment with DDVP for 7 and 14 days. Such down-regulations were generally restored 6 or 11 days after the treatment for 7 but not for 14 days. The down-regulation or up-regulation as measured by [ 3 H]-QNB, PZP and AF-DX 384 was observed 1, 6 or 11 days after treatment with propoxur for 7 days and/or 14 days. Repeated treatment with oxotremorine produced similar effects except AChE activity to DDVP. These results suggest that repeated inhibition of AChE activity may usually cause down-regulation of mAChRs with some exception in the hippocampus when a reversible antiChE propoxur is injected

  16. Mutations in the third extracellular loop of M3 muscarinic receptor induce positive cooperativity between N-Methylscopolamine and Wieland-Gumlich aldehyde

    Jakubík, Jan; Doležal, Vladimír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 272, č. S1 (2005), s. 221-221 ISSN 1474-3833. [FEBS Congress /30./ and IUBMB Conference /9./. 02.07.2005-07.07.2005, Budapest] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011306; GA ČR(CZ) GP305/02/D090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * allosteric interaction * strychnine -like modulators * mutations * extracellular loop Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  17. Nucleus accumbens neurotransmission and effort-related choice behavior in food motivation: effects of drugs acting on dopamine, adenosine, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Podurgiel, Samantha; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2013-11-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Although nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA depletions or antagonism leave aspects of appetite and primary food motivation intact, rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D2 antagonists on effort-related choice, and that stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors produces behavioral effects that are similar to those induced by DA antagonism. The present review summarizes the literature on the role of NAc DA and adenosine in effort-related processes, and also presents original data on the effects of local stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in NAc core. Local injections of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine directly into NAc core produces shifts in effort-related choice behavior similar to those induced by DA antagonism or A2A receptor stimulation, decreasing lever pressing but increasing chow intake in rats responding on a concurrent fixed ratio/chow feeding choice task. In contrast, injections into a neostriatal control site dorsal to the NAc were ineffective. The actions of pilocarpine on this task were attenuated by co-administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. Thus, drugs that act on DA, adenosine A2A, and muscarinic receptors regulate effort-related choice behavior, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia that can be observed in depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in Membrane Cholesterol Differentially Influence Preferential and Non-preferential Signaling of the M1 and M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Michal, Pavel; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 10 (2015), s. 2068-2070 ISSN 0364-3190 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05696S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10060 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * agonist binding * cholesterol * G-proteins * signal transduction * cAMP synthesis Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.472, year: 2015

  19. Differences in kinetics of xanomeline binding and selectivity of activation of G proteins at M(1) and M(2) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    Jakubík, Jan; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 2 (2006), s. 656-666 ISSN 0026-895X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/05/0452; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:NIH(US) NS25743 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : xanomeline * muscarinic receptors * G-protein activation Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 4.469, year: 2006

  20. Asparagine, valine, and threonine in the third extracellular loop of muscarinic receptor have essential roles in the positive cooperativity of strychnine-like allosteric modulators

    Jakubík, Jan; Krejčí, Alena; Doležal, Vladimír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 313, č. 2 (2005), s. 688-696 ISSN 0022-3565 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/02/1331; GA ČR(CZ) GP305/02/D090; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011306; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * positive cooperativity * mutation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.098, year: 2005

  1. Muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptors regulate the non-quantal release of acetylcholine in the rat neuromuscular junction via NO-dependent mechanism

    Malomouzh, A. I.; Mukhtarov, M. R.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Vyskočil, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 6 (2007), s. 2110-2117 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011411; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:-(RU) 112.0/001/481 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * NO synthese Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.451, year: 2007

  2. A comparison of β-adrenoceptors and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in tissues of brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the black river and old woman creek, Ohio

    Steevens, Jeffery A.; Baumann, Paul C.; Jones, Susan B.

    1996-01-01

    β-Adrenoceptors (βARs) and muscarinic cholinergic receptors were measured in brain, gill, and heart tissues of brown bullhead catfish exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Black River, Ohio, USA, and were compared to values from Old Woman Creek, Ohio, a reference site. A decreased number of βARs were found in the gill from Black River fish, possibly indicating a compensatory response subsequent to chemical stress.

  3. Wash-Resistantly Bound Xanomeline Inhibits Acetylcholine Release by Persistent Activation of Presynaptic M2 and M4 Muscarinic Receptors in Rat Brain

    Machová, Eva; Jakubík, Jan; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 322, č. 1 (2007), s. 316-323 ISSN 0022-3565 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/05/0452; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:-(US) NS25743 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : acetylcholine * xanomeline * muscarinic receptor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.003, year: 2007

  4. The selective positive allosteric M1 muscarinic receptor modulator PQCA attenuates learning and memory deficits in the Tg2576 Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    Puri, Vanita; Wang, Xiaohai; Vardigan, Joshua D; Kuduk, Scott D; Uslaner, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    We have recently shown that the M1 muscarinic receptor positive allosteric modulator, PQCA, improves cognitive performance in rodents and non-human primates administered the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine. The purpose of the present experiments was to characterize the effects of PQCA in a model more relevant to the disease pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Tg2576 transgenic mice that have elevated Aβ were tested in the novel object recognition task to characterize recognition memory as a function of age and treatment with the PQCA. The effects of PQCA were compared to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, the standard of care for Alzheimer's disease. In addition, the effect of co-administering PQCA and donepezil was evaluated. Aged Tg2576 mice demonstrated a deficit in recognition memory that was significantly attenuated by PQCA. The positive control donepezil also reversed the deficit. Furthermore, doses of PQCA and donepezil that were inactive on their own were found to improve recognition memory when given together. These studies suggest that M1 muscarinic receptor positive allosteric modulation can ameliorate memory deficits in disease relevant models of Alzheimer's disease. These data, combined with our previous findings demonstrating PQCA improves scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in both rodents and non-human primates, suggest that M1 positive allosteric modulators have therapeutic potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of partial volume correction on muscarinic cholinergic receptor imaging with single-photon emission tomography in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    Weckesser, M.; Ziemons, K.; Griessmeier, M.; Sonnenberg, F.; Langen, K.J.; Mueller-Gaertner, H.W.; Hufnagel, A.; Elger, C.E.; Hacklaender, T.; Holschbach, M.

    1997-01-01

    Animal experiments and preliminary results in humans have indicated alterations of hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in temporal lobe epilepsy. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy often present with a reduction in hippocampal volume. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of hippocampal atrophy on the quantification of mAChR with single photon emission tomography (SPET) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Cerebral uptake of the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist [ 123 I]4-iododexetimide (IDex) was investigated by SPET in patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy of unilateral (n=6) or predominantly unilateral (n=1) onset. Regions of interest were drawn on co-registered magnetic resonance images. Hippocampal volume was determined in these regions and was used to correct the SPET results for partial volume effects. A ratio of hippocampal IDex binding on the affected side to that on the unaffected side was used to detect changes in muscarinic cholinergic receptor density. Before partial volume correction a decrease in hippocampal IDex binding on the focus side was found in each patient. After partial volume no convincing differences remained. Our results indicate that the reduction in hippocampal IDex binding in patients with epilepsy is due to a decrease in hippocampal volume rather than to a decrease in receptor concentration. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. In vivo and in vitro studies on the potentiation of muscarinic receptor stimulation by alaproclate, a selective 5-HT uptake blocker

    Oegren, S.O.; Nordstroem, Oe.; Danielsson, E.; Peterson, L.-L.; Bartfai, T.

    1985-01-01

    Alaproclate (10-60 mg/kg) injected i.p. into male mice potentiated and prolonged the oxotremorine and physostigmine-induced tremor in a dosedependent manner. Atropine completely blocked the tremor caused by oxotremorine or physostigmine both in the presence and absence of alaproclate. Pretreatment with the 5-HT receptor antagonist metitepine completely blocked the enhancement of oxotremorine-induced tremor caused by alaproclate. Biochemical studies indicated that the above effects cannot be explained by assuming that alaproclate a) acts as a cholinergic agonist, b) inhibits the acetylcholine esterase, c) interferes with choline uptake or acetylcholine synthesis, or d) directly potentiates the release of acetylcholine. In ligand binding studies alaproclate was found to be a weak competitive inhibitor of muscarinic antagonist binding to membranes from the rat cerebral cortex, rat striatum, human cerebral cortex and human striatum. (Ksub(i) approximately 28-40 μM in all four tissues). The present results suggest that alaproclate may potentiate muscarinic responses by a mechanism involving serotonergic receptor mechanisms rather than by a direct interaction with the muscarinic cholinergic receptors. (Author)

  7. In vivo and in vitro studies on the potentiation of muscarinic receptor stimulation by alaproclate, a selective 5-HT uptake blocker

    Oegren, S.O. (Astra Pharmaceuticals AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden)); Nordstroem, Oe.; Danielsson, E.; Peterson, L.L.; Bartfai, T.

    1985-01-01

    Alaproclate (10-60 mg/kg) injected i.p. into male mice potentiated and prolonged the oxotremorine and physostigmine-induced tremor in a dose dependent manner. Atropine completely blocked the tremor caused by oxotremorine or physostigmine both in the presence and absence of alaproclate. Pretreatment with the 5-HT receptor antagonist metitepine completely blocked the enhancement of oxotremorine-induced tremor caused by alaproclate. Biochemical studies indicated that the above effects cannot be explained by assuming that alaproclate a) acts as a cholinergic agonist, b) inhibits the acetylcholine esterase, c) interferes with choline uptake or acetylcholine synthesis, or d) directly potentiates the release of acetylcholine. In ligand binding studies alaproclate was found to be a weak competitive inhibitor of muscarinic antagonist binding to membranes from the rat cerebral cortex, rat striatum, human cerebral cortex and human striatum. (Ksub(i) approximately 28-40 ..mu..M in all four tissues). The present results suggest that alaproclate may potentiate muscarinic responses by a mechanism involving serotonergic receptor mechanisms rather than by a direct interaction with the muscarinic cholinergic receptors.

  8. A crosstalk between muscarinic and CRF2 receptors regulates cellular adhesion properties of human colon cancer cells.

    Pelissier-Rota, M; Chartier, N T; Bonaz, B; Jacquier-Sarlin, M R

    2017-07-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease often suffer from chronic and relapsing intestinal inflammation that favor the development of colitis associated cancer. An alteration of the epithelial intestinal barrier function observed in IBD is supposed to be a consequence of stress. It has been proposed that corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor (CRF2), one of the two receptors of CRF, the principal neuromediator of stress, acts on cholinergic nerves to induce stress-mediated epithelial barrier dysfunction. Non-neuronal acetylcholine (Ach) and muscarinic receptors (mAchR) also contribute to alterations of epithelial cell functions. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms through which stress and Ach modulate epithelial cell adhesive properties. We show that Ach-induced activation of mAchR in HT-29 cells results in cell dissociation together with changes in cell-matrix contacts, which correlates with the acquisition of invasive potential consistent with a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) mode of invasion. These processes result from mAchR subsequent stimulation of the cascade of src/Erk and FAK activation. Ach-induced secretion of laminin 332 leads to α3β1 integrin activation and RhoA-dependent reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that Ach-mediated effects on cell adhesion are blocked by astressin 2b, a CRF2 antagonist, suggesting that Ach action depends partly on CRF2 signaling. This is reinforced by the fact that Ach-mediated activation of mAchR stimulates both the synthesis and the release of CRF2 ligands in HT-29 cells (effects blocked by atropine). In summary, our data provides evidence for a novel intracellular circuit involving mAchR acting on CRF2-signaling that could mediate colonic mucosal barrier dysfunction and exacerbate mucosal inflammation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Selective Activation of M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Reverses MK-801-Induced Behavioral Impairments and Enhances Associative Learning in Rodents

    2015-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) represent a novel approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently reported that the selective M4 PAM VU0152100 produced an antipsychotic drug-like profile in rodents after amphetamine challenge. Previous studies suggest that enhanced cholinergic activity may also improve cognitive function and reverse deficits observed with reduced signaling through the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of the glutamate receptor (NMDAR) in the central nervous system. Prior to this study, the M1 mAChR subtype was viewed as the primary candidate for these actions relative to the other mAChR subtypes. Here we describe the discovery of a novel M4 PAM, VU0467154, with enhanced in vitro potency and improved pharmacokinetic properties relative to other M4 PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801. VU0467154 produced a robust dose-dependent reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in preclinical models of associative learning and memory functions, including the touchscreen pairwise visual discrimination task in wild-type mice, but failed to reverse these stimulant-induced deficits in M4 KO mice. VU0467154 also enhanced the acquisition of both contextual and cue-mediated fear conditioning when administered alone in wild-type mice. These novel findings suggest that M4 PAMs may provide a strategy for addressing the more complex affective and cognitive disruptions associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25137629

  10. Differences in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the central nervous system of long sleep and short sleep mice

    Watson, M.; Ming, X.; McArdle, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Differences in voluntary ethanol consumption have been noted in various inbred strains of mice and pharmacogenetic approaches have been used to study the mechanisms of action of many drugs such as ethanol. Long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice, selectively bred for differences in ethanol induced narcosis, provide a method by which a relationship between the differential responsiveness of these geno-types and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) may be evaluated. Sleep times after injection of 3ml ethanol/kg (i.p.) verified the higher sensitivity of LS vs. SS. Mean body weights of LS (26.5g) vs. SS (22g) were also significantly (p 3 H](-) quinuclidinylbenzilate ([ 3 H](-)QNB), a specific but nonsubtype selective mAChR antagonist, [ 3 H]pirenzepine ([ 3 H]PZ), a specific M1 mAChR antagonist and [ 3 H]11-2-[[2-[(diethylamino) methyl]-1-piperidinyl] acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido (2,3-b) (1,4) benzodiazepine-6-one, ([ 3 H]AF-DX 116), an M2 selective antagonist were performed to determine mAChR affinity (K d ) and density (B max ) in CNS regions such as the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, corpus striatum and other areas. Significantly lower (30-40%) [ 3 H](-)QNB binding suggests that SS have fewer mAChR's than LS in many areas. These differences may relate to their differential ethanol sensitivity

  11. Sex-related differences in the muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor in the healthy human brain. A positron emission tomography study

    Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Sasaki, Masayuki; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Takita, Masashi; Ogomori, Koji; Masuda, Kouji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Medical Sciences; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Ichiya, Yuichi

    2000-04-01

    We evaluated the sex-related differences in the decline of the cerebral muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor (mACh-R) due to aging by using {sup 11}C-N-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilate ({sup 11}C-NMPB) and positron emission tomography (PET). The subjects consisted of 37 (20 males and 17 females) healthy volunteers. The {sup 11}C-NMPB uptake was evaluated by the ratio method (regional {sup 11}C-NMPB uptake/Cerebellar {sup 11}C-NMPB uptake; rNMPB ratio). The correlation between sex, aging, and the rNMPB ratio in normal aging was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The rNMPB ratio was higher in females than in males throughout the entire cerebral region (p<0.01-p<0.0001) and the rNMPB ratio might thus possibly decline with age more rapidly in females. Our study therefore revealed the existence of sex-related differences in the cerebral mACh-R. (author)

  12. Sex-related differences in the muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor in the healthy human brain. A positron emission tomography study

    Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Sasaki, Masayuki; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Takita, Masashi; Ogomori, Koji; Masuda, Kouji; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Ichiya, Yuichi

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the sex-related differences in the decline of the cerebral muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor (mACh-R) due to aging by using 11 C-N-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilate ( 11 C-NMPB) and positron emission tomography (PET). The subjects consisted of 37 (20 males and 17 females) healthy volunteers. The 11 C-NMPB uptake was evaluated by the ratio method (regional 11 C-NMPB uptake/Cerebellar 11 C-NMPB uptake; rNMPB ratio). The correlation between sex, aging, and the rNMPB ratio in normal aging was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The rNMPB ratio was higher in females than in males throughout the entire cerebral region (p<0.01-p<0.0001) and the rNMPB ratio might thus possibly decline with age more rapidly in females. Our study therefore revealed the existence of sex-related differences in the cerebral mACh-R. (author)

  13. Experiment K-6-18. Study of muscarinic and gaba (benzodiazepine) receptors in the sensory-motor cortex, hippcampus and spinal code

    Daunton, N.; Damelio, F.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    Frontal lobe samples of rat brains flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were processed for the study of muscarinic (cholinergic) and GABA (benzodiazepine) receptors and for immunocytochemical localization of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Although radioactive labeling of both muscarinic cholinergic and GABA (benzodiazepine) receptors proved to be successful with the techniques employed, distinct receptor localization of individual laminae of the frontal neocortex was not possible since the sampling of the area was different in the various groups of animals. In spite of efforts made for proper orientation and regional identification of laminae, it was found that a densitometric (quantitation of autoradiograms) analysis of the tissue did not contribute to the final interpretation of the effects of weightlessness on these receptors. As to the immunocytochemical studies the use of both markers, GFAP and GABA antiserum, confirmed the suitability of the techniques for use in frozen material. However, similar problems to those encountered in the receptor studies prevented an adequate interpretation of the effects of micro-G exposure on the localization and distribution of GABA and GFAP. This study did, however, confirm the feasibility of investigating neurotransmitters and their receptors in future space flight experiments.

  14. Muscarinic, adenosine and tropomyosin-related kinase B receptors modulate the neuromuscular developmental synapse elimination process

    Nadal Magriñà, Laura

    2017-01-01

    El desarrollo del sistema nervioso periférico implica una inicial exuberante producción de neuronas y, una posterior reducción dependiente de actividad del número de sinapsis en las uniones neuromusculares (NMJ). Este proceso se denomina eliminación sináptica. Al final de la segunda semana postnatal, cada fibra muscular esta inervadas por una solo motoneurona. Los receptores muscarínicos de acetilcolina (mAChR), los receptores de adenosina (AR) y el receptor quinasa de tropomiosina B (TrkB) p...

  15. Reduced muscarinic receptors in the cingulate cortex in mild Alzheimer's disease demonstrated with 123I iodo-dexetamide SPECT

    Rowe, C.C.; Barnden, L.R.; Nicholas, C.; Nowakowski, K.; Boundy, K.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Parietal hypoperfusion/hypometabolism is a feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In early AD this may be preceded by changes in the posterior cingulate cortex, part of the cortico-limbic circuit with connections to the medial temporal lobes. Because cholinergic function is affected in early AD, we aimed to investigate the binding of the muscarinic receptor label, I-123 iodo-dexetamide (IDEX). We recruited 11 mild (MiniMental State Examination 27-24) and 11 moderate (MMSE 23-16) Alzheimer's patients and 10 age and sex-matched normal subjects. SPECT was performed six hours after injection of 185 MBq IDEX. Sections were reconstructed with attenuation correction using an iterative algorithm (OSEM). Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM 99) was used to analyse the data. Because there is very little IDEX uptake in the cerebellum and thalamus it was necessary to edit them from the SPM PET template. Facial and scalp activity was also edited. Global scaling relative to the basal ganglia was used. Significant areas of decreased IDEX binding were found in the mild Alzheimer's group in the cingulate cortex with pvoxel = .08 and pcluster < 0.001, (particularly the posterior cingulate), left parietotemporal junction (pcluster = 0.01) and posteromedial left temporal lobe (pcluster = 0.03). In moderate AD extensive areas of decreased binding were found in the posterior cingulate, parietal and temporal lobes. The difference between the group-means at the posterior cingulate was 14% (mild AD) and 22% (moderate AD). Hypoperfusion, hypometabolism and now reduced cholinergic receptors have been demonstrated in the posterior cingulate in mild AD. Greater attention to this area may enhance the diagnostic value of functional imaging in early AD. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  16. Tuning the allosteric regulation of artificial muscarinic and dopaminergic ligand-gated potassium channels by protein engineering of G protein-coupled receptors

    Moreau, Christophe J.; Revilloud, Jean; Caro, Lydia N.; Dupuis, Julien P.; Trouchet, Amandine; Estrada-Mondragón, Argel; Nieścierowicz, Katarzyna; Sapay, Nicolas; Crouzy, Serge; Vivaudou, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels enable intercellular transmission of action potential through synapses by transducing biochemical messengers into electrical signal. We designed artificial ligand-gated ion channels by coupling G protein-coupled receptors to the Kir6.2 potassium channel. These artificial channels called ion channel-coupled receptors offer complementary properties to natural channels by extending the repertoire of ligands to those recognized by the fused receptors, by generating more sustained signals and by conferring potassium selectivity. The first artificial channels based on the muscarinic M2 and the dopaminergic D2L receptors were opened and closed by acetylcholine and dopamine, respectively. We find here that this opposite regulation of the gating is linked to the length of the receptor C-termini, and that C-terminus engineering can precisely control the extent and direction of ligand gating. These findings establish the design rules to produce customized ligand-gated channels for synthetic biology applications. PMID:28145461

  17. Urtica dioica leaves modulates muscarinic cholinergic system in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder and has been associated with cognitive dysfunction. In our earlier study, chronic Urtica dioica (UD) treatment significantly ameliorated diabetes induced associative and spatial memory deficit in mice. The present study was designed to explore the effect of UD leaves extract on muscarinic cholinergic system, which has long been known to be involved in cognition. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p., consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by treatment with UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. STZ-induced diabetic mice showed significant reduction in hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-1 and choline acetyltransferase expressions. Chronic diabetes significantly up-regulated the protein expression of acetylcholinesterase associated with oxidative stress in hippocampus. Besides, STZ-induced diabetic mice showed hypolocomotion with up-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. Chronic UD treatment significantly attenuated the cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of diabetic mice. UD had no effect on locomotor activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. In conclusion, UD leaves extract has potential to reverse diabetes mediated alteration in muscarinic cholinergic system in hippocampus and thereby improve memory functions.

  18. Studies for transitional changes of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and mRNA distribution by focal ischemia using nuclear medicine

    Kuji, Ichiei [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-04-01

    Assessing stress-induced brain receptor responses is important in understanding clinical brain receptor images for nuclear medicine. It is known that cholinergic neurons are decreased by Alzheimer`s disease and that there is a close relationship between cholinergic neurons and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR). Thus, this study assessed the response of mAchR to focal ischemia using infarction model rats (prepared by middle cerebral artery occlusion) and sham-operated rats. In the same rats, three kinds of images -- ex vivo regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) images with {sup 99m}Tc-hexametyl-propyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO), in vitro mAchR binding images with [{sup 3}H] quinuclidinyl benzilate ({sup 3}H-QNB), and mAchR-mRNA images by in situ hybridization method using {sup 35}S-labeled-oligonucleotide probes specific for mAchR gene subtypes of m1 to m5 -- were obtained in acute and chronic phases. Each image datum was digitalized and assessed semi-quantitatively. There were significant changes in global distribution among rCBF, mAchR and mAchR-mRNAs. In the acute phase, there was no significant change in mAchR in the infarcted area, although rCBF markedly decreased. In the chronic phase, there was a significant decrease in mAchR in the infarct-sided thalamus, although there was no change in rCBF; and there was a significant decrease in mAchR of the infarct-sided substantia nigra in spite of increase in rCBF. In the acute phase, mAchR-mRNAs of the infarct-sided caudate-putamen was decreased, suggesting that the ability of cholinergic neuron to synthesize receptor protein had decreased in the acute phase. Because mAchR was not decreased in the acute phase, some viable neurons with no normal function may be preserved in the acute phase. These results were encouraging in understanding mAchR brain images of patients with memory disturbances such as cerebrovascular dementia and Alzheimer`s disease. (N.K.).

  19. SPET imaging of central muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with iodine-123 labelled E-IQNP and Z-IQNP

    Nobuhara, K.; Farde, L.; Halldin, C.; Karlsson, P.; Swahn, C.G.; Olsson, H.; Sedvall, G. [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bergstroem, K.A. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Larsson, S.A.; Schnell, P.-O. [Dept. of Radiation Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); McPherson, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Nuclear Medicine Group, TN (United States); Savonen, A.; Hiltunen, J. [MAP Medical Technologies Oy, Tikkakoski (Finland)

    2001-01-01

    1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP) is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist and the racemic ligand contains eight stereoisomers. In a single-photon emission tomography (SPET) study in monkeys we recently confirmed that [{sup 123}I]E-(R,R)-IQNP ([{sup 123}I]E-IQNP) is a radioligand with modest selectivity for the M{sub 1} and M{sub 4} subtypes, whereas [{sup 123}I]Z-(R,R)-IQNP ([{sup 123}I]Z-IQNP) is non-subtype selective. In the present SPET study, E- and Z-IQNP were examined in human subjects. SPET examination was performed on three male subjects after i.v. injection of [{sup 123}I]E-IQNP and in another three after i.v. injection of [{sup 123}I]Z-IQNP. The binding potential (BP) for [{sup 123}I]E-IQNP was calculated using several quantitative approaches with the cerebellum as a reference region. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure radioligand metabolism in plasma. Following [{sup 123}I]E-IQNP, the radioactivity was high in the neocortex and striatum, intermediate in the thalamus and low in the pons and cerebellum, which is consistent with the rank order for the regional density of M{sub 1} and M{sub 4} subtypes in vitro. For all regions, peak equilibrium was identified within the 48-h data acquisition. The simplified reference tissue approach using SPET data from 0 to 48 h was the most reliable in this limited series of subjects. Following injection of [{sup 123}I]Z-IQNP, radioactivity was high in the neocortex and striatum, intermediate in the thalamus and pons and low in the cerebellum, which is in agreement with the density of M{sub 1}, M{sub 2} and M{sub 4} subtypes as measured in vitro. Quantitative analyses provided indirect support for specific M{sub 2} binding of Z-IQNP in the cerebellum. The high selectivity of [{sup 123}I]E-IQNP for M{sub 1} and M{sub 4} receptors allowed the use of cerebellum as a reference region devoid of specific binding, and

  20. Involvement of Ca2+ Signaling in the Synergistic Effects between Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists and β2-Adrenoceptor Agonists in Airway Smooth Muscle

    Kentaro Fukunaga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs and short-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (SABAs play important roles in remedy for COPD. To propel a translational research for development of bronchodilator therapy, synergistic effects between SABAs with LAMAs were examined focused on Ca2+ signaling using simultaneous records of isometric tension and F340/F380 in fura-2-loaded tracheal smooth muscle. Glycopyrronium (3 nM, a LAMA, modestly reduced methacholine (1 μM-induced contraction. When procaterol, salbutamol and SABAs were applied in the presence of glycopyrronium, relaxant effects of these SABAs are markedly enhanced, and percent inhibition of tension was much greater than the sum of those for each agent and those expected from the BI theory. In contrast, percent inhibition of F340/F380 was not greater than those values. Bisindolylmaleimide, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC, significantly increased the relaxant effect of LAMA without reducing F340/F380. Iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa channels, significantly suppressed the effects of these combined agents with reducing F340/F380. In conclusion, combination of SABAs with LAMAs synergistically enhances inhibition of muscarinic contraction via decreasing both Ca2+ sensitization mediated by PKC and Ca2+ dynamics mediated by KCa channels. PKC and KCa channels may be molecular targets for cross talk between β2-adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors.

  1. Weak toxin WTX from Naja kaouthia cobra venom interacts with both nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    Mordvintsev, D.Y.; Polyak, Y.L.; Rodionov, D.I.; Jakubík, Jan; Doležal, Vladimír; Karlsson, E.; Tsetlin, V.I.; Utkin, Y.N.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 18 (2009), s. 5065-5075 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : acetylcholine receptors * allosteric interaction * toxins Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2009

  2. Annulated heterocyclic bioisosteres of norarecoline. Synthesis and molecular pharmacology at five recombinant human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Ebert, B; Brann, M R

    1995-01-01

    = 0.011 microM), and 4d (IC50 = 0.0008 microM). Pharmacological effects (EC50 or Ki values) and intrinsic activities (per cent of maximal carbachol responses) were determined using five recombinant human mAChRs (m1-m5) and the functional assay, receptor selection and amplification technology (R...... inhibitors of the binding of tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), pirenzepine (PZ), and oxotremorine-M (Oxo-M) to tissue membrane preparations. In the [3H]-Oxo-M binding assay, receptor affinities in the low nanomolar range were measured for 4a (IC50 = 0.010 microM), 4b (IC50 = 0.003 microM), 4c (IC50...

  3. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and musc...

  4. Concomitant alteration in number and affinity of P2X and muscarinic receptors are associated with bladder dysfunction in early stage of diabetic rats.

    Yoshizawa, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Yukio; Yoshida, Akira; Yoshida, Shohei; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamaguchi, Kenya; Yamada, Shizuo; Takahashi, Satoru

    2018-03-01

    To investigate time course of bladder dysfunction and concurrent changes in number and affinity of the muscarinic and P 2 X receptor in the early stage of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were prepared by the intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of STZ to 7-week-old female Wistar rats. We performed recording of 24-h voiding behavior and cystometry at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the induction of diabetes. A muscle strip experiments with electrical field stimulation (EFS), carbachol, and α,β-methylene adenosine 5'-triphosphate (α,β-MeATP) were also performed at the same time-points. Additionally, concurrent changes in number and affinity of bladder muscarinic and P 2 X receptor were measured by a radioreceptor assay using [N-methyl- 3 H] scopolamine methyl chloride ([ 3 H]NMS) and α,β-methylene-ATP (2,8- 3 H) tetrasodium salt ([ 3 H]α,β-MeATP). In STZ-induced diabetic rats, polydipsic polyuric pollakiuria were noted on recording of 24-h voiding behavior from early stage. Also, the residual urine volume markedly increased in diabetic rats on cystometry. In the muscle strip experiment, the detrusor contractions induced by EFS, carbachol, and α,β-MeATP were enhanced in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Based on the radioreceptor assay, the maximum number of sites (Bmax) for the specific binding of [ 3 H]NMS and [ 3 H]α,β-MeATP was concurrently increased in the bladder from diabetic rats. Increased bladder contractility is found in early stage of diabetic rats. Then, bladder dysfunction is associated with increased number of muscarinic and P 2 X receptors in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  5. The interaction between tropomyosin-related kinase B receptors and presynaptic muscarinic receptors modulates transmitter release in adult rodent motor nerve terminals.

    Garcia, Neus; Tomàs, Marta; Santafé, Manel M; Besalduch, Nuria; Lanuza, Maria A; Tomàs, Josep

    2010-12-08

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) and the receptors tropomyosin-related kinase B (trkB) and p75(NTR) are present in the nerve terminals on the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of the levator auris longus muscle of the adult mouse. Exogenously added BDNF or NT-4 increased evoked ACh release after 3 h. This presynaptic effect (the size of the spontaneous potentials is not affected) is specific because it is not produced by neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and is prevented by preincubation with trkB-IgG chimera or by pharmacological block of trkB [K-252a (C₂₇H₂₁N₃O₅)] or p75(NTR) [Pep5 (C₈₆H₁₁₁N₂₅O₁₉S₂] signaling. The effect of BDNF depends on the M₁ and M₂ muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors (mAChRs) because it is prevented by atropine, pirenzepine and methoctramine. We found that K-252a incubation reduces ACh release (~50%) in a short time (1 h), but the p75(NTR) signaling inhibitor Pep5 does not have this effect. The specificity of the K-252a blocking effect on trkB was confirmed with the anti-trkB antibody 47/trkB, which reduces evoked ACh release, like K-252a, whereas the nonpermeant tyrosine kinase blocker K-252b does not. Neither does incubation with the fusion protein trkB-IgG (to chelate endogenous BDNF/NT-4), anti-BDNF or anti-NT-4 change ACh release. Thus, the trkB receptor normally seems to be coupled to ACh release when there is no short-term local effect of neurotrophins at the NMJ. The normal function of the mAChR mechanism is a permissive prerequisite for the trkB pathway to couple to ACh release. Reciprocally, the normal function of trkB modulates M₁- and M₂-subtype muscarinic pathways.

  6. Drugs interfering with Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Their effects on Place Navigation

    Svoboda, Jan; Popelíková, Anna; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, Nov 9 (2017), č. článku 215. ISSN 1664-0640 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04047S; GA ČR NV17-30833A; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) PAN-17-07 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : scopolamine * biperiden * acetylcholine * receptor * behavior * learning Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.532, year: 2016

  7. Nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are recruited by acetylcholine-mediated neurotransmission within the locus coeruleus during the organisation of post-ictal antinociception.

    de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo; Biagioni, Audrey Franceschi; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; Dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-10-01

    Post-ictal antinociception is characterised by an increase in the nociceptive threshold that accompanies tonic and tonic-clonic seizures (TCS). The locus coeruleus (LC) receives profuse cholinergic inputs from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Different concentrations (1μg, 3μg and 5μg/0.2μL) of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist atropine and the nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonist mecamylamine were microinjected into the LC of Wistar rats to investigate the role of cholinergic mechanisms in the severity of TCS and the post-ictal antinociceptive response. Five minutes later, TCS were induced by systemic administration of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (64mg/kg). Seizures were recorded inside the open field apparatus for an average of 10min. Immediately after seizures, the nociceptive threshold was recorded for 130min using the tail-flick test. Pre-treatment of the LC with 1μg, 3μg and 5μg/0.2μL concentrations of both atropine and mecamylamine did not cause a significant effect on seizure severity. However, the same treatments decreased the post-ictal antinociceptive phenomenon. In addition, mecamylamine caused an earlier decrease in the post-ictal antinociception compared to atropine. These results suggest that muscarinic and mainly nicotinic cholinergic receptors of the LC are recruited to organise tonic-clonic seizure-induced antinociception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Demonstration of a reduction in muscarinic receptor binding in early Alzheimer's disease using iodine-123 dexetimide single-photon emission tomography

    Claus, J.J.; Dubois, E.A.; Booij, J.; Habraken, J.; Munck, J.C. van; Herk, M. van; Verbeeten, B. Jr.; Royen, E.A. van

    1997-01-01

    Decreased muscarinic receptor binding has been suggested in single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies of Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unclear whether these changes are present in mildly demented patients, and the role of cortical atrophy in receptor binding assessment has not been investigated. We studied muscarinic receptor binding normalized to neostriatum with SPET using [ 123 I[4-iododexetimide in five mildly affected patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and in five age-matched control subjects. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed in a consensus procedure blind to clinical diagnosis using matched magnetic resonance (MRI) images. Cortical atrophy was assessed by calculating percentages of cerebrospinal fluid in each ROI. An observer study with three observers was conducted to validate this method. Alzheimer patients showed statistically significantly less [ 123 I[4-iododexetimide binding in left temporal and right temporo-parietal cortex compared with controls, independent of age, sex and cortical atrophy. Mean intra-observer variability was 3.6% and inter-observer results showed consistent differences in [ 123 I[4-iododexetimide binding between observers. However, differences between patients and controls were comparable among observers and statistically significant in the same regions as in the consensus procedure. Using an MRI-SPET matching technique, we conclude that [ 123 I[4-iododexetimide binding is reduced in patients with mild probable Alzheimer's disease in areas of temporal and temporo-parietal cortex. (orig.). With 1 fig., 4 tabs

  9. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates B-50/GAP43 phosphorylation in isolated nerve growth cones

    Gispen, W.H.; Hooff, C.O.M. van; Graan, P.N.E. de; Oestreicher, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    A characteristic feature of neurite formation is high expression of the phosphoprotein B-50/GAP43. Previous studies with growth cone membranes have indicated that this neuron-specific protein kinase C substrate may be involved in transmembrane signal transduction at the growth cone. We monitored the

  10. In vivo biodistribution of two [18F]-labelled muscarinic cholinergic receptor ligands: 2-[18F]- and 4-[18F]-fluorodexetimide

    Wilson, A.A.; Scheffel, U.A.; Dannals, R.F.; Stathis, M.; Ravert, H.T.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Two [ 18 F]-labelled analogues of the potent muscarinic cholinergic receptor (m-AChR) antagonist, dexetimide, were evaluated as potential ligands for imaging m-AChR by positron emission tomography (PET). Intravenous administration of both 2-[ 18 F]- or 4-[ 18 F]-fluorodexetimide resulted in high brain uptake of radioactivity in mice. High binding levels were observed in m-AChR rich areas, such as cortex and striatum, with low levels in the receptor-poor cerebellum. Uptake of radioactivity was saturable and could be blocked by pre-administration of dexetimide or atropine. Drugs with different sites of action were ineffective at blocking receptor binding. The results indicate that both radiotracers are promising candidates for use in PET studies

  11. Guanosine 5'-triphosphate binding protein (G/sub i/) and two additional pertussis toxin substrates associated with muscarinic receptors in rat heart myocytes: characterization and age dependency

    Moscona-Amir, E.; Henis, Y.I.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1988-01-01

    The coupling of muscarinic receptors with G-proteins was investigated in cultured myocytes prepared from the hearts of newborn rats. The coupling was investigated in both young (5 days after plating) and aged (14 days after plating) cultures, in view of the completely different effects of 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] on muscarinic agonist binding to homogenates from young vs aged cultures. Pretreatment of cultures from both ages by Bordetella pertussis toxin (IAP) was found to eliminate any Gpp(NH)p effect on carbamylcholine binding. IAP by itself induced a rightward shift in the carbamylcholine competition curve in homogenates from aged cultures, but no such effect was observed in homogenates from young cultures. IAP-catalyzed [ 32 P]ADP-ribosylation of membrane preparations from young and aged cultures revealed major differences between them. Young cultures exhibited a major IAP substrate at 40 kDa, which was also recognized by anti-α/sub i/ antibodies, and two novel IAP substrates at 28 and 42 kDa, which were weakly ADP-ribosylated by the toxin and were not recognized with either anti-α/sub i/ or anti-α 0 antibodies. In aged cultures, only the 40-kDa band (ribosylated to a lower degree) was detected. The parallel age-dependent changes in the three IAP substrates (28, 40, and 42 kDa) and in the interactions of the G-protein(s) with the muscarinic receptors strongly suggest close association between the two phenomena. All of these age-dependent changes in the G-protein related parameters were prevented by phosphatidylcholine-liposome treatment of the aged cultures. The role of the membrane lipid composition in these phenomena is discussed

  12. The Beneficial Effect of Fesoterodine, a Competitive Muscarinic Receptor Antagonist on Erectile Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Yilmaz-Oral, Didem; Bayatli, Nur; Gur, Serap

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the possible role of fesoterodine (a competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist) on erectile dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A total of 16 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into control and diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (25-35 mg/kg). In vivo erectile responses were evaluated by the stimulation of cavernosal nerves, and measurements were repeated after the intracavernosal injection of fesoterodine (1 µM) in rats. The relaxation responses to fesoterodine were examined via incubation with various inhibitors. The relaxant responses of corpus cavernosum (CC) strips were observed in the presence or the absence of fesoterodine (10 µM). Intracavernous administration of fesoterodine restored in vivo erectile response at 5.0- and 7.5-V levels, except for 2.5 V in diabetic rats. Basal intracavernosal pressure (5.4 ± 0.9 mm Hg) in diabetic rats was markedly increased after injection of fesoterodine (33.9 ± 7.9 mm Hg, P <.001). In bath studies, fesoterodine resulted in a relaxation of CC in a concentration-dependent manner, which was reduced in diabetic rats. Nifedipine (l-type Ca 2+ channel blocker) inhibited maximum fesoterodine-induced relaxation by 58%. The nonselective K + channel blocker tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide incubation did not change the relaxant response to fesoterodine. The relaxant responses to acetylcholine (10 µM), electrical field stimulation (10 Hz), and sodium nitroprusside (0.01 µM) in diabetic rats were increased after incubation with fesoterodine (10 µM). Fesoterodine improved erectile function and relaxation of isolated strips of rat CC. The underlying mechanism of fesoterodine is likely due to the blocking of l-type calcium channels independent of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. Further investigations are warranted to fully elucidate the restorative effects of

  13. Differences between proximal and distal portions of the male rabbit posterior urethra in the physiological role of muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    Nagahama, Katsushi; Tsujii, Toshihiko; Morita, Takashi; Azuma, Hiroshi; Oshima, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate functional differences between embryologically different portions of the posterior urethra of male rabbits in response to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) stimulation using in vitro isometric tension experiments and radioligand binding studies. In the in vitro isometric tension experiments, carbachol, produced a dose-dependent contraction of the proximal portion under the resting state, but did not change the basal tone of the distal portion. Contraction of the proximal portion by 10−5 M noradrenaline (NA) was dose-dependently enhanced by carbachol either in the presence or absence of NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOARG). In contrast, carbachol induced relaxation of the distal portion contracted by 10−5 M NA, which was reversed to dose-dependent contraction in the presence of NOARG. Both portions of the urethra had a similar number of [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB) binding sites (195.3±74.1 fmols mg−1 protein for the proximal portion and 146.5±8.5 fmols mg−1 protein for the distal portion) with similar affinities (115.0±45.4 pM for the proximal portion and 79.9± 2.9 pM for the distal portion). The concentration-response curves to carbachol in both portions were shifted to the right in a parallel manner in the presence of pirenzepine (an M1 antagonist), 11-[[2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl] acetyl]-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido-2,3-b)-(1,4)-benzodiazepin-6-one (AFDX-116, an M2 antgonist) and 4-diphenyl-acetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine (4-DAMP, an M1/M3 antagonist). The pA2 values for pirenzepine, AFDX-116 and 4-DAMP were 7.5±0.1, 7.2±0.02 and 9.3±0.1 respectively for the contraction of the proximal portion, and 7.2±0.1, 7.1±0.2 and 9.1±0.2, respectively for the relaxation of the distal portion. In conclusion mAChR subtypes distribute in a similar fashion throughout the length of the male rabbit posterior urethra with the discrepant responses to carbachol attributable to the

  14. Effects of Saw Palmetto Extract on Urodynamic Parameters, Bladder Muscarinic and Purinergic Receptors and Urinary Cytokines in Rats with Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis.

