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Sample records for musa species electronic

  1. Insights into the Musa genome: Syntenic relationships to rice and between Musa species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piffanelli, P.; Ciampi, A.Y.; Silva, F.R.; Santos, C.R.; Dhont, A.; Vilarinhos, A.; Pappas, G.; Souza, M.T.; Milller, R.N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Musa species (Zingiberaceae, Zingiberales) including bananas and plantains are collectively the fourth most important crop in developing countries. Knowledge concerning Musa genome structure and the origin of distinct cultivars has greatly increased over the last few years. Until now, however, no

  2. Insights into the Musa genome: Syntenic relationships to rice and between Musa species

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    Althoff Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musa species (Zingiberaceae, Zingiberales including bananas and plantains are collectively the fourth most important crop in developing countries. Knowledge concerning Musa genome structure and the origin of distinct cultivars has greatly increased over the last few years. Until now, however, no large-scale analyses of Musa genomic sequence have been conducted. This study compares genomic sequence in two Musa species with orthologous regions in the rice genome. Results We produced 1.4 Mb of Musa sequence from 13 BAC clones, annotated and analyzed them along with 4 previously sequenced BACs. The 443 predicted genes revealed that Zingiberales genes share GC content and distribution characteristics with eudicot and Poaceae genomes. Comparison with rice revealed microsynteny regions that have persisted since the divergence of the Commelinid orders Poales and Zingiberales at least 117 Mya. The previously hypothesized large-scale duplication event in the common ancestor of major cereal lineages within the Poaceae was verified. The divergence time distributions for Musa-Zingiber (Zingiberaceae, Zingiberales orthologs and paralogs provide strong evidence for a large-scale duplication event in the Musa lineage after its divergence from the Zingiberaceae approximately 61 Mya. Comparisons of genomic regions from M. acuminata and M. balbisiana revealed highly conserved genome structure, and indicated that these genomes diverged circa 4.6 Mya. Conclusion These results point to the utility of comparative analyses between distantly-related monocot species such as rice and Musa for improving our understanding of monocot genome evolution. Sequencing the genome of M. acuminata would provide a strong foundation for comparative genomics in the monocots. In addition a genome sequence would aid genomic and genetic analyses of cultivated Musa polyploid genotypes in research aimed at localizing and cloning genes controlling important agronomic

  3. Wild Musa Species Collection of Purwodadi Botanic Garden: Inventory and Its Morpho - taxonomic Review

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    Lia Hapsari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia, being part of the center of origin of bananas (Musaceae, has a large number diversity of bananas both wild seeded species and edible seedless cultivated varieties. Inventory of wild Musa species in Purwodadi Botanic Garden has been conducted through compiling data records from PBG’s Registration section, field inspection and observation to living collections in the garden, herbarium specimens and literature studies. The results show that total 17 wild Musa accessions has been recorded planted in Purwodadi Botanic Garden since 1990 until 2012; comprises of 8 Musa acuminata sub species, 2 Musa balbisiana forms, 1 Musa ornata, 1 Musa troglodytarum, 1 Musa borneensis and 4 unidentified species Musa spp.; but only 8 living accessions remained in 2012. Morphotaxonomic review of those 8 wild Musa accessions remained will be discussed in this paper including their geographical distributions. According to its differentiated morphological characteristics observations, it is known that there are three accessions were resembled cultivars and one unidentified species have been determined its species level, so that their registration identity needs to be revised. It is important next to prioritize ex-situ conservation of wild Musa species not yet collected in Purwodadi Botanic Garden especially from Eastern Indonesia.

  4. Lipophilic phytochemicals from banana fruits of several Musa species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Carla; Santos, Sónia A O; Villaverde, Juan J; Oliveira, Lúcia; Nunes, Alberto; Cordeiro, Nereida; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition of the lipophilic extract of ripe pulp of banana fruit from several banana cultivars belonging to the Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana species (namely 'Chinese Cavendish', 'Giant Cavendish', 'Dwarf Red', 'Grand Nain', 'Eilon', 'Gruesa', 'Silver', 'Ricasa', 'Williams' and 'Zelig') was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the first time. The banana cultivars showed similar amounts of lipophilic extractives (ca. 0.4% of dry material weight) as well as qualitative chemical compositions. The major groups of compounds identified in these fractions were fatty acids and sterols making up 68.6-84.3% and 11.1-28.0%, respectively, of the total amount of lipophilic components. Smaller amounts of long chain aliphatic alcohols and α-tocopherol were also identified. These results are a relevant contribution for the valorisation of these banana cultivars as sources of valuable phytochemicals (ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and sterols) with well-established beneficial nutritional and health effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-05-09

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.

  6. Analysis of genetic variation in different banana ( Musa species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The banana (Musa acuminata Colla) is considered as an important crop plant due to its high economic value as good dietary source. Here, we analyze the genetic relationship of four different banana varieties that are cultivated in south India. Random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) fingerprinting of these banana ...

  7. Species of beetles (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae associated to banana (Musa spp. in Ceballos, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

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    Maria Luisa Sisne Luis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A white light trap was placed in bananas plantations, according to Sisne, 2009 and MINAG, 1985, in the Citric enterprise of Ciego de Ávila during the period between May and July of 2010 with the objective of determining the composition of genus and species of the order Coleoptera family Scarabaeidae associated to the agroecosystem. The species Cyclocephala cubana Chapin, Phyllophaga puberula Duval, and Phyllophaga patruelis Chev. are associated to bananas crops in these areas.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Musa species reveals divergence and neofunctionalisation during evolution.

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    Lakhwani, Deepika; Pandey, Ashutosh; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Asif, Mehar Hasan

    2016-01-06

    AP2/ERF domain containing transcription factor super family is one of the important regulators in the plant kingdom. The involvement of AP2/ERF family members has been elucidated in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out genome-wide analysis to identify members of AP2/ERF family in Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) and changes leading to neofunctionalisation of genes. Analysis identified 265 and 318 AP2/ERF encoding genes in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana respectively which were further classified into ERF, DREB, AP2, RAV and Soloist groups. Comparative analysis indicated that AP2/ERF family has undergone duplication, loss and divergence during evolution and speciation of the Musa A and B genomes. We identified nine genes which are up-regulated during fruit ripening and might be components of the regulatory machinery operating during ethylene-dependent ripening in banana. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the genes suggests that different regulatory mechanisms might be involved in peel and pulp ripening process through recruiting specific ERFs in these tissues. Analysis also suggests that MaRAV-6 and MaERF026 have structurally diverged from their M. balbisiana counterparts and have attained new functions during ripening.

  9. Musa sebagai Model Genom

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    RITA MEGIA

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available During the meeting in Arlington, USA in 2001, the scientists grouped in PROMUSA agreed with the launching of the Global Musa Genomics Consortium. The Consortium aims to apply genomics technologies to the improvement of this important crop. These genome projects put banana as the third model species after Arabidopsis and rice that will be analyzed and sequenced. Comparing to Arabidopsis and rice, banana genome provides a unique and powerful insight into structural and in functional genomics that could not be found in those two species. This paper discussed these subjects-including the importance of banana as the fourth main food in the world, the evolution and biodiversity of this genetic resource and its parasite.

  10. Caracterização do grânulo de amido de bananas (Musa AAA-Nanicão e Musa AAB-Terra Characterization of starch granules from bananas Musa AAA-Nanicão and Musa AAB-Terra

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    M.C.J. Freitas

    2005-06-01

    moderadas entre si e bastante distintas em relação ao amido de milho, não explicaram a alta resistência dos amidos das bananas à digestão enzimática. Os parâmetros obtidos nas análises permitiram, pela primeira vez avaliar as características e diferenças entre grânulos de amido de espécies distintas de banana e suas relações ao amido de milho.Banana starch has been studied in the area of Nutrition ever since the concept of RS was introduced. The starches of Musa Type AAA-Nanicão and Musa Type AAB-Terra were characterized according to their physiological responses [12]. As a continuation, this study presents other physical and morphological features of starch granules from both species of banana, comparing them with native starch from commercial corn. The banana starches were extracted according to CHIANG, CHU & CHU [3]. The morphology of the granules was examined after hydrolysis in vitro pancreatic alpha-amylase. The respective X-ray amylogram and diffractogram were prepared. The length of the starch granules from Musa Type AAA-Nanicão was 30-40µm. The starch granules from Musa Type AAB-Terra also presenting an oval, elongated shape, were slightly shorter between 20-30µm. The enzymatic attack in vitro initiated on the once smooth surface and the corrosion caused superficial and apical grooves. A scanning electron microscopy showed that the 24 hour hydrolysis in vitro was limited, and occurred mostly in the amorphous layers of both species. The pattern of corrosion was distinctly different in the corn starch. In the viscosimeter the banana starch suspensions demonstrated a great capacity for hydration and a smaller capacity for retrogradation as compared to corn starch, especially the starch from Musa Type AAA-Nanicão; the starch from Musa Type AAB-Terra presented a greater paste stability. In the X-ray diffraction analysis, the banana starch granules were shown to be the standard type B and C for Musa Type AAA-Nanicão and Musa Type AAB

  11. Use of embryogenic cell suspension and meristem-tip cultures for mutation breeding of apomictic Musa species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, F.J.; Afza, R.; Duren, M. van

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Breeding by crossing is difficult for banana and plantain. The plants are heterozygous, therefore mutagenic treatment may uncover a recessive allele by mutating or deleting a corresponding dominant allele. Meristem tips were excised from in vitro growing shoots and used for mutation experiments. Induction was carried out by irradiating shoot tips with γ rays and/or by treatment of explants with ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS). Cell suspension was initiated from corm and leaf tissue excised from in vitro grown plantlets. Mutagenised cell suspensions were derived from leaf and corm tissues irradiated with 60 Co γ rays - (10 to 60 Gy, 8 Gy/min). Musa clones exhibited differences in radiosensitivity and post-irradiation recovery. Doses of 20 to 40 Gy seem suitable for mutation induction. The EMS concentration of 25 mM for 4 hours was found effective for isolated shoot tips. Considerable phenotypic variation was observed among plants regenerated from in vitro shoot tips after mutagenic treatment. Leaf and corm explants kept their morphogenic ability in embryogenic cell suspensions after irradiation up to 25 Gy. (author)

  12. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Musa sp. leaf extracts against multidrug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection.

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    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Mustaffa, Muhammed

    2013-09-01

    To investigate different Musa sp. leave extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol were evaluated for antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infection by agar well diffusion method and also antioxidant activities. The four different Musa species leaves were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antibacterial susceptibility test, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum inhibitory bacterial concentration were determined by agar well diffusion method. Total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity was determined. All the Musa sp. extracts showed moderate antibacterial activities expect Musa paradisiaca with the inhibition zone ranging from 8.0 to 18.6 mm. Among four species ethyl acetate extracts of Musa paradisiaca showed highest activity against tested pathogens particularly E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Citrobacter sp. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were within the value of 15.63- 250 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentrations were ranging from 31.25- 250 µg/mL. Antioxidant activity of Musa acuminate exhibited maximum activity among other three Musa species. The present study concluded that among the different Musa species, Musa paradisiaca displayed efficient antibacterial activity followed by Musa acuminata against multi-drug resistant nosocomial infection causing pathogens. Further, an extensive study is needed to identify the bioactive compounds, mode of action and toxic effect in vivo of Musa sp.

  13. Fusarium musae infected banana fruits as potential source of human fusariosis: May occur more frequently than we might think and hypotheses about infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triest, David; Piérard, Denis; De Cremer, Koen; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The banana fruit infecting fungus Fusarium musae was originally known as a distinct population within Fusarium verticillioides. However, recently, Fusarium musae was installed as a separate species and the first cases of human infection associated with Fusarium musae were found. In this article, we report an additional survey indicating that human pathogenic Fusarium musae infections may occur more frequently than we might think. Moreover, we evaluate the hypotheses on how infection can be acquired. A first hypothesis is that banana fruits act as carriers of Fusarium musae spores and thereby be the source of human infection with Fusarium musae. Acquisition is likely to be caused through contact with Fusarium musae contaminated banana fruits, either being imported or after traveling of the patient to a banana-producing country. An alternative hypothesis is that Fusarium musae is not only present on banana fruits, but also on other plant hosts or environmental sources. PMID:27195070

  14. Assessment of glycemic potential ofMusa paradisiaca stem juice.

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    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Kesari, Achyut Narayan; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Watal, Geeta

    2007-09-01

    The present study reveals the effect of Musa paradisiaca stem juice on blood glucose level (BGL) of normal & diabetic rats. The dose of 500 mg/kg bodyweight produces a significant rise of 28.3% in blood glucose level after 6h of oral administration in normal rats. Whereas, in sub diabetic rats the same dose produces a rise of 16.4% in blood glucose levels within 1h during glucose tolerance test (GTT) and a rise of 16% after 4 h in fasting blood glucose levels of severe diabetic cases. These results were unexpected and important to report as other species of Musa like Musa sapientum has been reported for its hypoglycemic effect.

  15. Results of a Musa mapping project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagoda, P.J.L.; Noyer, J.L.; Baurens, F.C.

    1998-01-01

    A completed map, based on two selfed progenies from two banana cultivars (M53 and SFB5) is presented (roughly 1200 cM). More than three hundred markers are linked in 11 linkage groups representing the genome (2n=22) of Musa acuminata. Roughly one third of the markers are co-dominant restriction fragment polymorphisms (RFLPs; one hundred) or micro satellites (thirty). Two thirds of the markers are dominant amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs; 10% could be considered to be co-dominant). The mean linkage distance is 3 cM, but marker density still should be increased on a couple of linkage groups. Particularities for a mapping job in banana are discussed. Due to Musa acuminata sub-species specific translocations, up to 36% of all the markers tested show important segregation distortions. The need for a cooperative mapping initiative based on a proposed ''frame-map'' harbouring evenly spaced co-dominant ''anchor'' markers is proposed. CIRAD has published 45 sequence tagged micro satellite sites (STMS) in the EMBL database which are accessible at: ''http://www.ebi.ac.uk/'' using the keywords LAGODA and MICROSATELLITE (EMBL accessions X87258 to X87265, X90740 to X90750 and Z85950 to Z85977). (author)

  16. Banana (Musa. spp.) strain HD-1 appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longyan, G.; Xinguo, L.; Lingxia, W.; Xuefei, J.

    2016-01-01

    Being one of the important tropical and subtropical fruit trees, banana (Musa spp.) belongs to the family Musaceae and the order Scitaminae with two genera, Musa and Ensete. In a field survey, research team has discovered a potential banana mutant strain HD-1 with a sound economic value. The results of the finding are as follows: based on Simmonds classification, the pseudostem of banana strain HD-1 is relatively short and purplish red; its upright outward petiole groove has red edges and wraps its pseudostem loosely. Its ploidy is 3, AAA type. Karyotype analysis shows that the number of chromosomes is 33, the karyotype formula is 2n=3x=33=2L + 3 M2 + 4 M1 + 2 S, HD-1 is classified as 1B type. With the help of ISSR molecular markers, we find thatbanana HD-1 has the closest relationship with Pubei and Tianbao dwarf banana; the similarity coefficient is 0.81. In an artificial simulation tests of cold, drought and salt resistance environment changes of physiological and biochemical indexes indicate that HD-1 exhibits stronger defense capability than Brazil banana. By way of inoculation with injury of root dipping method, we respectively treat two kinds of banana seedlings inoculated Banana Fusarium wilt race 4 small species. The results show that their resistance evaluation scores are 3 and 4, disease levels are susceptible and high sensitivity respectively. We conclude that HD-1 has stronger resistance ability to Fusarium wilt than Brazil banana. (author)

  17. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-08-17

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding.

  18. The concept of ’Musa-pelo and the medicinal use of shrubby legumes (Fabaceae in Lesotho

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    A. Moteetee

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Lesotho, 20 plant species are commonly known as  'Musa-pelo. The term literally means ‘the one who brings back or tums around the heart’.  'Musa-pelo is traditionally used as a sedative and is given as a first aid treatment to bereaved people who are under severe psychological duress or stress. Of the 20 species known as  'Musa-pelo, 17 belong to nine genera of the Fabaceae  (Argyrolobium, Crotalaria, Indigofera, Lessertia, Lotononis, Melolobium, Sutherlandia, Tephrosia and  Trifolium. The three remaining species namely Cleome monophylla, Heliophila carnosa and  Cysticapnos pruinosa, belong to the families Capparaceae, Brassicaceae and Fumariaceae, respectively. In this paper, the concept of 'Musa-pelo in traditional medicine is explored.

  19. Banana infecting fungus, Fusarium musae, is also an opportunistic human pathogen: are bananas potential carriers and source of fusariosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triest, David; Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    During re-identification of Fusarium strains in the BCCM™/IHEM fungal collection by multilocus sequence-analysis we observed that five strains, previously identified as Fusarium verticillioides, were Fusarium musae, a species described in 2011 from banana fruits. Four strains were isolated from blood samples or biopsies of immune-suppressed patients and one was isolated from the clinical environment, all originating from different hospitals in Belgium or France, 2001-2008. The F. musae identity of our isolates was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences of type material. Absence of the gene cluster necessary for fumonisin biosynthesis, characteristic to F. musae, was also the case for our isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing revealed no important differences in their susceptibility compared to clinical F. verticillioides strains and terbinafine was the most effective drug. Additional clinical F. musae strains were searched by performing BLAST queries in GenBank. Eight strains were found, of which six were keratitis cases from the U.S. multistate contact lens-associated outbreak in 2005 and 2006. The two other strains were also from the U.S., causing either a skin infection or sinusitis. This report is the first to describe F. musae as causative agent of superficial and opportunistic, disseminated infections in humans. Imported bananas might act as carriers of F. musae spores and be a potential source of infection with F. musae in humans. An alternative hypothesis is that the natural distribution of F. musae is geographically a lot broader than originally suspected and F. musae is present on different plant hosts. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  20. Fusarium ershadii sp. nov., a Pathogen on Asparagus officinalis and Musa acuminata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papizadeh, Moslem; Diepeningen, van Anne D.; Zamanizadeh, Hamid Reza; Saba, Farkhondeh; Ramezani, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Two Fusarium strains, isolated from Asparagus in Italy and Musa in Vietnam respectively, proved to be members of an undescribed clade within the Fusarium solani species complex based on phylogenetic species recognition on ITS, partial RPB2 and EF-1α gene fragments. Macro- and micro-morphological

  1. Genetic relationship among Musa genotypes revealed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... A banana germplasm was established containing 44 Musa genotypes collected from various locations in Malaysia. To detect their genetic variation and to rule out duplicates among cultivar, microsatellite markers were used in their analysis. The microsatellite profiles of 44 Musa genotypes of various origins.

  2. A new species of decorator crabs, genus Menaethiops Alcock, 1895 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea: Epialthidae), from Abu-Musa Island, Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderloo, Reza

    2015-03-02

    Menaethiops abumusa n. sp. is closely similar to M. bicornis Alcock, 1985, and M. gadaniensis Kazmi & Tirmizi, 1999, regarding the relatively contiguous rostral spines. The new species is easily distinguishable from its two congeners by having distinctly round angles of orbital eaves and distally divergent rostral spines. Whereas in M. bicornis, and M. gadaniensis, the angles of orbital eaves are anteriorly produced and rostral spines are closely attached to each other along their entire length.  Other morphological differences include the carapace spination/granulation, basal antennal segments, and morphology of the male's first gonopod. Menaethiops gadaniensis was described from Gadani, Pakistan and was only known from the type locality, but is here recorded for the first time from the Gulf of Oman.

  3. Genetic resources in Musa bananas and improvement of their disease resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges Fuentes, O.L.

    1977-01-01

    The cultivated bananas belong to the genus Musa and it is the wild species Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana which contributed to the origin of the sorts used as food. Most of these are triploids and possess a high degree of sterility. The sources of variation that are of importance for genetic improvement of the bananas are (1) hereditary differences between the cultivated clones; (2) difference between species and sub-species; (3) differences between the primitive cultivars derived from Musa acuminata, and (4) mutations that can be artiificially induced. The bananas are attacked by many diseases. Their vulnerability to certain diseases is highly significant in view of the extreme genetic uniformity of the commercial crops and the absence of resistant genes. In the past the wild species and the diploids used as food served as sources of resistance. However, efforts to induce resistance in the cultivated triploid bananas have not been successful. The use of mutagenic agents is proposed as a possible way of improving genetic variability in banana cultivation. (author)

  4. Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes. ... This experiment was designed to study the floral structure, pollen morphology and the potential pollen viability of five Musa genotypes obtained ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  5. Transport of secondary electrons and reactive species in ion tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdutovich, Eugene; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2015-08-01

    The transport of reactive species brought about by ions traversing tissue-like medium is analysed analytically. Secondary electrons ejected by ions are capable of ionizing other molecules; the transport of these generations of electrons is studied using the random walk approximation until these electrons remain ballistic. Then, the distribution of solvated electrons produced as a result of interaction of low-energy electrons with water molecules is obtained. The radial distribution of energy loss by ions and secondary electrons to the medium yields the initial radial dose distribution, which can be used as initial conditions for the predicted shock waves. The formation, diffusion, and chemical evolution of hydroxyl radicals in liquid water are studied as well. COST Action Nano-IBCT: Nano-scale Processes Behind Ion-Beam Cancer Therapy.

  6. Evaluation of genetic diversity between 27 banana cultivars (Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivated bananas (Musa spp.) are mostly diploid or triploid cultivars with various combinations of the A and B genomes inherited from their diploid ancestors Musa acuminata Colla. and Musa balbisiana. Colla. respectively. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to establish the relatedness of 27 ...

  7. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hont, Angélique; Denoeud, France; Aury, Jean-Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Carreel, Françoise; Garsmeur, Olivier; Noel, Benjamin; Bocs, Stéphanie; Droc, Gaëtan; Rouard, Mathieu; Da Silva, Corinne; Jabbari, Kamel; Cardi, Céline; Poulain, Julie; Souquet, Marlène; Labadie, Karine; Jourda, Cyril; Lengellé, Juliette; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Alberti, Adriana; Bernard, Maria; Correa, Margot; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Mckain, Michael R; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Burgess, Diane; Freeling, Mike; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Chabannes, Matthieu; Wicker, Thomas; Panaud, Olivier; Barbosa, Jose; Hribova, Eva; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Habas, Rémy; Rivallan, Ronan; Francois, Philippe; Poiron, Claire; Kilian, Andrzej; Burthia, Dheema; Jenny, Christophe; Bakry, Frédéric; Brown, Spencer; Guignon, Valentin; Kema, Gert; Dita, Miguel; Waalwijk, Cees; Joseph, Steeve; Dievart, Anne; Jaillon, Olivier; Leclercq, Julie; Argout, Xavier; Lyons, Eric; Almeida, Ana; Jeridi, Mouna; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Roux, Nicolas; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Weissenbach, Jean; Ruiz, Manuel; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Quétier, Francis; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Wincker, Patrick

    2012-08-09

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations, and selection of diploid and triploid seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a single triploid genotype (Cavendish). Pests and diseases have gradually become adapted, representing an imminent danger for global banana production. Here we describe the draft sequence of the 523-megabase genome of a Musa acuminata doubled-haploid genotype, providing a crucial stepping-stone for genetic improvement of banana. We detected three rounds of whole-genome duplications in the Musa lineage, independently of those previously described in the Poales lineage and the one we detected in the Arecales lineage. This first monocotyledon high-continuity whole-genome sequence reported outside Poales represents an essential bridge for comparative genome analysis in plants. As such, it clarifies commelinid-monocotyledon phylogenetic relationships, reveals Poaceae-specific features and has led to the discovery of conserved non-coding sequences predating monocotyledon-eudicotyledon divergence.

  8. Molecular analysis and genomic organization of major DNA satellites in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Humplíková, Lenka; Christelová, Pavla; Suchánková, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences consist of tandemly arranged repetitive units up to thousands nucleotides long in head-to-tail orientation. The evolutionary processes by which satellites arise and evolve include unequal crossing over, gene conversion, transposition and extra chromosomal circular DNA formation. Large blocks of satellite DNA are often observed in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes and are a typical component of centromeric and telomeric regions. Satellite-rich loci may show specific banding patterns and facilitate chromosome identification and analysis of structural chromosome changes. Unlike many other genomes, nuclear genomes of banana (Musa spp.) are poor in satellite DNA and the information on this class of DNA remains limited. The banana cultivars are seed sterile clones originating mostly from natural intra-specific crosses within M. acuminata (A genome) and inter-specific crosses between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana (B genome). Previous studies revealed the closely related nature of the A and B genomes, including similarities in repetitive DNA. In this study we focused on two main banana DNA satellites, which were previously identified in silico. Their genomic organization and molecular diversity was analyzed in a set of nineteen Musa accessions, including representatives of A, B and S (M. schizocarpa) genomes and their inter-specific hybrids. The two DNA satellites showed a high level of sequence conservation within, and a high homology between Musa species. FISH with probes for the satellite DNA sequences, rRNA genes and a single-copy BAC clone 2G17 resulted in characteristic chromosome banding patterns in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana which may aid in determining genomic constitution in interspecific hybrids. In addition to improving the knowledge on Musa satellite DNA, our study increases the number of cytogenetic markers and the number of individual chromosomes, which can be identified in Musa.

  9. Fusarium musae as cause of superficial and deep-seated human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposto, M C; Prigitano, A; Tortorano, A M

    2016-12-01

    BLAST analysis in GenBank of 60 Fusarium verticillioides clinical isolates using the sequence of translation elongation factor 1-alpha allowed the identification of four F. musae confirming that this species is not a rare etiology of superficial and deep infections and that its habitat is not restricted to banana fruits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the banana family (Musaceae) inferred from multiple nuclear and chloroplast DNA fragments, with a special reference to the genus Musa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Feng; Häkkinen, Markku; Yuan, Yong-Ming; Hao, Gang; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2010-10-01

    Musaceae is a small paleotropical family. Three genera have been recognised within this family although the generic delimitations remain controversial. Most species of the family (around 65 species) have been placed under the genus Musa and its infrageneric classification has long been disputed. In this study, we obtained nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast (atpB-rbcL, rps16, and trnL-F) DNA sequences of 36 species (42 accessions of ingroups representing three genera) together with 10 accessions of ingroups retrieved from GenBank database and 4 accessions of outgroups, to construct the phylogeny of the family, with a special reference to the infrageneric classification of the genus Musa. Our phylogenetic analyses elaborated previous results in supporting the monophyly of the family and suggested that Musella and Ensete may be congeneric or at least closely related, but refuted the previous infrageneric classification of Musa. None of the five sections of Musa previously defined based on morphology was recovered as monophyletic group in the molecular phylogeny. Two infrageneric clades were identified, which corresponded well to the basic chromosome numbers of x=11 and 10/9/7, respectively: the former clade comprises species from the sections Musa and Rhodochlamys while the latter contains sections of Callimusa, Australimusa, and Ingentimusa. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A saturated SSR/DArT linkage map of Musa acuminata addressing genome rearrangements among bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Musa is a large species complex which includes cultivars at diploid and triploid levels. These sterile and vegetatively propagated cultivars are based on the A genome from Musa acuminata, exclusively for sweet bananas such as Cavendish, or associated with the B genome (Musa balbisiana in cooking bananas such as Plantain varieties. In M. acuminata cultivars, structural heterozygosity is thought to be one of the main causes of sterility, which is essential for obtaining seedless fruits but hampers breeding. Only partial genetic maps are presently available due to chromosomal rearrangements within the parents of the mapping populations. This causes large segregation distortions inducing pseudo-linkages and difficulties in ordering markers in the linkage groups. The present study aims at producing a saturated linkage map of M. acuminata, taking into account hypotheses on the structural heterozygosity of the parents. Results An F1 progeny of 180 individuals was obtained from a cross between two genetically distant accessions of M. acuminata, 'Borneo' and 'Pisang Lilin' (P. Lilin. Based on the gametic recombination of each parent, two parental maps composed of SSR and DArT markers were established. A significant proportion of the markers (21.7% deviated (p Conclusions We propose a synthetic map with 11 linkage groups containing 489 markers (167 SSRs and 322 DArTs covering 1197 cM. This first saturated map is proposed as a "reference Musa map" for further analyses. We also propose two complete parental maps with interpretations of structural rearrangements localized on the linkage groups. The structural heterozygosity in P. Lilin is hypothesized to result from a duplication likely accompanied by an inversion on another chromosome. This paper also illustrates a methodological approach, transferable to other species, to investigate the mapping of structural rearrangements and determine their consequences on marker

  12. A saturated SSR/DArT linkage map of Musa acuminata addressing genome rearrangements among bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippolyte, Isabelle; Bakry, Frederic; Seguin, Marc; Gardes, Laetitia; Rivallan, Ronan; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Jenny, Christophe; Perrier, Xavier; Carreel, Françoise; Argout, Xavier; Piffanelli, Pietro; Khan, Imtiaz A; Miller, Robert N G; Pappas, Georgios J; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Matsumoto, Takashi; De Bernardinis, Veronique; Huttner, Eric; Kilian, Andrzej; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; D'Hont, Angélique; Cote, François; Courtois, Brigitte; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe

    2010-04-13

    The genus Musa is a large species complex which includes cultivars at diploid and triploid levels. These sterile and vegetatively propagated cultivars are based on the A genome from Musa acuminata, exclusively for sweet bananas such as Cavendish, or associated with the B genome (Musa balbisiana) in cooking bananas such as Plantain varieties. In M. acuminata cultivars, structural heterozygosity is thought to be one of the main causes of sterility, which is essential for obtaining seedless fruits but hampers breeding. Only partial genetic maps are presently available due to chromosomal rearrangements within the parents of the mapping populations. This causes large segregation distortions inducing pseudo-linkages and difficulties in ordering markers in the linkage groups. The present study aims at producing a saturated linkage map of M. acuminata, taking into account hypotheses on the structural heterozygosity of the parents. An F1 progeny of 180 individuals was obtained from a cross between two genetically distant accessions of M. acuminata, 'Borneo' and 'Pisang Lilin' (P. Lilin). Based on the gametic recombination of each parent, two parental maps composed of SSR and DArT markers were established. A significant proportion of the markers (21.7%) deviated (p DArTs) covering 1197 cM. This first saturated map is proposed as a "reference Musa map" for further analyses. We also propose two complete parental maps with interpretations of structural rearrangements localized on the linkage groups. The structural heterozygosity in P. Lilin is hypothesized to result from a duplication likely accompanied by an inversion on another chromosome. This paper also illustrates a methodological approach, transferable to other species, to investigate the mapping of structural rearrangements and determine their consequences on marker segregation.

  13. In vitro multiplication of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... with IAA 2.00 mg/l resulted in maximum establishment of cultures in lesser time. MS medium + BAP. 4.00 mg/l + ... is, Musa acuminata (Malaysia) and Musa balbsiana. (India) (Georget et al., 2000). Banana plantlets produced.

  14. Postharvest control of anthracnose lesions and its causative agent, Colletotrichum musae by some oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwana, Humaira

    2018-03-31

    Anthracnose of banana is incited by Colletotrichum  musae. It is recognized as one the most destructive diseases of mature and immature banana fruits, resulting in huge economic losses all over the world. Present research deals with screening some oils both in vitro and in vivo for their antifungal activity against C.musae. Clove oil (0.1µl/ml) completely arrested the conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. musae. Fenugreek and almond oil exhibited significant inhibition of mycelial growth, 61% and 57% at a concentration of 2µl/ml. However, olive oil was least inhibitory on the test fungi. Clove oil also a showed marked reduction in anthracnose lesions on banana fruits, thereby suggesting disease control. Scanning electron microscopy revealed severely damaged mycelium and conidia. FTIR studies show the presence of important bands representing phenols, terpenes, aldehydes, and ketones. Based on our findings; clove, fenugreek and almond oil demonstrated fungicidal and fungistatic activities against anthracnose pathogen. Hence, these oils can be considered as potential alternatives to chemical treatments.

  15. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Musa WRKY Gene Family: Evolution and Differential Expression during Development and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ridhi; Pandey, Ashutosh; Trivedi, Prabodh K; Asif, Mehar H

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY gene family plays an important role in the development and stress responses in plants. As information is not available on the WRKY gene family in Musa species, genome-wide analysis has been carried out in this study using available genomic information from two species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Analysis identified 147 and 132 members of the WRKY gene family in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana, respectively. Evolutionary analysis suggests that the WRKY gene family expanded much before the speciation in both the species. Most of the orthologs retained in two species were from the γ duplication event which occurred prior to α and β genome-wide duplication (GWD) events. Analysis also suggests that subtle changes in nucleotide sequences during the course of evolution have led to the development of new motifs which might be involved in neo-functionalization of different WRKY members in two species. Expression and cis-regulatory motif analysis suggest possible involvement of Group II and Group III WRKY members during various stresses and growth/development including fruit ripening process respectively.

  16. Genome-wide analysis of the Musa WRKY gene family: evolution and differential expression during development and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhi eGoel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The WRKY gene family plays an important role in the development and stress responses in plants. As information is not available on the WRKY gene family in Musa species, genome-wide analysis has been carried out in this study using available genomic information from two species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Analysis identified 147 and 132 members of the WRKY gene family in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana respectively. Evolutionary analysis suggests that the WRKY gene family expanded much before the speciation in both the species. Most of the orthologs retained in two species were from the γ duplication event which occurred prior to α and β genome-wide duplication (GWD events. Analysis also suggests that subtle changes in nucleotide sequences during the course of evolution have led to the development of new motifs which might be involved in neo-functionalization of different WRKY members in two species. Expression and cis-regulatory motif analysis suggest possible involvement of Group II and Group III WRKY members during various stresses and growth/ development including fruit ripening process respectively.

  17. Improvement of the banana "Musa acuminata" reference sequence using NGS data and semi-automated bioinformatics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Guillaume; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Droc, Gaëtan; Rouard, Mathieu; Cenci, Alberto; Kilian, Andrzej; Hastie, Alex; Doležel, Jaroslav; Aury, Jean-Marc; Alberti, Adriana; Carreel, Françoise; D'Hont, Angélique

    2016-03-16

    Recent advances in genomics indicate functional significance of a majority of genome sequences and their long range interactions. As a detailed examination of genome organization and function requires very high quality genome sequence, the objective of this study was to improve reference genome assembly of banana (Musa acuminata). We have developed a modular bioinformatics pipeline to improve genome sequence assemblies, which can handle various types of data. The pipeline comprises several semi-automated tools. However, unlike classical automated tools that are based on global parameters, the semi-automated tools proposed an expert mode for a user who can decide on suggested improvements through local compromises. The pipeline was used to improve the draft genome sequence of Musa acuminata. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) of a segregating population and paired-end sequencing were used to detect and correct scaffold misassemblies. Long insert size paired-end reads identified scaffold junctions and fusions missed by automated assembly methods. GBS markers were used to anchor scaffolds to pseudo-molecules with a new bioinformatics approach that avoids the tedious step of marker ordering during genetic map construction. Furthermore, a genome map was constructed and used to assemble scaffolds into super scaffolds. Finally, a consensus gene annotation was projected on the new assembly from two pre-existing annotations. This approach reduced the total Musa scaffold number from 7513 to 1532 (i.e. by 80%), with an N50 that increased from 1.3 Mb (65 scaffolds) to 3.0 Mb (26 scaffolds). 89.5% of the assembly was anchored to the 11 Musa chromosomes compared to the previous 70%. Unknown sites (N) were reduced from 17.3 to 10.0%. The release of the Musa acuminata reference genome version 2 provides a platform for detailed analysis of banana genome variation, function and evolution. Bioinformatics tools developed in this work can be used to improve genome sequence assemblies in

  18. Atividade antiviral de Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Otaviano Martins

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avalia a atividade antiviral de extratos e frações de Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae, coletada em duas regiões do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Petrópolis e Santo Antônio de Pádua. As inflorescências de M. acuminata apresentaram excelente atividade para os dois vírus avaliados: herpesvírus simples humano tipo 1 e herpesvírus simples humano tipo 2, ambos resistentes ao Aciclovir. Os resultados indicam que os extratos de M. acuminata testados podem constituir alvo potencial para uso em terapias antivirais.

  19. Multi electron species and shielding potentials in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Arroj A.; Murtaza, G.; Rasheed, A.; Jamil, M.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of Debye shielding is investigated in electron ion plasmas using the approach of two temperature electrons. We get different profiles of potential for different parameters and observe that the potentials fall very slowly than the standard Coulomb and Debye potentials. The importance of work is pointed out in the introduction.

  20. Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by endophytic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Merging biotechnology with biological control: Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by endophytic .... While working in the laminar flow cabinet, sterile filter papers were placed in ..... University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany. Niere, B., 2001.

  1. Effect of Methanolic extract of Musa sapientum leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Hyperglycaemia particularly has been reported to inhibit gastrointestinal transit time while glibenclamide, a sulphonylurea and insulin, both increased transit time. Musa sapientum has also been reported as an antidiabetic agent but there is ...

  2. A comparative investigation of the disintegrant efficiency of Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musa sapientum) starches in comparison with maize starch BP in paracetamol tablet formulation was investigated. Starch from the unripe fruits was extracted with distilled water. The starch powder properties were evaluated. Paracetamol ...

  3. Economic analysis of variables affecting the plantain ( Musa sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... The study examined variables affecting plantain (Musa sp) mono cropping system of production by ... land fragmentation, wrong application of fertilizer, high cost of fertilizers, lack of ...

  4. Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes ... at the Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources Management farm, Ebonyi State University,. Abakaliki. ..... Roots, tuber, plantains and bananas in human nutrition. Rome,.

  5. Chemical and physical characterization of Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana fibers of banana tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinante, Sandra R.; Pacheco, Elen B.A.V.; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Batista, Luciano do N.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the fibers of cavendish and silver banana trunks (Musa sepientum and Musa balbisiana, respectively) concerning their density, lignin and moisture contents, and chemical structure by using the techniques of infrared spectroscopy and low field solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR. From NMR analysis, it was possible to observe the morphological differences between cavendish and silver types of banana fibers. FTIR technique did not allow the observation of any important difference in the banana fibers spectra. The cavendish banana fiber showed higher moisture and lignin contents than the silver banana fiber The NMR technique showed that relaxation times for silver banana fiber were higher than those for cavendish banana fiber, which can be credited to the lower moisture content values found in the silver fibers. (author)

  6. Effect of multiple subcultures on Musa shoots derived from cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot tip explants excised from in vitro plantlets of two Musa genotypes (TM3X 15108-6 and TMBX 612-74) were seeded singly into test tubes containing twenty milliliters each of Musa multiplication medium gelled differently in 60 and 70 gL-l cassava starch as well as 5 gL-l agar and placed on shelves under 14 h photo ...

  7. Post harvest changes of banana prata (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana group AAB) γ-irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Villas Boas, Eduardo Valerio de.

    1995-01-01

    Pre-climateric bananas (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana [AAB group] cv. Prata) were stored without treatment (no radiation) or were exposed at 0.25 and 0.50 kGy of γ -irradiation, with a dose rate of 1 kGy.h -1 before storage. The fruits were analysed for CO 2 and ethylene production during maturation and pulp-to-peel ratio, starch, total soluble sugars, pectins, pectin methyl esterase and poly galacturonase activities on 6 colour score of peel. The radiation dose/peel-colour interaction affected the pulp-to-peel ratio significantly, while the fruits subjected at 0.25 Gy had the highest increase on the colour scores 5, 6, and 7. A predictable increase in the conversion of starch to sugar took place during maturation and a delaying on the soluble sugar accumulation was noted on the fruits submitted to 0.50 kGy, in the 6 and 7 colour scores only. A decrease on the total pectin content and a trend of a higher solubilization of pectins was observed in the fruits γ-irradiated at 0.50 kGy. Higher pectin methyl esterase activities were exhibited by irradiated fruits, although the γ-irradiation has suppressed the poly galacturonase activity throughout the maturation period. (author). 110 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Probing the electronic structure of redox species and direct determination of intrinsic reorganization energies of electron transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xue-Bin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2000-01-01

    An experimental technique capable of directly determining the intrinsic reorganization energies of bimolecular electron transfer reactions is described. Appropriate solution phase redox species are prepared in the gas phase using electrospray ionization and probed using photodetachment spectroscopy. Five metal complex anions involved in the Fe 2+ -Fe 3+ redox couple are investigated and the intramolecular reorganization energies are measured directly from spectral features due to removing the most loosely bound 3d electron from the Fe(II)-complexes. The photodetachment spectra also yield electronic structure information about the Fe 2+ -Fe 3+ redox couple and provide a common electronic structure origin for the reducing capability of the Fe(II)-complexes, the most common redox reagents. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  9. Effect of Juglone foliar injection on Superoxide dismutases antioxidant system in two Musa spp cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Leiva Mora

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Some diseases in higher plants cause formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS which acts like mediator on tolerance to oxidative stress. Several phytotoxins produced by plant pathogen fungus induce ROS by different mechanisms which damage plant cell tissues. This paper was focused to determine juglone impact (Psedocercospora fijiensis toxin on Superoxide dismutases antioxidant system in Fougamou (ABB and Grande naine (AAA by native Poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE 10%. Samples of proteins were collected at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 48h after juglone injection on both Musa cultivar and 65 μl of them (120 μg of total protein were applied to gels. Gels were incubated in staining solution (25 mg.ml-1 de Nitrobluetetrazolium (NTB and 0.1 mg.ml-1 de riboflavin and were exposured to fluorescent light. In both cultivars it was observed changes in expression patterns of superoxide dismutases between injected and not injected plants. On Grande naine (AAA 4 h after injection an isoform of SOD disappeared respect to control. Nevertheless on Fougamou (ABB, 2 h after injection it was activated a new isoform which was observed until 48 h. In the present work it was observed a correspondence between protein patterns expression of SOD isoforms and tolerance to oxidative stress caused by the effect of juglone on Musa spp. Key words: antioxidant enzymes, Mycosphaerella fijiensis,oxidative stress, toxins

  10. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  11. Socioeconomic Importance of the Banana Tree (Musa Spp. in the Guinean Highland Savannah Agroforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marie Mapongmetsem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old and very small in size (less than 1 ha. Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5% whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time.

  12. Pengaruh pengolahan terhadap Pati Resisten Pisang Kepok (Musa paradisiaca fa. typica) dan Pisang Tanduk (Musa paradisiaca fa. corniculata)

    OpenAIRE

    Marsono, Yustinus

    2016-01-01

    A study on the effect processing on resistant starch (RS) content and chemical composition of kepok (Musa paradisiaca fa. typica) and tanduk banana (Musa paradisiaca fa. corniculata) has been conducted. Mature banana was steamed, steamed - cooled, steamed - frozen, dried and dried - fried and was analyzed for starch, RS, simple sugars and chemical composition. RS content was determined by enzymatic method. It was found that steaming chaned RS from 6.2 mg/g to 9.5 mg/g (53%) for kepok banana a...

  13. Functional characterization of secondary wall deposition regulating transcription factors MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 in transgenic banana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2016-03-01

    NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) domain-containing proteins are plant-specific transcription factors involved in stress responses and developmental regulation. MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 are vascular-related NAC domain-containing genes encoding for nuclear-localized proteins. The transcript level of MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 are gradually induced after induction of lignification conditions in banana embryogenic cells. Banana embryogenic cells differentiated to tracheary element-like cells after overexpression of MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 with a differentiation frequency of 63.5 and 23.4 %, respectively, after ninth day. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing either of MusaVND2 or MusaVND3 showed ectopic secondary wall deposition as well as transdifferentiation of cells into tracheary elements. Transdifferentiation to tracheary element-like cells was observed in cortical cells of corm and in epidermal and mesophyll cells of leaves of transgenic plants. Elevated levels of lignin and crystalline cellulose were detected in the transgenic banana lines than control plants. The results obtained are useful for understanding the molecular regulation of secondary wall development in banana.

  14. Genetic engineering for improvement of Musa production in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transgenic approach shows potential for the genetic improvement of the crop using a wide set of transgenes currently available which may confer resistance to nematode pests, fungal, bacterial and viral diseases. This article discusses the applications of genetic engineering for the enhancement of Musa production.

  15. Focus on the Musa collection: Ploidy levels revealed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubaláková, Marie; Doležel, Jaroslav; Van den Houwe, I.; Roux, N.; Swennen, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2005), s. 34-36 ISSN 1023-0076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038204 Grant - others:IAEA res. contract No. 12230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Musa * ploidy * flow cytometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. Ploidy and genome composition of Musa germplasm at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... Musa spp (bananas and plantains) constitute a hybrid-polyploid complex and are classified according to different genome compositions such as AA, BB, AB, AAA, AAB, ABB, AAAA, ABBB, AAAB and. AABB. Knowledge of ploidy and exact genome compositions of the parental material is essential for.

  17. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop

  18. Antifungal properties of Musa paradisiaca (Plantain) peel and stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of plantain (Musa paradisiaca (L) AAB genomic group) peel and stalk extracts were investigated using percentage inhibition test. Complete inhibition of growth (100%) was observed for Aspergillusniger, Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus stolonifer at 1.0 mg/ml concentration of stalk extract. Peel extract inhibited A.

  19. hypoglycaemic activity of the alcoholic extract of musa sapientum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was studied in alloxamised and fasted rabbits. The results showed that a single dose-level of 5mg/kg of this extract reduced the blood glucose level by 90% after 18 hours of administration per os, in all experimental animals. Key Words: Musa sapientum, Musacaeae, anti-hyperglycaemic, glucosinolate, myrosinnase. Nig.

  20. Characteristics of micro-propagated banana (Musa spp.) cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... was conducted to assess the effect of NaCl and PEG separately as well as in combination on plant micro- propagation efficiency of banana (Musa spp.) cv., Basrai. In this experiment, 4-weeks old plantlets of the 3rd sub- culture with well propagation on MS2b nutrient were sub- cultured on three differentially ...

  1. Reaction of Musa balbisiana to Banana bacterial wilt infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The expression of NPR1, a marker gene of the systemic acquired resistance plant defence system provides preliminary evidence that this may be the major form of resistance in Musa balbisiana to bacterial wilt infection. Keywords: NPR1, PR proteins, Uganda, Xanthomonas campestris. African Crop Science Journal, Vol.

  2. Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of Wild Musa Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Christelová, Pavla; Van den Houwe, I.; Häkkinen, M.; Roux, N.; Swennen, R.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2015), e0134096 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12021; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : NUCLEAR-DNA CONTENT * GENETIC DIVERSITY * RIBOSOMAL DNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  3. A technique for the measurement of electron attachment to short-lived excited species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; Pinnaduwage, L.A.; Bitouni, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    A technique is described for the measurement of electron attachment to short-lived (approx-lt 10 -9 s) excited species. Preliminary results are presented for photoenhanced electron attachment to short-lived electronically-excited states of triethylamine molecules produced by laser two-photon excitation. The attachment cross sections for these excited states are estimated to be >10 -11 cm 2 and are ∼10 7 larger compared to those for the unexcited (ground-state) molecules. 8 refs., 4 figs

  4. Photosynthesis and photosynthetic electron flow in the alpine evergreen species Quercus guyavifolia in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species must regularly cope with low night temperatures in winter. However, the effects of low night temperatures on photosynthesis in alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species are unclear. We measured the diurnal photosynthetic parameters before and after cold snap for leaves of Quercus guyavifolia growing in its native habitat at 3290 m. On 11 and 12 December 2013 (before cold snap, stomatal and mesophyll conductances (gs and gm, CO2 assimilation rate (An, and total electron flow through PSII (JPSII at daytime were maintained at high levels. The major action of alternative electron flow was to provide extra ATP for primary metabolisms. On 20 December 2013 (after cold snap, the diurnal values of gs, gm, An and JPSII at daytime largely decreased, mainly due to the large decrease in night air temperature. Meanwhile, the ratio of photorespiration and alternative electron flow to JPSII largely increased on 20 December. Furthermore, the high levels of alternative electron flow were accompanied with low rates of extra ATP production. A quantitative limitation analysis reveals that the gm limitation increased on 20 December with decreased night air temperature. Therefore, the night air temperature was an important determinant of stomatal/mesophyll conductance and photosynthesis. When photosynthesis is inhibited following freezing night temperatures, photorespiration and alternative electron flow are important electron sinks, which support the role of photorespiration and alternative electron flow in photoportection for alpine plants under low temperatures.

  5. Evolution of endogenous sequences of banana streak virus: what can we learn from banana (Musa sp.) evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Blondin, Laurence; Guidolin, Olivier; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Perrier, Xavier; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2010-07-01

    Endogenous plant pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are viral sequences of the family Caulimoviridae integrated into the nuclear genome of numerous plant species. The ability of some endogenous sequences of Banana streak viruses (eBSVs) in the genome of banana (Musa sp.) to induce infections just like the virus itself was recently demonstrated (P. Gayral et al., J. Virol. 83:6697-6710, 2008). Although eBSVs probably arose from accidental events, infectious eBSVs constitute an extreme case of parasitism, as well as a newly described strategy for vertical virus transmission in plants. We investigated the early evolutionary stages of infectious eBSV for two distinct BSV species-GF (BSGFV) and Imové (BSImV)-through the study of their distribution, insertion polymorphism, and structure evolution among selected banana genotypes representative of the diversity of 60 wild Musa species and genotypes. To do so, the historical frame of host evolution was analyzed by inferring banana phylogeny from two chloroplast regions-matK and trnL-trnF-as well as from the nuclear genome, using 19 microsatellite loci. We demonstrated that both BSV species integrated recently in banana evolution, circa 640,000 years ago. The two infectious eBSVs were subjected to different selective pressures and showed distinct levels of rearrangement within their final structure. In addition, the molecular phylogenies of integrated and nonintegrated BSVs enabled us to establish the phylogenetic origins of eBSGFV and eBSImV.

  6. Fungi associated with fruit crown rot in organic banana (Musa spp. L. in Piura, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Aguilar Anccota

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The department of Piura is the principal banana-producing zone in Peru, sharing 87% of exportations. In this zone, one of the most important postharvest diseases is crown rot. The economic loses attributed to this disease are estimated to be between 25 and 30% of organic bananas exported. The objective of this study was to identify the causal agents associated with this disease. Samples taken refrigerated fruit from the areas of Querecotillo, Salitral and Mallares were taken and selected after the fact. Thielaviopsis paradoxa, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum musae and Fusarium verticilloides. In order to demonstrate the pathogenicity of the isolated species, inoculations were given in the area of the crown of the fruit on healthy bananas. These fungi caused symptoms of infection in different proportions, concluding that crown rot is a disease with a complex etiology.

  7. Characterization of novel microsatellite markers in Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim Edson P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Banana is a nutritionally important crop across tropical and sub-tropical countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America and Asia. Although cultivars have evolved from diploid, triploid and tetraploid wild Asian species of Musa acuminata (A genome and Musa balbisiana (B genome, many of today's commercial cultivars are sterile triploids or diploids, with fruit developing via parthenocarpy. As a result of restricted genetic variation, improvement has been limited, resulting in a crop frequently lacking resistance to pests and disease. Considering the importance of molecular tools to facilitate development of disease resistant genotypes, the objectives of this study were to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers from BAC clone sequences for M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4. This wild diploid species is used as a donor cultivar in breeding programs as a source of resistance to diverse biotic stresses. Findings Microsatellite sequences were identified from five Calcutta 4 BAC consensi datasets. Specific primers were designed for 41 loci. Isolated di-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant, followed by tri-nucleotides. From 33 tested loci, 20 displayed polymorphism when screened across 21 diploid M. acuminata accessions, contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. The number of alleles per SSR locus ranged from two to four, with a total of 56. Six repeat classes were identified, with di-nucleotides the most abundant. Expected heterozygosity values for polymorphic markers ranged from 0.31 to 0.75. Conclusions This is the first report identifying polymorphic microsatellite markers from M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 across accessions contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. These BAC-derived polymorphic microsatellite markers are a useful resource for banana, applicable for genetic map development, germplasm characterization, evolutionary studies and marker

  8. Characterization of novel microsatellite markers in Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert Ng; Passos, Marco An; Menezes, Natalia Np; Souza, Manoel T; do Carmo Costa, Marcos M; Rennó Azevedo, Vânia C; Amorim, Edson P; Pappas, Georgios J; Ciampi, Ana Y

    2010-05-27

    Banana is a nutritionally important crop across tropical and sub-tropical countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America and Asia. Although cultivars have evolved from diploid, triploid and tetraploid wild Asian species of Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome), many of today's commercial cultivars are sterile triploids or diploids, with fruit developing via parthenocarpy. As a result of restricted genetic variation, improvement has been limited, resulting in a crop frequently lacking resistance to pests and disease. Considering the importance of molecular tools to facilitate development of disease resistant genotypes, the objectives of this study were to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers from BAC clone sequences for M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4. This wild diploid species is used as a donor cultivar in breeding programs as a source of resistance to diverse biotic stresses. Microsatellite sequences were identified from five Calcutta 4 BAC consensi datasets. Specific primers were designed for 41 loci. Isolated di-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant, followed by tri-nucleotides. From 33 tested loci, 20 displayed polymorphism when screened across 21 diploid M. acuminata accessions, contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. The number of alleles per SSR locus ranged from two to four, with a total of 56. Six repeat classes were identified, with di-nucleotides the most abundant. Expected heterozygosity values for polymorphic markers ranged from 0.31 to 0.75. This is the first report identifying polymorphic microsatellite markers from M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 across accessions contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. These BAC-derived polymorphic microsatellite markers are a useful resource for banana, applicable for genetic map development, germplasm characterization, evolutionary studies and marker assisted selection for traits.

  9. Physicochemical evaluation of cooking and dessert bananas (Musa sp.) varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales-Reynoso, O. Lidia; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Aguirre-Cruz, Andres; Bello-Perez, Luis A.; Dufour, Dominique; Gibert, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In México, banana (Musa sp.) varieties ate used for human consumption as well as for traditional medicine, but the literature lacks information on local diversity and functional justification for their use. Three varieties of dessert bananas (Valery, Morado, and Enano) and one cooking banana (Macho) were collected in a commercial farm in Tuxtepec, Oaxaca, México, at the agronomic maturity stage, and they were physically and chemically evaluated. A random sampling, ANOVA, and Tukey tests were ...

  10. Genomics of Banana and Plantain (Musa spp.), Major Staple Crops in the Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roux, N.; Baurens, F.C.; Dolezel, J.; Hribova, E.; Heslop-Harrison, P.; Town, C.; Sasaki, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Aert, R.; Remy, S.; Souza, M.T.; Lagoda, P.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter on Musa (banana and plantain) genomics covers the latest information on activities and resources developed by the Global Musa Genomics Consortium. Section 4.1 describes the morphology of the plant, its socio-economical importance and usefulness as an experimental organism. Section 4.2

  11. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy for Studying the Generation and Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species by Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun-Jie; Zhao, Baozhong; Xia, Qingsu; Fu, Peter P.

    2013-09-01

    One fundamental mechanism widely described for nanotoxicity involves oxidative damage due to generation of free radicals and other reactive oxygen species. Indeed, the ability of nanoscale materials to facilitate the transfer of electrons, and thereby promote oxidative damage or in some instances provide antioxidant protection, may be a fundamental property of these materials. Any assessment of a nanoscale material's safety must therefore consider the potential for toxicity arising from oxidative damage. Therefore, rapid and predictive methods are needed to assess oxidative damage elicited by nanoscale materials. The use of electron spin resonance (ESR) to study free radical related bioactivity of nanomaterials has several advantages for free radical determination and identification. Specifically it can directly assess antioxidant quenching or prooxidant generation of relevant free radicals and reactive oxygen species. In this chapter, we have reported some nonclassical behaviors of the electron spin relaxation properties of unpaired electrons in different fullerenes and the investigation of anti/prooxidant activity by various types of nanomaterials using ESR. In addition, we have reviewed the mechanisms of free radical formation photosensitized by different nanomaterials. This chapter also included the use of spin labels, spin traps and ESR oximetry to systematically examine the enzymatic mimetic activities of nanomaterials.

  12. Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Properties of Three Banana Cultivars (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedayo, Bukola C; Oboh, Ganiyu; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Olasehinde, Tosin A

    2016-01-01

    Background . This study sought to investigate the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Musa sapientum (Latundan banana) (MSL), Musa acuminata (Cavendish banana) (MAC), and Musa acuminate (Red Dacca) (MAR). Materials and Methods. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and glycemic index (GI) of the three banana cultivars were determined. Furthermore, total phenol and vitamin C contents and α -amylase and α -glucosidase inhibitory effects of banana samples were also determined. Results . MAC and MAR had the highest starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents and estimated glycemic index (eGI) with no significant different while MSL had the lowest. Furthermore, MAR (1.07 mg GAE/g) had a higher total phenol content than MAC (0.94 mg GAE/g) and MSL (0.96 mg GAE/g), while there was no significant difference in the vitamin C content. Furthermore, MAR had the highest α -amylase (IC 50 = 3.95 mg/mL) inhibitory activity while MAC had the least (IC 50 = 4.27 mg/mL). Moreover, MAC and MAR inhibited glucosidase activity better than MSL (IC 50 3.47 mg/mL). Conclusion . The low sugar, GI, amylose, and amylopectin contents of the three banana cultivars as well as their α -amylase and α -glucosidase inhibitory activities could be possible mechanisms and justification for their recommendation in the management of type-2 diabetes.

  13. Ultrastructural changes and the distribution of arabinogalactan proteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao; Yang, Xiao; Lin, Guimei; Zou, Ru; Chen, Houbin; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2011-08-01

    A better understanding of somatic embryogenesis in banana (Musa spp.) may provide a practical way to improve regeneration of banana plants. In this study, we applied scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to visualize the ultrastructural changes during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1'). We also used histological and immunohistochemical techniques with 16 monoclonal antibodies to study the spatial distribution and cellular/subcellular localization of different arabinogalactan protein (AGP) components of the cell wall during somatic embryogenesis. Histological study with periodic acid-Schiff staining documented diverse embryogenic stages from embryogenic cells (ECs) to the late embryos. SEM revealed a mesh-like structure on the surface of proembryos which represented an early structural marker of somatic embryogenesis. TEM showed that ECs were rich in juvenile mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi stacks. Cells in proembryos and early globular embryos resembled ECs, but they were more vacuolated, showed more regular nuclei and slightly more developed organelles. Immunocytochemical study revealed that the signal of most AGP epitopes was stronger in starch-rich cells when compared with typical ECs. The main AGP component in the extracellular matrix surface network of banana proembryos was the MAC204 epitope. Later, AGP immunolabelling patterns varied with the developmental stages of the embryos. These results about developmental regulation of AGP epitopes along with developmental changes in the ultrastructure of cells are providing new insights into the somatic embryogenesis of banana. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  14. Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Forward and Reverse Electron Fluxes in the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanov, Vitaly A.; Votyakova, Tatyana V.; Pivtoraiko, Violetta N.; Zeak, Jennifer; Sukhomlin, Tatiana; Trucco, Massimo; Roca, Josep; Cascante, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) are primary signals that modulate cellular adaptation to environment, and are also destructive factors that damage cells under the conditions of hypoxia/reoxygenation relevant for various systemic diseases or transplantation. The important role of ROS in cell survival requires detailed investigation of mechanism and determinants of ROS production. To perform such an investigation we extended our rule-based model of complex III in order to account for electron transport in the whole RC coupled to proton translocation, transmembrane electrochemical potential generation, TCA cycle reactions, and substrate transport to mitochondria. It fits respiratory electron fluxes measured in rat brain mitochondria fueled by succinate or pyruvate and malate, and the dynamics of NAD+ reduction by reverse electron transport from succinate through complex I. The fitting of measured characteristics gave an insight into the mechanism of underlying processes governing the formation of free radicals that can transfer an unpaired electron to oxygen-producing superoxide and thus can initiate the generation of ROS. Our analysis revealed an association of ROS production with levels of specific radicals of individual electron transporters and their combinations in species of complexes I and III. It was found that the phenomenon of bistability, revealed previously as a property of complex III, remains valid for the whole RC. The conditions for switching to a state with a high content of free radicals in complex III were predicted based on theoretical analysis and were confirmed experimentally. These findings provide a new insight into the mechanisms of ROS production in RC. PMID:21483483

  15. Isolation of keratinophilic fungi from the soil of islands of Greater Tunb, Abu-Musa and Sirri, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Nosratabadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Keratinophilic fungi are among the important groups of fungi living in the soil. This study aimed to isolate and identify keratinophilic fungi from the soil of three Iranian islands, namely Greater Tunb, Abu Musa, and Sirri, located in the Persian Gulf using morphological and molecular (polymerase chain reaction methods. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 60 soil samples were collected from the three islands of Greater Tunb, Abu Musa, and Sirri. The samples were analyzed for the presence of the keratinophilic fungi using a hair baiting technique. Furthermore, the identification of keratinophilic fungi was accomplished through the employment of molecular and sequencing techniques. Results: A total of 130 fungal isolates, including 11 genera with 24 species, were collected. Accordingly, Chrysosporium tropicum (24;18.5%, C. keratinophilum (17; 13.1%,  Chrysosporium  species (15; 11.5%, Aspergillus  species ( 8;6.1%, Aspergillus flavus (8; 6.1%, Penicillium  species (8;6.1%, Alternaria spp ( 6; 4.6%, Phoma  species (5;  3.8%, Aphanoascus verrucosus (4;3.1%, Fusarium chlamydosporum (4; 3.1%, Aspergillus trreus (4;3.1%, Acremonium  species (4; 3.1%, and other fungi( 23; 17.8 % isolates were identified . All isolates of keratinophilic fungi were isolated from the soils with the pH range of 7-9. Conclusion: The results of this study contributed towards a better conceptualization of the incidence pattern of keratinophilic fungi in the regions of Iran. Given that no study has investigated this issue, the findings of the present study can be beneficial for the management of public health surveillance, physicians, and epidemiologists.  