    Nasrin, Sweety; Masuda, Eiji; Kugaya, Haruna; Osano, Ayaka; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the effect of saw palmetto extract (SPE), a phytotherapeutic agent, on urodynamic parameters, bladder muscarinic and purinergic receptors, and urinary cytokines in rats with cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). Saw palmetto extract (60 mg/kg per day) was administered orally twice a day for 7 days to rats. The urodynamic parameters in CYP (150 mg/kg i.p.)-treated rats were monitored by a cystometric method under anesthesia. The muscarinic and purinergic receptors in the bladder and submaxillary gland were measured by radioreceptor assays using [N-methyl-(3) H] scopolamine chloride([(3) H]NMS) and αβ-methylene-ATP [2,8-(3) H] tetrasodium salt ([(3) H]αβ-MeATP), respectively. Urinary cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-6 and L-17) were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Micturition interval and micturition volume were significantly decreased and the frequency of micturition and basal pressure were significantly increased in the CYP-treated rats compared with sham-operated rats. Orally administered SPE significantly increased the micturition interval and micturition volume and decreased the frequency of micturition and basal pressure. The maximal number of sites (Bmax ) for the specific binding of [(3) H]NMS and [(3) H]αβ-MeATP was significantly decreased in the bladder. The decrease in receptors was attenuated by repeated treatment with SPE. An elevation in urinary cytokine (IL-1β and IL-17) levels were seen, and this increase was effectively suppressed by SPE treatment. Saw palmetto extract attenuates the alteration of urodynamic parameters, pharmacologically relevant receptors, and urinary cytokines in CYP-treated rats. Therefore, SPE may be a potential therapeutic agent for improving the clinical symptoms of cystitis. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Differential anti-ischaemic effects of muscarinic receptor blockade in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease; impaired vs normal left ventricular function.

    A.F. van den Heuvel; D.J. van Veldhuisen (Dirk); G.L. Bartels; M. van der Ent (Martin); W.J. Remme (Willem)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: In patients with coronary artery disease acetylcholine (a muscarinic agonist) causes vasoconstriction. The effect of atropine (a muscarinic antagonist) on coronary vasotone in patients with normal or impaired left ventricular function is unknown.

  16. Interactions between allosteric modulators and 4-DAMP and other antagonists at muscarinic receptors: potential significance of the distance between the N and Carboxyl C atoms in the molecules of antagonists

    Lysíková, Michaela; Havlas, Zdeněk; Tuček, Stanislav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2001), s. 383-394 ISSN 0364-3190 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/99/0214; GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * allosteric modulation * 4-DAMP Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.638, year: 2001

  17. Interactions of alaproclate, a selective 5HT-uptake blocker, with muscarinic receptors: in vivo and in vitro studies

    Danielsson, E.; Bartfai, T.; Nordstrom, O.; Ogren, S.O.; Unden, A.

    1986-01-01

    Cholinergic mechanisms play an important role in higher brain functions such as learning or memory. It is hoped that drugs which improve cholinergic transmission would be therapeutically effective in senile dementia. The results of biochemical studies on the interaction of alaproclate with the muscarinic system are summarized. Tritium-4-N-methylpiperidinylbenzilate and methyl tritium-choline chloride were used in the studies. Salivation and hypothermia were studied in adult male mice following injection of alaproclate preceding the injection of oxotremorine by 30 min. Salivation, tremor and hypothermia caused by oxotremorine were found to be centrally mediated muscarinic responses. Tritium-ACh release was studied from synaptosomes. The metabolites of alaproclate, alanine and 2(4 chlorophenyl) 1-1 dimethylethanol, do not produce tremor

  18. Evidence for cholinergic participation in the control of bird song; acetylcholinesterase distribution and muscarinic receptor autoradiography in the zebra finch brain

    Ryan, S.M.; Arnold, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    Brain regions thought to be involved in the control of song in the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), were examined histochemically using the Karnovsky and Roots direct-coloring method for the detection of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the autoradiographic method for the localization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors following injection of tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate (3H QNB). All presently identified vocal control nuclei in both males and females contain AChE. These nuclei include Area X, magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (MAN), nucleus interface (NIF), caudal nucleus of the hyperstriatum ventrale (HVc), intercollicular nucleus (ICo), nucleus uva, robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA), and tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve nucleus (nXIIts). All nuclei except Area X contain mostly AChE-synthesizing cell bodies. All of these nuclei contain some AChE in the neuropil, with particularly intense staining in Area X, the surrounding LPO, and the dorsomedial portion of ICo. In agreement with this description are very high concentrations of 3H QNB in both Area X and the dorsomedial ICo. HVc also appears specifically labeled. Evidence from these two histological technique suggests that efferent projections of most vocal control area may utilize acetylcholine, and that several of the vocal control nuclei may themselves receive muscarinic cholinergic projection. In Area X, there are sex differences of AChE neuropil staining. This evidence suggesting that sexually dimorphic projections to or within Area X are cholinergic or cholinoceptive

  19. Effect of aqueous extract of mango kernel (Mangifera Indica on basal activity of virgin rat uterine smooth muscle: role of muscarinic receptors

    Mehdi Noureddini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mango belongs to the Anacardiaceae and the extracts from its stems, leaves, fruit and kernel are reported to affect smooth muscle contractility. We studied the role of cholinergic muscarinic receptors for the effects of aqueous extract of mango kernel (Mangifera indica on the basal activity of virgin rat uterine smooth muscle. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, mid-sections (n=24 of the uterine of healthy virgin rats were placed in an organ bath containing carbonated Tyrode’s solution under 1 g tension. The cumulative effects of the aqueous extracts of mango kernel (0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20, 200, and 2000 μg/mL or extract vehicle (Tyrode’s solution in the presence or absence of atropine were examined by isometric method using the strength, frequency and contractile activity of uterine smooth muscle. Results: The cumulative concentrations (0.002-20 µg/ml of mango kernel aqueous extract was significantly decreased the strength, frequency and contractile activity of uterine smooth muscle, but the contractile activity was returned to the basal level at the concentrations of 200 and 2000 µg/ml. Atropine (1 µM could not significantly change the effects of cumulative use of extract on the strength and contractile activity of uterine smooth muscle, but it significantly enhanced the contractile frequency at low concentrations. Conclusion: The effects of aqueous extract of mango kernel on the activity of the uterine smooth muscle might not be through cholinergic muscarinic receptors and atropine could enhance the effects of the extract on frequency through other receptors.

  20. Nitric oxide/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway activated by M1-type muscarinic acetylcholine receptor cascade inhibits Na+-activated K+ currents in Kenyon cells

    Hasebe, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    The interneurons of the mushroom body, known as Kenyon cells, are essential for the long-term memory of olfactory associative learning in some insects. Some studies have reported that nitric oxide (NO) is strongly related to this long-term memory in Kenyon cells. However, the target molecules and upstream and downstream NO signaling cascades are not completely understood. Here we analyzed the effect of the NO signaling cascade on Na+-activated K+ (KNa) channel activity in Kenyon cells of crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus). We found that two different NO donors, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-dl-penicillamine (SNAP), strongly suppressed KNa channel currents. Additionally, this inhibitory effect of GSNO on KNa channel activity was diminished by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), and KT5823, an inhibitor of protein kinase G (PKG). Next, we analyzed the role of ACh in the NO signaling cascade. ACh strongly suppressed KNa channel currents, similar to NO donors. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of ACh was blocked by pirenzepine, an M1 muscarinic ACh receptor antagonist, but not by 1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide (4-DAMP) and mecamylamine, an M3 muscarinic ACh receptor antagonist and a nicotinic ACh receptor antagonist, respectively. The ACh-induced inhibition of KNa channel currents was also diminished by the PLC inhibitor U73122 and the calmodulin antagonist W-7. Finally, we found that ACh inhibition was blocked by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). These results suggested that the ACh signaling cascade promotes NO production by activating NOS and NO inhibits KNa channel currents via the sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling cascade in Kenyon cells. PMID:26984419

  1. Triazolam-induced modulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in living brain slices as revealed by a new positron-based imaging technique

    Murata, T.; Matsumura, K.; Onoe, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Sihver, S.; Sihver, W.; Langstroem, B.; Bergstroem, M.; Yonekura, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of triazolam, a potent benzodiazepine (BZ) agonist, on muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor (mAChR) binding was investigated in living brain slices by use of a novel positron-based imaging technique. Fresh rat brain slices were incubated with [ 11 C]N-methyl-4-piperidylbenzilate ([ 11 C]NMPB), a mAChR antagonist, in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer solution at 37 degree C. During incubation, time-resolved imaging of [ 11 C]NMPB binding in the slices was constructed on the storage phosphor screens. Addition of triazolam (1 μM) plus muscimol (30 μM), a GABA A receptor agonist, to the incubation mixture decreased the specific binding of [ 11 C]NMPB. Ro15-1788, a BZ receptor antagonist, prevented this effect, indicating that the effect was exerted through the GABA A /BZ receptor complex. These results demonstrated that stimulation of the GABA A /BZ receptor lowers the affinity of the mAChR for its ligand, which may underlie the BZ-induced amnesia, a serious clinical side effect of BZ. No such effect in the P2-fraction instead implies that the integrity of the neuronal cells and/or their environment is prerequisite for the modulation of mAChR by GABA A /BZ stimulation. (author)

  2. Effects of muscarinic M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptor stimulation on extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in male mice, independent of extinction learning.

    Stoll, Kevin; Hart, Rachel; Lindsley, Craig W; Thomsen, Morgane

    2018-03-01

    Stimulating muscarinic M 1 /M 4 receptors can blunt reinforcing and other effects of cocaine. A hallmark of addiction is continued drug seeking/craving after abstinence and relapse. We tested whether stimulating M 1 and/or M 4 receptors could facilitate extinction of cocaine seeking, and whether this was mediated via memory consolidation. Experimentally naïve C57BL/6J mice were allowed to acquire self-administration of intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. Then, saline was substituted for cocaine until responding extinguished to ≤30% of cocaine-reinforced responding. Immediately after each extinction session, mice received saline, the M 1 /M 4 receptor-preferring agonist xanomeline, the M 1 receptor-selective allosteric agonist VU0357017, the M 4 receptor-selective positive allosteric modulator VU0152100, or VU0357017 + VU0152100. In additional experiments, xanomeline was administered delayed after the session or in the home cage before extinction training began. In the latter group, reinstatement of responding by a 10-mg/kg cocaine injection was also tested. Stimulating M 1  + M 4 receptors significantly expedited extinction from 17.2 sessions to 8.3 using xanomeline or 7.8 using VU0357017 + VU0152100. VU0357017 alone and VU0152100 alone did not significantly modify rates of extinction (12.6 and 14.6 sessions). The effect of xanomeline was fully preserved when administered delayed after or unpaired from extinction sessions (7.5 and 6.4 sessions). Xanomeline-treated mice showed no cocaine-induced reinstatement. These findings show that M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation can decrease cocaine seeking in mice. The effect lasted beyond treatment duration and was not dependent upon extinction learning. This suggests that M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation modulated or reversed some neurochemical effects of cocaine exposure.

  3. Activation of muscarinic receptors by a hydroalcoholic extract of Dicksonia sellowiana Presl. HooK (Dicksoniaceae) induces vascular relaxation and hypotension in rats.

    Rattmann, Yanna D; Crestani, Sandra; Lapa, Fernanda R; Miguel, Obdúlio G; Marques, Maria C A; da Silva-Santos, J Eduardo; Santos, Adair R S

    2009-01-01

    Dicksonia sellowiana (Presl.) Hook is a native plant from the Central and South Americas that contain high levels of polyphenols, antioxidant compounds involved in protection against inflammation, cancer and cardiovascular risk. A phytomedicinal preparation obtained from aerial parts of D. sellowiana is currently under clinical evaluation in Brazil against asthma, and has been associated with several other beneficial effects. This study demonstrates that a hydroalcoholic extract obtained from D. sellowiana leaves (HEDS) fully relax, in a concentration-dependent manner, rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine. Moreover, administration of HEDS (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.v.) in anaesthetized rats resulted in a strong but reversible hypotension. Aortic relaxation induced by HEDS was abolished by endothelium removal, by incubation of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, or the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ. In addition, this effect was partially inhibited by indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and KT 5730 (a PKA inhibitor). The potassium channels blockade by either tetraethylammonium or charybdotoxin also resulted in a potent inhibition of HEDS-induced aortic relaxation, whereas apamine only slightly reduced it. In addition HEDS-induced relaxation was unchanged by 4-amynopiridine and glibenclamide. The selective muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine counteracted both aortic relaxation and blood pressure reduction generated by HEDS. Experiments using HPLC revealed the presence of high amounts of phenolic compounds in this extract. Taken together, our results reveal that the D. sellowiana possess substances with both in vivo and in vitro activities and that the vascular effect of HEDS involves activation of muscarinic receptors, stimulation of the nitric oxide pathway and opening of calcium-activated potassium channels.

  4. Hypoglycemia induced changes in cholinergic receptor expression in the cerebellum of diabetic rats

    Anju TR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose homeostasis in humans is an important factor for the functioning of nervous system. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia is found to be associated with central and peripheral nerve system dysfunction. Changes in acetylcholine receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many major diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. In the present study we showed the effects of insulin induced hypoglycemia and streptozotocin induced diabetes on the cerebellar cholinergic receptors, GLUT3 and muscle cholinergic activity. Results showed enhanced binding parameters and gene expression of Muscarinic M1, M3 receptor subtypes in cerebellum of diabetic (D and hypoglycemic group (D + IIH and C + IIH. α7nAchR gene expression showed a significant upregulation in diabetic group and showed further upregulated expression in both D + IIH and C + IIH group. AchE expression significantly upregulated in hypoglycemic and diabetic group. ChAT showed downregulation and GLUT3 expression showed a significant upregulation in D + IIH and C + IIH and diabetic group. AchE activity enhanced in the muscle of hypoglycemic and diabetic rats. Our studies demonstrated a functional disturbance in the neuronal glucose transporter GLUT3 in the cerebellum during insulin induced hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. Altered expression of muscarinic M1, M3 and α7nAchR and increased muscle AchE activity in hypoglycemic rats in cerebellum is suggested to cause cognitive and motor dysfunction. Hypoglycemia induced changes in ChAT and AchE gene expression is suggested to cause impaired acetycholine metabolism in the cerebellum. Cerebellar dysfunction is associated with seizure generation, motor deficits and memory impairment. The results shows that cerebellar cholinergic neurotransmission is impaired during hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia and the hypoglycemia is causing more prominent imbalance in cholinergic neurotransmission which is suggested to be a cause of cerebellar

  5. Sexual dimorphism in the volume of song control nuclei in European starlings: assessment by a Nissl stain and autoradiography for muscarinic cholinergic receptors.

    Bernard, D J; Casto, J M; Ball, G F

    1993-08-22

    Previous studies have found that the volume of several song control nuclei is larger in male songbirds than in female songbirds. The degree of this volumetric sex difference within a given species appears to be systematically related to the degree of the behavioral sex difference. The largest volumetric differences have been reported in species in which the male sings and the female sings little, if at all, and the smallest sex differences in volume have been reported in species in which males and females both sing in nearly equal amounts. We compared the volume of three song control nuclei in male and female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), a species in which females are known to sing, though at a much lower rate than males. We investigated the volume of hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudale, nucleus robustus archistriatalis, and area X of the lobus parolfactorius as defined with the use of a Nissl stain. In addition, we measured the volume of area X as defined by the density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors visualized by in vitro receptor autoradiographic methods. The volumes of all three of the song nuclei, as defined by Nissl staining, are significantly larger in males than in females. For area X, Nissl staining and receptor autoradiography indicate the same significant volumetric sex difference. The three nuclei are approximately one and one half to two times larger in males than in females, a degree of dimorphism that is intermediate to those reported for other species. Previous investigations of sex differences in the avian vocal control system have used only Nissl stains to define nuclear volumes. We demonstrate in this paper that receptor autoradiography can be used to assess dimorphisms in nuclear volume. Broad application of this approach to a number of neurotransmitter receptor systems will better characterize the dimorphisms in the song system, and therefore will provide greater insight into the neuroanatomical and neurochemical control of

  6. Beta amyloid differently modulate nicotinic and muscarinic receptor subtypes which regulate in vitro and in vivo the release of glycine in the rat hippocampus

    Stefania eZappettini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Using both in vitro (hippocampal synaptosomes in superfusion and in vivo (microdialysis approaches we investigated whether and to what extent β amyloid peptide 1-40 (Aβ 1-40 interferes with the cholinergic modulation of the release of glycine (GLY in the rat hippocampus. The nicotine-evoked overflow of endogenous GLY in hippocampal synaptosomes in superfusion was significantly inhibited by Aβ 1-40 (10 nM while increasing the concentration to 100 nM the inhibitory effect did not further increase. Both the Choline (Ch (α7 agonist; 1 mM and the 5-Iodo-A-85380 dihydrochloride (5IA85380, α4β2 agonist; 10 nM-evoked GLY overflow were inhibited by Aβ1-40 at 100 nM but not at 10nM concentrations. The KCl evoked [3H]GLY and [3H]Acetylcholine (ACh overflow were strongly inhibited in presence of oxotremorine; however this inhibitory muscarinic effect was not affected by Aβ1-40. The effects of Aβ1-40 on the administration of nicotine, veratridine, 5IA85380 and PHA 543613 hydrochloride (PHA543613 (a selective agonist of α7 subtypes on hippocampal endogenous GLY release in vivo were also studied. Aβ 1-40 significantly reduced (at 10 μM but not at 1 μM the nicotine evoked in vivo release of GLY. Aβ 1-40 (at 10 μM but not at 1 μM significantly inhibited the PHA543613 (1 mM-elicited GLY overflow while was ineffective on the GLY overflow evoked by 5IA85380 (1 mM. Aβ 40-1 (10 μM did not produce any inhibitory effect on nicotine evoked GLY overflow both in the in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results indicate that a the cholinergic modulation of the release of GLY occurs by the activation of both α7 and α4β2 nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs as well as by the activation of inhibitory muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs and b Aβ 1-40 can modulate cholinergic evoked GLY release exclusively through the interaction with α7 and the α4β2 nAChR nicotinic receptors but not through mAChR subtypes.

  7. No changes in lymphocyte muscarinic receptors and platelet monoamine oxidase-B examined as surrogate central nervous system biomarkers in a Faroese children cohort prenatally exposed to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls

    Coccini, Teresa; Manzo, Luigi; Debes, Frodi

    2009-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs) are involved in the pathogenesis of neurotoxicity caused by methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Blood samples from 7-year-old exposed children were analyzed for platelet M....../or PCB exposure, whereas these markers are significantly altered in sustained exposure scenarios, as shown by clinical studies in drug addicts or patients treated with psychopharmacological agents....

  8. Increased amphetamine-induced locomotor activity, sensitization, and accumbal dopamine release in M5 muscarinic receptor knockout mice

    Schmidt, Lene S; Miller, Anthony D; Lester, Deranda B

    2010-01-01

    showed that M(5) receptor knockout (M (5) (-/-) ) mice are less sensitive to the reinforcing properties of addictive drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we investigate the role of M(5) receptors in the effects of amphetamine and cocaine on locomotor activity, locomotor sensitization, and dopamine release......-induced hyperactivity and dopamine release as well as amphetamine sensitization are enhanced in mice lacking the M(5) receptor. These results support the concept that the M(5) receptor modulates effects of addictive drugs....

  9. The Role of Muscarinic Receptors on spasmolytic Activity of Hydroalcohlic Extract of Parsley(petroselinum crispumSeed in Adult Male Rat's Ileum

    Raede Tavalaee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: because of the side effects of chemical drugs, using plant drugs was considered during recent decades. Based on previous studies, various concentrations of plant extracts can reduce ileum contraction caused by KCl and carbachol. Therefore, in this study, the role of muscarinic receptors in anti-spasmolytic activity of hydroalcohlic extract of parsley(petroselinum crispumseed in adult male rat's ileum was investigated. Materials and Methods: The distal part of Wistar rat’s ileum was separated and its contractions were recorded under 1 gr stretching and 37oC temperature in the bathroom containing the solution of Tyrode by Isotonic method. The ileum tissue was inserted in separately in first group affected by KCl and parsley seed, in the second group affected by KCl and carbachol with concentration 10-2 mg/ml and after that parsley seed, the third group affected by carbachol with concentration 10-2 mg/ml and then the extraction of parsley seed and the fourth group affected by scopolamine with concentration 10-3 M and after that KCl and then the extraction of parsley seed. Results: Non-cumulative concentrations of extract reduced the ileum contraction caused by KCl (60mM in a concentration-dependent form (p<0.001. There was a significant difference between the effect of extract in the presence of carbachol and extract concentration 0.2 mg/ml (p<0.01. There was no significant difference between the effect of extract in the presence of carbachol without stimulating tissue by KCl (60mM with extract concentration 0.2mg/ml (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between the effect of extract in the presence of scopolamine with extract concentration 0.2mg/ml(p<0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that the hydroalcholic of parsley seed extract has a relaxatory effect on rat’s ileum. Carbachol with KCl has a synergistic effect on smooth muscle contraction of the ileum wall and muscarinic receptors do not involve in the

  10. Imaging of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors using (+)N-[11C]methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate (11C-3NMPB) in vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    Saito, Hirohiko

    2006-01-01

    In order to clarify the integrity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) in vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), PET imaging with (+) N-[ 11 C]methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate ( 11 C-3NMPB) was performed in 12 patients with VaD, 11 patients with AD, and 7 normal controls (NC group). The mAChR binding was compared by the ratios compared with the cerebellum which were calculated from the regions of interest (ROI), and by three-dimensional statistic analysis. Compared with the NC group, mAChR was not significantly reduced in any ROI in AD patients. In those with VaD due to cortical lesions, mAChR was reduced in the infarcted areas. On the other hand, mAChR was significantly reduced in the thalamus and anterior cingulated gyrus, but not in other cerebral cortices in patients with VaD due to subcortical lesions. Accordingly, it is suggested that the mAChR is preserved in the cerebral cortices in patients with VaD due to subcortical lesions as well as in AD patients. (author)

  11. Presynaptic muscarinic receptors, calcium channels, and protein kinase C modulate the functional disconnection of weak inputs at polyinnervated neonatal neuromuscular synapses.

    Santafe, M M; Garcia, N; Lanuza, M A; Tomàs, M; Besalduch, N; Tomàs, J

    2009-04-01

    We studied the relation among calcium inflows, voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC), presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), and protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the modulation of synapse elimination. We used intracellular recording to determine the synaptic efficacy in dually innervated endplates of the levator auris longus muscle of newborn rats during axonal competition in the postnatal synaptic elimination period. In these dual junctions, the weak nerve terminal was potentiated by partially reducing calcium entry (P/Q-, N-, or L-type VDCC-specific block or 500 muM magnesium ions), M1- or M4-type selective mAChR block, or PKC block. Moreover, reducing calcium entry or blocking PKC or mAChRs results in unmasking functionally silent nerve endings that now recover neurotransmitter release. Our results show interactions between these molecules and indicate that there is a release inhibition mechanism based on an mAChR-PKC-VDCC intracellular cascade. When it is fully active in certain weak motor axons, it can depress ACh release and even disconnect synapses. We suggest that this mechanism plays a central role in the elimination of redundant neonatal synapses, because functional axonal withdrawal can indeed be reversed by mAChRs, VDCCs, or PKC block.

  12. Point mutation of a conserved aspartate, D69, in the muscarinic M2 receptor does not modify voltage-sensitive agonist potency.

    Ågren, Richard; Sahlholm, Kristoffer; Nilsson, Johanna; Århem, Peter

    2018-01-29

    The muscarinic M 2 receptor (M 2 R) has been shown to display voltage-sensitive agonist binding, based on G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel (GIRK) opening and radioligand binding at different membrane voltages. A conserved aspartate in transmembrane segment (TM) II of M 2 R, D69, has been proposed as the voltage sensor. While a recent paper instead presented evidence of tyrosines in TMs III, VI, and VII acting as voltage sensors, these authors were not able to record GIRK channel activation by a D69N mutant M 2 R. In the present study, we succeeded in recording ACh-induced GIRK channel activation by this mutant at -80 and 0 mV. The acetylcholine EC 50 was about 2.5-fold higher at 0 mV, a potency shift very similar to that observed at wild-type M 2 R, indicating that voltage sensitivity persists at the D69N mutant. Thus, our present observations corroborate the notion that D69 is not responsible for voltage sensitivity of the M 2 R. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime (BATO) complexes derived from quinuclidine benzilate (QNB) boronic acid stereoisomers: Syntheses and studies of their binding to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Pirro, John; DiRocco, Richard J.; Rosenspire, Karen C.; Jagoda, Elaine; Nanjappan, Palaniappa; Eckelman, William C.; Nowotnik, David P.; Nunn, Adrian D.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of using BATO complexes derivatized with the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist, quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), for mAChR imaging. The BATO complexes, TcCl(DMG) 3 B-QNB, were prepared using QNB derivatives containing a 4'-boronic acid substituent on one of the benzilic benzene rings (QNB-boronic acid). The QNB-boronic acid molecule has two chiral centers, and all four QNB-BATO stereoisomers were made and evaluated. When studied using in vitro receptor binding assays based on tissue from rat brain caudate-putamen (which contains primarily M 1 and M 4 mAChR) and rat heart (M 2 mAChR), the QNB-boronic acid stereoisomers had binding affinities (K A ) in the range 2 x 10 5 -1 x 10 8 , at least 10-fold lower than theK A for QNB (ca 2 x 10 9 ). The stereochemistry of both centers had some influence on the affinity constant. When the TcCl(DMG) 3 B-QNB complexes were studied, none of the stereoisomeric complexes displayed measurable specific binding (K A 6 ), but all showed high non-specific binding. In vitro autoradiography with rat brain slices confirmed the absence of specific binding in these tracers. In vivo, the 99m TcCl(DMG) 3 B-QNB complexes displayed minimal brain uptake, and modest heart uptake; the latter was unlikely to be related to uptake by the mAChR. In light of these findings, we conclude that the interaction between the TcCl(DMG) 3 B-QNB complexes and biological membranes is dominated by the hydrophobicity of the BATO moiety. The TcCl(DMG) 3 B-QNB complexes, therefore, have little potential for mAChR imaging

  14. Time-course of 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression during memory consolidation and amnesia.

    Huerta-Rivas, A; Pérez-García, G; González-Espinosa, C; Meneses, A

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that antagonists of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor(6) (5-HT(6)) improve memory and reverse amnesia although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hence, in this paper RT-PCR was used to evaluate changes in mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor in trained and untrained rats treated with the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 and amnesic drugs scopolamine or dizocilpine. Changes in mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor were investigated at different times in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Data indicated that memory in the Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping task was a progressive process associated to reduced mRNA expression of 5-HT(6) receptor in the three structures examined. SB-399885 improved long-term memory at 48h, while the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine or the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine impaired it at 24h. Autoshaping training and treatment with SB-399885 increased 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression in (maximum increase) prefrontal cortex and striatum, 24 or 48h. The scopolamine-induced amnesia suppressed 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression while the dizocilpine-induced amnesia did not modify 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression. SB-399885 and scopolamine or dizocilpine were able to reestablish memory and 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression. These data confirmed previous memory evidence and of more interest is the observation that training, SB-399885 and amnesic drugs modulated 5-HT(6) receptor mRNA expression in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Further investigation in different memory tasks, times and amnesia models together with more complex control groups might provide further clues. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of GABAergic receptors in mouse taste receptor cells.

    Margaret R Starostik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple excitatory neurotransmitters have been identified in the mammalian taste transduction, with few studies focused on inhibitory neurotransmitters. Since the synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is expressed in a subset of mouse taste cells, we hypothesized that other components of the GABA signaling pathway are likely expressed in this system. GABA signaling is initiated by the activation of either ionotropic receptors (GABA(A and GABA(C or metabotropic receptors (GABA(B while it is terminated by the re-uptake of GABA through transporters (GATs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR analysis, we investigated the expression of different GABA signaling molecules in the mouse taste system. Taste receptor cells (TRCs in the circumvallate papillae express multiple subunits of the GABA(A and GABA(B receptors as well as multiple GATs. Immunocytochemical analyses examined the distribution of the GABA machinery in the circumvallate papillae. Both GABA(A-and GABA(B- immunoreactivity were detected in the peripheral taste receptor cells. We also used transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP in either the Type II taste cells, which can respond to bitter, sweet or umami taste stimuli, or in the Type III GAD67 expressing taste cells. Thus, we were able to identify that GABAergic receptors are expressed in some Type II and Type III taste cells. Mouse GAT4 labeling was concentrated in the cells surrounding the taste buds with a few positively labeled TRCs at the margins of the taste buds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of GABAergic receptors localized on Type II and Type III taste cells suggests that GABA is likely modulating evoked taste responses in the mouse taste bud.

  16. Impaired recovery of brain muscarinic receptor sites following an adaptive down-regulation induced by repeated administration of diisopropyl fluorophosphate in aged rats

    Pintor, A.; Fortuna, S.; De Angelis, S.; Michalek, H.

    1990-01-01

    Potential age-related differences in the recovery rate of brain cholinesterase activity (ChE) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding sites (mAChRs) following reduction induced by repeated treatment with diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Male 3- and 24-month old rats were s.c. injected with DFP on alternate days for 2 weeks and killed 48 hr and 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after the last treatment. In the hippocampus and striatum, but not in the cerebral cortex, of control rats there as a significant age-related decline of ChE activity and maximal density of 3H-QNB binding sites (Bmax). The repeated administration of DFP during the first week caused a syndrome of cholinergic stimulation both in aged and young rats. The syndrome was more pronounced, in terms of intensity and duration in aged than in young animals resulting in 40 and 12% mortality, respectively; during the second week the syndrome attenuated in the two age-groups. The percentage inhibition of brain ChE at the end of DFP treatment did not differ between young and surviving aged rats. The down-regulation of mACRs was present in the three brain regions of both young and age rats (from 20 to 40%). Factorial analysis of variance showed significant differences for age, recovery rate, and significant interaction between age and recovery rate, both for ChE and mAChRs in young rats the three brain areas

  17. Impaired recovery of brain muscarinic receptor sites following an adaptive down-regulation induced by repeated administration of diisopropyl fluorophosphate in aged rats

    Pintor, A.; Fortuna, S.; De Angelis, S.; Michalek, H. (Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    Potential age-related differences in the recovery rate of brain cholinesterase activity (ChE) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding sites (mAChRs) following reduction induced by repeated treatment with diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Male 3- and 24-month old rats were s.c. injected with DFP on alternate days for 2 weeks and killed 48 hr and 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after the last treatment. In the hippocampus and striatum, but not in the cerebral cortex, of control rats there as a significant age-related decline of ChE activity and maximal density of 3H-QNB binding sites (Bmax). The repeated administration of DFP during the first week caused a syndrome of cholinergic stimulation both in aged and young rats. The syndrome was more pronounced, in terms of intensity and duration in aged than in young animals resulting in 40 and 12% mortality, respectively; during the second week the syndrome attenuated in the two age-groups. The percentage inhibition of brain ChE at the end of DFP treatment did not differ between young and surviving aged rats. The down-regulation of mACRs was present in the three brain regions of both young and age rats (from 20 to 40%). Factorial analysis of variance showed significant differences for age, recovery rate, and significant interaction between age and recovery rate, both for ChE and mAChRs in young rats the three brain areas.

  18. The effect of ZMS on the coupling of muscarinic receptor to G-proteins activation in rat brain

    Fang Cailong; Hu Yaer; Gao Ruxue; Xia Zongqin

    1999-01-01

    The carbachol-stimulated [ 35 S]GTP γ S binding method was used to observe the effect of ZMS, an active component from Zhimu, on the coupling of M-receptor to G-protein. the effect of ZMS on the ability of learning and memory in aged rats was also observed. It was shown that the carbachol-stimulated elevation of [ 35 S]GTPγS binding was significantly decreased in aged rats as compared with young rats. The carbachol-induced [ 35 S]STPγS binding showed that administration of ZMS at median or high dose have a definite elevation effect on the coupling activity of M-receptors to G-protein in brain, and this elevation was accompanied by an improvement of learning and memory ability

  19. Variation in the gene coding for the M5 Muscarinic receptor (CHRM5 influences cigarette dose but is not associated with dependence to drugs of addiction: evidence from a prospective population based cohort study of young adults

    Olsson Craig A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mesolimbic structures of the brain are important in the anticipation and perception of reward. Moreover, many drugs of addiction elicit their response in these structures. The M5 muscarinic receptor (M5R is expressed in dopamine-containing neurones of the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area, and regulates the release of mesolimbic dopamine. Mice lacking M5R show a substantial reduction in both reward and withdrawal responses to morphine and cocaine. The CHRM5, the gene that codes for the M5R, is a strong biological candidate for a role in human addiction. We screened the coding and core promoter sequences of CHRM5 using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography to identify common polymorphisms. Additional polymorphisms within the coding and core promoter regions that were identified through dbSNP were validated in the test population. We investigated whether these polymorphisms influence substance dependence and dose in a cohort of 1947 young Australians. Results Analysis was performed on 815 participants of European ancestry who were interviewed at wave 8 of the cohort study and provided DNA. We observed a 26.8% increase in cigarette consumption in carriers of the rs7162140 T-allele, equating to 20.1 cigarettes per week (p=0.01. Carriers of the rs7162140 T-allele were also found to have nearly a 3-fold increased risk of developing cannabis dependence (OR=2.9 (95%CI 1.1-7.4; p=0.03. Conclusion Our data suggest that variation within the CHRM5 locus may play an important role in tobacco and cannabis but not alcohol addiction in European ancestry populations. This is the first study to show an association between CHRM5 and substance use in humans. These data support the further investigation of this gene as a risk factor in substance use and dependence.

  20. Selective activation of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors reverses MK-801-induced behavioral impairments and enhances associative learning in rodents

    Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Dencker, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801....... VU0467154 produced a robust dose-dependent reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in preclinical models of associative learning and memory functions, including the touchscreen pairwise visual discrimination task in wild-type mice, but failed to reverse these stimulant...

  1. A subpopulation of neuronal M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors plays a critical role in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors

    Jeon, Jongrye; Dencker, Ditte; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2010-01-01

    AChRs are coexpressed with D(1) dopamine receptors in a specific subset of striatal projection neurons. To investigate the physiological relevance of this M(4) mAChR subpopulation in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors, we used Cre/loxP technology to generate mutant mice that lack M(4) mAChRs only in D(1) dopamine....... Since enhanced central dopaminergic neurotransmission is a hallmark of several severe disorders of the CNS, including schizophrenia and drug addiction, our findings have substantial clinical relevance....

  2. Muscarinic receptors, nitric oxide formation and cyclooxygenase pathway involved in tracheal smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Lavandula angustifolia flowers.

    Naghdi, Farzaneh; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Bakhshesh, Morteza

    2018-06-01

    Lavandula angustifolia (L. angustifolia) Mill. (Common name Lavender) is used in traditional and folk medicines for the treatment of various diseases including respiratory disorders worldwide. The relaxant effect of the plant on the smooth muscle of some tissues was shown previously. The present study has investigated the role of different receptors and pathways in the relaxant effect of L. angustifolia on tracheal smooth muscle. Cumulative concentrations of the hydro-ethanolic extract of L. angustifolia flowers (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/ml) were added on pre-contracted tracheal smooth muscle by methacholine (10 μM) or KCl (60 mM) on non-preincubated or preincubated tissues with atropine, chlorpheniramine, propranolol, diltiazem, glibenclamide, indomethacin, ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and papaverine. The results compared with of theophylline (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mM) as positive control and saline (1 ml) as negative control. The extract showed concentration-dependent relaxant effects in non-preincubated tracheal smooth muscle contracted by KCl and methacholine (p effect ofL. angustifolia was not significantly different between non-preincubated and preincubated tissues with chlorpheniramine, propranolol, diltiazem, glibenclamide, and papaverine. However, two higher concentrations of L. angustifolia in preincubated tissues with L-NAME (p effects than non-preincubated tissues. The EC 50 values of L. angustifolia in tissues preincubated with indomethacin was significantly higher than non-preincubated trachea (p effects of three first concentrations of the extract on KCl and methacholine-induced muscle contraction were significantly lower than those of theophylline (p effect ofL. angustifolia that was lower than the effect of theophylline. The possible mechanisms of relaxant effect of this plant on tracheal smooth muscle are muscarinic receptors blockade, inhibition of cyclooxygenase pathways and/or involvement of nitric oxide production

  3. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of different analogs of 11C-labeled TZTP for imaging muscarinic M2 receptors with PET

    Reid, Alicia E.; Ding Yushin; Eckelman, William C.; Logan, Jean; Alexoff, David; Shea, Colleen; Xu Youwen; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The only radiotracer available for the selective imaging of muscarinic M2 receptors in vivo is 3-(3-{3-[ 18 F]fluoropropyl)thio}-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl) -1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylpyridine) ([ 18 F]FP-TZTP). We have prepared and labeled 3-(3-(3-fluoropropylthio)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl) -1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylpyridne (FP-TZTP, 3) and two other TZTP derivatives with 11 C at the methylpyridine moiety to explore the potential of using 11 C-labeled FP-TZTP for positron emission tomography imaging of M2 receptors and to compare the effect of small structural changes on tracer pharmacokinetics (PK) in brain and peripheral organs. Methods: 11 C-radiolabeled FP-TZTP, 3-(3-propylthio)-TZTP (6) and 3,3,3-(3-(3-trifluoropropyl)-TZTP (10) were prepared, and log D, plasma protein binding (PPB), affinity constants, time-activity curves (TACs), area under the curve (AUC) for arterial plasma, distribution volumes (DV) and pharmacological blockade in baboons were compared. Results: Values for log D, PPB and affinity constants were similar for 3, 6 and 10. The fraction of parent radiotracer in the plasma was higher and the AUC lower for 10 than for 3 and 6. TACs for brain regions were similar for 3 and 6, which showed PK similar to the 18 F tracer, while 10 showed slower uptake and little clearance over 90 min. DVs for 3 and 6 were similar to the 18 F tracer but higher for 10. Uptake of the three tracers was significantly reduced by coinjection of unlabeled 3 and 6. Conclusion: Small structural variations on the TZTP structure greatly altered the PK in brain and behavior in blood with little change in the log D, PPB or affinity. The study suggests that 11 C-radiolabeled 3 will be a suitable alternative to [ 18 F]FP-TZTP for translational studies in humans

  4. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of different analogs of {sup 11}C-labeled TZTP for imaging muscarinic M2 receptors with PET

    Reid, Alicia E. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: areid@bnl.gov; Ding Yushin [Radiology Department, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Eckelman, William C. [Molecular Tracer LLC, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Logan, Jean; Alexoff, David; Shea, Colleen; Xu Youwen; Fowler, Joanna S. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Introduction: The only radiotracer available for the selective imaging of muscarinic M2 receptors in vivo is 3-(3-{l_brace}3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropyl)thio{r_brace}-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl) -1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylpyridine) ([{sup 18}F]FP-TZTP). We have prepared and labeled 3-(3-(3-fluoropropylthio)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl) -1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylpyridne (FP-TZTP, 3) and two other TZTP derivatives with {sup 11}C at the methylpyridine moiety to explore the potential of using {sup 11}C-labeled FP-TZTP for positron emission tomography imaging of M2 receptors and to compare the effect of small structural changes on tracer pharmacokinetics (PK) in brain and peripheral organs. Methods: {sup 11}C-radiolabeled FP-TZTP, 3-(3-propylthio)-TZTP (6) and 3,3,3-(3-(3-trifluoropropyl)-TZTP (10) were prepared, and log D, plasma protein binding (PPB), affinity constants, time-activity curves (TACs), area under the curve (AUC) for arterial plasma, distribution volumes (DV) and pharmacological blockade in baboons were compared. Results: Values for log D, PPB and affinity constants were similar for 3, 6 and 10. The fraction of parent radiotracer in the plasma was higher and the AUC lower for 10 than for 3 and 6. TACs for brain regions were similar for 3 and 6, which showed PK similar to the {sup 18}F tracer, while 10 showed slower uptake and little clearance over 90 min. DVs for 3 and 6 were similar to the {sup 18}F tracer but higher for 10. Uptake of the three tracers was significantly reduced by coinjection of unlabeled 3 and 6. Conclusion: Small structural variations on the TZTP structure greatly altered the PK in brain and behavior in blood with little change in the log D, PPB or affinity. The study suggests that {sup 11}C-radiolabeled 3 will be a suitable alternative to [{sup 18}F]FP-TZTP for translational studies in humans.

  5. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Subtypes of Muscarinic Receptors (5th), Held in Newport Beach, California, October 22-24, 1992.

    1993-02-22

    AHMED , Chest 96 1285-1291 (1991). 29. P.J. BARNES, Thorax 44 161-167 (1989). 30. P.W. IND, C.M.S. DIXON, R.W. FULLER and P.J. BARNES, Am Rev Respir...mechanism by which muscarinic agonists, such as pilocarpiný_ lower the intraocular pressure of glaucoma patients. Pharmacological studies with subtype

  6. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B

    1997-01-01

    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore.......05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...... studies of vitamin D's effect on TCC cells in vitro are necessary before the efficacy of treatment with vitamin D analogues in TCC can be evaluated in patients....

  7. New epitopes and function of anti-M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antibodies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    Tsuboi, H; Matsumoto, I; Wakamatsu, E; Nakamura, Y; Iizuka, M; Hayashi, T; Goto, D; Ito, S; Sumida, T

    2010-10-01

    M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) plays a crucial role in the secretion of saliva from salivary glands. It is reported that some patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) carried inhibitory autoantibodies against M3R. The purpose of this study is to clarify the epitopes and function of anti-M3R antibodies in SS. We synthesized peptides encoding the extracellular domains of human-M3R including the N-terminal region and the first, second and third extracellular loops. Antibodies against these regions were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera from 42 SS and 42 healthy controls. For functional analysis, human salivary gland (HSG) cells were preincubated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) separated from sera of anti-M3R antibody-positive SS, -negative SS and controls for 12 h. After loading with Fluo-3, HSG cells were stimulated with cevimeline hydrochloride, and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations [(Ca(2+) )i] were measured. Antibodies to the N-terminal, first, second and third loops were detected in 42·9% (18 of 42), 47·6% (20 of 42), 54·8% (23 of 42) and 45·2% (19 of 42) of SS, while in 4·8% (two of 42), 7·1% (three of 42), 2·4% (one of 42) and 2·4% (one of 42) of controls, respectively. Antibodies to the second loop positive SS-IgG inhibited the increase of (Ca(2+) )i induced by cevimeline hydrochloride. Antibodies to the N-terminal positive SS-IgG and antibodies to the first loop positive SS-IgG enhanced it, while antibodies to the third loop positive SS-IgG showed no effect on (Ca(2+) )i as well as anti-M3R antibody-negative SS-IgG. Our results indicated the presence of several B cell epitopes on M3R in SS. The influence of anti-M3R antibodies on salivary secretion might differ based on these epitopes. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2010 British Society for Immunology.

  8. [Analysis of epitopes and function of anti-M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antibodies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome].

    Tsuboi, Hiroto; Matsuo, Naomi; Iizuka, Mana; Nakamura, Yumi; Matsumoto, Isao; Sumida, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease that affects exocrine glands including salivary and lacrimal glands. It is characterized by lymphocytic infiltration into exocrine glands, leading to dry mouth and eyes. A number of auto-antibodies, such as anti-SS-A and SS-B antibodies, are detected in patients with SS. However, no SS-specific pathologic auto-antibodies have yet been found in this condition. M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) plays a crucial role in the secretion of saliva from salivary glands. It is reported that some patients with SS carried inhibitory auto-antibodies against M3R. To clarify the epitopes and function of anti-M3R antibodies in SS, we examined antibodies to the extracellular domains (N terminal region, the first, second, and third extracellular loop) of M3R by ELISA using synthesized peptide antigens encoding these domains in 42 SS and 42 healthy controls (HC). Titers and positivity of anti-M3R antibodies to every extracellular domain of M3R were significantly higher in SS than in HC. For functional analysis, human salivary gland (HSG) cells were pre-cultured with IgG from anti-M3R antibodies positive SS, negative SS, and HC. HSG cells were stimulated with cevimeline hydrochloride and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured. IgG from anti-M3R antibodies to the second loop positive SS inhibited the increase of [Ca(2+)](i), but IgG from antibodies to the N terminal or the first loop positive SS enhanced it, while IgG from antibodies to the third loop positive SS showed no effect on [Ca(2+)](i) as well as IgG from anti-M3R antibodies negative SS and HC. These findings indicated the presence of several B cell epitopes on M3R in SS and effect of anti-M3R antibodies on the salivary secretion might differ with these epitopes.

  9. Release of prostaglandin E2 into gastric juice during stimulation of muscarinic- and gastrin receptors in dogs and in humans

    Madsen, Jørgen Rask; Bukhave, K; Hovendal, C P

    1981-01-01

    To investigate the causal relationship, if any, between gastric PG formation and gastric acid output, the release of PGE2 into gastric juice has been studied in eight beagle dogs with a gastric fistula, using sustained half-maximal stimulation by bethanechol and pentagastrin, and in eight duodenal...... ulcer patients, using the combined sham feeding/pentagastrin test. Immunoreactive PGE2 was determined by a method validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and PGE2 values were normalized by expressing them as ng PGE2 released per meq H+ secreted. In the dogs "steady state" PGE2 output (0...... minutes significantly (p less than 0.01) higher (3.9-46 ng/meq H+) than in pentagastrin experiments (0.8-20 ng/meq H+). In humans the peak PGE2 output during sham feeding (3.4-41 ng/meq H+) was significantly (p less than 0.02) larger than following bolus stimulation (6/micrograms/kg) by pentagastrin (2...

  10. Cloning and expression of a widely expressed receptor tyrosine phosphatase

    Sap, J; D'Eustachio, P; Givol, D

    1990-01-01

    We describe the identification of a widely expressed receptor-type (transmembrane) protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase; EC 3.1.3.48). Screening of a mouse brain cDNA library under low-stringency conditions with a probe encompassing the intracellular (phosphatase) domain of the CD45 lymphocyte...... antigen yielded cDNA clones coding for a 794-amino acid transmembrane protein [hereafter referred to as receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (R-PTP-alpha)] with an intracellular domain displaying clear homology to the catalytic domains of CD45 and LAR (45% and 53%, respectively). The 142-amino acid...

  11. The expression of the ACTH receptor

    L.L.K. Elias

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal glucocorticoid secretion is regulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH acting through a specific cell membrane receptor (ACTH-R. The ACTH-R is a member of the G protein superfamily-coupled receptors and belongs to the subfamily of melanocortin receptors. The ACTH-R is mainly expressed in the adrenocortical cells showing a restricted tissue specificity, although ACTH is recognized by the other four melanocortin receptors. The cloning of the ACTH-R was followed by the study of this gene in human diseases such as familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD and adrenocortical tumors. FGD is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by glucocorticoid deficiency, elevated plasma ACTH levels and preserved renin/aldosterone secretion. This disorder has been ascribed to an impaired adrenal responsiveness to ACTH due to a defective ACTH-R, a defect in intracellular signal transduction or an abnormality in adrenal cortical development. Mutations of the ACTH-R have been described in patients with FGD in segregation with the disease. The functional characterization of these mutations has been prevented by difficulties in expressing human ACTH-R in cells that lack endogenous melanocortin receptor activity. To overcome these difficulties we used Y6 cells, a mutant variant of the Y1 cell line, which possesses a non-expressed ACTH-R gene allowing the functional study without any background activity. Our results demonstrated that the several mutations of the ACTH-R found in FGD result in an impaired cAMP response or loss of sensitivity to ACTH stimulation. An ACTH-binding study showed an impairment of ligand binding with loss of the high affinity site in most of the mutations studied.

  12. Widespread ectopic expression of olfactory receptor genes

    Yanai Itai

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory receptors (ORs are the largest gene family in the human genome. Although they are expected to be expressed specifically in olfactory tissues, some ectopic expression has been reported, with special emphasis on sperm and testis. The present study systematically explores the expression patterns of OR genes in a large number of tissues and assesses the potential functional implication of such ectopic expression. Results We analyzed the expression of hundreds of human and mouse OR transcripts, via EST and microarray data, in several dozens of human and mouse tissues. Different tissues had specific, relatively small OR gene subsets which had particularly high expression levels. In testis, average expression was not particularly high, and very few highly expressed genes were found, none corresponding to ORs previously implicated in sperm chemotaxis. Higher expression levels were more common for genes with a non-OR genomic neighbor. Importantly, no correlation in expression levels was detected for human-mouse orthologous pairs. Also, no significant difference in expression levels was seen between intact and pseudogenized ORs, except for the pseudogenes of subfamily 7E which has undergone a human-specific expansion. Conclusion The OR superfamily as a whole, show widespread, locus-dependent and heterogeneous expression, in agreement with a neutral or near neutral evolutionary model for transcription control. These results cannot reject the possibility that small OR subsets might play functional roles in different tissues, however considerable care should be exerted when offering a functional interpretation for ectopic OR expression based only on transcription information.

  13. IL-21 Receptor Expression in Human Tendinopathy

    Abigail L. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tendinopathy remain unclear, with much debate as to whether inflammation or degradation has the prominent role. Increasing evidence points toward an early inflammatory infiltrate and associated inflammatory cytokine production in human and animal models of tendon disease. The IL-21/IL-21R axis is a proinflammatory cytokine complex that has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This project aimed to investigate the role and expression of the cytokine/receptor pair IL-21/IL-21R in human tendinopathy. We found significantly elevated expression of IL-21 receptor message and protein in human tendon samples but found no convincing evidence of the presence of IL-21 at message or protein level. The level of expression of IL-21R message/protein in human tenocytes was significantly upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα/IL-1β in vitro. These findings demonstrate that IL-21R is present in early human tendinopathy mainly expressed by tenocytes and macrophages. Despite a lack of IL-21 expression, these data again suggest that early tendinopathy has an inflammatory/cytokine phenotype, which may provide novel translational targets in the treatment of tendinopathy.

  14. Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors (M1, M2 and M4 subtypes), adenosine receptors (A1 and A2A) and tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) modulate the developmental synapse elimination process at the neuromuscular junction.

    Nadal, Laura; Garcia, Neus; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Santafé, Manel; Tomàs, Josep

    2016-06-23

    The development of the nervous system involves an initially exuberant production of neurons that make an excessive number of synaptic contacts. The initial overproduction of synapses promotes connectivity. Hebbian competition between axons with different activities (the least active are punished) leads to the loss of roughly half of the overproduced elements and this refines connectivity and increases specificity. The neuromuscular junction is innervated by a single axon at the end of the synapse elimination process and, because of its relative simplicity, has long been used as a model for studying the general principles of synapse development. The involvement of the presynaptic muscarinic ACh autoreceptors may allow for the direct competitive interaction between nerve endings through differential activity-dependent acetylcholine release in the synaptic cleft. Then, the most active ending may directly punish the less active ones. Our previous results indicate the existence in the weakest axons on the polyinnervated neonatal NMJ of an ACh release inhibition mechanism based on mAChR coupled to protein kinase C and voltage-dependent calcium channels. We suggest that this mechanism plays a role in the elimination of redundant neonatal synapses. Here we used confocal microscopy and quantitative morphological analysis to count the number of brightly fluorescent axons per endplate in P7, P9 and P15 transgenic B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-YFP)16 Jrs/J mice. We investigate the involvement of individual mAChR M1-, M2- and M4-subtypes in the control of axonal elimination after the Levator auris longus muscle had been exposed to agonist and antagonist in vivo. We also analysed the role of adenosine receptor subtypes (A1 and A2A) and the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor. The data show that postnatal axonal elimination is a regulated multireceptor mechanism that guaranteed the monoinnervation of the neuromuscular synapses. The three receptor sets considered (mAChR, AR and TrkB receptors

  15. SELECTIVITY PROFILE OF SOME RECENT MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS IN BOVINE AND GUINEA-PIG TRACHEA AND HEART

    ROFFEL, AF; HAMSTRA, JJ; ELZINGA, CRS; ZAAGSMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The functional affinities of some recently developed subtype-selective muscarinic antagonists towards bovine tracheal smooth muscle muscarinic M(3) receptors were established and compared to binding affinities for bovine cardiac M(2) and functional affinities for guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle

  16. Vitamin D Receptor Expression in Dogs

    Gow, A.G.; Milne, E.; Drummond, D.; Smith, S.; Handel, I.; Mellanby, R.J.

    2018-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence linking low blood vitamin D concentration to numerous diseases in people and in dogs. Vitamin D influences cellular function by signaling through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Little is known about which non‐skeletal tissues express the VDR or how inflammation influences its expression in the dog. Objectives To define which non‐skeletal canine tissues express the VDR and to investigate expression in inflamed small intestine. Animals Thirteen non‐skeletal tissues were collected prospectively from 6 control dogs. Thirty‐five dogs diagnosed with a chronic enteropathy (CE) and 24 control dogs were prospectively enrolled and duodenal biopsies were evaluated for VDR expression. Methods Prospective; blinded assessment of canine intestinal VDR. Dogs with CE were included once other identifiable causes of intestinal disease were excluded. Age matched controls were included with no intestinal clinical signs. VDR expression was assessed immunohistochemically in all samples, using a Rat IgG VDR monoclonal antibody. Quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was also used for duodenal biopsies. Results VDR expression as assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was highest in the kidney, duodenum, skin, ileum and spleen, and weak in the colon, heart, lymph node, liver, lung, and ovary. Gastric and testicular tissue did not express the VDR. There was no statistical difference in duodenal VDR expression between the 24 healthy dogs and 34 dogs with CE when quantified by either qPCR (P = 0.87) or IHC (P = 0.099). Conclusions and Clinical Importance The lack of down regulation of VDR expression in inflamed intestine contrasts with previous studies in humans. Our findings support future studies to investigate whether vitamin D and its analogues can be used to modulate intestinal inflammation in the dog. PMID:29469965

  17. Expression of Plant Receptor Kinases in Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    Shinohara, Hidefumi; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2017-01-01

    Although more than 600 single-transmembrane receptor kinase genes have been found in the Arabidopsis genome, only a few of them have known physiological functions, and even fewer plant receptor kinases have known specific ligands. Ligand-binding analysis must be operated using the functionally expressed receptor form. However, the relative abundance of native receptor kinase molecules in the plasma membrane is often quite low. Here, we present a method for stable and functional expression of plant receptor kinases in tobacco BY-2 cells that allows preparation of microsomal fractions containing the receptor. This procedure provides a sufficient amount of receptor proteins while maintaining its ligand-binding activities.

  18. Hormone-receptor expression and ovarian cancer survival

    Sieh, Weiva; Köbel, Martin; Longacre, Teri A

    2013-01-01

    Few biomarkers of ovarian cancer prognosis have been established, partly because subtype-specific associations might be obscured in studies combining all histopathological subtypes. We examined whether tumour expression of the progesterone receptor (PR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) was associated ...

  19. Expressing exogenous functional odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons

    Fomina Alla F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory discrimination depends on the large numbers of odorant receptor genes and differential ligand-receptor signaling among neurons expressing different receptors. In this study, we describe an in vitro system that enables the expression of exogenous odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons. Olfactory sensory neurons in the culture express characteristic signaling molecules and, therefore, provide a system to study receptor function within its intrinsic cellular environment. Results We demonstrate that cultured olfactory sensory neurons express endogenous odorant receptors. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer enables successful ectopic expression of odorant receptors. We show that the ectopically expressed mouse I7 is functional in the cultured olfactory sensory neurons. When two different odorant receptors are ectopically expressed simultaneously, both receptor proteins co-localized in the same olfactory sensory neurons up to 10 days in vitro. Conclusion This culture technique provided an efficient method to culture olfactory sensory neurons whose morphology, molecular characteristics and maturation progression resembled those observed in vivo. Using this system, regulation of odorant receptor expression and its ligand specificity can be studied in its intrinsic cellular environment.

  20. Pre- and postynaptic effects of muscarinic antagonists in the isolated guinea pig ileum

    Kilbinger, H.; Weiler, W.; Wessler, I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have studied in the guinea-pig ileum whether the presynaptic muscarinic receptors of he cholinergic nerves differ from the postsynaptic muscarinic receptors of tthe longitudinal muscle in their affinities for several muscarinic antagonists. The method of measuring the release of tritium-ACh from the myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparation in tthe guinea-pig ileum in the absence of a chlinesterase inhibitor is described in which two longitudinal muscle strips were incubated in a 2 ml organ bath with tritium-choline are subsequently superfused with Tyrode solution

  1. Evaluation and metabolite studies of {sup 125}I- and {sup 123}I-labelled E-(R,R)-IQNP: potential radioligands for visualization of M{sub 1} muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in brain

    Bergstroem, Kim A.; Halldin, Christer; Hiltunen, Jukka; Swahn, Carl-Gunnar; Ito, Hiroshi; Ginovart, Nathalie; Hall, Haakan; McPherson, Daniel W.; Knapp, F. F. (Russ); Larsson, Stig; Schnell, Per-Olof; Farde, Lars

    1998-04-01

    A new ligand for the M{sub 1} muscarinic receptor subtype, E-(R,R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (E-IQNP), was labelled with {sup 125}I and {sup 123}I for autoradiographic studies on human whole-brain cryosections and SPET studies, respectively, in Cynomolgus monkey. Autoradiography demonstrated E-[{sup 125}I]IQNP binding in M{sub 1} receptor-rich regions such as the neocortex and the striatum. The binding was displaceable by the selective M{sub 1} antagonist biperiden. In vivo single photon emission tomography (SPET) studies with E-[{sup 123}I]IQNP demonstrated a high accumulation of radioactivity in the monkey neocortex. Rapid hydrolysis of the quinuclidinyl ester to the free acid was found to be a major biotransformation route for E-[{sup 123}I]IQNP. The free acid of E-[{sup 123}I]IQNP does not pass the blood-brain barrier, but the plasma concentration was high as compared to the total radioactivity in brain. It is thus necessary to correct for the high concentration of radioactive metabolites in parenchymal blood (CBV) to obtain accurate values for E-[{sup 123}I]IQNP binding in brain.

  2. Biochemical characterization of a heterotrimeric G(i)-protein activator peptide designed from the junction between the intracellular third loop and sixth transmembrane helix in the m4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Terawaki, Shin-ichi; Matsubayashi, Rina; Hara, Kanako; Onozuka, Tatsuki; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. The mAChR family comprises 5 subtypes, m1-m5, each of which has a different coupling selectivity for heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins). m4 mAChR specifically activates the Gi/o family by enhancing the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) reaction with the Gα subunit through an interaction that occurs via intracellular segments. Here, we report that the m4 mAChR mimetic peptide m4i3c(14)Gly, comprising 14 residues in the junction between the intracellular third loop (i3c) and transmembrane helix VI (TM-VI) extended with a C-terminal glycine residue, presents GEF activity toward the Gi1 α subunit (Gαi1). The m4i3c(14)Gly forms a stable complex with guanine nucleotide-free Gαi1 via three residues in the VTI(L/F) motif, which is conserved within the m2/4 mAChRs. These results suggest that this m4 mAChR mimetic peptide, which comprises the amino acid of the mAChR intracellular segments, is a useful tool for understanding the interaction between GPCRs and G-proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of stereoisomers of 4-fluoroalkyl analogues of 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate in in vivo competition studies for the M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes in brain

    Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Eckelman, William C.; Jaetae, Lee; Paik, Chang H.; Park, Seok G.

    1995-01-01

    To develop a subtype selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist for PET, fluorine-19 labeled alkyl analogues of quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) were synthesized by stereoselective reactions. To investigate these analogues for tissue subtype specificity, in vivo competitive binding studies were performed in rat brain using (R)-3-quinuclidinyl (R)-4-[ 125 I]Iodobenzilate (IQNB). Five, fifty, or five-hundred nmol of the non-radioactive ligands were coinjected intravenously with 8 pmol of the radioligand. Cold (R,R)-IQNB blocked (R,R)-[ 125 I]IQNB in a dose-dependent manner, without showing regional specificity. For the (R,S)-fluoromethyl, -fluoroethyl, and -fluoropropyl derivatives, a higher percent blockade was seen at 5 and 50 nmol levels in M2 predominant tissues (medulla, pons, and cerebellum) than in M1 predominant tissues (cortex, striatum and hippocampus). The blockade pattern of the radioligand also correlated qualitatively with the percentage of M2 receptors in the region. The S-quinuclidinyl analogues showed M2 selectivity but less efficient blockade of the radioligand, indicating lower affinities. Radioligand bound to the medulla was inversely correlated to the M2 relative binding affinity of the fluoroalkyl analogues. These results indicate that the nonradioactive ligand blocks the radioligand based on the affinity of the nonradioactive ligand for a particular receptor subtype compared to the affinity of the radioligand for the same receptor subtype. Of the seven compounds evaluated, (R,S)-fluoromethyl-QNB appears to show the most selectivity for the M2 subtypes in competition studies in vivo

  4. Functional expression of rat VPAC1 receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Hansen, M.K.; Tams, J.W.; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    1999-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor; heterologous expression; membrane protein; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; yeast mating factor-pre-pro *Ga-leader peptide......G protein-coupled receptor; heterologous expression; membrane protein; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; yeast mating factor-pre-pro *Ga-leader peptide...

  5. Distribution of cellular HSV-1 receptor expression in human brain.

    Lathe, Richard; Haas, Juergen G

    2017-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus linked to a range of acute and chronic neurological disorders affecting distinct regions of the brain. Unusually, HSV-1 entry into cells requires the interaction of viral proteins glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) with distinct cellular receptor proteins. Several different gD and gB receptors have been identified, including TNFRSF14/HVEM and PVRL1/nectin 1 as gD receptors and PILRA, MAG, and MYH9 as gB receptors. We investigated the expression of these receptor molecules in different areas of the adult and developing human brain using online transcriptome databases. Whereas all HSV-1 receptors showed distinct expression patterns in different brain areas, the Allan Brain Atlas (ABA) reported increased expression of both gD and gB receptors in the hippocampus. Specifically, for PVRL1, TNFRFS14, and MYH9, the differential z scores for hippocampal expression, a measure of relative levels of increased expression, rose to 2.9, 2.9, and 2.5, respectively, comparable to the z score for the archetypical hippocampus-enriched mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2, z = 3.1). These data were confirmed at the Human Brain Transcriptome (HBT) database, but HBT data indicate that MAG expression is also enriched in hippocampus. The HBT database allowed the developmental pattern of expression to be investigated; we report that all HSV1 receptors markedly increase in expression levels between gestation and the postnatal/adult periods. These results suggest that differential receptor expression levels of several HSV-1 gD and gB receptors in the adult hippocampus are likely to underlie the susceptibility of this brain region to HSV-1 infection.

  6. Agonist actions of clothianidin on synaptic and extrasynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on cockroach sixth abdominal ganglion.

    Thany, Steeve H

    2009-11-01

    Clothianidin is new neonicotinoid insecticide acting selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Its effects on nAChRs expressed on cercal afferent/giant interneuron synapses and DUM neurons have been studied using mannitol-gap and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, respectively. Bath-application of clothianidin-induced dose-dependent depolarizations of cockroach cercal afferent/giant interneuron synapses which were not reversed after wash-out suggesting a strong desensitization of postsynaptic interneurons at the 6th abdominal ganglion (A6). Clothinidin activity on the nerve preparation was characterized by an increased firing rate of action potentials which then ceased when the depolarization reached a peak. Clothianidin responses were insensitive to all muscarinic antagonists tested but were blocked by co-application of specific nicotinic antagonists methyllicaconitine, alpha-bungarotoxin and d-tubocurarine. In a second round of experiment, clothianidin actions were tested on DUM neurons isolated from the A6. There was a strong desensitization of nAChRs which was not affected by muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine and atropine, but was reduced with nicotinic antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin. In addition, clothianidin-induced currents were completely blocked by methyllicaconitine suggesting that (1) clothianidin acted as a specific agonist of nAChR subtypes and (2) a small proportion of receptors blocked by MLA was insensitive to alpha-bungarotoxin. Moreover, because clothianidin currents were blocked by d-tubocurarine and mecamylamine, we provided that clothianidin was an agonist of both nAChRs: imidacloprid-sensitive nAChR1 and -insensitive nAChR2 subtypes.

  7. Voltage sensitivity of M2 muscarinic receptors underlies the delayed rectifier-like activation of ACh-gated K(+) current by choline in feline atrial myocytes.

    Navarro-Polanco, Ricardo A; Aréchiga-Figueroa, Iván A; Salazar-Fajardo, Pedro D; Benavides-Haro, Dora E; Rodríguez-Elías, Julio C; Sachse, Frank B; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Sánchez-Chapula, José A; Moreno-Galindo, Eloy G

    2013-09-01

    Choline (Ch) is a precursor and metabolite of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). In canine and guinea pig atrial myocytes, Ch was shown to activate an outward K(+) current in a delayed rectifier fashion. This current has been suggested to modulate cardiac electrical activity and to play a role in atrial fibrillation pathophysiology. However, the exact nature and identity of this current has not been convincingly established. We recently described the unique ligand- and voltage-dependent properties of muscarinic activation of ACh-activated K(+) current (IKACh) and showed that, in contrast to ACh, pilocarpine induces a current with delayed rectifier-like properties with membrane depolarization. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Ch activates IKACh in feline atrial myocytes in a voltage-dependent manner similar to pilocarpine. Single-channel recordings, biophysical profiles, specific pharmacological inhibition and computational data indicate that the current activated by Ch is IKACh. Moreover, we show that membrane depolarization increases the potency and efficacy of IKACh activation by Ch and thus gives the appearance of a delayed rectifier activating K(+) current at depolarized potentials. Our findings support the emerging concept that IKACh modulation is both voltage- and ligand-specific and reinforce the importance of these properties in understanding cardiac physiology.

  8. The expression, localization and function of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in rat corpus cavernosum.

    Faghir-Ghanesefat, Hedyeh; Rahimi, Nastaran; Yarmohammadi, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Tahmineh; Abdollahi, Ali Reza; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2017-12-01

    Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), an emerging pharmacological target for a variety of medical conditions, is expressed in the most mammalian tissues with different effects. So, this study was designed to investigate the expression, localization and effect of α7-nAChR in rat corpus cavernosum (CC). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that α7-nAChR was expressed in rat CC and double immunofluorescence studies demonstrated the presence of α7-nAChR in corporal neurons. The rat CC segments were mounted in organ bath chambers and contracted with phenylephrine (0.1 μm -300 μm) to investigate the relaxation effect of electrical field stimulation (EFS,10 Hz) assessed in the presence of guanethidine (adrenergic blocker, 5 μm) and atropine (muscarinic cholinergic blocker, 1 μm) to obtain non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) response. Cumulative administration of nicotine significantly potentiated the EFS-induced NANC relaxation (-log EC50 = 7.5 ± 0.057). Whereas, the potentiated NANC relaxation of nicotine was significantly inhibited with different concentrations of methyllycaconitine citrate (α7-nAChR antagonist, P < 0.05) in preincubated strips. L-NAME (non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 1 μm) completely blocked the neurogenic relaxation induced by EFS plus nicotine. To conclude α7-nAChR is expressed in rat CC and modulates the neurogenic relaxation response to nicotine. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. An Anti-Nicotinic Cognitive Challenge Model using Mecamylamine in Comparison with the Anti-Muscarinic Cognitive Challenge using Scopolamine

    Baakman, A. C.; Alvarez-jimenez, R.; Rissmann, R.; Klaassen, E. S.; Stevens, J.; Goulooze, S. C.; Burger, J.; Swart, E. L.; Van Gerven, J. M. A.; Groeneveld, G. J.