  16. Identification of Four Wood Species by an Electronic Nose and by LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana R. Cordeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two complementary methods capable of identifying four wood species (Cedrela fissilis, Ocotea porosa, Hymenolobium petraeum, and Aspidosperma subincanum both by their volatile organic compounds and by the presence of 10 chemical elements: Al, B, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Na, and Si. The volatile compounds were detected by an electronic nose formed by an array of three different conductive polymer gas sensors. The elemental determination was made by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS. The emissions measured were treated by principal component analysis (PCA. Leave-one-out analysis showed a rate of hits of 100%.

  17. Relationship between species composition and homegarden size in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxa such as Musa species, Vernonia amygdalina, Citrus species, Psidium guajava and Terminalia catappa were found to be the common food/medicinal plants as evidenced by their densities in the study sites. The household members cited most of the plants as food; others as medicinal and ornamentals. Miscellaneous ...

  18. Phylogeny of Banana Streak Virus reveals recent and repetitive endogenization in the genome of its banana host (Musa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2009-07-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is a plant dsDNA pararetrovirus (family Caulimoviridae, genus badnavirus). Although integration is not an essential step in the BSV replication cycle, the nuclear genome of banana (Musa sp.) contains BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs). Some BSV EPRVs are infectious by reconstituting a functional viral genome. Recent studies revealed a large molecular diversity of episomal BSV viruses (i.e., nonintegrated) while others focused on BSV EPRV sequences only. In this study, the evolutionary history of badnavirus integration in banana was inferred from phylogenetic relationships between BSV and BSV EPRVs. The relative evolution rates and selective pressures (d(N)/d(S) ratio) were also compared between endogenous and episomal viral sequences. At least 27 recent independent integration events occurred after the divergence of three banana species, indicating that viral integration is a recent and frequent phenomenon. Relaxation of selective pressure on badnaviral sequences that experienced neutral evolution after integration in the plant genome was recorded. Additionally, a significant decrease (35%) in the EPRV evolution rate was observed compared to BSV, reflecting the difference in the evolution rate between episomal dsDNA viruses and plant genome. The comparison of our results with the evolution rate of the Musa genome and other reverse-transcribing viruses suggests that EPRVs play an active role in episomal BSV diversity and evolution.

  19. The well-designed hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kaiwen; Fan, Xiaorong; Mao, Yingzhu; Lin, Jingkai; Dai, Wenxuan; Zhang, Junying; Cheng, Jue

    2016-01-01

    Application of biological structure is one of the hottest topics in the field of science and technology. The unimaginable and excellent architectures of living beings supporting their vital activities have attracted the interests of worldwide researchers. An intriguing example is Musa basjoo which belongs to the herb, while appears like a tree. The profound mystery of structure and potential application of Musa basjoo have not been probed. Here we show the finding of the hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo and the outstanding electrochemical performance of the super-capacitors fabricated through the simple carbonization of Musa basjoo followed by KOH activation. Musa basjoo has three layers of structure: nanometer-level, micrometer-level and millimeter-level. The nanometer-level structure constructs the micrometer-level structure, while the micrometer-level structure constructs the millimeter-level structure. Based on this hierarchical structure, Musa basjoo reduces the unnecessary weight and therefore supports its huge body. The super-capacitors derived from Musa basjoo display a high specific capacitance and a good cycling stability. This enlightening work opens a window for the applications of the natural structure and we hope that more and more people could pay attention to the bio-inspired materials. PMID:26842714

  20. The well-designed hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kaiwen; Fan, Xiaorong; Mao, Yingzhu; Lin, Jingkai; Dai, Wenxuan; Zhang, Junying; Cheng, Jue

    2016-02-01

    Application of biological structure is one of the hottest topics in the field of science and technology. The unimaginable and excellent architectures of living beings supporting their vital activities have attracted the interests of worldwide researchers. An intriguing example is Musa basjoo which belongs to the herb, while appears like a tree. The profound mystery of structure and potential application of Musa basjoo have not been probed. Here we show the finding of the hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo and the outstanding electrochemical performance of the super-capacitors fabricated through the simple carbonization of Musa basjoo followed by KOH activation. Musa basjoo has three layers of structure: nanometer-level, micrometer-level and millimeter-level. The nanometer-level structure constructs the micrometer-level structure, while the micrometer-level structure constructs the millimeter-level structure. Based on this hierarchical structure, Musa basjoo reduces the unnecessary weight and therefore supports its huge body. The super-capacitors derived from Musa basjoo display a high specific capacitance and a good cycling stability. This enlightening work opens a window for the applications of the natural structure and we hope that more and more people could pay attention to the bio-inspired materials.

  1. The complete chloroplast genome of banana (Musa acuminata, Zingiberales): insight into plastid monocotyledon evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Guillaume; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cardi, Céline; Aury, Jean-Marc; D'Hont, Angélique

    2013-01-01

    Banana (genus Musa) is a crop of major economic importance worldwide. It is a monocotyledonous member of the Zingiberales, a sister group of the widely studied Poales. Most cultivated bananas are natural Musa inter-(sub-)specific triploid hybrids. A Musa acuminata reference nuclear genome sequence was recently produced based on sequencing of genomic DNA enriched in nucleus. The Musa acuminata chloroplast genome was assembled with chloroplast reads extracted from whole-genome-shotgun sequence data. The Musa chloroplast genome is a circular molecule of 169,972 bp with a quadripartite structure containing two single copy regions, a Large Single Copy region (LSC, 88,338 bp) and a Small Single Copy region (SSC, 10,768 bp) separated by Inverted Repeat regions (IRs, 35,433 bp). Two forms of the chloroplast genome relative to the orientation of SSC versus LSC were found. The Musa chloroplast genome shows an extreme IR expansion at the IR/SSC boundary relative to the most common structures found in angiosperms. This expansion consists of the integration of three additional complete genes (rps15, ndhH and ycf1) and part of the ndhA gene. No such expansion has been observed in monocots so far. Simple Sequence Repeats were identified in the Musa chloroplast genome and a new set of Musa chloroplastic markers was designed. The complete sequence of M. acuminata ssp malaccensis chloroplast we reported here is the first one for the Zingiberales order. As such it provides new insight in the evolution of the chloroplast of monocotyledons. In particular, it reinforces that IR/SSC expansion has occurred independently several times within monocotyledons. The discovery of new polymorphic markers within Musa chloroplast opens new perspectives to better understand the origin of cultivated triploid bananas.

  2. The complete chloroplast genome of banana (Musa acuminata, Zingiberales: insight into plastid monocotyledon evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Martin

    Full Text Available Banana (genus Musa is a crop of major economic importance worldwide. It is a monocotyledonous member of the Zingiberales, a sister group of the widely studied Poales. Most cultivated bananas are natural Musa inter-(sub-specific triploid hybrids. A Musa acuminata reference nuclear genome sequence was recently produced based on sequencing of genomic DNA enriched in nucleus.The Musa acuminata chloroplast genome was assembled with chloroplast reads extracted from whole-genome-shotgun sequence data. The Musa chloroplast genome is a circular molecule of 169,972 bp with a quadripartite structure containing two single copy regions, a Large Single Copy region (LSC, 88,338 bp and a Small Single Copy region (SSC, 10,768 bp separated by Inverted Repeat regions (IRs, 35,433 bp. Two forms of the chloroplast genome relative to the orientation of SSC versus LSC were found. The Musa chloroplast genome shows an extreme IR expansion at the IR/SSC boundary relative to the most common structures found in angiosperms. This expansion consists of the integration of three additional complete genes (rps15, ndhH and ycf1 and part of the ndhA gene. No such expansion has been observed in monocots so far. Simple Sequence Repeats were identified in the Musa chloroplast genome and a new set of Musa chloroplastic markers was designed.The complete sequence of M. acuminata ssp malaccensis chloroplast we reported here is the first one for the Zingiberales order. As such it provides new insight in the evolution of the chloroplast of monocotyledons. In particular, it reinforces that IR/SSC expansion has occurred independently several times within monocotyledons. The discovery of new polymorphic markers within Musa chloroplast opens new perspectives to better understand the origin of cultivated triploid bananas.

  3. Cloning and functional characterization of MusaVND1 using transgenic banana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2015-06-01

    Vascular related NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) domain-containing genes regulate secondary wall deposition and differentiation of xylem vessel elements. MusaVND1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis VND1 and contains the highly conserved NAC domain. The expression of MusaVND1 is highest in developing corm and during lignification conditions, the increase in expression of MusaVND1 coincides with the expression of PAL, COMT and C4H genes. MusaVND1 encodes a nuclear localized protein as MusaVND1-GFP fusion protein gets localized to nucleus. Transient overexpression of MusaVND1 converts banana embryogenic cells to xylem vessel elements, with a final differentiation frequency of 33.54% at the end of tenth day. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaVND1 showed stunted growth and were characterized by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Transgenic banana plants showed transdifferentiation of various types of cells into xylem vessel elements and ectopic deposition of lignin in cells of various plant organs such as leaf and corm. Tracheary element formation was seen in the cortical region of transgenic corm as well as in epidermal cells of leaves. Biochemical analysis indicates significantly higher levels of lignin and cellulose content in transgenic banana lines than control plants. MusaVND1 overexpressing transgenic banana plants showed elevated expression levels of genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis pathway. Further expression of different MYB transcription factors positively regulating secondary wall deposition was also up regulated in MusaVND1 transgenic lines.

  4. The impact of phenotypic and molecular data on the inference of Colletotrichum diversity associated with Musa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Willie A S; Lima, Waléria G; Nascimento, Eduardo S; Michereff, Sami J; Câmara, Marcos P S; Doyle, Vinson P

    2017-01-01

    Developing a comprehensive and reliable taxonomy for the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex will require adopting data standards on the basis of an understanding of how methodological choices impact morphological evaluations and phylogenetic inference. We explored the impact of methodological choices in a morphological and molecular evaluation of Colletotrichum species associated with banana in Brazil. The choice of alignment filtering algorithm has a significant impact on topological inference and the retention of phylogenetically informative sites. Similarly, the choice of phylogenetic marker affects the delimitation of species boundaries, particularly if low phylogenetic signal is confounded with strong discordance, and inference of the species tree from multiple-gene trees. According to both phylogenetic informativeness profiling and Bayesian concordance analyses, the most informative loci are DNA lyase (APN2), intergenic spacer (IGS) between DNA lyase and the mating-type locus MAT1-2-1 (APN2/MAT-IGS), calmodulin (CAL), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glutamine synthetase (GS), β-tubulin (TUB2), and a new marker, the intergenic spacer between GAPDH and an hypothetical protein (GAP2-IGS). Cornmeal agar minimizes the variance in conidial dimensions compared with potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient-poor agar, such that species are more readily distinguishable based on phenotypic differences. We apply these insights to investigate the diversity of Colletotrichum species associated with banana anthracnose in Brazil and report C. musae, C. tropicale, C. theobromicola, and C. siamense in association with banana anthracnose. One lineage did not cluster with any previously described species and is described here as C. chrysophilum.

  5. Boron toxicity in banana (Musa AAA) plantations of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Alfonso; Serrano, Edgardo; Arias, Fulvio; Arias M, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    A marginal, irregular and continuous necrosis was observed in the leaves of in banana plants (Musa AAA, cvs. Grande Naine and Valery), This necrosis was developed from an irregular chlorotic area, from the edge towards the internal part of the leaf blade. The central portion of the leaf kept the original green color. Soil and foliar analyses showed that symptoms were caused by high boron concentrations, probably due to excessive soil or foliage applications of the nutriment, or to the effect of very frequent applications of boron during fertigation, combined with a decrease of calcium in the leaf. (author) [es

  6. The electronic structure of vanadium monochloride cation (VCl+): Tackling the complexities of transition metal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYonker, Nathan J.; Halfen, DeWayne T.; Allen, Wesley D.; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2014-11-01

    Six electronic states (X 4Σ-, A 4Π, B 4Δ, 2Φ, 2Δ, 2Σ+) of the vanadium monochloride cation (VCl+) are described using large basis set coupled cluster theory. For the two lowest quartet states (X 4Σ- and A 4Π), a focal point analysis (FPA) approach was used that conjoined a correlation-consistent family of basis sets up to aug-cc-pwCV5Z-DK with high-order coupled cluster theory through pentuple (CCSDTQP) excitations. FPA adiabatic excitation energies (T0) and spectroscopic constants (re, r0, Be, B0, bar De, He, ωe, v0, αe, ωexe) were extrapolated to the valence complete basis set Douglas-Kroll (DK) aug-cc-pV∞Z-DK CCSDT level of theory, and additional treatments accounted for higher-order valence electron correlation, core correlation, and spin-orbit coupling. Due to the delicate interplay between dynamical and static electronic correlation, single reference coupled cluster theory is able to provide the correct ground electronic state (X 4Σ-), while multireference configuration interaction theory cannot. Perturbations from the first- and second-order spin orbit coupling of low-lying states with quartet spin multiplicity reveal an immensely complex rotational spectrum relative to the isovalent species VO, VS, and TiCl. Computational data on the doublet manifold suggest that the lowest-lying doublet state (2Γ) has a Te of ˜11 200 cm-1. Overall, this study shows that laboratory and theoretical rotational spectroscopists must work more closely in tandem to better understand the bonding and structure of molecules containing transition metals.

  7. Post harvest changes of banana prata (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana group AAB) {gamma}-irradiated; Modificacoes pos-colheita de banana prata (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana grupo AAB) {gamma}-irradiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros Villas Boas, Eduardo Valerio de

    1995-12-31

    Pre-climateric bananas (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana [AAB group] cv. Prata) were stored without treatment (no radiation) or were exposed at 0.25 and 0.50 kGy of {gamma} -irradiation, with a dose rate of 1 kGy.h {sup -1} before storage. The fruits were analysed for CO{sub 2} and ethylene production during maturation and pulp-to-peel ratio, starch, total soluble sugars, pectins, pectin methyl esterase and poly galacturonase activities on 6 colour score of peel. The radiation dose/peel-colour interaction affected the pulp-to-peel ratio significantly, while the fruits subjected at 0.25 Gy had the highest increase on the colour scores 5, 6, and 7. A predictable increase in the conversion of starch to sugar took place during maturation and a delaying on the soluble sugar accumulation was noted on the fruits submitted to 0.50 kGy, in the 6 and 7 colour scores only. A decrease on the total pectin content and a trend of a higher solubilization of pectins was observed in the fruits {gamma}-irradiated at 0.50 kGy. Higher pectin methyl esterase activities were exhibited by irradiated fruits, although the {gamma}-irradiation has suppressed the poly galacturonase activity throughout the maturation period. (author). 110 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa T; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Salimon, Saoban S; Yakubu, Monsurat O; Jimoh, Rukayat O; Nafiu, Mikhail O; Akanji, Musbau A; Oladiji, Adenike T; Williams, Felicia E

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  9. Evaluation of Musa (Paradisiaca Linn. cultivar)--"Puttubale" stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K V; Bharathi, K; Srinivasan, K K

    1993-10-01

    The fresh juice of Musa stem (Puttubale) was tested for its antilithiatic activity. Zinc discs were implanted in the urinary bladder of albino rats to induce urolithiasis. The stones formed were mainly of magnesium ammonium phosphate with traces of calcium oxalate. Musa stem juice (3 mL/rat/day orally) was found to be effective in reducing the formation and also in dissolving the pre-formed stones.

  10. Nuclear DNA content and base composition in 28 taxa of Musa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaté, K; Brown, S; Durand, P; Bureau, J M; De Nay, D; Trinh, T H

    2001-08-01

    The nuclear DNA content of 28 taxa of Musa was assessed by flow cytometry, using line PxPC6 of Petunia hybrida as an internal standard. The 2C DNA value of Musa balbisiana (BB genome) was 1.16 pg, whereas Musa acuminata (AA genome) had an average 2C DNA value of 1.27 pg, with a difference of 11% between its subspecies. The two haploid (IC) genomes, A and B, comprising most of the edible bananas, are therefore of similar size, 0.63 pg (610 million bp) and 0.58 pg (560 million bp), respectively. The genome of diploid Musa is thus threefold that of Arabidopsis thaliana. The genome sizes in a set of triploid Musa cultivars or clones were quite different, with 2C DNA values ranging from 1.61 to 2.23 pg. Likewise, the genome sizes of tetraploid cultivars ranged from 1.94 to 2.37 pg (2C). Apparently, tetraploids (for instance, accession I.C.2) can have a genome size that falls within the range of triploid genome sizes, and vice versa (as in the case of accession Simili Radjah). The 2C values estimated for organs such as leaf, leaf sheath, rhizome, and flower were consistent, whereas root material gave atypical results, owing to browning. The genomic base composition of these Musa taxa had a median value of 40.8% GC (SD = 0.43%).

  11. Multiple gene genealogies and phenotypic characters differentiate several novel species of Mycosphaerella and related anamorphs on banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzanlou, M; Groenewald, J Z; Fullerton, R A; Abeln, E C A; Carlier, J; Zapater, M-F; Buddenhagen, I W; Viljoen, A; Crous, P W

    2008-06-01

    Three species of Mycosphaerella, namely M. eumusae, M. fijiensis, and M. musicola are involved in the Sigatoka disease complex of bananas. Besides these three primary pathogens, several additional species of Mycosphaerella or their anamorphs have been described from Musa. However, very little is known about these taxa, and for the majority of these species no culture or DNA is available for study. In the present study, we collected a global set of Mycosphaerella strains from banana, and compared them by means of morphology and a multi-gene nucleotide sequence data set. The phylogeny inferred from the ITS region and the combined data set containing partial gene sequences of the actin gene, the small subunit mitochondrial ribosomal DNA and the histone H3 gene revealed a rich diversity of Mycosphaerella species on Musa. Integration of morphological and molecular data sets confirmed more than 20 species of Mycosphaerella (incl. anamorphs) to occur on banana. This study reconfirmed the previously described presence of Cercospora apii, M. citri and M. thailandica, and also identified Mycosphaerella communis, M. lateralis and Passalora loranthi on this host. Moreover, eight new species identified from Musa are described, namely Dissoconium musae, Mycosphaerella mozambica, Pseudocercospora assamensis, P. indonesiana, P. longispora, Stenella musae, S. musicola, and S. queenslandica.

  12. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Measurements of Reactive Oxygen Species by Cyclic Hydroxylamine Spin Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikalov, Sergey I; Polienko, Yuliya F; Kirilyuk, Igor

    2018-05-20

    Oxidative stress contributes to numerous pathophysiological conditions such as development of cancer, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. A variety of measurements of oxidative stress markers in biological systems have been developed; however, many of these methods are not specific, can produce artifacts, and do not directly detect the free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative stress. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is a unique tool that allows direct measurements of free radical species. Cyclic hydroxylamines are useful and convenient molecular probes that readily react with ROS to produce stable nitroxide radicals, which can be quantitatively measured by EPR. In this work, we critically review recent applications of various cyclic hydroxylamine spin probes in biology to study oxidative stress, their advantages, and the shortcomings. Recent Advances: In the past decade, a number of new cyclic hydroxylamine spin probes have been developed and their successful application for ROS measurement using EPR has been published. These new state-of-the-art methods provide improved selectivity and sensitivity for in vitro and in vivo studies. Although cyclic hydroxylamine spin probes EPR application has been previously described, there has been lack of translation of these new methods into biomedical research, limiting their widespread use. This work summarizes "best practice" in applications of cyclic hydroxylamine spin probes to assist with EPR studies of oxidative stress. Additional studies to advance hydroxylamine spin probes from the "basic science" to biomedical applications are needed and could lead to better understanding of pathological conditions associated with oxidative stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1433-1443.

  13. Antioxidant activity test on ambonese banana stem sap (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Setia Budi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN release oxygen free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS during inflammation. As a result, ROS level is higher than antioxidant level in our body during oxidative stress leading to prolong inflammation or continuous tissue damage. Indonesia, on the other hand, is a country with various herbal medicines. For instance, ambonese banana (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum is often used as herbal medicine. Ambonese banana, moreover, has flavonoid, polyphenol, tannin, and saponin as antioxidants to reduce free radicals by transferring their hydrogen atom. Medicine used to reduce the impact of free radicals is known as antioxidant. Antioxidant is proved to accelerate wound healing. Purpose: This research aims to analyze the effects of the antioxidant activity of Ambonese banana stem sap extract. Method: Antioxidant activities in this research were examined with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl (DPPH method by reacting with stable radical compounds. Spectrophotometry with a wavelength of 517 nm was used to measure absorption results shown in purple. The absorption results then were calculated by IC50 reduction activity. Result: There were significant differences of Ambonese banana stem sap antioxidant activity (p50%. Conclusion: Ambonese banana stem sap extract has antioxidant activities.

  14. Effect of Musa spp. extract on eggs and larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes from infected sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Neuwirt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helminthes are listed as one of the main problems facing the development of goat and sheep production. Haemonchus contortus is the specie that causes greatest negative impact in ranching. Resistance to anti-parasitic drugs and demand for residue-free animal-derived food products has elevated the importance of herbal treatments. The aim of this study was to develop an extract of Musa spp. and assess by in vitro testing, the anthelmintic effect on eggs and larvae in the gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Stool samples from sheep naturally infected were used to obtain eggs and larvae and was then followed by a test of hatchability and a larval migration inhibition test. In vitro tests on the inhibition of larval hatchability at concentrations of 160 and 180 mg mL-1 of larval extracts and inhibition of migration at concentrations of 800 and 1000 mg mL-1 were observed. The results indicate that the use of banana leaf has an anthelmintic effect and that in vivo studies on the applicability of this technology to the field should be made to further understanding and bring more information to what has already been revealed in this study.

  15. Characterization of EDTA-soluble polysaccharides from the scape of Musa paradisiaca (banana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, T S; Jagadish, R L; Anjaneyalu, Y V

    2001-02-01

    The polysaccharide components present in the scape of Musa paradisiaca (banana) were fractionated into water-soluble (WSP), EDTA-soluble (EDTA-SP), alkali-soluble (ASP) and alkali-insoluble (AISP) polysaccharide fractions [Anjaneyalu, Jagadish and Raju (1997) Glycoconj. J. 14, 507-512]. The EDTA-SP was further fractionated by iso-amyl alcohol into EDTA-SP-A and EDTA-SP-B. The homogeneity of these two polysaccharides was established by repeated precipitation with iso-amyl alcohol, gel-filtration chromatography and sedimentation analysis. The polysaccharides were characterized by monosaccharide composition analysis, methylation linkage analysis, iodine affinity, ferricyanide number, blue value, hydrolysis with alpha-amylase, gold-electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Data from all of these studies suggest that EDTA-SP-A is a branched amylose-type alpha-D-glucan and that EDTA-SP-B is a highly branched amylopectin-type polymer. The nature of the branching patterns of these polysaccharides suggests that they are unique to M. paradisiaca.

  16. Micromicetos del suelo de una plantación de plátano (Musa paradisiaca en Teapa, Tabasco, México Soil microfungi from a banana (Musa paradisiaca plantation in Teapa, Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Del Olmo-Ruiz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la micobiota presente en el suelo de un cultivo de plátano (Musa paradisiaca L. en el municipio de Teapa en el estado de Tabasco, México. Los objetivos fueron conocer las especies habitantes de este suelo y la dinámica de la comunidad con respecto a la composición de especies a lo largo de un año. Se llevaron a cabo 4 muestreos durante temporadas distintas y los aislamientos se realizaron mediante la técnica de dilución en placa. Se recuperaron 91 colonias, correspondientes a 30 especies diferentes de hongos mitospóricos, de las cuales únicamente Aspergillus flavus Link, Fusarium nivale (Fr. Ces y Trichoderma harzianum Rifai fueron especies residentes de ese suelo y el resto, esporádicas. El índice de similitud de Sorensen evidenció una sucesión de especies entre las temporadas de muestreo. Del total de especies determinadas en este estudio, 8 no habían sido encontradas como habitantes de suelos mexicanos. Asimismo, se mostró que el suelo analizado es un hábitat muy rico en micromicetos y que es necesario incrementar los esfuerzos de colecta para tener un mayor conocimiento sobre la diversidad en nuestro país.In this study, we analyzed the soil microfungal community from a banana (Musa paradisiaca L. plantation in Teapa, a municipality of Tabasco State in Mexico. The objectives were to determine the fungal species present and to analyze the community composition throughout an entire year. We performed 4 samplings during different seasons and the fungal isolates were recovered using the dilution plate technique. We isolated 91 strains from 30 different mitosporic species where only Aspergillus flavus Link, Fusarium nivale (Fr. Ces and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai were considered as resident species while the remaining species were sporadic. The Sorensen similarity index suggested that species succession had occurred among the sampling seasons. From all the species identified in this survey, 8 had not been found as

  17. Improvement of bananas (Musa cvs.) through in vitro anther culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea Dallos, M [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Dept. de Biologia

    1995-06-01

    Agricultural products play a great role in the Colombian economy, and the banana is one of the most important. Since 1981, one of the more serious problems effecting production of this crop is the fungus Mycosphaerella fijensis sp. difformis, that causes black sigatoka disease. Most of the recent efforts to control this disease have been directed towards the identification of clones tolerant or resistant to this disease. One alternative approach is the use of anther culture to obtain resistant haploid plants. Diploid clones (Musa - AA) have been used as a model in this study. The results presented here identify the most appropriate stage of anther development for callus induction and proliferation, and treatments that reduce tissue browning. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa T. Yakubu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P<0.05 prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martineli, Maristella; Coneglian, Regina C.C.; Vasconcellos, Marco A.S.; Silva, Eduardo; Rocha, Janielio G.; Melo, Maruzanete P.; Vital, Helio C.

    2009-01-01

    Banana is a highly perishable climacteric fruit. In order to ensure fast and homogeneous ripening that will make its processing and commercialization easier, it is usually treated by climatization. On the other hand, irradiation is an interesting physical process capable of delaying ripening and extending the shelf life of fruits. This work investigated the competing effects of irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB). All fruits were harvested in the preclimacteric stage, rinsed and stored at 27 deg C after being submitted to five different treatments. After hygienization, four out of five samples were exposed to gamma-ray at doses of 0.25 and 0.50 kGy. The unirradiated fruits were left for control and half of the irradiated samples were then climatized by exposure to CaC 2 . Measurements of fresh mass loss, total soluble solids, peel coloration and disease index were performed on five different dates for up to nine days in order to monitor quality and the degree of ripening. It was found that high temperatures prevailing during climatization and storage accelerated maturation in all fruits in spite of the use of irradiation, with the control becoming ripe in 3 days only. In addition, based on the consistent results from the experiments performed, it can be concluded that irradiation at the doses tested was unable to overcome the maturation effects produced by climatization. However, the sole use of irradiation with 0.25 kGy yielded the lowest figures for fresh mass loss and disease index in the samples, thus becoming the most attractive among the treatments tested. (author)

  20. Development and application of sequence-tagged microsatellite site (STMS) markers in chickpea (Cicer arietinum), banana (Musa spp.) and their major pathogens, Ascochyta rabiei and Mycosphaerella fijiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, P.; Kaemmer, D.; Paff, T.; Geistlinger, J.; Neu, C.; Kahl, G.

    2001-01-01

    DNA markers of various kinds have found widespread application in many facets of plant breeding and plant pathogen control. Yet another marker type, sequence-tagged microsatellite (STMS) markers, provides the markers of choice for nearly every crop because of their co-dominant nature, reliability, ease of application and high polymorphic information content. We report here on the development of a whole set of STMS markers and the respective, selected primer sequences for two important crops, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and banana (Musa acuminata), and for their most devastating fungal pathogens, Ascochyta rabiei and Mycosphaerella fijiensis, respectively. These markers were generated either by direct screening of size-selected genomic libraries with microsatellite-complementary oligonucleotides, or by enrichment of DNA fragments containing microsatellite sequences. A total of 69 markers for chickpea, 15 markers for M. acuminata, 19 markers for A rabiei and 11 markers for M. fijiensis, selected on the basis of their high information content and ease of use are presented here. These can be applied for mapping of the respective genomes, for various population studies, and cultivar and isolate identification. We further demonstrate that several of these markers can potentially be applied across species boundaries and thus could increase the marker repertoire also for other species of the genus Cicer, Musa and for Ascochyta-type pathogens of bean, and potentially also of lentil and pea. (author)

  1. In vitro effects of Musa x paradisiaca extracts on four developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and/or dichloromethane) of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). The highly significant (P67% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaf on adult worm motility (43% of inhibition of motility after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as terpenoid and flavonoid compounds present in the leaf and stem of the plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of reactive oxygen species in isolated, perfused lungs by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schudt Christian

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sources and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS in intact organs are largely unresolved. This may be related to methodological problems associated with the techniques currently employed for ROS detection. Electron spin resonance (ESR with spin trapping is a specific method for ROS detection, and may address some these technical problems. Methods We have established a protocol for the measurement of intravascular ROS release from isolated buffer-perfused and ventilated rabbit and mouse lungs, combining lung perfusion with the spin probe l-hydroxy-3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CPH and ESR spectroscopy. We then employed this technique to characterize hypoxia-dependent ROS release, with specific attention paid to NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide formation as a possible vasoconstrictor pathway. Results While perfusing lungs with CPH over a range of inspired oxygen concentrations (1–21 %, the rate of CP• formation exhibited an oxygen-dependence, with a minimum at 2.5 % O2. Addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD to the buffer fluid illustrated that a minor proportion of this intravascular ROS leak was attributable to superoxide. Stimulation of the lungs by injection of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA into the pulmonary artery caused a rapid increase in CP• formation, concomitant with pulmonary vasoconstriction. Both the PMA-induced CPH oxidation and the vasoconstrictor response were largely suppressed by SOD. When the PMA challenge was performed at different oxygen concentrations, maximum superoxide liberation and pulmonary vasoconstriction occurred at 5 % O2. Using a NADPH oxidase inhibitor and NADPH-oxidase deficient mice, we illustrated that the PMA-induced superoxide release was attributable to the stimulation of NADPH oxidases. Conclusion The perfusion of isolated lungs with CPH is suitable for detection of intravascular ROS release by ESR spectroscopy. We employed this technique to

  3. Xylem specific activation of 5’ upstream regulatory region of two NAC transcription factors (MusaVND6 and MusaVND7) in banana is regulated by SNBE-like sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Deposition of secondary cell wall in the xylem elements is controlled by a subgroup of NAC (NAM, ATAF, CUC) family, known as vascular-related NAC transcription factors (VNDs). In the present study, we analyzed the 5’ upstream regulatory region of two banana NAC transcription factors (MusaVND6 and MusaVND7) for tissue specific expression and presence of 19-bp secondary-wall NAC binding element (SNBE)-like motifs. Transgenic banana plants of Musa cultivar Rasthali harboring either PMusaVND7::GUS or PMusaVND6::GUS showed specific GUS (β-D-Glucuronidase) activity in cells of the xylem tissue. Approximately 1.2kb promoter region of either MusaVND6 or MusaVND7 showed presence of at least two SNBE-like motifs. This 1.2kb promoter region was retarded in a gel shift assay by three banana VND protein (VND1,VND2 and VND3). The banana VND1-VND3 could also retard the mobility of isolated SNBE-like motifs of MusaVND6 or MusaVND7 in a gel shift assay. Transcript levels of MusaVND6 and MusaVND7 were elevated in transgenic banana overexpressing either banana VND1, VND2 or VND3. Present study suggested a probable regulation of banana VND6 and VND7 expression through direct interaction of banana VND1- VND3 with SNBE-like motifs. Our study also indicated two promoter elements for possible utilization in cell wall modifications in plants especially banana, which is being recently considered as a potential biofuel crop. PMID:29438404

  4. THE CORE OF THE PSEUDOSTEM OF MUSA IN THE TREATMENT OF URINARY STONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, R. Gopakumara

    1995-01-01

    Ayurveda recommends many simple herbs in the treatment of urological afflictions like urolithiasis. Seventyone patients diagnosed to be suffering from urolithiasis were treated with juice of the core of the pseudostem of Musa Paradisiaca and Musa sapientum. A significant segment of them passed out calculi of varying size after consuming the drug for two weeks. Recurrence of stone formation was also prevented by the treatment, The author concludes that the plant material is quite effective in curing urolithiasis, especially of the calcium oxalate variety. PMID:22556713

  5. Posterior spiracles of fourth instar larvae of four species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae under scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, posterior spiracles of laboratory-reared fourth instar larvae of Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. lenti, and L. whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The number of papillae of spiracles examined varied according to the species examined, but no intraspecific differences were found. The importance of this structure to sand fly larva identification and phylogeny is commented.

  6. Scanning electron microscopy of male terminalia and its application to species recognition and phylogenetic reconstruction in the Drosophila saltans group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Tiago Alves Jorge; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; Bicudo, Hermione Elly Melara de Campos; Madi-Ravazzi, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila saltans group consists of five subgroups and 21 species, most of which have been identified only by morphological aspects of the male terminalia revealed by drawings using a camera lucida and a bright-field microscope. However, several species in the group, mainly those included in the saltans subgroup, are difficult to differentiate using only these characteristics. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze 19 structures of the male terminalia in 10 species from the five saltans subgroups. Among these structures, nine could be identified only through SEM analysis. We aimed to find other characteristics useful for morphological recognition of these species and to use these characteristics for phylogenetic reconstruction. These morphological differences enabled us to effectively distinguish among sibling species. These findings confirmed the monophyly of this group as previously determined in evolutionary studies based on other markers. The single most parsimonious tree (CI = 87 and RI = 90) indicated that the cordata subgroup is the most basal lineage and the saltans subgroup is the most apical lineage, as shown in earlier studies based on morphological data. However, our findings differed somewhat from these studies with respect to the phylogenetic relationships of species in the saltans group indicating that this group is still a puzzle that remains to be deciphered.

  7. Multiple gene genealogies and phenotypic characters differentiate several novel species of Mycosphaerella and related anamorphs on banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzanlou, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Fullerton, R.A.; Abeln, E.C.A.; Carlier, J.; Zapater, M.-F.; Buddenhagen, I.W.; Viljoen, A.; Crous, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    Three species of Mycosphaerella, namely M. eumusae, M. fijiensis, and M. musicola are involved in the Sigatoka disease complex of bananas. Besides these three primary pathogens, several additional species of Mycosphaerella or their anamorphs have been described from Musa. However, very little is

  8. New somaclone of plantain (Musa AAB obtainet by biotechnological techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de la C. Ventura

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained from Plant Breeding Programs on Musa spp. In the tissue culture Laboratory at INIVIT since 1987 is presented. Procedures described by IAEA with some modifications for mutation induction through in vitro culture were used. Meristematic sproutings (2-3 mm from in vitro formed buds were isolated. Ionizan radiaton were carried out in a Cobalt 60 source at a rate of 50 Gy. A somaclone (‘Z-13’ is generalized due the following characteristics; tolerance to “Black Sigatoka” disease (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, average height of 2.70 m, a bunch in a truncated cone shape with 16.5 fingers per hand and a predominantly astringent taste, the stem is under soil level to have a better anchoar and a higher yield. Morphologic and molecular characterization showed the differences within selected variants in relation to the donor. The new mutant is proposed to be registered as a new cultivar by The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA. Advanced growers from Villa Clara and Ciego de Ávila, Cuba participated in the selection program. Key words: buds, in vitro mutations, tissue culture, somaclonal variation

  9. Determination of Juglone concentration for differentiate two Musa spp cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Leiva Mora

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The toxins production by fungal pathogenic can enhance penetration and colonization of the host tissues and reproduce symptoms of diseases. Juglone is the main and the most toxic metabolite characterized from the culture filtrate of Mycosphaerella fijiensis. In the present work it was used different concentrations of juglone (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg.l-1 and a control solution of methanol 10%. Foliar injections were performed in the underside of two last open leaves of Grande naine (AAA and Fougamou (ABB cultivars. The percentage of necrosis per plant was evaluated at 24 hours after the injection. The concentration of 100 mg.l-1 was able to produce necrotic symptoms in both cultivars; nevertheless with the 50 mg.l-1 was possible to obtain differences between the two cultivars. This result established a concentration for screening two Musa spp cultivars with different resistance levels to Black Leaf Streak by the use of juglone. Key word: banana leaf streak, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, selection, toxins

  10. Surface Coating of Musa Brachycarpa Trunk Using UV-Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto; Sumarni, Anik; Nurhadi, Agus; Puspita, Rita

    2000-01-01

    An experiment on UV-curing of surface coating of Musa brachycarpa was carried out using urethane acrylate polymer films. Radiation curable material was the mixture of urethane acrylate resin, tripropylene glycol diacrylate monomer (TPGDA) and radical photo initiator of 2,2-dimethyl -2-hydroxy acetophenone. The TPGDA concentrations in the mixture with urethane acrylate resin were 60; 70 and 80% weight, Whereas concentrations of photo initiator were varied at the level 1.5:2.0 and 2.5% by weight based on resin and monomer mixture. Irradiation was conducted by using 80 Watt/cm intensity UV-light at the conveyor speed of 2: 3 and 4 m/min. Analysis and film properties observed were IR spectrum, gel fraction, hardness, abrasion resistance, glossy and chemical, solvent and stain resistances. Films have good resistances against 1% sodium carbonate, 5% acetic acid, 50% alcohol, thinner and red, blue and black permanent marker, except against 10% sodium hydroxide and 10% sulfuric acid. Optimum condition was achieved at the photo initiator concentration level of 2% and conveyor speed of 3 m/min

  11. Hepatoprotective activity of Musa paradisiaca on experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, M; Girija, K; Lakshman, K; Divya, T

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of stem of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of stem of M. paradisiaca was demonstrated by using two experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models. Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4 and paracetamol) showed significant biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with alcoholic extract (500 mg/kg), more significantly and to a lesser extent the alcoholic extract (250 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), reduced the elevated levels of the serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels and alcoholic and aqueous extracts reversed the hepatic damage towards the normal, which further evidenced the hepatoprotective activity of stem of M. paradisiaca. The alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of stem of M. paradisiaca have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity animal models.

  12. Radiation dose assessment of musa acuminata - triploid (AAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maravillas, Mart Andrew S.; Locaylocay, Jocelyn R.; Mendoza, Concepcion S.

    2008-01-01

    Bananas are radioactive due to the presence of the radioisotope- 40 K. This imposes a possible health risk to the general public. This study intended to assess the annual equivalent dosages and the annual effective dosage committed by the body. This seeks to benefit the general public, students and researchers, and entrepreneurs. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, lakatan banana (Musa acuminata-triploid (AAA), the most purchased variety cultivated in Barangay Adlawon, Cebu City, Philippines, was found to contain 0.53 g of total potassium for every 100 g of its fresh fruit wherein 6.2 x 10 -5 g of which is potassium-40. Based on its 40 K content banana was calculated to have a radioactivity of 16 Bq/100 g. it was found out that the body is exposed to radiation dosages ranging from 2.8 x 10 -3 rem annually by eating 100 g of lakatan bananas everyday. Conversely, it is equivalent to the annual effective dosage of 0.0043 rem; the amount at which the body of an individual is uniformly exposed. However, no or extremely minute health risk was determined by just eating bananas. In fact, to exceed the radiation dose limits set by the International Commission on Radiation Protection, an individual may eat 116 kg of lakatan bananas everyday for a year. Fertilizers may be the major source of the radioisotope - 40 K and assimilated by the plants. (author)

  13. Theory of electron degradation and yields of initial molecular species produced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.; Dillon, M.A.; Kimura, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ionizing radiations generate in matter a large number of energetic electrons, which in turn collide with molecules in matter, produce ions and excited states, and thereby degrade in energy. The description of the consequences of many collision processes to the electrons and to matter is the goal of the electron degradation theory. They summarize the current understanding of this topic, which is important as a basis of radiation chemistry and biology. In addition, they present an initial report of their new work, namely, a generalization of the Spencer-Fano theory to time-dependent cases

  14. Penurunan Garam Klorida Air Laut Dengan Memanfaatkan Modifikasi Pati Dari Limbah Bonggol Pisang Ambon (Musa Paradisiaca Var Sapientum)

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbani, Aulia Husna; -, Alimuddin; Saleh, Chairul

    2015-01-01

    The research of desalination the sea water by utilization of the strach bump a “Pisang Ambon (Musa paradisiaca var sapientum)” modification has been done. Modification of starch bump “Pisang Ambon (Musa paradisiaca var sapientum)” had be a ability better than starch bump “Pisang Ambon (Musa paradisiaca var sapientum)” in the levels of chloride. The variation upon which to do to absorb chloride of sea water which are starch, starch been activated NaOH and starch acetate bump of a “Pisang Ambon...

  15. DArT whole genome profiling provides insights on the evolution and taxonomy of edible Banana (Musa spp.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sardos, J.; Perrier, X.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Hřibová, Eva; Christelová, Pavla; Van den Houwe, I.; Kilian, A.; Roux, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 7 (2016), s. 1269-1278 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LG15017 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : multilocus genotype data * arrays technology dart * genetic diversity * population-structure * balbisiana colla * acuminata colla * markers * identification * aflp * domestication * Musa acuminata * Musa balbisiana * Musa spp. * banana * DArT * domestication * taxonomy * classification * domestication Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  16. Reactive oxygen species' role in endothelial dysfunction by electron paramagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassall, Cynthia D.

    The endothelium is a single layer of cells lining the arteries and is involved in many physiological reactions which are responsible for vascular tone. Free radicals are important participants in these chemical reactions in the endothelium. Here we quantify free radicals, ex vivo, in biological tissue with continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In all of the experiments in this thesis, we use a novel EPR spin trapping technique that has been developed for tissue segments. EPR spin trapping is often considered the 'gold standard' in reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection because of its sensitivity and non-invasive nature. In all experiments, tissue was placed in physiological saline solution with 190-mM PBN (N-tert -butyl-α-phenylnitrone), 10% by volume dimethyl-sulphoxide (DMSO) for cryopreservation, and incubated in the dark for between 30 minutes up to 2 hours at 37°C while gently being stirred. Tissue and supernatant were then loaded into a syringe and frozen at -80°C until EPR analysis. In our experiments, the EPR spectra were normalized with respect to tissue volume. Conducting experiments at liquid nitrogen temperature leads to some experimental advantages. The freezing of the spin adducts renders them stable over a longer period, which allows ample time to analyze tissue samples for ROS. The dielectric constant of ice is greatly reduced over its liquid counterpart; this property of water enables larger sample volumes to be inserted into the EPR cavity without overloading it and leads to enhanced signal detection. Due to Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, the population difference goes up as the temperature goes down, so this phenomenon enhances the signal intensity as well. With the 'gold standard' assertion in mind, we investigated whether slicing tissue to assay ROS that is commonly used in fluorescence experiments will show more free radical generation than tissue of a similar volume that remains unsliced. Sliced tissue exhibited a 76

  17. Primary processes of the electron-protic species coupling in pure aqueous phases: - femtosecond laser spectroscopy study; - quantum approach of the electron-water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommeret, Stanislas

    1991-01-01

    This thesis work deals with the coupling mechanisms between an electron, water molecules or protic species (hydronium ion, hydroxyl radical). Two complementary studies have been carry out in pure aqueous phases. The first one is concerned with the structural aspect of the hydrated electron which is studied via a semi-quantum approach Splitting Operator Method. The results indicates the importance of the second hydration shell in the localisation of an electron at 77 and 300 Kelvin. The second part of this work relates to the dynamic of the primary processes in light or heavy water at room temperature: the ion-molecule reaction, radical pair formation, geminate recombination of the hydrated electron with the hydronium ion and the hydroxyl radical. The dynamic of these reactions is studied by time resolved absorption spectroscopy from the near infrared to the near ultraviolet with a few tens femto-seconds temporal precision. The analysis of the primary processes takes into account the protic properties of water molecules. (author) [fr

  18. Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential with multi electron species in magnetoplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arroj A.; Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.; Murtaza, G.

    2013-02-01

    The phenomenon of shielding of test charge in the presence of an external magnetic field (Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential) is investigated in electron ion plasmas using the approach of two temperature electrons. The modified dispersion relations of ion acoustic waves under different conditions are derived. We get different profiles of potential for different parameters and observe that the potentials fall very slowly than the standard Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential given in the reference.

  19. Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential with multi electron species in magnetoplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Arroj A.; Murtaza, G.; Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of shielding of test charge in the presence of an external magnetic field (Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential) is investigated in electron ion plasmas using the approach of two temperature electrons. The modified dispersion relations of ion acoustic waves under different conditions are derived. We get different profiles of potential for different parameters and observe that the potentials fall very slowly than the standard Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential given in the reference.

  20. Electron collector and ion species experiments on the LION extractor ion diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondeau, G.; Greenly, J.B.; Hammer, D.A.; Horioka, K.; Meyerhofer, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the effects of an electron collector on the electron flow in an ion diode and on diode impedance history are being done with an extractor geometry ion diode (B/sub r/ magnetic insulation field) on the LION accelerator (1.5 MV, 4Ω, 40 ns). The collector is a flux-penetrable metal protrusion on the inner radius of the anode that collects electrons. This device increases the diode operating impedance particularly during the later part of the pulse when the diode impedance collapses without the collector. In the present set of experiments, several thin wires are inserted into the anode and allowed to protrude a few millimeters into the A-K gap. These wires are damaged by the electron flow during the pulse and by measuring the length of the remaining wire, the distance of the electron layer from the anode can be inferred. The ion current density is also measured in three radial locations across the diode, giving a measure, through the Child-Langmuir law, of the effective gap spacing between the anode and the electron sheath. A simple model is proposed to account for the scaling of ion current density with the diode voltage observed in the experiment

  1. Caracterização do grânulo de amido de bananas (Musa AAA-Nanicão e Musa AAB-Terra)

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas,M.C.J.; Tavares,D.de Q.

    2005-01-01

    O amido de bananas tem sido pesquisado na área de nutrição a partir da introdução do conceito de Amido Resistente. O amido de Musa AAA-Nanicão e Musa AAB-Terra foram caracterizados quanto as suas respostas fisiológicas [12]. Em continuidade, o presente trabalho estudou características físicas e morfológicas dos grânulos de amido de ambas as espécies de banana comparando-as com amido nativo de milho comercial. O amido de bananas foi extraído segundo CHIANG, CHU & CHU [3]. A morfologia dos ...

  2. Scanning electron microscopy description of a new species of Demodex canis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Y; Kawamura, Y; Inoue, I; Ishino, S

    2001-10-01

    Between 1997 and 1999, the prevalence of Demodex canis mites was determined in 150 dogs. In two dogs, we found two different species of mites; Demodex canis and another, unidentified, Demodex mite. The unidentified Demodex mite species had several different morphological features. First, it had a short opisthosoma and an obtuse end. In addition, the fourth coxisternal plate was rectangular and there was a band-like segmental plate between the fourth coxisternal plate and opisthosoma. Although all of the morphology and the development of male mites could not be investigated in this study, the location of the opisthosoma and the genital pore clearly differed from Demodex canis, suggesting that this unidentified mite is a new species.

  3. Effect of surface coating on ripening and early peel spotting in 'Sucrier' banana (Musa acuminata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Sucrier¿ bananas (Musa acuminata, AA Group) show peel spotting when the peel is just about as yellow as green, which coincides with optimum eating quality. As consumers might relate the spotting to overripe fruit, early spotting is considered undesirable, especially for export markets. Fruit were

  4. Nuclear genome size and genomic distribution of ribosomal DNA in Musa and Ensete (Musaceae): taxonomic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Jan; Alkhimova, Olena; Kubaláková, Marie; De Langhe, E.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 109, - (2005), s. 50-57 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038204 Grant - others:IAEA Research Contract 12230/RBF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Musa and Ensete * nuclear genome size * FISH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.076, year: 2005

  5. Consumer Perceptions towards Introducing a Genetically Modified Banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how

  6. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Uji Aktivitas Senyawa Antioksidan dari Ekstrak Metanol Kulit Pisang Raja (Musa paradisiaca Sapientum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfira Rosa Pane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTelah dilakukan penelitian uji aktivitas senyawa antioksidan dari ekstrak metanol kulit pisang raja (Musa paradisiaca Sapientum. Ekstraksi dilakukan dengan cara maserasi menggunakan pelarut metanol. Ekstraksi bertingkat dilakukan terhadap ekstrak metanol dengan n-heksan dan etil asetat. Dari uji fitokimia terhadap fraksi metanol menunjukkan positif flavonoid. Pengujian aktifitas antioksidan dilakukan dengan reaksi oksidasi asam linoleat dengan metoda feritiosianat (FTC 0,05%. Sebagai standar antioksidan digunakan Butil hidroksianisol (BHA. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan ekstrak metanol, fraksi n-heksan dan etil asetat memiliki aktifitas antioksidan yang tidak jauh berbeda dengan BHA. Sedangkan fraksi etil asetat memiliki aktifitas antioksidan yang lebih tinggi daripada BHA.Kata kunci : antioksidan, feritiosianat, Musa paradisiaca SapientumAbstractA research has been done to evaluate the antioxidant activity of metanol extract Musa paradisiaca Sapientum peel’s. Maseration technique was used to get the extract using metanol as solvent. The metanol extract of the peel was re-extracted by solvents into n-hexan and ethyl acetate fractions. Phytochemical screening of metanol extract showed positive flavonoid. The antioxidant activities were tested by using ferric thiocyanate method 0,05% (FTC on linoleic acid and buthyl hydroxyanisole (BHA as antioxidant standard. Metanol extract, n-hexan and ethyl acetate fraction exhibited antioxidative activity that was not significantly different from BHA, on the other hand, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited significant antioxidative activity, which is better than BHA.Keywords : antioxidant, ferric thiocyanate, Musa paradisiaca Sapientum

  8. Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant efficacy of Musa paradisiaca pseudostem on ethylene glycol-induced nephrolithiasis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Padma Nibash; Dey, Sahadeb; Sahoo, Monalisa; Dan, Ananya

    2017-01-01

    Musa paradisiaca has been used in the treatment of urolithiasis by the rural people in South India. Therefore, we plan to evaluate its efficacy and possible mechanism of antiurolithiatic effect to rationalize its medicinal use. Urolithiasis was induced in hyperoxaluric rat model by giving 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) for 28 days along with 1% ammonium chloride (AC) for the first 14 days. Antiurolithiatic effect of aqueous-ethanol extract of M. paradisiaca pseudostem (MUSA) was evaluated based on urine and serum biochemistry, microscopy of urine, oxidative/nitrosative indices, kidney calcium content, and histopathology. Administration of EG and AC resulted in increased crystalluria and oxaluria, hypercalciuria, polyuria, crystal deposition in urine, raised serum urea, and creatinine as well as nitric oxide concentration and erythrocytic lipid peroxidation in lithiatic group. However, MUSA treatment significantly restored the impairment in above kidney function test as that of standard treatment, cystone in a dose-dependent manner. The present findings demonstrate the efficacy of MUSA in EG-induced urolithiasis, which might be mediated through inhibiting various pathways involved in renal calcium oxalate formation, antioxidant effect, and potential to inhibit biochemical markers of renal impairment.

  9. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure analysis of the banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D D; Saikrishnan, K; Kumar, Prashant; Dauter, Z; Sekar, K; Surolia, A; Vijayan, M

    2004-11-01

    The banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca, MW 29.4 kDa, has been isolated, purified and crystallized. The trigonal crystals contain one dimeric molecule in the asymmetric unit. The structure has been solved using molecular replacement to a resolution of 3 A. The structure of the subunit is similar to that of jacalin-like lectins.

  10. Studies on the Karyotype of the Genus Musa| L. | Aziagba | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of a simple way to display and study the mitotic chromosomes of Musa plant is reported in the present paper. Use of enzyme mixture has been employed to arrive at this less expensive method. Enzyme mixture was used to digest the root-tips. The mixture and the root-tips were incubated at 370 C in water ...

  11. In vitro multiplication of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A micropropagation method is described for banana (Musa Spp.) Cv. Grand Naine. Suckers were surface sterilized with HgCl2 (0.1%) for 6 min which gave minimum contamination with maximum culture establishment. Of various treatment combinations, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium + BAP 4.00 mg/l with IAA 2.00 ...

  12. Catalog of banana (Musa spp.) accessions maintained at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Reserach Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana genetic resources can be found in situ in native habitats in Southeast Asia and the Pacific region. Ex situ collections also exist in important tropical regions of the world as well as in vitro cultures at the Bioversity International Musa Germplasm Transit Centre. Unfortunately, readily avai...

  13. Den lille krig i fredstid. Danske militære erfaringer i Musa Qala i 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink Rasmussen, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Den 1. Lette Opklaringseskadron fra Bornholms forsvar af distriktscentret Musa Qala i den afghanske Helmand-provins i eftersommeren 2006 gennemanalyseres. Det sker med det formål at klarlægge, hvordan man udnyttede læring under forberedelsen til indsættelsen samt under og efter denne. Herunder da...

  14. The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hont, D' A.; Denoeud, F.; Aury, J.M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.

    2012-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit

  15. Assessment of Ploidy and Genome Constitution of Some Musa balbisiana Cultivars using DArT Markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sales, E. K.; Butardo, N. G.; Paniagua, H. G.; Jansen, H.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2011), s. 11-18 ISSN 0115-463X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : DArT * genome * Musa balbisiana Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.075, year: 2011 http://home.ueb.cas.cz/publikace/2011_Sales_PHILIPPINE_JOURNAL_OF_CROP_SCIENCE_11.pdf

  16. Multiple ion species fluid modeling of sprite halos and the role of electron detachment from O- in their dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sprite halos are brief descending glows appearing at the lower ionosphere boundary, which follow impulsive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges [e.g., Barrington-Leigh et al., JGR, 106, 1741, 2001, Wescott et al., JGR, 106, 10467, 2001; Pasko, JGR, 115, A00E35, 2010]. They last for a few milliseconds, with horizontal extension of tens of kilometers and vertical thickness of several kilometers. According to global survey of the occurrence of transient luminous events by the ISUAL instruments on the FORMOSAT-2 satellite, on average sprite halos occur once every minute on Earth [Chen et al., JGR, 113, A08306, 2008]. It has been established that sprite halos are caused by electron heating, and molecule excitation and ionization in the lower ionosphere due to lightning quasi-electrostatic field [e.g., Pasko et al., JGR, 102, 4529, 1997; Barrington-Leigh et al., 2001; Pasko, 2010]. Past modeling work on sprite halos was conducted using either a two dimensional (2D) model of at most three charged species or a zero dimensional model of multiple ion species. In this talk, we report a modeling study of sprite halos using a recently developed 2D fluid model of multiple charged species. The model charged species include the ion species set used in [Lehtinen and Inan, GRL, 34, L08804, 2007] to study the dynamics of ionization perturbations produced by gigantic jets in the middle and upper atmosphere. In addition, another charged species, O-, is added to this set, because electron detachment of O- can proceed very fast under moderate electric field [Rayment and Moruzzi, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 26, 321, 1978], requiring a separate treatment from the other light negative ions. The modeling results of a sprite halo driven by positive cloud-to-ground lightning indicate that the halo can descend to lower altitude with much higher electron density behind its front when the O- detachment process is included. Electron density ahead of the halo front is not significantly reduced from the

  17. Mechanisms of haplotype divergence at the RGA08 nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat gene locus in wild banana (Musa balbisiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Bocs, Stéphanie; Rouard, Mathieu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Miller, Robert N G; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; MBéguié-A-MBéguié, Didier; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2010-07-16

    Comparative sequence analysis of complex loci such as resistance gene analog clusters allows estimating the degree of sequence conservation and mechanisms of divergence at the intraspecies level. In banana (Musa sp.), two diploid wild species Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) contribute to the polyploid genome of many cultivars. The M. balbisiana species is associated with vigour and tolerance to pests and disease and little is known on the genome structure and haplotype diversity within this species. Here, we compare two genomic sequences of 253 and 223 kb corresponding to two haplotypes of the RGA08 resistance gene analog locus in M. balbisiana "Pisang Klutuk Wulung" (PKW). Sequence comparison revealed two regions of contrasting features. The first is a highly colinear gene-rich region where the two haplotypes diverge only by single nucleotide polymorphisms and two repetitive element insertions. The second corresponds to a large cluster of RGA08 genes, with 13 and 18 predicted RGA genes and pseudogenes spread over 131 and 152 kb respectively on each haplotype. The RGA08 cluster is enriched in repetitive element insertions, in duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences including low complexity regions and shows structural variations between haplotypes. Although some allelic relationships are retained, a large diversity of RGA08 genes occurs in this single M. balbisiana genotype, with several RGA08 paralogs specific to each haplotype. The RGA08 gene family has evolved by mechanisms of unequal recombination, intragenic sequence exchange and diversifying selection. An unequal recombination event taking place between duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences resulted in a different RGA08 gene content between haplotypes pointing out the role of such duplicated regions in the evolution of RGA clusters. Based on the synonymous substitution rate in coding sequences, we estimated a 1 million year divergence time for these M. balbisiana haplotypes. A

  18. Cloning and characterization of a novel stress-responsive WRKY transcription factor gene (MusaWRKY71) from Musa spp. cv. Karibale Monthan (ABB group) using transformed banana cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Srinivas, Lingam

    2011-08-01

    WRKY transcription factor proteins play significant roles in plant stress responses. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel WRKY gene, MusaWRKY71 isolated from an edible banana cultivar Musa spp. Karibale Monthan (ABB group). MusaWRKY71, initially identified using in silico approaches from an abiotic stress-related EST library, was later extended towards the 3' end using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The 1299-bp long cDNA of MusaWRKY71 encodes a protein with 280 amino acids and contains a characteristic WRKY domain in the C-terminal half. Although MusaWRKY71 shares good similarity with other monocot WRKY proteins the substantial size difference makes it a unique member of the WRKY family in higher plants. The 918-bp long 5' proximal region determined using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction has many putative cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding motifs. Subcellular localization assay of MusaWRKY71 performed using a GFP-fusion platform confirmed its nuclear targeting in transformed banana suspension cells. Importantly, MusaWRKY71 expression in banana plantlets was up-regulated manifold by cold, dehydration, salt, ABA, H2O2, ethylene, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate treatment indicating its involvement in response to a variety of stress conditions in banana. Further, transient overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transformed banana cells led to the induction of several genes, homologues of which have been proven to be involved in diverse stress responses in other important plants. The present study is the first report on characterization of a banana stress-related transcription factor using transformed banana cells.

  19. Genomic analysis of NAC transcription factors in banana (Musa acuminata) and definition of NAC orthologous groups for monocots and dicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Albero; Guignon, Valentin; Roux, Nicolas; Rouard, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to abiotic stresses is important in crop breeding. A comprehensive understanding of the gene families associated with drought tolerance is therefore highly relevant. NAC transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family involved in the regulation of tissue development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The main goal of this study was to set up a framework of orthologous groups determined by an expert sequence comparison of NAC genes from both monocots and dicots. In order to clarify the orthologous relationships among NAC genes of different species, we performed an in-depth comparative study of four divergent taxa, in dicots and monocots, whose genomes have already been completely sequenced: Arabidopsis thaliana, Vitis vinifera, Musa acuminata and Oryza sativa. Due to independent evolution, NAC copy number is highly variable in these plant genomes. Based on an expert NAC sequence comparison, we propose forty orthologous groups of NAC sequences that were probably derived from an ancestor gene present in the most recent common ancestor of dicots and monocots. These orthologous groups provide a curated resource for large-scale protein sequence annotation of NAC transcription factors. The established orthology relationships also provide a useful reference for NAC function studies in newly sequenced genomes such as M. acuminata and other plant species.