    Aims The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine is often used for proof-of-pharmacology studies with pro-cognitive compounds. From a pharmacological point of view, it would seem more rational to use a nicotinic rather than a muscarinic anticholinergic challenge to prove

  10. (+/-)-cis-2-methylspiro[1,3-oxathiolane-5,3'-quinuclidine] hydrochloride, hemihydrate (SNI-2011, cevimeline hydrochloride) induces saliva and tear secretions in rats and mice: the role of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Iga, Y; Arisawa, H; Ogane, N; Saito, Y; Tomizuka, T; Nakagawa-Yagi, Y; Masunaga, H; Yasuda, H; Miyata, N

    1998-11-01

    We investigated effects of (+/-)-cis-2-methylspiro[1,3-oxathiolane-5,3'-quinuclidine] hydrochloride, hemihydrate (SNI-2011, cevimeline hydrochloride), a rigid analogue of acetylcholine, on saliva and tear secretions in rats and mice to evaluate its therapeutical efficacy for xerostomia and xerophthalmia in patients with Sjogren's syndrome and X-ray exposure in the head and neck. Intraduodenal administrations of SNI-2011 increased saliva secretion in a dose-dependent manner at doses ranging from 3 to 30 mg/kg in normal rats and mice, two strains of autoimmune disease mice and X-irradiated saliva secretion defective rats. The salivation elicited by SNI-2011 was completely inhibited by atropine. A similar atropine-sensitive response was observed in tear secretion. In rat submandibular/sublingual gland membranes, [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding was saturable, and Scatchard plot analysis revealed a single population of binding sites with a Kd of 22 pM and a maximal binding capacity of 60 fmol/mg protein. The competitive inhibition curve of the [3H]QNB binding by SNI-2011 was obtained, and its dissociation constant value calculated from IC50 was 1-2 microM. These results suggest that SNI-2011 increases saliva and tear secretions through a direct stimulation to muscarinic receptors in salivary and lacrimal glands, and they suggest that SNI-2011 should be beneficial to patients with Sjögren's syndrome and X-ray exposure in the head and neck.

  11. Muscarinic responses of gastric parietal cells

    Wilkes, J.M.; Kajimura, M.; Scott, D.R.; Hersey, S.J.; Sachs, G.

    1991-01-01

    Isolated rabbit gastric glands were used to study the nature of the muscarinic cholinergic responses of parietal cells. Carbachol stimulation of acid secretion, as measured by the accumulation of aminopyrine, was inhibited by the M1 antagonist, pirenzepine, with an IC50 of 13 microM; by the M2 antagonist, 11,2-(diethylamino)methyl-1 piperidinyl acetyl-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido 2,3-b 1,4 benzodiazepin-6-one (AF-DX 116), with an IC50 of 110 microM; and by the M1/M3 antagonist, diphenyl-acetoxy-4-methylpiperidinemethiodide, with an IC50 of 35 nM. The three antagonists displayed equivalent IC50 values for the inhibition of carbachol-stimulated production of 14CO2 from radiolabeled glucose, which is a measure of the turnover of the H,K-ATPase, the final step of acid secretion. Intracellular calcium levels were measured in gastric glands loaded with FURA 2. Carbachol was shown to both release calcium from an intracellular pool and to promote calcium entry across the plasma membrane. The calcium entry was inhibitable by 20 microM La3+. The relative potency of the three muscarinic antagonists for inhibition of calcium entry was essentially the same as for inhibition of acid secretion or pump related glucose oxidation. Image analysis of the glands showed the effects of carbachol, and of the antagonists, on intracellular calcium were occurring largely in the parietal cell. The rise in cell calcium due to release of calcium from intracellular stores was inhibited by 4-DAMP with an IC50 of 1.7 nM, suggesting that the release pathway was regulated by a low affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state; Ca entry and acid secretion are regulated by a high affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state, inhibited by higher 4-DAMP concentrations, suggesting that it is the steady-state elevation of Ca that is related to parietal cell function rather than the [Ca]i transient

  12. Expression of prostanoid receptors in human ductus arteriosus

    Leonhardt, Andreas; Glaser, Alexander; Wegmann, Markus; Schranz, Dietmar; Seyberth, Hannsjörg; Nüsing, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    Prostaglandins play a major role in maintaining ductal patency in utero. Ductal tone is regulated by both locally released and circulating vasodilatory prostaglandins. In infants with ductus arteriosus-dependent congenital heart disease, ductal patency is maintained by intravenous administration of prostaglandin (PG) E1. Little information is available regarding the expression of prostaglandin receptors in man. By means of RT–PCR and immunohistochemistry we studied the expression of the PGI2 receptor (IP), the four different PGE2 receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4), and the receptors for thromboxane (Tx) A2 (TP), PGD2 (DP) and PGF2α (FP) in the ductus arteriosus of three newborn infants with ductus arteriosus-dependent congenital heart disease and intravenous infusion of PGE1 and of one 8 month old child with a patent ductus arteriosus. The EP3, EP4, FP, IP and TP receptor were markedly expressed at the mRNA and protein level, whereas the EP2 receptor was weakly expressed and the EP1 receptor was detected in two out of four tissue specimens only. The DP receptor was not detected in any of the samples. The most pronounced expression, which was located in the media of the ductus arteriosus, was observed for the EP4 and TP receptors followed by IP and FP receptor protein. These data indicate that ductal patency during the infusion of PGE1 in infants with ductus arteriosus-dependent congenital heart disease might be mediated by the EP4 and IP receptor. The data further suggest that a heterogeneous population of prostanoid receptors may contribute to the regulation of ductus arteriosus tone in humans. PMID:12598419

  13. A regulatory code for neuron-specific odor receptor expression.

    Anandasankar Ray

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs must select-from a large repertoire-which odor receptors to express. In Drosophila, most ORNs express one of 60 Or genes, and most Or genes are expressed in a single ORN class in a process that produces a stereotyped receptor-to-neuron map. The construction of this map poses a problem of receptor gene regulation that is remarkable in its dimension and about which little is known. By using a phylogenetic approach and the genome sequences of 12 Drosophila species, we systematically identified regulatory elements that are evolutionarily conserved and specific for individual Or genes of the maxillary palp. Genetic analysis of these elements supports a model in which each receptor gene contains a zip code, consisting of elements that act positively to promote expression in a subset of ORN classes, and elements that restrict expression to a single ORN class. We identified a transcription factor, Scalloped, that mediates repression. Some elements are used in other chemosensory organs, and some are conserved upstream of axon-guidance genes. Surprisingly, the odor response spectra and organization of maxillary palp ORNs have been extremely well-conserved for tens of millions of years, even though the amino acid sequences of the receptors are not highly conserved. These results, taken together, define the logic by which individual ORNs in the maxillary palp select which odor receptors to express.

  14. Expression of androgen and estrogen receptors in the testicular ...

    enoh

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... 66: 1161-1168. Oliveira CA, Mahecha GA, Carnes K, Prins GS, Saunders PT, Franca. LR, Hess RA (2004). Differential hormonal regulation of estrogen receptors ERα and ER and androgen receptor expression in rat efferent ductules. Reproduction, 128(1): 73-86. O'Shaughnessy PJ, Johnston H, Willerton L ...

  15. Odor memories regulate olfactory receptor expression in the sensory periphery.

    Claudianos, Charles; Lim, Julianne; Young, Melanie; Yan, Shanzhi; Cristino, Alexandre S; Newcomb, Richard D; Gunasekaran, Nivetha; Reinhard, Judith

    2014-05-01

    Odor learning induces structural and functional modifications throughout the olfactory system, but it is currently unknown whether this plasticity extends to the olfactory receptors (Or) in the sensory periphery. Here, we demonstrate that odor learning induces plasticity in olfactory receptor expression in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we show that six putative floral scent receptors were differentially expressed in the bee antennae depending on the scent environment that the bees experienced. Or151, which we characterized using an in vitro cell expression system as a broadly tuned receptor binding floral odorants such as linalool, and Or11, the specific receptor for the queen pheromone 9-oxo-decenoic acid, were significantly down-regulated after honeybees were conditioned with the respective odorants in an olfactory learning paradigm. Electroantennogram recordings showed that the neural response of the antenna was similarly reduced after odor learning. Long-term odor memory was essential for inducing these changes, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms involved in olfactory memory also regulate olfactory receptor expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time that olfactory receptor expression is experience-dependent and modulated by scent conditioning, providing novel insight into how molecular regulation at the periphery contributes to plasticity in the olfactory system. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Androgen Receptor Expression in Thai Breast Cancer Patients

    Suthat Chottanapund

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence and related factors of androgen receptor (AR expression in Thai breast cancer patients. A descriptive study was done in 95 patients, who were admitted to Charoenkrung Pracharak Hospital, Bangkok (2011–2013. Statistical relationships were examined between AR protein expression, tumor status, and patient characteristics. Compared with those from Western countries, ethnic Thai patients were younger at age of diagnosis and had a higher proliferative index (high Ki-67 expression, which indicates unfavorable prognosis. In addition, 91% of the Thai breast tumors that were positive for any of the following receptors, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 also expressed the AR protein, while in triple negative breast tumors only 33% were AR positive. ER and PR expression was positively related with AR expression, while AR expression was inversely correlated to Ki-67 expression. AR status was strongly correlated with ER and PR status in Thai patients. There is an inverse relationship between Ki-67 and AR, which suggests that AR may be a prognostic factor for breast cancer.

  17. Nested Expression Domains for Odorant Receptors in Zebrafish Olfactory Epithelium

    Weth, Franco; Nadler, Walter; Korsching, Sigrun

    1996-11-01

    The mapping of high-dimensional olfactory stimuli onto the two-dimensional surface of the nasal sensory epithelium constitutes the first step in the neuronal encoding of olfactory input. We have used zebrafish as a model system to analyze the spatial distribution of odorant receptor molecules in the olfactory epithelium by quantitative in situ hybridization. To this end, we have cloned 10 very divergent zebrafish odorant receptor molecules by PCR. Individual genes are expressed in sparse olfactory receptor neurons. Analysis of the position of labeled cells in a simplified coordinate system revealed three concentric, albeit overlapping, expression domains for the four odorant receptors analyzed in detail. Such regionalized expression should result in a corresponding segregation of functional response properties. This might represent the first step of spatial encoding of olfactory input or be essential for the development of the olfactory system.

  18. Structural Insight into Specificity of Interactions between Nonconventional Three-finger Weak Toxin from Naja kaouthia (WTX) and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Lyukmanova, E. N.; Shenkarev, Z. O.; Shulepko, M. A.; Paramonov, A. S.; Chugunov, A. O.; Janíčková, Helena; Dolejší, Eva; Doležal, Vladimír; Utkin, Y.N.; Tsetlin, V.I.; Arseniev, A. S.; Efremov, R. G.; Dolgikh, D. A.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 290, č. 39 (2015), s. 23616-23630 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05696S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : computer modeling * G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) * site-directed mutagenesis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.258, year: 2015

  19. Expression and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stem cells

    Herman S. Cheung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypical ligand gated ion channels typically found in muscular and neuronal tissues. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, however, have also recently been identified on other cell types, including stem cells. Activation of these receptors by the binding of agonists like choline, acetylcholine, or nicotine has been implicated in many cellular changes. In regards to stem cell function, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation leads to changes in stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation potential. In this review we summarize the expression and function of known nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different classes of stem cells including: pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, periodontal ligament derived stem cells, and neural progenitor cells and discuss the potential downstream effects of receptor activation on stem cell function.

  20. Expression of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors among ...

    Study design: This is a descriptive study to detect the level of Estrogen (ER) and Progesterone (PR) receptors in a sample of biopsies from Sudanese women with breast cancer presented at Khartoum teaching Hospital Material and Methods: Forty biopsies from breast cancer patients were examined with immunostaining

  1. The Relationship of Erythropoietin Receptor Expression and ...

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... brain tumor characterized with poor prognosis and short survival. In addition to the standard treatment protocols, targeted molecular treatment options are under trial. In the recent trials, erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor were found to be linked with the progression of GBM cells. Aim: In this study, we.

  2. Expression of Estrogen Alpha and Beta Receptors in Prostate ...

    Expression of Estrogen Alpha and Beta Receptors in Prostate Cancer and Hyperplasia: Immunohistochemical Analysis. ... Additionally, ER-α was not expressed in either luminal or basal cells in any of the 35 BPH cases. However ... Key Words: ER-α, ER-β, prostate, hyperplasia, premalignant, cancer, immunohistochemistry ...

  3. Increased neutrophil expression of pattern recognition receptors during COPD exacerbations

    Pouwels, Simon D.; Van Geffen, Wouter H.; Jonker, Marnix R.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Nawijn, Martijn C.; Heijink, Irene H.

    Previously, we observed increased serum levels of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) during COPD exacerbations. Here, gene expression of DAMP receptors was measured in peripheral blood neutrophils of COPD patients during stable disease and severe acute exacerbation. The expression of

  4. Iodine-123 labelled Z-(R,R)-IQNP: a potential radioligand for visualization of M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Alzheimer's disease

    Bergstroem, K.A. [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry and Nuclear Medicine Sections, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Halldin, C.; Okubo, Yoshiro; Nobuhara, Kenji; Swahn, C.G.; Karlsson, P.; Larsson, S.; Schnell, P.O.; Farde, L. [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry and Nuclear Medicine Sections, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Savonen, A.; Hiltunen, Jukka [MAP Medical Technologies Oy, Tikkakoski (Finland); McPherson, D.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Nuclear Medicine Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), TN (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Z-(R)-1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl (R)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (Z-IQNP) has high affinity to the M{sub 1}and M {sub 2} muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtypes according to previous in vitro and in vivo studies in rats. In the present study iodine-123 labelled Z-IQNP was prepared for in vivo single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies in cynomolgus monkeys. SPET studies with Z-[ {sup 123}I]IQNP demonstrated high accumulation in monkey brain (>5% of injected dose at 70 min p.i.) and marked accumulation in brain regions such as the thalamus, the neocortex, the striatum and the cerebellum. Pretreatment with the non-selective mAChR antagonist scopolamine (0.2 mg/kg) inhibited Z-[ {sup 123}I]IQNP binding in all these regions. The percentage of unchanged Z-[ {sup 123}I]IQNP measured in plasma was less than 10% at 10 min after injection, which may be due to rapid hydrolysis, as has been demonstrated previously with the E-isomer of IQNP. Z-[ {sup 123}I]IQNP showed higher uptake in M {sub 2}-rich regions, compared with previously obtained results with E-[ {sup 123}I]IQNP. In conclusion, the radioactivity distribution from Z-[ {sup 123}I]IQNP in monkey brain indicates that Z-[ {sup 123}I]IQNP binds to the M {sub 1}- and M {sub 2}-rich areas and provides a high signal for specific binding, and is thus a potential ligand for mAChR imaging with SPET. (orig.)

  5. Hormonal control of spermatogenesis: expression of FSJH receptor and androgen receptor genes

    L.J. Blok (Leen)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractFSH and testosterone are the main hormonal regulators of spermatogenesis. The actions of androgens and FSH are mediated by their respective receptors. Receptor gene expression (mRNA and protein). is an important determinant of hormone action. Biochemical aspects of the regulation of

  6. Profiling neurotransmitter receptor expression in the Ambystoma mexicanum brain.

    Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Limon, Agenor; Korn, Matthew J; Nakamura, Paul A; Shirkey, Nicole J; Wong, Jamie K; Miledi, Ricardo

    2013-03-22

    Ability to regenerate limbs and central nervous system (CNS) is unique to few vertebrates, most notably the axolotl (Ambystoma sp.). However, despite the fact the neurotransmitter receptors are involved in axonal regeneration, little is known regarding its expression profile. In this project, RT-PCR and qPCR were performed to gain insight into the neurotransmitter receptors present in Ambystoma. Its functional ability was studied by expressing axolotl receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes by either injection of mRNA or by direct microtransplantation of brain membranes. Oocytes injected with axolotl mRNA expressed ionotropic receptors activated by GABA, aspartate+glycine and kainate, as well as metabotropic receptors activated by acetylcholine and glutamate. Interestingly, we did not see responses following the application of serotonin. Membranes from the axolotl brain were efficiently microtransplanted into Xenopus oocytes and two types of native GABA receptors that differed in the temporal course of their responses and affinities to GABA were observed. Results of this study are necessary for further characterization of axolotl neurotransmitter receptors and may be useful for guiding experiments aimed at understanding activity-dependant limb and CNS regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Serotonin 5-HT4 receptors and forebrain cholinergic system: receptor expression in identified cell populations.

    Peñas-Cazorla, Raúl; Vilaró, M Teresa

    2015-11-01

    Activation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors has pro-cognitive effects on memory performance. The proposed underlying neurochemical mechanism is the enhancement of acetylcholine release in frontal cortex and hippocampus elicited by 5-HT4 agonists. Although 5-HT4 receptors are present in brain areas related to cognition, e.g., hippocampus and cortex, the cellular localization of the receptors that might modulate acetylcholine release is unknown at present. We have analyzed, using dual label in situ hybridization, the cellular localization of 5-HT4 receptor mRNA in identified neuronal populations of the rat basal forebrain, which is the source of the cholinergic innervation to cortex and hippocampus. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was visualized with isotopically labeled oligonucleotide probes, whereas cholinergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic and parvalbumin-synthesizing neurons were identified with digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probes. 5-HT4 receptor mRNA was not detected in the basal forebrain cholinergic cell population. In contrast, basal forebrain GABAergic, parvalbumin synthesizing, and glutamatergic cells contained 5-HT4 receptor mRNA. Hippocampal and cortical glutamatergic neurons also express this receptor. These results indicate that 5-HT4 receptors are not synthesized by cholinergic cells, and thus would be absent from cholinergic terminals. In contrast, several non-cholinergic cell populations within the basal forebrain and its target hippocampal and cortical areas express these receptors and are thus likely to mediate the enhancement of acetylcholine release elicited by 5-HT4 agonists.

  8. Analysis of coupling of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors to Gi/o, Gs and Gq heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins

    Jakubík, Jan; Doležal, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. S1 (2006), s. 361-361 ISSN 1671-4083. [World Congress of Pharmacology /15./. 02.07.2006-07.07.2006, Beijing] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/05/0452; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : M2 receptor * heterotrimeric G-proteins * analysis of coupling Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  9. Expression of somatotropin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in bovine tissues

    Lucy, M.C.; Boyd, C.K.; Koenigsfeld, A.T.; Okamura, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The somatotropin receptor mRNA is controlled by at least two different gene promoters that generate 2 two variants with different exon 1 sequences (1A and 1B). The location of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA within cattle tissues and, hence, the tissue specificity of the 1A and 1B promoters are unknown. In addition, the cDNA sequence of the 1B somatotropin receptor has not been determined. Our objective, therefore, was to sequence a cDNA for the 1B somatotropin receptor and to analyze bovine tissues for expression of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA. Twenty adult tissues and six fetal tissues were collected at slaughter from each of four cows and two fetuses. Messenger RNA was analyzed using ribonuclease protection assays. The adult liver expressed both 1A and 1B mRNA. All other adult tissues expressed 1B mRNA but not 1A mRNA. The greatest amount of 1B mRNA was detected in liver and adipose (abdominal and subcutaneous) tissues. Other tissues had approximately one-half to one-tenth of the amount of 1B mRNA in the liver or adipose tissue. Fetal tissues (including fetal liver) expressed 1B mRNA and not 1A mRNA. Based on cDNA sequencing, the protein encoded by the 1A and 1B mRNA was nearly identical. We concluded that 1A somatotropin receptor mRNA is specific to adult bovine liver. Other adult and fetal bovine tissues expressed 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA with a predicted protein sequence that was similar to the 1A somatotropin receptor

  10. Behavioral analysis of Drosophila transformants expressing human taste receptor genes in the gustatory receptor neurons.

    Adachi, Ryota; Sasaki, Yuko; Morita, Hiromi; Komai, Michio; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Goto, Tomoko; Furuyama, Akira; Isono, Kunio

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic Drosophila expressing human T2R4 and T2R38 bitter-taste receptors or PKD2L1 sour-taste receptor in the fly gustatory receptor neurons and other tissues were prepared using conventional Gal4/UAS binary system. Molecular analysis showed that the transgene mRNAs are expressed according to the tissue specificity of the Gal4 drivers. Transformants expressing the transgene taste receptors in the fly taste neurons were then studied by a behavioral assay to analyze whether transgene chemoreceptors are functional and coupled to the cell response. Since wild-type flies show strong aversion against the T2R ligands as in mammals, the authors analyzed the transformants where the transgenes are expressed in the fly sugar receptor neurons so that they promote feeding ligand-dependently if they are functional and activate the neurons. Although the feeding preference varied considerably among different strains and individuals, statistical analysis using large numbers of transformants indicated that transformants expressing T2R4 showed a small but significant increase in the preference for denatonium and quinine, the T2R4 ligands, as compared to the control flies, whereas transformants expressing T2R38 did not. Similarly, transformants expressing T2R38 and PKD2L1 also showed a similar preference increase for T2R38-specific ligand phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and a sour-taste ligand, citric acid, respectively. Taken together, the transformants expressing mammalian taste receptors showed a small but significant increase in the feeding preference that is taste receptor and also ligand dependent. Although future improvements are required to attain performance comparable to the endogenous robust response, Drosophila taste neurons may serve as a potential in vivo heterologous expression system for analyzing chemoreceptor function.

  11. Effects of muscarinic M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptor stimulation on extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in male mice, independent of extinction learning

    Stoll, Kevin; Hart, Rachel; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-01-01

    seeking, and whether this was mediated via memory consolidation. METHODS: Experimentally naïve C57BL/6J mice were allowed to acquire self-administration of intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. Then, saline was substituted for cocaine until responding...... sessions (7.5 and 6.4 sessions). Xanomeline-treated mice showed no cocaine-induced reinstatement. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that M1/M4 receptor stimulation can decrease cocaine seeking in mice. The effect lasted beyond treatment duration and was not dependent upon extinction learning. This suggests...

  12. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Subtypes of Muscarinic Receptors 2 (2nd) Held in Boston, Massachusetts on August 22-24 1985

    1986-04-30

    Uiversity ’ Hospital. Walter Reed Army Institute Of Research Lund &-22185 Building 40 MEWashington, D.C. 20307-5100 Pm Mau i~bers~, .D.Paul Bianckhi, M.D...acetyl- 6 Yamada, S., Yarmamura, H. 1. and Roeske, W. Rt. (1982) choline? (We suspect, for example, that the consistently Life Sci. 31, 1161-1170 lower...regulation of 9 Hammer, R., Giralo, E., Schiavi. G. B., Monferini. E. and receptor number be studied under in-vivo conditions? Can Ladinsky, H. Life

  13. Specific binding component of the 'inactive' stereoisomer (S,S)-[125I]IQNB to rat brain muscarinic receptors in vivo

    Boulay, Sheila F.; McRee, R. Carter; Cohen, Victor I.; Sood, Virendar K.; Zeeberg, Barry R.; Reba, Richard C.

    1996-01-01

    In vivo nonspecific binding can be estimated using the inactive stereoisomer of a receptor radioligand. However, the binding of the inactive stereoisomer may be partially specific. Specific binding of the inactive (S,S)-[ 125 I]IQNB was estimated from the inhibition induced by a competing nonradioactive ligand. This technique differed from the usual approach, since it was used to study the inactive rather than the active stereoisomer. The results indicate that there is substantial specific binding for (S,S)-[ 125 I]IQNB

  14. Dopamine receptor gene expression by enkephalin neurons in rat forebrain

    Le Moine, C.; Normand, E.; Guitteny, A.F.; Fouque, B.; Teoule, R.; Bloch, B.

    1990-01-01

    In situ hybridization experiments were performed with brain sections from normal, control and haloperidol-treated rats to identify and map the cells expressing the D2 dopamine receptor gene. D2 receptor mRNA was detected with radioactive or biotinylated oligonucleotide probes. D2 receptor mRNA was present in glandular cells of the pituitary intermediate lobe and in neurons of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and forebrain, especially in caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and piriform cortex. Hybridization with D2 and preproenkephalin A probes in adjacent sections, as well as combined hybridization with the two probes in the same sections, demonstrated that all detectable enkephalin neurons in the striatum contained the D2 receptor mRNA. Large neurons in caudate putamen, which were unlabeled with the preproenkephalin A probe and which may have been cholinergic, also expressed the D2 receptor gene. Haloperidol treatment (14 or 21 days) provoked an increase in mRNA content for D2 receptor and preproenkephalin A in the striatum. This suggests that the increase in D2 receptor number observed after haloperidol treatment is due to increased activity of the D2 gene. These results indicate that in the striatum, the enkephalin neurons are direct targets for dopamine liberated from mesostriatal neurons

  15. Dopamine receptor gene expression by enkephalin neurons in rat forebrain

    Le Moine, C.; Normand, E.; Guitteny, A.F.; Fouque, B.; Teoule, R.; Bloch, B. (Universite de Bordeaux II (France))

    1990-01-01

    In situ hybridization experiments were performed with brain sections from normal, control and haloperidol-treated rats to identify and map the cells expressing the D2 dopamine receptor gene. D2 receptor mRNA was detected with radioactive or biotinylated oligonucleotide probes. D2 receptor mRNA was present in glandular cells of the pituitary intermediate lobe and in neurons of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and forebrain, especially in caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and piriform cortex. Hybridization with D2 and preproenkephalin A probes in adjacent sections, as well as combined hybridization with the two probes in the same sections, demonstrated that all detectable enkephalin neurons in the striatum contained the D2 receptor mRNA. Large neurons in caudate putamen, which were unlabeled with the preproenkephalin A probe and which may have been cholinergic, also expressed the D2 receptor gene. Haloperidol treatment (14 or 21 days) provoked an increase in mRNA content for D2 receptor and preproenkephalin A in the striatum. This suggests that the increase in D2 receptor number observed after haloperidol treatment is due to increased activity of the D2 gene. These results indicate that in the striatum, the enkephalin neurons are direct targets for dopamine liberated from mesostriatal neurons.

  16. Chemokine receptor expression by inflammatory T cells in EAE

    Mony, Jyothi Thyagabhavan; Khorooshi, Reza; Owens, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines direct cellular infiltration to tissues, and their receptors and signaling pathways represent targets for therapy in diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The chemokine CCL20 is expressed in choroid plexus, a site of entry of T cells to the central nervous system (CNS). The CCL20...... receptor CCR6 has been reported to be selectively expressed by CD4(+) T cells that produce the cytokine IL-17 (Th17 cells). Th17 cells and interferon-gamma (IFNγ)-producing Th1 cells are implicated in induction of MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We have assessed...... whether CCR6 identifies specific inflammatory T cell subsets in EAE. Our approach was to induce EAE, and then examine chemokine receptor expression by cytokine-producing T cells sorted from CNS at peak disease. About 7% of CNS-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells produced IFNγ in flow cytometric cytokine assays...

  17. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival...... in epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer...... in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer....

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF ) receptor expression ...

    Avidin-biotin complex method was employed for immunohistochemical detection of VEGF. Results: VEGF immuno-expression was positive in 51.9% of CRC, while it was 18.2% in the normal colonic tissue (p<0.05). VEGF immunostaining was positively correlated with grade of colonic malignancy (p<0.05). Conclusion: ...

  19. Neurotrophin receptors expression and JNK pathway activation in human astrocytomas

    Assimakopoulou, Martha; Kondyli, Maria; Gatzounis, George; Maraziotis, Theodore; Varakis, John

    2007-01-01

    Neurotrophins are growth factors that regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis in the nervous system. Their diverse actions are mediated through two different transmembrane – receptor signaling systems: Trk receptor tyrosine kinases (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC) and p75 NTR neurotrophin receptor. Trk receptors promote cell survival and differentiation while p75 NTR induces, in most cases, the activity of JNK-p53-Bax apoptosis pathway or suppresses intracellular survival signaling cascades. Robust Trk activation blocks p75 NTR -induced apoptosis by suppressing the JNK-p53-Bax pathway. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the expression levels of neurotrophin receptors, Trks and p75 NTR , and the activation of JNK pathway in human astrocytomas and in adjacent non-neoplastic brain tissue. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded serial sections from 33 supratentorial astrocytomas (5 diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas, WHO grade II; 6 anaplastic astrocytomas, WHO grade III; 22 glioblastomas multiforme, WHO grade IV) were immunostained following microwave pretreatment. Polyclonal antibodies against TrkA, TrkB, TrkC and monoclonal antibodies against p75 NTR and phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK) and c-Jun (pc-Jun) were used. The labeling index (LI), defined as the percentage of positive (labeled) cells out of the total number of tumor cells counted, was determined. Moderate to strong, granular cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for TrkA, TrkB and TrkC receptors was detected in greater than or equal to 10% of tumor cells in the majority of tumors independently of grade; on the contrary, p75 NTR receptor expression was found in a small percentage of tumor cells (~1%) in some tumors. The endothelium of tumor capillaries showed conspicuous immunoreactivity for TrkB receptor. Trk immunoreactivity seemed to be localized in some neurons and astrocytes in non-neoplastic tissue. Phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK) and c-Jun (pc-Jun) were significantly co-expressed in a tumor

  20. Sex steroid receptor expression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Mehrad, Mitra; Trejo Bittar, Humberto E; Yousem, Samuel A

    2017-08-01

    Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is characterized by progressive scarring of the lungs and is associated with high morbidity and mortality despite therapeutic interventions. Sex steroid receptors have been demonstrated to play an important role in chronic lung conditions; however, their significance is unknown in patients with UIP. We retrospectively reviewed 40 idiopathic UIP cases for the expression of hormonal receptors. Forty cases including 10 normal lung, 10 cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, 10 idiopathic organizing diffuse alveolar damage, 7 hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and 3 nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis served as controls. Immunohistochemistry for estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor (PR), and androgen receptor was performed in all groups. Expression of these receptors was assessed in 4 anatomic/pathologic compartments: alveolar and bronchiolar epithelium, arteries/veins, fibroblastic foci/airspace organization, and old scar. All UIPs (100%) stained positive for PR in myofibroblasts in the scarred areas, whereas among the control cases, only 1 nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis case stained focally positive and the rest were negative. PR was positive in myocytes of the large-sized arteries within the fibrotic areas in 31 cases (77.5%). PR was negative within the alveolar and bronchial epithelium, airspace organization, and center of fibroblastic foci; however, weak PR positivity was noted in the peripheral fibroblasts of the fibroblastic foci where they merged with dense fibrous connective tissue scar. All UIP and control cases were negative for androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α. This is the first study to show the expression of PR within the established fibrotic areas of UIP, indicating that progesterone may have profibrotic effects in UIP patients. Hormonal therapy by targeting PR could be of potential benefit in patients with UIP/IPF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiolabelled GLP-1 receptor antagonist binds to GLP-1 receptor-expressing human tissues

    Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude [University of Berne, Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, PO Box 62, Berne (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    Radiolabelled glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have recently been shown to successfully image benign insulinomas in patients. For the somatostatin receptor targeting of tumours, however, it was recently reported that antagonist tracers were superior to agonist tracers. The present study therefore evaluated various forms of the {sup 125}iodinated-Bolton-Hunter (BH)-exendin(9-39) antagonist tracer for the in vitro visualization of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in rats and humans and compared it with the agonist tracer {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. Receptor autoradiography studies with {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide agonist or {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) antagonist radioligands were performed in human and rat tissues. The antagonist {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) labelled at lysine 19 identifies all human and rat GLP-1 target tissues and GLP-1 receptor-expressing tumours. Binding is of high affinity and is comparable in all tested tissues in its binding properties with the agonist tracer {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. For comparison, {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) with the BH labelled at lysine 4 did identify the GLP-1 receptor in rat tissues but not in human tissues. The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) labelled with {sup 125}I-BH at lysine 19 is an excellent GLP-1 radioligand that identifies human and rat GLP-1 receptors in normal and tumoural tissues. It may therefore be the molecular basis to develop suitable GLP-1 receptor antagonist radioligands for in vivo imaging of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in patients. (orig.)

  2. Radiolabelled GLP-1 receptor antagonist binds to GLP-1 receptor-expressing human tissues

    Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude

    2014-01-01

    Radiolabelled glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have recently been shown to successfully image benign insulinomas in patients. For the somatostatin receptor targeting of tumours, however, it was recently reported that antagonist tracers were superior to agonist tracers. The present study therefore evaluated various forms of the 125 iodinated-Bolton-Hunter (BH)-exendin(9-39) antagonist tracer for the in vitro visualization of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in rats and humans and compared it with the agonist tracer 125 I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. Receptor autoradiography studies with 125 I-GLP-1(7-36)amide agonist or 125 I-BH-exendin(9-39) antagonist radioligands were performed in human and rat tissues. The antagonist 125 I-BH-exendin(9-39) labelled at lysine 19 identifies all human and rat GLP-1 target tissues and GLP-1 receptor-expressing tumours. Binding is of high affinity and is comparable in all tested tissues in its binding properties with the agonist tracer 125 I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. For comparison, 125 I-BH-exendin(9-39) with the BH labelled at lysine 4 did identify the GLP-1 receptor in rat tissues but not in human tissues. The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) labelled with 125 I-BH at lysine 19 is an excellent GLP-1 radioligand that identifies human and rat GLP-1 receptors in normal and tumoural tissues. It may therefore be the molecular basis to develop suitable GLP-1 receptor antagonist radioligands for in vivo imaging of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in patients. (orig.)

  3. Neurotrophin receptors expression and JNK pathway activation in human astrocytomas

    Maraziotis Theodore

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotrophins are growth factors that regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis in the nervous system. Their diverse actions are mediated through two different transmembrane – receptor signaling systems: Trk receptor tyrosine kinases (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC and p75NTR neurotrophin receptor. Trk receptors promote cell survival and differentiation while p75NTR induces, in most cases, the activity of JNK-p53-Bax apoptosis pathway or suppresses intracellular survival signaling cascades. Robust Trk activation blocks p75NTR -induced apoptosis by suppressing the JNK-p53-Bax pathway. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the expression levels of neurotrophin receptors, Trks and p75NTR, and the activation of JNK pathway in human astrocytomas and in adjacent non-neoplastic brain tissue. Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded serial sections from 33 supratentorial astrocytomas (5 diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas, WHO grade II; 6 anaplastic astrocytomas, WHO grade III; 22 glioblastomas multiforme, WHO grade IV were immunostained following microwave pretreatment. Polyclonal antibodies against TrkA, TrkB, TrkC and monoclonal antibodies against p75NTR and phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK and c-Jun (pc-Jun were used. The labeling index (LI, defined as the percentage of positive (labeled cells out of the total number of tumor cells counted, was determined. Results Moderate to strong, granular cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for TrkA, TrkB and TrkC receptors was detected in greater than or equal to 10% of tumor cells in the majority of tumors independently of grade; on the contrary, p75NTR receptor expression was found in a small percentage of tumor cells (~1% in some tumors. The endothelium of tumor capillaries showed conspicuous immunoreactivity for TrkB receptor. Trk immunoreactivity seemed to be localized in some neurons and astrocytes in non-neoplastic tissue. Phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK and c-Jun (pc-Jun were

  4. The role of muscarinic receptor subtypes on carbachol-induced contraction of normal human detrusor and overactive detrusor associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Tomonori Yamanishi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of antimuscarinic antagonists on carbachol-induced contraction of normal human bladder and detrusor overactivity associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (DO/BPH. Samples of human bladder muscle were obtained from patients undergoing total cystectomy for bladder cancer (normal bladder, and those undergoing retropubic prostatectomy for BPH. All of the patients with DO/BPH had detrusor overactivity according to urodynamic studies. Detrusor muscle strips were mounted in 10-ml organ baths containing Krebs solution, and concentration–response curves for carbachol were obtained in the presence of antimuscarinic antagonists (4-DAMP, methoctramine, pirenzepine, tolterodine, solifenacin, trospium, propiverine, oxybutynin, and imidafenacin or vehicle. All antagonists competitively antagonized concentration–response curves to carbachol with high affinities in normal bladder. The rank order of mean pA2 values was as follows: trospium (10.1 > 4-DAMP (9.87, imidafenacin (9.3 > solifenacin (8.8 > tolterodine (8.6 > oxybutynin (8.3 > propiverine (7.7 > pirenzepine (7.4 > methoctramine (6.6. The effects of these antimuscarinic antagonists did not change when tested with DO/BPH bladder, suggesting that each antimuscarinic antagonist has a similar effect in this condition. Schild plots showed a slope corresponding to unity, except for propiverine with DO/BPH detrusor. In conclusion, M3-receptors mainly mediate contractions in human bladder strips with normal state and DO/BPH.

  5. Neuroimmune interactions in Sjögren's syndrome: relationship of exocrine gland dysfunction with autoantibodies to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-3 and mental health status parameters.