  20. 77 FR 47303 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Electronic Dealer Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... the burden-hour estimates or other aspects of the collection-of-information requirements contained in... proposed rule also included flexible reporting regimes, which would allow NMFS to collect more frequent.... NMFS began designing and building an electronic reporting system when NMFS began working on the...

  1. Improvement of the banana "Musa acuminata" reference sequence using NGS data and semi-automated bioinformatics methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martin, G.; Baurens, F.C.; Droc, G.; Rouard, M.; Cenci, A.; Kilian, A.; Hastie, A.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Aury, J. M.; Alberti, A.; Carreel, F.; D'Hont, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, MAR 16 (2016), s. 243 ISSN 1471-2164 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Musa acuminata * Genome assembly * Bioinformatics tool Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.729, year: 2016

  2. Musa's granite and Rio Maria's granodiorite Rb/Sr isotopic ages and geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastal, M.C.P.; Macambira, M.J.B.; Medeiros, H.; Dall'Agnol, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Musa Granite and the Rio Maria Granodiorite are located at the eastern margin of the Amazonian craton, in the Rio Maria region, where a typical granite-greenstone terrain is characterized. Rb-Sr dating of six samples from different facies of Rio Maria Granodiorite furnished an age of 2564 ± 68 Ma with initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr radio (IR) of 0.70288 ± 0.00092 (whole rock isochron; 1 ο error; MSWD = 2.26). Thirteen samples from the three facies of Musa Granite (monzogranites, syenogranites and intermediate to felsic hypabyssal rocks) gave Rb-Sr whole rock isochron with an age of 1692 ± 11 Ma and IR of 0.70777 ± 0.00023 (1 ο error, MSWD = 1.89). A preliminary attempt to individualize geochronologically the three facies was done resulting different ages and IRs. There is a coincidence between these ages and the emplacement sequence of these facies of the pluton. The actual meaning of the Rio Maria Granodiorite Rb-Sr age is still uncertain. It could be related to the end of the magmatic crystallization of the batholith as well as to the metamorphic-mylonitic event that affect it. Considering that the Jamon and Musa Granites are petrologically similar that they occur in the same area, it is interesting to note that latter is apparently a little older than the former. The IRs obtained for the two plutons are also not coincident. The isotopic Rb-Sr available data show that the exposed rocks of the Rio Maria Granodiorite have not been able to generate magmas with the compositions of the monzongranitic and the hypabyssal facies of the Musa pluton. On the other hand, rocks isotopically similar to the Rio Maria Granodiorite would theorically be able to generate the Jamon and a magma with the characteristics of the syenogranitic facies of the Musa pluton. (author) [pt

  3. Structural and Function Prediction of Musa acuminata subsp. Malaccensis Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Munir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypothetical proteins (HPs are the proteins whose presence has been anticipated, yet in vivo function has not been built up. Illustrating the structural and functional privileged insights of these HPs might likewise prompt a superior comprehension of the protein-protein associations or networks in diverse types of life. Bananas (Musa acuminata spp., including sweet and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister grouped to the all-around considered Poales, which incorporate oats. Bananas are crucial for nourishment security in numerous tropical and subtropical nations and the most prominent organic product in industrialized nations. In the present study, the hypothetical protein of M. acuminata (Banana was chosen for analysis and modeling by distinctive bioinformatics apparatuses and databases. As indicated by primary and secondary structure analysis, XP_009393594.1 is a stable hydrophobic protein containing a noteworthy extent of α-helices; Homology modeling was done utilizing SWISS-MODEL server where the templates identity with XP_009393594.1 protein was less which demonstrated novelty of our protein. Ab initio strategy was conducted to produce its 3D structure. A few evaluations of quality assessment and validation parameters determined the generated protein model as stable with genuinely great quality. Functional analysis was completed by ProtFun 2.2, and KEGG (KAAS, recommended that the hypothetical protein is a transcription factor with cytoplasmic domain as zinc finger. The protein was observed to be vital for translation process, involved in metabolism, signaling and cellular processes, genetic information processing and Zinc ion binding. It is suggested that further test approval would help to anticipate the structures and functions of other uncharacterized proteins of different plants and living being.

  4. Traditional genetic improvement and use of biotechnological techniques in searching of resistance to main fungi pathogens of Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Leiva-Mora

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Bananas and plantain are important food staple in human diet, even cooked or consumed fresh. Fungal diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc and Mycosphaerella fijiensis have threated to distroy Musa spp. Those crops are difficult to breed genetically because they are steriles, do not produce fertil seeds and they are partenocarpic. Genetic crossing by hibridization have been used successfully in FHIA and IITA Musa breeding programs, they have released numerous improved hybrids to those diseases. Plant Biotechnology has developed a set of techniques for Musa micropropagation to increase multiplication rates, healthy and safety plant material for plantation. Mutagenic techniques, somaclonal variation, somatic embryogenesis and more recient genetic transformation have enabled advances and complementation with clasical Musa breeding for searching resistance to principal fungal pathogen of Musa spp. Field evaluation systems to find Musa resistant genotypes to Foc and M. fijiensis have demostrated to be usefull but laborious. Nevertheless to enhance eficacy in selection of promissory genotypes the development of reproducible early evaluation methodologies by using fungal pathogens or their derivates is needed. Key words: evaluation and selection, Fusarium oxysporum, improvement

  5. Analysis of non-TIR NBS-LRR resistance gene analogs in Musa acuminata Colla: Isolation, RFLP marker development, and physical mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Manoel T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many commercial banana varieties lack sources of resistance to pests and diseases, as a consequence of sterility and narrow genetic background. Fertile wild relatives, by contrast, possess greater variability and represent potential sources of disease resistance genes (R-genes. The largest known family of plant R-genes encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR domains. Conserved motifs in such genes in diverse plant species offer a means for isolation of candidate genes in banana which may be involved in plant defence. Results A computational strategy was developed for unbiased conserved motif discovery in NBS and LRR domains in R-genes and homologues in monocotyledonous plant species. Degenerate PCR primers targeting conserved motifs were tested on the wild cultivar Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4, which is resistant to a number of fungal pathogens and nematodes. One hundred and seventy four resistance gene analogs (RGAs were amplified and assembled into 52 contiguous sequences. Motifs present were typical of the non-TIR NBS-LRR RGA subfamily. A phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino-acid sequences for 33 RGAs with contiguous open reading frames (ORFs, together with RGAs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, grouped most Musa RGAs within monocotyledon-specific clades. RFLP-RGA markers were developed, with 12 displaying distinct polymorphisms in parentals and F1 progeny of a diploid M. acuminata mapping population. Eighty eight BAC clones were identified in M. acuminata Calcutta 4, M. acuminata Grande Naine, and M. balbisiana Pisang Klutuk Wulung BAC libraries when hybridized to two RGA probes. Multiple copy RGAs were common within BAC clones, potentially representing variation reservoirs for evolution of new R-gene specificities. Conclusion This is the first large scale analysis of NBS-LRR RGAs in M. acuminata Calcutta 4. Contig sequences were

  6. The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, B S; Johnston, P R; Damm, U

    2012-09-15

    The limit of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is defined genetically, based on a strongly supported clade within the Colletotrichum ITS gene tree. All taxa accepted within this clade are morphologically more or less typical of the broadly defined C. gloeosporioides, as it has been applied in the literature for the past 50 years. We accept 22 species plus one subspecies within the C. gloeosporioides complex. These include C. asianum, C. cordylinicola, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. horii, C. kahawae subsp. kahawae, C. musae, C. nupharicola, C. psidii, C. siamense, C. theobromicola, C. tropicale, and C. xanthorrhoeae, along with the taxa described here as new, C. aenigma, C. aeschynomenes, C. alatae, C. alienum, C. aotearoa, C. clidemiae, C. kahawae subsp. ciggaro, C. salsolae, and C. ti, plus the nom. nov. C. queenslandicum (for C. gloeosporioides var. minus). All of the taxa are defined genetically on the basis of multi-gene phylogenies. Brief morphological descriptions are provided for species where no modern description is available. Many of the species are unable to be reliably distinguished using ITS, the official barcoding gene for fungi. Particularly problematic are a set of species genetically close to C. musae and another set of species genetically close to C. kahawae, referred to here as the Musae clade and the Kahawae clade, respectively. Each clade contains several species that are phylogenetically well supported in multi-gene analyses, but within the clades branch lengths are short because of the small number of phylogenetically informative characters, and in a few cases individual gene trees are incongruent. Some single genes or combinations of genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase, can be used to reliably distinguish most taxa and will need to be developed as secondary barcodes for species level identification, which is important because many of these fungi are of biosecurity

  7. Anthelmintic activity of Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Musa paradisiaca L. against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Altaf; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Iqbal, Zafar; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2011-06-30

    Evaluation of anthelmintic effects of Trianthema (T.) portulacastrum L. (Aizoaceae) whole plant and Musa (M.) paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) leaves against prevalent gastrointestinal worms of sheep was done that may justify their traditional use in veterinary clinical medicine. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the crude aqueous methanolic extract (CAME) of both the plants was determined using mature female Haemonchus (H.) contortus and their eggs in adult motility assay (AMA) and egg hatch test (EHT), respectively. In vivo anthelmintic activity of crude powder (CP) and CAME in increasing doses (1.0-8.0 g kg(-1)) was determined in sheep naturally infected with mixed species of nematodes using fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and larval counts. The study design also included untreated as well as treated controls. Fecal egg count reduction and larval counts from coprocultures were performed pre- and post-treatments to assess the anthelmintic activity of the plants. CAME of T. portulacastrum and M. paradisiaca showed a strong in vitro anthelmintic activity and pronounced inhibitory effects on H. contortus egg hatching as observed through AMA and EHT, respectively. Both plants exhibited dose and time dependent anthelmintic effects on live worms as well as egg hatching. M. paradisiaca (LC(50)=2.13 μg mL(-1)) was found to be more potent than T. portulacastrum (LC(50)=2.41 μg mL(-1)) in EHT. However, in vivo, maximum reduction in eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces was recorded as 85.6% and 80.7% with CAME of T. portulacastrum and M. paradisiaca at 8.0 g kg(-1) on 15th day post-treatment, respectively as compared to that of Levamisole (7.5 mg kg(-1)) that caused 97.0% reduction in EPG. All the species of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs), i.e. Haemonchus contortus, Trichostronglyus spp., Oesophagostomum columbianum and Trichuris ovis which were prevalent, found susceptible (Pparadisiaca possess strong anthelmintic activity in vitro and in vivo, thus, justifying their use in

  8. The roles of polycarboxylates in Cr(VI)/sulfite reaction system: Involvement of reactive oxygen species and intramolecular electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Bo, E-mail: bjiang86upc@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao 266033 (China); Wang, Xianli; Liu, Yukun [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); Wang, Zhaohui [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Southern Cross GeoScience, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Zheng, Jingtang, E-mail: jtzheng03@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); Wu, Mingbo, E-mail: wumb@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • The formations of SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and OH·, involve in Cr(VI) reduction induced by S(IV). • Affinity of polycarboxylate to Cr(VI) accelerates Cr(VI) reduction rate. • Polycarboxylates can act as electron donors for Cr(VI) reduction retrenching S(IV). • Only oxalate can enhance the formations of SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and OH· in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of polycarboxylates on both Cr(VI) reduction and S(IV) consumption in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system was investigated in acidic solution. Under aerobic condition, the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and OH·, have been confirmed in S(IV) reducing Cr(VI) process by using electron spin resonance and fluorescence spectrum techniques, leading to the excess consumption of S(IV). However, when polycarboxylates (oxalic, citric, malic and tartaric acid) were present in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system, the affinity of polycarboxylates to CrSO{sub 6}{sup 2−} can greatly promote the reduction of Cr(VI) via expanding the coordination of Cr(VI) species from tetrahedron to hexahedron. Besides, as alternatives to S(IV), these polycarboxylates can also act as electron donors for Cr(VI) reduction via intramolecular electron transfer reaction, which is dependent on the energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital of these polycarboxylates. Notably, the variant electron donating capacity of these polycarboxylates resulted in different yield of ROS and therefore the oxidation efficiencies of other pollutants, e.g., rhodamine B and As(III). Generally, this study does not only shed light on the mechanism of S(IV) reducing Cr(VI) process mediated by polycarboxylates, but also provides an escalated, cost-effective and green strategy for the remediation of Cr(VI) using sulfite as a reductant.

  9. Electron spin resonance study on γ-ray-induced radical species in ethylene hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeya, Kei; Sugahara, Takeshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari; Tani, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) study on γ-irradiated synthetic ethylene hydrate was performed to investigate induced radicals and their thermal stability. ESR spectra of induced 3-butenyl radical (.CH 2 C 2 H 3 =CH 2 ,g=2.0039±0.0005,A α =2.2±0.1mTandA β =3.0±0.1mT) and induced ethyl radical (.C 2 H 5 , g=2.0044±0.0005, A α =2.2±0.1mT and A β =2.7±0.1mT) were observed in irradiated ethylene hydrate. The decay of the 3-butenyl radicals was observed above 200 K with the activation energy of 51.9±4.4kJ/mol. The obvious decay of ethyl radicals starts above 240 K that is close to the dissociation temperature of ethylene hydrate at atmospheric pressure. The activation energy of the ethyl radical decay is estimated as 63.4±8.2kJ/mol and nearly equal to the enthalpy change of ethylene hydrate into liquid water and gaseous ethylene. It is suggested that the decay of ethyl radicals would be caused by the hydrate dissociation and that ethylene hydrate dissociates into water (supercooled) and ethylene at 240-265 K.

  10. Molecular and morphological analysis reveals five new species of Zygophiala associated with flyspeck signs on plant hosts from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Gao

    Full Text Available Species in the genus Zygophiala are associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck disease on a wide range of hosts. In this study, 63 Zygophiala isolates collected from flyspeck colonies on a range of plants from several regions of China were used for phylogeny, host range and geographic distribution analysis. Phylogenetic trees were constructed on four genes--internal transcribed spacer (ITS, partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF, β-tubulin (TUB2, and actin (ACT--both individually and in combination. Isolates were grouped into 11 clades among which five new species, Z. emperorae, Z. trispora, Z. musae, Z. inaequalis and Z. longispora, were described. Species of Zygophiala differed in observed host range and geographic distribution. Z. wisconsinensis and Z. emperorae were the most prevalent throughout the sampled regions of China, whereas Z. trispora, Z. musae, Z. inaequalis and Z. longispora were collected only in southern China. The hosts of Z. wisconsinensis and Z. emperorae were mainly in the family Rosaceae whereas Z. trispora, Z. musae, Z. inaequalis and Z. longispora were found mainly on banana (Musa spp.. Cross inoculation tests provided evidence of host specificity among SBFS species.

  11. Ripening of fruits of 'Dwarf Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB group)irradiated and treated with calcium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineli, Maristella [Instituto de Quimica. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coneglian, Regina C.C.; Vasconcellos, Marco A.S.; Silva, Eduardo, E-mail: rccconeg@ufrrj.br, E-mail: masv@ufrrj.br [Departamento de Fitotecnia. Instituto de Agronomia. Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Secao de Defesa Nuclear. Divisao de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear. Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The competing effects resulting from the exposure of fruits of 'warf prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB group) to gamma radiation and to calcium carbide have been investigated in this work. The fruits were harvested in a pre-climateric stage (green colored though physiologically developed) in the city of Jaiba, state of Minas Gerais, and gamma irradiated with doses of 0.25 or 0.50 kGy in a research irradiating facility at the Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx) in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Some samples were also exposed to calcium carbide for 32 hours in order to accelerate ripening. Quantitative estimates of peel color, disease index and fresh mass loss were performed for 9 days while the fruits were kept at an average temperature of 23 deg C. The analyses were performed in the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, located in the city of Seropedica. The following treatments or combination of processes have been tested: untreated (control); treated only with irradiation with doses of 0.25 kGy or 0.50 kGy; treated with irradiation with doses of 0.25 kGy or 0.50 kGy and then exposed to calcium carbide. The fruits treated solely with irradiation with 0.25 kGy exhibited a better response during the first days of storage, although their initial green coloration vanished with time. In addition, the fungi Colletotrichum musae and Lasidioplodia theobroma were detected in samples submitted to the combination of both processes. In contrast, such fungi were not observed in fruits that had only been exposed to 0.25 kGy and exhibited low disease indices. Also, 1-2 cm lesions were detected on fruits.(author)

  12. Ripening of fruits of 'Dwarf Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB group)irradiated and treated with calcium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martineli, Maristella; Coneglian, Regina C.C.; Vasconcellos, Marco A.S.; Silva, Eduardo; Vital, Helio C.

    2011-01-01

    The competing effects resulting from the exposure of fruits of 'warf prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB group) to gamma radiation and to calcium carbide have been investigated in this work. The fruits were harvested in a pre-climateric stage (green colored though physiologically developed) in the city of Jaiba, state of Minas Gerais, and gamma irradiated with doses of 0.25 or 0.50 kGy in a research irradiating facility at the Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx) in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Some samples were also exposed to calcium carbide for 32 hours in order to accelerate ripening. Quantitative estimates of peel color, disease index and fresh mass loss were performed for 9 days while the fruits were kept at an average temperature of 23 deg C. The analyses were performed in the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, located in the city of Seropedica. The following treatments or combination of processes have been tested: untreated (control); treated only with irradiation with doses of 0.25 kGy or 0.50 kGy; treated with irradiation with doses of 0.25 kGy or 0.50 kGy and then exposed to calcium carbide. The fruits treated solely with irradiation with 0.25 kGy exhibited a better response during the first days of storage, although their initial green coloration vanished with time. In addition, the fungi Colletotrichum musae and Lasidioplodia theobroma were detected in samples submitted to the combination of both processes. In contrast, such fungi were not observed in fruits that had only been exposed to 0.25 kGy and exhibited low disease indices. Also, 1-2 cm lesions were detected on fruits.(author)

  13. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of wild banana (Musa acuminata Colla): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Nimisha Sarah; Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2017-01-20

    Musa acuminata, the wild species of banana is a plant of the tropical and subtropical regions. Over the past few decades, the health benefits of M. acuminata have received much attention. All parts of the plant including fruits, peel, pseudostem, corm, flowers, leaves, sap and roots have found their use in the treatment of many diseases in traditional medicine. Literature review have indicated use of M. acuminata in the treatment of various diseases such as fever, cough, bronchitis, dysentery, allergic infections, sexually transmitted infections, and some of the non-communicable diseases. The reported pharmacological activities of M. acuminata include antioxidant, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hypolipidemic, anticancer, and antimicrobial especially anti-HIV activity. This review presents information on the phytochemicals and pharmacological studies to validate the traditional use of different parts of M. acuminata in various diseases and ailments. A comprehensive assessment of the biological activities of M. acuminata extracts is included and possible mechanisms and phytochemicals involved have also been correlated to provide effective intervention strategies for preventing or managing diseases. A literature search was performed on M. acuminata using ethnobotanical textbooks, published articles in peer-reviewed journals, local magazines, unpublished materials, and scientific databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. The Plant List, Promusa, Musalit, the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) databases were used to validate the scientific names and also provide information on the subspecies and cultivars of M. acuminata. The edible part of M. acuminata provides energy, vitamins and minerals. All other parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of many diseases in traditional medicine. The rich diversity of phytochemicals present in them probably contributes to their beneficial effects, and validates the

  14. Bacterial strains diversity in Musa spp. phyllosphere with antifungal activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileidy Cruz-Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for alternatives to agricultural pesticides used for the management of black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet includes the selection of microorganisms strains with potential for the control of this pathogen. The objective of the work was to characterize bacterial strains isolated from the phylosphere of Musa spp. with antifungal effect against M. fijiensis. A morphological, cultural, physiological and molecular characterization of the strains was performed and the antifungal activity of these strains was quantified by dual culture. It was verified the diversity of bacteria with antifungal properties against M. fijiensis present in the phylosphere of Musa spp.  In addition, it was found that the phyllosphere of these crops can be used as a source of obtaining possible biological controls of M. fijiensis.   Keywords: bacteria, biocontrol, Black Sigatoka, epiphytes

  15. The natural impact of banana inflorescences (Musa acuminata) on human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingolo, Catharina E; Braga, João M A; Vieira, Ana C M; Moura, Mirian R L; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2012-12-01

    Banana inflorescences are popularly known as 'navels,' and they are used in Brazil as nutritional complements. However, the nutritional value of banana inflorescences (male flowers and bracts) has never been studied. Therefore, plant material of Musa acuminata, cultivar "ouro", was collected in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and then submitted to chemical procedures to determine its nutritional composition. The experiment was arranged a completely randomized design and performed in triplicate. The sample composition analysis showed percentual average value for moisture, protein, fat and ash as 8.21, 14.50, 4.04 and 14.43, respectively. The dehydrated inflorescences were found to contain a significant nutritive complement based on their high content of potassium (5008.26 mg / 100 g) and fiber 49.83% (lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses) revealing important functional and nutritional properties. In a parallel evaluation, the anatomical study revealed key elements for the recognition of Musa acuminata when reduced to fragments.

  16. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DARI EKSTRAK JANTUNG PISANG KEPOK (MUSA PARADISIACA L. PONTIANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Ferdinan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Banana Kepok Flower (Musa paradisiaca L. with UV-Vis Spectrophotometric Method. This research is intended to know the antioxidant activity of ethanol ekstrak of banana kepok by qualitative and quantitative method of DPPH, with UV-Vis spectrophotometry at 517 nm wavelength. Extract of banana kepok flower is made in concentrations of 4 ppm, 8 ppm, 12 ppm, 16 ppm, and 20 ppm. As a comparison used vitamin C. The results of IC50 ethanol extract of banana kepok flower (Musa paradisiaca L. is 13.11 ppm and vitamin C is 1.11 ppm. If IC50 is smaller than 200 ppm, it can be used as an antioxidant.

  17. Musa paradisiaca stem juice as a source of peroxidase and ligninperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernwal, S K; Yadav, R S; Yadav, K D

    2000-10-01

    Musa paradisiaca stem juice has been shown to contain peroxidase activity of the order of 0.1 enzyme unit/ml. The Km values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide are 2.4 and 0.28 mM respectively. The pH and temperature optima are 4.5 and 62.5 degrees C respectively. Like other peroxidases, it follows double displacement type mechanism. At low pH, Musa paradisiaca stem juice exhibits ligninperoxidase type activity. The pH optimum for ligninperoxidase type activity is 2.0 and the temperature optimum is 24 degrees C. The Km values for veratryl alcohol and n-propanol are 66 and 78 microM respectively.

  18. Beneficial effects of low dose Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, A S; Omotoso, Gabriel O; Enaibe, B U; Akinola, O B; Tagoe, C N B

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed at determining the effects of administration of mature green fruits of Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of adult male Wistar rats. THE ANIMALS USED FOR THE STUDY WERE GROUPED INTO THREE: the control group, given 2 ml of double distilled water, a low dose group given 500 mg/kg/day and a high dose group given 1000 mg/kg/day of the plantain fruits, which was made into flour, and dissolved in 2 ml of double distilled water for easy oral administration. Significant increment in the semen parameters was noticed in animals that received a lower dose of the plantain flour, but those animals who received the high dose had marked and very significant reduction in sperm cell concentration and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa. Musa paradisiaca should be consumed in moderate quantities in order to derive its beneficial effects of enhancing male reproductive functions.

  19. Isolation, purification and some structural features of the mucilaginous exudate from Musa paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, S K; Ray, B; Thakur, S; Ghosal, P K

    2001-03-01

    The water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from the vascular gel of Musa paradisiaca, were fractionated via anion exchange chromatography into four fractions. Fractionated polymers contained arabinose, xylose and galacturonic acid as major sugars, together with traces of galactose, rhamnose, mannose and glucose residues. Methylation analysis revealed the presence of a highly branched arabinoxylan with a significant amount of terminal arabinopyranosyl units and an arabinogalactan type I pectin. Periodate oxidation studies supported the results of methylation analysis.

  20. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

  1. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS – A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelan, R.; Elango, K.; Suresh, B.; Ramesh, B. R.

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier. PMID:22557209

  2. Trace element concentrations in the fruit peels and trunks of Musa paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selema, M D; Farago, M E

    1996-08-01

    Chemical analyses for the elementary compositions of the ashes of the fruit peels and trunks of the tropical plantain Musa paradisiaca have been undertaken. The elements, categorized as trace elements, generally are found to have higher mean concentrations in the fruit peels than in the trunks (except in the case of Zn). Their peel-trunk uptake ratios have been calculated and range between 1 and 4, showing normal levels of accumulations in the fruit peels over the trunks.

  3. Repetitive part of the banana (Musa acuminata) genome investigated by low-depth 454 sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribová, Eva; Neumann, Pavel; Matsumoto, Takashi; Roux, Nicolas; Macas, Jirí; Dolezel, Jaroslav

    2010-09-16

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are grown in more than a hundred tropical and subtropical countries and provide staple food for hundreds of millions of people. They are seed-sterile crops propagated clonally and this makes them vulnerable to a rapid spread of devastating diseases and at the same time hampers breeding improved cultivars. Although the socio-economic importance of bananas and plantains cannot be overestimated, they remain outside the focus of major research programs. This slows down the study of nuclear genome and the development of molecular tools to facilitate banana improvement. In this work, we report on the first thorough characterization of the repeat component of the banana (M. acuminata cv. 'Calcutta 4') genome. Analysis of almost 100 Mb of sequence data (0.15× genome coverage) permitted partial sequence reconstruction and characterization of repetitive DNA, making up about 30% of the genome. The results showed that the banana repeats are predominantly made of various types of Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy retroelements representing 16 and 7% of the genome respectively. On the other hand, DNA transposons were found to be rare. In addition to new families of transposable elements, two new satellite repeats were discovered and found useful as cytogenetic markers. To help in banana sequence annotation, a specific Musa repeat database was created, and its utility was demonstrated by analyzing the repeat composition of 62 genomic BAC clones. A low-depth 454 sequencing of banana nuclear genome provided the largest amount of DNA sequence data available until now for Musa and permitted reconstruction of most of the major types of DNA repeats. The information obtained in this study improves the knowledge of the long-range organization of banana chromosomes, and provides sequence resources needed for repeat masking and annotation during the Musa genome sequencing project. It also provides sequence data for isolation of DNA markers to be used in genetic

  4. Banana NAC transcription factor MusaNAC042 is positively associated with drought and salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Himanshu; Negi, Sanjana; Ganapathi, T R

    2017-03-01

    Banana is an important fruit crop and its yield is hampered by multiple abiotic stress conditions encountered during its growth. The NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors are involved in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, we studied the induction of banana NAC042 transcription factor in drought and high salinity conditions and its overexpression in transgenic banana to improve drought and salinity tolerance. MusaNAC042 expression was positively associated with stress conditions like salinity and drought and it encoded a nuclear localized protein. Transgenic lines of banana cultivar Rasthali overexpressing MusaNAC042 were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana embryogenic cells and T-DNA insertion was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Our results using leaf disc assay indicated that transgenic banana lines were able to tolerate drought and high salinity stress better than the control plants and retained higher level of total chlorophyll and lower level of MDA content (malondialdehyde). Transgenic lines analyzed for salinity (250 mM NaCl) and drought (Soil gravimetric water content 0.15) tolerance showed higher proline content, better Fv/Fm ratio, and lower levels of MDA content than control suggesting that MusaNAC042 may be involved in responses to higher salinity and drought stresses in banana. Expression of several abiotic stress-related genes like those coding for CBF/DREB, LEA, and WRKY factors was altered in transgenic lines indicating that MusaNAC042 is an efficient modulator of abiotic stress response in banana.

  5. Genome-wide BAC-end sequencing of Musa acuminata DH Pahang reveals further insights into the genome organization of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnago, R.E.; Togawa, R.C.; Carpentier, S.C.; Lintel Hekkert, te B.; Kema, G.H.J.; Souza, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.) are grown in more than 120 countries in tropical and subtropical regions and constitute an important staple food for millions of people. A Musa acuminata ssp. malaccencis DH Pahang bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library (MAMB) was submitted for BAC-end

  6. Advance in the studies about Musa spp.-Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milady Francisca Mendoza-Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Black leaf streak disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet [anamorfo: Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Morelet Deighton], is considered the most destructive and costly foliar disease of bananas and plantain around the world. Taking into account the chemical compounds injure, the increase of fungi resistance to some fungicides besides of, the genetic complexity of Musa spp. resistance to M. fijiensis and the troubles which are present with the genetic improvement of cultivars due to sterility and triploidi, it is necessary to find sustainable alternatives for the management of the disease. To reach this goal the pathogen knowledge and the physiological, genetic and mainly the molecular bases which govern plants interactions to find candidate gene related with the resistance, for the utilization in genetic engineering could be a promissory choice. In this complex scenario biochemical and histological analysis together with the use of different molecular techniques, result of a great contribution to the knowledge of Musa spp.-M. fijiensis pathosystem. At the present work is showed a review of the scientific literature plant-pathogen interaction.   Key words: Biochemical analysis, Molecular techniques, Musa spp., Mycosphaerella fijiensis, Plant-pathogen interaction

  7. ATIVIDADE DE EXTRATOS ETANÓLICOS SOBRE O CRECIMENTO “IN VITRO” DE COLLETROTRICHUM MUSAE

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    Bruna Carminate

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diversas doenças afetam a qualidade das frutas na fase pós-colheita, como a antracnose, doença ocasionada pelo fungo Colletotrichum musae no fruto de banana.  A utilização de fungicidas de origem vegetal poderá constituir um método alternativo e promissor no controle de doenças. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade de extratos vegetais de Eugenia astringens Cambess no controle in vitro do fungo fitopatogênico C. musae. O extrato etanólico foi obtido a partir de folhas e sementes de E. astringens por maceração e realizado a triagem fitoquímica. Os fitocompostos encontrados foram alcalóides, saponina, flavonóis, fenóis e taninos, esteróides, terpenos e cumarinas. Os extratos testados apresentaram atividade significativa no crescimento do C. musae, onde o extrato obtido da semente reduziu em 50% o crescimento radial micelial do fungo. Os extratos testados apresentam alternativa promissora no controle da antracnose de banana pós-colheita.

  8. Biotechnological tools against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical race 4 in Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalmis Bermúdez-Caraballoso

    2014-10-01

    attacking Musa worldwide. Race 1 caused an epidemic that destroyed the banana export industry based cultivar ‘Gros Michel’ (Musa AAA in America as well as the disappearance of commercial production of cultivar ‘Manzano’ (Musa AAB in Cuba. The Foc tropical race 4 (TR4 was first recognized in 1990 in Taiwan, causing serious damage to the standards for the export crops sub Cavendish group in several countries in Southeast Asia. Most troubling is that over 80% banana cultivars produced worldwide are susceptibles to this race, and thus represents a potential risk for producing countries of Latin America and the Caribbean where threat has not yet reached the pathogen. This review was conducted with the aim of presenting the possible implications of the entry into Cuba of tropical race 4 of Panama disease and strategies to prevent future damages caused by the disease. Include aspects of the symptomatology of the disease, mechanisms of infection, pathogenic complexity and dispersion of the pathogen as well as several biotechnological tools against the disease among which are: varietal resistance, resistance inducers and development of tolerant cultivars. Key words: bananas, fungi disease, Fusarium oxysporum, plantains, varietal resistance

  9. Effect of Lactoperoxidase System on the Control of Colletotrichum musae on Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Loiseau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest diseases are a major concern for plant products, leading to considerable postharvest losses. Colletotrichum musae is responsible for anthracnose and is also involved in crown rot, the two main postharvest diseases of banana. The use of antimicrobial agents such as the lactoperoxidase system (LPS represents an interesting alternative to the use of conventional fungicides for the control of postharvest diseases of banana. Conidial germination and fungal growth of three different strains of Colletotrichum musae originating from Cameroon (C 52 and C 62 and Guadeloupe (C 46.12 were monitored in the presence of LPS or Eau Activée® (an industrial derivative of LPS. In vivo studies were also conducted on bananas preinoculated with strain C 46.12 and then subjected to a soaking treatment in LPS and Eau Activée® solutions. However, this postharvest treatment did not show any significant effect of the LPS or Eau Activée®. The in vitro studies showed a difference in the behaviour of Colletotrichum musae strains subjected to LPS and Eau Activée® treatments. A highly visible inhibitory effect of LPS was observed on fungal growth of strains C 52 and C 62. Furthermore, LPS gave better results than its industrial derivative, Eau Activée®.

  10. Analysis of traumatic ulcer healing time under the treatment of the Mauli banana (Musa acuminata 25% stem extract gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Puspitasari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Traumatic ulcer is one of oral disorders that often occur. The prevalence is quite high, between 3-24% of population. Therapy of traumatic ulcer is symptomatic. People usually use Aloe vera extract gel. Previous research showed that the Aloe vera gel is equivalent with ethanol extract of 25% Mauli banana (Musa acuminata stem in accelerating wound healing based on the number of macrophages and neovascular. The objective of the study is to find out the time difference of traumatic ulcer healing using 25% Musa acuminata stem extract gel compared to a gel containing Aloe vera extract. Methods: The research was post test design. Subjects were patients of Oral Medicine Installation in Gusti Hasan Aman Dental Hospital Banjarmasin with diagnosis of traumatic ulcer using completely random sampling method. Eight patients as samples were determined by the formula of Lemeshow. Results: there was no significant difference with p=0,724 (p>0,05 between healing time using Aloe vera gel and 25% Musa acuminata stem extract. Conclusion: At the concentration of 25% Musa acuminata stem extract gel concentration has the same healing time with Aloe vera gel, therefore can be recommended as a topical use for traumatic ulcer healing. Keywords: Musa acuminata stem, Healing time, Traumatic ulcer

  11. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv 'Embul'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayasekara, C L; Adikaram, N K B; Wanigasekara, U W N P; Bandara, B M R

    2013-03-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar 'Embul' (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4'-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana.

  12. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Abayasekara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity and cell wall lignification. ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4′-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana.

  13. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayasekara, C. L.; Adikaram, N. K. B.; Wanigasekara, U. W. N. P.; Bandara, B. M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4′-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

  14. EFFECT OF MUSA BALBISIANA COLLA EXTRACT ON BREAST MILK PRODUCTION IN BREASTFEEDING MOTHERS

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    Diyan Wahyuningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musa balbisiana Colla, known as Jantung Pisang Klutuk/Pisang Batu, is considered as a traditional food that can increase breast milk production. Little is known about its benefit in Indonesia. Thus, to examine the impact of musa balbisiana colla on the production of breast milk is needed. Objective: This study aims to examine the effect of the extract of banana flower (Musa balbisiana Colla to increase milk production of breastfeeding mothers. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pre-posttest control group design. This study was conducted in the working area of the Health Center (Puskesmas of Pesantren II in January – February 2017. There were 16 respondents were recruited by accidental sampling, divided to intervention group (8 respondents and control group (8 respondents. Randomization was performed to select the respondent in each group. The quantity of milk production was measured based on the volume of milk production, while the quality of milk production was based on the levels of prolactin in early (pre and late (post using Electro chemilumi-nescence Immunoassay (ECLIA method. Independent t-Test was used to analyze the data. Results: Findings showed that the mean of the volume of the breast milk production in the experiment group was 470.681 ml, and in the control group was 364.650 ml with SD 113.502. While the mean of prolactin levels in the experiment group was 35.337 nanogram, and in the control group was -38.381 nanogram. There was a significant effect of consuming Musa balbisiana Colla extract on the volume of breast milk production (p-value 0.003 and prolactin levels (p-value 0.001 (<0.05. Conclusion: There was a significant effect of banana flower (Musa balbisiana Colla extract on breast milk production and prolactin level in breastfeeding mothers. The findings of this study could be used to be alternative daily menu for postpartum mothers and a solution for midwives to deal with those who have inadequate

  15. The electronic structure of vanadium monochloride cation (VCl{sup +}): Tackling the complexities of transition metal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeYonker, Nathan J., E-mail: ndyonker@memphis.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38152 (United States); Halfen, DeWayne T.; Ziurys, Lucy M. [Department of Chemistry, Department of Astronomy, Arizona Radio Observatory, and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Allen, Wesley D. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Computational Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    Six electronic states (X {sup 4}Σ{sup −}, A {sup 4}Π, B {sup 4}Δ, {sup 2}Φ, {sup 2}Δ, {sup 2}Σ{sup +}) of the vanadium monochloride cation (VCl{sup +}) are described using large basis set coupled cluster theory. For the two lowest quartet states (X {sup 4}Σ{sup −} and A {sup 4}Π), a focal point analysis (FPA) approach was used that conjoined a correlation-consistent family of basis sets up to aug-cc-pwCV5Z-DK with high-order coupled cluster theory through pentuple (CCSDTQP) excitations. FPA adiabatic excitation energies (T{sub 0}) and spectroscopic constants (r{sub e}, r{sub 0}, B{sub e}, B{sub 0}, D{sup ¯}{sub e}, H{sub e}, ω{sub e}, v{sub 0}, α{sub e}, ω{sub e}x{sub e}) were extrapolated to the valence complete basis set Douglas-Kroll (DK) aug-cc-pV∞Z-DK CCSDT level of theory, and additional treatments accounted for higher-order valence electron correlation, core correlation, and spin-orbit coupling. Due to the delicate interplay between dynamical and static electronic correlation, single reference coupled cluster theory is able to provide the correct ground electronic state (X {sup 4}Σ{sup −}), while multireference configuration interaction theory cannot. Perturbations from the first- and second-order spin orbit coupling of low-lying states with quartet spin multiplicity reveal an immensely complex rotational spectrum relative to the isovalent species VO, VS, and TiCl. Computational data on the doublet manifold suggest that the lowest-lying doublet state ({sup 2}Γ) has a T{sub e} of ∼11 200 cm{sup −1}. Overall, this study shows that laboratory and theoretical rotational spectroscopists must work more closely in tandem to better understand the bonding and structure of molecules containing transition metals.

  16. Pengujian Fitokimia dan Toksisitas Ekstrak Etanol Jantung Pisang Kepok (Musa paradisiaca LINN. dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytij Jeanne Rampe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pengujian fitokimia dan toksisitas ekstrak etanol jantung pisang kepok (Musa Paradisiaca Linn. dengan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT.  Pengujian dilakukan untuk mencari beberapa senyawa kimia dari ekstrak jantung pisang Musa Paradisaca. Linn serta mengetahui efek toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina. Leach.  Maserasi jantung pisang kepok dilakukan dengan menggunakan etanol. Ekstrak etanol yang diperoleh dilakukan pengujian fitokimia dan toksisitas. Hasil pengujian fitokimia menunjukkan ekstrak etanol jantung pisang Musa paradisiaca. Linn memiliki komposisi senyawa flavonoid, kumarin dan senyawa fenolik lainnya. Ekstrak etanol jantung pisang kepok memberikan efek toksik terhadap larva udang Artemia salina. Leach dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 806,8 μg/mL.Kata kunci: jantung pisang kepok, fitokimia, toksisitas, BSLT.

  17. Response of Musa species to macro-propagation. I: Genetic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Days to emergence of the first and fifth plantlet were shortest in 'FHIA 17\\' (a dessert banana hybrid) and longest in 'PITA 25\\' (a plantain hybrid). Emergence of the first three plantlets in landrace plantain ('Agbagba\\') was earlier than in dessert banana landrace ('Nsukka Local\\'). A higher proportion of plantlets excised from ...

  18. Molecular and cytological characterization of the global Musa germplasm collection provides insights into the treasure of banana diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Christelová, Pavla; De Langhe, E.; Hřibová, Eva; Čížková, Jana; Sardos, J.; Hušáková, Markéta; Van den Houwe, I.; Sutanto, A.; Kepler, A.K.; Swennen, R.; Roux, N.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2017), s. 801-824 ISSN 0960-3115 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk(CZ) LG12021; GA MŠk LG15017 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : genetic-linkage map * aab group * balbisiana colla * acuminata colla * black sigatoka * population-structure * marker analysis * flow-cytometry * plantain musa * aflp markers * Classification * Gene bank * Genetic diversity * ITC collection * Microsatellites * Musa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.265, year: 2016

  19. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of native thin filaments reveal species-specific differences in regulatory strand densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cammarato, Anthony, E-mail: acammara@burnham.org [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Craig, Roger [Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655 (United States); Lehman, William [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom striated muscle contraction is regulated by the thin filament troponin-tropomyosin complex. Homologous regulatory components are shared among vertebrate and arthropod muscles; however, unique protein extensions and/or components characterize the latter. The Troponin T (TnT) isoforms of Drosophila indirect flight and tarantula femur muscle for example contain distinct C-terminal extensions and are {approx}20% larger overall than their vertebrate counterpart. Using electron microscopy and three-dimensional helical reconstruction of native Drosophila, tarantula and frog muscle thin filaments we have identified species-specific differences in tropomyosin regulatory strand densities. The strands on the arthropod thin filaments were significantly larger in diameter than those from vertebrates, although not significantly different from each other. These findings reflect differences in the regulatory troponin-tropomyosin complex, which are likely due to the larger TnT molecules aligning and extending along much of the tropomyosin strands' length. Such an arrangement potentially alters the physical properties of the regulatory strands and may help establish contractile characteristics unique to certain arthropod muscles.

  20. Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of native thin filaments reveal species-specific differences in regulatory strand densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammarato, Anthony; Craig, Roger; Lehman, William

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom striated muscle contraction is regulated by the thin filament troponin-tropomyosin complex. Homologous regulatory components are shared among vertebrate and arthropod muscles; however, unique protein extensions and/or components characterize the latter. The Troponin T (TnT) isoforms of Drosophila indirect flight and tarantula femur muscle for example contain distinct C-terminal extensions and are ∼20% larger overall than their vertebrate counterpart. Using electron microscopy and three-dimensional helical reconstruction of native Drosophila, tarantula and frog muscle thin filaments we have identified species-specific differences in tropomyosin regulatory strand densities. The strands on the arthropod thin filaments were significantly larger in diameter than those from vertebrates, although not significantly different from each other. These findings reflect differences in the regulatory troponin-tropomyosin complex, which are likely due to the larger TnT molecules aligning and extending along much of the tropomyosin strands' length. Such an arrangement potentially alters the physical properties of the regulatory strands and may help establish contractile characteristics unique to certain arthropod muscles.

  1. A Quantitative Method to Monitor Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Physiological and Pathological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Montorsi, Michela; Porcelli, Simone; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The growing interest in the role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and in the assessment of oxidative stress in health and disease clashes with the lack of consensus on reliable quantitative noninvasive methods applicable. The study aimed at demonstrating that a recently developed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance microinvasive method provides direct evidence of the “instantaneous” presence of ROS returning absolute concentration levels that correlate with “a posteriori” assays of ROS-induced damage by means of biomarkers. The reliability of the choice to measure ROS production rate in human capillary blood rather than in plasma was tested (step I). A significant (P < 0.01) linear relationship between EPR data collected on capillary blood versus venous blood (R 2 = 0.95), plasma (R 2 = 0.82), and erythrocytes (R 2 = 0.73) was found. Then (step II) ROS production changes of various subjects' categories, young versus old and healthy versus pathological at rest condition, were found significantly different (range 0.0001–0.05 P level). The comparison of the results with antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage biomarkers concentrations showed that all changes indicating increased oxidative stress are directly related to ROS production increase. Therefore, the adopted method may be an automated technique for a lot of routine in clinical trials. PMID:25374651

  2. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  3. Development of an electron paramagnetic resonance methodology for studying the photo-generation of reactive species in semiconductor nano-particle assembled films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardoch, Marek; Messai, Youcef; Vileno, Bertrand; Hoarau, Yannick; Mekki, Djamel E.; Felix, Olivier; Turek, Philippe; Weiss, Jean; Decher, Gero; Martel, David

    2018-06-01

    An experimental approach involving electron paramagnetic resonance is proposed for studying photo-generated reactive species in semiconductor nano-particle-based films deposited on the internal wall of glass capillaries. This methodology is applied here to nano-TiO2 and allows a semi-quantitative analysis of the kinetic evolutions of radical production using a spin scavenger probe.

  4. Characteristics of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Source for the Production of Active Nitrogen Species in III-V Nitride Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A simple analysis is provided to determine the characteristics of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source for the generation of active nitrogen species in the molecular beam epitaxy of III-V nitrides. The effects of reactor geometry, pressure, power, and flow rate on the dissociation efficiency and ion flux are presented. Pulsing the input power is proposed to reduce the ion flux.

  5. Cloning of an ADP-ribosylation factor gene from banana (Musa acuminata) and its expression patterns in postharvest ripening fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jing; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-08-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was cloned and named MaArf. It contains an open reading frame encoding a 181-amino-acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that MaArf shared high similarity with ARF of other plant species. The genomic sequence of MaArf was also obtained using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis showed that MaArf was a split gene containing five exons and four introns in genomic DNA. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to analyze the spatial expression of MaArf. The results showed that MaArf was expressed in all the organs examined: root, rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to explore expression patterns of MaArf in postharvest banana. There was differential expression of MaArf associated with ethylene biosynthesis. In naturally ripened banana, expression of MaArf was in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis. However, in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated banana, the expression of MaArf was inhibited and changed little. When treated with ethylene, MaArf expression in banana fruit significantly increased in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis; the peak of MaArf was 3 d after harvest, 11 d earlier than for naturally ripened banana fruits. These results suggest that MaArf is induced by ethylene in regulating postharvest banana ripening. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed the MaArf protein in the cytoplasm. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION CONTROL IN BANANA EXPLANTS (Musa AAA cv. CAIPIRA) CONTROLE DE BACTÉRIAS CONTAMINANTES EM EXPLANTES DE BANANEIRA (Musa AAA cv. CAIPIRA)

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Domingues Lima; Wilson da Silva Moraes

    2007-01-01

    Esse trabalho teve por objetivo testar métodos de controle de contaminação bacteriana no processo de multiplicação in vitro de bananeira (Musa AAA cv. Caipira), utilizando-se hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl), antibiótico rifampicina e suas combinações. Não houve oxidação excessiva dos explantes após a imersão em NaOCl ou rifampicina. O melhor tratamento para explantes recém isolados foi imersão em NaOCl a 1% (v/v), dura...

  7. The natural impact of banana inflorescences (Musa acuminata on human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina E. Fingolo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana inflorescences are popularly known as 'navels,' and they are used in Brazil as nutritional complements. However, the nutritional value of banana inflorescences (male flowers and bracts has never been studied. Therefore, plant material of Musa acuminata, cultivar "ouro", was collected in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and then submitted to chemical procedures to determine its nutritional composition. The experiment was arranged a completely randomized design and performed in triplicate. The sample composition analysis showed percentual average value for moisture, protein, fat and ash as 8.21, 14.50, 4.04 and 14.43, respectively. The dehydrated inflorescences were found to contain a significant nutritive complement based on their high content of potassium (5008.26 mg / 100 g and fiber 49.83% (lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses revealing important functional and nutritional properties. In a parallel evaluation, the anatomical study revealed key elements for the recognition of Musa acuminata when reduced to fragments.Inflorescências de bananeira são popularmente conhecidas como "umbigos", e esses são usados no Brasil como complementos nutricionais. No entanto, o valor nutricional das inflorescências (flores masculinas e brácteas de bananeira nunca foi estudado. Portanto, o material vegetal de Musa acuminata cultivar "ouro" foi coletado no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil e, em seguida, submetido aos procedimentos químicos para determinar a sua composição nutricional. As análises foram realizadas em triplicata. A análise da composição da amostra apresentou teor percentual médio de umidade, proteína, lipídeos e cinza de 8,21, 14,50, 4,04 e 14,43, respectivamente. As inflorescências secas mostraram significativo complemento nutritivo baseado no alto conteúdo de potássio (5.008,26 mg / 100 g e de fibra 49,83% (lignina, celulose e hemiceluloses revelando importantes propriedades funcional e nutritiva. Em uma avaliação paralela, o estudo

  8. Effectivity of Musa paradisiaca extract to control Saprolegnia sp. infection on giant gourami larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nuryati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larval stage of giant gourami is a critical period due to fungal infection, such as Saprolegnia sp. infection. There are some plants which have antiseptic compound like banana Musa paradisiaca. This research was aimed to examine the effectiveness of the banana stem extract M. paradisiaca to control Saprolegnia sp. infection on giant gurami larvae through immersion. Eight-day old gorami larvae (at the initial of 0.5±0.03 cm was reared in an aquarium sized 25×25×25 cm3 at the density of 8 fry/L. Culture media were added banana stem extract at the dose of 0; 0.08; 0.12; and 0.16 g/L during 21 days of rearing period. Challenge test was performed for 14 days by giving Saprolegnia sp. spores at the density of 104 cells/mL and banana stem extract. The treatment dose of 0.16 g/L has showen survival 100% than positive control  after the challenge test. Keywords: giant gourami, Musa paradisiaca, Saprolegnia sp., fry  ABSTRAK Fase larva ikan gurami merupakan masa kritis terhadap infeksi cendawan, seperti jenis Saprolegnia sp. Beberapa tanaman memiliki daya antiseptik seperti tanaman pisang ambon Musa paradisiaca. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas ekstrak batang pisang ambon M. paradisiaca dalam mengurangi infeksi Saprolegnia sp. pada larva ikan gurami melalui media pemeliharaan. Larva gurami umur delapan hari (panjang larva 0,5+0,03 cm dipelihara pada akuarium berukuran 25×25×25 cm3 dengan padat tebar 8 ekor/L. Media pemeliharaan diberi ekstrak batang pisang ambon dosis 0; 0,08; 0,12; dan 0,16 g/L selama 21 hari. Uji tantang dilakukan selama 14 hari dengan pemberian spora Saprolegnia sp. kepadatan 104 sel/mL dan ekstrak batang pisang ambon. Perlakuan dosis 0,16 g/L memberikan kelangsungan hidup sebesar 100% yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan kontrol positif setelah uji tantang. Kata kunci: giant gourami, Musa paradisiaca, Saprolegnia sp., larva

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineli, Maristella; Coneglian, Regina C.C.; Vasconcellos, Marco A.S.; Silva, Eduardo; Rocha, Janielio G.; Melo, Maruzanete P. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ. Inst. de Agronomia (Brazil)], e-mail: maristellamartineli@yahoo.com.br; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Banana is a highly perishable climacteric fruit. In order to ensure fast and homogeneous ripening that will make its processing and commercialization easier, it is usually treated by climatization. On the other hand, irradiation is an interesting physical process capable of delaying ripening and extending the shelf life of fruits. This work investigated the competing effects of irradiation followed by climatization on the quality of 'Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB). All fruits were harvested in the preclimacteric stage, rinsed and stored at 27 deg C after being submitted to five different treatments. After hygienization, four out of five samples were exposed to gamma-ray at doses of 0.25 and 0.50 kGy. The unirradiated fruits were left for control and half of the irradiated samples were then climatized by exposure to CaC{sub 2}. Measurements of fresh mass loss, total soluble solids, peel coloration and disease index were performed on five different dates for up to nine days in order to monitor quality and the degree of ripening. It was found that high temperatures prevailing during climatization and storage accelerated maturation in all fruits in spite of the use of irradiation, with the control becoming ripe in 3 days only. In addition, based on the consistent results from the experiments performed, it can be concluded that irradiation at the doses tested was unable to overcome the maturation effects produced by climatization. However, the sole use of irradiation with 0.25 kGy yielded the lowest figures for fresh mass loss and disease index in the samples, thus becoming the most attractive among the treatments tested. (author)

  10. Mineral fertilizer response and nutrient use efficiencies of East African highland banana (Musa spp., AAA-EAHB, cv. Kisansa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Corbeels, M.; Taulya, G.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    Poor yields of East African highland bananas (Musa spp., AAA-EAHB) on smallholder farms have often been attributed to problems of poor soil fertility. We measured the effects of mineral fertilizers on crop performance at two sites over two to three crop cycles; Kawanda in central Uganda and Ntungamo

  11. Relative susceptibility of Musa genotypes to banana bunchy top disease in Cameroon and implication for disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD) is a serious threat to banana and plantain (Musa spp.) production. BBTD is caused by the Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus) which is spread through infected plant propagules and banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa. A high level of resistance to BBTD in...

  12. Annotation of differentially expressed genes in the somatic embryogenesis of musa and their location in the banana genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Borges, Josefina Ines; Ku-Cauich, José Roberto; Escobedo-Graciamedrano, Rosa Maria

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of cDNA-AFLP was used to study the genes expressed in zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of Musa acuminata Colla ssp. malaccensis, and a comparison was made between their differential transcribed fragments (TDFs) and the sequenced genome of the double haploid- (DH-) Pahang of the malaccensis subspecies that is available in the network. A total of 253 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were detected with apparent size of 100-4000 bp using 5 pairs of AFLP primers, of which 21 were differentially expressed during the different stages of banana embryogenesis; 15 of the sequences have matched DH-Pahang chromosomes, with 7 of them being homologous to gene sequences encoding either known or putative protein domains of higher plants. Four TDF sequences were located in all Musa chromosomes, while the rest were located in one or two chromosomes. Their putative individual function is briefly reviewed based on published information, and the potential roles of these genes in embryo development are discussed. Thus the availability of the genome of Musa and the information of TDFs sequences presented here opens new possibilities for an in-depth study of the molecular and biochemical research of zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of Musa.

  13. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  14. Effect of template-induced surface species on electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yu; Guo, Xiaojuan; Bo, Xiangkun; Wang, Yongzheng [Key Lab of Mesoscopic Chemistry MOE, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Guo, Xiangke [Key Lab of Mesoscopic Chemistry MOE, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); Xie, Mingjiang, E-mail: xiemingjiang@hotmail.com [Key Lab of Mesoscopic Chemistry MOE, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Guo, Xuefeng, E-mail: guoxf@nju.edu.cn [Key Lab of Mesoscopic Chemistry MOE, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The effect of template on the surface chemistry of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} were investigated. • Template induces more non-graphitic species (sp{sup 3}−C−C− and −NH{sub x}) on g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Non-graphitic species influence electronic structure and performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. - Abstract: In view of the fact that the photocatalytic activity of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) is greatly influenced by its electronic structure, herein, effect of templates induced surface species variation on the electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of the templated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was investigated. By mixing the precursor of cyanamide with different templates (SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and template-free) in the preparation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}), carbon nitrides with different surface species were obtained. The obtained carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Si) templated by SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles exhibits enlarged band gap (3.26 eV) and enhanced photo-degradation ability towards Methyl Orange (MO) compared to that of bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (2.67 eV) synthesized from direct condensation/carbonization of melamine and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-templated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Al (2.76 eV). Detailed characterizations confirm that the introduction of templates in the synthesis process resulted in more non-graphitic species (sp{sup 3}−C−C− and −NH{sub x}) on the surface of the derived carbon nitrides, exerting remarkable effect on the electronic structure and photocatalytic performance.

  15. Polymorphism at selected defence gene analogs (DGAs) of Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major diseases affecting banana is Sigatoka or leaf spot disease that comprises three species, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, Mycosphaerella musicola and Mycosphaerella eumusae. Plants have a large number of defence related genes which trigger a cascade of defense responses that halt the spread of pathogens.

  16. Molecular characterisation of Musa L. cultivars cultivated in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... five plants (individuals) growing next to each other were collected representing each ... and Ecology Research Unit, DNA laboratory in Zomba, Malawi for analysis. ..... diversity in this case would be due to self pollination and inbreeding .... including the long-term evolutionary history of the species. (shifts in ...

  17. Study on Mo(V) species, location and adsorbates interactions in MoH-SAPO-34 by employing ESR and electron spin-echo modulation spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Gern Ho; Jang, Chang Ki; Ru, Chang Kuk; Cho, Young Hwan; So, Hyun Soo; Larry, Keven

    2002-01-01

    A solid-state reaction of MoO 3 with as-synthesized H-SAPO-34 generated paramagnetic Mo(V) species. The dehydration resulted in weak Mo(V) species, and subsequent activation resulted in the formation of Mo(V) species such as Mo(V) 5c and Mo(V) 6c that are characterized by ESR. The data of ESR and ESEM show the oxomolybdenum species, to be (MoO 2 ) + or (MoO) 3+ . The (MoO 2 ) + species seems to be more probable. Since H-SAPO-34 has a low framework negative charge, (MoO) 3+ with a high positive charge can not be easily stabilized. A solution reaction between the solution of silico-molybdic acid and calcined H-SAPO-34 resulted in only MoO + 2 species. A rhombic ESR signal is observed on adsorption of D 2 O, CD 3 OH, CH 3 CH 2 OD and ND 3 . The Location and coordination structure of Mo(V) species has been determined by three-pulse electron spin-echo modulation data and their simulations. After the adsorption of methanol, ethylene, ammonia, and water for MoH-SAPO-34, three molecules, one and one molecule, respectively, are directly coordinated to (MoO 2 ) +

  18. Spectral diffusion and electron-phonon coupling of the B800 BChl a molecules in LH2 complexes from three different species of purple bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, J; Gabrielsen, M; Oellerich, S; Michel, H; van Heel, M; Cogdell, R J; Köhler, J

    2009-11-04

    We have investigated the spectral diffusion and the electron-phonon coupling of B800 bacteriochlorophyll a molecules in the peripheral light-harvesting complex LH2 for three different species of purple bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodospirillum molischianum, and Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. We come to the conclusion that B800 binding pockets for Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are rather similar with respect to the polarity of the protein environment but that the packaging of the alphabeta-polypeptides seems to be less tight in Rb. sphaeroides with respect to the other two species.

  19. In vitro hypoglycemic effects of unripe and ripe fruits of Musa sapientum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Devidas Bhinge

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was undertaken to verify the hypoglycemic potential of unripe and ripe fruit extracts of Musa sapientum by using various in-vitro techniques, namely glucose adsorption capacity, glucose diffusion, amylolysis kinetics and glucose transport across the yeast cells. The results revealed that the unripe and ripe fruit extracts of Musa sapientum adsorbed glucose and the adsorption of glucose increased remarkably with an increase in glucose concentration. There were no significant (p≤0.05 differences between their adsorption capacities. In the amylolysis kinetic experimental model the rate of glucose diffusion was found to be increased with time from 30 to 180 min and both extracts exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the movement of glucose into external solution across the dialysis membrane as compared to control. The plant extracts also promoted glucose uptake by the yeast cells and enhancement of glucose uptake was dependent on both the sample and glucose concentration. The hypoglycemic effect exhibited by the extracts was observed to be mediated by inhibiting α-amylase, inhibiting glucose diffusion by adsorbing glucose and by increasing glucose transport across the cell membranes as revealed by an in-vitro model of yeast cells.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of extracts from Musa sapientum peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuaklee, Pathompong; Ruangnoo, Srisopa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2012-01-01

    Many parts of Musa sapientum Linn. (Musaceae) are used in Thai traditional medicine as drugs, food supplements and cosmetics. The banana peel is used as an astringent in foot care, the unripe fruit is used to treat diarrhea and, the ripe fruit is used as tonic. To evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of banana peel extracts obtained from different extraction methods and to determine their total phenolic content. Four extraction methods were used to extract unripe and ripe peels. Nitric oxide inhibitory and DPPH scavenging assays were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, respectively. Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent was used to determine total phenolic content. The water extract of fresh ripe peel exhibited the most potent NO inhibitory activity (IC50 = 6.68 +/- 0.34 microg/ml), but apparently exhibited no antioxidant activity. The decoction extract of fresh unripe peel exhibited strong antioxidant activity as well as had the highest total phenolic compound. The antioxidant activity exhibited a correlation with the total phenolic content. This study supports the use of Musa sapientum peel in Thai Traditional Medicine for treatment of inflammatory-related diseases.