    Deák, Magdolna; Szvetnik, Attila; Balog, Attila; Sohár, Nicolette; Varga, Renáta; Pokorny, Gyula; Tóth, Gábor; Kiss, Mária; Kovács, László

    2013-01-01

    Antimuscarinic acetylcholine receptor-3 (m3AChR) autoantibodies have been described in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). The aim of this study was to compare various methods for their detection and to assess the contributions of anti-m3AChR and other immunological and psychosocial factors to the pathomechanism of secondary SS (sSS). Sixty-five rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 103 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, 76 pSS patients and 50 controls were compared. Three immunodominant epitopes of m3AChR were synthesized and used in ELISA. Two extracellular epitopes were also prepared in fusion with glutathione-S-transferase and one in conjugation with bovine serum albumin. Mental health status was assessed with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy fatigue scale. Correlations were evaluated between glandular function and anti-m3AChR positivities and specificities, features of SLE and RA, and mental health parameters. Fourteen RA and 27 SLE patients had sSS. The autoantibody levels to all epitopes of m3AChR were significantly higher in pSS and SLE patients than in the controls. The fusion protein forms discriminated RA from pSS and SLE; furthermore, the YNIP fusion protein also distinguished pSS from SLE. The prevalence and the mean levels of all autoantibodies did not differ statistically between sicca and non-sicca SLE or RA patients. Glandular dysfunction correlated with higher age in SLE and RA and an impaired health-related quality of life in SLE. The second and third extracellular loops of m3AChR are antigenic in pSS. Immunoassays with antigens as fusion peptides demonstrate the best performance. Sicca SLE patients have worse mental health status. Anti-m3AChR antibodies represent a peculiar example of neuroimmune interactions. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Expression of sulfonylurea receptors in rat taste buds.

    Liu, Dian-Xin; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhou, Li-Hong; Feng, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Juan

    2011-07-01

    To test the possibility that a fast-onset promoting agent repaglinide may initiate prandial insulin secretion through the mechanism of cephalic-phase insulin release, we explored the expression and distribution character of sulfonylurea receptors in rat taste buds. Twenty male Wistar rats aged 10 weeks old were killed after general anesthesia. The circumvallate papillae, fungiform papillae and pancreas tissues were separately collected. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression and distribution of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) or sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2) in rat taste buds. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the expression of SUR1 or SUR2 mRNA. The pancreatic tissues from the same rat were used as positive control. This is the first study to report that SUR1 is uniquely expressed in the taste buds of fungiform papillae of each rat tongue, while the expression of SUR1 or SUR2 was not detected in the taste buds of circumvallate papillae. SUR1 is selectively expressed in rat taste buds, and its distribution pattern may be functionally relevant, suggesting that the rapid insulin secretion-promoting effect of repaglinide may be exerted through the cephalic-phase secretion pathway mediated by taste buds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of Androgen Receptor Is Negatively Regulated By p53

    Fatouma Alimirah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased expression of androgen receptor (AR in prostate cancer (PC is associated with transition to androgen independence. Because the progression of PC to advanced stages is often associated with the loss of p53 function, we tested whether the p53 could regulate the expression of AR gene. Here we report that p53 negatively regulates the expression of AR in prostate epithelial cells (PrECs. We found that in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells that express the wild-type p53 and AR and in human normal PrECs, the activation of p53 by genotoxic stress or by inhibition of p53 nuclear export downregulated the expression of AR. Furthermore, forced expression of p53 in LNCaP cells decreased the expression of AR. Conversely, knockdown of p53 expression in LNCaP cells increased the AR expression. Consistent with the negative regulation of AR expression by p53, the p53-null HCT116 cells expressed higher levels of AR compared with the isogenic HCT116 cells that express the wildtype p53. Moreover, we noted that in etoposide treated LNCaP cells p53 bound to the promoter region of the AR gene, which contains a potential p53 DNA-binding consensus sequence, in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Together, our observations provide support for the idea that the loss of p53 function in prostate cancer cells contributes to increased expression of AR.

  8. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) expression on polymorphonuclear ...

    To establish a foundation for further researches on the improvement of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) functions in dairy cow during perinatal period, the counting of PMN, as well as the mRNA and protein expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) on PMN was studied during this critical period.

  9. Integrated olfactory receptor and microarray gene expression databases

    Crasto Chiquito J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression patterns of olfactory receptors (ORs are an important component of the signal encoding mechanism in the olfactory system since they determine the interactions between odorant ligands and sensory neurons. We have developed the Olfactory Receptor Microarray Database (ORMD to house OR gene expression data. ORMD is integrated with the Olfactory Receptor Database (ORDB, which is a key repository of OR gene information. Both databases aim to aid experimental research related to olfaction. Description ORMD is a Web-accessible database that provides a secure data repository for OR microarray experiments. It contains both publicly available and private data; accessing the latter requires authenticated login. The ORMD is designed to allow users to not only deposit gene expression data but also manage their projects/experiments. For example, contributors can choose whether to make their datasets public. For each experiment, users can download the raw data files and view and export the gene expression data. For each OR gene being probed in a microarray experiment, a hyperlink to that gene in ORDB provides access to genomic and proteomic information related to the corresponding olfactory receptor. Individual ORs archived in ORDB are also linked to ORMD, allowing users access to the related microarray gene expression data. Conclusion ORMD serves as a data repository and project management system. It facilitates the study of microarray experiments of gene expression in the olfactory system. In conjunction with ORDB, ORMD integrates gene expression data with the genomic and functional data of ORs, and is thus a useful resource for both olfactory researchers and the public.

  10. Erythropoetin receptor expression in the human diabetic retina

    Tsang Stephen H

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests erythropoietin (EPO and the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Better characterization of the EPO-EPOR signaling system in the ischemic retina may offer a new therapeutic modality for ischemic ophthalmic diseases. This study was performed to identify EPOR mRNA expression in the human diabetic eye. Findings EPOR antisense RNA probes were validated on human pancreas tissue. In the normal eye, EPOR was expressed in the retinal ganglion cell layer. Minimal expression was observed in the inner and outer nuclear layer. Under conditions of diabetic retinopathy, EPOR expression shifted to photoreceptor cells. Increased expression was also observed in the peripheral retina. Conclusion EPOR expression may be a biomarker or contribute to disease mechanisms in diabetic retinopathy.

  11. Myotropic Effects of Cholinergic Muscarinic Agonists and Antagonists in the Beetle Tenebrio molitor L.

    Chowanski, Szymon; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    In mammals, the cholinergic nervous system plays a crucial role in neuronal regulation of physiological processes. It acts on cells by two types of receptors - nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Both signal transmission pathways also operate in the central and peripheral cholinergic nervous system of insects. In our pharmacological experiments, we studied the effects of two muscarinic agonists (carbachol, pilocarpine) and two muscarinic antagonists (atropine, scopolamine) on the muscle contractile activity of visceral organs in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Both antagonists, when injected to haemolymph at concentration 10-5 M, caused delayed and prolonged cardioinhibitory effects on heart contractility in ortho- and antidromic phases of heart activity in T. molitor pupa what was observed as negative chrono- and inotropic effects. Agonist of muscarinic receptors - carbachol evoked opposite effect and increased contraction rate but only in antidromic phase. Pilocarpine, the second agonist induced weak negative chronotropic effects in the antiand orthodromic phases of heart activity. However, neither agonists had an effect on semi-isolated beetle heart in vitro. Only atropine at the highest tested concentrations slightly decreased the frequency of myocardial contractions. These suggest the regulation of heart activity by muscarinic system indirectly. The tested compounds also affected the contractility of the oviduct and hindgut, but the responses of these organs were varied and depended on the concentration of the applied compounds. These pharmacological experiments suggest the possible modulation of insect visceral muscle contractility by the cholinergic nervous system and indirectly indicate the presence of muscarinic receptor(s) in the visceral organs of the beetle T. molitor. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) insulin resistance and dysfunction, caused by diabetes, accelerates atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether specifically enhancing EC-targeted insulin action can decrease atherosclerosis in diabetes. Accordingly, overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1...... induction of NO action, which increases endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression and intracellular [Ca(2+)]. Using the mice with knockin mutation of eNOS, which had Ser1176 mutated to alanine (AKI), deleting the only known mechanism for insulin to activate eNOS/NO pathway, we observed that IRS1...... overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE(-/-) mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway...

  13. Steroidal Hormone Receptor Expression in Male Breast Cancer

    Fatemeh Homaei-Shandiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The etiology of male breast cancer is unclear, but hormonal levels may play a role in development of this disease. It seems that the risk of male breast cancer related to increased lifelong exposure to estrogen or reduced androgen. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the steroid hormone receptors including estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR in Iranian cases with male breast cancer. Methods: This is a prospective review of 18 cases of male breast cancer in in Omid Hospital, Mashhad, North East of Iran, between October 2001 and October 2006. ER and PR were measured by immunohistochemistry. Clinicopathologic features and family history were obtained by interview. Data were analyzed with SPSS 13 using descriptive statistics.  Results: The median age was 63.2 year. All the cases were infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A high rate of expression of ER (88.8% and PR (66.6% was found in the studied cases. Conclusion: Cancers of the male breast are significantly more likely than cancers of the female breast to express hormonal receptors.

  14. Urokinase receptor expression involves tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphoglycerate kinase.

    Shetty, Praveenkumar; Velusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Bhandary, Yashodhar P; Liu, Ming C; Shetty, Sreerama

    2010-02-01

    The interaction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) with its receptor, uPAR, plays a central role in several pathophysiological processes, including cancer. uPA induces its own cell surface receptor expression through stabilization of uPAR mRNA. The mechanism involves binding of a 51 nt uPAR mRNA coding sequence with phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) to down regulate cell surface uPAR expression. Tyrosine phosphorylation of PGK mediated by uPA treatment enhances uPAR mRNA stabilization. In contrast, inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation augments PGK binding to uPAR mRNA and attenuates uPA-induced uPAR expression. Mapping the specific peptide region of PGK indicated that its first quarter (amino acids 1-100) interacts with uPAR mRNA. To determine if uPAR expression by uPA is regulated through activation of tyrosine residues of PGK, we mutated the specific tyrosine residue and tested mutant PGK for its ability to interfere with uPAR expression. Inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation by mutating Y76 residue abolished uPAR expression induced by uPA treatment. These findings collectively demonstrate that Y76 residue present in the first quarter of the PGK molecule is involved in lung epithelial cell surface uPAR expression. This region can effectively mimic the function of a whole PGK molecule in inhibiting tumor cell growth.

  15. Selective receptor expression restricts Nipah virus infection of endothelial cells

    Diederich Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nipah virus (NiV is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that causes severe diseases in animals and humans. Endothelial cell (EC infection is an established hallmark of NiV infection in vivo. Despite systemic virus spread via the vascular system, EC in brain and lung are preferentially infected whereas EC in other organs are less affected. As in vivo, we found differences in the infection of EC in cell culture. Only brain-derived primary or immortalized EC were found to be permissive to NiV infection. Using a replication-independent fusion assay, we could show that the lack of infection in non-brain EC was due to a lack of receptor expression. The NiV entry receptors ephrinB2 (EB2 or ephrinB3 were only expressed in brain endothelia. The finding that EB2 expression in previously non-permissive aortic EC rendered the cells permissive to infection then demonstrated that EB2 is not only necessary but also sufficient to allow the establishment of a productive NiV infection. This strongly suggests that limitations in receptor expression restrict virus entry in certain EC subsets in vivo, and are thus responsible for the differences in EC tropism observed in human and animal NiV infections.

  16. Characterisation of the expression of NMDA receptors in human astrocytes.

    Ming-Chak Lee

    Full Text Available Astrocytes have long been perceived only as structural and supporting cells within the central nervous system (CNS. However, the discovery that these glial cells may potentially express receptors capable of responding to endogenous neurotransmitters has resulted in the need to reassess astrocytic physiology. The aim of the current study was to characterise the expression of NMDA receptors (NMDARs in primary human astrocytes, and investigate their response to physiological and excitotoxic concentrations of the known endogenous NMDAR agonists, glutamate and quinolinic acid (QUIN. Primary cultures of human astrocytes were used to examine expression of these receptors at the mRNA level using RT-PCR and qPCR, and at the protein level using immunocytochemistry. The functionality role of the receptors was assessed using intracellular calcium influx experiments and measuring extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in primary cultures of human astrocytes treated with glutamate and QUIN. We found that all seven currently known NMDAR subunits (NR1, NR2A, NR2B, NR2C, NR2D, NR3A and NR3B are expressed in astrocytes, but at different levels. Calcium influx studies revealed that both glutamate and QUIN could activate astrocytic NMDARs, which stimulates Ca2+ influx into the cell and can result in dysfunction and death of astrocytes. Our data also show that the NMDAR ion channel blockers, MK801, and memantine can attenuate glutamate and QUIN mediated cell excitotoxicity. This suggests that the mechanism of glutamate and QUIN gliotoxicity is at least partially mediated by excessive stimulation of NMDARs. The present study is the first to provide definitive evidence for the existence of functional NMDAR expression in human primary astrocytes. This discovery has significant implications for redefining the cellular interaction between glia and neurons in both physiological processes and pathological conditions.

  17. Tropomyosin Receptor Kinase A Expression on Merkel Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Wehkamp, Ulrike; Stern, Sophie; Krüger, Sandra; Hauschild, Axel; Röcken, Christoph; Egberts, Friederike

    2017-11-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a malignant neuroendocrine skin tumor frequently associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus. Immune checkpoint therapy showed remarkable results, although not all patients are responsive to this therapy. Anti-tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA)-targeted treatment has shown promising results in several tumor entities. To determine TrkA expression in MCC as a rationale for potential targeted therapy. This case series study investigated the MCC specimens of 55 patients treated at the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany, from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2015. Thirty-nine of the 55 samples were suitable for further histopathologic examination. Expression of TrkA was explored by immunohistochemical analysis. Diagnosis of MCC was confirmed by staining positive for cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and synaptophysin. Expression of TrkA on the tumor cells. Specimens of 39 patients (21 women and 18 men; mean [SD] age, 75.0 [7.8] years) underwent immunohistochemical investigation. Thirty-eight of 38 specimens expressed CK20 and synaptophysin on the MCC tumor cells (100% expression). Merkel cell polyomavirus was detected in 32 of 38 specimens (84%). Tropomyosin receptor kinase A was found in all 36 evaluable specimens on the tumor cells; 34 (94%) showed a weak and 2 (6%) showed a strong cytoplasmic expression. In addition, strongly positive perinuclear dots were observed in 30 of 36 specimens (83%). Tropomyosin receptor kinase A was expressed on MCC tumor cells in 100% of evaluable specimens. This result may lead to the exploration of new targeted treatment options in MCC, especially for patients who do not respond to anti-programmed cell death protein 1 treatment.

  18. Unique expression pattern of the three insulin receptor family members in the rat mammary gland

    Hvid, Henning; Klopfleisch, Robert; Vienberg, Sara Gry

    2011-01-01

    mammary gland. Using laser micro-dissection, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of IR (insulin receptor), IGF-1R (IGF-1 receptor), IRR (insulin receptor-related receptor), ERα (estrogen receptor alpha), ERβ (estrogen receptor beta) and PR (progesteron receptor......) in young, virgin, female Sprague-Dawley rats and compared to expression in reference organs. The mammary gland displayed the highest expression of IRR and IGF-1R. In contrast, low expression of IR transcripts was observed in the mammary gland tissue with expression of the IR-A isoform being 5-fold higher...... than the expression of the IR-B. By immunohistochemistry, expression of IR and IGF-1R was detected in all mammary gland epithelial cells. Expression of ERα and PR was comparable between mammary gland and ovary, whereas expression of ERβ was lower in mammary gland than in the ovary. Finally, expression...

  19. GABAA receptor-expressing neurons promote consumption in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Cheung, Samantha K; Scott, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Feeding decisions are highly plastic and bidirectionally regulated by neurons that either promote or inhibit feeding. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified four GABAergic interneurons that act as critical brakes to prevent incessant feeding. These GABAergic neurons may inhibit target neurons that drive consumption. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining GABA receptors and neurons that promote consumption. We find that Resistance to dieldrin (RDL), a GABAA type receptor, is required for proper control of ingestion. Knockdown of Rdl in a subset of neurons causes overconsumption of tastants. Acute activation of these neurons is sufficient to drive consumption of appetitive substances and non-appetitive substances and acute silencing of these neurons decreases consumption. Taken together, these studies identify GABAA receptor-expressing neurons that promote Drosophila ingestive behavior and provide insight into feeding regulation.

  20. Expression and function of the human estrogen receptor in yeast

    White, J.H.; Metzger, D.; Chambon, P.

    1988-01-01

    Gene expression in eukaryotes is regulated at many levels. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that the basic control mechanisms of transcription initiation have been conserved across the range of eukaryotes from yeast to man. In vertebrates, the nuclear receptors, whose activity is dependent on the binding of specific ligands, stimulate transcription by interacting with specific cis-acting sequences and display all of the hallmarks of inducible enhancer factors. Alignment of their amino acid sequences indicates that they are composed of a series of conserved domains. The domain structure of the human estrogen receptor (hER) is typical of receptor proteins. Region C, containing two putative zinc fingers, comprises the DNA-binding domain responsible for specific recognition of estrogen response elements (ERE). Region E contains the hormone-binding domain and domain(s) responsible for transcription activation. A mutant of the hER, called HE15, which lacks the hormone-binding domain, binds DNA in vivo and in vitro but activates transcription only poorly in a constitutive manner in vivo in HeLa cells. A series of studies have demonstrated that the hormone- and DNA-binding domains of the nuclear receptors function independently. Chimeric proteins consisting of the DNA-binding domain of yeast GAL4 coupled to the hormone-binding domains of either the hER or glucocorticoid receptor element (GRE) will stimulate transcription in HeLa cells when bound to a UAS. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the hER and other nuclear receptors, as well as GAL4 and GCN4 proteins of yeast, consist of discrete and separable DNA-binding and transcription-activation functions. To investigate these striking parallels further, the authors have expressed the hER in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and have analyzed its hormone- and DNA-binding properties in vitro and its ability to stimulate transcription in vivo

  1. Vitamin D Receptor, Retinoid X Receptor, Ki-67, Survivin, and Ezrin Expression in Canine Osteosarcoma

    John Davies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine osteosarcoma (OS is an aggressive malignant bone tumor. Prognosis is primarily determined by clinical parameters. Vitamin D has been postulated as a novel therapeutic option for many malignancies. Upon activation, vitamin D receptors (VDRs combine with retinoid receptor (RXR forming a heterodimer initiating a cascade of events. Vitamin D's antineoplastic activity and its mechanism of action in OS remain to be clearly established. Expression of VDR, RXR, Ki-67, survivin, and ezrin was studied in 33 archived, canine OS specimens. VDR, RXR, survivin, and ezrin were expressed in the majority of cases. There was no statistically significant difference in VDR expression in relationship with tumor grade, type, or locations or animal breed, age, and/or sex. No significant association (p=0.316 between tumor grade and Ki-67 expression was found; in particular, no difference in Ki-67 expression between grades 2 and 3 OSs was found, while a negative correlation was noted between Ki-67 and VDR expression (ρ=−0.466, a positive correlation between survivin and RXR expression was found (p=0.374. A significant relationship exists between VDR and RXR expression in OSs and proliferative/apoptosis markers. These results establish a foundation for elucidating mechanisms by which vitamin D induces antineoplastic activity in OS.

  2. Glucose transporters are expressed in taste receptor cells.

    Merigo, Flavia; Benati, Donatella; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Osculati, Francesco; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    In the intestine, changes of sugar concentration generated in the lumen during digestion induce adaptive responses of glucose transporters in the epithelium. A close matching between the intestinal expression of glucose transporters and the composition and amount of the diet has been provided by several experiments. Functional evidence has demonstrated that the regulation of glucose transporters into enterocytes is induced by the sensing of sugar of the enteroendocrine cells through activation of sweet taste receptors (T1R2 and T1R3) and their associated elements of G-protein-linked signaling pathways (e.g. α-gustducin, phospholipase C β type 2 and transient receptor potential channel M5), which are signaling molecules also involved in the perception of sweet substances in the taste receptor cells (TRCs) of the tongue. Considering this phenotypical similarity between the intestinal cells and TRCs, we evaluated whether the TRCs themselves possess proteins of the glucose transport mechanism. Therefore, we investigated the expression of the typical intestinal glucose transporters (i.e. GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1) in rat circumvallate papillae, using immunohistochemistry, double-labeling immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed that GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1 are expressed in TRCs; their immunoreactivity was also observed in cells that displayed staining for α-gustducin and T1R3 receptor. The immunoelectron microscopic results confirmed that GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1 were predominantly expressed in cells with ultrastructural characteristics of chemoreceptor cells. The presence of glucose transporters in TRCs adds a further link between chemosensory information and cellular responses to sweet stimuli that may have important roles in glucose homeostasis, contributing to a better understanding of the pathways implicated in glucose metabolism. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011

  3. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human endometrial carcinoma

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Ottesen, B

    1993-01-01

    Little data exist on the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-Rs) in human endometrial cancer. EGF-R status was studied in 65 patients with endometrial carcinomas and in 26 women with nonmalignant postmenopausal endometria, either inactive/atrophic endometrium or adenomatous...... hyperplasia. EGF-R was identified on frozen tissue sections by means of an indirect immunoperoxidase technique with a monoclonal antibody against the external domain of the EGF-R. Seventy-one percent of the carcinomas expressed positive EGF-R immunoreactivity. In general, staining was most prominent...

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in urinary bladder cancer

    Dayalu S.L. Naik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the expression pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in urinary bladder cancer and its association with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, epidermal growth factor (EGF, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and high risk human papilloma virus (HPV types 16 and 18. Materials and Methods : Thirty cases of urothelial carcinoma were analyzed. EGFR, HER2, EGF, and IL-6 expressions in the tissue were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. For HPV, DNA from tissue samples was extracted and detection of HPV was done by PCR technique. Furthermore, evaluation of different intracellular molecules associated with EGFR signaling pathways was performed by the western blot method using lysates from various cells and tissues. Results : In this study, the frequencies of immunopositivity for EGFR, HER2, EGF, and IL-6 were 23%, 60%, 47%, and 80%, respectively. No cases were positive for HPV-18, whereas HPV-16 was detected in 10% cases. Overall, expression of EGFR did not show any statistically significant association with the studied parameters. However, among male patients, a significant association was found only between EGFR and HER2. Conclusions : Overexpression of EGFR and/or HER2, two important members of the same family of growth factor receptors, was observed in a considerable proportion of cases. Precise knowledge in this subject would be helpful to formulate a rational treatment strategy in patients with urinary bladder cancer.

  5. Inhibition of allergen-induced basophil activation by ASM-024, a nicotinic receptor ligand.

    Watson, Brittany M; Oliveria, John Paul; Nusca, Graeme M; Smith, Steven G; Beaudin, Sue; Dua, Benny; Watson, Rick M; Assayag, Evelynne Israël; Cormier, Yvon F; Sehmi, Roma; Gauvreau, Gail M

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were identified on eosinophils and shown to regulate inflammatory responses, but nAChR expression on basophils has not been explored yet. We investigated surface receptor expression of nAChR α4, α7 and α1/α3/α5 subunits on basophils. Furthermore, we examined the effects of ASM-024, a synthetic nicotinic ligand, on in vitro anti-IgE and in vivo allergen-induced basophil activation. Basophils were enriched from the peripheral blood of allergic donors and the expression of nAChR subunits and muscarinic receptors was determined. Purified basophils were stimulated with anti-IgE in the presence of ASM-024 with or without muscarinic or nicotinic antagonists for the measurement of CD203c expression and histamine release. The effect of 9 days of treatment with 50 and 200 mg ASM-024 on basophil CD203c expression was examined in the blood of mild allergic asthmatics before and after allergen inhalation challenge. nAChR α4, α7 and α1/α3/α5 receptor subunit expression was detected on basophils. Stimulation of basophils with anti-IgE increased CD203c expression and histamine release, which was inhibited by ASM-024 (10(-5) to 10(-)(3) M, p ASM-024 was reversed in the presence of muscarinic and nicotinic antagonists. In subjects with mild asthma, ASM-024 inhalation significantly inhibited basophil CD203c expression measured 24 h after allergen challenge (p = 0.03). This study shows that ASM-024 inhibits IgE- and allergen-induced basophil activation through both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and suggests that ASM-024 may be an efficacious agent for modulating allergic asthma responses. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The vestibulo- and preposito-cerebellar cholinergic neurons of a ChAT-tdTomato transgenic rat exhibit heterogeneous firing properties and the expression of various neurotransmitter receptors.

    Zhang, Yue; Kaneko, Ryosuke; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2014-04-01

    Cerebellar function is regulated by cholinergic mossy fiber inputs that are primarily derived from the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN). In contrast to the growing evidence surrounding cholinergic transmission and its functional significance in the cerebellum, the intrinsic and synaptic properties of cholinergic projection neurons (ChPNs) have not been clarified. In this study, we generated choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-tdTomato transgenic rats, which specifically express the fluorescent protein tdTomato in cholinergic neurons, and used them to investigate the response properties of ChPNs identified via retrograde labeling using whole-cell recordings in brainstem slices. In response to current pulses, ChPNs exhibited two afterhyperpolarisation (AHP) profiles and three firing patterns; the predominant AHP and firing properties differed between the MVN and PHN. Morphologically, the ChPNs were separated into two types based on their soma size and dendritic extensions. Analyses of the firing responses to time-varying sinusoidal current stimuli revealed that ChPNs exhibited different firing modes depending on the input frequencies. The maximum frequencies in which each firing mode was observed were different between the neurons that exhibited distinct firing patterns. Analyses of the current responses to the application of neurotransmitter receptor agonists revealed that the ChPNs expressed (i) AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, (ii) GABAA and glycine receptors, and (iii) muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The current responses mediated by these receptors of MVN ChPNs were not different from those of PHN ChPNs. These findings suggest that ChPNs receive various synaptic inputs and encode those inputs appropriately across different frequencies. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Teodorov, E.; Ferrari, M.F.R.; Fior-Chadi, D.R.; Camarini, R.; Felício, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  8. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Teodorov, E. [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, M.F.R. [Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fior-Chadi, D.R. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Camarini, R. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felício, L.F. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  9. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    E. Teodorov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05 because a lower percentage of kappa group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05 and lactating female rats (P < 0.01, with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in

  10. Angiotensin II potentiates adrenergic and muscarinic modulation of guinea pig intracardiac neurons.

    Girasole, Allison E; Palmer, Christopher P; Corrado, Samantha L; Marie Southerland, E; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Hardwick, Jean C

    2011-11-01

    The intrinsic cardiac plexus represents a major peripheral integration site for neuronal, hormonal, and locally produced neuromodulators controlling efferent neuronal output to the heart. This study examined the interdependence of norepinephrine, muscarinic agonists, and ANG II, to modulate intrinsic cardiac neuronal activity. Intracellular voltage recordings from whole-mount preparations of the guinea pig cardiac plexus were used to determine changes in active and passive electrical properties of individual intrinsic cardiac neurons. Application of either adrenergic or muscarinic agonists induced changes in neuronal resting membrane potentials, decreased afterhyperpolarization duration of single action potentials, and increased neuronal excitability. Adrenergic responses were inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium ions, while muscarinic responses were inhibited by application of TEA. The adrenergic responses were heterogeneous, responding to a variety of receptor-specific agonists (phenylephrine, clonidine, dobutamine, and terbutaline), although α-receptor agonists produced the most frequent responses. Application of ANG II alone produced a significant increase in excitability, while application of ANG II in combination with either adrenergic or muscarinic agonists produced a much larger potentiation of excitability. The ANG II-induced modulation of firing was blocked by the angiotensin type 2 (AT(2)) receptor inhibitor PD 123319 and was mimicked by the AT(2) receptor agonist CGP-42112A. AT(1) receptor blockade with telmasartin did not alter neuronal responses to ANG II. These data demonstrate that ANG II potentiates both muscarinically and adrenergically mediated activation of intrinsic cardiac neurons, doing so primarily via AT(2) receptor-dependent mechanisms. These neurohumoral interactions may be fundamental to regulation of neuronal excitability within the intrinsic cardiac nervous system.

  11. Synthesis of N-Substituted Piperidine Salts as Potential Muscarinic Ligands for Alzheimer's Applications

    Boulos, J.; Jakubík, Jan; Randáková, Alena; Avila, C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2013), s. 1363-1367 ISSN 0022-152X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : N-piperidine substituted salts * muscarinic receptor antagonists * selectivity Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.873, year: 2013

  12. Differential expression of VEGF ligands and receptors in prostate cancer.

    Woollard, David J; Opeskin, Kenneth; Coso, Sanja; Wu, Di; Baldwin, Megan E; Williams, Elizabeth D

    2013-05-01

    Prostate cancer disseminates to regional lymph nodes, however the molecular mechanisms responsible for lymph node metastasis are poorly understood. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ligand and receptor family have been implicated in the growth and spread of prostate cancer via activation of the blood vasculature and lymphatic systems. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively examine the expression pattern of VEGF ligands and receptors in the glandular epithelium, stroma, lymphatic vasculature and blood vessels in prostate cancer. The localization of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3 was examined in cancerous and adjacent benign prostate tissue from 52 subjects representing various grades of prostate cancer. Except for VEGFR-2, extensive staining was observed for all ligands and receptors in the prostate specimens. In epithelial cells, VEGF-A and VEGFR-1 expression was higher in tumor tissue compared to benign tissue. VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 expression was significantly higher in benign tissue compared to tumor in the stroma and the endothelium of lymphatic and blood vessels. In addition, the frequency of lymphatic vessels, but not blood vessels, was lower in tumor tissue compared with benign tissue. These results suggest that activation of VEGFR-1 by VEGF-A within the carcinoma, and activation of lymphatic endothelial cell VEGFR-3 by VEGF-D within the adjacent benign stroma may be important signaling mechanisms involved in the progression and subsequent metastatic spread of prostate cancer. Thus inhibition of these pathways may contribute to therapeutic strategies for the management of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Muscle Plasticity and β2-Adrenergic Receptors: Adaptive Responses of β2-Adrenergic Receptor Expression to Muscle Hypertrophy and Atrophy

    Shogo Sato; Ken Shirato; Kaoru Tachiyashiki; Kazuhiko Imaizumi

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the functional roles of β2-adrenergic receptors in skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy as well as the adaptive responses of β2-adrenergic receptor expression to anabolic and catabolic conditions. β2-Adrenergic receptor stimulation using anabolic drugs increases muscle mass by promoting muscle protein synthesis and/or attenuating protein degradation. These effects are prevented ...

  14. Expression of Estrogen Receptor Alpha in Malignant Melanoma

    Parvin Rajabi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Features of malignant melanoma (MM vary in the different geographic regions of the world. This may be attributable to environmental, ethnic, and genetic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α in MM in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was planned as a descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional investigation. During this study, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of MM was studied for ER-α using immunohistochemistry (IHC. Results: In this study, 38 patients (female/male; 20/18 with a definite diagnosis of malignant cutaneous melanoma and mean age of 52.4 ± 11.2 years were investigated. Using envision IHC staining, there were not any cases with ER-α expression. Conclusion: In confirmation to the most previous studies, expression of ER-α was negative in MM. It is recommended to investigate the expression of estrogen receptor beta and other markers in MM.

  15. Role of a Ubiquitously Expressed Receptor in the Vertebrate Olfactory System

    DeMaria, Shannon; Berke, Allison P.; Van Name, Eric; Heravian, Anisa; Ferreira, Todd; Ngai, John

    2013-01-01

    Odorant cues are recognized by receptors expressed on olfactory sensory neurons, the primary sensory neurons of the olfactory epithelium. Odorant receptors typically obey the “one receptor, one neuron” rule, in which the receptive field of the olfactory neuron is determined by the singular odorant receptor that it expresses. Odor-evoked receptor activity across the population of olfactory neurons is then interpreted by the brain to identify the molecular nature of the odorant stimulus. In the...

  16. Cyclic AMP-receptor protein activates aerobactin receptor IutA expression in Vibrio vulnificus.

    Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Seong-Jung; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2012-04-01

    The ferrophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus can utilize the siderophore aerobactin of Escherichia coli for iron acquisition via its specific receptor IutA. This siderophore piracy by V. vulnificus may contribute to its survival and proliferation, especially in mixed bacterial environments. In this study, we examined the effects of glucose, cyclic AMP (cAMP), and cAMP-receptor protein (Crp) on iutA expression in V. vulnificus. Glucose dose-dependently repressed iutA expression. A mutation in cya encoding adenylate cyclase required for cAMP synthesis severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by in trans complementing cya or the addition of exogenous cAMP. Furthermore, a mutation in crp encoding Crp severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by complementing crp. Accordingly, glucose deprivation under iron-limited conditions is an environmental signal for iutA expression, and Crp functions as an activator that regulates iutA expression in response to glucose availability.

  17. Effects of muscarinic blockade in perirhinal cortex during visual recognition

    Tang, Yi; Mishkin, Mortimer; Aigner, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    Stimulus recognition in monkeys is severely impaired by destruction or dysfunction of the perirhinal cortex and also by systemic administration of the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor blocker, scopolamine. These two effects are shown here to be linked: Stimulus recognition was found to be significantly impaired after bilateral microinjection of scopolamine directly into the perirhinal cortex, but not after equivalent injections into the laterally adjacent visual area TE or into the dentate gyrus of the overlying hippocampal formation. The results suggest that the formation of stimulus memories depends critically on cholinergic-muscarinic activation of the perirhinal area, providing a new clue to how stimulus representations are stored. PMID:9356507

  18. Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human thyroid tumours.

    Klagge, A; Krause, K; Schierle, K; Steinert, F; Dralle, H; Fuhrer, D

    2010-04-01

    Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are expressed in various endocrine tumours. The expression of SSTR at the tumour cell surface confers the possibility for diagnostic imaging and therapy of tumours using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues. The majority of currently available somatostatin analogues show a higher binding affinity for the SSTR2 subtype. To date, the precise expression pattern of the SSTR subtypes 1-5 in thyroid epithelial tumours remains to be determined. We investigated the mRNA expression of SSTR1-5 in benign and malignant epithelial thyroid tumours [20 cold thyroid nodules (CTNs), 20 toxic thyroid nodules (TTNs), 20 papillary, 20 follicular, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas (PTCs, FTCs, ATCs, respectively)] and compared them to normal surrounding thyroid tissues. Four out of five SSTR subtypes were detected in malignant thyroid tumours, benign neoplasia, and normal surrounding tissue with a predominant expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5, and a weak expression of SSTR1 and SSTR3. Weak SSTR4 mRNA expression was detected in some PTCs. Compared to normal thyroid tissue, SSTR2 was significantly upregulated in PTC and ATC. In addition significant upregulation of SSTR3 was found in PTC. SSTR5 mRNA expression was increased in PTC and FTC and significantly decreased in CTN and TTN compared to normal thyroid tissue. SSTR2 is the predominant subtype in thyroid epithelial tumours with a high expression pattern, in particular, in PTC . Perspectively, the expression of distinct SSTR in thyroid epithelial tumours might represent a promising avenue for diagnostics and therapy of advanced thyroid cancer with somatostatin analogues. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  19. Stimulation of Na+ -K+ -pump currents by epithelial nicotinic receptors in rat colon.

    Bader, Sandra; Lottig, Lena; Diener, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Acetylcholine-induced epithelial Cl - secretion is generally thought to be mediated by epithelial muscarinic receptors and nicotinic receptors on secretomotor neurons. However, recent data have shown expression of nicotinic receptors by intestinal epithelium and the stimulation of Cl - secretion by nicotine, in the presence of the neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin. Here, we aimed to identify the transporters activated by epithelial nicotinic receptors and to clarify their role in cholinergic regulation of intestinal ion transport. Ussing chamber experiments were performed, using rat distal colon with intact epithelia. Epithelia were basolaterally depolarized to measure currents across the apical membrane. Apically permeabilized tissue was also used to measure currents across the basolateral membrane in the presence of tetrodotoxin. Nicotine had no effect on currents through Cl - channels in the apical membrane or on currents through K + channels in the apical or the basolateral membrane. Instead, nicotine stimulated the Na + -K + -pump as indicated by Na + -dependency and sensitivity of the nicotine-induced current across the basolateral membrane to cardiac steroids. Effects of nicotine were inhibited by nicotinic receptor antagonists such as hexamethonium and mimicked by dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium, a chemically different nicotinic agonist. Simultaneous stimulation of epithelial muscarinic and nicotinic receptors led to a strong potentiation of transepithelial Cl - secretion. These results suggest a novel concept for the cholinergic regulation of transepithelial ion transport by costimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic epithelial receptors and a unique role of nicotinic receptors controlling the activity of the Na + -K + -ATPase. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Neuropeptide S ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine and MK801 through activation of cognate receptor-expressing neurons in the subiculum complex.

    Shao, Yu-Feng; Wang, Can; Xie, Jun-Fan; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Xin, Le; Dong, Chao-Yu; Li, Jing; Ren, Wen-Ting; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2016-07-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that neuropeptide S (NPS), via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPS receptor (NPSR) in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function. High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the subiculum complex of hippocampal formation suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory spatial memory. The present study was undertaken to investigate effects of NPS on the scopolamine- or MK801-induced impairment of olfactory spatial memory using computer-assisted 4-hole-board spatial memory test, and by monitoring Fos expression in the subiculum complex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence microscopy was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos-immunereactive (-ir) neurons that also bear NPSR. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPS (0.5 nmol) significantly increased the number of visits to switched odorants in recall trial in mice suffering from odor-discriminating inability induced by scopolamine, a selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, or MK801, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, after training trials. The improvement of olfactory spatial memory by NPS was abolished by the NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5)]NPS (40 nmol). Ex vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced Fos expression in the subiculum complex encompassing the subiculum (S), presubiculum (PrS) and parasubiculum (PaS). The percentages of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 91.3, 86.5 and 90.0 % in the S, PrS and PaS, respectively. The present findings demonstrate that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the subiculum complex, ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine and MK801 in mice.