  1. EXTRACTION AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF ASCORBIC ACID FROM BANANA PEEL MUSA ACUMINATA ‘KEPOK’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Anwar Mohamad Said

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extraction of an antioxidant compound, which is ascorbic acid or vitamin C, from a banana peel using an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method. The type of banana used was Musa acuminata also known as “PisangKepok” in Malaysia. The investigation includes the effect of solvent/solid ratio (4.5, 5 g and 10  ml/g, sonication time (15, 30 and 45 mins and temperature variation (30 , 45  and 60oC on the extraction of ascorbic acid compounds from the banana peel to determine the best or optimum condition of the operation. Out of all extract samples analyzed by redox titration method using iodine solution, it was found that the highest yield was 0.04939 ± 0.00080 mg that resulted from an extraction at 30oC for 15 mins with 5 ml/g solvent-to-solute ratio.KEYWORDS:  Musa acuminata; ultrasound-assisted extraction; vitamin C; redox titration

  2. Characterization of Musa sp. fruits and plantain banana ripening stages according to their physicochemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valérie Passo Tsamo, Claudine; Andre, Christelle M; Ritter, Christian; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Ngoh Newilah, Gérard; Rogez, Hervé; Larondelle, Yvan

    2014-08-27

    This study aimed at understanding the contribution of the fruit physicochemical parameters to Musa sp. diversity and plantain ripening stages. A discriminant analysis was first performed on a collection of 35 Musa sp. cultivars, organized in six groups based on the consumption mode (dessert or cooking banana) and the genomic constitution. A principal component analysis reinforced by a logistic regression on plantain cultivars was proposed as an analytical approach to describe the plantain ripening stages. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that edible fraction, peel pH, pulp water content, and pulp total phenolics were among the most contributing attributes for the discrimination of the cultivar groups. With mean values ranging from 65.4 to 247.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of fresh weight, the pulp total phenolics strongly differed between interspecific and monospecific cultivars within dessert and nonplantain cooking bananas. The results of the logistic regression revealed that the best models according to fitting parameters involved more than one physicochemical attribute. Interestingly, pulp and peel total phenolic contents contributed in the building up of these models.

  3. Ploidy Variation in Hybrids from Interploid 3x X 2x Crosses in Musa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osuji, JO.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids were obtained after in vitro germination of embryos from interploid crosses between triploid 'French' plantain cultivars (Musa spp. AAB group 'Ntanga 2' and 'Bobby Tannap' with diploid banana (Ivlusa acuminata subsp. burmannicoidesj 'Calcutta 4'. Cross-pollinated bunches were harvested at full maturity and ripened with acetylene in a room for 4 days. Seeds were extracted from peeled ripe fruits by squashing. Embryos from the seeds were excised aseptically after 2 days and germinated in vitro. Seedlings were subsequently planted in early evaluation trials after acclimatising in the greenhouse. Chromosome counts were carried out on root tips of mature and maiden suckers to determine ploidy levels using a modified squashing technique. Counts showed that two of the hybrids were aneuploids (trisomies with somatic chromosome number of 2n = 2x + 1 = 23, one hybrid was diploid while the other two were tetraploids. Tetraploids are the most promising hybrids for the genetic improvement of plantains. Diploids are valuable material for further improvement of the plantain genome at this ploidy level. Trisomies provide means for further characterisation of the Musa genome and physical gene mapping in plantain and banana.

  4. Musa paradisiaca inflorescence induces human colon cancer cell death by modulating cascades of transcriptional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K B, Arun; Madhavan, Aravind; T R, Reshmitha; Thomas, Sithara; Nisha, P

    2018-01-24

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death, and diet plays an important role in the etiology of CRC. Traditional medical practitioners in many South Asian countries use plantain inflorescence to treat various gastro-intestinal ailments. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effects of extracts of inflorescence of Musa paradisiaca against HT29 human colon cancer cells and elucidate the mechanism of these effects by studying the modulation of cascades of transcriptional events. In vitro assays depicted that methanol extract of Musa paradisiaca inflorescence (PIMET) was cytotoxic to HT29 cells. PIMET induced DNA damage and arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Expression studies showed that PIMET pretreatment upregulates pro-apoptotic Bcl2 and downregulates anti-apoptotic Bax proteins. Different assays showed that the deregulation of pro/antiapoptotic proteins reduces the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production; moreover, it enhances cytochrome c release, which triggers the apoptotic pathway, and further cleaves caspase 3 and PARP proteins, resulting in apoptosis. Changes in the protein expression profile of HT29 cells after PIMET treatment were analyzed using mass-spectrometry-based proteomics. PIMET treatment significantly altered the expression of HT29 protein; interestingly, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein was also downregulated. Alteration in the expression of this protein has significant effects, leading to HT29 cell death.

  5. Morphology and Anatomy Characteristic of Pisang Awak (Musa paradisiaca cv. Awak in West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Sunandar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the origin and center of diversity of banana. One of an edible banana in Indonesia is Pisang Awak (Musa paradisiaca cv. Awak . In West Kalimantan, the ripe Pisang Awak has been processed into sale (dried banana. The aims of this research were to describe the morphological and anatomical character of Pisang Awak in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. In this study, Pisang Awak were collected from Padang Tikar I village, Batu Ampar Sub-district, Kubu Raya district, West Kalimantan. Morphological characterizations were conducted by following the instruction on Descriptors for Banana (Musa spp. from IPGRI. The root, leaf blade, and petiole were fixed in FAA solution. Root, leaf, and petiole anatomy preparats were made by paraffin method. The lamina of Pisang Awak consisted of adaxial epidermis, two hypodermis layers, two palisade layers, spongy layer, bundle sheath cell, abaxial epidermis, laticifer. The petiole of Pisang Awak composed of three tissue systems, i.e., epidermis layer, parenchyma tissue and vascular tissue. The root of Pisang Awak consists of two epidermis layers, parenchyma and vascular cylinder. In the future, morphological and anatomical character in Pisang Awak could be applied as the basis of information for breeding programs of banana cultivars and classification.

  6. In-depth proteomic analysis of banana (Musa spp.) fruit with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Musa ssp. is among the world's leading fruit crops. Although a strong interest on banana biochemistry exists in the scientific community, focused on metabolite composition, proteins have been scarcely investigated even if they play an important role in food allergy and stability, are a source of biologically active peptides, and can provide information about nutritional aspects of this fruit. In this work we have employed the combinatorial peptide ligand libraries after different types of protein extractions, for searching the very low-abundance proteins in banana. The use of advanced MS techniques and Musa ssp. mRNAs database in combination with the Uniprot_viridiplantae database allowed us to identify 1131 proteins. Among this huge amount of proteins we found several already known allergens such as Mus a 1, pectinesterase, superoxide dismutase, and potentially new allergens. Additionally several enzymes involved in degradation of starch granules and strictly correlated to ripening stage were identified. This is the first in-depth exploration of the banana fruit proteome and one of the largest descriptions of the proteome of any vegetable system. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Evolution of the Banana Genome (Musa acuminata) Is Impacted by Large Chromosomal Translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Guillaume; Carreel, Françoise; Coriton, Olivier; Hervouet, Catherine; Cardi, Céline; Derouault, Paco; Roques, Danièle; Salmon, Frédéric; Rouard, Mathieu; Sardos, Julie; Labadie, Karine; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; D'Hont, Angélique

    2017-09-01

    Most banana cultivars are triploid seedless parthenocarpic clones derived from hybridization between Musa acuminata subspecies and sometimes M. balbisiana. M. acuminata subspecies were suggested to differ by a few large chromosomal rearrangements based on chromosome pairing configurations in intersubspecies hybrids. We searched for large chromosomal rearrangements in a seedy M. acuminata ssp. malaccensis banana accession through mate-pair sequencing, BAC-FISH, targeted PCR and marker (DArTseq) segregation in its progeny. We identified a heterozygous reciprocal translocation involving two distal 3 and 10 Mb segments from chromosomes 01 and 04, respectively, and showed that it generated high segregation distortion, reduced recombination and linkage between chromosomes 01 and 04 in its progeny. The two chromosome structures were found to be mutually exclusive in gametes and the rearranged structure was preferentially transmitted to the progeny. The rearranged chromosome structure was frequently found in triploid cultivars but present only in wild malaccensis ssp. accessions, thus suggesting that this rearrangement occurred in M. acuminata ssp. malaccensis. We propose a mechanism for the spread of this rearrangement in Musa diversity and suggest that this rearrangement could have played a role in the emergence of triploid cultivars. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Determination of nickel and thallium concentration in Cynoglossus arel fish in Musa estuary, Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafarzadeh Haghighi Fard, Neamat; Zare Javid, Ahmad; Ravanbakhsh, Maryam; Ramezani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Ardeshirzadeh, Shirin

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals with high bioaccumulation capacity are considered as important contaminants and may be available in high concentrations in environment and biota samples. The main aim of this study was to determine the concentration of nickel and thallium in Cynoglossus arel fish in Musa estuary. Sixty-seven fish samples were collected from Musa estuary during five intervals of 15 days in summer 2013. After biometric measurements, the concentrations of nickel and thallium were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean concentration of nickel and thallium in muscle tissue of fish samples was 2.458 ± 0.910 and 0.781 ± 1.754 mg kg -1 /ww, respectively. The GLM analysis showed a significant negative relationship between nickel concentration and length. In addition, there was a significant positive relationship between thallium concentration and fish length. Nickel concentration exceeded the allowable standards of WHO and FDA in Cynoglossus arel. Therefore, regarding with high consumption of seafood in this region, it is recommended that these fishes should be consumed under a nutritionist counseling.

  9. EFEK PEMBERIAN JUS BUAH PISANG KEPOK (Musa paradisiaca forma typica TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH TIKUS JANTAN GALUR WISTAR YANG TERBEBANI GLUKOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Eki Supra Bawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research aimed to determine the effects of administration of Musa paradisiaca forma typica juice on blood glucose levels and determine what dose of Musa paradisiaca forma typica juice which is most effective for lowering blood glucose levels in rats burdened glucose. This research was experimental with study with one way complete design using 25 male rats were divided into five groups. Group I (negative control was given CMC 1%, group II (positive control was given Glibenclamide dose of 0,64 mg/kgBW and group III, IV, V the rats were given 5; 10; 20 mL/kgBW dose of Musa paradisiaca forma typica juice, all of the processes were given through the oral method. Hypoglycemic effect of Musa paradisiaca forma typica juice was tested by following the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT method. The blood-glucose contents were taken, at the 0 minutes before the OGTT and also taken at minutes of 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 after the OGTT, from the tested animal that had been gotten the pre-treatment of the negative control, positive control and Musa paradisiaca forma typica juice before. Data of blood glucose levels was statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Scheffe test with 95% convidence level. The result of this research showed that Musa paradisiaca forma typica juice can lowering blood glucose levels on rats in burdened glucose. Dose Musa paradisiaca forma typica juice are most effective in lowering blood glucose levels in a dose was 10 mL/kgBW. Key words: Musa paradisiaca forma typica, blood glucose levels, OGTT

  10. External morphology of sensory structures of fourth instar larvae of neotropical species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae under scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, some morphological structures of antennae, maxillary palps and caudal setae of fourth instar larvae of laboratory-reared phlebotomine sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. evandroi, L. lenti, L. sericea, L. whitmani and L. intermedia of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The antennal structures exhibited considerable variation in the morphology and position. A prominent digitiform distal segment has been observed only on the antenna of species of the subgenus Nyssomyia. The taxonomic relevance of this and other antennal structure is discussed. The papiliform structures found in the maxillae and the porous structures of the caudal setae of all species examined may have chemosensory function. Further studies with transmission electron microscopy are needed to better understand the physiological function of these external structures.

  11. On a New Species of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae from Cauque mauleanum (Pisces: Atherinidae by Brightfield and Scanning Electron Microscopy

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    Torres Patricio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysterothylacium geschei n. sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae is described from the intestine of Cauque mauleanum (Steindachner (Pisces: Atherinidae from Lake Panguipulli (39º43'S; 72º13'W, Chile. Eleven (78.6% out of 14 fish were infected, with a mean intensity (range of 14.4 (1-55 worms. The new species can be differentiated from the two previously described species of freshwater fishes from South America by the presence of lateral alae, the number of caudal papillae, and the length of the spicules, oesophagus, intestinal caecum, distance vulva-anterior extremity and the length ratio intestinal caecum: ventricular appendix. From the fishes examined in Lake Panguipulli, including the introduced salmonid species Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum and the authochthonous species Basilichthys australis Eigenmann (Atherinidae and Percichthys trucha (Valenciennes (Percichthyidae, only one specimen of P. trucha was found parasitized by a third-stage larva of this species.

  12. Studies on the aroma of different species and strains of Pleurotus measured by GC/MS, sensory analysis and electronic nose

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Zawirska-Wojtasiak; Marek Siwulski; Sylwia Mildner-Szkudlarz; Erwin Wąsowicz

    2009-01-01

    The aroma of several strains of Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus djamor was studied by GC/MS. Three main mushrooms aroma constituents: 3-octanol, 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol were taken into account for quantitative measurements. The highest amount of 1-octen-3-ol was recorded in P. ostreatus, while considerably lower amounts in P. citrinopileatus. Sensory profile analysis as well as the electronic nose also varied between the three species of Pleurotus. Chiral gas ...

  13. Constitutive and stress-inducible overexpression of a native aquaporin gene (MusaPIP2;6) in transgenic banana plants signals its pivotal role in salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2015-05-01

    High soil salinity constitutes a major abiotic stress and an important limiting factor in cultivation of crop plants worldwide. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a aquaporin gene, MusaPIP2;6 which is involved in salt stress signaling in banana. MusaPIP2;6 was firstly identified based on comparative analysis of stressed and non-stressed banana tissue derived EST data sets and later overexpression in transgenic banana plants was performed to study its tangible functions in banana plants. The overexpression of MusaPIP2;6 in transgenic banana plants using constitutive or inducible promoter led to higher salt tolerance as compared to equivalent untransformed control plants. Cellular localization assay performed using transiently transformed onion peel cells indicated that MusaPIP2;6 protein tagged with green fluorescent protein was translocated to the plasma membrane. MusaPIP2;6-overexpressing banana plants displayed better photosynthetic efficiency and lower membrane damage under salt stress conditions. Our results suggest that MusaPIP2;6 is involved in salt stress signaling and tolerance in banana.

  14. Electron spin resonance and electron spin echo modulation spectroscopic studies on the structure and reactivity of Pd(I) species in SAPO-11 molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chul Wee Lee; Jong-Sung Yu; Kevan, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of using Pd ions in SAPO-11 by adding [Pd(NH 3 ) 4 ] 2+ during the synthesis of SAPO-11 to form PdSAPO-11, which is compared with solid-state ion exchange PdSAPO-11 and impregnation PdH-SAPO-11 in which palladium is in an extraframework position. Electron spin resonance and electron spin echo modulation spectroscopies are used to determine if the palladium position in PdSAPO-11 is located in a framework or extraframework

  15. Synergistic effect of single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancies and carbon species on the visible light photocatalytic activity of carbon-modified TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Xue, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Xiaogang; Xing, Xing; Li, Qiuye; Yang, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-modified TiO 2 (CT) nanoparticles were prepared via a two-step method of heat treatment without the resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) polymer. As-prepared CT nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis/DRS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N 2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, thermal analysis (TA), electron spin resonance (ESR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The visible light photocatalytic activities were evaluated on the basis of the degradation of methyl orange (MO). The synergistic effect of single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancies (SETOVs) and the carbon species on the visible light photocatalytic activities of the CT nanoparticles were discussed. It was found that the crystalline phase, the morphology, and particle size of the CT nanoparticles depended on the second heat-treatment temperature instead of the first heat-treatment temperature. The visible light photocatalytic activities were attributed to the synergistic effect of SETOVs and the carbon species, and also depended on the specific surface area of the photocatalysts. - Highlights: • Carbon-modified TiO 2 particles have been prepared without RF polymer. • The visible light photocatalytic activities of the particles have been evaluated. • The band gap energy structure of the carbon-modified TiO 2 has been proposed. • Synergistic effect of SETOVs and carbon species has been discussed. • The activities also depend on the specific surface area of the catalysts

  16. Divan Şiirinde Hz. Musa / The Prophet Moses In Divan Poetry

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    Adnan UZUN

    2016-01-01

    Divan Şiiri, İslam Medeniyetinin şekillendirdiği Müslüman Doğu toplumlarının ortak kültüründen ve çeşitli milletlerle paylaştığı coğrafyanın değerlerinden etkilenerek oluşan, devrin sanat anlayışıyla yoğrulmuş bir birikimdir.  Hz. Musa, Firavun tarafından yeni doğan bütün erkek çocukların öldürüldüğü bir dönemde dünyaya gelmesi, İsrail oğullarına zulmeden ve tanrılık iddiasında bulunan Firavun’un sarayında yetişmesi, gençliğinde yaşadığı olaylar nedeniyle Mısır’ı terketmek zorunda kalması, peygamber oluşu, mücadelesi ve halkına karşı gösterdiği sabır gibi özelliklerinin yanında başta Yahudilik olmak üzere bütün semavi dinlerde en önemli peygamberler arasında yer alması gibi nitelikleriyle İslam Dini ve diğer ilahi dinlerin inanç ve kültür değerlerinde önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Divan şairleri Hz. Musa’yı, Firavun’a karşı duruşu, Tûr Dağı’nda Allah ile tekellümü, Şecer-i Tûr, mucizevi asası, yed-i beyza sahibi oluşu gibi yönleri ve göstermiş olduğu mucizeleriyle şiirlerine konu etmişlerdir. Hz. Musa, Klasik Türk edebiyatı şairleri için tasavvufî duygu, düşünce ve heyecanların ifadesinde ilham kaynağı olmuştur. Bu makalede, Hz. Musa ve onun mucizeleri ile ilgili Divan şiirinde yer alan ifade ve anlatımlar incelenmiştir.

  17. Importance of doping, dopant distribution, and defects on electronic band structure alteration of metal oxide nanoparticles: Implications for reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Navid B.; Milliron, Delia J.; Aich, Nirupam; Katz, Lynn E.; Liljestrand, Howard M.; Kirisits, Mary Jo

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are considered to have the potency to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), one of the key mechanisms underlying nanotoxicity. However, the nanotoxicology literature demonstrates a lack of consensus on the dominant toxicity mechanism(s) for a particular MONP. Moreover, recent literature has studied the correlation between band structure of pristine MONPs to their ability to introduce ROS and thus has downplayed the ROS-mediated toxicological relevance of a number of such materials. On the other hand, material science can control the band structure of these materials to engineer their electronic and optical properties and thereby is constantly modulating the pristine electronic structure. Since band structure is the fundamental material property that controls ROS-producing ability, band tuning via introduction of dopants and defects needs careful consideration in toxicity assessments. This commentary critically evaluates the existing material science and nanotoxicity literature and identifies the gap in our understanding of the role of important crystal structure features (i.e., dopants and defects) on MONPs' electronic structure alteration as well as their ROS-generation capability. Furthermore, this commentary provides suggestions on characterization techniques to evaluate dopants and defects on the crystal structure and identifies research needs for advanced theoretical predictions of their electronic band structures and ROS-generation abilities. Correlation of electronic band structure and ROS will not only aid in better mechanistic assessment of nanotoxicity but will be impactful in designing and developing ROS-based applications ranging from water disinfection to next-generation antibiotics and even cancer therapeutics. - Highlights: • Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) • Band structure of pristine MONPs is different than those with dopants/defects • Dopants/defects modulate

  18. Importance of doping, dopant distribution, and defects on electronic band structure alteration of metal oxide nanoparticles: Implications for reactive oxygen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Navid B., E-mail: navid.saleh@utexas.edu [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Milliron, Delia J. [McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Aich, Nirupam [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, 14260 (United States); Katz, Lynn E.; Liljestrand, Howard M.; Kirisits, Mary Jo [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are considered to have the potency to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), one of the key mechanisms underlying nanotoxicity. However, the nanotoxicology literature demonstrates a lack of consensus on the dominant toxicity mechanism(s) for a particular MONP. Moreover, recent literature has studied the correlation between band structure of pristine MONPs to their ability to introduce ROS and thus has downplayed the ROS-mediated toxicological relevance of a number of such materials. On the other hand, material science can control the band structure of these materials to engineer their electronic and optical properties and thereby is constantly modulating the pristine electronic structure. Since band structure is the fundamental material property that controls ROS-producing ability, band tuning via introduction of dopants and defects needs careful consideration in toxicity assessments. This commentary critically evaluates the existing material science and nanotoxicity literature and identifies the gap in our understanding of the role of important crystal structure features (i.e., dopants and defects) on MONPs' electronic structure alteration as well as their ROS-generation capability. Furthermore, this commentary provides suggestions on characterization techniques to evaluate dopants and defects on the crystal structure and identifies research needs for advanced theoretical predictions of their electronic band structures and ROS-generation abilities. Correlation of electronic band structure and ROS will not only aid in better mechanistic assessment of nanotoxicity but will be impactful in designing and developing ROS-based applications ranging from water disinfection to next-generation antibiotics and even cancer therapeutics. - Highlights: • Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) • Band structure of pristine MONPs is different than those with dopants/defects • Dopants/defects modulate

  19. Effect of Bacillus pumilus CCIBP-C5 on Musa-Pseudocercospora fijiensis interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Martín, Mileidy; Acosta-Suárez, Mayra; Mena, Eilyn; Roque, Berkis; Pichardo, Tatiana; Alvarado-Capó, Yelenys

    2018-02-01

    The effect of antifungal activity of culture filtrate (CF) of Bacillus pumilus strain CCIBP-C5, an isolate from a phyllosphere of banana ( Musa ) leaves, was determined on Pseudocercospora fijiensis challenged banana plants. The CF was shown to decrease the fungal biomass and induce changes in banana plant. In this sense, at 70 days post inoculation (dpi), a lower infection index as well as a decrease in fungal biomass after 6 dpi was obtained in treated plants with respect to control ones. At the same time, changes in the activities of several enzymes related to plant defense responses, such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chitinases, β-1,3-glucanases and peroxidases were observed. These results indicate that B. pumilus CCIBP-C5 has a potential role for biological control of P. fijiensis possibly due to the production of antifungal metabolites.

  20. Studies on physico-chemical changes during artificial ripening of banana (Musa sp) variety 'Robusta'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shyamrao Gururao; Kudachikar, V B; Keshava Prakash, M N

    2011-12-01

    Banana (Musa sp var 'Robusta') fruits harvested at 75-80% maturity were dip treated with different concentrations of ethrel (250-1,000 ppm) solution for 5 min. Ethrel at 500 ppm induced uniform ripening without impairing taste and flavour of banana. Untreated control banana fruits remained shriveled, green and failed to ripen evenly even after 8 days of storage. Fruits treated with 500 ppm of ethrel ripened well in 6 days at 20 ± 1 °C. Changes in total soluble solids, acidity, total sugars and total carotenoids showed increasing trends up to 6 days during ripening whereas fruit shear force values, pulp pH and total chlorophyll in peel showed decreasing trends. Sensory quality of ethrel treated banana fruits (fully ripe) were excellent with respect to external colour, taste, flavour and overall quality.

  1. In vitro propagation of ‘FHIA-25’ (Musa spp., AAB in Temporary Immersion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Basail Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Necessity to produce high quality planting material has required searching new alternatives to increase the efficiency of in vitro propagation methods and their automation, as in Temporary Immersion Systems (TIS. This work was aimed to multiply the hybrid ‘FHIA-25’ (Musa spp. AAB in TIS. The effect of different culture medium volumes per explant and densities of planting materials per culture flask at the same immersion frequency was determined. These two factors showed influence on the evaluated variables. A volume of 40 ml of culture medium per explant and densities of 80 explants per flask were selected to multiply this cultivar in TIS. These results permitted to increase in vitro production of high-quality plants for rooting stage. Key words: multiplication coefficient, culture flasks, liquid culture medium

  2. Role of glycemic elements of Cynodon dactylon and Musa paradisiaca in diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prashant Kumar; Jaiswal, Dolly; Rai, Nilesh K; Pandhija, Shiwani; Rai, A K; Watal, Geeta

    2009-09-01

    The study defined the scientific evaluation of glycemic elements of extracts of Cynodon dactylon and Musa paradisiaca. A dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (bw) of C. dactylon produced maximum falls of 23.2% and 22.8% in blood glucose levels of normoglycemic rats during studies of fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance, respectively, whereas the same dose of M. paradisiaca produced a rise of 34.9% and 18.4%. In diabetic rats during glucose tolerance tests, a fall of 27.8% and a rise of 17.5% were observed with the same dose of C. dactylon and M. paradisiaca, respectively. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used for detection of glycemic elements present in both the extracts indicated that C. dactylon was rich in magnesium (Mg), whereas M. paradisiaca was rich in potassium (K) and sodium (Na), comparatively, suggesting thereby the defined roles of these elements in diabetes management.

  3. Investigations on the effect of flavonoids from banana, Musa paradisiaca L. on lipid metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, S; Presannakumar, G; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2009-01-01

    Oral administration of flavonoids extracted from unripe fruits of Musa paradisiaca showed significant hypolipidemic activities in male rats (Sprague Dawley strain) at a dose of 1 mg/100 g body weight (BW)/day. Concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and triglycerides showed significant decrease in the serum, liver, kidney, and brain of experimental animals. HMG CoA reductase activity was found to be enhanced, while activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase were significantly reduced. Activities of lipoprotein lipase and plasma LCAT showed significant enhancement. A significant increase in the concentrations of hepatic and fecal bile acids and fecal neutral sterols was also observed indicating a higher rate of degradation of cholesterol. The present study indicates that although there is an increase in the rate of synthesis of cholesterol in the liver, the process of degradation exceeds the rate of synthesis.

  4. Evaluation of nephroprotective activity of Musa paradisiaca L. in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Khizar; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Zahid, Hina; Qadir, M Imran

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the nephroprotective activity of methanolic extract of different morphological parts (bract, flower, trachea and tracheal fluid) of Musa paradisiaca L. (Family: Musaceae) against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Gentamicin produced significant changes in biochemical (increased levels of blood urea nitrogen level, blood urea, and serum creatinine), and histological parameters in mice. Treatment with methanolic extract of bract (100 and 250mg/kg, b.w) and flowering stalk (trachea) (250 and 500mg/kg, b.w) significantly prevented biochemical and histological changes produced by gentamicin toxicity. The extracts of M. paradisiaca (bract and flowering stalk) could contribute a lead to discovery of a new drug for the treatment of drug-induced nephrotoxicity.

  5. Descripción morfoagronómica de materiales de plátano (Musa AAB, ABB y banano (Musa AAA cultivados en San Andrés Isla Morpho-agronomic Description of Plantain (Musa AAB, ABB and Banana (Musa AAA Materials Grown in San Andres Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Javier Parra Pachón

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante el primer semestre de 2005 se estudiaron los cultivares de plátano y banano en fincas y parcelas de 15 agricultores típicos participantes en programas conjuntos de la Secretaría de Agricultura y Pesca de San Andrés Isla y de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Caribe. A partir de descriptores de INIBAP, IPGRI y CIRAD y revisiones bibliográficas.se describen morfológicamente los materiales de Musa cultivados en la Isla, así como las prácticas de los productores isleños, Se identificaron cuatro clones del subgrupo plátano (Musa AAB: un Hartón (‘Horse’ y tres Dominico-Hartón (‘Tallo Negro’, ‘Tallo Blanco’ y ‘Cincuenta’ del subgrupo ABB se hallaron un material de Bluggoe (‘Boscó’ y un Felipita. El subgrupo banano AAA presentó dos materiales Gros Michel (denominados Común y Chino y uno de banano (Rojo. El plátano tiene gran importancia para los agricultores de la Isla, siendo el Boscó el clon más aceptado entre consumidores por su adaptación a las condiciones edafológicas y climáticas. El banano es menos cultivado; ya que los suelos, el clima y las enfermedades como sigatoka negra, condicionaron el desarrollo de clones. El trabajo sugiere prácticas de fácil implementación que podrían aumentar la producción en los sistemas de huerto mixto tropical que predominan en la Isla.During the first semester, 2005 we studied the plantain and banana cultivars in small farms of 15 volunteer regular producers, who were participating in joint programs of the Agriculture and Fisheries Secretariat of San Andres Island and the Colombian National University Caribbean Headquarters. We described morphologically the Musa cultivars identified in the island, as well as agricultural practices of the island producers, using the INIBAP, IPGRI and CIRAD (1996 descriptors and bibliographical reviews. We identified four clones within the plantain sub-group Musa AAB: a Horn type and three French-Horn; and within the ABB

  6. Musa massif: mapping, petrology and petrochemical, Rio Maria, SE from Para State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastal, M.C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The petrological, geochemical and geochronological studies allow some insight on the genesis and evolution of the Musa Massif. The different facies of the granitic body are cogenetic, although each of these facies presents some peculiarities in its genesis and evolution. These data suggests that the granite magma evolution was complex or, alternatively, that the facies were generated by liquids derived from different sources. A model of magmatic emplacement, genesis and differentiation is proposed and discussed. The granitic facies show a calc-alkaline compositions, exhibiting strong analogies with cordilleran granites or magnetite granites. An age of 1692 +- 11 Ma (Rb/Sr) with IR of 0,70777 +- 0,00023 was obtained for different facies of Massif. A preliminary attempt to individualize geochronology the principal facies was done and showed that there is a coincidence between the ages and the emplacement sequence of these facies of the pluton. (author)

  7. Toxicidad de boro en plantaciones de banano(Musa AAA en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En las hojas de plantas de banano (Musa AAA, cvs. Grande Naine y Valery, se observó una necrosis marginal irregular y continua, la cual se desarrolló a partir de un área clorótica igualmente irregular, que avanzó del margen hacia el interior de la hoja. La parte central de la lámina foliar retuvo siempre su coloración verde original. Los análisis de suelo y tejido foliar mostraron que los síntomas fueron causados por altas concentraciones de boro, debido ya fuese a aplicaciones excesivas del nutrimento al suelo y al follaje, o por el efecto de aplicaciones muy frecuentes de boro vía fertirriego, combinado con una disminución de la concentración de calcio en la hoja

  8. Manfaat Prebiotik Tepung Pisang Kepok (Musa paradisiaca formatypica terhadap Pertumbuhan Probiotik Lactobacillus casei secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Hardisari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This background reviewed cases of diarrhea, one of health problems related to the digestive tract and caused by an imbalance in intestinal microflora. Probiotics are microorganisms that can be used to balance the intestinal microflora’s population. Prebiotics are nutrients required for the growth of good bacteria in human’s intestine. Kepok banana (Musa paradisiaca formatypica that contains inulin and FOS is a natural source of prebiotics. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of various concentrations of kepok banana flour (Musa paradisiaca formatypica on the growth of probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei. In order to observe the prebiotic activity of Lactobacillus casei, post-test with control group design method is used toward the kepok banana flour. The amounts of kepok banana flour concentration used are varied, which are 2%, 4%, 6%, 8 %, and 10%. As much as 30 data was resulted from this research that was, later, descriptively analyzed with One-Way ANOVA test using SPSS 16.0 for Windows. The research’s finding shows the average numbers of bacterium Lactobacillus casei (the number of bacteria x 107CFU/ml produced in the media with the addition of MPF’s concentrations of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% are, respectively, 29187,5 ; 42491,67 ; 52225 ; 89879,17 and 155108,33. This research also obtained a significance value of 0.000 of the One-way Anova test. The conclusion of this study is that there is an in vitro effect of adding various concentrations of kepok banana flour on the growth of probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei.

  9. Direct Effects Of Chronic Gamma Radiation On Musa Acuminata Var. Berangan, A Local Malaysia Banana Cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimum Tahir; Azhar Mohamad; Rozeita Laboh; Umikalsum Mohd Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Musa acuminata var. Berangan, is a popular variety of our local banana known as Pisang Berangan. The variety is a triploid banana, use mainly for dessert and has a great value for commodity fruit crops. However, production of PisangBerangan has been threatened by diseases such as Fusarium wilt, black sigatoka, Fusarium wilt, burrowing nematodes and viral diseases like Banana streak virus, Banana bunch top virus and Banana bract mosaic virus. The scenario becoming worst as Musa has a narrow genetic background for breeding and/or selection program. The banana breeding program of edible bananas is hampered by high sterility, and very limited amounts of seeds. Mutation induction via chronic gamma radiation is an alternative ways in creating more variants for selections towards a better quality and disease tolerance. A total number of 75 samples at nursery stage (1 month) were exposed to chronic gamma radiation in Gamma Greenhouse at Malaysian Nuclear Agency for 28 weeks. The samples were accordingly arranged with distance ranging from 1 m to 15 m from gamma source (Cesium-137). Plant height and new buds were used as measurement parameters in evaluating the direct effects of the chronic gamma radiation. Results showed effective dose of chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan was 20 Gy. Number of new emerging sucker was ranging from 1-3 pieces with the highest at ring-4 and ring-5. Plant height was observed ranging from 22.1 to 110.5 cm. Effects of chronic radiation were observed after 3-4 months in the GGH. The samples revealed as striking leaves, short inter node and new emergence of suckers. The objective of this work is to get a dose response for chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan. As for selection of potential mutant variants, new emerging suckers were tissue cultured in segregating chimeras and to get required numbers of samples for further field evaluation. (author)

  10. [Musical Inactivity - A Risk Factor? A Short Questionnaire to Assess Musical Activity (MusA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernholz, Isabel; Menzel, Juliane; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Gembris, Heiner; Fischer, Felix; Kendel, Friederike; Kreutz, Gunter; Schmidt, Alexander; Willich, Stefan N; Weikert, Cornelia

    2018-02-27

    There is only a limited number of studies on associations between musical activity and health issues. It seems that musical activity has physiological and psychological benefits, as well as effects on the mental capacity, but this has been studied only in a few clinical and epidemiological studies. One reason might be that no appropriate survey instrument assessing musical activity is available. Here we provide an overview of survey instruments that assess musicality and musical activity. One focus is the presentation of a newly developed German questionnaire (MusA), which assesses musical activity (active music making and music reception) and was specifically developed for the "German National Cohort", a German health study. Through literature research, questionnaires were identified that assess musicality and / or musical activity. A new German questionnaire was developed from a panel of experts and tested in a small study (n=121, women and men age 18-70 years). In the literature research, 3 questionnaires were identified which focus on musicality and musical activity with different aspects (Gold-MSI, MUSE, MEQ). All 3 instruments may be characterized as large psychometric scales, which especially assess aspects of musicality in the English language. The Gold-MSI is additionally available in German. None of the existing questionnaires covers musical activities in detail. A new short German questionnaire consisting of 9 questions with a maximum filling time of 3-5 min has been developed. There are few questionnaires available for assessing musicality and musical activity with different aspects. The newly developed MusA in the German language focuses on the assessment of musical activity and is intended to be used in larger, population-based as well as clinical studies, to examine music activities and listening to music as independent factors in connection with prevention and therapy of chronic diseases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. EFEK PEMBERIAN JUS BUAH PISANG AMBON (Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum (L. Kunt. TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH TIKUS JANTAN GALUR WISTAR YANG TERBEBANI GLUKOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Jessica Ariani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is to know the effect of giving Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum (L. Kunt. juice to the blood glucose levels and to know the most effective of giving Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum (L. Kunt. dose to lower the blood glucose levels in rats with oral glucose tolerance. This research was experimental study with one way-complete-random design using 25 male rats were divided into five groups. The rats in group I (negative control were given of CMC 1%, the group II rats were given 0.64mg/kgBW doses of Glibenclamide (positive control, and group III,IV and V were given 5, 10 and 20 ml/kgBW doses of Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum (L. Kunt. juice. The hypoglycemic effect of Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum (L. Kunt. juice was tested by following the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT method. The blood-glucose contents were taken, at 0 minutes before OGTT, and also taken at minutes of 15, 20, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 after OGTT, from the tested animal that had been gotten the pre-treatment of negative control, positive control and Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum (L. Kunt. juice. The blood glucose levels was determined by using enzymatis GOD-PAP method. The AUC0-240 was statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Scheffe test with 95% convidence level. The result of this research showed that Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum (L. Kunt. can lower on rats in burdened glucose. The effective dose of Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum (L. Kunt. juice can lower glucose blood levels at 5ml/kgBW.

  12. Separation and identification of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Qi, Y X; Zhang, H; Zhang, H Q; Pu, J J; Xie, Y X

    2013-12-19

    To establish a proteomic reference map of Musa acuminate Colla (banana) leaf, we separated and identified leaf proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Tryptic digests of 44 spots were subjected to peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. Three spots that were not identified by MALDI-TOF MS analysis were identified by searching against the NCBInr, SwissProt, and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. We identified 41 unique proteins. The majority of the identified leaf proteins were found to be involved in energy metabolism. The results indicate that 2D-PAGE is a sensitive and powerful technique for the separation and identification of Musa leaf proteins. A summary of the identified proteins and their putative functions is discussed.

  13. Assessment of RNAi-induced silencing in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tuong Vi T; Windelinckx, Saskia; Henry, Isabelle M; De Coninck, Barbara; Cammue, Bruno P A; Swennen, Rony; Remy, Serge

    2014-09-18

    In plants, RNA- based gene silencing mediated by small RNAs functions at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level to negatively regulate target genes, repetitive sequences, viral RNAs and/or transposon elements. Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) or the RNA interference (RNAi) approach has been achieved in a wide range of plant species for inhibiting the expression of target genes by generating double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). However, to our knowledge, successful RNAi-application to knock-down endogenous genes has not been reported in the important staple food crop banana. Using embryogenic cell suspension (ECS) transformed with ß-glucuronidase (GUS) as a model system, we assessed silencing of gusAINT using three intron-spliced hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) constructs containing gusAINT sequences of 299-nt, 26-nt and 19-nt, respectively. Their silencing potential was analysed in 2 different experimental set-ups. In the first, Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation of banana ECS with a gusAINT containing vector and an ihpRNA construct resulted in a significantly reduced GUS enzyme activity 6-8 days after co-cultivation with either the 299-nt and 19-nt ihpRNA vectors. In the second approach, these ihpRNA constructs were transferred to stable GUS-expressing ECS and their silencing potential was evaluated in the regenerated in vitro plants. In comparison to control plants, transgenic plants transformed with the 299-nt gusAINT targeting sequence showed a 4.5 fold down-regulated gusA mRNA expression level, while GUS enzyme activity was reduced by 9 fold. Histochemical staining of plant tissues confirmed these findings. Northern blotting used to detect the expression of siRNA in the 299-nt ihpRNA vector transgenic in vitro plants revealed a negative relationship between siRNA expression and GUS enzyme activity. In contrast, no reduction in GUS activity or GUS mRNA expression occurred in the regenerated lines transformed with either of the two gusAINT oligo target

  14. Electron impact ionization technique on the study of terpenes and related species in French Guiana tropical forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain; Bustillos, Oscar W.V.; Guenther, Alex B.; Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Emmons, Louisa; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Siebicke, Lukas; Serca, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The electron impact ionization is, originally, a mass spectrometry ionization method and still the most widely used of all ionization methods.In this technique, a beam of electrons passes through the gas phase sample. An electron that collides with a neutral analyte molecule can knock off another electron, resulting in a positively charged ion. The fragmentation process dependent sup on many qualities including primary structure, electron energy and ion source temperature. This paper presents a study on the seasonal variation of isoprene and some other significant biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-βocimene and longifolene, measured at the Guyaflux Tower located in a wet tropical forest in French Guiana using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique and analyzed by a mass spectrometer coupled to a gas chromatograph, a thermo desorption unit and a flame ionization detector (TD-GC-MS-FID). The results showed that isoprene was by far the biogenic volatile organic compound with the highest concentration and flux, followed by alpha-pinene. Previous limited studies in Amazonia and the Congo suggested that a higher concentration and flux rate of isoprene and alpha-pinene should be expected during the dry season with lower emissions during the wet season, which is in relative agreement with what was observed at this tropical forest site in French Guiana. The exceptions were observed in a long wet period in which the concentration of isoprene and alpha-pinene increased more than it was expected to, for this time of the year. (author)

  15. Electron impact ionization technique on the study of terpenes and related species in French Guiana tropical forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain; Bustillos, Oscar W.V., E-mail: paulinhacorain@usp.br, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisa Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guenther, Alex B.; Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Emmons, Louisa, E-mail: guenther@ucar.edu [Biosphere Atmosphere Interaction Group, Atmosphere Chemistry Division of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Siebicke, Lukas, E-mail: lukas.siebicke@ecofog.gf [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA-UMR EEF), Nancy (France); Serca, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.serca@aero.obs-mip.fr [Universite Paul Sabatier (UPS), Toulouse (France). Laboratoire d' Aerologie

    2013-07-01

    The electron impact ionization is, originally, a mass spectrometry ionization method and still the most widely used of all ionization methods.In this technique, a beam of electrons passes through the gas phase sample. An electron that collides with a neutral analyte molecule can knock off another electron, resulting in a positively charged ion. The fragmentation process dependent sup on many qualities including primary structure, electron energy and ion source temperature. This paper presents a study on the seasonal variation of isoprene and some other significant biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-βocimene and longifolene, measured at the Guyaflux Tower located in a wet tropical forest in French Guiana using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique and analyzed by a mass spectrometer coupled to a gas chromatograph, a thermo desorption unit and a flame ionization detector (TD-GC-MS-FID). The results showed that isoprene was by far the biogenic volatile organic compound with the highest concentration and flux, followed by alpha-pinene. Previous limited studies in Amazonia and the Congo suggested that a higher concentration and flux rate of isoprene and alpha-pinene should be expected during the dry season with lower emissions during the wet season, which is in relative agreement with what was observed at this tropical forest site in French Guiana. The exceptions were observed in a long wet period in which the concentration of isoprene and alpha-pinene increased more than it was expected to, for this time of the year. (author)

  16. Pemanfaatan Kulit Pisang Raja (Musa textilia )Menjadi Selai Sebagai Isian Roti Serta Daya Terima dan Kandungan Zat Gizinya

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Mustapa

    2015-01-01

    Banana peel plantains (Musa textilia) is a waste material (organic waste) which pretty much amounts. Banana peel generally significantly untapped simply disposed of as organic waste and used as fodder. Banana peel plantains can be processed into jam. Jam is a preferably food by children to the adult. Jam has a teksture (holf solid) and sweet taste. This research aims to determine the acceptability test and nutritional content of jam with the using of banana peel plantains. The type of researc...

  17. Effect of microgravity simulation using 3D clinostat on cavendish banana (Musa acuminata AAA Group) ripening process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivany, Fenny Martha; Esyanti, Rizkita R.; Prapaisie, Adeline; Puspa Kirana, Listya; Latief, Chunaeni; Ginaldi, Ari

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the research was to determine the effect of microgravity simulation by 3D clinostat on Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata AAA group) ripening process. In this study, physical, physiological changes as well as genes expression were analysed. The result showed that in microgravity simulation condition ripening process in banana was delayed and the MaACOl, MaACSl and MaACS5 gene expression were affected.

  18. High excitation of the species in nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance microwave discharge of N2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of Al target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peipei; Li, Yanli; Cai, Hua; You, Qinghu; Yang, Xu; Huang, Feiling; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada

    2014-01-01

    A reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave discharge of N 2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of an Al target is characterized spectroscopically by time-integrated and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The vibrational and rotational temperatures of N 2 species are determined by spectral simulation. The generated plasma strongly emits radiation from a variety of excited species including ambient nitrogen and ablated aluminum and exhibits unique features in optical emission and temperature evolution compared with the plasmas generated by a pure ECR discharge or by the expansion of the ablation plume. The working N 2 gas is first excited by ECR discharge and the excitation of nitrogen is further enhanced due to the fast expansion of the aluminum plume induced by target ablation, while the excitation of the ablated aluminum is prolonged during the plume expansion in the ECR nitrogen plasma, resulting in the formation of strongly reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma which contains highly excited species with high vibrational and rotational temperatures. The enhanced intensities and the prolonged duration of the optical emissions of the combined plasma would provide an improved analytical capability for spectrochemical analysis. - Highlights: • ECR discharge and pulsed laser ablation generate highly excited ECR–PLA plasma. • The expansion of PLA plasma results in excitation enhancement of ECR plasma species. • The ECR plasma leads to excitation prolongation of PLA plasma species. • The ECR–PLA plasma emits strong emissions from a variety of excited species. • The ECR–PLA plasma maintains high vibrational–rotational temperatures for a long time

  19. Analytical solutions of the planar cyclic voltammetry process for two soluble species with equal diffusivities and fast electron transfer using the method of eigenfunction expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samin, Adib; Lahti, Erik; Zhang, Jinsuo, E-mail: zhang.3558@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19" t" h Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Cyclic voltammetry is a powerful tool that is used for characterizing electrochemical processes. Models of cyclic voltammetry take into account the mass transport of species and the kinetics at the electrode surface. Analytical solutions of these models are not well-known due to the complexity of the boundary conditions. In this study we present closed form analytical solutions of the planar voltammetry model for two soluble species with fast electron transfer and equal diffusivities using the eigenfunction expansion method. Our solution methodology does not incorporate Laplace transforms and yields good agreement with the numerical solution. This solution method can be extended to cases that are more general and may be useful for benchmarking purposes.

  20. Analytical solutions of the planar cyclic voltammetry process for two soluble species with equal diffusivities and fast electron transfer using the method of eigenfunction expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" >Samin, Adib; th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" >Lahti, Erik; th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" >Zhang, Jinsuo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is a powerful tool that is used for characterizing electrochemical processes. Models of cyclic voltammetry take into account the mass transport of species and the kinetics at the electrode surface. Analytical solutions of these models are not well-known due to the complexity of the boundary conditions. In this study we present closed form analytical solutions of the planar voltammetry model for two soluble species with fast electron transfer and equal diffusivities using the eigenfunction expansion method. Our solution methodology does not incorporate Laplace transforms and yields good agreement with the numerical solution. This solution method can be extended to cases that are more general and may be useful for benchmarking purposes

  1. MUsa un modelo de evaluación de entornos virtuales de enseñanza y aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Szpiniak, Ariel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los últimos avances en la construcción de MUsa, un modelo de evaluación de Entornos Virtuales de Enseñanza y Aprendizaje (EVEA centrado en la usabilidad. MUsa se compone de cuatro capas que parten de una evaluación general (capa 1 hasta la evaluación más específica y cercana al usuario final (capa 4, de un EVEA. Las cuatro capas persiguen objetivos diferentes. La primera es la encargada de realizar una evaluación del entorno en general, las tres capas restantes se sitúan en un contexto de uso particular, por ejemplo el aula virtual de un curso. Para ello, las capas más cercanas al usuario proponen escenarios de uso que permiten guiar y sistematizar la evaluación. Se presentan en este artículo las ideas centrales en las que se basa Musa. Se describen cada una de las capas que lo conforman y aspectos vinculados a su aplicación. Finalmente, se detallan algunos resultados y líneas de trabajos futuros

  2. Determination of mercury and vanadium concentration in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in Musa estuary in Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard, Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi; Ravanbakhsh, Maryam; Ramezani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Javid, Ahmad Zare

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg & V in Johnius belangerii fish in Musa estuary, Persian Gulf was determined. • Significant reverse relationship was between concentrations of Hg & V. • Weight and length had significant direct relationship with Hg concentration. • Length had significant reverse relationship with V concentration. • Concentrations of Hg & V were higher than threshold limits. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of mercury and vanadium in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in the Musa estuary. A total of 67 fishes were caught from the Musa estuary during five intervals of 15 days in the summer of 2013. After biometric measurements were conducted, the concentrations of mercury and vanadium were measured in the muscle tissue of fish using a direct method analyzer (DMA) and a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The mean concentration of mercury and vanadium in the muscle tissue of fish was 3.154 ± 1.981 and 2.921 ± 0.873 mg/kg w.w, respectively. The generalized linear model (GLM) analysis showed a significantly positive relationship among mercury concentration, length, and weight (P = 0.000). In addition, there was a significantly negative relationship between vanadium concentration and fish length (P = 0.000). A reverse association was found between concentrations of mercury and vanadium. Mercury concentration exceeded the allowable standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in J. belangerii (C)

  3. Functional and comparative study of lingual papillae in four species of bear (Ursidae) by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J F; Barbosa, M; de Paz, F J; García, M; Ferrero, E

    2011-10-01

    The eight current species of bear (Ursidae) are widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia, and America. They are mainly encountered in the northern hemisphere, except for the spectacled bear and the sun bear, which are also found in the south of the equator. Adaptations of the masticatory apparatus (teeth, tongue, and musculature) to diet are one of the factors that imply the greatest structural changes in the cranium. This diet may be carnivorous, herbivorous, melliferous, or insectivorous, with one type of food predominating according to the time of year. The way in which food is eaten determines the morphology of the lingual surface; generally speaking, all bears put their mouth to the food, which, initially, they lick or they let the food stick to their tongue, as occurs when insects are eaten. As in all mammals, a distinction can be made between mechanical and gustatory papillae and the development and distribution of which depend on the species and their eating habits. In this study of the complete tongues of four species of adult bears, we describe the morphology of the lingual surfaces, the different types of papillae, their characteristics, and topographic distribution. It was seen that there were five main types of lingual papillae: filiform, conical, fungiform, foliate, and vallate. Morphology of the microgrooves and pores was similar to that observed in other mammals. In general, there were no great differences among the four species of bears studied, perhaps due to the similarity in the kind of food they consume in captivity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Measurement of the radiative cooling rates for high-ionization species of krypton using an electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, R.; Biedermann, C.; Fuchs, T.; Fussmann, G.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a measurement of the radiative cooling rate for krypton made at the Berlin electron beam ion trap (EBIT). The EBIT was tuned to a charge-state distribution approaching the ionization balance of a plasma at a temperature of about 5 keV. To determine the cooling rate, we made use of EBIT's capabilities to sample a wide range of electron-beam energies and distinguish between different radiation channels. We have measured the x-ray emission from bremsstrahlung, radiative recombination, dielectronic recombination, and line radiation following electron-impact excitation. The dominant contribution to the cooling rate is made by the n=3-2, n=4-2,... x rays of the L-shell spectra of krypton, which produce more than 75% of the total radiation loss. A difference with theoretical calculations is noted for the measured total cooling rate. The predicted values are lower by a factor of 1.5-2, depending on the theoretical model. For our measurement of the cooling rate, we estimate an uncertainty interval of 22-30 %. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  5. Ultrastructure analysis of the immature stages of Ravinia belforti (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a species of medical-veterinary and forensic importance, by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da-Silva-Xavier, Alexandre; de Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria

    2016-07-01

    The postmortem interval is related to the age of immature species of flies found on corpses and can be estimated using data available in the literature on the biology of the species. The flesh fly Ravinia belforti is a carrier of enteric pathogens that can affect human and animal health as well as being of forensic importance. As the morphology of many immature Sarcophagidae is unknown, these immature forms must be collected and characterized after the emergence of the adult male. Here we describe and analyze the morphological characteristics of the larvae stages L1, L2, L3 and the puparium of R. belforti by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ten specimens of each stage were analyzed. Larvae of R. belforti follow the typical muscoid vermiform pattern with 12 segments. The anterior region is pointed, while the posterior region is thicker. The spines of the cephalic collar are flattened and with double, triple or quadruple points, different from the spines along the body that only have a single point. In L2, the anterior spiracle is present with a varying number of papillae (16-22), differing from other species. The posterior spiracles are located within the peritreme. The spiracular cavity is internalized in the posterior region, following the pattern that differs Sarcophagidae from other families. L3 features more visible and developed spines around the cephalic collar, getting thicker and denser near to the first thoracic segment. Puparium is similar to other species of Sarcophagidae. This paper presents important data on this family which has both health and forensic importance. Furthermore, R. belforti shows significant differences from other species of Sarcophagidae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions—A multipurpose machine to study paramagnetic species on well defined single crystal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocker, J.; Cornu, D.; Kieseritzky, E.; Hänsel-Ziegler, W.; Freund, H.-J. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Seiler, A. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Laboratorium für Applikationen der Synchrotronstrahlung, KIT Campus Süd, Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bondarchuk, O. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); CIC energiGUNE, Parque Tecnologico, C/Albert Einstein 48, CP 01510 Minano (Alava) (Spain); Risse, T., E-mail: risse@chemie.fu-berlin.de [Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 94 GHz to investigate paramagnetic centers on single crystal surfaces is described. It is particularly designed to study paramagnetic centers on well-defined model catalysts using epitaxial thin oxide films grown on metal single crystals. The EPR setup is based on a commercial Bruker E600 spectrometer, which is adapted to ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a home made Fabry Perot resonator. The key idea of the resonator is to use the planar metal single crystal required to grow the single crystalline oxide films as one of the mirrors of the resonator. EPR spectroscopy is solely sensitive to paramagnetic species, which are typically minority species in such a system. Hence, additional experimental characterization tools are required to allow for a comprehensive investigation of the surface. The apparatus includes a preparation chamber hosting equipment, which is required to prepare supported model catalysts. In addition, surface characterization tools such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED)/Auger spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) are available to characterize the surfaces. A second chamber used to perform EPR spectroscopy at 94 GHz has a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope attached to it, which allows for real space structural characterization. The heart of the UHV adaptation of the EPR experiment is the sealing of the Fabry-Perot resonator against atmosphere. To this end it is possible to use a thin sapphire window glued to the backside of the coupling orifice of the Fabry Perot resonator. With the help of a variety of stabilization measures reducing vibrations as well as thermal drift it is possible to accumulate data for a time span, which is for low temperature measurements only limited by the amount of liquid helium. Test measurements show that the system can detect paramagnetic

  7. Granules morphology and rheological behavior of green banana (Musa cavendishii and corn (Zea mays starch gels Morfologia dos grânulos e comportamento reológico dos géis de amido de banana verde (Musa cavendishii e milho (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Rosalyn Izidoro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it was used starch obtained from green banana (Musa cavendishii and commercial corn (Zea mays starch in order to compare the granule morphology and the rheological behavior of these gel-starches. Images of starch granules morphology were obtained from scanning electron microscope (SEM. The banana starch granules presented an oval and ellipsoidal shape with irregular diameters. Neverthless, the granules of corn starch showed a poliedric shape, with different sizes. The rheological behavior of gel starch solutions showed a non-newtonian character with a pseudoplastic behavior. Herschel-Bulkley model gave a good description on the rheological behavior of the gel starch. Banana gel-starch solutions showed higher values of shear stress and apparent viscosity when compared with corn gel-starch solutions. A progressive decrease in shear stress and viscosity occurred with the addition of sodium chloride and sucrose.No presente trabalho foi utilizado amido obtido de banana verde (Musa cavendishii e amido de milho (Zea mays comercial, com o objetivo de comparar a morfologia dos grânulos e o comportamento reológico dos géis. As imagens da morfologia dos grânulos foram obtidas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os grânulos de amido da banana apresentaram forma oval e elipsoidal com diâmetros irregulares, todavia, os grânulos do amido de milho mostraram forma poliédrica e diferentes tamanhos. As análises reológicas dos géis das soluções de amido mostraram caráter não-newtoniano, pseudoplástico. O modelo de Herschel-Bulkley foi o que melhor representou comportamento reológico dos géis. O gel de amido de banana verde obteve maiores valores de tensão de cisalhamento e viscosidade aparente quando comparada ao gel de amido de milho. Ocorreu um decréscimo progressivo na tensão de cisalhamento e na viscosidade com a adição de cloreto de sódio e sacarose aos géis.

  8. [Influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on photosynthesis and leaf nitrogen partition in process of photosynthetic carbon cycle in Musa paradisiaca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G; Zhao, P; Zeng, X; Peng, S

    2001-06-01

    The photosynthetic rate (Pn) in leaves of Musa paradisiaca grown under elevated CO2 concentration (700 +/- 56 microliters.L-1) for one week was 5.14 +/- 0.32 mumol.m-2.s-1, 22.1% higher than that under ambient CO2 concentration, while under elevated CO2 concentration for 8 week, the Pn decreased by 18.1%. It can be inferred that the photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 concentration and the Pn inhibition occurred in leaves of M. paradisiaca. The respiration rate in light (Rd) was lower in leaves under higher CO2 concentration, compared with that under ambient CO2 concentration. If the respiration in light was not included, the difference in CO2 compensation point for the leaves of both plants was not significant. Under higher CO2 concentration for 8 weeks, the maximum carboxylation rate(Vcmax) and electron transportation rate (J) in leaves decreased respectively by 30.5% and 14.8%, compared with that under ambient CO2 concentration. The calculated apparent quantum yield (alpha) in leaves under elevated CO2 concentration according to the initial slope of Pn/PAR was reduced to 0.014 +/- 0.010 molCO2.mol-1 quanta, compared with the value of 0.025 +/- 0.005 molCO2.mol-1 quanta in the control. The efficiency of light energy conversion also decreased from 0.203 to 0.136 electrons.quanta-1 in plants under elevated CO2 concentration. A lower partitioning coefficient for leaf nitrogen in Rubisco, bioenergetics and thylakoid light-harvesting components was observed in plants under higher CO2 concentration. The results indicated that the multi-process of photosynthesis was suppressed significantly by a long-term (8 weeks) higher CO2 concentration incubation.

  9. KULIT PISANG KEPOK (Musa paradisiaca L. UNTUK MENURUNKAN KADAR MANGAN AIR SUMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Thuraidah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Water is an essential requirement. Part of Indonesian people still using well as the source of water Resulting from the increased of human activity and industries, the well water maybe contaminated by manganese ( Mn. That is needed processing to make well water usefull for mankind. One of the type for processing water is the absorbtion methode .Banana shell was kitchen waste and the dried of Kepok Banana (Musa paradisiaca Shell was used as adsobent to reduce Manganese level in water. This study aimed to determine the reduce of Manganese level in water. This research was real experiment pretest and posttest study design with a control group. Persulfate research instruments colorimetric and spectrophotometric measurements. The addition of the dose banana shell were 0,06 ; 0,07; 0,08; 0,09; 0,1 gram . By those dose cumulatively decreased to 0; 21,84; 32,34; 44,56; and 52,92%. The Manganese maximum reduced by 0,1 gram dried banana shell in 100 cc well water in 30 minutes. Stastically , the significan value was 0,000 less than 0,05(α , it was meant that the variety dose of dried Kepok banana shell influence to decrease Manganese level in water. These decreased way can be used as an alternative to increase the water quality. Keywords: manganese, kepok banana shell Abstrak: Air merupakan kebutuhan utama bagi masyarakat Indonesia. Sumber air yang banyak digunakan adalah air tanah, yaitu air sumur. Diakibatkan dari meningkatnya aktivitas manusia dan industri, air sumur dapat tercemar mangan (Mn. Untuk dapat menjadikan air sumur sebagai sumber air bersih, perlu dilakukan pengolahan. Proses pengolahan ini dapat dilakukan dengan metode adsorpsi. Bahan yang dipakai dapat dimanfaatkan dari limbah dapur rumah tangga seperti kulit pisang kepok (Musa paradisiaca L. sebagai bahan adsorben. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui penurunan kadar mangan dalam air dengan menggunakan kulit pisang kepok (Musa paradisiaca L. yang dikeringkan. Penelitian ini

  10. Musa spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... process, so genetic engineering offers an alternative approach to improvement. A transformation .... The effect of different pre-treatments of explants on the efficiency of ..... the epidermis outside the central vascular region. Hernandez et al. ... Agro-infection, but necrosis could be overcome by pre- treating ...

  11. A banana NAC transcription factor (MusaSNAC1) impart drought tolerance by modulating stomatal closure and H2O2 content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2018-03-01

    MusaSNAC1 function in H 2 O 2 mediated stomatal closure and promote drought tolerance by directly binding to CGT[A/G] motif in regulatory region of multiple stress-related genes. Drought is a abiotic stress-condition, causing reduced plant growth and diminished crop yield. Guard cells of the stomata control photosynthesis and transpiration by regulating CO 2 exchange and water loss, thus affecting growth and crop yield. Roles of NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) protein in regulation of stress-conditions has been well documented however, their control over stomatal aperture is largely unknown. In this study we report a banana NAC protein, MusaSNAC1 which induced stomatal closure by elevating H 2 O 2 content in guard cells during drought stress. Overexpression of MusaSNAC1 in banana resulted in higher number of stomata closure causing reduced water loss and thus elevated drought-tolerance. During drought, expression of GUS (β-glucuronidase) under P MusaSNAC1 was remarkably elevated in guard cells of stomata which correlated with its function as a transcription factor regulating stomatal aperture closing. MusaSNAC1 is a transcriptional activator belonging to SNAC subgroup and its 5'-upstream region contain multiple Dof1 elements as well as stress-associated cis-elements. Moreover, MusaSNAC1 also regulate multiple stress-related genes by binding to core site of NAC-proteins CGT[A/G] in their 5'-upstream region. Results indicated an interesting mechanism of drought tolerance through stomatal closure by H 2 O 2 generation in guard cells, regulated by a NAC-protein in banana.

  12. Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level

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    ISSIREP SUMARDI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sumardi I, Wulandari M (2011 Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp. of different ploidy level. Biodiversitas 12: 167-175. In Indonesia there are many cultivars of banana, and some of them produce edible fruits. Beside their morphology, the character which necessary as a tool for classification is anatomical character. The aim of this research were to describe the anatomical character and morphology of fives Indonesian banana cultivars based on their level of ploidy. The cultivars were collected from Banana Germplasm Plantation, Yogyakarta District, Indonesia. The samples of roots, rhizome, and leaf were collected from five banana cultivars i.e.: Musa acuminata cv Penjalin, M.balbisiana cv Kluthuk warangan, M.acuminata cv Ambon warangan, M.paradisiaca cv Raja nangka , and M. paradisiaca cv Kluthuk susu. For anatomy observation samples were prepared using paraffin method, stained with 1% safranin in 70% ethanol. To observe the structure of stomata and epidermis surface, slide were prepared using modification of whole mount method. Slides were observed using Olympus BHB microscope completed with Olympus camera BM-10A. Stem and leaf morphology character of diploid level (AA and BB genome is different with triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome. Anatomy and morphology character of root and rhizome of banana in diploid level (AA and BB genome and triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome is quite similar. Distribution of stomata is found in leaf and pseudostem. Stomata is found in adaxial and abaxial epidermis layer. The size of guard cells in triploid cultivars was longer than that diploid cultivars. The root composse of epidermis layer, cortex and cylinder vascular of five cultivar’s root show anomalous structure. Rhizome consist of peripheric and centre zone. Anatomically, this was no differences in the rizome structur among five banana cultivars. The row of vascular bundles act as demarcation area

  13. Using combined measurements for comparison of light induction of stomatal conductance, electron transport rate and CO2 fixation in woody and fern species adapted to different light regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shau-Lian; Chen, Chung-Wei; Huang, Hsien-Wen; Weng, Jen-Hsien

    2012-05-01

    We aimed to understand the relation of photosynthetic rate (A) with g(s) and electron transport rate (ETR) in species of great taxonomic range and light adaptation capability during photosynthetic light induction. We studied three woody species (Alnus formosana, Ardisia crenata and Ardisia cornudentata) and four fern species (Pyrrosia lingus, Asplenium antiquum, Diplazium donianum and Archangiopteris somai) with different light adaptation capabilities. Pot-grown materials received 100 and/or 10% sunlight according to their light adaptation capabilities. At least 4 months after light acclimation, CO(2) and H(2)O exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured simultaneously by equipment in the laboratory. In plants adapted or acclimated to low light, dark-adapted leaves exposed to 500 or 2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) for 30 min showed low gross photosynthetic rate (P(g)) and short time required to reach 90% of maximum P(g) (). At the initiation of illumination, two broad-leaved understory shrubs and the four ferns, especially ferns adapted to heavy shade, showed higher stomatal conductance (g(s)) than pioneer tree species; materials with higher g(s) had short at both 500 and 2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) PPF. With 500 or 2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) PPF, the g(s) for the three woody species increased from 2 to 30 min after the start of illumination, but little change in the g(s) of the four ferns. Thus, P(g) and g(s) were not correlated for all material measured at the same PPF and induction time. However, P(g) was positively correlated with ETR, even though CO(2) assimilation may be influenced by stomatal, biochemical and photoinhibitory limitations. In addition, was closely related to time required to reach 90% maximal ETR for all materials and with two levels of PPF combined. Thus, ETR is a good indicator for estimating the light induction of photosynthetic rate of species, across a wide taxonomic range and light adaptation and acclimation

  14. In situ genomic DNA extraction for PCR analysis of regions of interest in four plant species and one filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Rojas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The extraction methods of genomic DNA are usually laborious and hazardous to human health and the environment by the use of organic solvents (chloroform and phenol. In this work a protocol for in situ extraction of genomic DNA by alkaline lysis is validated. It was used in order to amplify regions of DNA in four species of plants and fungi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. From plant material of Saccharum officinarum L., Carica papaya L. and Digitalis purpurea L. it was possible to extend different regions of the genome through PCR. Furthermore, it was possible to amplify a fragment of avr-4 gene DNA purified from lyophilized mycelium of Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Additionally, it was possible to amplify the region ap24 transgene inserted into the genome of banana cv. `Grande naine' (Musa AAA. Key words: alkaline lysis, Carica papaya L., Digitalis purpurea L., Musa, Saccharum officinarum L.

  15. Análise transcritômica e proteômica da interação Musa acuminata x Mycosphaerella musicola

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, Marco Aurélio Ninômia

    2014-01-01

    A Sigatoka Amarela em banana (Musa spp.), causada pelo fungo Mycosphaerellamusicola, provoca desordem significativa de área foliar e amadurecimento prematuro do fruto. O desenvolvimento de genótipos resistentes a fungos patogênicos é de fundamental importância. A fim de desenvolver um recurso de genômica funcional para essa cultura oferencendo compreensão sobre os mecanismos moleculares das respostas de Musa a estresses bióticos, foi realizado um estudo de pirosequenciamento do transcritoma d...

  16. Efeito da temperatura e período de molhamento sobre o desenvolvimento de lesões de Colletotrichum musae em banana Effect of temperature and wet period on the development of Colletotrichum musae lesions in banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Rogério Leocádio Soares Pessoa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A banana é a segunda fruta mais consumida no mundo, porém do campo até o mercado consumidor algo em torno de 40 % é perdido devido entre outras causas as doenças pós-colheita e a mais significativa é a antracnose. Diante da necessidade do conhecimento de fatores ambientais que condicionam estas perdas, o trabalho objetivou avaliar métodos de inoculação (com discos de BDA e estruturas do patógeno e suspensão de conídios com e sem ferimento e a influência da temperatura (10,15,20,25 e 30 ºC e do período de molhamento (0, 12, 24 e 36 h sobre o desenvolvimento de Colletotrichum musae em banana. As frutas foram inoculadas com 17 isolados de C. musae onde todos mostraram-se patogênicos quando inoculados com ferimento independentemente do tipo de inóculo utilizado. No experimento envolvendo temperatura e período de molhamento, utilizou-se três isolados de C. musae, MAG2, SFV1 e FSA, que se comportaram como mais agressivo, intermediário e pouco agressivo, respectivamente. As temperaturas em torno de 20, 25 e 30 ºC e os períodos de molhamento testados favoreceram um maior desenvolvimento de lesões, sendo as maiores lesões observadas em temperaturas ao redor de 25 e 30 ºC, com redução à medida que ocorria uma diminuição da temperatura para todos os isolados testados. A temperatura em torno de 15 ºC proporcionou o menor desenvolvimento da doença.,The banana is the second more consumed fruit in the world, but there is a product loss of about 40% from field to consuming market due to several factors including the postharvest diseases, being the anthracnose most significative among them. Considering the necessity of studying the environmental factors that affect this losses, the objective of this work was to evaluate methods of inoculation (PDA discs with pathogen structures and suspension of conidia with and without wound and the influence of temperature (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30ºC and wet period (0, 12, 24 and 36 hours on the

  17. Avaliação de genótipos de bananeira à Colletotrichum musae em pós-colheita Evaluation of genotypes of banana to Colletotrichum musae in postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Batista Pinho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alguns hibridos tetraploides apresentam resistência à antracnose, porém são reduzidas as informações sobre os níveis de resistência desses genótipos e o comportamento dos mesmos no Brasil. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a incidência e a severidade de antracnose sobre o comportamento de diferentes genótipos de bananeiras resistentes a Sigatoka-Negra em função de diferentes concentrações de conídios de Colletotrichum musae em diferentes épocas de avaliação. Os frutos colhidos no estádio de maturação fisiológica dos genótipos, Thap Maeo, Caipira, Pacovan Ken, Ambrosia, PV 42-53, PA 42-44, FHIA 01, FHIA 18 e a cultivar Prata-Anã utilizada como testemunha. Buquês contendo três frutos foram atomizados com diferentes concentrações (0; 10²; 10³; 10(4; 10(5 e 10(6 conídios/mL de C. musae. Os frutos foram incubados a 25 ºC. A incidência e severidade da antracnose foi avaliada aos 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias após a inoculação. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 9x6x4 (genótipos, concentrações de esporos e épocas de avaliação, com quatro repetições, contendo quatro buquês de três frutos. Aos doze dias de avaliação, todos os frutos de todos os genótipos estudados apresentaram incidência de C. musae quando inoculados com as diferentes concentrações de inóculo. A cultivar Thap Maeo apresentou a menor severidade (27,5% de antracnose, enquanto os genótipos Ambrosia, PV 42-53, FHIA 18 e FHIA 01 foram as mais suscetíveis à antracnose com 64%, 64%, 61,33% e 58% de severidade, respectivamente.Some tetraploides hybrids present resistance to anthracnose, however the information on the levels of resistance of these genotypes and the behavior in Brazil are reduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of injury on the behavior of different banana genotypes resistant to Black Sigatoka for different concentrations of conidia of Colletotrichum

  18. The Poet of Borcali Zərgər Musa and his Poems

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    Bahadır GÜNEŞ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today it is divided into different regions and borrowed under the administration of the Republic of Georgia, living as an old Turkish homeland from old dates. Due to being located in the connection area between Turkistan and Anatolia, together with the Turks, it is one of the war zones of different ethnic communities. This situation manifested itself as the fusion of diversity in the cultural sense, and it has opened the way for the way of showing tricks live to this day. There are a lot of poets in love today in Borcali. These poets both in with saz and solo they live their art in different regions of the Turkish world. Among the poets waiting to be discovered by researchers there are also those who live the last days of their life. Therefore, especially Turkish and Turkish language and literature researchers from different disciplines must be in this geography. In this study, born and raised in Borcali a unknown poet of many and the region known by the name Zərgər Musa,Borcali poet introduced and the poet’s book by the name Bir Çinarın Dərdi will be evaluated in terms of content, expression forms and pattern expressions.

  19. Study of Post-Harvest Ambon Banana ( Musa acuminata ) Preservation Using X-Ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwijananti, P.; Handayani, L.; Marwoto, P.; Iswari, R.S.

    2016-01-01

    An exposure to Ambon banana ( Musa Acuminata ) samples has been done by using X-rays with current, voltage and exposure time are control parameters. This study aimed to determine storage ability of the post-harvest sample. Five samples were exposured by x-rays with the dose of (3-5) × 10 -14 Gy. The samples were stored at room temperature. Their mass and physical condition (color and smell) were evaluated every 3 days. It was found that the control sample which was not exposured by X-ray was ripe in the sixth day indicated by the yellow color and good smell of the banana. Meanwhile, the samples which were exposured by (3 - 5) × 10 -14 Gy doze of X-ray looked fresher and still had green color. These samples showed their ripening in the ninth day and their mass decrease was (12-13)% which is lower than the control sample. The preservation of banana can be done through low-dose X-ray exposure. (paper)

  20. Inheritance of black sigatoka disease resistance in plantain-banana (Musa spp.) hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R; Vuylsteke, D

    1994-10-01

    Black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet), an airborne fungal leaf-spot disease, is a major constraint to plantain and banana (Musa spp.) production world-wide. Gaining further knowledge of the genetics of host-plant resistance will enhance the development of resistant cultivars, which is considered to be the most appropriate means to achieve stable production. Genetic analysis was conducted on 101 euploid (2x, 3x and 4x) progenies, obtained from crossing two susceptible triploid plantain cultivars with the resistant wild diploid banana 'Calcutta 4'. Segregating progenies, and a susceptible reference plantain cultivar, were evaluated over 2 consecutive years. Three distinct levels of host response to black sigatoka were defined as follows: susceptible ( 10). Segregation ratios for resistance at the 2x level fitted a genetic model having one major recessive resistance allele (bs 1) and two independent alleles with additive effects (bsr 2 and bsr 3). A similar model explains the results at the 4x level assuming that the favourable resistance alleles have a dosage effect when four copies of them are present in their respective loci (bs i (4) ). The proposed model was further validated by segregation data of S 1 progenies. Mechanisms of black sigatoka resistance are discussed in relation to the genetic model.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of an α-Glucosidase Inhibitor from Musa spp. (Baxijiao Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanwu Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of α-glucosidase inhibitors is considered to be an effective strategy in the treatment of diabetes. Using a bioassay-guided fractionation technique, five Bacillus stearothermophilus α-glucosidase inhibitors were isolated from the flowers of Musa spp. (Baxijiao. Using NMR spectroscopy analysis they were identified as vanillic acid (1, ferulic acid (2, β-sitosterol (3, daucosterol (4 and 9-(4′-hydroxyphenyl-2-methoxyphenalen-1-one (5. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of compounds 1–5 were 2004.58, 1258.35, 283.67, 247.35 and 3.86 mg/L, respectively. Compared to a known α-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose, IC50 = 999.31 mg/L, compounds 3, 4 and 5 showed a strong α-glucosidase inhibitory effect. A Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that compound 5 is a mixed-competitive inhibitor, while compounds 3 and 4 are competitive inhibitors. The inhibition constants (Ki of compounds 3, 4 and 5 were 20.09, 2.34 and 4.40 mg/L, respectively. Taken together, these data show that the compounds 3, 4 and 5 are potent α-glucosidase inhibitors.

  2. Repair of surgical wounds in rats using a 10% unripe Musa sapientum peel gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Atzingen, Dênia Amélia Novato Castelli; Mendonça, Adriana Rodrigues dos Anjos; Mesquita Filho, Marcos; Alvarenga, Vinícius Alves; Assis, Vinícius Almeida; Penazzo, Afonso Esteves; Muzetti, Julio Henrique; Rezende, Thaisa Sousa

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy of a 10% gel of unripe banana (Musa sapientum) peel in treating surgical wounds in rats. A longitudinal, prospective, randomized triple-blind study was conducted with 60 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) weighing approximately 400g. The animals were randomly divided into: control group (treated with gel containing no active ingredient) and study group (treated with 10% gel of unripe banana peel). The gel was applied every three days to a 4x4-cm surgical wound created on the back of each animal (day 0) in both groups. Tissue samples were collected for histological analysis on days 14, 21 and 28. On day 14, more extensive vascular proliferation (p=0.023), presence of mononuclear cells (p=0.000), fibroblast proliferation (p=0.012), re-epithelialization (p=0.000), and decreased presence of polymorphonuclear cells (p=0.010) were observed in the study group than in controls. No significant between-group difference in the presence of polymorphonuclear cells was found on day 21. Fibroblast proliferation was significantly greater (p=0.006) in the study group than in the control group on day 28. The 10% gel of unripe banana peel showed anti-inflammatory activity and stimulated wound healing in rat skin when compared with a gel containing no active ingredient.

  3. Gel from unripe Musa sapientum peel to repair surgical wounds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzingen, Dênia Amélia Novato Castelli Von; Gragnani, Alfredo; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Abla, Luis Eduardo Felipe; Mendonça, Adriana Rodrigues dos Anjos; Paula, Clayton Aparecido de; Juliano, Yara; Correa, José Carlos; Faria, Marcio Raimundo de; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2011-10-01

    To determine the optimum concentration of a gel obtained from unripe banana (Musa sapientum) peel for wound treatment in rats. A randomized triple blind study was conducted with 40 Wistar rats, which were divided into 4 groups: CG, control group; G2%, 2% gel concentration group; G4%, 4% gel concentration group; and G10%, 10 % gel concentration group. The banana peel gel was applied daily, for 7 days, to a 4-cm(2) wound created on the back of each animal of all groups. After this period, the wounds were biopsied. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Kruskal-Wallis test complemented by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Macroscopic examination revealed that partial epithelialization occurred in all groups. Wound contraction was also observed in all groups and ranged from 1.38 to 1.57 mm in the study groups, and from 1.03 to 1.10 mm in the control group, with significant differences (p banana peel (G4%) resulted in better epithelialization of wounds healed by secondary intention compared with other gel concentrations.

  4. Partial purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from banana (Musa sapientum L.) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C P; Fujita, S; Kohno, K; Kusubayashi, A; Ashrafuzzaman, M; Hayashi, N

    2001-03-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.1, o-diphenol: oxygen oxidoreductase, PPO) of banana (Musa sapientum L.) peel was partially purified about 460-fold with a recovery of 2.2% using dopamine as substrate. The enzyme showed a single peak on Toyopearl HW55-S chromatography. However, two bands were detected by staining with Coomassie brilliant blue on PAGE: one was very clear, and the other was faint. Molecular weight for purified PPO was estimated to be about 41 000 by gel filtration. The enzyme quickly oxidized dopamine, and its Km value (Michaelis constant) for dopamine was 3.9 mM. Optimum pH was 6.5 and the PPO activity was quite stable in the range of pH 5-11 for 48 h. The enzyme had an optimum temperature at 30 degrees C and was stable up to 60 degrees C after heat treatment for 30 min. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, potassium cyanide, L-ascorbic acid, and cysteine at 1 mM. Under a low buffer capacity, the enzyme was also strongly inhibited by citric acid and acetic acid at 10 mM.

  5. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from banana (Musa sapientum L.) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C P; Fujita, S; Ashrafuzzaman, M; Nakamura, N; Hayashi, N

    2000-07-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.1, PPO) in the pulp of banana (Musa sapientum L.) was purified to 636-fold with a recovery of 3.0%, using dopamine as substrate. The purified enzyme exhibited a clear single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be about 41000 and 42000 by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively. The enzyme quickly oxidized dopamine, and its K(m) value for dopamine was 2.8 mM. The optimum pH was at 6.5, and the enzyme activity was stable in the range of pH 5-11 at 5 degrees C for 48 h. The enzyme had an optimum temperature of 30 degrees C and was stable even after a heat treatment at 70 degrees C for 30 min. The enzyme activity was completely inhibited by L-ascorbic acid, cysteine, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, and potassium cyanide. Under a low buffer capacity, the enzyme was also strongly inhibited by citric acid and acetic acid at 10 mM.

  6. Determination optimum dose gamma ray for make mutation in Banana explant (Musa spp. Var cavendish)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goorchini, H.; Nematzadeh, Gh. A.; Majd, F.; Rahimi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Banana belongs to Musaceae family and Musa genus, categorized as a plant growing in tropical and subtropical regions. In recent years, many attempts have been made for extending the cultivation of this plant in Iran. The cultivars, which are cultivating commonly in Iran are mostly Cavendish and Grand Nain, having rather long heights (2-4 meters). This research has been carried out aiming at determining the optimum dose rate to induce mutation in the banana plant shoot-tips. For this purpose the plant shoot-tips were exposed to various doses of gamma radiation with eight treatments of 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 35, 45 and 60 Gray. The project was directed in a completely randomized design. After the treatment, various traits such as: number of alive plants, number of leafs, plant height and wet weight have been measured. For the data analysis, SAS and MSTAT softwares have been used in order to evaluate the average values and variances of the output results for the further analysis and comparisons. The results indicate that the dose rates of 25 to 40 Gray are the optimum rate values for induction of the mutation in this plant. Also, the propit analysis shows that the dose rate of 39.8 Gray is at the point of LD50 (50% of the dead level)

  7. Beneficial effects of banana leaves (Musa x paradisiaca on glucose homeostasis: multiple sites of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia D. Kappel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The acute effect of crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous residual fractions of Musa x paradisiaca L., Musaceae, leaves on glycemia, serum insulin secretion and glycogen content in an in vivo approach was evaluated. In addition, the in vitro effect on disaccharidases activity and albumin glycation was studied. The crude extract and fractions, n-butanol and aqueous residual, reduced glycemia and increased liver glycogen content in hyperglycemic rats, inhibited maltase activity and the formation of advanced glycation end-products in vitro. Also, a significant increase in insulin secretion and muscle glycogen content in hyperglycemic rats was observed with oral administration of the n-butanol fraction. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of rutin in crude extract and fractions of M. x paradisiaca leaves as the major compound. These beneficial effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis observed for M. x paradisiaca leaves and the presence of rutin as the major compound indicate potential anti-diabetic properties, since previous studies have been reported that rutin can modulate glucose homeostasis.

  8. CARCASS YIELD OF BROILER CHICKENS FED BANANA (Musa paradisiaca LEAVES FERMENTED WITH Trichoderma viride

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    J. S. Mandey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of level of banana (Musa paradisiaca leaves fermented with Trichoderma viride at different days on the carcass yield of broiler chickens. A hundred and eighty 3-weeks-old broiler chicks were used in this present experiment based on factorial design (3×4. The birds were randomly allocated into three experimental diets containing of 5, 10 and 15% of banana leaves fermented within 0, 5, 10 and 15 days. Each treatment was divided into three replicates of five chicks in each. The experiment was terminated after 4 weeks or when the birds were 7-weeks-old. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were measured during the study. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance test followed by least significant difference (LSD test. Results showed that daily feed intake was significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the dietary treatments, in which feed intake was highest in broilers fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. The daily weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass yield were significantly affected (P˂0.01 by the treatments, in which the highest values of daily weight gain, feed efficiency, and carcass yield were observed in birds fed diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days. It can be concluded that diet containing 10% banana leaves fermented for 10 days can be included in broiler ration without detrimental effects on the performance and carcass yield. 

  9. [Yield of starch extraction from plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Pilot plant study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Gorosquera, Emigdia; García-Suárez, Francisco J; Flores-Huicochea, Emmanuel; Núñez-Santiago, María C; González-Soto, Rosalia A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2004-01-01

    In México, the banana (Musa paradisiaca) is cooked (boiling or deep frying) before being eaten, but the consumption is not very popular and a big quantity of the product is lost after harvesting. The unripe plantain has a high level of starch and due to this the use of banana can be diversified as raw material for starch isolation. The objective of this work was to study the starch yield at pilot plant scale. Experiments at laboratory scale were carried out using the pulp with citric acid to 0,3 % (antioxidant), in order to evaluate the different unitary operations of the process. The starch yield, based on starch presence in the pulp that can be isolated, were between 76 and 86 %, and the values at pilot plant scale were between 63 and 71 %, in different lots of banana fruit. Starch yield values were similar among the diverse lots, showing that the process is reproducible. The lower values of starch recovery at pilot plant scale are due to the loss during sieving operations; however, the amount of starch recovery is good.

  10. Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. puttabale micropropagated clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh; Krishna, V; Kumar, K Girish; Pradeepa, K; Kumar, S R Santosh; Kumar, R Shashi

    2013-07-01

    An efficient protocol was standardized for screening of panama wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale clones, an endemic cultivar of Karnataka, India. The synergistic effect of 6-benzyleaminopurine (2 to 6 mg/L) and thidiazuron (0.1 to 0.5 mg/L) on MS medium provoked multiple shoot induction from the excised meristem. An average of 30.10 +/- 5.95 shoots was produced per propagule at 4 mg/L 6-benzyleaminopurine and 0.3 mg/L thidiazuron concentrations. Elongation of shoots observed on 5 mg/L BAP augmented medium with a mean length of 8.38 +/- 0.30 shoots per propagule. For screening of disease resistant clones, multiple shoot buds were mutated with 0.4% ethyl-methane-sulfonate and cultured on MS medium supplemented with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) culture filtrate (5-15%). Two month old co-cultivated secondary hardened plants were used for screening of disease resistance against FOC by the determination of biochemical markers such as total phenol, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase and PR-proteins like chitinase, beta-1-3 glucanase activities. The mutated clones of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale cultured on FOC culture filtrate showed significant increase in the levels of biochemical markers as an indicative of acquiring disease resistant characteristics to FOC wilt.

  11. Effects of aqueous extract of Musa paradisiaca root on testicular function parameters of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Oyeyipo, Theo Oyetayo; Quadri, Ayodeji Luqman; Akanji, Musbau Adewumi

    2013-01-01

    There is an age-long claim that the Musa paradisiaca root is used to manage reproductive dysfunction, most especially sexual dysfunction (as an aphrodisiac), but there are no data in the open scientific literature that have refuted or supported this claim and the effects of M. paradisiaca root on the testes. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the effect of oral administration of the aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca root on the testicular function parameters of male rat testes. Sexually matured male albino rats (138.67±5.29 g) were randomly assigned into four groups, A, B, C, and D, that respectively received 0.5 mL (3.6 mL/kg body weight) of distilled water and 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract, orally, once daily, for 14 days. The extract significantly increased (pparadisiaca root extract at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight enhanced the testosterone-dependent normal functioning of the testes. Overall, the aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca stimulated the normal functioning of the testes and exhibited both androgenic and anabolic properties. The results may explain the rationale behind the folkloric beneficial effect of the plant in the management of reproductive dysfunction.

  12. Antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activity of Musa paradisiaca-based diet in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Basiru O; Oloyede, Hussein O B; Salawu, Musa O

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activity of Musa paradisiaca -based diets in alloxan-induced diabetic mellitus rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg b.w) in 48 randomly selected rats. The rats were randomly grouped into four as follows: normal rats fed Dioscorea rotundata -based diet, diabetic control rats fed D. rotundata -based diet, diabetic rats fed D. rotundata -based diet and administered metformin (14.2 mg/kg body weight) orally per day, and diabetic rats fed M. paradisiaca -based diet. Body weight and fasting blood glucose level were monitored, on 28th days the rats were sacrificed, liver was excised. Thereafter, the hyperglycemic and dyslipidemic statii of the induced diabetic animals were determined. The M. paradisiaca -based diet significantly ( p  paradisiaca -based diet demonstrated significant reduction ( p  paradisiaca -based diet significantly ( p  <   .05) reversed the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase when compared with diabetic control animals. The consumption of this diet may be useful in ameliorating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus patients.

  13. Mutagenicity of the Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae) fruit peel extract in mouse peripheral blood cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, C U B; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2008-01-01

    Plants are a source of many biologically active products and nowadays they are of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, the mutagenic potential of the Musa paradisiaca fruit peel extract was assessed by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and micronucleus assays. Animals were treated orally with three different concentrations of the extract (1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight). Peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice were collected 24 h after treatment for the SCGE assay and 48 and 72 h for the micronucleus test. The results showed that the two higher doses of the extract of M. paradisiaca induced statistically significant increases in the average numbers of DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes for the two higher doses and a significant increase in the mean of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the three doses tested. The polychromatic/normochromatic erythrocyte ratio scored in the treated groups was not statistically different from the negative control. The data obtained indicate that fruit peel extract from M. paradisiaca showed mutagenic effect in the peripheral blood cells of Swiss albino mice.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon Obtained from Plantain (Musa paradisiaca Fruit Stem

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    O. A. Ekpete

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonization of carbon obtained from plantain (Musa paradisiaca stem was achieved at a temperature of 400°C for one hour. The carbonized carbon was divided into two parts to be activated separately. The activated carbon CPPAC (carbonized plantain phosphoric acid activated carbon and CPZAC (carbonized plantain zinc chloride activated carbon were produced via the chemical activation process using H3PO4 and ZnCl2. Characterization of pH, bulk density, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, iodine number, and oxygen functional group was conducted. When comparing the surface properties of both CPPAC and CPZAC with the untreated plantain carbon (UPC, it was observed that there existed significant differences in all properties with the exemption of carboxylic group for CPPAC and phenolic group for both CPPAC and CPZAC, thus signifying that a chemical transformation did occur. When comparing the results obtained from CPPAC to that of CPZAC, CPPAC was more preferable for adsorption due to its low bulk density, low ash content, and high iodine value, signifying thus that the activating agents both reacted differently with the plantain stem.

  15. Hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae) green fruits in normal and diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O; Adewunmi, C O

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a debilitating hormonal disorder in which strict glycemic control and prevention of associated complications are of crucial importance. This study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of mature, green fruits of Musa paradisiaca (MEMP) in normal (normoglycemic) and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated, diabetic (hyperglycemic) mice, using chlorpropamide as the reference antidiabetic agent. MEMP (100-800 mg/kg p.o.) induced significant, dose-related (p < 0.05-0.001) reductions in the blood glucose concentrations of both normal and diabetic mice. Chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) also produced significant (p < 0.01-0.001) reductions in the blood glucose concentrations of normal and diabetic mice. The results of this experimental study indicate that, in the mammalian model used, MEMP possesses hypoglycemic activity. Although the precise mechanism of the hypoglycemic action of MEMP is still unclear and will have to await further studies, it could be due, at least in part, to stimulation of insulin production and subsequent glucose utilization. Nevertheless, the findings of this experimental animal study indicate that MEMP possesses hypoglycemic activity, and thus lends credence to the suggested folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of adult-onset, type-2 diabetic mellitus among the Yoruba-speaking people of South-Western Nigeria.

  16. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin as an endophyte in tissue culture banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akello, Juliet; Dubois, Thomas; Gold, Clifford S; Coyne, Daniel; Nakavuma, Jessica; Paparu, Pamela

    2007-09-01

    Beauveria bassiana is considered a virulent pathogen against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. However, current field application techniques for effective control against this pest remain a limitation and an alternative method for effective field application needs to be investigated. Three screenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the ability of B. bassiana to form an endophytic relationship with tissue culture banana (Musa spp.) plants and to evaluate the plants for possible harmful effects resulting from this relationship. Three Ugandan strains of B. bassiana (G41, S204 and WA) were applied by dipping the roots and rhizome in a conidial suspension, by injecting a conidial suspension into the plant rhizome and by growing the plants in sterile soil mixed with B. bassiana-colonized rice substrate. Four weeks after inoculation, plant growth parameters were determined and plant tissue colonization assessed through re-isolation of B. bassiana. All B. bassiana strains were able to colonize banana plant roots, rhizomes and pseudostem bases. Dipping plants in a conidial suspension achieved the highest colonization with no negative effect on plant growth or survival. Beauveria bassiana strain G41 was the best colonizer (up to 68%, 79% and 41% in roots, rhizome and pseudostem base, respectively) when plants were dipped. This study demonstrated that, depending on strain and inoculation method, B. bassiana can form an endophytic relationship with tissue culture banana plants, causing no harmful effects and might provide an alternative method for biological control of C. sordidus.

  17. Screenhouse and field persistence of nonpathogenic endophytic Fusarium oxysporum in Musa tissue culture plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparu, Pamela; Dubois, Thomas; Gold, Clifford S; Niere, Björn; Adipala, Ekwamu; Coyne, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Two major biotic constraints to highland cooking banana (Musa spp., genome group AAA-EA) production in Uganda are the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets have shown control of the banana weevil and the nematode. We conducted screenhouse and field experiments to investigate persistence in the roots and rhizome of two endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains, V2w2 and III4w1, inoculated into tissue-culture banana plantlets of highland cooking banana cultivars Kibuzi and Nabusa. Re-isolation of F. oxysporum showed that endophyte colonization decreased faster from the rhizomes than from the roots of inoculated plants, both in the screenhouse and in the field. Whereas rhizome colonization by F. oxysporum decreased in the screenhouse (4-16 weeks after inoculation), root colonization did not. However, in the field (17-33 weeks after inoculation), a decrease was observed in both rhizome and root colonization. The results show a better persistence in the roots than rhizomes of endophytic F. oxysporum strains V2w2 and III4w1.

  18. Comparative Phosphoproteomics Reveals an Important Role of MKK2 in Banana (Musa spp.) Cold Signal Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Sheng; He, Wei-Di; Shao, Xiu-Hong; Li, Chun-Yu; Wei, Yue-Rong; Deng, Gui-Ming; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Hu, Chun-Hua; Yi, Gan-Jun; Yang, Qiao-Song

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature is one of the key environmental stresses, which greatly affects global banana production. However, little is known about the global phosphoproteomes in Musa spp. and their regulatory roles in response to cold stress. In this study, we conducted a comparative phosphoproteomic profiling of cold-sensitive Cavendish Banana and relatively cold tolerant Dajiao under cold stress. Phosphopeptide abundances of five phosphoproteins involved in MKK2 interaction network, including MKK2, HY5, CaSR, STN7 and kinesin-like protein, show a remarkable difference between Cavendish Banana and Dajiao in response to cold stress. Western blotting of MKK2 protein and its T31 phosphorylated peptide verified the phosphoproteomic results of increased T31 phosphopeptide abundance with decreased MKK2 abundance in Daojiao for a time course of cold stress. Meanwhile increased expression of MKK2 with no detectable T31 phosphorylation was found in Cavendish Banana. These results suggest that the MKK2 pathway in Dajiao, along with other cold-specific phosphoproteins, appears to be associated with the molecular mechanisms of high tolerance to cold stress in Dajiao. The results also provide new evidence that the signaling pathway of cellular MKK2 phosphorylation plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance that likely serves as a universal plant cold tolerance mechanism. PMID:28106078

  19. Chemical composition and nutritional value of unripe banana flour (Musa acuminata, var. Nanicão).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Tadini, Carmen Cecília; Tribess, Tatiana Beatris; Zuleta, Angela; Binaghi, Julieta; Pak, Nelly; Vera, Gloria; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Bertolini, Andréa C; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; Lajolo, Franco M

    2011-09-01

    Banana flour obtained from unripe banana (Musa acuminata, var. Nanicão) under specific drying conditions was evaluated regarding its chemical composition and nutritional value. Results are expressed in dry weight (dw). The unripe banana flour (UBF) presented a high amount of total dietary fiber (DF) (56.24 g/100 g), which consisted of resistant starch (RS) (48.99 g/100 g), fructans (0.05 g/100 g) and DF without RS or fructans (7.2 g/100 g). The contents of available starch (AS) (27.78 g/100 g) and soluble sugars (1.81 g/100 g) were low. The main phytosterols found were campesterol (4.1 mg/100 g), stigmasterol (2.5 mg/100 g) and β-sitosterol (6.2 mg/100 g). The total polyphenol content was 50.65 mg GAE/100 g. Antioxidant activity, by the FRAP and ORAC methods, was moderated, being 358.67 and 261.00 μmol of Trolox equivalent/100 g, respectively. The content of Zn, Ca and Fe and mineral dialyzability were low. The procedure used to obtain UBF resulted in the recovery of undamaged starch granules and in a low-energy product (597 kJ/100 g).

  20. Somatic embryogenesis in banana and plantain (Musa spp. from male immature flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gómez-Kosky

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of this work, aspects related to the achievement of somatic embryos and regeneration of plants in some cultivars of Musa sp. group AAA, ABB and AABB were studied. Different experiments were carried out to determine the optimum culture conditions; the solidifying agent resulted to be phytagel (SIGMA Co., at a concentration of 2.0 g.l-1, were 68.6% of the explants formed yellow nodular calli. With, respect to the incubation conditions, darkness had a better influence achieving 73.8% of the explants forming yellow nodular calli. The best dosage of 2,4-D could have been determined for the induction of the yellow nodular calli in each one of the cultivars studied: Grande Naine (AAA, Parecido al Rey (AAA and FHIA-03 (AABB 4.0 mg.l-1 and for Bluggoe (ABB 2.0 mg.l-1. Studying the ranges of the hands, it was found that for all the cultivars, the ranges from 5-9 formed more callus with somatic embryogenesis of high frequency than the ranges from 10-14. Once the somatic embryos were transferred to the germination culture medium, a rate of 48.0% was obtained for Grande Naine and 39.0% for Parecido al Rey. Key words: banana, callus, male flowers, somatic embryo

  1. Acceptability of Musa Balbisiana (Saba Banana Puree in Two Treatments in Making Ice Cream

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    Mario A. De Castro Jr.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Musa Balbisiana or Saba is a variety of banana fruit that is nutritious and readily available in the market the whole year round. This experimental study aimed to determine the acceptability of the ice cream made from Saba banana puree in two treatments (treatment 1- cooked puree and treatment 2- uncooked puree. Data gathered were described and analyzed using a special Analysis of Variance. The sensory characteristics of the ice cream in two treatments were compared with one another based on the 9-point hedonic scale utilized by trained panelist in the education sector in secondary, tertiary and graduate school level that specialized in food related discipline such as Food Technology, Food Service Management, Technology and Livelihood Education- Food Trades and Hotel and Restaurant Management. Results indicated that in treatment 1( cooked puree the taste and texture of the ice cream were liked extremely however its color was rated liked very much, while in treatment 2 (uncooked puree the texture and color were rated liked moderately while its taste was rated liked very much. A comparison of the sensory characteristics between the two treatments revealed that there is a significant difference in terms of taste, texture and color and overall acceptability of the Saba banana ice cream. It is then recommended that in preparing Saba banana puree using treatment 1 (cooking method, the fruit should be subjected in numerous sieving process using a fine mesh siever or sifter to produce good quality puree texture.

  2. Penentuan Nilai Kalor Serta Pengaruh Asam Klorida (Hcl Terhadap Kadar Bioetanol Bonggol Pisang (Musa Paradisiacal

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    Asri Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of influence bioetanol degree to chlorine acid catalyst concentration (HCl in the hydrolysis process banana’s bump (Musa paradisiacal has the goal to know the influence of catalyst concentration variation HCl was given the result of banana’s bump hydrolysis which maximum on catalyst variation HCl 0,5 M; 1,0 M; 1,5 M; 2,0 M and 2,5 M on temperature 70oC, 150 rpm during 120 minute with appointment of calor percentage on optimum etanol degree. Based on the result of the research etanol degree highest on HCl with concentration 2,5 with bioetanol degree 5.29% per 10 gram banana’s bump. Based on the ANAVA calculation found out F calculate < F table so that H0 accepted and H1 refused. It’s mean that there were not influenced of concentration HCl to bioetanol degree significantly. Percentage of bioetanol calor which found out on concentration HC1 2,5 M (maximum concentration were 3461 (Sample I  and 3384 kkal (Sample II.

  3. Cloning, Characterization, and Functional Expression of Phospholipase Dα cDNA from Banana (Musa acuminate L.

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    Li Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase D (PLD plays a key role in adaptive responses of postharvest fruits. A cDNA clone of banana (Musa acuminate L. PLDα (MaPLDα was obtained by RT-PCR in this study. The MaPLDα gene contains a complete open reading frame (ORF encoding a 92-kDa protein composed of 832 amino acid residues and possesses a characteristic C2 domain and two catalytic H×K×××D (abbr. HKD motifs. The two HKD motifs are separated by 341 amino acid residues in the primary structure. Relatively higher PLD activity and expression of MaPLDα mRNA were detected in developing tissues compared to senescent or mature tissues in individual leaves, flower, stem, and fruit organs, respectively. The expression profile of PLDα mRNA in postharvest banana fruits at different temperatures was determined, and the MaPLDα mRNA reached the highest expression peak on day 5 at 25°C and on day 7 at 12°C. The results provide useful information for maintaining postharvest quality and extending the storage life of banana fruit.

  4. Photosynthetic electron-transfer reactions in the gametophyte of Pteris multifida reveal the presence of allelopathic interference from the invasive plant species Bidens pilosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Mei; Shen, Yu; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Fang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Ying; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-05-01

    To date, the response of the fern gametophyte to its environment has received considerable attention. However, studies on the influence of plant invasion on the fern gametophyte are fewer. Allelopathy has been hypothesized to play an important role in biological invasion. Hence, it is necessary to study the allelopathy of invasive plant species to the fern gametophyte and elucidate the mechanisms by which invasive plants cause phytotoxicity. As one of the main invasive plants in China, Bidens pilosa exhibits allelopathic effects on the gametophytic growth of Pteris multifida. The root exudate plays an important role among various allelochemical delivery mechanisms in B. pilosa. The effect invasive plant species has on photosynthesis in native species is poorly understood. To elucidate this effect, the changes in photosynthesis in the gametophytes of P. multifida are analyzed to examine the mechanisms of the root exudates of B. pilosa. Meanwhile, a non-invasive plant, Coreopsis basalis, was also applied to investigate the effects on fluorescence and pigments in P. multifida gametophytes. We found that gametophytes exposed to both B. pilosa and C. basalis had decreased fluorescence parameters in comparison with the control, except for non-photochemical quenching. Furthermore, it was found that these parameters were markedly affected from day 2 to day 10 in the presence of both exudates at a concentration of 25% or above. B. pilosa exudate had a negative dose-dependent effect on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid, and the total chlorophyll in the gametophyte. The inhibitory effects increased with increasing exudate concentrations of both species, exhibiting the greatest inhibition at day 10. In conclusion, B. pilosa irreversibly affected the photosynthesis of P. multifida on both PS I and PS II. Root exudates caused the primary damage with respect to the decrease of the acceptors and donors of photon and electron in photosynthetic units and the production and

  5. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening.

  6. Molecular cloning and expression of five glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes from Banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Huang, Suzhen; Jia, Caihong; Liu, Juhua; Zhang, Jianbin; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2013-09-01

    Three tau class MaGSTs responded to abiotic stress, MaGSTF1 and MaGSTL1 responded to signaling molecules, they may play an important role in the growth of banana plantlet. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes that participate in a variety of cellular processes, including stress responses. In this study, we report the molecular characteristics of five GST genes (MaGSTU1, MaGSTU2, MaGSTU3, MaGSTF1 and MaGSTL1) cloned from banana (Musa acuminate L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish) using a RACE-PCR-based strategy. The predicted molecular masses of these GSTs range from 23.4 to 27.7 kDa and their pIs are acidic. At the amino acid level, they share high sequence similarity with GSTs in the banana DH-Pahang (AA group) genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequences of MaGSTs also have high similarity to GSTs of other plant species. Expression analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that these genes are differentially expressed in various tissues. In addition, their expression is regulated by various stress conditions, including exposure to signaling molecules, cold, salinity, drought and Fusarium oxysporum f specialis(f. Sp) cubense Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) infection. The expression of the tau class MaGSTs (MaGSTU1, MaGSTU2 and MaGSTU3) mainly responded to cold, salinity and drought while MaGSTF1 and MaGSTL1 expressions were upregulated by signaling molecules. Our findings suggest that MaGSTs play a key role in both development and abiotic stress responses.

  7. Expressed Centromere Specific Histone 3 (CENH3 Variants in Cultivated Triploid and Wild Diploid Bananas (Musa spp.

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    Kariuki S. Muiruri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Centromeres are specified by a centromere specific histone 3 (CENH3 protein, which exists in a complex environment, interacting with conserved proteins and rapidly evolving satellite DNA sequences. The interactions may become more challenging if multiple CENH3 versions are introduced into the zygote as this can affect post-zygotic mitosis and ultimately sexual reproduction. Here, we characterize CENH3 variant transcripts expressed in cultivated triploid and wild diploid progenitor bananas. We describe both splice- and allelic-[Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP] variants and their effects on the predicted secondary structures of protein. Expressed CENH3 transcripts from six banana genotypes were characterized and clustered into three groups (MusaCENH-1A, MusaCENH-1B, and MusaCENH-2 based on similarity. The CENH3 groups differed with SNPs as well as presence of indels resulting from retained and/or skipped exons. The CENH3 transcripts from different banana genotypes were spliced in either 7/6, 5/4 or 6/5 exons/introns. The 7/6 and the 5/4 exon/intron structures were found in both diploids and triploids, however, 7/6 was most predominant. The 6/5 exon/introns structure was a result of failure of the 7/6 to splice correctly. The various transcripts obtained were predicted to encode highly variable N-terminal tails and a relatively conserved C-terminal histone fold domain (HFD. The SNPs were predicted in some cases to affect the secondary structure of protein by lengthening or shorting the affected domains. Sequencing of banana CENH3 transcripts predicts SNP variations that affect amino acid sequences and alternatively spliced transcripts. Most of these changes affect the N-terminal tail of CENH3.

  8. Banana (Musa spp) from peel to pulp: ethnopharmacology, source of bioactive compounds and its relevance for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Aline; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-02-03

    Banana is a fruit with nutritional properties and also with acclaimed therapeutic uses, cultivated widely throughout the tropics as source of food and income for people. Banana peel is known by its local and traditional use to promote wound healing mainly from burns and to help overcome or prevent a substantial number of illnesses, as depression. This review critically assessed the phytochemical properties and biological activities of Musa spp fruit pulp and peel. A survey on the literature on banana (Musa spp, Musaceae) covering its botanical classification and nomenclature, as well as the local and traditional use of its pulp and peel was performed. Besides, the current state of art on banana fruit pulp and peel as interesting complex matrices sources of high-value compounds from secondary metabolism was also approached. Dessert bananas and plantains are systematic classified into four sections, Eumusa, Rhodochlamys, Australimusa, and Callimusa, according to the number of chromosomes. The fruits differ only in their ploidy arrangement and a single scientific name can be given to all the edible bananas, i.e., Musa spp. The chemical composition of banana's peel and pulp comprise mostly carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and biogenic amines. The biological potential of those biomasses is directly related to their chemical composition, particularly as pro-vitamin A supplementation, as potential antioxidants attributed to their phenolic constituents, as well as in the treatment of Parkinson's disease considering their contents in l-dopa and dopamine. Banana's pulp and peel can be used as natural sources of antioxidants and pro-vitamin A due to their contents in carotenoids, phenolics, and amine compounds, for instance. For the development of a phytomedicine or even an allopathic medicine, e.g., banana fruit pulp and peel could be of interest as raw materials riches in beneficial bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neutralizing properties of Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) juice on phospholipase A2, myotoxic, hemorrhagic and lethal activities of crotalidae venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, M H; Alves, D L F; Raslan, D S; Piló-Veloso, D; Rodrigues, V M; Homsi-Brandeburgo, M I; de Lima, M E

    2005-04-08

    The use of plants as medicine has been referred to since ancient peoples, perhaps as early as Neanderthal man. Plants are a source of many biologically active products and nowadays they are of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. The study of how people of different culture use plants in particular ways has led to the discovery of important new medicines. In this work, we verify the possible activity of Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) against the toxicity of snake venoms. Musa paradisiaca, an important source of food in the world, has also been reported to be popularly used as an anti-venom. Interaction of Musa paradisiaca extract (MsE) with snake venom proteins has been examined in this study. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities, including lethality in mice, induced by crotalidae venoms were significantly inhibited when different amounts of MsE were mixed with these venoms before assays. On the other hand, mice that received MsE and venoms without previous mixture or by separated routes were not protected against venom toxicity. Partial chemical characterization of MsE showed the presence of polyphenols and tannins and they are known to non-specifically inactivate proteins. We suggest that these compounds can be responsible for the in vitro inhibition of the toxic effects of snake venoms. In conclusion, according to our results, using mice as experimental model, MsE does not show protection against the toxic effects of snake venoms in vivo, but if was very effective when the experiments were done in vitro.

  10. Analysis of the leaf transcriptome of Musa acuminata during interaction with Mycosphaerella musicola: gene assembly, annotation and marker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Marco A N; de Cruz, Viviane Oliveira; Emediato, Flavia L; de Teixeira, Cristiane Camargo; Azevedo, Vânia C Rennó; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Amorim, Edson P; Ferreira, Claudia F; Martins, Natalia F; Togawa, Roberto C; Júnior, Georgios J Pappas; da Silva, Orzenil Bonfim; Miller, Robert N G

    2013-02-05

    Although banana (Musa sp.) is an important edible crop, contributing towards poverty alleviation and food security, limited transcriptome datasets are available for use in accelerated molecular-based breeding in this genus. 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology was employed to determine the sequence of gene transcripts in genotypes of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides Calcutta 4 and M. acuminata subgroup Cavendish cv. Grande Naine, contrasting in resistance to the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella musicola, causal organism of Sigatoka leaf spot disease. To enrich for transcripts under biotic stress responses, full length-enriched cDNA libraries were prepared from whole plant leaf materials, both uninfected and artificially challenged with pathogen conidiospores. The study generated 846,762 high quality sequence reads, with an average length of 334 bp and totalling 283 Mbp. De novo assembly generated 36,384 and 35,269 unigene sequences for M. acuminata Calcutta 4 and Cavendish Grande Naine, respectively. A total of 64.4% of the unigenes were annotated through Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) similarity analyses against public databases.Assembled sequences were functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO) terms, with unigene functions covering a diverse range of molecular functions, biological processes and cellular components. Genes from a number of defense-related pathways were observed in transcripts from each cDNA library. Over 99% of contig unigenes mapped to exon regions in the reference M. acuminata DH Pahang whole genome sequence. A total of 4068 genic-SSR loci were identified in Calcutta 4 and 4095 in Cavendish Grande Naine. A subset of 95 potential defense-related gene-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were validated for specific amplification and polymorphism across M. acuminata accessions. Fourteen loci were polymorphic, with alleles per polymorphic locus ranging from 3 to 8 and polymorphism information content ranging from 0.34 to 0.82. A large set

  11. BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS IN NORMAL AND STONE FORMING RATS TREATED WITH THE RIPE KERNEL JUICE OF PLANTAIN (MUSA PARADISIACA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V. Kalpana; Baskar, R.; Varalakshmi, P.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Musa paradisiaca stem kernel juice was investigated in experimental urolithiatic rats. Stone forming rats exhibited a significant elevation in the activities of two oxalate synthesizing enzymes - Glycollic acid oxidase and Lactate dehydrogenase. Deposition and excretion of stone forming constituents in kidney and urine were also increased in these rats. The enzyme activities and the level of crystalline components were lowered with the extract treatment. The extract also reduced the activities of urinary alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, r-glutamyl transferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and β-glucuronidase in calculogenic rats. No appreciable changes were noticed with leucine amino peptidase activity in treated rats. PMID:22556626

  12. 16S Ribosomal DNA Characterization of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Banana (Musa spp.) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães Cruz, Leonardo; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Weber, Olmar Baler; Baldani, José Ivo; Döbereiner, Johanna; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from banana (Musa spp.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) were characterized by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, Burkholderia brasilensis, and Burkholderia tropicalis were identified. Eight other types were placed in close proximity to these genera and other alpha and beta Proteobacteria. PMID:11319127

  13. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Markers in the Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease of Banana (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease (commonly known as black Sigatoka), is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently the whole genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. This sequence was screened for the presence of Variable Num...

  14. Alejandro García Reidy, Las musas rameras. Oficio dramático y conciencia profesional en Lope de Vega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carreño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of Alejandro García Reidy, Las musas rameras. Oficio dramático y conciencia profesional en Lope de Vega, Iberoamericana / Vervuert (Colección escena Clásica, 2, Madrid / Frankfurt am Main, 2013, 440 pp. ISBN: 9788484897439.

  15. Aspirin-Induced Gastric Lesions Alters EGFR and PECAM-1 Immunoreactivity in Wistar Rats: Modulatory Action of Flavonoid Fraction of Musa Paradisiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Olutayo Alese

    2017-07-01

    CONCLUSION: The efficacy of Musa paradisiaca in attenuating the damaging effects of aspirin on the gastric mucosa was observed as there was a significantly increased reactivity for EGFR and PECAM-1 in the gastric corpus in a dose-dependent manner.

  16. Arylsulphatase in the rhizosphere of plantain Musa AAB and its relation with growth, development and pr Arilsulfatasa en la rizosfera de plátano, Musa AAB y relación con crecimiento, desarrollo y produccion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Idupulapati M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Arylsulphatase in the rhizosphere of plantain Musa AAB and its relation with growth, development and production. In a plantain crop (Musa AAB of the Central coffee growing zone of Colombia, arylsulphatase activity in a Pachic Melanudand Medial Isotermic soil under three agronomic management systems during 18 months was measured. Measurements were done at 6, 12 and 18 months in four depths, 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm. The highest arylsulphatase activity (60% was found in the first 10 cm, with a decreasing in depth. Statical analysis did not show significant differences among the three plant ages. Arylsulphatase activity was found between 164 µmol g-1 min-1 and 319 µmol g-1 min-1. The lowest activity was found in the rhizosphere of plants with 12 months of age (flowering under chemical management. Arylsulphatase activity showed very significant correlation with Biomass-C and with Mg in soil, number of leaf and the plantain bunch weight.

    Key words: Enzymic activity-arylsulphatase, andisol, Musa ABB

    En la zona central cafetera de Colombia, en un suelo Pachic Melanudands medial isotérmico, se midió la actividad de arilsulfatasa en rizosfera de plátano Musa AAB, en tres sistemas de manejo agronómico (químico o convencional, tradicional y ecológico, cuatro profundidades (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 y 20-30 cm y tres edades de cultivo (6 meses – diferenciación floral, 12 meses – floración, 18 meses - cosecha. La mayor actividad (60% se encontró en los primeros 10 cm., y disminuyó a medida que se profundizó en el perfil del suelo. El análisis estadístico no mostró diferencias significativas entre los tres manejos o entre edades de planta. La actividad de arilsulfatasa se encontró entre 164 µ mol g-1 min-1 y 319 µ

  17. Pemanfaatan Limbah Kulit Pisang Lilin (Musa paradisiaca Sebagai Pakan Alternatif Ayam Pedaging (Gallus galus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Hidayat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Daging ayam merupakan salah satu sumber bahan pangan hewani yang mengandung gizi yang cukup tinggi berupa protein dan energi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pemanfaatan kulit pisang lilin terhadap pertumbuhan ayam pedaging. Disiapkan Ayam pedaging berusia 1 hari. Digunakan rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 5 perlakuan dan 2 kali ulangan dengan konsentrasi 0% (kontrol, 25%,50%,75% dan 100% kulit pisang. Serta analisis menggunakan Analisis Varian (ANAVA, jika terdapat perbedaan antara perlakuan tersebut dapat dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT (Beda Nyata Terkecil dengan tingkat kepercayaan 95%. Dari hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan diperoleh hasil yang menunjukkan bahwa pertambahan berat tubuh ayam pedaging paling baik adalah 0% kulit pisang dengan 289,04 g tetapi, hasil tertinggi pakan campuran antara kulit pisang dan pur komersial terdapat pada konsentrasi (25% kulit pisang 259,20 gram, (50% 250,92 gram, (75% 251,69 gram sedangkan hasil terendah hingga mengakibatkan ayam pedaging mati terdapat pada perlakuan (100% kulit pisang 64,21 gram. Faktor utama rendahnya hingga mengakibatkan matinya ayam pedaging pada perlakuan 100% kulit pisang disebabkan oleh kandungan C/N yang terdapat pada kulit pisang yang tinggi terutama pada kandungan N-Total yang tinggi mengakibatkan terjadinya penurunan rasio C/N sehingga tidak terjadi proses mineralisasi atau meningkatnya kandungan dalam pakan dengan baik. Serta dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa Semakin tinggi konsentrasi pakan yang diberikan terhadap pakan ayam pedaging berpengaruh semakin rendahnya pertumbuhan rerata ayam pedaging. Serta pakan olahan yang terbuat dari kulit pisang lilin pada konsentrasi 25%-75% seluruhnya dapat dikonsumsi ayam pedaging guna menambah berat badan pada ayam pedaging karena memiliki hasil yang tidak berbeda signifikan. Kata Kunci: Broilers, Kulit pisang lilin, pertumbuhan, kecepatan konsumsi   ABSTRACT The research of candles banana skin (Musa zabrina Van Houtte

  18. Scanning electron microscopic studies on antenna of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)-A blow fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Garima; Maity, Aniruddha; Naskar, Atanu; Ansar, Waliza; Ghosh, Shyamasree; Saha, Goutam Kumar; Banerjee, Dhriti

    2017-08-01

    Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are one of the foremost organisms amongst forensic insects to colonize corpses shortly after death, thus are of immense importance in the domain of forensic entomology. The blow fly Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is considered as a forensically important fly species globally and is also known for its medical and veterinary importance. In the present study, we report for the first time scanning electron microscopic studies on the morphology of sensilla of antenna of adult male and female of H. ligurriens is with profound importance in better understanding of the insect morphology from forensic entomological perspective, and also could aid in proper identification of the species from other calliphorid flies. The structural peculiarities observed in the (i) antenna of H. ligurriens with three segments- scape, pedicel and flagellum with dorso-laterally placed arista (ii) densely covered microtrichia and most abundant trichoid sensilla identified on the antenna (iii) observation of only one type of sensilla, chaetic sensilla (ChI) on the scape (iv) two types of chaetic sensilla (ChI and ChII) and styloconic sensilla on the pedicel (v) the flagellum with three types of sensilla- trichoid, basiconic and coeloconic sensilla (vi) Basiconic sensilla with multiporous surfaces with characteristic olfactory function. Moderate sexual dimorphism in the width of the flagellum, the females with wider flagella than the males, bear significance to the fact that they bear more multi-porous sensilla than the males, thus suffice their need to detect oviposition sites. Significant difference was observed in the length and width of coeloconic sensilla between the two sexes, the females showed bigger coeloconic sensilla, suggesting their function in oviposition site detection and successful colonization in corpses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing a native plasma membrane aquaporin MusaPIP1;2 display high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2013-10-01

    Water transport across cellular membranes is regulated by a family of water channel proteins known as aquaporins (AQPs). As most abiotic stresses like suboptimal temperatures, drought or salinity result in cellular dehydration, it is imperative to study the cause-effect relationship between AQPs and the cellular consequences of abiotic stress stimuli. Although plant cells have a high isoform diversity of AQPs, the individual and integrated roles of individual AQPs in optimal and suboptimal physiological conditions remain unclear. Herein, we have identified a plasma membrane intrinsic protein gene (MusaPIP1;2) from banana and characterized it by overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Cellular localization assay performed using MusaPIP1;2::GFP fusion protein indicated that MusaPIP1;2 translocated to plasma membrane in transformed banana cells. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaPIP1;2 constitutively displayed better abiotic stress survival characteristics. The transgenic lines had lower malondialdehyde levels, elevated proline and relative water content and higher photosynthetic efficiency as compared to equivalent controls under different abiotic stress conditions. Greenhouse-maintained hardened transgenic plants showed faster recovery towards normal growth and development after cessation of abiotic stress stimuli, thereby underlining the importance of these plants in actual environmental conditions wherein the stress stimuli is often transient but severe. Further, transgenic plants where the overexpression of MusaPIP1;2 was made conditional by tagging it with a stress-inducible native dehydrin promoter also showed similar stress tolerance characteristics in in vitro and in vivo assays. Plants developed in this study could potentially enable banana cultivation in areas where adverse environmental conditions hitherto preclude commercial banana cultivation. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons

  20. Wound healing and antioxidant capacity of Musa paradisiaca Linn. peel extracts

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    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Musa paradisiaca has several biological activities within them wound healing, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, among others. However, these properties in peel have been poorly explored. Aims: Evaluate the wound healing activity induced by an incision wound model using methanolic, hexanoic and chloroformic extracts from M. paradisiaca peel. Methods: Dehydrated M. paradisíaca peel was mixed with methanol, hexane, and chloroform. The presence of bioactive substances of the M. paradisiaca peel extracts was carried out by the Trease and Evans methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Acute toxicity was realized according to up and down OECD procedure in BALB/c mice. Wound healing activity was evaluated in male Wistar rats. Histological analyses of tissues were made by microscopy using staining methods of hematoxylin and eosin and Masson-trichrome. Results: Treated groups with methanolic and hexanoic extracts of M. paradisiaca peel showed better wound healing activity in comparison with the group treated with chloroformic extract, with an inhibition of DPPH radical bleaching of 89-90%. It may be due to the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and phenols as principal constituents by conferring antioxidant capacity. The extract did not induce any toxicity. Conclusions: The findings showed the wound healing and antioxidant capacity of M. paradisiaca peel extract. It was observed that depending on the extraction solvent; there is a variation in the antioxidant capacity that also affects the effectiveness of the restoration of tissue, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity could play a major role in the process of wound healing.

  1. Anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosa, George Nnamdi; Okoro, O Josephine

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens. The chickens were divided into six groups of 12 chickens each. Each chicken in five groups was infected with 8,000 infective coccidia (Eimeria tenella) oocysts at day 28 of age while one group served as uninfected control. At day 7 post-infection, two chickens remaining in each group were sacrificed for postmortem examination to confirm coccidiosis. Also at day 7 post-infection, each chicken in four infected groups was given graded doses (250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) of the extract or amprolium (conventional drug). Two groups (an infected and uninfected group) did not receive treatment. Parameters used to assess progress of infection and response to treatment included clinical signs typical of coccidiosis, oocyst count per gramme of faeces (OPG) and packed cell volume (PCV). Treatment of previously infected chickens with M. paradisiaca root extract resulted in a progressive decrease in severity of observed clinical signs, marked reductions in OPG and a gradual increase in PCV. In each case, the changes were dose dependent. There was no significant difference in mean OPG and mean PCV of the extract (at 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) and amprolium-treated groups at termination of the study (at day 50 of age). In the acute toxicity study, the extract was found to be non-toxic to the chickens even at the highest dose of 4,000 mg/kg b.w. The results of this study demonstrated that the extract has anticoccidial activity in a dose-dependent manner and at a dosage of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. had similar efficacy with amprolium in the treatment of chicken coccidiosis.