  1. Downregulation of transferrin receptor surface expression by intracellular antibody

    Peng Jilin; Wu Sha; Zhao Xiaoping; Wang Min; Li Wenhan; Shen Xin; Liu Jing; Lei Ping; Zhu Huifen; Shen Guanxin

    2007-01-01

    To deplete cellular iron uptake, and consequently inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, we attempt to block surface expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) by intracellular antibody technology. We constructed two expression plasmids (scFv-HAK and scFv-HA) coding for intracellular single-chain antibody against TfR with or without endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal, respectively. Then they were transfected tumor cells MCF-7 by liposome. Applying RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscope experiments, we insure that scFv-HAK intrabody was successfully expressed and retained in ER contrasted to the secreted expression of scFv-HA. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that the TfR surface expression was markedly decreased approximately 83.4 ± 2.5% in scFv-HAK transfected cells, while there was not significantly decrease in scFv-HA transfected cells. Further cell growth and apoptosis characteristics were evaluated by cell cycle analysis, nuclei staining and MTT assay. Results indicated that expression of scFv-HAK can dramatically induce cell cycle G1 phase arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells, and consequently significantly suppress proliferation of tumor cells compared with other control groups. For First time this study demonstrates the potential usage of anti-TfR scFv-intrabody as a growth inhibitor of TfR overexpressing tumors

  2. 3-(2-Benzofuranyl)quinuclidin-2-ene derivatives: novel muscarinic antagonists.

    Nordvall, G; Sundquist, S; Johansson, G; Glas, G; Nilvebrant, L; Hacksell, U

    1996-08-16

    A series of 26 derivatives of the novel muscarinic antagonist 3-(2-benzofuranyl)quinuclidin-2-ene (1) has been synthesized and evaluated for muscarinic and antimuscarinic properties. The affinity of the compounds was determined by competition experiments in homogenates of cerebral cortex, heart, parotid gland, and urinary bladder from guinea pigs using (-)-[3H]-3-quinuclidinyl benzilate as the radioligand, and the antimuscarinic-potency was determined in a functional assay on isolated guinea pig urinary bladder using carbachol as the agonist. The 5-fluorobenzofuranyl derivative was slightly more potent than 1. The 7-bromo-substituted 8 displayed a 14-fold tissue selectivity ratio for muscarinic receptors in the cortex versus the parotid gland. Comparative molecular field analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationship models were developed for this series of substituted benzofuranyl derivatives.

  3. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    Hu Hong; Sung, Arthur; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Kao, Peter N.

    2006-01-01

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function

  4. Synthesis of novel and functionally selective non‐competitive muscarinic antagonists as chemical probes

    Boulos, J. F.; Jakubík, Jan; Boulos, J. M.; Randáková, Alena; Momirov, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2018), s. 93-104 ISSN 1747-0277 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05696S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : G- protein -coupled receptor * muscarinic acetylcholine receptor * N-methylscopolamine * Parkinson's disease * positive allosteric modulator Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 2.396, year: 2016

  5. The immunohistochemical expression of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) in human gliomas.

    Benes, L; Kappus, C; McGregor, G P; Bertalanffy, H; Mennel, H D; Hagner, S

    2004-02-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary tumours of the central nervous system and exhibit rapid growth that is associated with neovascularisation. Adrenomedullin is an important tumour survival factor in human carcinogenesis. It has growth promoting effects on gliomas, and blockade of its actions has been experimentally shown to reduce the growth of glioma tissues and cell lines. There is some evidence that the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) mediates the tumorigenic actions of adrenomedullin. To determine whether CRLR is expressed in human gliomas and the probable cellular targets of adrenomedullin. Biopsies from 95 human gliomas of varying grade were processed for immunohistochemical analysis using a previously developed and characterised antibody to CRLR. All tumour specimens were positive for CRLR. As previously found in normal peripheral tissues, CRLR immunostaining was particularly intense in the endothelial cells. This was evident in all the various vascular conformations that were observed, and which are typical of gliomas. In addition, clear immunostaining of tumour cells with astrocyte morphology was observed. These were preferentially localised around vessels. This study has shown for the first time that the CRLR protein is present in human glioma tissue. The expression of the receptor in endothelial cells and in astrocytic tumour cells is consistent with the evidence that its endogenous ligand, adrenomedullin, may influence glioma growth by means of both direct mitogenic and indirect angiogenic effects. CRLR may be a valuable target for effective therapeutic intervention in these malignant tumours.

  6. Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells express a functional Ca+ -sensing receptor.

    Berra Romani, Roberto; Raqeeb, Abdul; Laforenza, Umberto; Scaffino, Manuela Federica; Moccia, Francesco; Avelino-Cruz, Josè Everardo; Oldani, Amanda; Coltrini, Daniela; Milesi, Veronica; Taglietti, Vanni; Tanzi, Franco

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism whereby extracellular Ca(2+) exerts the endothelium-dependent control of vascular tone is still unclear. In this study, we assessed whether cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMEC) express a functional extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR) using a variety of techniques. CaSR mRNA was detected using RT-PCR, and CaSR protein was identified by immunocytochemical analysis. In order to assess the functionality of the receptor, CMEC were loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorochrome, Fura-2/AM. A number of CaSR agonists, such as spermine, Gd(3+), La(3+) and neomycin, elicited a heterogeneous intracellular Ca(2+) signal, which was abolished by disruption of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) signaling and by depletion of intracellular stores with cyclopiazonic acid. The inhibition of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger upon substitution of extracellular Na(+) unmasked the Ca(2+) signal triggered by an increase in extracellular Ca(2+) levels. Finally, aromatic amino acids, which function as allosteric activators of CaSR, potentiated the Ca(2+) response to the CaSR agonist La(3+). These data provide evidence that CMEC express CaSR, which is able to respond to physiological agonists by mobilizing Ca(2+) from intracellular InsP(3)-sensitive stores. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Decreased expression of serum and microvascular vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in meningococcal sepsis*.

    Flier, M. van der; Baerveldt, E.M.; Miedema, A.; Hartwig, N.G.; Hazelzet, J.A.; Emonts, M.; Groot, R. de; Prens, E.P.; Vught, A.J. van; Jansen, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the skin microvessel expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and serum-soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 levels in children with meningococcal sepsis. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Two tertiary academic children hospital PICUs.

  8. Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle

    Kesha Rana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor (AR-regulated genes in in vitro and in vivo models. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factor myogenin was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone-treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity (ARΔZF2 versus wildtype mice, demonstrating that myogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligase Fbxo32 was repressed by 12 h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, and c-Myc expression was decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7 , p57 Kip2, Igf2 and calcineurin Aa, was increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle, and the expression of all but p57 Kip2 was also decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase-mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle.

  9. Reduced glucocorticoid receptor expression predicts bladder tumor recurrence and progression.

    Ishiguro, Hitoshi; Kawahara, Takashi; Zheng, Yichun; Netto, George J; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    To assess the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in bladder tumors because the status and its prognostic value remain largely unknown. We immunohistochemically stained for GR in bladder tumor and matched non-neoplastic bladder tissue specimens. Overall, GR was positive in 129 (87%) of 149 urothelial tumors, which was significantly (P=.026) lower than in non-neoplastic urothelium (90 [96%] of 94). Forty-two (79%) of 53 low-grade tumors vs 45 (47%) of 96 high-grade carcinomas (Pcancer-specific survival of MI tumors (P=.067). Multivariate analysis identified low GR expression as a strong predictor for recurrence of NMI tumors (P=.034). GR expression was downregulated in bladder tumors compared with nonneoplastic bladder tumors and in high-grade/MI tumors compared with low-grade/NMI tumors. Decreased expression of GR, as an independent prognosticator, predicted recurrence of NMI tumors. These results support experimental evidence suggesting an inhibitory role of GR signals in bladder cancer outgrowth. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  10. Functional importance of GLP-1 receptor species and expression levels in cell lines.

    Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Hastrup, Sven; Underwood, Christina Rye; Wulff, Birgitte Schjellerup; Fleckner, Jan

    2012-04-10

    Of the mammalian species, only the GLP-1 receptors of rat and human origin have been described and characterized. Here, we report the cloning of the homologous GLP-1 receptors from mouse, rabbit, pig, cynomolgus monkey and chimp. The GLP-1 receptor is highly conserved across species, thus underlining the physiological importance of the peptide hormone and its receptor across a wide range of mammals. We expressed the receptors by stable transfection of BHK cells, both in cell lines with high expression levels of the cloned receptors, as well as in cell lines with lower expression levels, more comparable to endogenous expression of these receptors. High expression levels of cloned GLP-1 receptors markedly increased the potency of GLP-1 and other high affinity ligands, whereas the K(d) values were not affected. For a low affinity ligand like the ago-allosteric modulator Compound 2, expression levels of the human GLP-1 receptor were important for maximal efficacy as well as potency. The two natural metabolites of GLP-1, GLP-1(9-37) and GLP-1(9-36)amide were agonists when tested on a cell line with high expression of the recombinant human GLP-1 receptor, whereas they behaved as (low potent) antagonists on a cell line that expressed the receptor endogenously, as well as cells expressing a moderate level of the recombinant human GLP-1 receptor. The amide form was a more potent agonist than the free acid from. In conclusion, receptor expression level is an important parametre for selecting cell lines with cloned GLP-1 receptors for functional characterization of physiological and pharmaceutical ligands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE OLFACTORY RECEPTORS EXPRESSED IN HUMAN SPERMATOZOA

    Caroline eFlegel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of external cues is fundamental for human spermatozoa to locate the oocyte in the female reproductive tract. This task requires a specific chemoreceptor repertoire that is expressed on the surface of human spermatozoa, which is not fully identified to date. Olfactory receptors (ORs are candidate molecules and have been attributed to be involved in sperm chemotaxis and chemokinesis, indicating an important role in mammalian spermatozoa. An increasing importance has been suggested for spermatozoal RNA, which led us to investigate the expression of all 387 OR genes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of OR transcripts in human spermatozoa of several individuals by RNA-Seq. We detected 91 different transcripts in the spermatozoa samples that could be aligned to annotated OR genes. Using stranded mRNA-Seq, we detected a class of these putative OR transcripts in an antisense orientation, indicating a different function, rather than coding for a functional OR protein. Nevertheless, we were able to detect OR proteins in various compartments of human spermatozoa, indicating distinct functions in human sperm. A panel of various OR ligands induced Ca2+ signals in human spermatozoa, which could be inhibited by mibefradil. This study indicated that a variety of ORs are expressed at the mRNA and protein level in human spermatozoa and demonstrates that ORs are involved in the physiological processes.

  12. Expression of melatonin receptors in arteries involved in thermoregulation

    Viswanathan, M.; Laitinen, J.T.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Melatonin binding sites were localized and characterized in the vasculature of the rat by using the melatonin analogue 2-[125I]iodomelatonin (125I-melatonin) and quantitative in vitro autoradiography. The expression of these sites was restricted to the caudal artery and to the arteries that form the circle of Willis at the base of the brain. The arterial 125I-melatonin binding was stable, saturable, and reversible. Saturation studies revealed that the binding represented a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 3.4 x 10(-11) M in the anterior cerebral artery and 1.05 x 10(-10) M in the caudal artery. The binding capacities (Bmax) in these arteries were 19 and 15 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. The relative order of potency of indoles for inhibition of 125I-melatonin binding at these sites was typical of a melatonin receptor: 2-iodomelatonin greater than melatonin greater than N-acetylserotonin much much greater than 5-hydroxytryptamine. Norepinephrine-induced contraction of the caudal artery in vitro was significantly prolonged and potentiated by melatonin in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that these arterial binding sites are functional melatonin receptors. Neither primary steps in smooth muscle contraction (inositol phospholipid hydrolysis) nor relaxation (adenylate cyclase activation) were affected by melatonin. Melatonin, through its action on the tone of these arteries, may cause circulatory adjustments in these arteries, which are believed to be involved in thermoregulation

  13. Prognostic value of sex-hormone receptor expression in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    Nam, Jong Kil; Park, Sung Woo; Lee, Sang Don; Chung, Moon Kee

    2014-09-01

    We investigated sex-hormone receptor expression as predicting factor of recurrence and progression in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. We retrospectively evaluated tumor specimens from patients treated for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder at our institution between January 2006 and January 2011. Performing immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal androgen receptor antibody and monoclonal estrogen receptor-beta antibody on paraffin-embedded tissue sections, we assessed the relationship of immunohistochemistry results and prognostic factors such as recurrence and progression. A total of 169 patients with bladder cancer were evaluated in this study. Sixty-threepatients had expressed androgen receptors and 52 patients had estrogen receptor beta. On univariable analysis, androgen receptor expression was significant lower in recurrence rates (p=0.001), and estrogen receptor beta expression was significant higher in progression rates (p=0.004). On multivariable analysis, significant association was found between androgen receptor expression and lower recurrence rates (hazard ratio=0.500; 95% confidence interval, 0.294 to 0.852; p=0.011), but estrogen receptor beta expression was not significantly associated with progression rates. We concluded that the possibility of recurrence was low when the androgen receptor was expressed in the bladder cancer specimen and it could be the predicting factor of the stage, number of tumors, carcinoma in situ lesion and recurrence.

  14. Expression of nerve growth factor and its receptor, tyrosine kinase receptor A, in rooster testes.

    Ma, Wei; Wang, Chunqiang; Su, Yuhong; Tian, Yumin; Zhu, Hongyan

    2015-10-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF), which is required for the survival and differentiation of the nervous system, is also thought to play an important role in the development of mammalian reproductive tissues. To explore the function of NGF in the male reproductive system of non-mammalian animals, we determined the presence of NGF and its receptor, tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA), in rooster testes and investigated the regulation of NGF and TrkA expression by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The mRNA and protein levels of NGF and TrkA in 6-week-old rooster testes were lower than those in 12-, 16- or 20-week age groups; levels were highest in the 16-week group. Immunohistochemistry showed that NGF and TrkA were both detected in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids. NGF immunoreactivity was observed in Leydig cells and strong TrkA signals were present in Sertoli cells. Meanwhile, FSH increased TrkA transcript levels in rooster testes in a dose-dependent manner. We present novel evidence for the developmental and FSH-regulated expression of the NGF/TrkA system, and our findings suggest that the NGF/TrkA system may play a prominent role in chicken spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    Wei, P; Hu, G-H; Kang, H-Y; Yao, H-B; Kou, W; Liu, H; Hong, S-L

    2014-02-01

    A predominant Th17 population is a marker of allergic rhinitis (AR). As a ligand-activated transcription factor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays a vital role in promoting or inhibiting the development of specific Th cells. However, its role in AR remains undefined. To analyze the potential role of AhR in the pathogenesis of AR. In total, 30 AR patients and 13 healthy controls were recruited for this study and AR patients had clinical features, as demonstrated by rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaires, total symptom scores and visual analog scale scores. The expression of AhR, IL-17 and IL-22 and the presence of Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured before and after treatment with the nontoxic AhR ligand 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE). Pretreatment ITE studies revealed that all AR patients had a significant increase in AhR expression compared with controls and AhR expression positively correlated with clinical parameters. After ITE intervention, a severe reduction in the differentiation of Th17 cells and the production of IL-17 and IL-22 was noted in both AR patients and normal subjects. Simultaneously, a dramatic enhancement of AhR expression was also observed in all healthy controls, but not in AR patients. The results suggested that the AhR may be one of the mechanisms underlying the Th17 response during the pathogenesis of AR and AhR levels were closely related to clinical severity in all AR patients. Additionally, ITE may represent a new drug candidate in the treatment of AR.

  16. A complex pattern of chemokine receptor expression is seen in osteosarcoma

    Luettichau, Irene von; Huss, Ralf; Nelson, Peter J; Segerer, Stephan; Wechselberger, Alexandra; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Nathrath, Michaela; Kremer, Markus; Henger, Anna; Djafarzadeh, Roghieh; Burdach, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent bone tumor in childhood and adolescence. Patients with primary metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. It is therefore important to better characterize the biology of this tumor to define new prognostic markers or therapeutic targets for tailored therapy. Chemokines and their receptors have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of malignant tumors. They are thought to be active participants in the biology of osteosarcoma. The function of specific chemokines and their receptors is strongly associated with the biological context and microenvironment of their expression. In this report we characterized the expression of a series of chemokine receptors in the complex environment that defines osteosarcoma. The overall level of chemokine receptor mRNA expression was determined using TaqMan RT-PCR of microdissected archival patient biopsy samples. Expression was then verified at the protein level by immunohistochemistry using a series of receptor specific antibody reagents to elucidate the cellular association of expression. Expression at the RNA level was found for most of the tested receptors. CCR1 expression was found on infiltrating mononuclear and polynuclear giant cells in the tumor. Cells associated with the lining of intratumoral vessels were shown to express CCR4. Infiltrating mononuclear cells and tumor cells both showed expression of the receptor CCR5, while CCR7 was predominantly expressed by the mononuclear infiltrate. CCR10 was only very rarely detected in few scattered infiltrating cells. Our data elucidate for the first time the cellular context of chemokine receptor expression in osteosarcoma. This is an important issue for better understanding potential chemokine/chemokine receptor function in the complex biologic processes that underlie the development and progression of osteosarcoma. Our data support the suggested involvement of chemokines and their receptors in diverse aspects of the biology

  17. Sequence genomic organization and expression of two channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Ghrelin receptors

    Two ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) genes were isolated from channel catfish tissue and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. The two receptors were characterized by determining tissue distribution, ontogeny of receptor mRNA expression, and effects of exogenous homologous ghrelin administration ...

  18. Estrogen Receptor and Progesterone Receptor Expression in Normal Terminal Duct Lobular Units Surrounding Invasive Breast Cancer

    Yang, Xiaohong R.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Falk, Roni T.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Brinton, Louise A.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Sherman, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Molecular and morphological alterations related to carcinogenesis have been found in terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs), the microscopic structures from which most breast cancer precursors and cancers develop, and therefore, analysis of these structures may reveal early changes in breast carcinogenesis and etiologic heterogeneity. Accordingly, we evaluated relationships of breast cancer risk factors and tumor pathology to estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in TDLUs surrounding breast cancers. Methods We analyzed 270 breast cancer cases included in a population-based breast cancer case-control study conducted in Poland. TDLUs were mapped in relation to breast cancer: within the same block as the tumor (TDLU-T), proximal to tumor (TDLU-PT), or distant from (TDLU-DT). ER/PR was quantitated using image analysis of immunohistochemically stained TDLUs prepared as tissue microarrays. Results In surgical specimens containing ER-positive breast cancers, ER and PR levels were significantly higher in breast cancer cells than in normal TDLUs, and higher in TDLU-T than in TDLU-DT or TDLU-PT, which showed similar results. Analyses combining DT-/PT TDLUs within subjects demonstrated that ER levels were significantly lower in premenopausal women vs. postmenopausal women (odds ratio [OR]=0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.19, 0.76, P=0.0064) and among recent or current menopausal hormone therapy users compared with never users (OR=0.14, 95% CI=0.046–0.43, Ptrend=0.0006). Compared with premenopausal women, TDLUs of postmenopausal women showed lower levels of PR (OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.83–0.97, Ptrend=0.007). ER and PR expression in TDLUs was associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in invasive tumors (P=0.019 for ER and P=0.03 for PR), but not with other tumor features. Conclusions Our data suggest that TDLUs near breast cancers reflect field effects, whereas those at a distance demonstrate influences of breast

  19. Altered expression patterns of group I and II metabotropic glutamate receptors in multiple sclerosis

    Geurts, J. J. G.; Wolswijk, G.; Bö, L.; van der Valk, P.; Polman, C. H.; Troost, D.; Aronica, E.

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence supports a role for glutamate receptors in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. In the present study, we have focused specifically on the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in multiple sclerosis brain tissue. The expression of group I (mGluR1alpha and

  20. Functional expression of the 5-HT1c receptor in neuronal and nonneuronal cells

    Julius, D.; MacDermott, A.B.; Jessel, T.M.; Huang, K.; Molineaux, S.; Schieren, I.; Axel, R.

    1988-01-01

    The isolation of the genes encoding the multiple serotonin receptor subtypes and the ability to express these receptors in new cellular environments will help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of action of serotonin in the mammalian brain. The cloning of most neurotransmitter receptors has required the purification of receptor, the determination of partial protein sequence, and the synthesis of oligonucleotide probes with which to obtain cDNA or genomic clones. However, the serotonin receptors have not been purified and antibodies have not been generated. The authors therefore designed a cDNA expression system that permits the identification of functional cDNA clones encoding serotonin receptors in the absence of protein sequence information. They have combined cloning in RNA expression vectors with an electrophysiological assay in oocytes to isolate a functional cDNA clone encoding the entire 5-HT 1c receptor. The sequence of this clone reveals that the 5-HT 1c receptor belongs to a family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are thought to traverse the membrane seven times. Mouse fibroblasts transformed with this clone bind serotonergic ligands and respond to serotonin with an elevation in intracellular calcium. Moreover, in situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis indicate that the 5-HT 1c receptor mRNA is expressed in a wide variety of neurons in the rat central nervous system, suggesting that this receptor plays a prominent role in neuronal function

  1. Expression of glucocorticoid and progesterone nuclear receptor genes in archival breast cancer tissue

    Smith, Robert A; Lea, Rod A; Curran, Joanne E; Weinstein, Stephen R; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown associations of specific nuclear receptor gene variants with sporadic breast cancer. In order to investigate these findings further, we conducted the present study to determine whether expression levels of the progesterone and glucocorticoid nuclear receptor genes vary in different breast cancer grades. RNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded archival breast tumour tissue and converted into cDNA. Sample cDNA underwent PCR using labelled primers to enable quantitation of mRNA expression. Expression data were normalized against the 18S ribosomal gene multiplex and analyzed using analysis of variance. Analysis of variance indicated a variable level of expression of both genes with regard to breast cancer grade (P = 0.00033 for glucocorticoid receptor and P = 0.023 for progesterone receptor). Statistical analysis indicated that expression of the progesterone nuclear receptor is elevated in late grade breast cancer tissue

  2. Oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK induces expression of the growth-promoting receptor ICOS

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, HongYi; Kantekure, Kanchan

    2011-01-01

    Here we report that T-cell lymphoma cells carrying the NPM-ALK fusion protein (ALK(+) TCL) frequently express the cell-stimulatory receptor ICOS. ICOS expression in ALK(+) TCL is moderate and strictly dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM-ALK. NPM-ALK induces ICOS expression v...

  3. Impairment of muscarinic transmission in transgenic APPswe/PS1dE9 mice

    Machová, Eva; Jakubík, Jan; Michal, Pavel; Oksman, M.; Iivonen, H.; Tanila, H.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2008), s. 368-378 ISSN 0197-4580 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011206 Grant - others:EC(XE) QLK1-CT-2002-00172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Alzheimer ´s disease * muscarinic receptors * cholinergic neurotransmission Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.959, year: 2008

  4. Role of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor expression in eosinophils of patients with allergic rhinitis, and effect of topical nasal steroid treatment on this receptor expression.

    Mackle, T

    2008-12-01

    Recent research has indicated that sphingosine 1-phosphate plays a role in allergy. This study examined the effect of allergen challenge on the expression of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors on the eosinophils of allergic rhinitis patients, and the effect of steroid treatment on this expression.

  5. Expression profile and prognostic role of sex hormone receptors in gastric cancer

    Gan, Lu; He, Jian; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Yu, Guan-Zhen; Chen, Ying; Pan, Jun; Wang, Jie-Jun; Wang, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Increasing interest has been devoted to the expression and possible role of sex hormone receptors in gastric cancer, but most of these findings are controversial. In the present study, the expression profile of sex hormone receptors in gastric cancer and their clinicopathological and prognostic value were determined in a large Chinese cohort. The mRNA and protein expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), and androgen receptor (AR) in primary gastric tumors and corresponding adjacent normal tissues from 60 and 866 Chinese gastric cancer patients was detected by real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry method, respectively. The expression profile of the four receptors was compared and their associations with clinicopathological characteristics were assessed by using Chi-square test. The prognostic value of the four receptors in gastric cancer was evaluated by using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. The presence of ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR in both gastric tumors and normal tissues was confirmed but their expression levels were extremely low except for the predominance of ERβ. The four receptors were expressed independently and showed a decreased expression pattern in gastric tumors compared to adjacent normal tissues. The positive expression of the four receptors all correlated with high tumor grade and intestinal type, and ERα and AR were also associated with early TNM stage and thereby a favorable outcome. However, ERα and AR were not independent prognostic factors for gastric cancer when multivariate survival analysis was performed. Our findings indicate that the sex hormone receptors may be partly involved in gastric carcinogenesis but their clinicopathological and prognostic significance in gastric cancer appears to be limited

  6. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas: a literature review

    Cléciton Braga Tavares

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system neoplasm. Astrocytomas are the most prevalent type of glioma and these tumors may be influenced by sex steroid hormones. A literature review for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas was conducted in the PubMed database using the following MeSH terms: “estrogen receptor beta” OR “estrogen receptor alpha” OR “estrogen receptor antagonists” OR “progesterone receptors” OR “astrocytoma” OR “glioma” OR “glioblastoma”. Among the 111 articles identified, 13 studies met our inclusion criteria. The majority of reports showed the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas. Overall, higher tumor grades were associated with decreased estrogen receptor expression and increased progesterone receptor expression.

  7. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas: a literature review

    Tavares, Cléciton Braga; Gomes-Braga, Francisca das Chagas Sheyla Almeida; Costa-Silva, Danylo Rafhael; Escórcio-Dourado, Carla Solange; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Conde, Airton Mendes; da Conceição Barros-Oliveira, Maria; Sousa, Emerson Brandão; da Rocha Barros, Lorena; Martins, Luana Mota; Facina, Gil; da-Silva, Benedito Borges

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary central nervous system neoplasm. Astrocytomas are the most prevalent type of glioma and these tumors may be influenced by sex steroid hormones. A literature review for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas was conducted in the PubMed database using the following MeSH terms: “estrogen receptor beta” OR “estrogen receptor alpha” OR “estrogen receptor antagonists” OR “progesterone receptors” OR “astrocytoma” OR “glioma” OR “glioblastoma”. Among the 111 articles identified, 13 studies met our inclusion criteria. The majority of reports showed the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in astrocytomas. Overall, higher tumor grades were associated with decreased estrogen receptor expression and increased progesterone receptor expression. PMID:27626480

  8. Sulindac metabolites inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor activation and expression

    Ahnen Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs is associated with a decreased mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC. NSAIDs induce apoptotic cell death in colon cancer cells in vitro and inhibit growth of neoplastic colonic mucosa in vivo however, the biochemical mechanisms required for these growth inhibitory effects are not well defined. We previously reported that metabolites of the NSAID sulindac downregulate extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 signaling and that this effect is both necessary and sufficient for the apoptotic effects of these drugs. The goal of this project was to specifically test the hypothesis that sulindac metabolites block activation and/or expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor (EGFR. Methods HT29 human colon cancer cells were treated with EGF, alone, or in the presence of sulindac sulfide or sulindac sulfone. Cells lysates were assayed by immunoblotting for phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR, pY1068, total EGFR, phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2, total ERK1/2, activated caspase-3, and α-tubulin. Results EGF treatment rapidly induced phosphorylation of both EGFR and ERK1/2 in HT29 colon cancer cells. Pretreatment with sulindac metabolites for 24 h blocked EGF-induced phosphorylation of both EGFR and ERK1/2 and decreased total EGFR protein expression. Under basal conditions, downregulation of pEGFR and total EGFR was detected as early as 12 h following sulindac sulfide treatment and persisted through at least 48 h. Sulindac sulfone induced downregulation of pEGFR and total EGFR was detected as early as 1 h and 24 h, respectively, following drug treatment, and persisted through at least 72 h. EGFR downregulation by sulindac metabolites was observed in three different CRC cell lines, occurred prior to the observed downregulation of pERK1/2 and induction of apoptosis by these drugs, and was not dependent of caspase activation. Conclusion These results suggest that

  9. Leptin, its receptor and aromatase expression in deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Gonçalves, Helder F; Zendron, Carolina; Cavalcante, Fernanda S; Aiceles, Verônica; Oliveira, Marco Aurélio P; Manaia, Jorge Henrique M; Babinski, Márcio A; Ramos, Cristiane F

    2015-08-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the leptin levels in the serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) and the protein expression in three different peritoneal ectopic implants in patients who underwent surgery for deep infiltrating endometriosis. All patients had been treated at the Department of Gynecology of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro. The study group consisted of 15 patients who underwent surgery for adnexal masses and infertility, while the control group consisted of ten women who underwent surgery for tubal ligation. Peritoneal fluid and samples tissues were collected during surgery. Serum samples were obtained before anesthesia. In this study, the leptin levels in the serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) were evaluated by ELISA. The protein expression of leptin and its receptors (ObR) and aromatase enzyme were evaluated by Western blot analysis of the intestine, uterosacral ligament and vaginal septum in the ectopic implants. The t-test and one-way ANOVA with Holm-Sìdak post-test were used, and p endometriosis = 19.2 ng/mL ± 1.84, p endometriosis = 7.71 ng/mL ± 0.59, p = 0.18). Comparing women with and without ovarian implants, the leptin levels in both the serum and PF were significantly higher in women without ovarian implants (serum: with ovarian implant = 15.85 ± 1.99; without ovarian implant = 23.14 ± 2.60; ng/mL, p = 0.04; PF: with ovarian implant = 4.28 ± 1.30; without ovarian implant = 11.18 ± 2.98;ng/mL, p = 0.048). The leptin, ObR and aromatase protein expression levels were increased in lesions in the vaginal septum and were decreased in the intestine lesions. This study reports several interesting associations between the leptin levels in serum, peritoneal fluid, and tissue samples and the localization of the ectopic endometrium. Although this study does not provide a clear picture of the role of leptin in the development and progression of peritoneal implants

  10. Effect Of IGF-1 On Expression Of Gh Receptor, IGF-1, IGF-1 ...

    ... and the skin expression of growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF- R), KAP3.2 and KAP6-1 mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. The results indicated that IGF-1 could degrade GHR gene expression, have no effect of IGF-1 and IGF-1R gene expression, ...

  11. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cells of the human normal pituitary gland.

    Pivonello, Rosario; Waaijers, Marlijn; Kros, Johan M; Pivonello, Claudia; de Angelis, Cristina; Cozzolino, Alessia; Colao, Annamaria; Lamberts, Steven W J; Hofland, Leo J

    2017-08-01

    The dopamine D 2 receptor is the main dopamine receptor expressed in the human normal pituitary gland. The aim of the current study was to evaluate dopamine D 2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cell populations of the anterior lobe and pars intermedia, as well as posterior lobe of the human normal pituitary gland by immunohistochemistry. Human normal pituitary gland samples obtained from routine autopsies were used for the study. In all cases, histology together with immunostaining for adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and neurofilaments were performed and compared to the immunostaining for D 2 receptor. D 2 receptor was heterogeneously expressed in the majority of the cell populations of the anterior and posterior lobe as well as in the area localized between the anterior and posterior lobe, and arbitrary defined as "intermediate zone". This zone, characterized by the presence of nerve fibers included the residual pars intermedia represented by the colloid-filled cysts lined by the remnant melanotroph cells strongly expressing D 2 receptors, and clusters of corticotroph cells, belonging to the anterior lobe but localized within the cysts and adjacent to the posterior lobe, variably expressing D 2 receptors. D 2 dopamine receptor is expressed in the majority of the cell populations of the human normal pituitary gland, and particularly, in the different corticotroph cell populations localized in the anterior lobe and the intermediate zone of the pituitary gland.

  12. The assay of thyrotropin receptor antibodies with human TSH/LH-CG chimeric receptor expressed on chinese hamster ovary cells

    Yi, Ka Hee; Kim, Chang Min

    1996-12-01

    TSH/LH-CG chimera cDNA is transfected to CHO-K1 cell to obtain the chimeric receptor expressed on the cell surface. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurements are determined using chimeric receptors and under these conditions activity of TSAb and TSBAb in the sera of the Graves' patients. The results obtained are compared to those of TSAb assays using FRTL5 cells CHO-TSHR cells which have wild type human TSH receptor. The transfection procedure of chimeric receptor gene to CHO-K1 cells are on going. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurement using chimeric receptor will be determined after success of transfection procedure. If this study is successfully completed, not only the heterogeneity of Graves. IgG but also pathogenesis of Graves' disease will be elucidated. (author). 25 refs

  13. The assay of thyrotropin receptor antibodies with human TSH/LH-CG chimeric receptor expressed on chinese hamster ovary cells

    Yi, Ka Hee; Kim, Chang Min [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    TSH/LH-CG chimera cDNA is transfected to CHO-K1 cell to obtain the chimeric receptor expressed on the cell surface. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurements are determined using chimeric receptors and under these conditions activity of TSAb and TSBAb in the sera of the Graves` patients. The results obtained are compared to those of TSAb assays using FRTL5 cells CHO-TSHR cells which have wild type human TSH receptor. The transfection procedure of chimeric receptor gene to CHO-K1 cells are on going. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurement using chimeric receptor will be determined after success of transfection procedure. If this study is successfully completed, not only the heterogeneity of Graves. IgG but also pathogenesis of Graves` disease will be elucidated. (author). 25 refs.

  14. Differential adipokine receptor expression on circulating leukocyte subsets in lean and obese children.

    Genoveva Keustermans

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity prevalence has increased worldwide and is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD. The production of inflammatory adipokines by obese adipose tissue contributes to the development of T2D and CVD. While levels of circulating adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin have been established in obese children and adults, the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells can modulate adipokine signalling, but has not been studied so far. Here, we aim to establish the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells in obese children pre and post-lifestyle intervention compared to normal weight control children.13 obese children before and after a 1-year lifestyle intervention were compared with an age and sex-matched normal weight control group of 15 children. Next to routine clinical and biochemical parameters, circulating adipokines were measured, and flow cytometric analysis of adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and leptin receptor expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets was performed.Obese children exhibited typical clinical and biochemical characteristics compared to controls, including a higher BMI-SD, blood pressure and circulating leptin levels, combined with a lower insulin sensitivity index (QUICKI. The 1-year lifestyle intervention resulted in stabilization of their BMI-SD. Overall, circulating leukocyte subsets showed distinct adipokine receptor expression profiles. While monocytes expressed high levels of all adipokine receptors, NK and iNKT cells predominantly expressed AdipoR2, and B-lymphocytes and CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte subsets expressed AdipoR2 as well as leptin receptor. Strikingly though, leukocyte subset numbers and adipokine receptor expression profiles were largely similar in obese children and controls. Obese children showed higher naïve B-cell numbers, and pre-intervention also

  15. Individual receptor profiling as a novel tool to support diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC).

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schulte-Baukloh, Heinrich; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Speroni di Fenizio, Pietro; Horn, Lars-Christian; Rüffert, Henrik; Hartenstein, Siegurd; Burger, Maximilian; Schulze, Matthias; Schwalenberg, Thilo

    2012-10-01

    Dysregulation of neurotransmitter receptors may contribute to bladder overactivity (OAB) symptoms. To address the question whether specific receptor expression patterns are associated with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), we examined the expression of muscarinic, purinergic and histamine receptors in the detrusor. Detrusor receptor expression was investigated in bladder biopsies of female BPS/IC patients (n = 44; age 60.64 ± 13.78, mean ± SD) and carcinoma patients (n = 11; age 58.91 ± 12.72) undergoing cystectomy. Protein expression of muscarinic (M2, M3), purinergic (P2X1-3) and histamine receptors (H1, H2) was analysed by confocal immunofluorescence, and gene expression was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). M2, P2X1, P2X2 and H1 receptor immunoreactivity (-IR) was significantly enhanced in BPS/IC compared to the control group, while there was no difference for M3-, P2X3- and H2-IR. We calculated a score, which separated BPS/IC from control patients with an AUC of 89.46%, showing 84.09% sensitivity and 90.91% specificity. Patients had a 9.25 times enhanced calculated risk for BPS/IC. In addition, two patient subgroups (M2 > M3 and M3 > M2) were observed, which differed in associated purinergic and histamine receptor expression. M2, P2X1, P2X2 and H1 were significantly upregulated in BPS/IC patients, and H2 was occasionally highly overexpressed. There was no significant correlation between receptor protein and gene expression, implying posttranslational mechanisms being responsible for the altered receptor expressions. On the basis of individual receptor profiles, upregulated receptors could be targeted by monotherapy or combination therapy with already approved receptor inhibitors, thereby promoting tailored therapy for patients suffering from BPS/IC-like symptoms.

  16. Differential Expression of Chemokine Receptors and their Roles in Cancer Imaging

    Nimmagadda, Sridhar, E-mail: snimmag1@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-05-30

    Chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions play diverse roles in cell migration and homeostasis. Emerging evidence suggests that cancer cells co-opt chemokine networks for survival, proliferation, immune evasion, and metastasis. Most of the chemokine receptors are reported to be involved in tumor progression. Given their extensive implication in cancer progression, several chemokine receptor/ligand axes are considered as potential therapeutic targets. This review provides a survey of chemokine receptor expression in cancer and evaluates the potential of chemokine receptor imaging as a tool for molecular characterization of cancer.

  17. Differential Expression of Chemokine Receptors and their Roles in Cancer Imaging

    Nimmagadda, Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    Chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions play diverse roles in cell migration and homeostasis. Emerging evidence suggests that cancer cells co-opt chemokine networks for survival, proliferation, immune evasion, and metastasis. Most of the chemokine receptors are reported to be involved in tumor progression. Given their extensive implication in cancer progression, several chemokine receptor/ligand axes are considered as potential therapeutic targets. This review provides a survey of chemokine receptor expression in cancer and evaluates the potential of chemokine receptor imaging as a tool for molecular characterization of cancer.

  18. CB1 cannabinoid receptor expression in the striatum: Association with corticostriatal circuits and developmental regulation

    Vincent eVan Waes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Corticostriatal circuits mediate various aspects of goal-directed behavior and are critically important for basal ganglia-related disorders. Activity in these circuits is regulated by the endocannabinoid system via stimulation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. CB1 receptors are highly expressed in projection neurons and select interneurons of the striatum, but expression levels vary considerably between different striatal regions (functional domains. We investigated CB1 receptor expression within specific corticostriatal circuits by mapping CB1 mRNA levels in striatal sectors defined by their cortical inputs in rats. We also assessed changes in CB1 expression in the striatum during development. Our results show that CB1 expression is highest in juveniles (P25 and then progressively decreases towards adolescent (P40 and adult (P70 levels. At every age, CB1 receptors are predominantly expressed in sensorimotor striatal sectors, with considerably lower expression in associative and limbic sectors. Moreover, for most corticostriatal circuits there is an inverse relationship between cortical and striatal expression levels. Thus, striatal sectors with high CB1 expression (sensorimotor sectors tend to receive inputs from cortical areas with low expression, while striatal sectors with low expression (associative/limbic sectors receive inputs from cortical regions with higher expression (medial prefrontal cortex. In so far as CB1 mRNA levels reflect receptor function, our findings suggest differential CB1 signaling between different developmental stages and between sensorimotor and associative/limbic circuits. The regional distribution of CB1 receptor expression in the striatum further suggests that, in sensorimotor sectors, CB1 receptors mostly regulate GABA inputs from local axon collaterals of projection neurons, whereas in associative/limbic sectors, CB1 regulation of GABA inputs from interneurons and glutamate inputs may be more important.

  19. Muscarinic contribution to the acute cortical effects of vagus nerve stimulation

    Nichols, Justin A.

    2011-12-01

    Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve (VNS) has been used to treat more than 60,000 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and is under investigation as a treatment for several other neurological disorders and conditions. Among these, VNS increases memory performance and enhances recovery of motor and cognitive function in animal models of traumatic brain injury. Recent research indicates that pairing brief VNS with tones multiple-times a day for several weeks induces long-term, input specific cortical plasticity, which can be used to re-normalize the pathological cortical reorganization and eliminate a behavioral correlate of chronic tinnitus in noise exposed rats. Despite the therapeutic potential, the mechanisms of action of VNS remain speculative. In chapter 2 of this dissertation, the acute effects of VNS on cortical synchrony, excitability, and temporal processing are examined. In anesthetized rats implanted with multi-electrode arrays, VNS increased and decorrelated spontaneous multi-unit activity, and suppressed entrainment to repetitive noise burst stimulation at 6 to 8 Hz, but not after systemic administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. Chapter 3 focuses on VNS-tone pairing induced cortical plasticity. Pairing VNS with a tone one hundred times in anesthetized rats resulted in frequency specific plasticity in 31% of the auditory cortex sites. Half of these sites exhibited a frequency specific increase in firing rate and half exhibited a frequency specific decrease. Muscarinic receptor blockade with scopolamine almost entirely prevented the frequency specific increases, but not decreases. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate the capacity for VNS to not only acutely influence cortical synchrony, and excitability, but to also influence temporal and spectral tuning via muscarinic receptor activation. These results strengthen the hypothesis that acetylcholine and muscarinic receptors are involved in the mechanisms of action of VNS and

  20. Immunohistochemical Expression of Vitamin-D Receptor in Oral and ...

    user

    Receptor in Oral and Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma of a Black African Subpopulation. *Corresponding Author ... Objective:The nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) is involved in multiple pathways that have a role to .... Figure1: Sections A (++) and B (+++) of OSCC showing nuclear positivity (red arrows) for malignant nests of ...

  1. Hormone receptor expression in male breast cancers | Akosa ...

    Male breast cancers are rare but have been found in higher proportions in Black Africans. Prognostic factors for breast cancers include tumour size, grade and stage, and hormone receptor status. The hormone receptor status is an invaluable guide in the use of adjuvant endocrine therapy, but none of the reports available ...

  2. Steroid receptor expression in the fish inner earvaries with sex, social status, and reproductive state

    Fernald Russell D

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about which receptors are expressed in the ear or whether their expression levels change with internal physiological state or external social cues. We used qRT-PCR to measure mRNA expression levels of multiple steroid receptor subtypes (estrogen receptors: ERα, ERβa, ERβb; androgen receptors: ARα, ARβ; corticosteroid receptors: GR2, GR1a/b, MR and aromatase in the main hearing organ of the inner ear (saccule in the highly social African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, and tested whether these receptor levels were correlated with circulating steroid concentrations. Results We show that multiple steroid receptor subtypes are expressed within the main hearing organ of a single vertebrate species, and that expression levels differ between the sexes. We also show that steroid receptor subtype-specific changes in mRNA expression are associated with reproductive phase in females and social status in males. Sex-steroid receptor mRNA levels were negatively correlated with circulating estradiol and androgens in both males and females, suggesting possible ligand down-regulation of receptors in the inner ear. In contrast, saccular changes in corticosteroid receptor mRNA levels were not related to serum cortisol levels. Circulating steroid levels and receptor subtype mRNA levels were not as tightly correlated in males as compared to females, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms between sexes. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study of sex-, social-, and reproductive-related steroid receptor mRNA expression in the peripheral

  3. Embryonic expression of the transforming growth factor beta ligand and receptor genes in chicken.

    Cooley, James R; Yatskievych, Tatiana A; Antin, Parker B

    2014-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling regulates a myriad of biological processes during embryogenesis, in the adult, and during the manifestation of disease. TGFβ signaling is propagated through one of three TGFβ ligands interacting with Type I and Type II receptors, and Type III co-receptors. Although TGFβ signaling is regulated partly by the combinatorial expression patterns of TGFβ receptors and ligands, a comprehensive gene expression analysis has not been published. Here we report the embryonic mRNA expression patterns in chicken embryos of the canonical TGFβ ligands (TGFB1, TGFB2, and TGFB3) and receptors (TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFBR3), plus the Activin A receptor, type 1 (ACVR1) and co receptor Endoglin (ENG) that also transduce TGFβ signaling. TGFB ligands and receptors show dynamic and frequently overlapping expression patterns in numerous embryonic cell layers and structures. Integrating expression information identifies combinations of ligands and receptors that are involved in specific developmental processes including somitogenesis, cardiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Advantage of the Highly Restricted Odorant Receptor Expression Pattern in Chemosensory Neurons of Drosophila.

    Tharadra, Sana Khalid; Medina, Adriana; Ray, Anandasankar

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental molecular feature of olfactory systems is that individual neurons express only one receptor from a large odorant receptor gene family. While numerous theories have been proposed, the functional significance and evolutionary advantage of generating a sophisticated one-receptor-per neuron expression pattern is not well understood. Using the genetically tractable Drosophila melanogaster as a model, we demonstrate that the breakdown of this highly restricted expression pattern of an odorant receptor in neurons leads to a deficit in the ability to exploit new food sources. We show that animals with ectopic co-expression of odorant receptors also have a competitive disadvantage in a complex environment with limiting food sources. At the level of the olfactory system, we find changes in both the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to odorants that are detected by endogenous receptors when an olfactory receptor is broadly misexpressed in chemosensory neurons. Taken together these results indicate that restrictive expression patterns and segregation of odorant receptors to individual neuron classes are important for sensitive odor-detection and appropriate olfactory behaviors.

  5. Purinergic receptors expressed in human skeletal muscle fibres

    Bornø, A; Ploug, Thorkil; Bune, L T

    2012-01-01

    distribution of purinergic receptors in skeletal muscle fibres. We speculate that the intracellular localization of purinergic receptors may reflect a role in regulation of muscle metabolism; further studies are nevertheless needed to determine the function of the purinergic system in skeletal muscle cells.......Purinergic receptors are present in most tissues and thought to be involved in various signalling pathways, including neural signalling, cell metabolism and local regulation of the microcirculation in skeletal muscles. The present study aims to determine the distribution and intracellular content...... of purinergic receptors in skeletal muscle fibres in patients with type 2 diabetes and age-matched controls. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were obtained from six type 2 diabetic patients and seven age-matched controls. Purinergic receptors were analysed using light and confocal microscopy...

  6. Histamine H1 receptors are expressed in mouse and frog semicircular canal sensory epithelia.

    Botta, Laura; Tritto, Simona; Perin, Paola; Laforenza, Umberto; Gastaldi, Giulia; Zampini, Valeria; Zucca, Gianpiero; Valli, Stefano; Masetto, Sergio; Valli, Paolo

    2008-03-05

    Histamine-related drugs are commonly used in the treatment of vertigo and related vestibular disorders. Their site and mechanism of action, however, are still poorly understood. To increase our knowledge of the histaminergic system in the vestibular organs, we have investigated the expression of H1 and H3 histamine receptors in the frog and mouse semicircular canal sensory epithelia. Analysis was performed by mRNA reverse transcriptase-PCR, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry experiments. Our data show that both frog and mouse vestibular epithelia express H1 receptors. Conversely no clear evidence for H3 receptors expression was found.

  7. DMPD: G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signaling in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 17456803 G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signaling in macropha...2007 Apr 24. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signali...ng in macrophages. PubmedID 17456803 Title G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function

  8. The Expression Profiles of Lysophospholipid Receptors (LPLRs in Different Endothelial Cells

    Yu-Wei Lee

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA are two bioactive lysophospholipids (LPLs, stored primarily in platelets and released during platelet activation. Both LPLs are capable of regulating endothelial cell functions. The physiological functions of S1P and LPA are mediated by interacting with eight different G-protein coupled receptors: S1P1 through 5 and LPA1 through 3, which activate three different heterotrimeric GTP proteins-including Gi、Gq and G(12/13. The expression of LPL receptors in endothelial cells would affect the responses of S1P and LPA to these cells. There is no previous report discussing the expression profiles of LPL receptors in different endothelial cells from various species. In this study, we aim to investigate the expression profiles of S1P and LPA receptors in different endothelial cells isolated from human, rat, mouse and bovine origin. We used RT-PCR to determine LPLs receptors expression profiles in different endothelial cells. Our results indicated that endothelial cells from various species express different LPL receptors. Endothelial cells isolated from the same source of different species also had different LPLs receptors expression profiles. Therefore, different endothelial cells should respond to LPLs in different manners.

  9. Dynamic T-lymphocyte chemokine receptor expression induced by interferon-beta therapy in multiple sclerosis

    Krakauer, M; Sorensen, P S; Khademi, M

    2006-01-01

    chemokine receptor (CXCR)3 was unaltered. Conversely, at 9-12 h after the most recent IFN-beta injection, CCR4, CCR5 and CCR7 expressions were unaltered, while CXCR3 expression was reduced. CD4(+) T-cell surface expression of CCR4 was significantly lower in untreated MS patients compared with healthy...

  10. Polarized expression of the GFP-tagged rat V(1a) vasopressin receptor.

    Campos, D M; Reyes, C E; Sarmiento, J; Navarro, J; González, C B

    2001-11-30

    We investigated the targeting of the V(1a) receptor fused with the green fluorescence protein (V(1a)R-GFP) in polarized MDCK cells. Cells expressing V(1a)R-GFP displayed binding to vasopressin (AVP) and AVP-induced calcium responses, similar to cells expressing the wild-type V1a receptor. Interestingly, as with the wild-type V(1a)R, V(1a)R-GFP is preferentially distributed in the basolateral side of MDCK cells as monitored by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, AVP induced internalization of GFP-tagged receptors. Therefore, the GFP-tagged V(1a) receptor retains all the sorting signals of the wild-type receptor and offers an excellent system to elucidate the mechanisms of cell trafficking of V(1a) receptors.

  11. Sex Hormone Receptor Expression in the Human Vocal Fold Subunits.

    Kirgezen, Tolga; Sunter, Ahmet Volkan; Yigit, Ozgur; Huq, Gulben Erdem

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the existence of sex hormone receptors in the subunits of vocal fold. This is a cadaver study. The androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors were examined in the epithelium (EP), superficial layer of the lamina propria (SLP), vocal ligament (VL), and macula flava (MF) of the vocal folds from 42 human cadavers (21 male, 21 female) by immunohistochemical methods. Their staining ratios were scored and statistically compared. The androgen receptor score was significantly higher for the MF than for the EP and SLP (P vocal fold, mostly in the MF and VLs. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist-induced down-regulation of hepatic glucocorticoid receptor expression in SD rats

    Chen Xiang; Li Ming; Sun Weiping; Bi Yan; Cai Mengyin; Liang Hua; Yu Qiuqiong; He Xiaoying; Weng Jianping

    2008-01-01

    It was reported that glucocorticoid production was inhibited by fenofibrate through suppression of type-1 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene expression in liver. The inhibition might be a negative-feedback regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), which is quickly induced by glucocorticoid in the liver. However, it is not clear if GR expression is changed by fenofibrate-induced PPARα activation. In this study, we tested this possibility in the liver of Sprague-Dawley rats. GR expression was reduced by fenofibrate in a time- and does-dependent manner. The inhibition was observed in liver, but not in fat and muscle. The corticosterone level in the blood was increased significantly by fenofibrate. These effects of fenofibrate were abolished by PPARα inhibitor MK886, suggesting that fenofibrate activated through PPARα. In conclusion, inhibition of GR expression may represent a new molecular mechanism for the negative feedback regulation of GR activity by PPARα

  13. Postnatal Expression of V2 Vasopressin Receptor Splice Variants in the Rat Cerebellum

    Vargas, Karina J.; Sarmiento, José M.; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Añazco, Carolina C.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Carmona, Pamela L.; Brenet, Marianne; Navarro, Javier; Müller-Esterl, Werner; Figueroa, Carlos D.; González, Carlos B.

    2010-01-01

    The V2 vasopressin receptor gene contains an alternative splice site in exon-3, which leads to the generation of two splice variants (V2a and V2b) first identified in the kidney. The open reading frame of the alternatively spliced V2b transcripten codes a truncated receptor, showing the same amino acid sequence as the canonical V2a receptor up to the 6th transmembrane segment, but displaying a distinct sequence to the corresponding 7th transmembrane segment and C-terminal domain relative to the V2a receptor. Here, we demonstrate the postnatal expression of V2a and V2b variants in the rat cerebellum. Most importantly, we showed by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry that both V2 splice variants were preferentially expressed in Purkinje cells, from early to late postnatal development. In addition, both variants were transiently expressed in the neuroblastic external granule cells and Bergmann fibers. These results indicate that the cellular distributions of both splice variants are developmentally regulated, and suggest that the transient expression of the V2 receptor is involved in the mechanisms of cerebellar cytodifferentiation by AVP. Finally, transfected CHO-K1 .expressing similar amounts of both V2 splice variants, as that found in the cerebellum, showed a significant reduction in the surface expression of V2a receptors, suggesting that the differential expression of the V2 splice variants regulate the vasopressin signaling in the cerebellum. PMID:19281786

  14. Low density lipoprotein induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive endothelin type B receptor expression

    Xu, Cang-Bao; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Vasoconstrictive endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptors promote vasospasm and ischemic cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to examine if low density lipoprotein (LDL) induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive ET(B) receptor expression and if extracellular signal...

  15. Expressions of toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and relative cellular ...

    Purpose: To investigate the expressions of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IFN-γ (IFN- gamma), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with tuberculosis (TB) infection. Methods: Two groups of ...

  16. Expression, receptor binding, and biophysical characterization of guinea pig insulin desB30

    Engholm, Ebbe; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Johansson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Here we report, for the first time, the heterologous expression of desB30 guinea pig insulin (GI desB30) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The affinities of GI desB30 for the insulin receptor A and the IGF-I receptor were also quantified for the first time. Small-angle X-ray scattering...

  17. Larvae of small white butterfly, Pieris rapae, express a novel serotonin receptor

    The biogenic amine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter in vertebrates and invertebrates. It acts in regulation and modulation of many physiological and behavioral processes through G protein-coupled receptors. Insects express five 5-HT receptor subtypes that share high simila...

  18. T cells expressing VHH-directed oligoclonal chimeric HER2 antigen receptors

    Jamnani, Fatemeh Rahimi; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with engineered T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) originated from antibodies is a promising strategy in cancer immunotherapy. Several unsuccessful trials, however, highlight the need for alternative conventional binding domains and the better combination...

  19. Preclinical evaluation of radiolabeled DOTA-derivatized cyclic minigastrin analogs for targeting cholecystokinin receptor expressing malignancies.

    Guggenberg, E. von; Rangger, C.; Sosabowski, J.; Laverman, P.; Reubi, J.C.; Virgolini, I.J.; Decristoforo, C.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Targeting of cholecystokinin receptor expressing malignancies such as medullary thyroid carcinoma is currently limited by low in vivo stability of radioligands. To increase the stability, we have developed and preclinically evaluated two cyclic

  20. Nucleus Accumbens Acetylcholine Receptors Modulate Dopamine and Motivation.

    Collins, Anne L; Aitken, Tara J; Greenfield, Venuz Y; Ostlund, Sean B; Wassum, Kate M

    2016-11-01

    Environmental reward-predictive cues can motivate reward-seeking behaviors. Although this influence is normally adaptive, it can become maladaptive in disordered states, such as addiction. Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc) is known to mediate the motivational impact of reward-predictive cues, but little is known about how other neuromodulatory systems contribute to cue-motivated behavior. Here, we examined the role of the NAc cholinergic receptor system in cue-motivated behavior using a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer task designed to assess the motivating influence of a reward-predictive cue over an independently-trained instrumental action. Disruption of NAc muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activity attenuated, whereas blockade of nicotinic receptors augmented cue-induced invigoration of reward seeking. We next examined a potential dopaminergic mechanism for this behavioral effect by combining fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with local pharmacological acetylcholine receptor manipulation. The data show evidence of opposing modulation of cue-evoked dopamine release, with muscarinic and nicotinic receptor antagonists causing suppression and augmentation, respectively, consistent with the behavioral effects of these manipulations. In addition to demonstrating cholinergic modulation of naturally-evoked and behaviorally-relevant dopamine signaling, these data suggest that NAc cholinergic receptors may gate the expression of cue-motivated behavior through modulation of phasic dopamine release.

  1. Class A scavenger receptor promotes osteoclast differentiation via the enhanced expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK)

    Takemura, Kenichi [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic and Neuro-Musculoskeletal Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sakashita, Naomi; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Lei, XiaoFeng; Ohnishi, Koji [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Suzuki, Hiroshi [National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido (Japan); Kodama, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Mizuta, Hiroshi [Department of Orthopaedic and Neuro-Musculoskeletal Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Takeya, Motohiro, E-mail: takeya@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)

    2010-01-22

    Osteoclasts originate from bone marrow monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, and their differentiation depends on macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) ligand. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is one of the principal functional molecules of macrophages, and its level of expression declines during osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the role of SR-A in osteoclastogenesis, we examined pathological changes in femoral bone and the expression levels of osteoclastogenesis-related molecules in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. The femoral osseous density of SR-A{sup -/-} mice was higher than that of SR-A{sup +/+} mice, and the number of multinucleated osteoclasts was significantly decreased. An in vitro differentiation assay revealed that the differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts from bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is impaired in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. Elimination of SR-A did not alter the expression level of the M-CSF receptor, c-fms; however, the expression levels of RANK and RANK-related osteoclast-differentiation molecules such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) significantly decreased. Furthermore, acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL), an SR-A ligand, significantly increased the expression level of RANK and MITF during osteoclast differentiation. These data indicate that SR-A promotes osteoclastogenesis via augmentation of the expression level of RANK and its related molecules.

  2. Phrenic motoneuron expression of serotonergic and glutamatergic receptors following upper cervical spinal cord injury

    Mantilla, Carlos B.; Bailey, Jeffrey P.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.

    2012-01-01

    Following cervical spinal cord injury at C2 (SH hemisection model) there is progressive recovery of phrenic activity. Neuroplasticity in the postsynaptic expression of neurotransmitter receptors may contribute to functional recovery. Phrenic motoneurons express multiple serotonergic (5-HTR) and glutamatergic (GluR) receptors, but the timing and possible role of these different neurotransmitter receptor subtypes in the neuroplasticity following SH are not clear. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that there is an increased expression of serotonergic and glutamatergic neurotransmitter receptors within phrenic motoneurons after SH. In adult male rats, phrenic motoneurons were labeled retrogradely by intrapleural injection of Alexa 488-conjugated cholera toxin B. In thin (10 μm) frozen sections of the spinal cord, fluorescently-labeled phrenic motoneurons were visualized for laser capture microdissection (LCM). Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR in LCM samples, the time course of changes in 5-HTR and GluR mRNA expression was determined in phrenic motoneurons up to 21 days post-SH. Expression of 5-HTR subtypes 1b, 2a and 2c and GluR subtypes AMPA, NMDA, mGluR1 and mGluR5 was evident in phrenic motoneurons from control and SH rats. Phrenic motoneuron expression of 5-HTR2a increased ~8-fold (relative to control) at 14 days post-SH, whereas NMDA expression increased ~16-fold by 21-days post-SH. There were no other significant changes in receptor expression at any time post-SH. This is the first study to systematically document changes in motoneuron expression of multiple neurotransmitter receptors involved in regulation of motoneuron excitability. By providing information on the neuroplasticity of receptors expressed in a motoneuron pool that is inactivated by a higher-level spinal cord injury, appropriate pharmacological targets can be identified to alter motoneuron excitability. PMID:22227062

  3. Upregulation of neurokinin-1 receptor expression in the lungs of patients with sarcoidosis.

    O'Connor, Terence M

    2012-02-03

    Substance P (SP) is a proinflammatory neuropeptide that is secreted by sensory nerves and inflammatory cells. Increased levels of SP are found in sarcoid bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. SP acts by binding to the neurokinin-1 receptor and increases secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in many cell types. We sought to determine neurokinin-1 receptor expression in patients with sarcoidosis compared with normal controls. Neurokinin-1 receptor messenger RNA and protein expression were below the limits of detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers (n = 9) or patients with stage 1 or 2 pulmonary sarcoidosis (n = 10), but were detected in 1\\/9 bronchoalveolar lavage cells of controls compared with 8\\/10 patients with sarcoidosis (p = 0.012) and 2\\/9 biopsies of controls compared with 9\\/10 patients with sarcoidosis (p = 0.013). Immunohistochemistry localized upregulated neurokinin-1 receptor expression to bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and sarcoid granulomas. The patient in whom neurokinin-1 receptor was not detected was taking corticosteroids. Incubation of the type II alveolar and bronchial epithelial cell lines A549 and SK-LU 1 with dexamethasone downregulated neurokinin-1 receptor expression. Upregulated neurokinin-1 receptor expression in patients with sarcoidosis may potentiate substance P-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in patients with sarcoidosis.

  4. Expression of steroid receptors in ameloblasts during amelogenesis in rat incisors

    Sophia Houari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs play a part in the modern burst of diseases and interfere with the steroid hormone axis. Bisphenol A (BPA, one of the most active and widely used EDCs, affects ameloblast functions, leading to an enamel hypomineralization pattern similar to that of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH. In order to explore the molecular pathways stimulated by BPA during amelogenesis, we thoroughly investigated the receptors known to directly or indirectly mediate the effects of BPA. The expression patterns of high affinity BPA receptors (ERRγ, GPR30, of ketosteroid receptors (ERs, AR, PGR, GR, MR, of the retinoid receptor RXRα and PPARγ were established using RT-qPCR analysis of RNAs extracted from microdissected enamel organ of adult rats. Their expression was dependent on the stage of ameloblast differentiation, except that of ERβ and PPARγ which remained undetectable. An additional large scale microarray analysis revealed three main groups of receptors according to their level of expression in maturation stage ameloblasts. The expression level of RXRα was the highest, similar to the vitamin D receptor (VDR, whereas the others were 13 to 612 fold lower, with AR and GR being intermediate. Immunofluorescent analysis of VDR, ERα and AR confirmed their presence mainly in maturation- stage ameloblasts. These data provide further evidence that ameloblasts express a specific combination of hormonal receptors depending on their developmental stage. This study represents the first step towards understanding dental endocrinology as well as some of the effects of EDCs on the pathophysiology of amelogenesis.

  5. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of estrogen receptor gene expression in laser microdissected prostate cancer tissue.

    Walton, Thomas J; Li, Geng; McCulloch, Thomas A; Seth, Rashmi; Powe, Desmond G; Bishop, Michael C; Rees, Robert C

    2009-06-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of laser microdissected tissue is considered the most accurate technique for determining tissue gene expression. The discovery of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) has focussed renewed interest on the role of estrogen receptors in prostate cancer, yet few studies have utilized the technique to analyze estrogen receptor gene expression in prostate cancer. Fresh tissue was obtained from 11 radical prostatectomy specimens and from 6 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. Pure populations of benign and malignant prostate epithelium were laser microdissected, followed by RNA isolation and electrophoresis. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed using primers for androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), progesterone receptor (PGR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), with normalization to two housekeeping genes. Differences in gene expression were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation coefficients were analyzed using Spearman's test. Significant positive correlations were seen when AR and AR-dependent PSA, and ERalpha and ERalpha-dependent PGR were compared, indicating a representative population of RNA transcripts. ERbeta gene expression was significantly over-expressed in the cancer group compared with benign controls (P cancer group (P prostate cancer specimens. In concert with recent studies the findings suggest differential production of ERbeta splice variants, which may play important roles in the genesis of prostate cancer. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Expression of Steroid Receptors in Ameloblasts during Amelogenesis in Rat Incisors.

    Houari, Sophia; Loiodice, Sophia; Jedeon, Katia; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) play a part in the modern burst of diseases and interfere with the steroid hormone axis. Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most active and widely used EDCs, affects ameloblast functions, leading to an enamel hypomineralization pattern similar to that of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH). In order to explore the molecular pathways stimulated by BPA during amelogenesis, we thoroughly investigated the receptors known to directly or indirectly mediate the effects of BPA. The expression patterns of high affinity BPA receptors (ERRγ, GPR30), of ketosteroid receptors (ERs, AR, PGR, GR, MR), of the retinoid receptor RXRα, and PPARγ were established using RT-qPCR analysis of RNAs extracted from microdissected enamel organ of adult rats. Their expression was dependent on the stage of ameloblast differentiation, except that of ERβ and PPARγ which remained undetectable. An additional large scale microarray analysis revealed three main groups of receptors according to their level of expression in maturation-stage ameloblasts. The expression level of RXRα was the highest, similar to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), whereas the others were 13 to 612-fold lower, with AR and GR being intermediate. Immunofluorescent analysis of VDR, ERα and AR confirmed their presence mainly in maturation- stage ameloblasts. These data provide further evidence that ameloblasts express a specific combination of hormonal receptors depending on their developmental stage. This study represents the first step toward understanding dental endocrinology as well as some of the effects of EDCs on the pathophysiology of amelogenesis.

  7. Muscarinic supersensibility of anterior pituitary ACTH and beta-endorphin release in major depressive illness

    Risch, S.C.; Gillin, J.C.; Janowsky, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    Since numerious physiological systems display muscarinic receptor supersensitivity in major depressive illnesses, the authors have hypothesize that anterior pituitary release of ACTH and beta-Endorphin immunoreactivity may also be muscarinically supersensitive in depression. The studies were conducted under FDA-approved IND and with local human subjects committee approval. Plasma ACTH concentrations were determined as follows: samples were assayed in duplicate using equilibrium radioimmunoassay utilizing a rabbit anti-porcine ACTH antibody. Significance ofchanges in plasma cortisol, ACTH and beta-endorphin immunoreactivity after physostigmine and saline were determined by repeated measures analysis of variance. In all subject groups, physostigmine (relative to placebo) caused significant increases in plasma concentrations of cortisol, ACTH, and beta-endorphin immonoreactivity

  8. Role of a Ubiquitously Expressed Receptor in the Vertebrate Olfactory System

    DeMaria, Shannon; Berke, Allison P.; Van Name, Eric; Heravian, Anisa; Ferreira, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Odorant cues are recognized by receptors expressed on olfactory sensory neurons, the primary sensory neurons of the olfactory epithelium. Odorant receptors typically obey the “one receptor, one neuron” rule, in which the receptive field of the olfactory neuron is determined by the singular odorant receptor that it expresses. Odor-evoked receptor activity across the population of olfactory neurons is then interpreted by the brain to identify the molecular nature of the odorant stimulus. In the present study, we characterized the properties of a C family G-protein-coupled receptor that, unlike most other odorant receptors, is expressed in a large population of microvillous sensory neurons in the zebrafish olfactory epithelium and the mouse vomeronasal organ. We found that this receptor, OlfCc1 in zebrafish and its murine ortholog Vmn2r1, is a calcium-dependent, low-sensitivity receptor specific for the hydrophobic amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine. Loss-of-function experiments in zebrafish embryos demonstrate that OlfCc1 is required for olfactory responses to a diverse mixture of polar, nonpolar, acidic, and basic amino acids. OlfCc1 was also found to promote localization of other OlfC receptor family members to the plasma membrane in heterologous cells. Together, these results suggest that the broadly expressed OlfCc1 is required for amino acid detection by the olfactory system and suggest that it plays a role in the function and/or intracellular trafficking of other olfactory and vomeronasal receptors with which it is coexpressed. PMID:24048853

  9. Prolactin receptor, growth hormone receptor, and putative somatolactin receptor in Mozambique tilapia: tissue specific expression and differential regulation by salinity and fasting.

    Pierce, A L; Fox, B K; Davis, L K; Visitacion, N; Kitahashi, T; Hirano, T; Grau, E G

    2007-01-01

    In fish, pituitary growth hormone family peptide hormones (growth hormone, GH; prolactin, PRL; somatolactin, SL) regulate essential physiological functions including osmoregulation, growth, and metabolism. Teleost GH family hormones have both differential and overlapping effects, which are mediated by plasma membrane receptors. A PRL receptor (PRLR) and two putative GH receptors (GHR1 and GHR2) have been identified in several teleost species. Recent phylogenetic analyses and binding studies suggest that GHR1 is a receptor for SL. However, no studies have compared the tissue distribution and physiological regulation of all three receptors. We sequenced GHR2 from the liver of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), developed quantitative real-time PCR assays for the three receptors, and assessed their tissue distribution and regulation by salinity and fasting. PRLR was highly expressed in the gill, kidney, and intestine, consistent with the osmoregulatory functions of PRL. PRLR expression was very low in the liver. GHR2 was most highly expressed in the muscle, followed by heart, testis, and liver, consistent with this being a GH receptor with functions in growth and metabolism. GHR1 was most highly expressed in fat, liver, and muscle, suggesting a metabolic function. GHR1 expression was also high in skin, consistent with a function of SL in chromatophore regulation. These findings support the hypothesis that GHR1 is a receptor for SL. In a comparison of freshwater (FW)- and seawater (SW)-adapted tilapia, plasma PRL was strongly elevated in FW, whereas plasma GH was slightly elevated in SW. PRLR expression was reduced in the gill in SW, consistent with PRL's function in freshwater adaptation. GHR2 was elevated in the kidney in FW, and correlated negatively with plasma GH, whereas GHR1 was elevated in the gill in SW. Plasma IGF-I, but not GH, was reduced by 4 weeks of fasting. Transcript levels of GHR1 and GHR2 were elevated by fasting in the muscle. However

  10. Changes in gene expression following androgen receptor blockade ...

    Madhu urs

    of gene expression in the ventral prostate, it is not clear whether all the gene expression ... These include clusterin, methionine adenosyl transferase IIα, and prostate-specific ..... MAGEE1 melanoma antigen and no similarity was found with the ...

  11. Progesterone receptor expression during prostate cancer progression suggests a role of this receptor in stromal cell differentiation.

    Yu, Yue; Yang, Ou; Fazli, Ladan; Rennie, Paul S; Gleave, Martin E; Dong, Xuesen

    2015-07-01

    The progesterone receptor, like the androgen receptor, belongs to the steroid receptor superfamily. Our previous studies have reported that the PR is expressed specifically in prostate stroma. PR inhibits proliferation of, and regulates cytokine secretion by stromal cells. However, PR protein expression in cancer-associated stroma during prostate cancer progression has not been profiled. Since the phenotypes of prostate stromal cells change dynamically as tumors progress, whether the PR plays a role in regulating stromal cell differentiation needs to be investigated. Immunohistochemistry assays measured PR protein levels on human prostate tissue microarrays containing 367 tissue cores from benign prostate, prostate tumors with different Gleason scores, tumors under various durations of castration therapy, and tumors at the castration-resistant stage. Immunoblotting assays determined whether PR regulated the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin, and fibroblast specific protein (FSP) in human prostate stromal cells. PR protein levels decreased in cancer-associated stroma when compared with that in benign prostate stroma. This reduction in PR expression was not correlated with Gleason scores. PR protein levels were elevated by castration therapy, but reduced to pre-castration levels when tumors progressed to the castration-resistant stage. Enhanced PR expression in human prostate stromal cells increased α-SMA, but decreased vimentin and FSP protein levels ligand-independently. These results suggest that PR plays an active role in regulating stromal cell phenotypes during prostate cancer progression. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Expression and Purification of Functional Ligand-binding Domains of T1R3 Taste Receptors

    Nie,Y.; Hobbs, J.; Vigues, S.; Olson, W.; Conn, G.; Munger, S.

    2006-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors, including odor, taste, and vomeronasal receptors, comprise the largest group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the mammalian genome. However, little is known about the molecular determinants that are critical for the detection and discrimination of ligands by most of these receptors. This dearth of understanding is due in part to difficulties in preparing functional receptors suitable for biochemical and biophysical analyses. Here we describe in detail two strategies for the expression and purification of the ligand-binding domain of T1R taste receptors, which are constituents of the sweet and umami taste receptors. These class C GPCRs contain a large extracellular N-terminal domain (NTD) that is the site of interaction with most ligands and that is amenable to expression as a separate polypeptide in heterologous cells. The NTD of mouse T1R3 was expressed as two distinct fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and purified by column chromatography. Spectroscopic analysis of the purified NTD proteins shows them to be properly folded and capable of binding ligands. This methodology should not only facilitate the characterization of T1R ligand interactions but may also be useful for dissecting the function of other class C GPCRs such as the large family of orphan V2R vomeronasal receptors.

  13. Expression of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the reproductive system of male mice.

    Marciniak, Marcin; Chruścicka, Barbara; Lech, Tomasz; Burnat, Grzegorz; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Although the presence of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors in the central nervous system is well documented, they have recently been found in peripheral and non-neuronal tissues. In the present study we investigated the expression of group III mGlu receptors in the reproductive system of male mice. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the presence of mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8 (but not mGlu4) receptor transcripts in testes and epididymides from adult mice. In addition, expression of mGlu6 (Grm6) and mGlu8 receptor (Grm8) mRNA was detected in spermatozoa isolated from the vas deferens. The vas deferens was found to contain only mGlu7 receptor (Grm7) mRNA, which was particularly intense in 21-day-old male mice. In penile homogenates, only the mGlu7 receptor signal was detected. Genetic ablation of the mGlu7 receptor in males led to fertility disorders manifested by decreased insemination capability as well as deterioration of sperm parameters, particularly sperm motility, vitality, sperm membrane integrity and morphology, with a simultaneous increase in sperm concentration. These results indicate that constitutively expressed mGlu receptors in the male reproductive system may play an important role in ejaculation and/or erection processes, as well as in the formation and maturation of spermatozoa.