  2. Purification and biochemical characterization of ionically unbound polyphenol oxidase from Musa paradisiaca leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Sanjeev Kumar; Mishra, Sarad Kumar

    2011-01-01

    An ionically unbound and thermostable polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was extracted from the leaf of Musa paradisiaca. The enzyme was purified 2.54-fold with a total yield of 9.5% by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme exhibited a clear single band on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) PAGE. It was found to be monomeric protein with molecular mass of about 40 kD. The zymographic study using crude extract as enzyme source showed a very clear band around 40 kD and a faint band at around 15 kD, which might be isozymes. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 7.0 and 50°C temperature. The enzyme was active in wide range of pH (4.0-9.0) and temperature (30-90°C). From the thermal inactivation studies in the range 60-75°C, the half-life (t(1/2)) values of the enzyme ranged from 17 to 77 min. The inactivation energy (Ea) value of PPO was estimated to be 91.3 kJ mol(-1). It showed higher specificity with catechol (K(m) = 8 mM) as compared to 4-methylcatechol (K(m) = 10 mM). Among metal ions and reagents tested, Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Hg(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), protocatechuic acid, and ferrulic acid enhanced the enzyme activity, while K(+), Na(+), Co(2+), kojic acid, ascorbic acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium azide, β-mercaptoethanol, and L-cysteine inhibited the activity of the enzyme.

  3. EFECTO DE DOS TIPOS DE FUNDAS SOBRE EL FRUTO DE BANANO (Musa AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Vargas-Calvo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de dos fundas en la protección del racimo de banano (Musa AAA . En dos épocas climáticas (adversa y favorable bajo condiciones del Ca ribe de Costa Ri ca se evaluaron dos fundas: 1- azul Sa nta Lucía (bifentrina 0,1%, polie tileno de 12,7 ¿ de grosor, con perforaciones de 4 mm y 86,4 cm de ancho y 2- transparente con aditivos para filtrar la luz ultravioleta e infrarroja (bifentrina 0,1%, 20,3 ¿ de grosor, con perforaciones de 4 mm y 88,9 cm de ancho. El peso del racimo así como el grosor y la longitud del fruto central de la fila externa en la segunda, cuarta y sexta mano no difirieron (P> 0,0556 entre ambas fundas. Tampoco hubo diferencias entre estas en la apa rie ncia del racimo (P>0,4699 ni en la firmeza de la cáscara en grado 1 de maduración (P= 0,6268. En las varia bles de medición del color del fruto solamente L* presentó un valor (56,48 más alto (P=0,0109 con la funda transparente fotosensible, mie ntras que las otras dos varia bles relacionadas (a* y b* no fueron diferentes (P>0,1011 entre las fundas. El incremento adicional de 7,6 ¿ en el grosor del polie tileno de la funda transparente con respecto a la azul Sa nta Lucía, no ocasionó un incremento productivo ni una mejor apa rie ncia del racimo de banano y sus frutos.

  4. Natural wrapping paper from banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn) peel waste with additive essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti Agustina, E. S.; Elfi Susanti, V. H.

    2018-05-01

    The research aimed to produce natural wrapping paper from banana (Musa Paradisiaca Linn.) peel waste with additive essentials oils. The method used in this research was alkalization. The delignification process is done with the use of NaOH 4% at the temperature of 100°C for 1.5 hours. Additive materials in the form of essential oils are added as a preservative and aroma agent, namely cinnamon oil, lemon oil, clove oil and lime oil respectively 2% and 3%. Chemical and physical properties of the produced papers are tested included water content (dry-oven method SNI ISO 287:2010), pH (SNI ISO 6588-1.2010), grammage (SNI ISO 536:2010) and brightness (SNI ISO 2470:2010). Testing results of each paper were compared with commercial wrapping paper. The result shows that the natural paper from banana peel waste with additive essential oil meets the standard of ISO 6519:2016 about Basic Paper for Laminated Plastic Wrapping Paper within the parameter of pH and water content. The paper produced also meet the standard of ISO 8218:2015 about Food Paper and Cardboard within the grammage parameter (high-grade grammage), except the paper with 2% lemon oil. The paper which is closest to the characteristic of commercial wrapping paper is the paper with the additive of 2% cinnamon oil, with pH of 6.95, the water content of 7.14%, grammage of 347.6 gram/m2 and the brightness level of 24.68%.

  5. Leishmanicidal activity in vitro of Musa paradisiaca L. and Spondias mombin L. fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accioly, Marina Parissi; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Rondon, Fernanda C M; de Morais, Selene Maia; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Almeida, Camila A; de Andrade, Heitor Franco; Cardoso, Roselaine P A

    2012-06-08

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease characterized by infection of mononuclear phagocytes by Leishmania chagasi. The primary vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis and the dog is the main domestic reservoir. The control and current treatment of dogs using synthetic drugs have not shown effectiveness in reducing the incidence of disease in man. In attempt to find new compounds with leishmanicidal action, plant secondary metabolites have been studied in search of treatments of VL. This study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of Musa paradisiaca (banana tree) and Spondias mombin (cajazeira) chemical constituents on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. chagasi. Phytochemical analysis by column chromatography was performed on ethanol extracts of two plants and fractions were isolated. Thin layer chromatography was used to compare the fractions and for isolation the substances to be used in vitro tests. The in vitro tests on promastigotes of L. chagasi used the MTT colorimetric method and the method of ELISA in situ was used against amastigotes besides the cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the eight fractions tested, Sm1 and Sm2 from S. mombin had no action against promastigotes, but had good activity against amastigotes. The fractions Mp1 e Mp4 of M. paradisiaca were very cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells. The best result was obtained with the fraction Sm3 from S. mombin with IC(50) of 11.26 μg/ml against promastigotes and amastigotes of 0.27 μg/ml. The fraction Sm3 characterized as tannic acid showed the best results against both forms of Leishmania being a good candidate for evaluation in in vivo tests. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Selective detection of Fe and Mn species at mineral surfaces in weathered granite by conversion electron yield X-ray absorption fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Takaaki; Takahashi, Yoshio; Uruga, Tomoya; Tanida, Hajime; Iida, Atsuo

    2008-01-01

    A new method for the speciation of Fe and Mn at mineral surfaces is proposed using X-ray absorption fine structure in conversion electron yield mode (CEY-XAFS). This method generally reflects information on the species at the sub-μm scale from the particle surface due to the limited escape depth of the inelastic Auger electron. The surface sensitivity of this method was assessed by experiments on two samples of granite showing different degrees of weathering. The XANES spectra of the Fe-K and Mn-K edge clearly gave different information for CEY and fluorescence (FL) modes. These XANES spectra of Fe and Mn show a good fit upon application of least-squares fitting using ferrihydrite/MnO 2 and biotite as the end members. The XANES spectra collected by CEY mode provided more selective information on the secondary phases which are probably present at the mineral surfaces. In particular, CEY-XANES spectra of Mn indicated the presence of Mn oxide in unweathered granite despite a very small contribution of Mn oxide being indicated by FL-XANES and selective chemical-extraction analyses. Manganese oxide could not be detected by micro-beam XANES (beam size: 5 x 5 μm 2 ) in unweathered granite, suggesting that Mn oxide thinly and ubiquitously coats mineral surface at a sub-μm scale. This information is important, since Mn oxide can be the host for various trace elements. CEY-XAFS can prove to be a powerful tool as a highly sensitive surface speciation method. Combination of CEY and FL-XAFS will help identify minor phases that form at mineral surfaces, but identification of Fe and Mn oxides at mineral surfaces is critical to understand the migration of trace elements in water-rock interaction

  7. Selective detection of Fe and Mn species at mineral surfaces in weathered granite by conversion electron yield X-ray absorption fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)], E-mail: itai-epss@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Takahashi, Yoshio [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Uruga, Tomoya; Tanida, Hajime [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Iida, Atsuo [Photon Factory, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, O-ho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    A new method for the speciation of Fe and Mn at mineral surfaces is proposed using X-ray absorption fine structure in conversion electron yield mode (CEY-XAFS). This method generally reflects information on the species at the sub-{mu}m scale from the particle surface due to the limited escape depth of the inelastic Auger electron. The surface sensitivity of this method was assessed by experiments on two samples of granite showing different degrees of weathering. The XANES spectra of the Fe-K and Mn-K edge clearly gave different information for CEY and fluorescence (FL) modes. These XANES spectra of Fe and Mn show a good fit upon application of least-squares fitting using ferrihydrite/MnO{sub 2} and biotite as the end members. The XANES spectra collected by CEY mode provided more selective information on the secondary phases which are probably present at the mineral surfaces. In particular, CEY-XANES spectra of Mn indicated the presence of Mn oxide in unweathered granite despite a very small contribution of Mn oxide being indicated by FL-XANES and selective chemical-extraction analyses. Manganese oxide could not be detected by micro-beam XANES (beam size: 5 x 5 {mu}m{sup 2}) in unweathered granite, suggesting that Mn oxide thinly and ubiquitously coats mineral surface at a sub-{mu}m scale. This information is important, since Mn oxide can be the host for various trace elements. CEY-XAFS can prove to be a powerful tool as a highly sensitive surface speciation method. Combination of CEY and FL-XAFS will help identify minor phases that form at mineral surfaces, but identification of Fe and Mn oxides at mineral surfaces is critical to understand the migration of trace elements in water-rock interaction.

  8. MuSAE: A European Project for the Diffusion of Energy and Environmental Planning in Small-Medium Sized Municipalities

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    Giorgio Baldinelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic idea of the EU LIFE+ 2011 project MuSAE (“Municipalities Subsidiarity for Actions on Energy”, code LIFE11 ENV/IT/000016 consists of transferring the skills and experience related to energy planning, acquired by the leading beneficiary, the Municipality of Perugia, to three small- or medium-sized Umbrian Municipalities (Marsciano, Umbertide and Lisciano Niccone. This transfer is aimed, among other objectives, at the drafting of the Municipal Energy and Environmental Plan (MEEP and the opening of an energy information office in each partner Municipality, in cooperation with CIRIAF and Umbria Region. The present paper provides a summary of MuSAE activities, analyzing the procedures and modalities of implementation of the various phases of the MEEPs, on the basis of the experience gained over the years through the collaboration with the Municipality of Perugia and adapted to smaller territories such as those represented by the other partner Municipalities. A summary of the dissemination activities and pilot projects is also presented, testifying the first concrete results of the planning activity developed by each administration within the project.

  9. Genotype-by-Environment Interaction and Testing Environments for Plantain and Banana (Musa spp. L. Breeding in West Africa

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    Ortiz, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available With reduced budgets allocated for international agricultural research, site rationalisation had become an important issue to consider when carrying out multilocational testing of promising selections. The aim of this paper was to determine the importance of the genotype-by-environment interaction in multilocational trials of plantains and bananas (Musa spp. L. in selected sites of West Africa comprising the humid forest and the forest-savanna transition zones. A sample of plantain-banana hybrids, plantain landraces, exotic banana cultivars and diploid parental banana accessions were evaluated in three locations : Mbalmayo and Onne (humid forest and Ibadan (forest-savanna transition. The experimental results of our research suggested that multilocational testing is more profitable than single site evaluation over several years in the Musa breeding station. Furthermore, based on correlated responses across environments for yield potential, we suggest that one of the selection sites in the humid forest (i. e., Mbalmayo be dropped since selections in one site (Onne may be well adapted to the other location in the same agroecozone. Conversely, the relatively poor performance of most genotypes in dry environments (e. g. Ibadan reinforces the importance of early testing across a wide range of environments. In this way selections with broad or specific adaptation may be identified for further release to targeted farmers.

  10. Determination better culture medium in the establishment phase for the in vitro propagation of banana (Musa paradisiaca L

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    Ancasi-Espejo Ruth Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology of the Department of Biological and Natural Sciences of the Amazonian University of Pando, in 2014. The aim of the study was to determine better culture medium in the establishment phase for propagation in vitro banana (Musa paradisiaca L., 20 were selected and characterized mother plants NTRCA (New Technology Research Center Amazonia. A completely random design (CRD with three different culture media was used. The culture media were M1 Murashige and Skoog (MS was supplemented with ascorbic acid 100 mg/L and L-cysteine 2 ml /L, M2 Murashige and Skoog (MS was supplemented charcoal 2 g/L, M3 Murashige and Skoog (MS supplement-ed with ascorbic acid 100 mg/L and cítrico100 mg/L acid. The variables evaluated were: The survival of the former Plantes, where contamination and oxidation was observed. The results showed that in the first phase of establishment, the best answer for the survival of the former Plantes banana (Musa paradisiaca, was with the culture medium 3, where a lower degree of oxidation (0.26 and pollution for all explants was obtained was 28%.

  11. Activity of cycloartane-type triterpenes and sterols isolated from Musa paradisiaca fruit peel against Leishmania infantum chagasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A A S; Morais, S M; Falcão, M J C; Vieira, I G P; Ribeiro, L M; Viana, S M; Teixeira, M J; Barreto, F S; Carvalho, C A; Cardoso, R P A; Andrade-Junior, H F

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of triterpenes and sterols isolated from Musa paradisiaca (banana) fruit peel used traditionally to treat leishmaniasis. The compounds were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the peel of the banana fruit by column chromatography. The chemical structure of compounds was determined by (1)H and (13)C - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity was measured in RAW 264.7 cells and LLC-MK2. Leishmanicidal activity against L. infantum chagasi promastigotes was performed by the MTT colorimetric method and activity against amastigotes was assayed in mammalian cells using in situ ELISA method. Five compounds were identified, consisting of three triterpenes: cycloeucalenone, 31-norcyclolaudenone and 24-methylene-cicloartanol and a mixture of two sterols: beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. With the exception of cycloeucalenone, all compounds showed statistically similar activity against promastigote to pentamidine. While, acting against amastigotes, excluding 31-norcyclolaudenone, other compounds showed activity similar to amphotericin B. All compounds showed low cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. This study partially confirms the use of Musa paradisiaca in folk medicine against leishmaniasis. Further in vivo studies are necessary to evaluate the efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Thai banana (Musa AA group) in reducing accumulation of oxidation end products in UVB-irradiated mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerach, Nontaphat; Yakaew, Swanya; Phimnuan, Preeyawass; Soimee, Wichuda; Nakyai, Wongnapa; Luangbudnark, Witoo; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2017-03-01

    Chronic UVB exposure causes skin disorders and cancer through DNA strand breaks and oxidation of numerous functional groups of proteins and lipids in the skin. In this study, we investigated the effects of Thai banana (Musa AA group, "Khai," and Musa ABB group, "Namwa") on the prevention of UVB-induced skin damage when fed to male ICR mice. Mice were orally fed banana (Khai or Namwa) fruit pulps at dose of 1mg/g body weight/day for 12weeks. The shaved backs of the mice were irradiated with UVB for 12weeks. The intensity dose of UVB-exposure was increased from 54mJ/cm 2 /exposure at week 1 to 126mJ/cm 2 /exposure at week 12. A significant increase in skin thickness, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation end products, and expression of MMP-1 was observed in UVB-irradiated mouse skin. A reduction in the accumulation of oxidation end products was found in the skin of UVB-irradiated mice receiving Khai. This occurred in conjunction with a reduction in MMP-1 expression, inhibition of epidermal thickening, and induction of γ-GCS expression. The dietary intake of Khai prevented skin damage from chronic UVB exposure by increased γ-GCS expression and reduced oxidation end products included carbonyls, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY TEST OF SOME COMPOUNDS FROM METHANOL EXTRACT PEEL OF BANANA (Musa paradisiaca Linn.

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    Sri Atun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these research was measured activity as antioxidant some compounds in methanol extracts of peel of banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn., isolated some compounds which had activities as antioxidant, and determined this structure. Method of this study was extracted powdered peel of banana with methanol at room temperature. Extract was concentrated in vaccuo and then successively was partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, etyl acetate, and buthanol. Antioxidant test from each fractions was measured by hydroxyl radical scavenger test with Fenton reaction method. The result of this study showed activity each fractions as  hydroxyl radical scavenger activity of chloroform, etyl acetate, and buthanol fraction were IC50 693.15; 2347.40; and 1071.14 mg/mL respectively. The isolation of secondary metabolite compounds from chloroform fraction obtained two isolate compounds. Identification by spectroscopy IR,  MS, 1H and 13C NMR one and two dimension showed that the compounds are 5,6,7,4'-tetrahidroxy-3,4-flavan-diol and a new compound cyclohexenon derivative (2-cyclohexene-1-on-2,4,4-trimethyl-3-O-2'-hydroxypropyl ether.   Keywords: antioxidant, peel of banana, Musa paradisiaca, hydroxyl radical scavenger

  14. Electron transport chain dysfunction by H(2)O (2) is linked to increased reactive oxygen species production and iron mobilization by lipoperoxidation: studies using Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Estrada-Villagómez, Mirella; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Clemente-Guerrero, Mónica; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Boldogh, Istvan; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2011-04-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) contains thiol groups (-SH) which are reversibly oxidized to modulate ETC function during H(2)O(2) overproduction. Since deleterious effects of H(2)O(2) are not limited to -SH oxidation, due to the formation of other H(2)O(2)-derived species, some processes like lipoperoxidation could enhance the effects of H(2)O(2) over ETC enzymes, disrupt their modulation by -SH oxidation and increase superoxide production. To verify this hypothesis, we tested the effects of H(2)O(2) on ETC activities, superoxide production and iron mobilization in mitochondria from lipoperoxidation-resistant native yeast and lipoperoxidation-sensitized yeast. Only complex III activity from lipoperoxidation-sensitive mitochondria exhibited a higher susceptibility to H(2)O(2) and increased superoxide production. The recovery of ETC activity by the thiol reductanct β-mercaptoethanol (BME) was also altered at complex III, and a role was attributed to lipoperoxidation, the latter being also responsible for iron release. A hypothetical model linking lipoperoxidation, increased complex III damage, superoxide production and iron release is given.

  15. Estandarización de sistemas isoenzimáticos en clones colombianos del género musa Standarization of isozymic systems in clones of the colombian collection of the genus musa

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    Beltrán Margarita

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de estudiar la variabilidad genética presente en la Colección Colombiana de Musáceas, S8 estandarizaron varios sistemas enzimáticos en clones de diferentes ploidías. conservados bajo condiciones in vitro. Se probaron un total de 23 sistemas, seis de los cuales presentaron actividad electroforética en condiciones diferentes a las previamente reportadas por otros autores: Diaforasa (DIA E.C.1.6A.3., Enzima málica (ME E.C.l.1.1AO., Fosfoglucoisomerasa (PGI E.C.5.3.1.9., Fosfogluconato deshidrogenasa (PGDH E.C.1.1.1A4., Fosfoglucomutasa (PGM E.C.2.7.5.1. Y Rubisco (RUB E.CA.11.1.39. . Las enzimas DIA y RUB se reportan por primera vez para el genera Musa, ME, GDH, PGDH Y PGI se reportan por primera vez en geles de acrilamida. Diaforasa presentó alto pournornsmo en los clones probados, mientras que Rubisco mostró una sola zona de actividad.The main purpose of this study was the standardization of several isozymic systems using clones of different ploidy belonging to the Colombian Collection of Musa maintained under in vitro conditions. A total of 23 systems were assayed. Six isozymes presented new electrophoretic activity with regard to previous reports: Diaphorase (DIA E.C.1.6A.3., Malic enzyme(ME E.C.1.1.1AO Phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI E.C.5.3.1.9., Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGDH E.C.1.1.1.44., Phosphoglucomutase (PGM E.C.2.7.5.1. and Rubisco (RUB E.CA.11.1.39.. The enzymes DIA and RUB are reported the first time for the genus Musa. ME, GDH, PGDH and PGI are described the first time in acrylamide support. DIA presented high level of polymorphism in the Colombian clones tested. RUB showed only one zone of activity.

  16. Study on radiation-induced reaction in microscopic region for basic understanding of electron beam patterning in lithographic process. 2. Relation between resist space resolution and space distribution of ionic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Akinori; Kozawa, Takahiro; Yoshida, Yoichi; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2002-01-01

    For basic research on electron beam lithography, the time-dependent distribution was measured. In the case of nano-scale electron beam lithography, the distribution of ionic species is thought to have an influence on the space resolution or the line edge roughness. As a model compound of a resist resin, liquid n-dodecane was used as a sample. The experiment was carried out using the subpicosecond pulse radiolysis. The experimental data was analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation based on the diffusion in an electric field. The simulation data were convoluted by the response function and fitted to the experimental data. By transforming the time-dependent behavior of cation radicals to the distribution function of cation radical-electron distance, the time-dependent distribution was obtained. Subsequently, the relation between the space resolution and the space distribution of ionic species was discussed. (author)

  17. Sodium-hydrogen exchanger inhibitory potential of Malus domestica, Musa × paradisiaca, Daucus carota, and Symphytum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2014-02-01

    The involvement of sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHE) has been described in the pathophysiology of diseases including ischemic heart and brain diseases, cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, epilepsy, dementia, and neuropathic pain. Synthetic NHE inhibitors have not achieved much clinical success; therefore, plant-derived phytoconstituents may be explored as NHE inhibitors. In the present study, the NHE inhibitory potential of hydroalcoholic and alkaloidal fractions of Malus domestica, Musa × paradisiaca, Daucus carota, and Symphytum officinale was evaluated. The different concentrations of hydroalcoholic and alkaloidal extracts of the selected plants were evaluated for their NHE inhibitory activity in the platelets using the optical swelling assay. Among the hydroalcoholic extracts, the highest NHE inhibitory activity was shown by M. domestica (IC50=2.350 ± 0.132 μg/mL) followed by Musa × paradisiaca (IC50=7.967 ± 0.451 μg/mL), D. carota (IC50=37.667 ± 2.517 μg/mL), and S. officinale (IC50=249.330 ± 1.155 μg/mL). Among the alkaloidal fractions, the highest NHE inhibitory activity was shown by the alkaloidal fraction of Musa × paradisiacal (IC50=0.010 ± 0.001 μg/mL) followed by D. carota (IC50=0.024 ± 0.002 μg/mL), M. domestica (IC50=0.031 ± 0.005 μg/mL), and S. officinale (IC50=4.233 ± 0.379 μg/mL). The IC50 of alkaloidal fractions was comparable to the IC50 of synthetic NHE inhibitor, EIPA [5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride] (IC50=0.033 ± 0.004 μg/mL). It may be concluded that the alkaloidal fractions of these plants possess potent NHE inhibitory activity and may be exploited for their therapeutic potential in NHE activation-related pathological complications.

  18. EIN3-like gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grande naine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Hubert, Olivier; Fils-Lycaon, Bernard; Chillet, Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at receptor proteins and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL transcription factors. Here, we have isolated four cDNAs homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3/EIN3-like gene, MA-EILs (Musa acuminata ethylene insensitive 3-like) from banana fruit. Sequence comparison with other banana EIL gene already registered in the database led us to conclude that, at this day, at least five different genes namely MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL3/AB266319, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 exist in banana. Phylogenetic analyses included all banana EIL genes within a same cluster consisting of rice OsEILs, a monocotyledonous plant as banana. However, MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 on one side, and MA-EIL3/AB266319 on the other side, belong to two distant subclusters. MA-EIL mRNAs were detected in all examined banana tissues but at lower level in peel than in pulp. According to tissues, MA-EIL genes were differentially regulated by ripening and ethylene in mature green fruit and wounding in old and young leaves. MA-EIL2/AB266318 was the unique ripening- and ethylene-induced gene; MA-EIL1, MA-EIL4/Ab266320 and AB266321 genes were downregulated, while MA-EIL3/AB266319 presented an unusual pattern of expression. Interestingly, a marked change was observed mainly in MA-EIL1 and MA-EIL3/Ab266319 mRNA accumulation concomitantly with changes in ethylene responsiveness of fruit. Upon wounding, the main effect was observed in MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 mRNA levels, which presented a markedly increase in both young and old leaves, respectively. Data presented in this study suggest the importance of a transcriptionally step control in the regulation of EIL genes during banana fruit ripening.

  19. Galactagogue effects of Musa x paradisiaca flower extract on lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Azizah; Omar, Muhammad Nor; Ngah, Nurziana

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the potential of Musa x paradisiaca (M. x paradisiaca) flower extracts in promoting milk production of lactating rats and its effects on growth of the suckling pups. Galactagogue activity was evaluated in terms of quantity of milk produced from the rats treated with petroleum ether, ethanol or water extracts of the flower. Lactating rats (n = 5) of Spraque Dawley with six pups each were administered with the extracts in the amount of 500 mg/kg body weight, while the control rats were given an equivalent amount of distilled water. The rats were daily administered via oral feeding starting from Day 5 until Day 14 and the performance of milk production was measured along the experimental period by weight-suckle-weight method. Results were statistically analyzed using SPSS by means of ANOVA at 0.05 and was expressed as their mean?standard deviation. The rates of pups' growth were measured as the weight gain along the experimental period. The rats treated with aqueous extract produced higher milk than control and ethanol groups. Aqueous extract was identified to increase milk production by 25%, while petroleum ether extract by 18%. The mean of yields produced by the rats during suckling period for aqueous, petroleum ether, ethanol and control were 4.62±2.45, 4.37±1.93, 3.65±1.89 and 3.69±1.79, respectively. Growth rates of pups for the rats treated with control, aqueous, ethanol extract and petroleum ether were (1.85±0.49), (1.78±0.56), (1.65±0.46) and (1.56±0.42) g/pup, respectively. The present study reveals the potential of M. x paradisiaca flower to enhance milk production of nursing mothers which could be exploited for commercialization of the isolated extract. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Purification and characterization of Mn-peroxidase from Musa paradisiaca (banana) stem juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pratibha; Singh, V K; Yadav, Meera; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Yadava, Sudha; Yadav, K D S

    2012-02-01

    Mn-peroxidase (MnP), a biotechnologically important enzyme was purified for the first time from a plant source Musa paradisiaca (banana) stem, which is an agro-waste easily available after harvest of banana fruits. MnP was earlier purified only from the fungal sources. The enzyme was purified from stem juice by ultrafiltration and anion-exchange column chromatography on diethylamino ethylcellulose with 8-fold purification and purification yield of 65%. The enzyme gave a single protein band in SDS-PAGE corresponding to molecular mass 43 kDa. The Native-PAGE of the enzyme also gave a single protein band, confirming the purity of the enzyme. The UV/VIS spectrum of the purified enzyme differed from the other heme peroxidases, as the Soret band was shifted towards lower wavelength and the enzyme had an intense absorption band around 250 nm. The K(m) values using MnSO4 and H2O2 as the substrates of the purified enzyme were 21.0 and 9.5 microM, respectively. The calculated k(cat) value of the purified enzyme using Mn(II) as the substrate in 50 mM lactate buffer (pH 4.5) at 25 degrees C was 6.7s(-1), giving a k(cat)/K(m) value of 0.32 microM(-1)s(-1). The k(cat) value for the MnP-catalyzed reaction was found to be dependent of the Mn(III) chelator molecules malonate, lactate and oxalate, indicating that the enzyme oxidized chelated Mn(II) to Mn(III). The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 4.5 and 25 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme in combination with H2O2 liberated bromine and iodine in presence of KBr and KI respectively. All these enzymatic characteristics were similar to those of fungal MnP. The enzyme has the potential as a green brominating and iodinating agent in combination with KBr/KI and H2O2.

  1. Developmental Localization and Methylesterification of Pectin Epitopes during Somatic Embryogenesis of Banana (Musa spp. AAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiang; Zhao, Lu; Pan, Xiao; Šamaj, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    Background The plant cell walls play an important role in somatic embryogenesis and plant development. Pectins are major chemical components of primary cell walls while homogalacturonan (HG) is the most abundant pectin polysaccharide. Developmental regulation of HG methyl-esterification degree is important for cell adhesion, division and expansion, and in general for proper organ and plant development. Methodology/Principal Findings Developmental localization of pectic homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes and the (1→4)-β-D-galactan epitope of rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) and degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DM) were studied during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA). Histological analysis documented all major developmental stages including embryogenic cells (ECs), pre-globular, globular, pear-shaped and cotyledonary somatic embryos. Histochemical staining of extracellularly secreted pectins with ruthenium red showed the most intense staining at the surface of pre-globular, globular and pear-shaped somatic embryos. Biochemical analysis revealed developmental regulation of galacturonic acid content and DM in diverse embryogenic stages. Immunodots and immunolabeling on tissue sections revealed developmental regulation of highly methyl-esterified HG epitopes recognized by JIM7 and LM20 antibodies during somatic embryogenesis. Cell walls of pre-globular/globular and late-stage embryos contained both low methyl-esterified HG epitopes as well as partially and highly methyl-esterified ones. Extracellular matrix which covered surface of early developing embryos contained pectin epitopes recognized by 2F4, LM18, JIM5, JIM7 and LM5 antibodies. De-esterification of cell wall pectins by NaOH caused a decrease or an elimination of immunolabeling in the case of highly methyl-esterified HG epitopes. However, immunolabeling of some low methyl-esterified epitopes appeared stronger after this base treatment. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that both low

  2. EFECTO DE RECUBRIMIENTO NATURAL Y CERA COMERCIAL SOBRE LA MADURACIÓN DEL BANANO (Musa sapientum EFFECT OF NATURAL COATING AND COMMERCIAL WAX ON THE MATURATION OF BANANA (Musa sapientum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAOLA LYSETH BARCO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó y comparó el efecto de la cera comercial "Cerabrix de Banano" (TAO QUÍMICA LTDA., un recubrimiento natural a base de almidón de yuca hidrolizado y una muestra testigo sobre el pH, la acidez, la firmeza y sólidos solubles del banano (Musa sapientum en estado de madurez organoléptica bajo condiciones ambientales. Se aplicó un diseño experimental completamente al azar con 7 repeticiones por tratamiento y los resultados fueron sometidos a un análisis de varianza, lo cual indicó que el pH y el índice de madurez no se vieron afectados por los tratamientos, considerando como causas de variación el tiempo y los tratamientos aplicados, con una probabilidad del 95%. Los valores promedio significativamente diferentes se compararon mediante la prueba de Duncan, para una probabilidad del 95%, dando como resultado que los bananos cubiertos con Cerabrix tuvieron mayor firmeza, en comparación con el recubrimiento natural.The effect of the commercial wax "Cerabrix of Banana" (TAO QUÍMICA LTDA, a coating based on natural hydrolyzed starch and a blank was evaluated and compared on pH, acidity, firmness and soluble solids of banana (Musa sapientum in state of organoleptic maturity at ambient conditions. An experimental design totally at random with 7 repetitions by treatment was applied and the results were put under a variance analysis, which indicated that the pH and the maturity index were not affected by the treatments, considering variation causes the time and treatments applied, with a probability of 95%. The average values significantly different were compared by the Duncan test for a 95% probability, giving as a result that the bananas covered with Cerabrix had bigger firmness, in comparison with natural coating.

  3. Descripción morfoagronómica de materiales de plátano (Musa AAB, ABB y banano (Musa AAA cultivados en San Andrés Isla

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    Oscar Javier Parra Pachón

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Durante el primer semestre de 2005 se estudiaron los cultivares de plátano y banano en fincas y parcelas de 15 agricultores típicos participantes en programas conjuntos de la Secretaría de Agricultura y Pesca de San Andrés Isla y de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Caribe. A partir de descriptores de INIBAP, IPGRI y CIRAD y revisiones bibliográficas.se describen morfológicamente los materiales de Musa cultivados en la Isla, así como las prácticas de los productores isleños, Se identificaron cuatro clones del subgrupo plátano (Musa AAB: un Hartón (‘Horse’ y tres Dominico-Hartón (‘Tallo Negro’, ‘Tallo Blanco’ y ‘Cincuenta’ del subgrupo ABB se hallaron un material de Bluggoe (‘Boscó’ y un Felipita. El subgrupo banano AAA presentó dos materiales Gros Michel (denominados Común y Chino y uno de banano (Rojo. El plátano tiene gran importancia para los agricultores de la Isla, siendo el Boscó el clon más aceptado entre consumidores por su adaptación a las condiciones edafológicas y climáticas. El banano es menos cultivado; ya que los suelos, el clima y las enfermedades como sigatoka negra, condicionaron el desarrollo de clones. El trabajo sugiere prácticas de fácil implementación que podrían aumentar la producción en los sistemas de huerto mixto tropical que predominan en la Isla.

  4. Descripción morfoagronómica de materiales de plátano (Musa AAB, ABB y banano (Musa AAA cultivados en San Andrés Isla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra Pachón Oscar Javier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el primer semestre de 2005 se estudiaron los cultivares de plátano y banano en fincas y parcelas de 15 agricultores típicos participantes en programas conjuntos de la Secretaría de Agricultura y Pesca de San Andrés Isla y de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Caribe. A partir de descriptores de INIBAP, IPGRI y CIRAD y revisiones bibliográficas.se describen morfológicamente los materiales de Musa cultivados en la Isla, así como las prácticas de los productores isleños, Se identificaron cuatro clones del subgrupo plátano (Musa AAB: un Hartón (‘Horse’ y tres Dominico-Hartón (‘Tallo Negro’, ‘Tallo Blanco’ y ‘Cincuenta’ del subgrupo ABB se hallaron un material de Bluggoe (‘Boscó’ y un Felipita. El subgrupo banano AAA presentó dos materiales Gros Michel (denominados Común y Chino y uno de banano (Rojo. El plátano tiene gran importancia para los agricultores de la Isla, siendo el Boscó el clon más aceptado entre consumidores por su adaptación a las condiciones edafológicas y climáticas. El banano es menos cultivado; ya que los suelos, el clima y las enfermedades como sigatoka negra, condicionaron el desarrollo de clones. El trabajo sugiere prácticas de fácil implementación que podrían aumentar la producción en los sistemas de huerto mixto tropical que predominan en la Isla.

  5. Phytochemical screening and in-vitro evaluation of pharmacological activities of peels of Musa sapientum and Carica papaya fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Sarmad; Nawaz, Shamsa; Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Bushra; Aslam, Bilal

    2018-06-01

    Aqueous, absolute and 80% ethanolic extract of fruit peels of Musa sapientum and Carica papaya were investigated for their antibacterial activity, measured by disc diffusion method and antioxidant activity, measured by four different methods. Papaya and banana peels were found to contain terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins steroid, phenols, fixed oils and fats. 80% ethanolic extract of banana peel was found to contain highest total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity but in papaya peel, highest TPC and reducing activity was shown by water extract while, TFC and radical scavenging activity was given by 80% ethanolic extract. In banana, water extract showed highest antibacterial activity against tested bacteria while in case of papaya, absolute ethanolic extract showed highest antibacterial activity. The present study revealed that peels of banana and papaya fruits are potentially good source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

  6. Use of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) in the management of diabetes and hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, Chinedum O; Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) on markers of hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose; relative liver weight (RLW); relative kidney weight (RKW); relative heart weight (RHW); relative pancreatic weight (RPW); serum and hepatic serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); serum amylase, lipase, total, and conjugated bilirubin; and chemical analysis of the test feed were determined using standard techniques. The diabetic rats had significant alteration (P 0.05) in the RHW of the rats in the three groups, as well as significant decreases (P 0.05) in the amylase levels of the rats fed unripe plantain compared with the nondiabetic rats. The test and standard rat feeds contained considerable amount of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, phenols, and crude fiber. Amelioration of acute pancreatitis by unripe plantain could play a key role in its management of diabetes and related complications.

  7. DAYA HAMBAT EKSTRAK ETANOL KULIT BUAH PISANG KEPOK MENTAH (Musa paradisiaca forma typica TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Escherichia coli SECARA IN VITRO¬

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    Novia Ariani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Banana plants is the most one that produce and used by Indonesian people. Banana plants has a lot of kind, and the one is kepok banana. Kepok banana peel has used to make some kind of foods but for drug use is still limited whereas in banana peel contains secondary metabolites flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins has antibacterial activity. The purpose of this research was to determine resistivity of peel extract of raw banana kepok (Musa paradisiaca forma typica on the growth of Escherichia coli in vitro. This type of research is non experimental with the method of wells conducted in the laboratory of Microbiology of Pharmacy Academy of ISFI Banjarmasin. The sampling used by purposive sampling technique with certain criteria. To determination of resistibility saw the transparent zone around the well. The results of this research showed that bark extract of raw banana peel extract had inhibitory power to growth of Escherichia coli in vitro.

  8. Multi-objective optimization of process conditions in the manufacturing of banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) starch/natural rubber films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Hernández, A; Aparicio-Saguilán, A; Reynoso-Meza, G; Carrillo-Ahumada, J

    2017-02-10

    Multi-objective optimization was used to evaluate the effect of adding banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) starch and natural rubber (cis-1,4-poliisopreno) at different ratios (1-13w/w) to the manufacturing process of biodegradable films, specifically the effect on the biodegradability, crystallinity and moisture of the films. A structural characterization of the films was performed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and SEM, moisture and biodegradability properties were studied. The models obtained showed that degradability vs. moisture tend to be inversely proportional and crystallinity vs. degradability tend to be directly proportional. With respect to crystallinity vs. moisture behavior, it is observed that crystallinity remains constant when moisture values remain between 27 and 41%. Beyond this value there is an exponential increase in crystallinity. These results allow for predictions on the mechanical behavior that can occur in starch/rubber films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dried, ground banana plant leaves (Musa spp.) for the control of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, L; Yoshihara, E; Ribeiro, B L M; Silva, L K F; Marques, E C; Meira, E B S; Rossi, R S; Sampaio, P H; Louvandini, H; Hasegawa, M Y

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the anthelmintic effect of Musa spp. leaves, 12 animals were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus, and another 12 animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Then, both treatment groups were offered 400 g of dried ground banana plant leaves, and the control animals were offered only 1000 g of coast cross hay. During the trials, the animals received weekly physical examinations. The methods used to evaluate the efficiency of this treatment were packed cell volume, total plasma protein and faecal egg counts, and egg hatchability tests were performed on days -2, +3, +6, +9, +13 and +15. Coproculture tests were performed on day -2 to confirm monospecific infections. In the FEC and EHT, a statistically significant difference (0.04, 0.005; p  0.05) for Haemochus contortus group in all tests. Our results confirmed previous findings suggesting that dried ground banana plant leaves possess anthelmintic activity.

  10. Drying characteristics of whole Musa AA group ‘Kluai Leb Mu Nang’ using hot air and infrared vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulketwong, C.; Thungsotanon, D.; Suwanpayak, N.

    2017-06-01

    Dried Musa AA group ‘Kluai Leb Mu Nang’ are the famous processing goods of Chumphon province, the south of Thailand. In this paper, we improved the qualities of whole Musa AA group ‘Kluai leb Mu Nang’ by using the hot air and infrared vacuum (HA and infrared vacuum) drying method which has two stages. The first stage of the method is the hot air (HA) and hot air-infrared (HAI) drying for rapidly reducing the moisture content and the drying times at atmospheric pressure, and the second stage, the moisture content, and color of the samples can be controlled by the HA and infrared vacuum drying. The experiment was evaluated by the terms of firmness, color change, moisture content, vacuum pressure and energy consumption at various temperatures. The results were found that the suitable temperature of the HAI and HA and infrared vacuum drying stages at 70°C and 55°C, respectively, while the suitable vacuum pressure in the second process was -0.4 bar. The samples were dried in a total of 28 hrs using 13.83 MJ/kg of specific energy consumption (stage 1 with 8.8 MJ/kg and stage 2 of 5.03 MJ/kg). The physical characteristics of the 21% (wb) of dried bananas can be measured the color change, L*=38.56, a*=16.47 and b*=16.3, was approximate the goods from the local market, whereas the firmness of them was more tender and shown a value of 849.56 kN/m3.

  11. DArT whole genome profiling provides insights on the evolution and taxonomy of edible Banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardos, J; Perrier, X; Doležel, J; Hřibová, E; Christelová, P; Van den Houwe, I; Kilian, A; Roux, N

    2016-12-01

    Dessert and cooking bananas are vegetatively propagated crops of great importance for both the subsistence and the livelihood of people in developing countries. A wide diversity of diploid and triploid cultivars including AA, AB, AS, AT, AAA, AAB, ABB, AAS and AAT genomic constitutions exists. Within each of this genome groups, cultivars are classified into subgroups that are reported to correspond to varieties clonally derived from each other after a single sexual event. The number of those founding events at the basis of the diversity of bananas is a matter of debate. We analysed a large panel of 575 accessions, 94 wild relatives and 481 cultivated accessions belonging to the section Musa with a set of 498 DArT markers previously developed. DArT appeared successful and accurate to describe Musa diversity and help in the resolution of cultivated banana genome constitution and taxonomy, and highlighted discrepancies in the acknowledged classification of some accessions. This study also argues for at least two centres of domestication corresponding to South-East Asia and New Guinea, respectively. Banana domestication in New Guinea probably followed different schemes that those previously reported where hybridization underpins the emergence of edible banana. In addition, our results suggest that not all wild ancestors of bananas are known, especially in M. acuminata subspecies. We also estimate the extent of the two consecutive bottlenecks in edible bananas by evaluating the number of sexual founding events underlying our sets of edible diploids and triploids, respectively. The attribution of clone identity to each sample of the sets allowed the detection of subgroups represented by several sets of clones. Although morphological characterization of some of the accessions is needed to correct potentially erroneous classifications, some of the subgroups seem polyclonal. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  12. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group cv. Berangan Roots.

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    Wan Sin Lee

    Full Text Available Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana.

  13. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Banana (Musa acuminata) Fruit Peel on Kidney and Liver Function Indices in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenta, Chidi; Okoduwa, Stanley I R; Okpe, Oche

    2017-10-23

    Background: Musa acuminata fruit peels are used in the northern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. The effects of aqueous extracts of ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa acuminata ( Saro, Ominni and Oranta ) on the hepatic and renal parameters of normal rats were examined. Methods: Fruit peel aqueous extracts (FPAE) of the 3 cultivars of Bananas (100 mg/kg b.w.) were administered by oral intubation (that is through esophageal cannula) to normal rats (140-180 g) for a period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase ALK-P), total protein, albumin, creatinine as well as urea. Results: From the results obtained, there were no significant ( p < 0.05) changes in the ALK-P, AST, ALT, total protein and albumin among the experimental rats administered FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Musa acuminata when compared with the normal control group. There was a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum creatinine (in mg/dL) (1.53 ± 0.23) when compared to the normal control (0.72 ± 0.15), Ominni (0.92 ± 0.39) and Oranta (0.74 ± 0.22). Similarly, there was a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum urea (in mg/dL) of Saro (41.56 ± 4.68) when compared to the normal control (26.05 ± 0.73), Ommini (28.44 ± 2.43) and Oranta (26.10 ± 2.94). Conclusion: The findings reveal the Saro cultivar of Musa acuminata to be nephrotoxic and not a good potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied hence should be discouraged in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases.

  14. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Banana (Musa acuminata) Fruit Peel on Kidney and Liver Function Indices in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenta, Chidi; Okpe, Oche

    2017-01-01

    Background: Musa acuminata fruit peels are used in the northern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. The effects of aqueous extracts of ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa acuminata (Saro, Ominni and Oranta) on the hepatic and renal parameters of normal rats were examined. Methods: Fruit peel aqueous extracts (FPAE) of the 3 cultivars of Bananas (100 mg/kg b.w.) were administered by oral intubation (that is through esophageal cannula) to normal rats (140–180 g) for a period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase ALK-P), total protein, albumin, creatinine as well as urea. Results: From the results obtained, there were no significant (p < 0.05) changes in the ALK-P, AST, ALT, total protein and albumin among the experimental rats administered FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Musa acuminata when compared with the normal control group. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum creatinine (in mg/dL) (1.53 ± 0.23) when compared to the normal control (0.72 ± 0.15), Ominni (0.92 ± 0.39) and Oranta (0.74 ± 0.22). Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of serum urea (in mg/dL) of Saro (41.56 ± 4.68) when compared to the normal control (26.05 ± 0.73), Ommini (28.44 ± 2.43) and Oranta (26.10 ± 2.94). Conclusion: The findings reveal the Saro cultivar of Musa acuminata to be nephrotoxic and not a good potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied hence should be discouraged in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. PMID:29065553

  15. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Three Cultivars of Banana (Musa acuminata Fruit Peel on Kidney and Liver Function Indices in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi Edenta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musa acuminata fruit peels are used in the northern part of Nigeria for the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases. The effects of aqueous extracts of ripped fruit peel of three cultivars of Musa acuminata (Saro, Ominni and Oranta on the hepatic and renal parameters of normal rats were examined. Methods: Fruit peel aqueous extracts (FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Bananas (100 mg/kg b.w. were administered by oral intubation (that is through esophageal cannula to normal rats (140–180 g for a period of 28 days. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase ALK-P, total protein, albumin, creatinine as well as urea. Results: From the results obtained, there were no significant (p < 0.05 changes in the ALK-P, AST, ALT, total protein and albumin among the experimental rats administered FPAE of the 3 cultivars of Musa acuminata when compared with the normal control group. There was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in the level of serum creatinine (in mg/dL (1.53 ± 0.23 when compared to the normal control (0.72 ± 0.15, Ominni (0.92 ± 0.39 and Oranta (0.74 ± 0.22. Similarly, there was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in the level of serum urea (in mg/dL of Saro (41.56 ± 4.68 when compared to the normal control (26.05 ± 0.73, Ommini (28.44 ± 2.43 and Oranta (26.10 ± 2.94. Conclusion: The findings reveal the Saro cultivar of Musa acuminata to be nephrotoxic and not a good potential drug candidate among the cultivars studied hence should be discouraged in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular related diseases.

  16. The Use of Alternate Ligno-cellulosic Raw Materials Banana (Musa sapientum) Ankara (Calotropis procera ) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus ) in Handmade Paper & their Blending with Waste Paper.

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The studies were made to established suitability of lingo-cellulosic raw materials namely leaf fibreBanana (Musa Sapientum), bast fibre Ankara (Calotropis Procera), & leaf fibre Pineapple (Ananas Comosus) for making pulps for handmade paper industry. This should help in providing a cost effective, good quality cellulosic raw material as an alternate to cost prohibitive traditionally used cotton hosiery waste traditionally used for manufacturing good quality handmade paper & it’s products. Th...

  17. Ionizing radiation induces mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production accompanied by upregulation of mitochondrial electron transport chain function and mitochondrial content under control of the cell cycle checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamori, Tohru; Yasui, Hironobu; Yamazumi, Masayuki; Wada, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yoshinari; Nakamura, Hideo; Inanami, Osamu

    2012-07-15

    Whereas ionizing radiation (Ir) instantaneously causes the formation of water radiolysis products that contain some reactive oxygen species (ROS), ROS are also suggested to be released from biological sources in irradiated cells. It is now becoming clear that these ROS generated secondarily after Ir have a variety of biological roles. Although mitochondria are assumed to be responsible for this Ir-induced ROS production, it remains to be elucidated how Ir triggers it. Therefore, we conducted this study to decipher the mechanism of Ir-induced mitochondrial ROS production. In human lung carcinoma A549 cells, Ir (10 Gy of X-rays) induced a time-dependent increase in the mitochondrial ROS level. Ir also increased mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial ATP production, suggesting upregulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function after Ir. Although we found that Ir slightly enhanced mitochondrial ETC complex II activity, the complex II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid failed to reduce Ir-induced mitochondrial ROS production. Meanwhile, we observed that the mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA level were upregulated after Ir, indicating that Ir increased the mitochondrial content of the cell. Because irradiated cells are known to undergo cell cycle arrest under control of the checkpoint mechanisms, we examined the relationships between cell cycle and mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level. We found that the cells in the G2/M phase had a higher mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level than cells in the G1 or S phase, regardless of whether the cells were irradiated. We also found that Ir-induced accumulation of the cells in the G2/M phase led to an increase in cells with a high mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level. This suggested that Ir upregulated mitochondrial ETC function and mitochondrial content, resulting in mitochondrial ROS production, and that

  18. Three Infectious Viral Species Lying in Wait in the Banana Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabannes, Matthieu; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Vernerey, Marie-Stéphanie; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Barbe, Valérie; Gayral, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Plant pararetroviruses integrate serendipitously into their host genomes. The banana genome harbors integrated copies of banana streak virus (BSV) named endogenous BSV (eBSV) that are able to release infectious pararetrovirus. In this investigation, we characterized integrants of three BSV species—Goldfinger (eBSGFV), Imove (eBSImV), and Obino l'Ewai (eBSOLV)—in the seedy Musa balbisiana Pisang klutuk wulung (PKW) by studying their molecular structure, genomic organization, genomic landscape, and infectious capacity. All eBSVs exhibit extensive viral genome duplications and rearrangements. eBSV segregation analysis on an F1 population of PKW combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis showed that eBSImV, eBSOLV, and eBSGFV are each present at a single locus. eBSOLV and eBSGFV contain two distinct alleles, whereas eBSImV has two structurally identical alleles. Genotyping of both eBSV and viral particles expressed in the progeny demonstrated that only one allele for each species is infectious. The infectious allele of eBSImV could not be identified since the two alleles are identical. Finally, we demonstrate that eBSGFV and eBSOLV are located on chromosome 1 and eBSImV is located on chromosome 2 of the reference Musa genome published recently. The structure and evolution of eBSVs suggest sequential integration into the plant genome, and haplotype divergence analysis confirms that the three loci display differential evolution. Based on our data, we propose a model for BSV integration and eBSV evolution in the Musa balbisiana genome. The mutual benefits of this unique host-pathogen association are also discussed. PMID:23720724

  19. Gel from unripe Musa sapientum peel to repair surgical wounds in rats Gel da casca de Musa sapientum verde no reparo de lesões operatórias em ratos

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    Dênia Amélia Novato Castelli Von Atzingen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the optimum concentration of a gel obtained from unripe banana (Musa sapientum peel for wound treatment in rats. METHODS: A randomized triple blind study was conducted with 40 Wistar rats, which were divided into 4 groups: CG, control group; G2%, 2% gel concentration group; G4%, 4% gel concentration group; and G10%, 10 % gel concentration group. The banana peel gel was applied daily, for 7 days, to a 4-cm² wound created on the back of each animal of all groups. After this period, the wounds were biopsied. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Kruskal-Wallis test complemented by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. RESULTS: Macroscopic examination revealed that partial epithelialization occurred in all groups. Wound contraction was also observed in all groups and ranged from 1.38 to 1.57 mm in the study groups, and from 1.03 to 1.10 mm in the control group, with significant differences (p OBJETIVO: Avaliar a concentração ideal do gel da casca de Musa sapientum verde no tratamento de feridas em ratos. MÉTODOS: Estudo randomizado, triplo cego, com 40 ratos da linhagem Wistar divididos em quatro grupos: GC controle, G2% gel a 2%, G4% gel a 4%, G10% gel a 10%. Realizou-se aplicação diária do gel nas diferentes concentrações, durante sete dias, em uma ferida de 4 cm² realizada no dorso de cada rato. Após este período, as lesões foram biopsiadas. Para analise dos dados utilizou-se o teste de Kruskal-Wallis complementado pelo teste de Student-Newman-Keuls. RESULTADOS: Os achados macroscópicos demonstraram reepitelização parcial em todos os grupos. A contração da área da ferida variou entre 1,38 a 1,57 mm nos grupos de estudo, e entre 1,03 a 1,10 mm no grupo controle. Houve diferença significante (p < 0,05 entre os grupos: GC e G10%, G2% e G4%, G2% e G10%, sendo o desvio interquartílico menor entre os grupos GC e G4%. CONCLUSÃO: O gel a 4% da casca de M. sapientum verde promoveu maior área de epiteliza

  20. Ligand electronic parameters as a measure of the polarization of the C≡O bond in [M(CO)(x)L(y)]n complexes and of the relative stabilization of [M(CO)(x)L(y)](n/n+1) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobi, Fabio

    2010-11-15

    The electronic description of octahedral (fac-[M(CO)(3)L(3)](n), with M = Re, Ru, and Mn, and [Cr(CO)(5)L](n)), square-planar (cis-[Pt(CO)(2)L(2)](n)), and tetrahedral ([Ni(CO)(3)L](n)) carbonyl complexes (where L = monodentate ligand) was obtained via density functional theory and natural population analyses in order to understand what effects are probed in these species by vibrational spectroscopy and electrochemistry as a function of the ligand electronic parameter of the associated L. The analysis indicates that while ligand electronic parameters may be considered as a measure of the net donor power of the ligand, the net transfer of the electron density (or charge) does not occur from the ligand to the metal ion. In [M(CO)(x)L(y)](n) carbonyl species, the charge transfer occurs from the ligand L to the oxygen atom of the bound carbon monoxides. This charge transfer translates into changes of the polarization (or permanent dipole) and the covalency of the C≡O bonds, and it is this effect that is probed in IR spectroscopy. As the analysis shifts from IR radiations to electrochemical potentials, the parameters best describe the relative thermodynamic stability of the oxidized and reduced [M(CO)(x)L(y)](n/n+1) species. No relationship is found between the metal natural charge of the [M(CO)(x)L(y)](n) fragments analyzed and the parameters. Brief considerations are given on the possible design of CO-releasing molecules.

  1. Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in three commercial fish species in the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Hassanaghaei, Mina; Moore, Farid; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Soltanian, Siyavash; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmad Reza; Sorooshian, Armin

    2018-04-01

    Five heavy metals/metalloids and related potential health risks were investigated in three commercially important fish species (Anodontostoma chacunda, Belangerii, and Cynoglossurs arel) in Musa Estuary and Mahshahr Harbour of the Persian Gulf. A total of 116 fish samples were collected, and their liver and muscle organs were separately analyzed using ICP-MS. Results revealed that studied metals concentrations (with some exceptions) varied among sampling stations, fish species and their organs. Human health risk is evaluated using different indices. The results indicated that arsenic and mercury are the most hazardous elements. Estimated daily intake (EDI) for the metals exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) for all studied fish species. Also, target risk (TR) of arsenic indicated that consumption over a long period of time may result in a carcinogenic effect. The results are expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming food products grown in particular areas. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Endangered Species

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    EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.

  3. Acclimation of shade-tolerant and light-resistant Tradescantia species to growth light: chlorophyll a fluorescence, electron transport, and xanthophyll content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishanin, Vladimir I; Trubitsin, Boris V; Patsaeva, Svetlana V; Ptushenko, Vasily V; Solovchenko, Alexei E; Tikhonov, Alexander N

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we have compared the photosynthetic characteristics of two contrasting species of Tradescantia plants, T. fluminensis (shade-tolerant species), and T. sillamontana (light-resistant species), grown under the low light (LL, 50-125 µmol photons m -2  s -1 ) or high light (HL, 875-1000 µmol photons m -2  s -1 ) conditions during their entire growth period. For monitoring the functional state of photosynthetic apparatus (PSA), we measured chlorophyll (Chl) a emission fluorescence spectra and kinetics of light-induced changes in the heights of fluorescence peaks at 685 and 740 nm (F 685 and F 740 ). We also compared the light-induced oxidation of P 700 and assayed the composition of carotenoids in Tradescantia leaves grown under the LL and HL conditions. The analyses of slow induction of Chl a fluorescence (SIF) uncovered different traits in the LL- and HL-grown plants of ecologically contrasting Tradescantia species, which may have potential ecophysiological significance with respect to their tolerance to HL stress. The fluorometry and EPR studies of induction events in chloroplasts in situ demonstrated that acclimation of both Tradescantia species to HL conditions promoted faster responses of their PSA as compared to LL-grown plants. Acclimation of both species to HL also caused marked changes in the leaf anatomy and carotenoid composition (an increase in Violaxanthin + Antheraxantin + Zeaxanthin and Lutein pools), suggesting enhanced photoprotective capacity of the carotenoids in the plants grown in nature under high irradiance. Collectively, the results of the present work suggest that the mechanisms of long-term PSA photoprotection in Tradescantia are based predominantly on the light-induced remodeling of pigment-protein complexes in chloroplasts.

  4. Culture de suspensions cellulaires embryogéniques et régénération en plantules par embryogenèse somatique chez le bananier et le bananier plantain Musa spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhed'a, D.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenie cell suspension and plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in bananas and plantains Musa spp. Embryogenie cell suspensions have been initiated using explants from meristematic shoot-tips (scalps. The culture medium has been a modified Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented, according to the steps of culture, with 5fiM 2, 4-D, 1-10//M BAPorzeatin. The suspensions obtained for 5 banana varieties have regenerated plants through somatic embryogenesis. Embryogenie cell suspensions have proved to be the material of choice for cryopreservation, protoplast isolation and culture and for genetic manipulation of Musa for resistance to diseases.

  5. Iniciación y multiplicación in vitro de tres variedades de Musa spp. Cvs.: ‘Cambur manzano’, ‘Topocho criollo’ y ‘Gran enano’ in vitro | Initiation and propagation of three cultivars of Musa spp. Cvs.: ‘Apple banana’, ‘Bluggoe banana’ and ‘Grand nain’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Porteles

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the most common Musaceae in Venezuela are the plantain ‘Giant Harton’ (Musa AAB, banana (Musa AAA subgroup ‘Cavendish’, ‘Cambur Manzano’ (‘Apple Banana’ (Musa AAB and ‘Topocho Criollo’ (‘Bluggoe Banana’ (Musa ABB. The objective of this study was to generate plantlets of ‘Cambur Manzano’, ‘Topocho Criollo’ and ‘Grand Nain’ (Cavendish subgroup, fruits of economic importance in Venezuela. Micropropagation was conducted in two phases: initiation and multiplication. In the initiation phase, caulinary apexes of 5 to 8 mm long were cultivated in liquid culture media with Heller bridge support (M1 and in semi-solid (M2 media. The liquid culture means offered better results, since a survival of 73.3% and a lower percentage of necrosis (0.42% was obtained. By contrast, using the semi-solid medium, the lowest values of survival (43.7 and increased necrosis explants (27.7 were recorded. Banana cultivars ‘Manzano’, ‘Topocho Criollo’ and ‘Grand Nain’ had similar percentages of survival, necrosis and pollution in the initiation phase. In the multiplication phase, explants consisting outbreaks 3 cm in length were taken. To evaluate the influence of the sub-culture of explants in the number of shoots, it was observed that sub-cultures had no influence on the number of outbreaks of ‘Manzano’ and ‘Topocho Criollo’. However, in ‘Grand Nain’, a trend was observed toward their increase by rising the subcultures. In the multiplication phase, cultivars and subcultures did not affect survival, necrosis and pollution rates.

  6. The Raman effect and its application to electronic spectroscopies in metal-centered species : Techniques and investigations in ground and excited states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, W.R.; J. McGarvey, J.

    In the decades since its discovery and somewhat limited early applications, Raman scattering has become the basis for the development of a variety of methods for probing molecular structure both in ground and electronically excited states. In this review, following a brief look at the underlying

  7. Low temperature–scanning electron microscopy to evaluate morphology and predation of Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae: Tetranychus species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper evaluates the potential usefulness of low temperature-scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM) to evaluate morphology and predation behavior of the six-spotted thrips (Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande) against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae (Koch)). Morphological features...

  8. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress. PMID:23730557

  9. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  10. Determination of optimum harvest maturity and physico-chemical quality of Rastali banana (Musa AAB Rastali) during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheng, Tee Yei; Ding, Phebe; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini

    2012-01-15

    A series of physico-chemical quality (peel and pulp colours, pulp firmness, fruit pH, sugars and acids content, respiration rate and ethylene production) were conducted to study the optimum harvest periods (either week 11 or week 12 after emergence of the first hand) of Rastali banana (Musa AAB Rastali) based on the fruit quality during ripening. Rastali banana fruit exhibited a climacteric rise with the peaks of both CO(2) and ethylene production occurring simultaneously at day 3 after ripening was initiated and declined at day 5 when fruits entered the senescence stage. De-greening was observed in both of the harvesting weeks with peel turned from green to yellow, tissue softening, and fruits became more acidic and sweeter as ripening progressed. Sucrose, fructose and glucose were the main sugars found while malic, citric and succinic acids were the main organic acids found in the fruit. Rastali banana harvested at weeks 11 and 12 can be considered as commercial harvest period when the fruits have developed good organoleptic and quality attributes during ripening. However, Rastali banana fruit at more mature stage of harvest maturity taste slightly sweeter and softer with higher ethylene production which also means the fruits may undergo senescence faster than fruit harvested at week 11. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Spread of Cooking Bananas (Musa spp., genome ABB in a Traditional Plantain-Growing Area in Southeast Nigeria

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    Ezedinma, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the level and rate of spread of cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome to determine their success among the farmers. They were introduced in Southeastern Nigeria in the mid-1980s by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease on plantains. Data were collected, using a structured questionnaire, from 285 randomly selected farmers in 76 villages. Results of the study indicate that about 60% of the respondents have given out suckers to other fellow-farmers. On average, every "diffuser" distributed 8 cooking banana suckers to 5 new fellow-farmers. Primary and secondary diffusions accounted for 59% and 61% respectively; while inter-village diffusion accounted for about 50% of the movement of the suckers. The study also found that the demand for the crop has been increasing since its introduction in the region. These results indicate a high level of diffusion of the crop considering its newness in the region and that it is well accepted. They also suggest that the crop has the potential of supplementing plantain in food and income generation for the farmers in the region.

  12. Evaluation of physico-chemical and antioxidant properties in different varieties of banana (musa acuminata), indigenous to pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizuddin, A.; Ghafoor, S.; Mahmood, T.

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity, phenolic and flavonoid contents, and physico-chemical analysis on the pulp of three different varieties of Musa acuminata, were studied namely Cavendish basrai, Grand naine and Plantain, collected from Gharo, Adam Khas Kheli Road near Karachi (Pakistan). DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, reducing power (RPA) and phosphomolybdenum assays were used for determination of their antioxidant capacity. Cavendish basrai characterized the highest antioxidant capacity among three varieties, DPPH (82.46 % inhibition at 0.1 mM conc.), RPA (43.59 mg/100 g) and phosphomolybdenum (38.90 mg/100 g) in methanolic extract and DPPH (67.27 % inhibition at 0.1 mM conc.), RPA (27.03 mg/100 g) and phosphomolybdenum (24.27 mg/100 g) in water extract. The phenolic (83.04 mg/100 g, 19.50 mg/100 g) and flavonoid contents (11.66 mg/100 g, 4.77 mg/100 g) were also high in Cavendish basrai in methanolic and water extracts, respectively showed the direct relation of antioxidant capacity to the phenolic and flavonoid contents, and the DPPH assay revealed more power full assay for determination of antioxidant capacity among these assays. In correlation with antioxidant capacity, Plantain showed comparatively high physico-chemical characteristics revealed high nutritional contents such as total dry matter, total sugar contents, TSS, titratable acidity and % NaCl. (author)

  13. Effect of plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. cv. Dominico Harton peel flour as binder in frankfurter-type sausage

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    Gilver Rosero Chasoy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Agroindustrial residues such as plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. cv. Dominico Harton peel have functional properties, which made them suitable for use as a food ingredient. The aim of this research was to evaluate plantain peel flour (PPF as a binder in the production of frankfurter- type sausage. Five formulations were prepared in which wheat flour (WF was replaced by PPF as follows: 25%, 50%, 70% and 100%, respectively. Once the sausages are obtained, the water retention capacity (WRC, emulsifying stability (ES, and pH, were evaluated. When comparing treatments with the control sample, it was found that replacing up to 50% of WF by PPF, significantly increased WRC by 7.5%. When replacing 25%, Es, there were no statistically significant changes among treatments. When replacing 100%, the product pH, was significantly decreased. The results indicated, the sausages made with 50% of PPF, retain the formulation water, which is why the PPF has potential for this type of sausage manufacture. PPF could replace WF up to 25% in the frankfurter formulation, without affecting ES and pH and favoring WRC.

  14. The lectin from Musa paradisiaca binds with the capsid protein of tobacco mosaic virus and prevents viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yu; Li, Huan; Zhang, Wei

    2014-05-04

    It has been demonstrated that the lectin from Musa paradisiaca (BanLec-1) could inhibit the cellular entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to evaluate its effects on tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), the banlec-1 gene was cloned and transformed into Escherichia coli and tobacco, respectively. Recombinant BanLec-1 showed metal ions dependence, and higher thermal and pH stability. Overexpression of banlec-1 in tobacco resulted in decreased leaf size, and higher resistance to TMV infection, which includes reduced TMV cellular entry, more stable chlorophyll contents, and enhanced antioxidant enzymes. BanLec-1 was found to bind directly to the TMV capsid protein in vitro , and to inhibit TMV infection in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to limited prevention in vivo , purified rBanLec-1 exhibited more significant effects on TMV infection in vitro . Taken together, our study indicated that BanLec-1 could prevent TMV infection in tobacco, probably through the interaction between BanLec-1 and TMV capsid protein.

  15. Role of gastric antioxidant and anti-Helicobactor pylori activities in antiulcerogenic activity of plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, R K; Sairam, K; Rao, C V

    2001-07-01

    Studies with plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) have indicated its ulcer protective and healing activities through its predominant effect on various mucosal defensive factors [Sanyal et.al, Arch Int Pharmacodyn, 149 (1964) 393; 155 (1965) 244]. Oxidative stress and Helicobactorpylori colonization are considered to be important factors in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers. In the present study methanolic extract of plantain banana pulp (BE) was evaluated for its (i) antiulcer and antioxidant activities in 2 hr cold restraint stress and (ii) anti-H.pylori activity in vitro. The extract (BE, 50 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days) showed significant antiulcer effect and antioxidant activity in gastric mucosal homogenates, where it reversed the increase in ulcer index, lipid peroxidation and super oxide dismutase values induced by stress. However it did not produce any change in catalase values, which was significantly decreased by stress. Further, in the in vitro study. BE (0.32-1,000 microg/ml) did not show any anti-H.pylori activity. The results suggest absence of anti-H. pyloric activity of methanolic extract of banana in vitro and its antioxidant activity may be involved in its ulcerprotective activity.

  16. Constituents of Musa x paradisiaca cultivar with the potential to induce the phase II enzyme, quinone reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dae Sik; Park, Eun Jung; Hawthorne, Michael E; Vigo, Jose Schunke; Graham, James G; Cabieses, Fernando; Santarsiero, Bernard D; Mesecar, Andrew D; Fong, Harry H S; Mehta, Rajendra G; Pezzuto, John M; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2002-10-23

    A new bicyclic diarylheptanoid, rel-(3S,4aR,10bR)-8-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-9-methoxy-4a,5,6,10b-tetrahydro-3H-naphtho[2,1-b]pyran (1), as well as four known compounds, 1,2-dihydro-1,2,3-trihydroxy-9-(4-methoxyphenyl)phenalene (2), hydroxyanigorufone (3), 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)naphthalic anhydride (4), and 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)hepta-4(E),6(E)-dien-3-one (5), were isolated from an ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the fruits of Musa x paradisiaca cultivar, using a bioassay based on the induction of quinone reductase (QR) in cultured Hepa1c1c7 mouse hepatoma cells to monitor chromatographic fractionation. The structure and relative stereochemistry of compound 1 were elucidated unambiguously by one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Isolates 1-5 were evaluated for their potential cancer chemopreventive properties utilizing an in vitro assay to determine quinone reductase induction and a mouse mammary organ culture assay.

  17. Effects of Unripe Musa Paradisiaca on the Histochemistry of the Testis and Testosterone Levels in Adult Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, A S; Omotosho, G O; Tagoe, C N B; Akinola, O B; Enaibe, B U

    2017-06-30

    This study was aimed at determining the effects of the unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca on the testis andtestosterone levels in male Wistar rats. The animals were grouped into three, comprising a control, and 2 treatment groupsadministered with different doses (500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg) daily of the fruit flour over 28 days. Histochemical evaluationof the testes was done using Haematoxylin and Eosin, Periodic acid Schiff's (PAS) and Feulgen staining techniques, whilethe serum and homogenised testicular tissue were evaluated for testosterone levels using Accu-Bind ELISA Kit. The testisof the treated groups showed more rapidly dividing cells and more population of sperm cells compared to the control group,and also showed more positivity for Feulgen staining and PAS reaction. Both serum and testicular testosterone levels werehowever reduced. Serum testosterone was significantly lowered in the animals given the low dose (0.67 ± 0.03 ng/ml),compared to those given high dose (0.85 ± 0.02 ng/ml) and the control animals (1.88 ± 0.15 ng/ml) (p paradisiaca fruit has reproductiveenhancing potential when consumed moderately, but this benefit may not be related to testosterone levels.

  18. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIINFLAMASI EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN PISANG AMBON (Musa paradisiaca L. TERHADAP TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus L. YANG DIINDUKSI KARAGENAN

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    Sukmawati Sukmawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-inflammatory activity test of ethanolic extract of banana leaf (Musa Paradisiaca L. on carrageenan-induced paw edema in white male rats (Rattus novergicus L. has been conducted. It was aimed to investigate and to determine the anti-inflammatory activity and its effective dose. The extract was prepared by maceration method using ethanol 96%. Anti-inflammatory activity test was performed in five different groups. Each group consisted of 5 rats. The 1st group (negative control was given 0.5% CMC-Na suspension; the 2nd group (positive control was given diclofenac sodium 9 mg/KgBW; the 3rd, 4th, and 5th groups were successively given the banana leaf extract as much as 500, 750 and 1000 mg/KgBW. Each rat was then induced by 1% carrageenan and tested using subplantar method.  The inflamed paw diameter was measured using a calliper while the inflamed paw volume using pletysmometer. The measurements were done for 6 hours long with intervals of 60 minutes. The data was statistically analyzed using ANOVA (analysis of variance. The results showed that the negative control had a significant difference with the other treatment groups which did not show any anti-inflammatory effect. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of banana leaf has effective anti-inflammatory activity at a dose of 750 mg/KgBW

  19. Cu2+ triggers reversible aggregation of a disordered His-rich dehydrin MpDhn12 from Musa paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Peiqiang; Feng, Dongru; Su, Jianbin; Zhang, Yang; Dai, Jinran; Jin, Honglei; Liu, Bing; He, Yanming; Qi, Kangbiao; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Jinfa

    2011-11-01

    Copper is an essential nutrient, but it is toxic in excess. Here, we cloned and characterized a His-rich low molecular weight dehydrin from Musa paradisiaca, MpDhn12. Analysis by circular dichroism (CD) spectra and a thermal stability assay showed that MpDhn12 is an intrinsically disordered protein, and immobilized-metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) analysis revealed that MpDhn12 can bind Cu(2+) both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, MpDhn12 aggregated under excess Cu(2+) conditions, and the aggregation was reversible and impaired by histidine modification with diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC), while the disordered structure of another dehydrin ERD14 (as a control) was not changed. Furthermore, MpDhn12 could complement the copper-sensitive phenotype of yeast mutant Δsod1. These results together suggested that MpDhn12 may take part in buffering copper levels through chelation and formation of aggregates in excess Cu(2+) conditions. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report that a dehydrin interchanged between disordered and aggregated state triggered by copper.

  20. Unusual sugar specificity of banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca and its probable evolutionary origin. Crystallographic and modelling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D D; Saikrishnan, K; Kumar, Prashant; Surolia, A; Sekar, K; Vijayan, M

    2005-10-01

    The crystal structure of a complex of methyl-alpha-D-mannoside with banana lectin from Musa paradisiaca reveals two primary binding sites in the lectin, unlike in other lectins with beta-prism I fold which essentially consists of three Greek key motifs. It has been suggested that the fold evolved through successive gene duplication and fusion of an ancestral Greek key motif. In other lectins, all from dicots, the primary binding site exists on one of the three motifs in the three-fold symmetric molecule. Banana is a monocot, and the three motifs have not diverged enough to obliterate sequence similarity among them. Two Greek key motifs in it carry one primary binding site each. A common secondary binding site exists on the third Greek key. Modelling shows that both the primary sites can support 1-2, 1-3, and 1-6 linked mannosides with the second residue interacting in each case primarily with the secondary binding site. Modelling also readily leads to a bound branched mannopentose with the nonreducing ends of the two branches anchored at the two primary binding sites, providing a structural explanation for the lectin's specificity for branched alpha-mannans. A comparison of the dimeric banana lectin with other beta-prism I fold lectins, provides interesting insights into the variability in their quaternary structure.

  1. Rheological Behavior, Granule Size Distribution and Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Cross-Linked Banana (Musa paradisiaca) Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Santiago, María C.; Maristany-Cáceres, Amira J.; Suárez, Francisco J. García; Bello-Pérez, Arturo

    2008-07-01

    Rheological behavior at 60 °C, granule size distribution and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) tests were employed to study the effect of diverse reaction conditions: adipic acid concentration, pH and temperature during cross-linking of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch. These properties were determined in native banana starch pastes for the purpose of comparison. Rheological behavior from pastes of cross-linked starch at 60 °C did not show hysteresis, probably due the cross-linkage of starch that avoided disruption of granules, elsewhere, native starch showed hysteresis in a thixotropic loop. All pastes exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. In all cases, size distribution showed a decrease in the median diameter in cross-linked starches. This condition produces a decrease in swelling capacity of cross-linked starch. The median diameter decreased with an increase of acid adipic concentration; however, an increase of pH and Temperature produced an increase in this variable. Finally, an increase in gelatinization temperature and entalphy (ΔH) were observed as an effect of cross-linkage. An increase in acid adipic concentration produced an increase in Tonset and a decrease in ΔH. pH and temperature. The cross-linked of banana starch produced granules more resistant during the pasting procedure.

  2. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe(2+) chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress.

  3. EFEK ANTIDIABETES EKSTRAK AIR KULIT BUAH PISANG AMBON (Musa paradisiaca L. TERHADAP MENCIT (Mus musculus MODEL HIPERGLIKEMIA

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    Sri Indrawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pisang Ambon (Musa paradisiaca L. is one type of bananas usually consumed by Indonesian people. Besides its flesh which has high nutrition, its peels also has antioxidant activity. Antioxidants has the ability to reduce oxidative damage in people’s body with diabetes mellitus. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of the aqueous  extract of Pisang Ambon peels and to determine it’s effective dose as an antidiabetic agent in hyperglycemic mice. This study used male mice which all have been intravenously induced with alloxan at a dose of 50 mg/kgBW. They were then divided into five groups. The first two groups got Na CMC 0.5% (negative control and glibenclamide 0.65 mg/kgBW (positive control, while the other three got  the aqueous  extract of Pisang Ambon peels successively at doses of 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kgBW. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance at 95% confidence interval with parameter of blood glucose levels difference between before and after treatment. The results showed that the aqueous extract of Pisang Ambon peels had antidiabetic activity at an effective dose of 400 mg/kgBW in hyperglycemic mice which was comparable to glibenclamide

  4. Pengaruh Kombinasi Pemupukan Terhadap Pertumbuhan Pisang Kepok Kuning (Musa acuminata × M. balbisiana Pada Lahan Kering di Banyumas, Jawa Tengah

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    Saktiyono Sigit Tri Pamungkas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kepok Kuning banana (Musa acuminate × M.balbisiana is a banana which has a good adaptability tothe water shortage conditions. The banana has cultivatedin watershed of Tajum river, Banyumas. The place haspotential to be centre of Yellow Kepok banana productionbut the farmers occasionally applied fertilizer unbalancedwhich effect to productivity and quality of banana. It isnecessary to examine proportion of fertilizers to determinethe effective and effi cient fertilizer composition whichincreased productivity and quality of banana.The experiment was conducted on Gentawangi dryland farm, Jatilawang, Banyumas on January-June 2009. Theexperiment was laid out in randomized block design with12 replications and involving single factor. It consistedof 5 treatments The Banana was planted in pattern 3 m x3 m. Results showed that banana required both of organicfertilizers and inorganic in vegetative stage. The treatmentof Urea 150 g + 100 g + SP36 compost 10 kg/tree/applicationshowed the effi cient compared to other, followed bytreatment of ZA 150 g + SP36 KCl 150 g + 50 g/tree/application. Combination of Urea and ZA without organicfertilizer indicated uneffi cient compared to others

  5. Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Jiang, Shuang; Lin, Guimei; Cai, Jianghua; Ye, Xiaoxi; Chen, Houbin; Li, Minhui; Li, Huaping; Takác, Tomás; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)-Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium.

  6. Identification and evaluation of two diagnostic markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance (race 4) in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Yulin; Sun, Dequan; Staehelin, Christian; Xin, Dawei; Xie, Jianghui

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4) results in vascular tissue damage and ultimately death of banana (Musa spp.) plants. Somaclonal variants of in vitro micropropagated banana can hamper success in propagation of genotypes resistant to FOC4. Early identification of FOC4 resistance in micropropagated banana plantlets is difficult, however. In this study, we identified sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of banana associated with resistance to FOC4. Using pooled DNA from resistant or susceptible genotypes and 500 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers, 24 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) products were identified. Two of these RAPD markers were successfully converted to SCAR markers, called ScaU1001 (GenBank accession number HQ613949) and ScaS0901 (GenBank accession number HQ613950). ScaS0901 and ScaU1001 could be amplified in FOC4-resistant banana genotypes ("Williams 8818-1" and Goldfinger), but not in five tested banana cultivars susceptible to FOC4. The two SCAR markers were then used to identify a somaclonal variant of the genotype "Williams 8818-1", which lost resistance to FOC4. Hence, the identified SCAR markers can be applied for a rapid quality control of FOC4-resistant banana plantlets immediately after the in vitro micropropagation stage. Furthermore, ScaU1001 and ScaS0901 will facilitate marker-assisted selection of new banana cultivars resistant to FOC4.

  7. Cultivo in - vitro para la propagación y conservación de germoplasma de Musa

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    Dávila l

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available El laboratorio de Cultivo de Tejidos de la UNAN-León realiza la clonación de 15 variedades de Musáceas mejoradas genéticamente, proporcionadas por la Universidad Católica de Leuven (KULeuven, que muestran resistencia a la Sigatoka negra, una de las principales plagas que afectan el cultivo de banano y plátano. Para la micropropagación de las variedades se utiliza un medio Murashige y Skoog suplementado con 10-2 mM de BAP y 10-3 mM de ALA para multiplicación y 10-3 mM de BAP y 10-3 mM de AIA para regeneración. Se estableció una colección in vitro a mediano plazo de germoplasma de Musa para conservar la variabilidad genética indispensable para iniciar programas de mejoramiento genético y seguridad alimentaria.

  8. In vitro multiplication of plantain cv. ‘INIVIT PV-2011’ (Musa AAB in Temporary Immersion System

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    Milagros Basail Pérez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The work was developed in the laboratory of Plant Biotechnology at Instituto de Investigaciones de Viandas Tropicales (INIVIT with the aim of multiplying the plantain cultivar ‘INIVIT PV-2011’ (Musa AAB in Temporary Immersion Systems (10.0 liters Nalgene bottles. The effect of immersion time (10, 20 and 30 minutes, the frequency of immersion (three, six and eight hours, the volume of culture medium per explant (20, 40, 60 and 80 ml, subculture time (15, 18, 21 and 25 days and the inoculum density explants per bottle (20, 40, 60 and 80 explants / culture flask were determined. The results allowed to establish an immersion time of 10 minutes with a frequency of immersion every three hours, 60 explants per bottle, 60 ml of culture medium and subculture explant at 18 days for multiplying this cultivar. A multiplication coefficient of 8.5 and plant material with suitable characteristics were obtained. Keywords: explants density, immersion frequencies, immersion time, multiplication

  9. Characterisation of colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Sahak, Shamsiah; Zakaria, Maziah; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2009-12-01

    A total of 13 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from different banana cultivars (Musa spp.) with symptoms of anthracnose. Colletotrichum isolates from anthracnose of guava (Psidium guajava) and water apple (Syzygium aqueum) were also included in this study. Based on cultural and morphological characteristics, isolates from banana and guava were identified as Colletotrichum musae and from water apple as Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. Isolates of C. musae from banana and guava had similar banding patterns in a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with four random primers, and they clustered together in a UPGMA analysis. C. gloeosporiodes from water apple was clustered in a separate cluster. Based on the present study, C. musae was frequently isolated from anthracnose of different banana cultivars and the RAPD banding patterns of C. musae isolates were highly similar but showed intraspecific variations.

  10. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of Unionicola tetrafurcatus (Acari: Unionicolidae) infecting four freshwater bivalve species with referring to histopathological effect on its hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Fol, Mona; Al Quraishy, Saleh

    2018-05-08

    Water mites of the genus Unionicola are the most common symbionts of freshwater bivalves. During the current investigation, a total of 120 live freshwater mussels [Corbicula fluminea (Veneroida), Coelatura aegyptiaca (Unionoidea) Mutela rostrata and Chambardia rubens (Mutelidae)], were collected from 2 localities in Tura (Helwan Governorate) and El Kanater (Qaluobiya Governorate), Egypt. Only 3 of the 4 bivalve species listed are considered freshwater bivalves (members of Unionoidea). While, C. fluminea belong to the family Cyrenidae within Veneroida. The collected mussels were dissected and examined for the presence of unionicolid mites. It was found that 30.83% (37/120) were infected with a single mite species Unionicola tetrafurcatus (Unionicolidae). The highest prevalence was observed during the summer with 83.33% (25/30), whereas the least was observed in autumn, i.e. 33.33% (10/30). Mites were recovered from the gills, gonads, and visceral mass of mussel hosts. gills of host mussels were the primary site of oviposition for unionicola mites. Smaller bivalves in size had significantly greater numbers of mites than larger ones in size. Numbers of mites per host species was variable and the highest prevalence level of 83.33% (25/30) was recorded in C. fluminea, while, the lowest one of 16.66% (5/30) was found in C. rubens. Morphological and morphometric characterizations of mites revealed some differences between the present species and other related Unionicola. Histopathological responses of host mussels to the eggs, larvae, and cuticular remnants of U. tetrafurcatus were also studied. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that freshwater bivalves have a new host and locality records for infection with U. tetrafurcatus. Future studies are recommended to include advanced molecular characteristics for these mites.

  11. Nanoscale investigation of the degradation mechanism of a historical chrome yellow paint by quantitative electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping of chromium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Haiyan; Tian, He; Verbeeck, Jo; Monico, Letizia; Janssens, Koen; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2013-10-18

    Getting the picture: The investigation of 100 year old chrome yellow paint by transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy has led to the identification of four types of core-shell particles. This nanoscale investigation has allowed a mechanism to be proposed for the darkening of some bright yellow colors in Van Gogh's paintings (e.g. in Falling leaves (Les Alyscamps), 1888). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Spectral studies of intermediate species formed in one-electron reactions of bovine liver catalase at room and low temperatures. A comparison with peroxidase reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metodiewa, D.; Dunford, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    The reactions of native bovine catalase with superoxide and solvated electrons have been investigated using three different methods for generating these reducing substrates: γ-radiolysis of oxygenated or deaerated buffer solutions in the presence of an OH radical scavenger; either xanthine or acetaldehyde with xanthine oxidase; and low-temperature (77 K) γ-radiolysis of buffered ethylene glycol/water solutions with subsequent annealing of samples at 183 K. (Author)

  13. Características del análisis proximal de harinas obtenidas de frutos de plátanos variedades Papocho y Pelipita (Musa ABB Simmonds)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Juan Espitia-Pérez; Yuri Janio Pardo-Plaza; Alba Patricia Montalvo-Puente

    2013-01-01

    En el estudio se hizo un análisis proximal de las harinas crudas sin tratar obtenidas de frutos de las variedades de plátano Papocho y Pelipita (Musa ABB Simmonds) no comerciales en diferentes etapas de desarrollo y se analizó su posible uso como materia prima alimenticia. Los resultados comparativos mostraron que los contenidos y porcentajes de fibra cruda en Papocho variaron entre 2.54 y 1.37% y en Pelipita entre 6.45 y 0.88%, la proteína cruda en Papocho entre 6.70 y 3.81% y en Pelipita en...

  14. (2R,5S)-Theaspirane Identified as the Kairomone for the Banana Weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, from Attractive Senesced Leaves of the Host Banana, Musa spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abagale, Samson A; Woodcock, Christine M; Hooper, Antony M; Caulfield, John C; Withall, David; Chamberlain, Keith; Acquaah, Samuel O; Van Emden, Helmut; Braimah, Haruna; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2018-04-12

    The principal active component produced by highly attractive senesced host banana leaves, Musa spp., for the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, is shown by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAG), coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), chemical synthesis and coupled enantioselective (chiral) GC-EAG to be (2R,5S)-theaspirane. In laboratory behaviour tests, the synthetic compound is as attractive as natural host leaf material and presents a new opportunity for pest control. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Incidencia de Chrysobothris sp. en cedro (Cedrela odorata) y caoba (Swietenia humilis) con o sin asocio a guineo (Musa balbissiana ABB) en Rivas, Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Sequeira, N Yilber; Bustos-Pérez, Irnan; González-Martínez, Álvaro José; Chavarría-Ñamendi, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    Se analizó la incidencia de Chrysobothris sp. en cedro (Cedrela odorata) y caoba (Swietenia humilis) durante el periodo entre febrero a noviembre de 2014 bajo un Sistema Agroforestal “Taungya” en el departamento de Rivas, Nicaragua. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas de Chrysobothris sp. en cedro y caoba asociados o no asociados a guineo (Musa balbissiana ABB). La preferencia de Chrysobothris sp. fue tres veces mayor en cedro que caoba. El daño de la larva en el tallo p...

  16. In vitro multiplication of plantain cv. ‘INIVIT PV-2011’ (Musa AAB) in Temporary Immersion System

    OpenAIRE

    Milagros Basail Pérez; Victor Medero Vega; Yenisey Gutiérrez Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    The work was developed in the laboratory of Plant Biotechnology at Instituto de Investigaciones de Viandas Tropicales (INIVIT) with the aim of multiplying the plantain cultivar ‘INIVIT PV-2011’ (Musa AAB) in Temporary Immersion Systems (10.0 liters Nalgene bottles). The effect of immersion time (10, 20 and 30 minutes), the frequency of immersion (three, six and eight hours), the volume of culture medium per explant (20, 40, 60 and 80 ml), subculture time (15, 18, 21 and 25 days) and the inocu...

  17. Efecto del deshoje inducido sobre la productividad del plátano (Musa AAB) cv. Hartón y la incidencia de sigatoka negra (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet)

    OpenAIRE

    Güerere-Pereira, P; Martínez, L; Fuenmayor, L

    2008-01-01

    Para evaluar el deshoje inducido sobre la productividad del plátano (Musa AAB cv. Hartón), se hizo un estudio en el municipio Colón, estado Zulia. Se seleccionaron 16 plantas de plátano en su primera semana de floración. Los tratamientos consistieron en realizar el deshoje de tal forma de dejar plantas con seis hojas (T1), plantas con ocho hojas (T2), plantas con 10 hojas (T3) y plantas sin deshojar como testigo, con 12 hojas o más (T4), para un total de cuatro tratamientos con cuatro plantas...

  18. Variabilidade genética de genótipos de bananeira (Musa spp submetidos ao estresse salino Genetic variability of banana (Musa spp genotypes subjected to saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline W. F. Gomes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o segundo maior produtor mundial de bananas, sendo Pernambuco o estado que apresenta maior expansão da cultura na região do perímetro irrigado do Vale do São Francisco em cujas áreas, porém, são freqüentes os problemas de salinização do solo o que se pode tornar um fator limitante para a cultura. A utilização de cultivares tolerantes à salinidade apresenta-se como uma alternativa bastante viável; assim, identificar genótipos que se adaptem a solos salinos da Região Nordeste, é de fundamental importância para os programas de melhoramento. Este trabalho teve por finalidade utilizar marcadores moleculares, obtidos por amplificação de DNA via Reação em Cadeia polimerase (PCR com iniciadores (primers de RAPD, para determinar a variabilidade genética entre dez genótipos de banana (Musa spp: Pacovan, Nanicão, Caipira, FHIA18, Calcuttá, SN/2, Borneo, M-53, Microcarpa e Lidi, correlacionando-os com a tolerância ao estresse salino. Foram testados 25 primers. O iniciador D0142A07 gerou o maior número de loci polimórficos, enquanto o D0142B05 originou o menor. Em geral, o polimorfismo gerado com os marcadores de DNA mostrou que, apesar da base genética estreita, no caso das que são formadas pelo mesmo grupo genômico, os genótipos de bananeira apresentam variabilidade genética relativamente alta. As variedades que apresentaram maior tolerância ao estresse salino, como a Pacovan e SN/2, mostraram-se distantes geneticamente, quando comparadas com as mais sensíveis ao sal, como Calcuttá e Lidi.Brazil is the second lagest banana producer. The State of Pernambuco has presented the greatest expansion of banana cultivation in the irrigated perimeters of the São Francisco Valley. In these areas, however, there are frequent problems with high salt content in the soil, which could turn out to be a major limiting factor to its cultivation. The utilization of cultivars tolerant to saline conditions is a rather viable

  19. Aurora musas nutrit. Die Jesuiten und die Kultur Mitteleuropas im 16.-18. Jahrhundert. Internationale interdisziplinäre Konferenz, Bratislava, 26.-28. září 2007

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škarpová, Marie; Kapsa, Václav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 45, 3-4 (2008) ISSN 0018-7003. [Aurora musas nutrit. Die Jesuiten und die Kultur Mitteleuropas im 16.-18. Jahrhundert. Bratislava, 26.09.2007-29.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : music * conferences * report Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  20. Extension of a Kinetic Approach to Chemical Reactions to Electronic Energy Levels and Reactions Involving Charged Species with Application to DSMC Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to compute rarefied, ionized hypersonic flows is becoming more important as missions such as Earth reentry, landing high mass payloads on Mars, and the exploration of the outer planets and their satellites are being considered. Recently introduced molecular-level chemistry models that predict equilibrium and nonequilibrium reaction rates using only kinetic theory and fundamental molecular properties are extended in the current work to include electronic energy level transitions and reactions involving charged particles. These extensions are shown to agree favorably with reported transition and reaction rates from the literature for near-equilibrium conditions. Also, the extensions are applied to the second flight of the Project FIRE flight experiment at 1634 seconds with a Knudsen number of 0.001 at an altitude of 76.4 km. In order to accomplish this, NASA's direct simulation Monte Carlo code DAC was rewritten to include the ability to simulate charge-neutral ionized flows, take advantage of the recently introduced chemistry model, and to include the extensions presented in this work. The 1634 second data point was chosen for comparisons to be made in order to include a CFD solution. The Knudsen number at this point in time is such that the DSMC simulations are still tractable and the CFD computations are at the edge of what is considered valid because, although near-transitional, the flow is still considered to be continuum. It is shown that the inclusion of electronic energy levels in the DSMC simulation is necessary for flows of this nature and is required for comparison to the CFD solution. The flow field solutions are also post-processed by the nonequilibrium radiation code HARA to compute the radiative portion.

  1. Extension of a Kinetic Approach to Chemical Reactions to Electronic Energy Levels and Reactions Involving Charged Species With Application to DSMC Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to compute rarefied, ionized hypersonic flows is becoming more important as missions such as Earth reentry, landing high mass payloads on Mars, and the exploration of the outer planets and their satellites are being considered. Recently introduced molecular-level chemistry models that predict equilibrium and nonequilibrium reaction rates using only kinetic theory and fundamental molecular properties are extended in the current work to include electronic energy level transitions and reactions involving charged particles. These extensions are shown to agree favorably with reported transition and reaction rates from the literature for nearequilibrium conditions. Also, the extensions are applied to the second flight of the Project FIRE flight experiment at 1634 seconds with a Knudsen number of 0.001 at an altitude of 76.4 km. In order to accomplish this, NASA's direct simulation Monte Carlo code DAC was rewritten to include the ability to simulate charge-neutral ionized flows, take advantage of the recently introduced chemistry model, and to include the extensions presented in this work. The 1634 second data point was chosen for comparisons to be made in order to include a CFD solution. The Knudsen number at this point in time is such that the DSMC simulations are still tractable and the CFD computations are at the edge of what is considered valid because, although near-transitional, the flow is still considered to be continuum. It is shown that the inclusion of electronic energy levels in the DSMC simulation is necessary for flows of this nature and is required for comparison to the CFD solution. The flow field solutions are also post-processed by the nonequilibrium radiation code HARA to compute the radiative portion of the heating and is then compared to the total heating measured in flight.

  2. Microbiological and physicochemical factors affecting Aspergillus section Flavi incidence in Cavendish banana (Musa cavendishii) chips production in Southern Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, A C; Azanza, P V; Yoshizawa, T

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical factors affecting the incidence of Aspergillus section Flavi in dried Cavendish banana (Musa cavendishii) chips production in Southern Philippines were examined. The average counts of Aspergillus section Flavi (AFC) in fresh and dried Cavendish bananas from 10 production batches of the Philippine Agro-Industrial Development Cooperative in Davao del Norte, Southern Philippines were 1.2 x 10(2) and 1.6 x 10(2) cfu/g, respectively. Isolates from both samples were identified to be Aspergillus flavus based on spore type and conidial structure of isolates. An increasing trend in the AFC of Cavendish bananas was observed during dried banana chips processing. Variability in the AFC between production batches was attributed to differences in aerobic and fungal populations and physicochemical characteristics of the fruits, peel damage of the raw materials, concentration of AFC in the air and food-contact surfaces of the production area, and temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions of the environment during production and storage. Physicochemical characteristics of Cavendish bananas from the receipt of raw materials up to the first day of drying were within the reported range of values allowing growth and toxin production by aflatoxigenic fungi. Air-borne AFC varied depending on the section of the production area examined. The close proximity of the waste disposal area from the production operation to the preparation, drying and storage areas suggests that cross-contamination, probably air-borne or insect-borne was a likely occurrence. The hands of workers were also identified as AFC sources. Results of this study highlight the need for the development of strategies to control aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination in Philippine dried Cavendish bananas.

  3. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on quality and shelf life of 'Robusta' banana (Musa sp.) stored at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudachikar, V B; Kulkarni, S G; Prakash, M N Keshava

    2011-06-01

    Banana (Musa sp var. 'Robusta') stored under active and passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 12 ± 1°C and 85-90% RH for 2 seasons were evaluated for fruit quality and shelf-life. A steady state of about 8.6 and 8.2% of CO2 and 2.8 and 2.6% of O2 in passive MAP and MAP+GK (Green Keeper) packages, respectively, were established after 3 weeks of storage. Passive MAP and MAP+GK treatments of banana resulted in reduction in physiological loss in weight (PLW) of 0.7 and 0.8% after 5 and 7 weeks of storage, respectively as against 5% PLW in openly kept green banana after 3 weeks. Both MAP and MAP+GK treatments delayed colour, texture, pulp to peel ratio and total soluble solids (TSS) content as compared to openly kept control banana. Results indicated that the shelf life of fruits packed under MAP and MAP+GK could be extended up to 5 and 7 weeks, respectively as compared to 3 weeks for openly kept control fruits. Sensory quality of fully ripe fruits of both passive MAP and MAP+GK treatments, 5 days after ethrel dip was very good. Thus, MAP+GK at 12 ± 1°C and 85-90% RH could be commercially used for long term storage and long distance transportation of banana with maximum shelf-life of 7 weeks.

  4. In vitro propagation and assessment of the genetic fidelity of Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla derived from immature male flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrahsel, Lalremsiami; Basu, Adreeja; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Thangjam, Robert

    2014-02-01

    An efficient in vitro propagation method has been developed for the first time for Musa acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla, an economically important banana cultivar of Mizoram, India. Immature male flowers were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used for the regeneration process. Out of different PGR combinations, MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.5 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was optimal for production of white bud-like structures (WBLS). On this medium, explants produced the highest number of buds per explant (4.30). The highest percentage (77.77) and number (3.51) of shoot formation from each explants was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA. While MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2 mg L(-1) BAP + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA showed the maximum shoot length (14.44 cm). Rooting efficiency of the shoots was highest in the MS basal medium without any PGRs. The plantlets were hardened successfully in the greenhouse with 96% survival rate. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to assess the genetic stability of in vitro regenerated plantlets of M. acuminata (AAA) cv. Vaibalhla. Eight RAPD and 8 ISSR primers were successfully used for the analysis from the 40 RAPD and 30 ISSR primers screened initially. The amplified products were monomorphic across all the regenerated plants and were similar to the mother plant. The present standardised protocol will find application in mass production, conservation and genetic transformation studies of this commercially important banana.

  5. The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of ethanol and ethyl ecetate extracts of Candi Banana (Musa paradisiaca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeliocattleya, R. A.; Estiasih, T.; Griselda, G.; Muchlisyiyah, J.

    2018-03-01

    Banana has various benefits for health. One local variety of banana is candi banana (Musa paradisiaca). The aim of this research was to study the content of the bioactive compounds of phenolics, flavonoids, tannin, carotenoids and the antioxidant activity of extract ethanol and ethyl acetate of candi banana. Powdered candi banana was extracted using ethanol and ethyl acetate in an ultrasonic bath. The results showed that the content of phenolics, flavonoids, tannin and carotenoids in ethanol extract were 58.76 ± 3.19 mg/kg, 416.08 ± 18.79 mg/kg, 209.83 ± 15.87 mg/kg and 74.55 ± 4.31 mg/kg, respectively. The content of phenolics, flavonoids, tannin and carotenoids in ethyl acetate extract were 0.83 ± 0.12 mg/kg, 4.31 ± 0.66 mg/kg, 49.97 ± 2.43 mg/kg and 304.40 ± 16.62 mg/kg. While the antioxidant activity (IC50) of ethanol extract and ethyl acetate were 3374.13 ± 123.46 ppm and 40318.19 ± 1014.90 ppm. This research showed that type of solvents of ethanol and ethyl acetate affected the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of candi banana. The antioxidant activity of ethanol extract was higher than that of ethyl acetate extract. It showed that ethanol was a better solvent than ethyl acetate to extract bioactive compounds in candi banana.

  6. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Renal Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroaganachi, Mercy; Eleazu, Chinedum; Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-03-20

    Although unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) are used as single plants to manage diabetes mellitus in Nigeria, the possibility of combining them in a typical diabetic diet and the glycemic response elicited as a result of such combination has not been investigated. To determine the effect of unripe plantain and ginger on serum total proteins, albumin, creatinine and urea levels of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) received standard rat feeds; Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feeds; Group 3 received unripe plantain pellets and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger pellets. There were significant increases (P=0.045) of both serum urea and creatinine, but significant decreases (P=0.045) of both serum total protein and albumin levels, in Group 2 rats compared with Group 1. There were significant decreases (P=0.033) of both serum urea and creatinine levels of Group 3 and 4 rats compared with Group 2. In addition, there were significant increases of both serum total protein and albumin levels (P=0.033) in Group 3 rats compared with Group 2, but the comparison of serum total protein and albumin levels between Group 4 and Group 2 did not reach the significant level (P=0.056 and P=0.065 for serum total protein and albumin levels, respectively. Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the ratio used in the management of renal dysfunction in diabetics was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone.

  7. Suppression of VEGF-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth by Eugenia jambolana, Musa paradisiaca, and Coccinia indica extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Harsha Raj; Ghosh, Debidas; Banerjee, Rita; Salimath, Bharathi P

    2017-12-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis and evasion of apoptosis are hallmarks of cancer. Accordingly, anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic therapies are effective strategies for cancer treatment. Medicinal plants, namely, Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae), Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae), and Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae), have not been greatly investigated for their anticancer potential. We investigated the anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic efficacy of ethyl acetate (EA) and n-butanol (NB) extracts of E. jambolana (seeds), EA extracts of M. paradisiaca (roots) and C. indica (leaves) with respect to mammary neoplasia. Effect of extracts (2-200 μg/mL) on cytotoxicity and MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and in vitro angiogenesis were evaluated by MTT, 3 [H]thymidine uptake and EC tube formation assays, respectively. In vivo tumour proliferation, VEGF secretion and angiogenesis were assessed using the Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) model followed by rat corneal micro-pocket and chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Apoptosis induction was assessed by morphological and cell cycle analysis. EA extracts of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca exhibited the highest cytotoxicity (IC 50 25 and 60 μg/mL), inhibited cell proliferation (up to 81%), and tube formation (83% and 76%). In vivo treatment reduced body weight (50%); cell number (16.5- and 14.7-fold), secreted VEGF (∼90%), neoangiogenesis in rat cornea (2.5- and 1.5-fold) and CAM (3- and 1.6-fold) besides EAT cells accumulation in sub-G1 phase (20% and 18.38%), respectively. Considering the potent anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic properties, lead molecules from EA extracts of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca can be developed into anticancer drugs.

  8. In vitro antioxidant activity of different cultivars of banana flower (Musa paradicicus L.) extracts available in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Ratna; Dutta, Sanjukta; Sen, Sauradip; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Bhowmik, Debajit; Ghosh, Santinath; Dhar, Pubali

    2011-01-01

    Six different cultivars of banana flowers (Musa paradicicus) (Kathali, Bichi, Shingapuri, Kacha, Champa, and Kalabou) were analyzed for the content of polyphenol expressed as gallic acid equivalent and flavonoid expressed as quercetein equivalent, and the in vitro total antioxidative activities of the flower extracts were compared with standard and expressed as trolox equivalent. The reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•(+)) scavenging activities, inhibition of lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid emulsion system, and liposome peroxidation system were measured and compared with respective standard antioxidants. Iron-mediated Fenton reaction was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of the extract of banana flower (Kacha cultivar) against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage. The Kacha variety contains the maximum amount of polyphenol (11.94 ± 0.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight) and flavonoid (0.174 ± 0.001 g of quercetin equivalent/g of polyphenol). It also has the highest total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ABTS•(+) radical scavenging activity with a least EC(50) value of 0.051 mg/mL. Hepatic cell damage in iron-mediated Fenton reaction caused by free radicals is reduced by the banana flower extract. On the basis of the results obtained, the banana flowers are found to be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of the extracts from banana flowers. The study suggests that the flowers of M. paradicicus that are found in India and consumed as vegetable can provide valuable functional ingredients that help in the prevention of oxidative stress. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of KIN10 and cold-acclimation related genes in wild banana 'Huanxi' (Musa itinerans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihua; Cheng, Chunzhen; Lai, Gongti; Lin, Yuling; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2015-01-01

    Banana cultivars may experience chilling or freezing injury in some of their cultivated regions, where wild banana can still grow very well. The clarification of the cold-resistant mechanism of wild banana is vital for cold-resistant banana breeding. In this study, the central stress integrator gene KIN10 and some cold-acclimation related genes (HOS1 and ICE1s) from the cold-resistant wild banana 'Huanxi' (Musa itinerans) were cloned and their expression patterns under different temperature treatments were analyzed. Thirteen full-length cDNA transcripts including 6 KIN10s, 1 HOS1 and 6 ICE1s were successfully cloned. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that all these genes had the highest expression levels at the critical temperature of banana (13 °C). Under chilling temperature (4 °C), the expression level of KIN10 reduced significantly but the expression of HOS1 was still higher than that at the optimal temperature (28 °C, control). Both KIN10 and HOS1 showed the lowest expression levels at 0 °C, the expression level of ICE1, however, was higher than control. As sucrose plays role in plant cold-acclimation and in regulation of KIN10 and HOS1 bioactivities, the sucrose contents of wild banana under different temperatures were detected. Results showed that the sucrose content increased as temperature lowered. Our result suggested that KIN10 may participate in cold stress response via regulating sucrose biosynthesis, which is helpful in regulating cold acclimation pathway in wild banana.

  10. PEMANFAATAN ASAP CAIR ALANG-ALANG (Imperata cylindrica SEBAGAI PENGAWET TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK BUAH PISANG MAKAU (Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Fitriarni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the utilization of liquid smoke especially for preservation of fruit has been done and become one of alternative methods that can be used to maintain fruit shelf life. Liquid smoke raw materials can come from a variety of sources one of which comes from the Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica. This study aims to determine the ability of liquid smoke made from  alang-alang as a preservative of bananas and to know the effect on the characteristics of bananas. The sample used in this research is a local banana known as Pisang Makau (Musa spp. This research uses experimental method with 7 days of storage time. Initial stages of the research are cleaning the fruit, dyeing, drying, and storage at room temperature. This research uses liquid smoke from alang-alang by using 2 various concentrations 50% and 100%. The next stage is the analysis of the characteristics of bananas such as color, fruit texture, fruit weight, sugar content, and vitamin C levels. Based on the analysis results obtained by Pisang Makau with the treatment of liquid has a longer shelf life than the control. Based on the results of the analysis of the shelf life of fruit treated with liquid smoke decreased levels of sugar and vitamin C levels. Percentage decrease levels of sugar and vitamin C between the fruit with the treatment and control not much different. This shows that liquid smoke from alang-alang has the ability to retain the shelf life of bananas without affecting sugar and vitamin C levels in bananas in this case for Pisang Makau. Levels of sugar and vitamin C in bananas decreased during the process of storage and bunding of fruit

  11. Effect of enzymatic pretreatment on the physical quality of plantain (Musa ssp., group AAB) employing airflow reversal drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Miranda, J; Martínez-Sánchez, C E; Hernández-Santos, B; Juárez-Barrientos, J M; Ventura-Báez, E G; Herman-Lara, E

    2018-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of enzymatic pretreatment on the color and texture of plantain ( Musa ssp., group AAB) dried by airflow reversal drying. Plantain slices 1.0 cm thick were used. Pretreatment with two commercial enzymes, Pectinex Ultra SPL ( Aspergillus aculeatus ) and Pectinex 3XL ( Aspergillus niger ), was performed. Drying kinetics were determined with and without pretreatment at temperatures of 50, 65 and 80 °C using a fixed bed convective dryer. An air speed of 6 m/s, a bed height of 5 cm and either unidirectional flow or airflow reversal (every 15 min) were used for drying. Color and texture were analyzed, and consumer acceptance of the results of the best treatments was determined. Pretreatment with the enzyme A. niger and airflow reversal gave the best drying kinetics and showed the greatest reduction in drying time (59.0%) at 80 °C. The best hardness results were found at 80 °C with A. niger enzymatic pretreatment with both types of air flow. Brightness and hue angle showed that samples pretreated with enzymes and dried at 65 °C had a lighter yellow color compared to non-pretreated samples. Plantain samples enzymatically pretreated and dried at 65 and 80 °C were the most accepted by consumers. This kind of enzymatic pretreatment on plantain could allow the conservation of some physical properties and reduction of drying times relative to the current methodology.

  12. Evaluation of post-surgical healing in rats using a topical preparation based on extract of Musa sapientum L., Musaceae, epicarp

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    Priscila B. Lino

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering that oral preparations made with peel green bananas (e.g. flour and extracts demonstrated healing effects on mucous membranes and skin, this study evaluated the healing and the antimicrobial property of a topical preparation based on extract of Musa sapientum L., Musaceae, (apple banana in surgically induced wounds in the skin of male Wistar rats, 100 g. The extract was obtained by decoction, the presence of tannins was detected by phytochemical screening and 10% of the extract was incorporated into the carbopol gel (CMS gel. The processes of healing and bacterial isolation were evaluated in the following experimental groups: control (no treatment, treatment with placebo or with the CMS gel. The healing of surgical wounds treated with the CMS gel was faster when compared with the control and placebo groups and the treatment with CMS gel also inhibited the growth of pyogenic bacteria and enterobacteria in the wounds. The results indicate that the extract of Musa sapientum epicarp has healing and antimicrobial properties (in vivo, probably, due to tannins.

  13. Construction and partial sequencing of a subtractive library in Calcutta 4 (Musa AA in early stage of infection with Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet

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    Milady Mendoza-Rodríguez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of genes involved in plant defense response against pathogen attack, is one of most important steps leading to the elucidation of disease resistance molecular mechanisms. The generation of subtracted deoxyribonucleic acid libraries (cDNA, by means of suppression subtractive hybridization technique (SSH, has been used for this purpose. A subtractive hybridization was made between a cDNA population obtained from ‘Calcutta 4’ inoculated leaves with M. fijiensis (CCIBP-Pf83 and a mixture of cDNA from ‘Calcutta 4’ non inoculated leaves and mycelium. Leaves samples were taken at 6, 10 and 12 days after inoculation. The subtracted library was obtained by cloning and transformation of subtracted products and as a result, 600 recombinants clones were obtained. Sequence analysis of sixty nine clones, revealed redundancy of the expressed sequence tags and most of them showed no homology with reported sequences at databases and only 13 % had a high homology with metalothioneins. The results constitute a step in advance in the molecular study of Musa-Mycosphaerella fijiensis interaction. Key words: Banana-Mycosphaerella fijiensis interaction, BlackSigatoka, Musa spp., suppression subtractive hybridization

  14. Evaluation of post-surgical healing in rats using a topical preparation based on extract of Musa sapientum L., Musaceae, epicarp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila B. Lino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that oral preparations made with peel green bananas (e.g. flour and extracts demonstrated healing effects on mucous membranes and skin, this study evaluated the healing and the antimicrobial property of a topical preparation based on extract of Musa sapientum L., Musaceae, (apple banana in surgically induced wounds in the skin of male Wistar rats, 100 g. The extract was obtained by decoction, the presence of tannins was detected by phytochemical screening and 10% of the extract was incorporated into the carbopol gel (CMS gel. The processes of healing and bacterial isolation were evaluated in the following experimental groups: control (no treatment, treatment with placebo or with the CMS gel. The healing of surgical wounds treated with the CMS gel was faster when compared with the control and placebo groups and the treatment with CMS gel also inhibited the growth of pyogenic bacteria and enterobacteria in the wounds. The results indicate that the extract of Musa sapientum epicarp has healing and antimicrobial properties (in vivo, probably, due to tannins.

  15. Influence of the Oil Pequi in the Growth Mycelial and Sporulation of Colletotrichum Musae and Growth Micelial Of Rhizopus sp. in vitro.

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    B. L. Mendes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum musae and soft rot caused by Rhizopus sp are post-harvest diseases that influenced quality of exported fruits. To control these diseases fungicides are used, but in light of these waste products in the fruit and the environment, alternative control methods such as using biofungicides have been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pequi oil on mycelia growth and sporulation of Colletotrichum musae and mycelia growth of Rhizopus sp. in vitro. The oil was added in aliquots of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 50L in the center of Petri dishes containing approximately 15mL of Potato-Dextrose-ar (PDA and distributed over the surface of the medium with Drigalskys handle. After 24 hours, a disc of 8mm diameter from mycelium of fungi was peaked to the center of the plates. As a control, were used Petri dishes containing only PDA. Five replicates were used for each aliquot. After analysis, it was concluded that the pequi oil is ineffective for controlling these pathogens because induced mycelium growth and sporulation.Key Words: Phytopathogens, alternative control, anthracnose, soft rot

  16. ESPECIES DE DRYOPHTHORINAE (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE ASOCIADAS A PLÁTANO Y BANANO (Musa spp. EN COLOMBIA

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    JOSE RUBIO-GOMEZ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se presenta una sinopsis de los escarabajos de la subfamilia Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados a cultivos de plátano y banano en Colombia. Adicionalmente se ofrecen claves ilustradas para las especies del país. Se registran seis especies asociadas a dichos cultivos: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838. Palabras clave: picudos, plátano, banano, Polytus, Colombia. ABSTRACT This synopsis is about beetle’s subfamily Dryophthorinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to plantain and banana crops. Additionally keys illustrated for the species of the country are offered. Six species associated to these cultures are registered: Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824, Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758, Metamasius hebetatus (Gyllenhal, 1838, Metamasius submaculatus Champion, 1910, Rhyncophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758 y Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman, 1838. Key words: weevils, plantain, banana, Polytus, Colombia.

  17. The electronic and solvatochromic properties of [Co(L)(bipyridine)2]+ (L = o-catecholato, o-benzenedithiolato) species: a combined experimental and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioncoloni, Giacomo; Senn, Hans M; Sproules, Stephen; Wilson, Claire; Symes, Mark D

    2016-10-04

    Complexes of Co(iii) containing mixed chelating diimine and o-quinone ligand sets are of fundamental interest on account of their fascinating magnetic and electronic properties. Whilst complexes of this type containing one diimine and two o-quinone ligands have been studied extensively, those with the reverse stoichiometry (two diimines and one o-quinone) are much rarer. Herein, we describe a ready route to the synthesis of the complex [Co III (o-catecholate) (2,2'-bipyridine) 2 ] + (1), and also report the synthesis of [Co III (o-catecholate)(5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) 2 ] + (2) and [Co III (o-benezenedithiolate)(5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) 2 ] + (3) for the first time. Spectroscopic studies show that complex 2 displays intriguing solvatochromic behaviour as a function of solvent hydrogen bond donation ability, a property of this type of complex which has hitherto not been reported. Time-dependent density function theory (TD-DFT) shows that this effect arises as a result of hydrogen bonding between the solvent and the oxygen atoms of the catecholate ligand. In contrast, the sulfur atoms in the benzenedithiolate analogue 3 are much weaker acceptors of hydrogen bonds from the solvent, meaning that complex 3 is only very weakly solvatochromic. Finally, we show that complex 2 has some potential as a molecular probe that can report on the composition of mixed solvent systems as a function of its absorbance spectrum.

  18. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  19. Caracterización de harina y almidón de frutos de banano Gros Michel (Musa acuminata AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Montoya-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se determinaron las características fisicoquímicas, térmicas y reológicas de la harina y el almidón de frutos de banano Gros Michel (Musa acuminata cosechado en fincas del departamento del Quindío, Colombia. En el análisis proximal, la harina presentó un contenido de fibra de 18.82% y el almidón presentó contenidos de proteína de 1.92%, grasa de 5.3% y fibra de 2.76%. La harina presentó la temperatura más alta de absorción de calor (68.88 °C y su entalpía de gelatinización fue de 2.17 J/g; mientras que para el almidón estos valores fueron de 48.36 °C y 44.62 J/g, respectivamente. El análisis termogravimétrico (TGA de la harina o temperaturas en las cuales se registra la descomposición de carbohidratos (componentes de bajo peso molecular y polisacáridos (componentes de alto peso molecular fueron, respectivamente, de 284.51 °C y 470.42 °C; y para el almidón fueron de 307.51 °C y 500.46 °C. Los gránulos de almidón de banano tienen forma elipsoidal con un tamaño longitudinal promedio de 39.39 µm y tamaño transversal promedio de 29.47 µm. Los difractogramas de rayos X mostraron patrones de difracción tipo B. Los viscoamilogramas mostraron que para la harina la temperatura de inicio de gelatinización (Tg es de 76.3 °C, la viscosidad máxima de 1120 cP, y para el almidón la Tg fue de 70.75 °C y la viscosidad máxima de 2087 cP.

  20. Evasion of short interfering RNA-directed antiviral silencing in Musa acuminata persistently infected with six distinct banana streak pararetroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswaran, Rajendran; Seguin, Jonathan; Chabannes, Matthieu; Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Laboureau, Nathalie; Farinelli, Laurent; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2014-10-01

    Vegetatively propagated crop plants often suffer from infections with persistent RNA and DNA viruses. Such viruses appear to evade the plant defenses that normally restrict viral replication and spread. The major antiviral defense mechanism is based on RNA silencing generating viral short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that can potentially repress viral genes posttranscriptionally through RNA cleavage and transcriptionally through DNA cytosine methylation. Here we examined the RNA silencing machinery of banana plants persistently infected with six pararetroviruses after many years of vegetative propagation. Using deep sequencing, we reconstructed consensus master genomes of the viruses and characterized virus-derived and endogenous small RNAs. Consistent with the presence of endogenous siRNAs that can potentially establish and maintain DNA methylation, the banana genomic DNA was extensively methylated in both healthy and virus-infected plants. A novel class of abundant 20-nucleotide (nt) endogenous small RNAs with 5'-terminal guanosine was identified. In all virus-infected plants, 21- to 24-nt viral siRNAs accumulated at relatively high levels (up to 22% of the total small RNA population) and covered the entire circular viral DNA genomes in both orientations. The hotspots of 21-nt and 22-nt siRNAs occurred within open reading frame (ORF) I and II and the 5' portion of ORF III, while 24-nt siRNAs were more evenly distributed along the viral genome. Despite the presence of abundant viral siRNAs of different size classes, the viral DNA was largely free of cytosine methylation. Thus, the virus is able to evade siRNA-directed DNA methylation and thereby avoid transcriptional silencing. This evasion of silencing likely contributes to the persistence of pararetroviruses in banana plants. We report that DNA pararetroviruses in Musa acuminata banana plants are able to evade DNA cytosine methylation and transcriptional gene silencing, despite being targeted by the host silencing

  1. Correlações entre caracteres da planta e do cacho em bananeira (Musa spp Correlations among characters of the plant and of the bunch in banana (Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Rodrigues Donato

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os caracteres observados em áreas experimentais têm natureza fenotípica e suas correlações são estimadas visando mensurar alterações em um caráter quando se altera outro relacionado. Objetivou-se com este trabalho, quantificar a relação entre os caracteres da planta e do cacho observados na época do florescimento e da colheita de 13 genótipos (variedades e híbridos de bananeira (Musa spp., em dois ciclos de produção, em Guanambi, Bahia. Foram utilizadas as variedades Prata anã, Pacovan (AAB, Grande naine e Nanicão (AAA, e os híbridos PA42-44, PV42-85, PV42-142, PV42-68 e ST12-31 (AAAB e Ambrosia, Calipso, Bucaneiro e FHIA02 (AAAA, selecionados na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura. Consideraram-se os caracteres: altura da planta; perímetro do pseudocaule; número de folhas vivas no florescimento e na colheita; número de dias do plantio ao florescimento e à colheita; intervalo florescimento à colheita; peso do cacho, da ráquis e da pencas; comprimento e diâmetro do engaço; número de pencas e de frutos; peso da segunda penca; peso, comprimento e diâmetro do fruto e espessura da casca. As correlações entre o peso do cacho e os demais caracteres estudados, variaram entre genótipos e ciclos. As associações entre o peso do cacho e os caracteres da planta, de forma geral foram não-significativas, e entre o peso do cacho e os caracteres do cacho significativas e positivas para a maioria dos genótipos, nos ciclos avaliados. As correlações entre os caracteres envolvendo todos os genótipos ao longo dos dois ciclos foram predominantemente positivas e não- significativas, entretanto, as associações entre os caracteres do cacho foram em maioria significativas, positivas e com valores expressivos.The characters observed in a experimental areas has phenotypic nature and their correlations are estimated with the purpose to verify alterations in one character when is altered another. The objectives of this work were to

  2. A new species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adelerina) from the snake Philodryas nattereri Steindachner (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges-Nojosa, Diva M; Borges-Leite, M Juliana; Maia, João P; Zanchi-Silva, Djan; da Rocha Braga, Roberta; Harris, D James

    2017-01-01

    Based on both unique morphological characteristics of the gamont, distinct changes caused to the host erythrocyte and analysis of partial 18S rRNA gene sequences, a new parasite of the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 is described from the snake Philodryas nattereri Steindachner (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in northeastern Brazil. The new species, Hepatozoon musa n. sp., is characterized by large and curved mature gamonts (18.9 ± 0.9 μm in length and 3.8 ± 0.3 μm in width) that considerably engorge infected host erythrocytes and displace the nucleus laterally, which become longer and thinner. Phylogenetic estimates indicate the new species is more closely related to the recently described Hepatozoon cuestensis O'Dwyer, Moço, Paduan, Spenassatto, Silva & Ribolla, 2013, from Brazilian rattlesnakes. These recent findings highlight the need for further studies of Hepatozoon to better determine the biodiversity of this common but poorly-studied parasite group.

  3. Endophytic bacterial diversity in banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa spp. roots

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    Suzane A. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in banana 'Prata Anã' roots was characterized. Two hundred and one endophytic bacteria were isolated, 151 of which were classified as Gram-positive and 50 as Gram-negative. No hypersensitivity response was observed in any of the isolates. The rep-PCR technique generated different molecular profiles for each primer set (REP, ERIC and BOX. Fifty readable loci were obtained and all of the fragments were polymorphic. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA of the isolates based on cleavage with four restriction enzymes yielded 45 polymorphic bands and no monomorphic bands. PCR amplified the nifH gene in 24 isolates. 16S rDNA sequencing of the 201 bacterial isolates yielded 102 high-quality sequences. Sequence analyses revealed that the isolates were distributed among ten bacterial genera (Agrobacterium, Aneurinibacillus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and Sporolactobacillus and included 15 species. The greatest number of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The bacteria identified in this study may be involved in promoting growth, phosphate solubilization, biological control and nitrogen fixation in bananas.

  4. AMF-induced biocontrol against plant parasitic nematodes in Musa sp.: a systemic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, A; Gervacio, D; Swennen, R; De Waele, D

    2008-07-01

    Although mycorrhizal colonization provides a bioprotectional effect against a broad range of soil-borne pathogens, including plant parasitic nematodes, the commercial use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as biocontrol agents is still in its infancy. One of the main reasons is the poor understanding of the modes of action. Most AMF mode of action studies focused on AMF-bacterial/fungal pathogens. Only few studies so far examined AMF-plant parasitic nematode interactions. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine whether the AMF Glomus intraradices was able to incite systemic resistance in banana plants towards Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus coffeae, two plant parasitic nematodes using a split-root compartmental set-up. The AMF reduced both nematode species by more than 50%, even when the AMF and the plant parasitic nematodes were spatially separated. The results obtained demonstrate for the first time that AMF have the ability to induce systemic resistance against plant parasitic nematodes in a root system.