  14. Analysis of the epidermal growth factor receptor specific transcriptome: effect of receptor expression level and an activating mutation

    Pedersen, Mikkel W; Pedersen, Nina; Damstrup, Lars

    2005-01-01

    moderately expressed or overexpressed at an in-itself transforming level. These changes were compared to those induced by the naturally occurring constitutively active variant EGFRvIII. This study provides novel insight on the activities and mechanisms of EGFRvIII and EGFR mediated transformation, as genes...... by interferons. Expression of this module was absent in the EGFRvIII-expressing cell line and the parental cell line. Treatment with the specific EGFR inhibitor AG1478 indicated that the regulations were primary, receptor-mediated events. Furthermore, activation of this module correlated with activation of STAT1...

  15. Cloning and expression of a rat brain α2B-adrenergic receptor

    Flordellis, C.S.; Handy, D.E.; Bresnahan, M.R.; Zannis, V.I.; Gavras, H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors isolated a cDNA clone (RBα 2B ) and its homologous gene (GRα 2B ) encoding an α 2B -adrenergic receptor subtype by screening a rat brain cDNA and a rat genomic library. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that both clones code for a protein of 458 amino acids, which is 87% homologous to the human kidney glycosylated adrenergic receptor (α 2 -C4) and divergent from the rat kidney nonglycosylated α 2B subtype (RNGα 2 ). Transient expression of RBα 2B in COS-7 cells resulted in high-affinity saturable binding for [ 3 H]rauwolscine and a high receptor number in the membranes of transfected COS-7 cells. Pharmacological analysis demonstrated that the expressed receptor bound adrenergic ligands with the following order of potency: rauwolscine > yohimbine > prazosin > oxymetazoline, with a prazosin-to-oxymetazoline K i ratio of 0.34. This profile is characteristic of the α 2B -adrenergic receptor subtype. Blotting analysis of rat brain mRNA gave one major and two minor mRNA species, and hybridization with strand-specific probes showed that both DNA strands of GRα 2B may be transcriptionally active. These findings show that rat brain expresses an α 2B -adrenergic receptor subtype that is structurally different from the rat kidney nonglycosylated α 2B subtype. Thus the rat expresses at least two divergent α 2B -adrenergic receptors

  16. Toll-like receptor 3 signalling up-regulates expression of the HIV co-receptor G-protein coupled receptor 15 on human CD4+ T cells.

    Miriam Kiene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many HIV-2 and SIV isolates, as well as some HIV-1 strains, can use the orphan 7-transmembrane receptor GPR15 as co-receptor for efficient entry into host cells. GPR15 is expressed on central memory and effector memory CD4(+ T cells in healthy individuals and a subset of these cells is susceptible to HIV-1 and SIV infection. However, it has not been determined whether GPR15 expression is altered in the context of HIV-1 infection. RESULTS: Here, we show that GPR15 expression in CD4(+ T cells is markedly up-regulated in some HIV-1 infected individuals compared to the rest of the infected patients and to healthy controls. Infection of the PM1 T cell line with primary HIV-1 isolates was found to up-regulate GPR15 expression on the infected cells, indicating that viral components can induce GPR15 expression. Up-regulation of GPR15 expression on CD4(+ T cells was induced by activation of Toll-like receptor 3 signalling via TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF and was more prominent on gut-homing compared to lymph node-homing CD4(+ T cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that infection-induced up-regulation of GPR15 expression could increase susceptibility of CD4(+ T cells to HIV infection and target cell availability in the gut in some infected individuals.

  17. Expression of PML tumor suppressor in A 431 cells reduces cellular growth by inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor expression

    Vallian, S.; Chang, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that the promyelocytic leukemia, PML, protein functions as a cellular and growth suppressor. Transient expression of PML was also found to repress the activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene promoter. In this study we have examined the effects of PML on A431 cells, which express a high level of + protein. The PML gene was introduced into the cells using the adenovirus-mediated gene transfer system. Western blot analysis on the extracts from the cells expressing PML showed a significant repression in the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor protein. The cells were examined for growth and DNA synthesis. The data showed a marked reduction in both growth and DNA synthesis rate in the cells expressing PML compared with the control cells. Furthermore, in comparison with the controls, the cells expressing PML were found to be more in G1 phase, fewer in S and about the same number in the G2/M phase. This data clearly demonstrated that the repression of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in A 431 cells by PML was associated with inhibition of cell growth and alteration of the cell cycle distribution, suggesting a novel mechanism for the known growth inhibitory effects of PML

  18. Signal Peptide and Denaturing Temperature are Critical Factors for Efficient Mammalian Expression and Immunoblotting of Cannabinoid Receptors*

    WANG, Chenyun; WANG, Yingying; WANG, Miao; CHEN, Jiankui; YU, Nong; SONG, Shiping; KAMINSKI, Norbert E.; ZHANG, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Summary Many researchers employed mammalian expression system to artificially express cannabinoid receptors, but immunoblot data that directly prove efficient protein expression can hardly be seen in related research reports. In present study, we demonstrated cannabinoid receptor protein was not able to be properly expressed with routine mammalian expression system. This inefficient expression was rescued by endowing an exogenous signal peptide ahead of cannabinoid receptor peptide. In addition, the artificially synthesized cannabinoid receptor was found to aggregate under routine sample denaturing temperatures (i.e., ≥95°C), forming a large molecular weight band when analyzed by immunoblotting. Only denaturing temperatures ≤75°C yielded a clear band at the predicted molecular weight. Collectively, we showed that efficient mammalian expression of cannabinoid receptors need a signal peptide sequence, and described the requirement for a low sample denaturing temperature in immunoblot analysis. These findings provide very useful information for efficient mammalian expression and immunoblotting of membrane receptors. PMID:22528237

  19. Regulation of interferon receptor expression in human blood lymphocytes in vitro and during interferon therapy

    Lau, A.S.; Hannigan, G.E.; Freedman, M.H.; Williams, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Interferons (IFN) elicit antiviral and antineoplastic activities by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface. The binding characteristics of IFN to human lymphocytes were studied using IFN alpha 2 labeled with 125 I to high specific activity. The specific binding curves generated were analyzed by the LIGAND program of Munson and Rodbard to determine receptor numbers. The number of receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and tonsillar B-lymphocytes (TBL) from normal individuals were 505 +/- 293 (n = 10) and 393 +/- 147 (n = 3) respectively. When these cells were preincubated in vitro with unlabeled IFN alpha 2, the receptor number decreased to 82 +/- 45 and 61 +/- 16 respectively. Receptor binding activities recovered gradually over a period of 72 h when the cells were incubated in IFN-free medium. This recovery of receptors could be blocked by the addition of actinomycin D to the incubation medium. A similar decrease in receptor expression was observed in vivo in PBL from patients being treated daily with 5 X 10(6) units/m2 per d of IFN alpha 2 by subcutaneous injection, for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or papilloma virus infections. Receptor numbers in PBL in vivo were further reduced concurrent with the progression of IFN therapy. Thus, the reduction in IFN receptor expression observed in vitro can be demonstrated in vivo. These studies indicate that monitoring IFN receptor expression in vivo can provide information regarding the availability of IFN receptors at the cell surface for the mediation of IFN actions during the course of IFN therapy

  20. Oleocanthal Modulates Estradiol-Induced Gene Expression Involving Estrogen Receptor α.

    Keiler, Annekathrin Martina; Djiogue, Sefirin; Ehrhardt, Tino; Zierau, Oliver; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Halabalaki, Maria; Vollmer, Günter

    2015-09-01

    Oleocanthal is a bioactive compound from olive oil. It has attracted considerable attention as it is anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and has been shown to possess neuroprotective properties in vitro and in vivo. Delineated from its polyphenolic structure, the aim of this study was to characterize oleocanthal towards estrogenic properties. This might contribute to partly explain the beneficial effects described for the Mediterranean diet. Estrogenic properties of oleocanthal were assessed by different methods: a) stimulation of reporter gene activity in MVLN or RNDA cells either expressing estrogen receptor α or β, b) stimulation of luciferase reporter gene activity in U2OS osteosarcoma cells expressing estrogen receptor α or β, and c) elucidation of the impact on estradiol-induced gene expression in U2OS cells transduced with both estrogen receptors. Depending on the cell line origin, oleocanthal inhibited luciferase activity (MVLN, U2OS-estrogen receptor β) or weakly induced reporter gene activity at 10 µM in U2OS-estrogen receptor α cells. However, oleocanthal inhibited stimulation of luciferase activity by estradiol from both estrogen receptors. Oleocanthal, if given alone, did not stimulate gene expression in U2OS cells, but it significantly modulated the response of estradiol. Oleocanthal enhanced the effect of estradiol on the regulation of those genes, which are believed to be regulated through heterodimeric estrogen receptors. As the estrogenic response pattern of oleocanthal is rather unique, we compared the results obtained with oleacein. Oleocanthal binds to both estrogen receptors inducing estradiol-agonistic or antiagonistic effects depending on the cell line. Regarding regulation of gene expression in U2OS-estrogen receptor α/β cells, oleocanthal and oleacein enhanced estradiol-mediated regulation of heterodimer-regulated genes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Expression of growth factor receptors and targeting of EGFR in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines

    Xu, Ling; Hausmann, Martin; Dietmaier, Wolfgang; Kellermeier, Silvia; Pesch, Theresa; Stieber-Gunckel, Manuela; Lippert, Elisabeth; Klebl, Frank; Rogler, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a malignant neoplasm of the bile ducts or the gallbladder. Targeting of growth factor receptors showed therapeutic potential in palliative settings for many solid tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of seven growth factor receptors in CC cell lines and to assess the effect of blocking the EGFR receptor in vitro. Expression of EGFR (epithelial growth factor receptor), HGFR (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor), IGF2R (insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor) and VEGFR1-3 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1-3) were examined in four human CC cell lines (EGI-1, HuH28, OZ and TFK-1). The effect of the anti-EGFR-antibody cetuximab on cell growth and apoptosis was studied and cell lines were examined for KRAS mutations. EGFR, HGFR and IGFR1 were present in all four cell lines tested. IGFR2 expression was confirmed in EGI-1 and TFK-1. No growth-inhibitory effect was found in EGI-1 cells after incubation with cetuximab. Cetuximab dose-dependently inhibited growth in TFK-1. Increased apoptosis was only seen in TFK-1 cells at the highest cetuximab dose tested (1 mg/ml), with no dose-response-relationship at lower concentrations. In EGI-1 a heterozygous KRAS mutation was found in codon 12 (c.35G>A; p.G12D). HuH28, OZ and TFK-1 lacked KRAS mutation. CC cell lines express a pattern of different growth receptors in vitro. Growth factor inhibitor treatment could be affected from the KRAS genotype in CC. The expression of EGFR itself does not allow prognoses on growth inhibition by cetuximab

  2. Expression of growth factor receptors and targeting of EGFR in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines

    Kellermeier Silvia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholangiocarcinoma (CC is a malignant neoplasm of the bile ducts or the gallbladder. Targeting of growth factor receptors showed therapeutic potential in palliative settings for many solid tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of seven growth factor receptors in CC cell lines and to assess the effect of blocking the EGFR receptor in vitro. Methods Expression of EGFR (epithelial growth factor receptor, HGFR (hepatocyte growth factor receptor IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, IGF2R (insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor and VEGFR1-3 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1-3 were examined in four human CC cell lines (EGI-1, HuH28, OZ and TFK-1. The effect of the anti-EGFR-antibody cetuximab on cell growth and apoptosis was studied and cell lines were examined for KRAS mutations. Results EGFR, HGFR and IGFR1 were present in all four cell lines tested. IGFR2 expression was confirmed in EGI-1 and TFK-1. No growth-inhibitory effect was found in EGI-1 cells after incubation with cetuximab. Cetuximab dose-dependently inhibited growth in TFK-1. Increased apoptosis was only seen in TFK-1 cells at the highest cetuximab dose tested (1 mg/ml, with no dose-response-relationship at lower concentrations. In EGI-1 a heterozygous KRAS mutation was found in codon 12 (c.35G>A; p.G12D. HuH28, OZ and TFK-1 lacked KRAS mutation. Conclusion CC cell lines express a pattern of different growth receptors in vitro. Growth factor inhibitor treatment could be affected from the KRAS genotype in CC. The expression of EGFR itself does not allow prognoses on growth inhibition by cetuximab.

  3. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases control expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2)

    Theilade, Juliane; Lerche Hansen, Jakob; Haunsø, Stig

    2002-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates G protein-coupled receptors resulting in uncoupling from G proteins. Receptors modulate GRK2 expression, however the mechanistic basis for this effect is largely unknown. Here we report a novel mechanism by which receptors use...

  4. Regulation of HIV receptor expression in cervical epithelial cells by ...

    Background. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) caused by the Gram-negative bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition in South African women. HIV infection involves binding of the virus to CD4+ receptors on host cells and subsequent binding to ...

  5. Expression of histamine receptors in the human endolymphatic sac

    Møller, M Nue; Kirkeby, S; Vikeså, J.

    2016-01-01

    in 2012. This leaves betahistine (Betaserc) as the only drug for potential prevention of the incapacitating attacks of dizziness, tinnitus and hearing loss. However, the histamine receptors targeted by betahistine have never been demonstrated in the human ES. Accordingly, this study aims to investigate...

  6. Notch receptor expression in neurogenic regions of the adult zebrafish brain.

    Vanessa de Oliveira-Carlos

    Full Text Available The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 [Formula: see text] of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches.

  7. Changes in epidermal growth factor receptor expression during chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), such as cetuximab, may potentially improve outcome in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with high EGFR expression. The EGFR expression may be heterogeneously distributed within tumors, and small biopsies may thus...

  8. Expression of NMDA receptor-dependent LTP in the hippocampus: bridging the divide

    Bliss Tim VP

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A consensus has famously yet to emerge on the locus and mechanisms underlying the expression of the canonical NMDA receptor-dependent form of LTP. An objective assessment of the evidence leads us to conclude that both presynaptic and postsynaptic expression mechanisms contribute to this type of synaptic plasticity.

  9. Heterologous expression of a deuterated membrane-integrated receptor and partial deuteration in methylotrophic yeasts

    Massou, S.; Puech, V.; Talmont, F.; Demange, P.; Lindley, N.D.; Tropis, M.; Milon, A.

    1999-01-01

    Methylotrophic yeast has previously been shown to be an excellent system for the cost-effective production of perdeuterated biomass and for the heterologous expression of membrane receptors. A protocol for the expression of 85% deuterated, functional human μ-opiate receptor was established. For partially deuterated biomass, deuteration level and distribution were determined for fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates. It was shown that prior to biosynthesis of lipids and amino acids (and of carbohydrates, to a lower extent), exchange occurs between water and methanol hydrogen atoms, so that 80%-90% randomly deuterated biomass and over-expressed proteins may be obtained using only deuterated water

  10. Comparison of the butyrate effects on neurotransmitter receptors in neurohybrids NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells

    Zhu, X.Z.; Chuang, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors previous study demonstrated that long term treatment of NCB-20 cells with sodium butyrate resulted in a marked increase in the density of delta-opioid receptors with a much lesser effect on muscarinic cholinergic and no effect on alpha 2 -adrenergic receptors. In the present study the authors investigated the effect of sodium butyrate on these three types of receptors in NG108-15 cells whose neuroblastoma parent is the same as that of NCB-20 cells. Long term treatment of NG108-15 cells with sodium butyrate (0.5 mM) induced a 2-fold increase in the density of the specific binding of 3 H-clonidine. A comparable increase in the number of binding sites was detected when 3 H-yohimbine was used as the receptor ligand. The butyrate-induced increase in the alpha 2 -adrenergic receptor binding could be totally abolished by treatment with a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that synthesis of receptor protein is involved. The same butyrate treatment had no significant effect on opioid and muscarinic cholinergic receptor bindings. Thus, butyrate effects on the expression of these three types of receptors in NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells are dramatically different. These data suggest that induction by butyrate of neurotransmitter receptors requires concerted action of genetic factors of both parents of the neurohybrids. 22 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  11. Placental expression of asialoglycoprotein receptor associated with Hepatitis B virus transmission from mother to child.

    Vyas, Ashish Kumar; Ramakrishna, Usha; Sen, Bijoya; Islam, Mojahidul; Ramakrishna, Gayatri; Patra, Sharda; Rastogi, Archana; Sarin, Shiv Kumar; Trehanpati, Nirupma

    2018-04-30

    Asialoglycoprotein receptor expression on hepatocytes has been associated with endocytosis, binding and uptake of hepatitis B virus. The role of asialoglycoprotein receptor in hepatitis B virus vertical transmission and its expression on placenta has not yet been studied. Thirty-four HBsAg+ve and 13 healthy pregnant mothers along with their newborns were enrolled. The former were categorized into transmitting and non-transmitting mothers based on their newborns being hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B virus DNA positive. Expression of asialoglycoprotein receptor and hepatitis B surface antigen in placenta and isoform of asialoglycoprotein receptor on dendritic cell in peripheral and cord blood dendritic cells were analysed using flowcytometry, immune histochemistry, immune florescence and qRT-PCR. Twelve HBsAg+ve mothers transmitted hepatitis B virus to their newborns whereas the rest (n = 22) did not. Hepatitis B virus-transmitting mothers showed increased expression of asialoglycoprotein receptor in trophoblasts of placenta. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed colocalization of hepatitis B surface antigen and asialoglycoprotein receptor in placenta as well as in DCs of transmitting mothers. There was no significant difference in the expression of asialoglycoprotein receptor on peripheral blood mononuclear cells or chord blood mononuclear cells between the 2 groups. However, hepatitis B virus-transmitting mothers and their HBsAg+ve newborns showed increased mRNA levels of isoform of asialoglycoprotein receptor on dendritic cell in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Hepatitis B virus-transmitting mothers and their HBsAg+ve newborns showed an increased expression of isoform of asialoglycoprotein receptor on dendritic cell on circulating dendritic cells compared to hepatitis B virus non-transmitting mothers and their negative newborns. This study revealed that increased expression of asialoglycoprotein receptor in placenta and colocalization with

  12. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1992-01-01

    of EGF receptor mRNA in all 10 cell lines that were found to be EGF receptor-positive and in one cell line that was found to be EGF receptor-negative in the radioreceptor assay and affinity labeling. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of small cell......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor expression was evaluated in a panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell lines with radioreceptor assay, affinity labeling, and Northern blotting. We found high-affinity receptors to be expressed in 10 cell lines. Scatchard analysis of the binding data...... demonstrated that the cells bound between 3 and 52 fmol/mg protein with a KD ranging from 0.5 x 10(-10) to 2.7 x 10(-10) M. EGF binding to the receptor was confirmed by affinity-labeling EGF to the EGF receptor. The cross-linked complex had a M(r) of 170,000-180,000. Northern blotting showed the expression...

  13. Expression and purification of functional human mu opioid receptor from E.coli.

    Yanbin Ma

    Full Text Available N-terminally his-tagged human mu opioid receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor was produced in E.coli employing synthetic codon-usage optimized constructs. The receptor was expressed in inclusion bodies and membrane-inserted in different E.coli strains. By optimizing the expression conditions the expression level for the membrane-integrated receptor was raised to 0.3-0.5 mg per liter of culture. Milligram quantities of receptor could be enriched by affinity chromatography from IPTG induced cultures grown at 18°C. By size exclusion chromatography the protein fraction with the fraction of alpha-helical secondary structure expected for a 7-TM receptor was isolated, by CD-spectroscopy an alpha-helical content of ca. 45% was found for protein solubilised in the detergent Fos-12. Receptor in Fos-12 micelles was shown to bind endomorphin-1 with a K(D of 61 nM. A final yield of 0.17 mg functional protein per liter of culture was obtained.

  14. The Efficacy of LY293558 in Blocking Seizures and Associated Morphological, and Behavioral Alterations Induced by Soman in Immature Male Rats and the Role of the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor in Organophosphate Induced Seizures

    2015-01-30

    including seizures or status epilepticus (SE), and if left untreated results in long-term brain damage and neuropsychiatric symptoms or death. OPs...118 Abstract Exposure to nerve agents induces prolonged status epilepticus (SE), causing brain damage or death. Diazepam (DZP) is the presently...inhibition in the brain produces convulsive seizures and status epilepticus (SE), initiated by the excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors. If

  15. Expression of CCK Receptors in Carcinoma Gallbladder and Cholelithiasis: A Pilot Study.

    Faridi, Mohammad Shazib; Jaiswal, Mahabir Saran Das; Goel, Sudhir K

    2015-07-01

    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors are trophic for various gastrointestinal malignancies. Their role in gallbladder cancer has not been widely studied. To identify expression of CCK-A and CCK-B receptors in the tissue and blood of patients suffering from carcinoma (CA) gallbladder and gallstone disease and to compare expression of CCK A and B receptors in the gall bladder tissue and blood of healthy individuals and patients of CA gallbladder, and gallstone diseases. Forty nine subjects of both genders were recruited, comprising of 22 patients of CA gall bladder, 19 cases of cholelithiasis and, 8 normal gallbladders obtained from patients operated for trauma of the biliary system or Whipple's procedure. RNA extraction and cDNA formation for CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were carried out. Real Time PCR was performed on cDNA and threshold cycle (Ct) value of each sample was obtained and ΔCt was calculated. Chi-square test for comparing two groups and ANOVA test for comparing multiple groups were applied and if pgallbladder and there was no difference among them (p>0.05). This preliminary study showed higher expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of cholelithiasis and decreased expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of CA gallbladder as compared to normal gallbladder although it did not rise to statistical significance.

  16. Identification of neurons that express ghrelin receptors in autonomic pathways originating from the spinal cord.

    Furness, John B; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Hunne, Billie; Hirayama, Haruko; Callaghan, Brid P; Lomax, Alan E; Brock, James A

    2012-06-01

    Functional studies have shown that subsets of autonomic preganglionic neurons respond to ghrelin and ghrelin mimetics and in situ hybridisation has revealed receptor gene expression in the cell bodies of some preganglionic neurons. Our present goal has been to determine which preganglionic neurons express ghrelin receptors by using mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the promoter for the ghrelin receptor (also called growth hormone secretagogue receptor). The retrograde tracer Fast Blue was injected into target organs of reporter mice under anaesthesia to identify specific functional subsets of postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Cryo-sections were immunohistochemically stained by using anti-EGFP and antibodies to neuronal markers. EGFP was detected in nerve terminal varicosities in all sympathetic chain, prevertebral and pelvic ganglia and in the adrenal medulla. Non-varicose fibres associated with the ganglia were also immunoreactive. No postganglionic cell bodies contained EGFP. In sympathetic chain ganglia, most neurons were surrounded by EGFP-positive terminals. In the stellate ganglion, neurons with choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity, some being sudomotor neurons, lacked surrounding ghrelin-receptor-expressing terminals, although these terminals were found around other neurons. In the superior cervical ganglion, the ghrelin receptor terminals innervated subgroups of neurons including neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive neurons that projected to the anterior chamber of the eye. However, large NPY-negative neurons projecting to the acini of the submaxillary gland were not innervated by EGFP-positive varicosities. In the celiaco-superior mesenteric ganglion, almost all neurons were surrounded by positive terminals but the VIP-immunoreactive terminals of intestinofugal neurons were EGFP-negative. The pelvic ganglia contained groups of neurons without ghrelin receptor terminal innervation and other groups with

  17. Expression of fatty acid sensing G-protein coupled receptors in peripartal Holstein cows.

    Agrawal, Alea; Alharthi, Abdulrahman; Vailati-Riboni, Mario; Zhou, Zheng; Loor, Juan J

    2017-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), also referred as Free Fatty Acid Receptors (FFAR), are widely studied within human medicine as drug targets for metabolic disorders. To combat metabolic disorders prevalent in dairy cows during the transition period, which co-occur with negative energy balance and changes to lipid and glucose metabolism, it may be helpful to identify locations and roles of FFAR and other members of the GPCR family in bovine tissues. Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) of subcutaneous adipose, liver, and PMNL samples during the transition period (-10, +7, and +20 or +30 d) were used for expression profiling of medium- (MCFA) and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) receptors GPR120 and GPR40 , MCFA receptor GPR84 , and niacin receptor HCAR2/3 . Adipose samples were obtained from cows with either high (HI; BCS ≥ 3.75) or low (LO; BCS ≤ 3.25) body condition score (BCS) to examine whether FFAR expression is correlated with this indicator of health and body reserves. Supplementation of rumen-protected methionine (MET), which may improve immune function and production postpartum, was also compared with unsupplemented control (CON) cows for liver and blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) samples. In adipose tissue, GPR84 and GPR120 were differentially expressed over time, while GPR40 was not expressed; in PMNL, GPR40 was differentially expressed over time and between MET vs. CON, GPR84 expression differed only between dietary groups, and GPR120 was not expressed; in liver, GPCR were either not expressed or barely detectable. The data indicate that there is likely not a direct role in liver for the selected GPCR during the transition period, but they do play variable roles in adipose and PMN. In future, these receptors may prove useful targets and/or markers for peripartal metabolism and immunity.

  18. Fluoxetine induces vasodilatation of cerebral arterioles by co-modulating NO/muscarinic signalling

    Ofek, Keren; Schoknecht, Karl; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Heinemann, Uwe; Friedman, Alon; Soreq, Hermona

    2012-01-01

    Ischaemic stroke patients treated with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) show improved motor, cognitive and executive functions, but the underlying mechanism(s) are incompletely understood. Here, we report that cerebral arterioles in the rat brain superfused with therapeutically effective doses of the SSRI fluoxetine showed consistent, dose-dependent vasodilatation (by 1.2 to 1.6-fold), suppressible by muscarinic and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) antagonists [atropine, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)] but resistant to nicotinic and serotoninergic antagonists (mecamylamine, methylsergide). Fluoxetine administered 10–30 min. following experimental vascular photo-thrombosis increased arterial diameter (1.3–1.6), inducing partial, but lasting reperfusion of the ischaemic brain. In brain endothelial b.End.3 cells, fluoxetine induced rapid muscarinic receptor-dependent increases in intracellular [Ca2+] and promoted albumin- and eNOS-dependent nitric oxide (NO) production and HSP90 interaction. In vitro, fluoxetine suppressed recombinant human acetylcholinesterase (rhAChE) activity only in the presence of albumin. That fluoxetine induces vasodilatation of cerebral arterioles suggests co-promotion of endothelial muscarinic and nitric oxide signalling, facilitated by albumin-dependent inhibition of serum AChE. PMID:22697296

  19. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression in the guinea pig inner ear

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Wagner, Niels; Lidegaard Frederiksen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    , this study determines expression of EPO and EPOR in the inner ear of the guinea pig. Normal guinea pig inner ears were processed for immunohistochemistry, using poly-clonal antibodies against EPO and the EPO receptor. EPO expression was exclusively found in most, but not all spiral ganglion neurons...... expressed by several cell types within the guinea pig cochlea. We hypothesize on the existence of a local paracrine system and that EPO treatment may be feasible following inner ear damage....

  20. Reduced beta-adrenergic receptor activation decreases G-protein expression and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase activity in porcine heart.

    Ping, P; Gelzer-Bell, R; Roth, D A; Kiel, D; Insel, P A; Hammond, H K

    1995-01-01

    To determine whether beta-adrenergic receptor agonist activation influences guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding protein (G-protein) expression and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase activity in the heart, we examined the effects of chronic beta 1-adrenergic receptor antagonist treatment (bisoprolol, 0.2 mg/kg per d i.v., 35 d) on components of the myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor-G-protein-adenylyl cyclase pathway in porcine myocardium. Three novel alterations in cardiac adrenergic signaling as...

  1. Testosterone-Dependent Interaction between Androgen Receptor and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Induces Liver Receptor Homolog 1 Expression in Rat Granulosa Cells

    Wu, Yanguang; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Zhou, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Androgens play a major role in the regulation of normal ovarian function; however, they are also involved in the development of ovarian pathologies. These contrasting effects may involve a differential response of granulosa cells to the androgens testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). To determine the molecular pathways that mediate the distinct effects of T and DHT, we studied the expression of the liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) gene, which is differentially regulated by these steroids. We found that although both T and DHT stimulate androgen receptor (AR) binding to the LRH-1 promoter, DHT prevents T-mediated stimulation of LRH-1 expression. T stimulated the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and its interaction with the AR. T also promoted the recruitment of the AR/AHR complex to the LRH-1 promoter. These effects were not mimicked by DHT. We also observed that the activation of extracellular regulated kinases by T is required for AR and AHR interaction. In summary, T, but not DHT, stimulates AHR expression and the interaction between AHR and AR, leading to the stimulation of LRH-1 expression. These findings could explain the distinct response of granulosa cells to T and DHT and provide a molecular mechanism by which DHT negatively affects ovarian function. PMID:23689136

  2. Effects of targeted deletion of A1 adenosine receptors on postischemic cardiac function and expression of adenosine receptor subtypes.

    Morrison, R Ray; Teng, Bunyen; Oldenburg, Peter J; Katwa, Laxmansa C; Schnermann, Jurgen B; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2006-10-01

    To examine ischemic tolerance in the absence of A(1) adenosine receptors (A(1)ARs), isolated wild-type (WT) and A(1)AR knockout (A(1)KO) murine hearts underwent global ischemia-reperfusion, and injury was measured in terms of functional recovery and efflux of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Hearts were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR both at baseline and at intervals during ischemia-reperfusion to determine whether compensatory expression of other adenosine receptor subtypes occurs with either A(1)AR deletion and/or ischemia-reperfusion. A(1)KO hearts had higher baseline coronary flow (CF) and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) than WT hearts, whereas heart rate was unchanged by A(1)AR deletion. After 20 min of ischemia, CF was attenuated in A(1)KO compared with WT hearts, and this reduction persisted throughout reperfusion. Final recovery of LVDP was decreased in A(1)KO hearts (54.4 +/- 5.1 vs. WT 81.1 +/- 3.4% preischemic baseline) and correlated with higher diastolic pressure during reperfusion. Postischemic efflux of LDH was greater in A(1)KO compared with WT hearts. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated the absence of A(1)AR transcript in A(1)KO hearts, and the message for A(2A), A(2B), and A(3) adenosine receptors was similar in uninstrumented A(1)KO and WT hearts. Ischemia-reperfusion increased A(2B) mRNA expression 2.5-fold in both WT and A(1)KO hearts without changing A(1) or A(3) expression. In WT hearts, ischemia transiently doubled A(2A) mRNA, which returned to preischemic level upon reperfusion, a pattern not observed in A(1)KO hearts. Together, these data affirm the cardioprotective role of A(1)ARs and suggest that induced expression of other adenosine receptor subtypes may participate in the response to ischemia-reperfusion in isolated murine hearts.

  3. Original article Expression of Estrogen Alpha and Beta Receptors in ...

    mn

    Immunohistochemical Analysis ... Seven PCa cases contained foci of high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia ... Immunohistochemistry was used to test the protein expression of ER-α and ER-β ... interactions of estrogens and ER as well.

  4. Prostaglandin E2 stimulates Fas ligand expression via the EP1 receptor in colon cancer cells.

    O'Callaghan, G

    2012-02-03

    Fas ligand (FasL\\/CD95L) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily that triggers apoptosis following crosslinking of the Fas receptor. Despite studies strongly implicating tumour-expressed FasL as a major inhibitor of the anti-tumour immune response, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate FasL expression in tumours. In this study, we show that the cyclooxygenase (COX) signalling pathway, and in particular prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), plays a role in the upregulation of FasL expression in colon cancer. Suppression of either COX-2 or COX-1 by RNA interference in HCA-7 and HT29 colon tumour cells reduced FasL expression at both the mRNA and protein level. Conversely, stimulation with PGE(2) increased FasL expression and these cells showed increased cytotoxicity against Fas-sensitive Jurkat T cells. Prostaglandin E(2)-induced FasL expression was mediated by signalling via the EP1 receptor. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis using serial sections of human colon adenocarcinomas revealed a strong positive correlation between COX-2 and FasL (r=0.722; P<0.0001) expression, and between EP1 receptor and FasL (r=0.740; P<0.0001) expression, in the tumour cells. Thus, these findings indicate that PGE(2) positively regulates FasL expression in colon tumour cells, adding another pro-neoplastic activity to PGE(2).

  5. GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls

    Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of

  6. Age-dependent changes in expression of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in rat myocardium

    Schaffer, W.; Williams, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The expression of alpha 1 -adrenergic receptors within ventricular myocardium of rats ranging in age from 21 days of fetal life to 24 months after birth was measured from [ 125 I] 2-(β hydroxy phenyl) ethylaminomethyl tetralone binding isotherms. No difference was observed in binding affinity between any of the age groups studied. The number of alpha 1 -adrenergic receptors was found to be 60-120% higher in membranes from fetal or immature rats up to 25 days of age when compared with adult animals. The increased expression of alpha 1 -adrenergic receptors in the developing heart relative to that observed in adult heart is consistent with the hypothesis that alpha 1 -adrenergic receptor stimulation may modulate protein synthesis and growth in mammalian myocardium

  7. Expressions of Hippocampal Mineralocorticoid Receptor (MR) and Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) in the Single-Prolonged Stress-Rats

    Zhe, Du; Fang, Han; Yuxiu, Shi

    2008-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related mental disorder caused by traumatic experience. Single-prolonged stress (SPS) is one of the animal models proposed for PTSD. Rats exposed to SPS showed enhanced inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which has been reliably reproduced in patients with PTSD. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus regulate HPA axis by glucocorticoid negative feedback. Abnormalities in negative feedback are found in PTSD, suggesting that GR and MR might be involved in the pathophysiology of these disorders. In the present study, we performed immunohistochemistry and western blotting to examine the changes in hippocampal MR- and GR-expression after SPS. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased MR- and GR-immunoreactivity (ir) in the CA1 of hippocampus in SPS animals. Change in GR sub-distribution was also observed, where GR-ir was shifted from nucleus to cytoplasm in SPS rats. Western blotting showed that SPS induced significantly decreased MR- and GR-protein in the whole hippocampus, although the degree of decreased expression of both receptors was different. Meanwhile, we also found the MR/GR ratio decreased in SPS rats. In general, SPS induced down-regulation of MR- and GR-expression. These findings suggest that MR and GR play critical roles in affecting hippocampal function. Changes in MR/GR ratio may be relevant for behavioral syndrome in PTSD

  8. Expression of G(alpha)(s) proteins and TSH receptor signalling in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules with TSH receptor mutations.

    Holzapfel, Hans-Peter; Bergner, Beate; Wonerow, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2002-07-01

    Constitutively activating mutations of the thyrotrophin receptor (TSHR) are the main molecular cause of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HTNs). The G protein coupling is an important and critical step in the TSHR signalling which mainly includes G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) and G(alpha)(q)/11 proteins. We investigated the in vitro consequences of overexpressing G(alpha) proteins on signalling of the wild-type (WT) or mutated TSHR. Moreover, we investigated whether changes in G(alpha) protein expression are pathophysiologically relevant in HTNs or cold thyroid nodules (CTNs). Wild-type TSH receptor and mutated TSH receptors were coexpressed with G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) or G(alpha)(q)/11, and cAMP and inositol phosphate (IP) production was measured after stimulation with TSH. The expression of G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) and G(alpha)(q)/11 proteins was examined by Western blotting in 28 HTNs and 14 CTNs. Coexpression of G(alpha)(s) with the WT TSH receptor in COS 7 cells significantly increased the basal and TSH-stimulated cAMP accumulation while coexpression of the G(alpha)(q) or G(alpha)11 protein significantly increased the production of cAMP and inositol triphosphate (IP(3)). The coexpression of the TSH receptor mutants (I486F, DEL613-621), known to couple constitutively to G(alpha)(s) and G(alpha)(q) with G(alpha)(s) and G(alpha)(q)/11, significantly increased the basal and stimulated cAMP and IP(3) accumulation. Coexpression of the TSH receptor mutant V556F with G(alpha)(s) only increased the basal and stimulated cAMP production while its coexpression with G(alpha)(q)/11 increased the basal and stimulated IP(3) signalling. The expression of G(alpha)(s) protein subunits determined by Western blotting was significantly decreased in 14 HTNs with a constitutively activating TSH receptor mutation in comparison with the corresponding surrounding tissue, while in 14 HTNs without TSH receptor or G(alpha)(s) protein mutation and in 14 CTNs the expression of G

  9. Change of expression of renal alpha1-adrenergic receptor and angiotensin II receptor subtypes with aging in rats.

    Li, Yan-Fang; Cao, Xiao-Jing; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Lin, Shu-Peng; Shi, Shu-Tian

    2010-04-01

    It has been considered that the functional decline of renal vasoconstriction during senescence is associated with an alteration in renal alpha1-adrenergic receptor (alpha1-AR) expression. While alterations in renal angiotensin II receptor (ATR) expression was considered to have an effect on renal structure and function, until now little information has been available concerning alpha1-AR a