  5. Acclimatation de vitroplants de bananier Musa sp. en culture hydroponique: impact de différentes concentrations en cuivre sur la croissance des vitroplants

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    Mazinga, MK.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acclimatation of Banana's Vitroplants (Musa sp. in Hydroponic Culture: Effects of Different Concentrations Copper on Growth of Vitroplants. Constraints due to copper and consequences of its accumulation in acclimatized banana in vitroplants have been studied in hydroponic culture. 0-100- 500-1000 ppm copper was added to the nutrient medium in hydroponic culture. At 1000 ppm, copper was accumulated in the roots but not in the aerial parts. Surprisingly, biomass of shoots and roots was augmented significantly at this concentration (with leaves as an exception. Plant height was reduced strongly even at 100 ppm CuSO4, although the copper content in shoots and leaves was very low.

  6. Chemical Composition, Nutritive and Energetic Value of Plantain (Musa ssp. Hybrids CRBP 14, CRBP 39, FHIA 17, FHIA 21and Orishele Variety

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    Coulibaly, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characteristics as well as contents in main components such as dry matter, sugars, lipids proteins and some minerals were determined in four banana hybrids CRBP 14, CRBP 39, FHIA 17, FHIA 21 and Orishele variety (used as control. Titrable acidity, pH, and calorific energy of these various cultivars of banana (Musa ssp. were also determined. The results indicated that Orishele variety had the highest content of dry matter, total carbohydrate and potassium. On the other hand, CRBP 39 hybrid which had the highest total acidity was the richest in total sugars and was the most energetic. Concerning FHIA 17, it contained the highest amount of proteins, lipids, magnesium, calcium and iron.

  7. EFFECT OF THE TIME OF POULTRY MANURE APPLICATION AND GENOTYPE ON THE GROWTH, YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PLANTAINS (MUSA spp. AAB

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    Okorie Ndukwe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of time of poultry manure application: no application, at planting, 1, 2 and 3 months after planting (MAP were determined on the growth, yield and fruit quality of two plantain (Musa spp. AAB cultivars (PITA 17 and French Reversion. PITA 17 significantly produced more standing leaves, fruits with longer green and shelf life. French Reversion significantly produced taller plants, heavier bunches and fruits, wider and longer fruits. Dry matter partitioning to the pulp, pulp degree of lightness and redness were also higher for French Reversion than PITA 17. The application of poultry manure at 2 MAP produced heaviest bunches and the highest yield components while pulp dry matter and fruit shelf life duration were highest with manure application at 3 MAP. Bunch and fruit weights were heaviest in French Reversion plots applied with poultry manure at 2 MAP whereas shelf life was longest with PITA 17 that received manure application at planting.

  8. Acrylamide formation in plantain (Musa paradisiaca) chips influenced by different ripening stages: A correlation study with respect to reducing sugars, amino acids and phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2017-05-01

    The effect of ripening on the formation of acrylamide in deep fried plantain chips made from Nendran variety (Musa paradisiaca) was investigated. The precursors of acrylamide formation, reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and ten major amino acids, were quantified during different stages of ripening using HPLC and correlated with acrylamide formation. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were also estimated and correlated with acrylamide formation. Both glucose and fructose increased during ripening and demonstrated a positive correlation on formation of acrylamide (correlation coefficient of r=0.95 and 0.94 respectively (p0.05). The decreased levels of phenolic content during ripening of plantain were negatively correlated with acrylamide formation in the deep fried chips prepared. Thus the selection of proper ripening stage renders reduced formation of acrylamide in plantain chips to a reasonable extend. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efecto del Uso de Antioxidantes en Plátano Verde Dominico-Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds) Cortado en Rodajas

    OpenAIRE

    Dussán-Sarria, Saúl; Gaona-Acevedo, Andrés Felipe; Hleap-Zapata, Jose Igor

    2017-01-01

    Se evaluaron las propiedades físico-químicas, firmeza en la pulpa e índice de pardeamiento del plátano verde (Musa AAB Simmonds) mínimamente procesado durante 21 días de almacenamiento a temperatura de 11±2 0C y humedad relativa de 92 ± 2 %. El plátano verde es uno de los frutos de mayor producción y consumo en Colombia. Sin embargo, cuando sufre un daño mecánico como un corte, ocurren cambios, en su apariencia y sabor debido a la elevada actividad metabólica típica de un producto climatérico...

  10. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  11. Molecular electron affinities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, E.K.

    1983-01-01

    Molecular electron affinities have historically been difficult quantities to measure accurately. These difficulties arise from differences in structure between the ion and neutral as well as the existence of excited negative ion states. To circumvent these problems, relative electron affinities were determined in this dissertation by studying equilibrium electron transfer reactions using a pulsed ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) spectrometer. Direct measurement of ion and neutral concentrations for reactions of the general type, A - + B = B - + A, allow calculation of the equilibrium constant and, therefore, the free energy change. The free energy difference is related to the difference in electron affinities between A and B. A relative electron affinity scale covering a range of about 45 kcal/mol was constructed with various substituted p-benzoquinones, nitrobenzenes, anhydrides, and benzophenones. To assign absolute electron affinities, various species with accurately known electron affinities are tied to the scale via ion-cyclotron double resonance bracketing techniques. After the relative scale is anchored to these species with well-known electron affinities, the scale is then used as a check on other electron affinity values as well as generating new electron affinity values. Many discrepancies were found between the electron affinities measured using the ICR technique and previous literature determinations

  12. Kajian Penundaan Kematangan Pisang Raja (Musa paradisiaca Var. Sapientum L. Melalui Penggunaan Media Penyerap Etilen Kalium Permanganat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sholihati Sholihati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Indonesia adalah salah satu penghasil pisang terbesar di asia. Masa hidup pisang relatif pendek. Sehingga tidak dapat menjangkau jarak jauh dalam pemasaran. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari efek penyerap etilen kalium permanganat untuk menunda proses pematangan, untuk mengetahui efektivitas etilen kalium permanganat untuk menyerap etilen dan untuk mengembangkan model penentuan konsentrasi etilen selama penyimpanan sebelum proses pematangan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi etilen setara dengan 0,16 ml/g.jam pada perlakuan 10 g , diikuti oleh perlakuan penyerap etilen 20 g dengan nilai setara dengan 0,06 ml/g.jam, penyerap 30 g sama dengan 0,03 ml / g.hour dan penyerap 40 g sama dengan 0,02 ml / g.hour pada suhu kamar 25 – 28 oC. Pada suhu dari 13, efektivitas penyerap etilen sama dengan 0,11 ml / g.hour pada perlakuan konsentrasi penyerap 10 g, diikuti oleh penyerap 20 g sama dengan 0,05 ml / g.hour . Penyerap 30 g sama dengan 0,03 ml / g.hour dan penyerap 40 g sama dengan 0,02 ml / g.hour. Fase klimakterik pada pisang dengan suhu 13 oC adalah di hari ke-11 , dengan produksi CO2 sama dengan 47,12 ml/kg dan produksi etilen sama dengan 1.82 ppm pada suhu ruang. Pada penggunaan etilen permanganat potasium diperoleh umur penyimpanan yang lebih panjang pada pisang, yaitu 20 hari pada suhu ruang dan 45 hari pada suhu 13 oC.   Study of Lengthen Shelf Life of Pisang Raja (Musa paradisiaca Var. Sapientum L. by Using Absorber Ethylene  Potassium Permanganate Substance Abstract. Indonesia is one of the biggest bananas producers in Asia. Banana is categorized as perishable  commodity,  therefore it cannot market is limited by distribution time.  Reach a long distance in marketing. This aim of this research is to study the effect of ethylene potassium permanganate to delay  the ripening of the fruit process, to know the effectiveness of ethylene potassium permanganate to absorb the ethylene and to develop

  13. SALMONELLA SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ... of Salmonella species serotypes in relation to age and sex among children, ..... However, most antimicrobials show sufficient selective toxicity to be of value in ... salmonellosis should be given good attention (Barrow et al., 2007). To reduce ...

  14. Mycotoxigenic Potentials of Fusarium Species in Various Culture Matrices Revealed by Mycotoxin Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wen; Tan, Yanglan; Wang, Shuangxia; Gardiner, Donald M.; De Saeger, Sarah; Liao, Yucai; Wang, Cheng; Fan, Yingying; Wang, Zhouping; Wu, Aibo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, twenty of the most common Fusarium species were molecularly characterized and inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA), rice and maize medium, where thirty three targeted mycotoxins, which might be the secondary metabolites of the identified fungal species, were detected by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Statistical analysis was performed with principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the mycotoxin profiles for the twenty fungi, suggesting that these fungi species could be discriminated and divided into three groups as follows. Group I, the fusaric acid producers, were defined into two subgroups, namely subgroup I as producers of fusaric acid and fumonisins, comprising of F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. fujikuroi and F. solani, and subgroup II considered to only produce fusaric acid, including F. temperatum, F. subglutinans, F. musae, F. tricinctum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. sacchari, F. concentricum, F. andiyazi. Group II, as type A trichothecenes producers, included F. langsethiae, F. sporotrichioides, F. polyphialidicum, while Group III were found to mainly produce type B trichothecenes, comprising of F. culmorum, F. poae, F. meridionale and F. graminearum. A comprehensive picture, which presents the mycotoxin-producing patterns by the selected fungal species in various matrices, is obtained for the first time, and thus from an application point of view, provides key information to explore mycotoxigenic potentials of Fusarium species and forecast the Fusarium infestation/mycotoxins contamination. PMID:28035973

  15. Role of scanning electron microscopy in identifying drugs used in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazil Marickar, Y M; Sylaja, N; Koshy, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Several plant preparations are administered for treatment of stone disease without scientific basis. This paper presents the results of in vitro and animal experimental studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in the identification of the therapeutic properties of trial drugs in medicine. In the first set of the study, urinary crystals namely calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dehydrate were grown in six sets of Hane's tubes in silica gel medium. Trial drugs namely scoparia dulcis Lynn, musa sapiens and dolicos biflorus were incorporated in the gel medium to identify the dopant effect of the trial drugs on the size and extent of crystal column growth. The changes in morphology of crystals were studied using SEM. In the second set, six male Wistar rats each were calculogenised by administering sodium oxalate and ethylene glycol and diabetised using streptozotocin. The SEM changes of calculogenisation were studied. The rats were administered trial drugs before calculogenisation or after. The kidneys of the rats studied under the scanning electron microscope showed changes in tissue morphology and crystal deposition produced by calculogenisation and alterations produced by addition of trial drugs. The trial drugs produced changes in the pattern of crystal growth and in the crystal morphology of both calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate grown in vitro. Elemental distribution analysis showed that the crystal purity was not altered by the trial drugs. Scoparia dulcis Lynn was found to be the most effective anticalculogenic agent. Musa sapiens and dolicos biflorus were found to have no significant effect in inhibiting crystal growth. The kidneys of rats on calculogenisation showed different grades of crystals in the glomerulus and interstitial tissues, extrusion of the crystals into the tubular lumen, collodisation and tissue inflammatory cell infiltration. Scoparia dulcis Lynn exhibited maximum protector effect against the

  16. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  17. BANANA (MUSA SAPINTUM) LEAVES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ... M.M. and 2Yaro, M.N.. 1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Jos, Plateau State ... polyaromatics and organic polars) by column chromatography. The analysis ... include: ethers, ketones, substituted alkanes, substituted ...

  18. 233 - 238 Musa Kifi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Dry pods of Piliostigma reticulatum were obtained from. Damfamin –Tofa ... stable flame gas cooker for the respective treatment periods that has to do with ..... composition of Horse Eye bean (Mucuna urens) Asian Journal of ...

  19. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  20. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. EVALUACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE DIFERENTES CONCENTRACIONES DE FITOHORMONAS EN LA MICROPROPAGACIÓN DEL PLÁTANO DOMINICO HARTÓN (Musa AAB Simmonds EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF PHYTOHORMONES IN MICROPROPAGATION OF DOMINICO HARTÓN PLANTAIN (Musa AAB Simmonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ LUIS HOYOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la concentración hormonal en la generación de brotes al micropropagar plátano dominico hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds con 10 tratamientos en un diseño completamente al azar (DCA. Se probaron tres concentraciones de BAP y AIA en arreglo factorial 3x3: 0.01; 0.5 y 5 mg/L. Los tratamientos presentaron diferencias significativas (pThe effect of the hormonal concentration in the generation of bud in micropropagation of dominico-harton plantain (Musa AAB Simmonds was evaluated with 10 treatments in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD. Three concentrations of BAP and IAA in a 3x3 factorial arrangement: 0,01; 0,5 and 5 mg/L were tested. The treatments presented significant differences (p< 0.01% in vitro multiplication phase. The MSDt test showed that the major number of bud were found with 5mg/L of BAP / 0.5mg/L of AIA and 5mg/L of BAP / 0.01mg/L of AIA combinations. To determine the optimum concentration of AIA from the resultant rank (0,01-0,5 mg/L, an aditional experiment with 6 treatments in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD, varying only AIA concentration was conducted. The concentrations 0.2 and 0,3 mg/L of AIA (p< 0.01% generated the biggest number of sprouts in the stage of multiplication

  2. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  3. Molecular genotyping of Colletotrichum species based on arbitrarily primed PCR, A + T-Rich DNA, and nuclear DNA analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Pham, M.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular genotyping of Colletotrichum species based on arbitrarily primed PCR, A + T-rich DNA, and nuclear DNA analyses. Experimental Mycology 17, 309-322. Isolates of Colletotrichum were grouped into 10 separate species based on arbitrarily primed PCR (ap-PCR), A + T-rich DNA (AT-DNA) and nuclear DNA banding patterns. In general, the grouping of Colletotrichum isolates by these molecular approaches corresponded to that done by classical taxonomic identification, however, some exceptions were observed. PCR amplification of genomic DNA using four different primers allowed for reliable differentiation between isolates of the 10 species. HaeIII digestion patterns of AT-DNA also distinguished between species of Colletotrichum by generating species-specific band patterns. In addition, hybridization of the repetitive DNA element (GcpR1) to genomic DNA identified a unique set of Pst 1-digested nuclear DNA fragments in each of the 10 species of Colletotrichum tested. Multiple isolates of C. acutatum, C. coccodes, C. fragariae, C. lindemuthianum, C. magna, C. orbiculare, C. graminicola from maize, and C. graminicola from sorghum showed 86-100% intraspecies similarity based on ap-PCR and AT-DNA analyses. Interspecies similarity determined by ap-PCR and AT-DNA analyses varied between 0 and 33%. Three distinct banding patterns were detected in isolates of C. gloeosporioides from strawberry. Similarly, three different banding patterns were observed among isolates of C. musae from diseased banana.

  4. Behavior of occurrence of Banana Streak virus in in vitro propagated plants from cultivars of Musa hybrids FHIA-20 and FHIA-21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orelvis Portal

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The losses taken place by the black and yellow Sigatoka have impelled the introduction to the country of the tetraploid hybrids from FHIA, however, at the present time, the high incidence of Banana Streak Virus in these hybrids is well known. To evaluate the effect of the micropropagatión process, on the fluctuations of the viral concentration in the tissue, they were introduced to the in vitro propagation positive and negative plants serologically tested of the cultivars FHIA 20 and 21, previously indexed in field (DAS-ELISA, later on they passed to phase of adaptation to evaluate the derived results of the diagnosis tests carried out after 3-6 months of transplanted. As a result of the DAS-ELISA carried out to the plants in phase of adaptation (37 22.2 % of the negative plants, indexed in field, was positive, while 68.4 % of the positive plants, indexed in field, was negative, in both cases all the plants were positive to the diagnosis for PCR. In some cases, given the implication of the obtained results, was used the ISEM as technique of diagnostic, for the corroboration of the same ones. Key Words: badnavirus, diagnostic, in vitro culture, Musa

  5. Construction and characterization of a plant transformation-competent BIBAC library of the black Sigatoka-resistant banana Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Vázquez, E; Kaemmer, D; Zhang, H-B; Muth, J; Rodríguez-Mendiola, M; Arias-Castro, C; James, Andrew

    2005-02-01

    A plant transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library was constructed from Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA), a black Sigatoka-resistant diploid banana. After digestion of high-molecular-weight banana DNA by HindIII, several methods of DNA size selection were tested, followed by ligation, using a vector/insert molar ratio of 4:1. The library consists of 30,700 clones stored in 80 384-well microtiter plates. The mean insert size was estimated to be 100 kb, and the frequency of inserts with internal NotI sites was 61%. The majority of insert sizes fell into the range of 100+/-20 kb, making them suitable for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Only 1% and 0.9% of the clones contain chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. This is the first BIBAC library for banana, estimated to represent five times its haploid genome (600 Mbp). It was demonstrated by hybridization that the library contains typical members of resistance gene and defense gene families that can be used for transformation of disease susceptible banana cultivars for banana genetic improvement.

  6. Variable number of tandem repeat markers in the genome sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana (Musa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S A L; Van der Lee, T A J; Ferreira, C F; Te Lintel Hekkert, B; Zapater, M-F; Goodwin, S B; Guzmán, M; Kema, G H J; Souza, M T

    2010-11-09

    We searched the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis for molecular markers that would allow population genetics analysis of this plant pathogen. M. fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently, the entire genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. We screened this database for VNTR markers. Forty-two primer pairs were selected for validation, based on repeat type and length and the number of repeat units. Five VNTR markers showing multiple alleles were validated with a reference set of isolates from different parts of the world and a population from a banana plantation in Costa Rica. Polymorphism information content values varied from 0.6414 to 0.7544 for the reference set and from 0.0400 and 0.7373 for the population set. Eighty percent of the polymorphism information content values were above 0.60, indicating that the markers are highly informative. These markers allowed robust scoring of agarose gels and proved to be useful for variability and population genetics studies. In conclusion, the strategy we developed to identify and validate VNTR markers is an efficient means to incorporate markers that can be used for fungicide resistance management and to develop breeding strategies to control banana black leaf streak disease. This is the first report of VNTR-minisatellites from the M. fijiensis genome sequence.

  7. Dietary Administration of Banana (Musa acuminata) Peel Flour Affects the Growth, Antioxidant Status, Cytokine Responses, and Disease Susceptibility of Rohu, Labeo rohita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana) peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF) on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7]) were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g) for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P < 0.05) in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita.

  8. Differential accumulation of β-carotene and tissue specific expression of phytoene synthase (MaPsy) gene in banana (Musa sp) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, R; Singh, V P; Arora, A; Bhattacharya, R C; Rajendran, Ambika

    2017-12-01

    An experiment was conducted with twelve major Indian banana cultivars to investigate the molecular relationship between the differential accumulation of β-carotene in peel and pulp of the banana fruit and carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that all banana cultivars accumulated two-three fold more β-carotene in non-edible portion of the banana fruit. However, Nendran , a famous orange fleshed cultivar of South India, had high β-carotene content (1362 µg/100 g) in edible pulp. The gene encoding Musa accuminata phytoene synthase ( MaPsy ) was successfully amplified using a pair of degenerate primers designed from Oncidium orchid. The deduced amino acid sequences shared a high level of identity to phytoene synthase gene from other plants. Gene expression analysis confirmed the presence of two isoforms ( MaPsy1 and MaPsy2 ) of MaPsy gene in banana fruits. Presence of two isoforms of MaPsy gene in peel and one in pulp confirmed the differential accumulation of β-carotene in banana fruits. However, Nendran accumulated more β-carotene in edible pulp due to presence of both the isoforms of MaPsy gene. Thus, carotenoid accumulation is a tissue specific process strongly dependent on differential expression pattern of two isoforms of MaPsy gene in banana.

  9. Caracterización parcial de un potexvirus aislado de Musa coccinea afectada por rayado necrótico en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichel Helena

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Se observaron síntomas de rayado necrótico en las hojas de una planta de Musa coccinea (banano escarlata, procedente de Antioquia (Colombia. Mediante inmunocaptura, transcripción reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (IC-RT-PCR, se amplificó un fragmento de aproximadamente 377 pares de bases, con una identidad de secuencia de aminoácidos de 57% con el gen de la cubierta proteica del Alstroemeria virus X [AlsVX, AB206396] del género Potexvirus. Este es el primer reporte de un potexvirus en M. coccinea. El análisis comparativo de la 3'UTR del potexvirus aislado de M. coccinea con el correspondiente del AlsVX muestra que estos dos virus difieren significativamente en esta región, lo que sugiere que el potexvirus aislado de M. coccinea en Colombia es una nueva especie del género Potexvirus. Se propone el nombre de virus de la raya necrótica del banano escarlata (Scarlet banana necrotic streak virus [SBanNSV] para este virus aislado de M. coccinea en Colombia.

  10. Características del análisis proximal de harinas obtenidas de frutos de plátanos variedades Papocho y Pelipita (Musa ABB Simmonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Juan Espitia-Pérez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se hizo un análisis proximal de las harinas crudas sin tratar obtenidas de frutos de las variedades de plátano Papocho y Pelipita (Musa ABB Simmonds no comerciales en diferentes etapas de desarrollo y se analizó su posible uso como materia prima alimenticia. Los resultados comparativos mostraron que los contenidos y porcentajes de fibra cruda en Papocho variaron entre 2.54 y 1.37% y en Pelipita entre 6.45 y 0.88%, la proteína cruda en Papocho entre 6.70 y 3.81% y en Pelipita entre 2.74 y 1.89%, la ceniza en Papocho entre 3.66 y 2.41% y en Pelipita entre 2.43 y 2.10%, y fueron afectados (P < 0.05 por la etapa de desarrollo de la fruta; mientras que la variedad de plátano afectó los contenidos de grasa en Papocho entre 0.64 y 0.48% y en Pelipita entre 0.55 y 0.35% en la harina de ambas variedades. En la variedad Pelipita el contenido de humedad (9.85% fue bajo. y presentó el mayor contenido de carbohidratos (85.86% a 77 días después de la floración.

  11. Analysis of MaACS2, a stress-inducible ACC Synthase Gene in Musa acuminata AAA Group Cultivar Pisang Ambon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resnanti Utami Handayani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene has an important function in plant growth and development. Ethylene production generally increases in response to pathogen attacks and other environmental stress conditions. The synthesis of this phytohormone is regulated by two enzymes, ACC synthase (ACS and ACC oxidase (ACO. ACC synthase is encoded by a multigene that regulates the production of ACC, after which this precursor is converted into ethylene by ACO. Pisang Ambon (Musa sp. AAA group, a banana cultivar originating from Indonesia, has nine ACS genes (MaACS 1-9 and one ACO gene (MaACO. One of the banana ACS genes, MaACS2, is stress-inducible. In this research, we have investigated the expression profile of MaACS2 in the roots and leaf tissues of infected tissue culture plants. Quantification of gene expression was analyzed using Real-Time PCR (qPCR using Ma18srRNA and MaGAPDH as reference genes. The results showed nine-to ten fold higher MaACS2 expression levels in the infected roots tissues compared to the uninfected roots tissues. However, MaACS2 expression in the leaves was only detected in infected tissue.

  12. Isolation of MA-ACS Gene Family and Expression Study of MA-ACS1 Gene in Musa acuminata Cultivar Pisang Ambon Lumut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISTYA UTAMI KARMAWAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Musa acuminata cultivar pisang ambon lumut is a native climacteric fruit from Indonesia. Climacteric fruit ripening process is triggered by the gaseous plant hormone ethylene. The rate limiting enzyme involved in ethylene biosynthesis is ACC synthase (ACS which is encoded by ACS gene family. The objective of this study is to identify MA-ACS gene family in M. acuminata cultivar pisang ambon lumut and to study the MA-ACS1 gene expression. The result showed that there were nine M. acuminata ACS gene family members called MA-ACS1–9. Two of them (MA-ACS1 and MA-ACS2 were assessed using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR for gene expression study and it was only MA-ACS1 correlated with fruit ripening. The MA-ACS1 gene fragment has been successfully isolated and characterized and it has three introns, four exons, and one stop codon. It also shows highest homology with MACS1 gene from M. acuminata cultivar Hsian Jien Chiao (GenBank accession number AF056164. Expression analysis of MA-ACS1 using quantitative PCR (qPCR showed that MA-ACS1 gene expression increased significantly in the third day, reached maximum at the fifth day, and then decreased in the seventh day after harvesting. The qPCR expression analysis result correlated with the result of physical analysis during fruit ripening.

  13. Natrium dischargement from peripheral blood as a predominant factor influenced by the administration of banana (Musa paradisiaca) on elderly female hypertensive patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Noriko, N.; Komara, S. B.

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is more common in eldery female that triggered by diet and lifestyle changes. Bananas were not only useful for the food, but also for hypertension therapy and preserving life. Administration of bananas decreased blood pressure in hypertensive patients. This study aims to identify of factors that influenced by the administration of banana (Musa paradisiaca) on elderly female hypertensive patient. Twenty of eldery female patient were divided into 2 respondents group: control (11 patients) and treatment (9 patients). The treatment groups received banana twice a day during 2 weeks, but the control group didn’t. Here, we showed the administration of banana significantly decreased blood pressure on elderly female hypertensive patient (p = 0.00) in both systole and diastole. There was a significant decrease in sodium levels (p = 0.037) in the blood, but potassium levels remained the same. Erythrocyte sedimentation level (p = 0.136) and trombocyte count (p = 0.176) in treatment group, were not affected by banana administration. Taken together, banana administration on elderly female hypertensive patient decreased the blood pressure significantly, greatly affected by the natrium dischargement from the blood. Thus, our findings contribute to preliminary comprehension of banana effect on hypertension reduction.

  14. Ameliorative Potentials of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. on the Relative Tissue Weights of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Eleazu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L. and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy.

  15. PENGARUH JAMUR Gliocladium sp. DAN BAKTERI Pseudomonas fluorencens DALAM MENEKAN PERKEMBANGAN PENYAKIT LAYU FUSARIUM PADA TANAMAN PISANG MAS (Musa Paradisiaca L. HASIL KULTUR INVITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etti Siti Hikmawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the potence of natural agent, a mmushroom of Gliocladium sp. and bacterium Peudomonas fluorencens in resisting against the withering disease (Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Cubense and their effect to the growth of the in-vitro cultured banana plant (Musa paradisiaca L. Thiswas conducted in the experimental farm of Agriculture Faculty, University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, in the period of June to December 2013. This research is a single experiment using Randomized Completely Block Design. The treatment was the administration of Gliocladium sp. In three different doses of 10 g/polybag (G1,20 g/ polybag (G2, 30 g/ polybag (G3, and the giving of Pseudomonas fluorencens in three different dosage of10 ml/l water/ polybag (PF1,20 ml/l water/polybag (PF2 and 30 ml/l water/polybag(PF3 and one control group of no treatment (K0. Based on the result of data analysis, it is proved that the treatment of natural agents of Gliocladiumsp and Pseudomonas fluorencenshas induced the plants resistance against the withering disease of FusariumOxysporumf.sp. Cubense in the banana, as it is indicated by the increase of phenol compounds, i.e. glychoseda, saponin, and thanin. However, the treatment has no significant effect on the plant growth either on their leaves or their stalk diameter.

  16. Ameliorative potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) on the relative tissue weights of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, C O; Iroaganachi, M; Eleazu, K C

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR) in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Correction of protein metabolic disorders by composite extract of Musa paradisiaca and Coccinia indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rat: an approach through the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Chhanda; De, Debasis; Ghosh, Debidas

    2009-04-01

    The study focused on the ability of the extracts of Musa paradisiaca and Coccinia indica on protein metabolic disorders in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Wistar strain rats were divided into 6 groups as control, control + composite extract treated, STZ-induced diabetes, diabetic + composite extract treated, composite extract-pretreated diabetes, and composite extract-pretreated diabetes + composite extract treated. Protein metabolic status was assessed by serum levels of urea, uric acid, albumin, and creatinine along with urine urea and albumin levels. Diabetic therapeutic ability was assessed by blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and serum insulin levels. Histology of the pancreas, liver, and kidney was evaluated. Indices of protein metabolic disorders were deviated from control in STZ-induced diabetes, which were protected significantly after the treatment of composite extract of M. paradisiaca and C. indica. This protection was more prominent when the extract-pretreated animals were subjected to diabetes induction by STZ. The composite extract has a protective therapeutic effect against diabetes through beta-cell regeneration capacity.

  18. Effect of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta), unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) or their combination on glycated hemoglobin, lipogenic enzymes, and lipid metabolism of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, Chinedum Ogbonnaya; Eleazu, Kate Chinedum; Iroaganachi, Mercy Amarachi

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of combining unripe plantain [Musa paradisiacae Linn (Plantaginaceae)] and cocoyam [Colocassia esculenta Linn (Araceae)] in the management of diabetes has not been investigated. The objective of this study is to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic actions of unripe plantain and cocoyam. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg body weight). Twelve days after STZ induction, respective groups of diabetic rats were fed cocoyam (810 g/kg), unripe plantain (810 g/kg), and unripe plantain + cocoyam (405:405 g/kg) for 28 d. Body weights, feed intake, biochemical parameters, namely serum glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), atherogenic index, coronary risk index, triacylglycerol, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), hepatic isocitrate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of the rats and phytochemical composition of the test and standard rat feeds were measured. Cocoyam or unripe plantain alone significantly (p 0.05) at the end of experimentation and the feed samples contained considerable amounts of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins. Cocoyam or unripe plantain alone showed better antihyperglycemic and anihyperlipidemic action than their combination.

  19. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Iroaganachi; C O, Eleazu; P N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone.

  20. Identification of Biomarkers for Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Infection and in Silico Studies in Musa paradisiaca Cultivar Puttabale through Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Venkatesh; Venkatarangaiah, Krishna; Krishnappa, Pradeepa; Shimoga Rajanna, Santosh Kumar; Deeplanaik, Nagaraja; Chandra Pal, Anup; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra

    2016-02-24

    Panama wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is one of the major disease constraints of banana production. Previously, we reported the disease resistance Musa paradisiaca cv. puttabale clones developed from Ethylmethanesulfonate and Foc culture filtrate against Foc inoculation. Here, the same resistant clones and susceptible clones were used for the study of protein accumulation against Foc inoculation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), their expression pattern and an in silico approach. The present investigation revealed mass-spectrometry identified 16 proteins that were over accumulated and 5 proteins that were under accumulated as compared to the control. The polyphosphoinositide binding protein ssh2p (PBPssh2p) and Indoleacetic acid-induced-like (IAA) protein showed significant up-regulation and down-regulation. The docking of the pathogenesis-related protein (PR) with the fungal protein endopolygalacturonase (PG) exemplify the three ionic interactions and seven hydrophobic residues that tends to good interaction at the active site of PG with free energy of assembly dissociation (1.5 kcal/mol). The protein-ligand docking of the Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase chloroplastic-like protein (PMSRc) with the ligand β-1,3 glucan showed minimum binding energy (-6.48 kcal/mol) and docking energy (-8.2 kcal/mol) with an interaction of nine amino-acid residues. These explorations accelerate the research in designing the host pathogen interaction studies for the better management of diseases.

  1. Antihyperglycemic effects of separate and composite extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Chhanda; Chatterjee, Kausik; Guhabiswas, Mehuli; Ghosh, Debidas

    2007-02-16

    We evaluated the antihyperglycaemic properties of aqueous-methanolic (40:60) extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in separate as well as in composite manner by conducting experiment on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We measured food and water intake ability, the fasting blood glucose level, glucose tolerance, activities of important carbohydrate metabolic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hexokinase in liver along with quantification of glycogen in liver and in skeletal muscle and serum insulin level. We noted that after treatment of aqueous methanolic extract of above plant parts in separate as well as in composite manner at a concentration of 80 mg/100 g body weight/day to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat resulted in a significant remedial effect on blood glucose level as well as carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and the quantity of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen. Serum insulin level that was diminished in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat recovered significantly after the co-administration of extract of above plant parts. All the above parameters showed a more potent remedial effect after composite extract treatment with respect to separate treatment and none of the extract has any general metabolic toxicity induction.

  2. Identification of Biomarkers for Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Infection and in Silico Studies in Musa paradisiaca Cultivar Puttabale through Proteomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Ramu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Panama wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc is one of the major disease constraints of banana production. Previously, we reported the disease resistance Musa paradisiaca cv. puttabale clones developed from Ethylmethanesulfonate and Foc culture filtrate against Foc inoculation. Here, the same resistant clones and susceptible clones were used for the study of protein accumulation against Foc inoculation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, their expression pattern and an in silico approach. The present investigation revealed mass-spectrometry identified 16 proteins that were over accumulated and 5 proteins that were under accumulated as compared to the control. The polyphosphoinositide binding protein ssh2p (PBPssh2p and Indoleacetic acid-induced-like (IAA protein showed significant up-regulation and down-regulation. The docking of the pathogenesis-related protein (PR with the fungal protein endopolygalacturonase (PG exemplify the three ionic interactions and seven hydrophobic residues that tends to good interaction at the active site of PG with free energy of assembly dissociation (1.5 kcal/mol. The protein-ligand docking of the Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase chloroplastic-like protein (PMSRc with the ligand β-1,3 glucan showed minimum binding energy (−6.48 kcal/mol and docking energy (−8.2 kcal/mol with an interaction of nine amino-acid residues. These explorations accelerate the research in designing the host pathogen interaction studies for the better management of diseases.

  3. Dietary Administration of Banana (Musa acuminata Peel Flour Affects the Growth, Antioxidant Status, Cytokine Responses, and Disease Susceptibility of Rohu, Labeo rohita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sib Sankar Giri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7] were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P<0.05 in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P<0.05. These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita.

  4. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling. © 2014 CIRAD New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Beneficial effects of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Shobha, Mysore S; Sambaiah, Kari; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2011-09-01

    Diabetes is a chronic health problem and major cause of death in most of the countries. Diet management plays an important role in controlling diabetes and its complications along with insulin and drugs. We have examined the effect of banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem on hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Our results indicated that banana flower and pseudostem have low glycemic index and have a high content of dietary fiber and antioxidants. Diabetic symptoms like hyperglycemia, polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, urine sugar, and body weight were ameliorated in banana flower- and pseudostem-treated rats. Increased glomerular filtration rate in the diabetic group (5.1 ± 0.22 ml/min) was decreased in banana flower-fed (2.5 ± 0.37 ml/min) and pseudostem-fed (3.0 ± 0.45 ml/min) groups and were significant at P banana flower- and pseudostem-fed groups, it was reduced to 9.21 ± 0.32 and 9.29 ± 0.24 μg/mg protein, respectively, and were significant at P banana flower and pseudostem have anti-diabetic and anti-AGEs properties and are beneficial as food supplements for diabetics.

  6. Effect of hydric stress induced by PEG 6000 on water content of Musa spp. ‘Grande naine’ (AAA and ‘Pelipita’ (ABB in vitro plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo J Moreno-Bermúdez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bananas and bananas are grown in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, by hence they are adapted to good humidity conditions. The productivity of these crops is affected by abiotic factors such as drought, which has increased in recent years due to the effects of climate change. In vitro selection of tolerant genotypes offers advantages over field selection as it saves time, resources and permit to work with larger plant volumes. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of in vitro water stress induced with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000 on water content (WC of Musa spp. ‘Grande naine’ (AAA and ‘Pelipita’ (ABB cultivars. In ‘Pelipita’ cultivar WC was not affected by PEG 6000 effect, but in ‘Grande naine’ this trait was significantly reduced in those plants under stress. Both, ‘Pelipita’ and ‘Grande naine’ cultivars differentially respond to water stress induced in vitro by PEG 6000 and could be used as reference in plants evaluation obtained by plant breeding for drought tolerance. Key words: banana, climate change, drought, in vitro selection

  7. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  8. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues…

  9. La musa que tose. Nicolás Olivari y una poética de vanguardia en la literatura rioplatense de la década de 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Amalia Bosoer

    2014-03-01

    This article analyses in La musa de la mala pata (1926, the second book of poetry of Nicolás Olivari (1900-1966, the formulation of a poetics of vanguard in the Río de la Plata literary context. From what we call a poetic of cough, in his poems we follow the formulation of a poetic language that seeks to secede from the modernist notions of poetic musicality, proposes a demystification of poetic language and move towards a conception of language that interrogates the referentiality.

  10. Endangered Species Day | Endangered Species Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual Top 10 Report Protecting the Endangered Species Act Wildlife Voices Stand for Wolves Endangered Campaigns Wildlife Voices Protecting the Endangered Species Act Annual Top 10 Report Endangered Species Day Stand for Wolves Vanishing BOOK: A Wild Success The Endangered Species Act at 40 Endangered Species The

  11. Les compositions mémorielles autour de la Guerre patriotique. L’exemple du souvenir de Moussa Djalil, Tatar, stalinien, poète et patriote Memory Schemes Around the Patriotic War. The Example of the Memory of Musa Dzhalil, Tatar, Stalinist, Poet and Patriot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Daucé

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to study the memorial destiny of Musa Dzhalil, a Tatar poet well-known in Russia for his Moabit Notebook written in the Berlin prison where he died in 1944. After 1956, he became posthumously an official Hero of the Soviet Union and won the Lenin Prize for his work. His popularity survived the disappearance of the USSR and Musa Dzhalil is still a popular figure in Russia today. This popularity is the result of a complex combination of factors : he is celebrated as a great patriot (for his military exploit in Germany but also as a representative of the Tatar culture (he wrote his work in Tatar, as an artist (his poems were translated into Russian and, last but not least, as a representative of the Soviet society (of the Stalinist period. Because of the mixing of these different components, the cult of Musa Dzhalil can be appropriated simultaneously by different groups in Post-Soviet society (Russian leadership, Tatar authorities, Communist Party, Cultural institutions. This complex combination of supports forbids any critical assessment of Dzhalil’s memory. Critics against him are immediately denounced as anti-Tatar, anti-Soviet, anti-cultural and anti-Russian. This paper thus shows, through the example of Musa Dzhalil, the insertion of Great Patriotic War memory in a complex collection of social and political bonds.

  12. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.

    1975-01-01

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  13. EFECTO DE LA MICORRIZACIÓN Y LA FERTILIZACIÓN EN LA ACUMULACIÓN DE BIOMASA EN PLANTAS DE BANANO (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano (Musaceae MICORRHIZATION AND FERTILIZATION EFFECT ON BIOMASS ACCUMULATION IN BANANA PLANTS (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano (Musaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Usuga Osorio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Bajo condiciones de invernadero (ubicado en el municipio de Bello - Antioquia (Colombia se evaluó el efecto independiente y combinado de los factores: tipo de inóculo de Hongos Micorriza Arbuscular (HMA, fertilización y aplicación de materia orgánica sobre el porcentaje de asociación de HMA en plantas de banano (Musa AAA cv. Gran Enano, así como en la acumulación de materia seca foliar y radical. Dentro del factor tipo de inóculo, se evaluaron inóculos nativos, de agroecosistemas bananeros y ecosistemas naturales del Urabá (Antioquia-Colombia, uno comercial y la especie Acaulospora morrowiae; con respecto a la fertilización se probó la mitad, completa y dos veces la dosis de la fertilización recomendada de acuerdo al análisis de suelo y a los requerimientos de la planta, y cada uno de estos factores con y sin la aplicación de materia orgánica; como testigos se usaron, la no aplicación del respectivo factor. Se usó como material vegetal plantas de banano micropropagadas del grupo Cavendish cv. Gran Enano (AAA. El sustrato utilizado para el crecimiento de las plantas de banano se compuso de suelo y arena en relación 70/30 v/v. El suelo se obtuvo de la granja experimental de Augura, ubicado en el municipio de Carepa en la región de Urabá. Los resultados encontrados, muestran que los factores que más incidieron en la asociación así como en la acumulación de biomasa en toda la planta son la micorrización y la adición de materia orgánica. Los resultados, también muestran un comportamiento positivo respecto al uso de inóculos nativos de agroecosistemas bananeros, con bajas aplicaciones de fertilizantes.The effects of independent an combined factors such as inoculum type, fertilization and organic matter application on the percentage of association of ‘H.M.A’ in banana plants (Musa AAA cv. ‘Gran Enano’, and on the accumulation of leaves and rrots material, were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Natives samples

  14. Two-Electron Transfer Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiaxing; Balamurugan, D; Zhang, Peng; Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N

    2015-06-18

    The frontiers of electron-transfer chemistry demand that we develop theoretical frameworks to describe the delivery of multiple electrons, atoms, and ions in molecular systems. When electrons move over long distances through high barriers, where the probability for thermal population of oxidized or reduced bridge-localized states is very small, the electrons will tunnel from the donor (D) to acceptor (A), facilitated by bridge-mediated superexchange interactions. If the stable donor and acceptor redox states on D and A differ by two electrons, it is possible that the electrons will propagate coherently from D to A. While structure-function relations for single-electron superexchange in molecules are well established, strategies to manipulate the coherent flow of multiple electrons are largely unknown. In contrast to one-electron superexchange, two-electron superexchange involves both one- and two-electron virtual intermediate states, the number of virtual intermediates increases very rapidly with system size, and multiple classes of pathways interfere with one another. In the study described here, we developed simple superexchange models for two-electron transfer. We explored how the bridge structure and energetics influence multielectron superexchange, and we compared two-electron superexchange interactions to single-electron superexchange. Multielectron superexchange introduces interference between singly and doubly oxidized (or reduced) bridge virtual states, so that even simple linear donor-bridge-acceptor systems have pathway topologies that resemble those seen for one-electron superexchange through bridges with multiple parallel pathways. The simple model systems studied here exhibit a richness that is amenable to experimental exploration by manipulating the multiple pathways, pathway crosstalk, and changes in the number of donor and acceptor species. The features that emerge from these studies may assist in developing new strategies to deliver multiple

  15. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  16. Produção da banana nanicão (musa sp. em função de tipos e doses de biofertilizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Itano dos S. Alves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available  O uso de biofertilizantes na fruticultura vem sendo estudado em diferentes regiões do Brasil, por serem consideradas fontes de nutrientes para as culturas de fácil acesso e de baixo custo. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento vegetativo da bananeira (Musa sp. 'Nanica' submetida à aplicação via radicular de diferentes tipos e dosagens de biofertilizantes. O experimento foi conduzido, em condições de campo no Centro de Ciências Humanas e Agrárias (CCHA da Universidade Estadual da Paraíba (UEPB, Campus Catolé do Rocha. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados no esquema fatorial 5 x 10, sendo 5 tipos de biofertilizantes (B1 = Esterco bovino (EB; B2 = EB+ farinha de rocha (FR; B3 = EB + FR+ leguminosa (L; B4 = EB+FR+ cinza de madeira (C; e B5 = EB+FR +L+C e 10 doses (0; 0,3; 0,6; 0,9; 1,2; 1,5; 1,8; 2,1; 2,4 e 2,7 L planta-1 aplicação-1 com quatro repetições.Foramavaliado duranteo 1º e o 2º ciclodacultura, a altura da planta, o diâmetro do caule, o número de folhas ea área foliar unitária e total. Para as variáveis estudadas as dosagens de biofertilizantes não apresentaram efeitos significativos, porém os tipos de biofertilizantes foram significativos colaborando ao aumento da área foliar da planta.

  17. CRESCIMENTO E OXIDAÇÃO DE EXPLANTES DE BANANEIRA-PRATA (Musa AAB IN VITRO: I. CONCENTRAÇÕES DE SAIS DE FERRO, COBRE E ZINCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UTINO SERGIO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes concentrações de ferro, cobre e zinco do meio MS (MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962 no controle da oxidação de explantes iniciais de bananeira-Prata (Musa AAB. Foram utilizadas três concentrações (100, 50 e 0 miM de FeEDTA, duas concentrações (0,1 e 0miM de (CuSO4.5H2O e duas concentrações (30 e 0miM de (ZnSO4.7H2O, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, arranjado em um fatorial completo 3 x 2 x 2, utilizando-se de 15 repetições. Ápices caulinares foram inoculados em meio MS modificado e, decorridos 28 dias após a inoculação, avaliaram-se a massa de matéria fresca, altura e grau de oxidação. Observou-se que esses micronutrientes são essenciais para o crescimento dos explantes e que a concentração de ferro influencia na oxidação de explantes, sendo que maiores graus de escurecimento foram observados nas concentrações mais elevadas. A redução ou retirada destes elementos do meio MS, isoladamente ou em combinações, não foi suficiente para eliminar a oxidação dos explantes.

  18. Utilización del método de superficie de respuesta para formular una base de banano (Musa AAA para batidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gamboa White

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El Método de Superficie de Respuesta se utiliza para optimizar o reformular productos. Se usa principalmente para economizar dinero y reducir el tiempo de pruebas, al disminuir el número de ensayos. Se presenta la aplicación del Método de Superficie de Respuesta para desarrollar una base a partir de bananos (Musa AAA var. Cavendish cv. Gran Enano de rechazo de exportación a manera de caso para estudiar su uso. Por medio de una encuesta se identificó que el dulzor, espumosidad y sabor fueron los atributos que los consumidores consideraron más importantes en un batido. Con base en estos atributos y con los ingredientes: pulpa de banano, goma guar y azúcar, se elaboraron y seleccionaron varias mezclas base, que fueron degustadas, en forma de batidos en leche, por un grupo de 90 consumidores. Por medio del diseño de superficie de respuesta se determinó que el batido con la mayor aceptación estuvo constituido por un 77,0 % de leche y un 23,0 % de mezcla base, compuesta esta última por 0,12 % de goma guar, 80,50 % de pulpa de banano y un 19,50 % de azúcar. Un Análisis de Componentes Principales permitió determinar que el contenido de sacarosa, que define el grado de dulzor, fue el atributo más importante para la aceptación del batido y se demostró que la combinación del Método de Superficie de Respuesta con el Análisis de Componentes Principales constituyó una herramienta útil en la formulación y optimización de productos, sobre todo para entender la interrelación de las variables.

  19. Tiempo de almacenamiento del cormo y su efecto en el crecimiento y producción de plátano (Musa AAB Dominico Hartón

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    Manuel Aristizábal L

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento del material de siembra sobre el crecimiento y producción del plátano (Musa AAB, utilizando cormos de plantas sanas libres de tejido necrosado.La mitad de ellos fueron sumergidos durante 60 min en una solución de 15 g de carbofurán y 20 g de manzate en 10 L de agua, después de lo cual tanto los cormos tratados como los no tratados fueron colocados sobre el suelo y cubiertos con hojas frescas de plátano. Cada semana, durante un período de 6 semanas, se tomó la cantidad necesaria de cormos para plantar a una distancia de 3m entre surcos y 2m entre plantas, en un diseño de parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones y 10 plantas por repetición. En floración se hicieron registros de altura de planta, diámetro del pseudotallo, número de hojas funcionales presentes y hojas jóvenes manchadas; en cosecha se registró el peso de los racimos y se calculó el peso promedio del dedo en cada uno de ellos. Se encontró que el almacenamiento del cormo reduce el crecimiento de la planta sin afectar la severidad de la Sigatoka del plátano, igualmente reduce de forma severa y significativa el peso del racimo y el tamaño de dedo; no obstante, el tratamiento preventivo del cormo tiene efecto positivo en el crecimiento y producción de la planta, aunque no reduce el daño causado por el envejecimiento del material de propagación.

  20. Diabetes induced testicular dysfunction amelioration by ethyl acetate fraction of hydromethanolic extract of root of Musa paradisiaca L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

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    Kausik Chatterjee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the diabetic therapeutic potentiality and antioxidative efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of hydro-methanol (40:60 extract of root of Musa paradisiaca Lam. (Musaceae in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic state was confirmed by decreased serum insulin level and carbohydrate metabolomics i.e. increased fasting blood glucose level, glycated hemoglobin level and diminished glycogen contents in liver and skeletal muscle. Reproductive homeostasis alteration in diabetes was evaluated by reproductive organo-somatic indices, sperm count, motility and histological analysis of testicular seminiferous tubule along with levels of serum testosterone, testicular cholesterol and seminal vesicular fructose assessment. Oxidative stress in primary and accessory sex organs, and in sperm pellet was assessed by measuring antioxidant enzyme activities along with quantification of free radicals products. Testicular pro-apoptotic Bax-毩 mRNA expression pattern was studied semi-quantitatively by PCR technique. Reverse phase HPLC fingerprinting was performed using methanol and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Results: Oral administration of ethyl acetate fraction at a dose of 20 mg/0.5 mL of distilled water/100 gm body weight twice daily to the diabetic rats for 28 days significantly recovered organo-somatic indices, protected reproductive activities, corrected oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic mRNA expression pattern, which were deviated in diabetes mellitus from control level without any type of toxicity. HPLC fingerprinting shows five completely resolved peaks at 毸 max 254 nm and 342 nm. Conclusions: It has a promising antihyperglycaemic and antioxidative activity for curing diabetes induced reproductive disorders in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

  1. Therapeutic effects of gold nanoparticles synthesized using Musa paradisiaca peel extract against multiple antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis biofilms and human lung cancer cells (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, S; Vaseeharan, B; Malaikozhundan, B; Gopi, N; Ekambaram, P; Pachaiappan, R; Velusamy, P; Murugan, K; Benelli, G; Suresh Kumar, R; Suriyanarayanamoorthy, M

    2017-01-01

    Botanical-mediated synthesis of nanomaterials is currently emerging as a cheap and eco-friendly nanotechnology, since it does not involve the use of toxic chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous peel extract of Musa paradisiaca (MPPE-AuNPs) following a facile and cheap fabrication process. The green synthesized MPPE-AuNPs were bio-physically characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, Zeta potential analysis and EDX. MPPE-AuNPs were crystalline in nature, spherical to triangular in shape, with particle size ranging within 50 nm. The biofilm inhibition activity of MPPE-AuNPs was higher against multiple antibiotic resistant (MARS) Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Light and confocal laser scanning microscopic observations evidenced that the MPPE-AuNPs effectively inhibited the biofilm of E. faecalis when tested at 100 μg mL -1 . Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that MPPE-AuNPs were effective in inhibiting the viability of human A549 lung cancer cells at higher concentrations of 100 μg mL -1 . The morphological changes in the MPPE-AuNPs treated A549 lung cancer cells were visualized under phase-contrast microscopy. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of MPPE-AuNPs on the freshwater micro crustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta were evaluated. Notably, no mortality was recorded in MPPE-AuNPs treated C. cornuta at 250 μg mL -1 . This study concludes that MPPE-AuNPs are non-toxic, eco-friendly and act as a multipurpose potential biomaterial for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Statistical Analysis of the Effects of Drying Temperature and Pretreatment on the Proximate Composition of Dried Matured Green Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca

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    K.A. Yusuf

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drying has been identified as the efficient means of ensuring continuous food supply to the growing population of any country and to enable the farmers produce more high quality marketable products. In this study, the effects of drying temperature and pretreatment on the quality of dried mature green plantain (Musa paradisiaca were studied using an electrically-powered cabinet dryer. The product was dried from an initial moisture content of 62% (w.b to a moisture content of 11.9% (w.b. A factorial experiment in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD involving three levels of temperature (50, 60 and 70 0C; three levels of pretreatment (blanching, boiling and control and three replications were used. The quality analysis of the dried samples at different level of drying temperatures and pre-treatments was carried out for protein, fat, ash and fibre content and the data obtained were statistically analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software to determine the level of significance among the treatment factors on the dried samples. The protein, fat and fibre content decreased with increase in temperature but the ash content increased with increase in temperature. In pretreatments, control had the highest protein content of 4.27% at 60 0C, lowest fat content of 2.26% at 70 0 C and moderate fibre and ash contents of 0.68% and 1.82% respectively at 60 0C. Boiled sample also had the highest fat content of 4.27% at 50 0C, lowest fat content 2.26% at 70 0C and moderate fibre and ash contents of 0.88% and 1.73% respectively at 60 0C. lastly, blanched sample had the highest fat content of 4.11% at 50 0 C, lowest fat content 2.54% at 70 0C and moderate fibre and ash contents of 0.83% and 1.45% respectively at 60 0C.

  3. Effect of cassava-starch coatings with ascorbic acidic and N-acetylcysteine on the quality of harton plantain (Musa paradisiaca

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    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coatings was evaluated on the quality ofharton plantain fruits (Musa paradisiaca in the postharvest stage.Solutions for three treatments were prepared from 50 g L-1 cassavastarch (Manihot esculenta with 30 g L-1 glycerol as the plasticizerand 6 g L-1 polyethylene glycol-600®; for anti-browning agents, 6g L-1 ascorbic acid (AA and 8 g L-1 N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC wereadded. The fruits were coated by immersion, stored at 18 ± 4°Cand 85% RH. Physicochemical properties were determined at 32days postharvest. The applied coatings decreased the physiologicalweight loss (%WL and resulted in a higher pulp firmness (PF; nosignificant difference was seen with a confidence level of 95% inthe concentration of total soluble solids (TSS, acidity or maturityindex. The skin color was measured by the CIE L*a*b* method, withan average L value of 70 for the fruits coated with the 6 g L-1 AAand 8 g L-1 NAC mixture, while the control fruits had a value of 57.Also, lower a* coordinate values and browning indices were foundfor the epidermis of the coated fruits. The enzymatic activity of thepolyphenol oxidase decreased with the number of postharvest daysfor all of the treatments, being lower for the fruits with the mixtureof anti-browning agents by 27%, as compared to the control. It wasconcluded that the coating mixture containing the anti-browningagents ascorbic acid, 6 g L-1, and N-acetyl-cysteine, 8 g L-1, showeda better effect as an alternative for storing fruits and prolongingthe shelf-life of harton plantain.

  4. APROVECHAMIENTO DE PULPA Y CÁSCARA DE PLÁTANO (Musa paradisiaca spp PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE MALTODEXTRINA

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    DIANA VICTORIA MELO-SABOGAL

    Full Text Available Los subproductos de las cadenas agroindustriales constituyen alrededor del 90% de la parte del cultivo, por lo cual, establecer alternativas de aprovechamiento puede ser importantes para los productores. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto del tratamiento enzimático sobre almidón obtenido de pulpa y cáscara de plátano (Musa paradisiaca spp. y se estableció el efecto de la temperatura de secado en almidón hidrolizado sobre propiedades químicas, físicas y reológicas. Se cuantificó la actividad de agua, el contenido de humedad y el contenido de dextrosa equivalente, azúcares reductores presentes en la maltodextrina por cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia; además se determinaron parámetros de color y reológicos. La hidrólisis enzimática presentó efecto significativo sobre la cantidad de dextrosa equivalente, permitió la obtención de maltotriosa, maltosa y glucosa, compuestos propios de maltodextrina, además, tuvo efecto sobre los parámetros reológicos, evidenciándose el cambio de la estructura del almidón. La temperatura de 130°C fue la que tuvo mayor efecto sobre las variables de actividad de agua, contenido de humedad y cambio de color. Lo anterior demuestra que es posible la obtención de maltodextrinas a partir de pulpa y cáscara de plátano por vía enzimática y secado por atomización a temperatura de 130°C.

  5. Diabetic therapeutic effects of ethyl acetate fraction from the roots of Musa paradisiaca and seeds of Eugenia jambolana in streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, D K; Ghosh, Debidas; Bhat, B; Talwar, S K; Jaggi, M; Mukherjee, R

    2009-11-01

    The folklore medicine of primitive people has been greatly appreciated for centuries. Many researchers study the curative efficiency and mode of action of various medicinal plants. Serum glucose level, lipid profile, glucose tolerance, hepatic and muscle glycogen contents as well as the activities of hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase recovered significantly after oral administration of ethyl acetate fractions of Eugenia jambolana (E. jambolana) or Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in separate (E. jambolana L.: 200 mg/kg of body weight and M. paradisiaca: 100 mg/kg of body weight) or combined form for 90 days (twice a day through gavage) to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The loss in body weight of diabetic animals was reversed and serum levels of insulin as well as C-peptide, which were found to be reduced in diabetic rats, increased significantly after oral administration of the fractions. A histological study of the rats' pancreas revealed that after 90 days of oral treatment with the plant fractions in separate or combined form, the size and volume of pancreatic islets in diabetic treated rats increased significantly compared with the diabetic control group. Treatment of diabetic rats with the combined dose (300 mg/kg of body weight) of plant fractions (200 mg E. jambolana and 100 mg M. paradisiaca) was found to be more effective than treatment with the individual fraction. The doses of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca selected for this study are the optimum antihyperglycemic doses of the plant fractions, which were determined after conducting a dose-dependent study at various dose levels (50-500 mg/kg) in our pilot experiments. The plant fractions were found to be free from metabolic toxicity. Through HPTLC finger printing, three different compounds were noted in the ethyl acetate fraction of E. jambolana L. and eight different compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction of M. paradisiaca L. Copyright 2009 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All

  6. Pretratamiento de residuos de plátano (Musa paradisiaca (L. AAB y arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft para la obtención de azúcares fermentables

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    Darwin Carranza Saavedra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El raquis de plátano Musa paradisiaca L. (AAB y el tallo cilíndrico corto (cepa que posee la arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft son los principales residuos generados durante el manejo poscosecha en la región del Tolima (Colombia. Muestras secas fueron sometidas a hidrólisis térmica a presiones de 0,1034 MPa (100,55 ºC; 0,2068 MPa (121,28 ºC y 0,4137 MPa (144,83 ºC de vapor saturado; a hidrólisis con ácido sulfúrico en concentraciones de 0,25; 0,50 y 1,00 M con calentamiento durante 1 y 2 horas; y por último se sacarificó con empleo de enzimas celulasas (Celluclast® 1.5 L a concentraciones de 7,5; 15,0 y 30,0 FPU/g. Los mejores rendimientos de carbohidratos reductores se obtuvieron al tratar el raquis y la cepa con ácido sulfúrico a concentración de 1,00 M por 1 hora de tiempo residencia. La torta resultante del proceso de filtración se hidrolizó enzimáticamente arrojando altas cantidades de obtención de azúcares fermentables en todo el proceso de 0,7734 g/g a partir del raquis (30 FPU/g y 0,7679 g/g a partir de la cepa (15 FPU/g. Los residuos agrícolas de plátano y arracacha pueden ser utilizados en la generación de azúcares fermentables.

  7. The effects of replacing Dichantium hay with banana (Musa paradisiaca) leaves and pseudo-stem on carcass traits of Ovin Martinik sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Magdeleine, Carine; Liméa, Léticia; Etienne, Tatiana; Lallo, Cicero H O; Archimède, Harry; Alexandre, Gisele

    2009-10-01

    A study was done to evaluate banana (Musa paradisiaca) as a forage (leaves and pseudo-stems) for feeding Ovin Martinik lambs (OMK), with the aim to test its impact on carcass quality. Forty four intact OMK male were used after weaning with an initial mean live weight of 14.4 (+/- 3.3) kg, reared in individual pens. Animals were offered either Dichantium hay (control diet, Dh) or cut chopped leaves and pseudo-stems of banana (experimental diet, Blps). They were fed 200-250 g x d(-1) of commercial concentrate. Lambs were slaughtered according to 3 classes of slaughter weight (SW): SW20, SW23 and SW26. Growth and carcass performances of both groups were not significantly different, 77 vs. 81 g x d(-1) and 42% vs. 43% hot carcass yield, for Dh vs. Blps, respectively. There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease (31.0 vs. 29.7%) for the dry matter content of the shoulder for lambs fed the banana diet. However, there was no effect observed for the other chemical component (CP, lipid and mineral 585, 317 and 95 g x kg(-1) DM, respectively). The shoulder (20% of the carcass whatever the SW) was precocious as demonstrated by the allometry coefficient relative to carcass weight (0.894) significantly (P < 0.01) less than 1. It was concluded that, the use of Blps had no significant effect on growth, carcass weights and yields of the OMK lambs, irrespective of the class of the slaughter weight. From these initial results, the use of banana foliages and pseudo-stems could be recommended as sources of forages.

  8. Aspirin-Induced Gastric Lesions Alters EGFR and PECAM-1 Immunoreactivity in Wistar Rats: Modulatory Action of Flavonoid Fraction of Musa Paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alese, Margaret Olutayo; Adewole, Stephen Olarinde; Akinwunmi, Kemi Feyisayo; Omonisi, Abidemi Emmanuel; Alese, Oluwole Ojo

    2017-08-15

    In this study, Epithelial Growth Factor Receptor and Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 were localised to investigate the healing effects of a flavonoid-rich fraction of M. paradisiaca fruit in the gastric corpus of Wistar rats following aspirin-induced gastric lesion. Mature, unripe fruits of M. paradisiaca were peeled; air dried, pulverised, extracted with 70% methanol, concentrated and partitioned. Ninety male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 6 groups of 15 rats each. The gastric lesion was induced in groups B, C, D, E and F rats by administration of 400 mg/kg aspirin in distilled water. Group A received distilled water. After 24 hours, flavonoid fraction of M. paradisiaca was administered to groups C, D and E at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively for 21 days. Group F rats received omeprazole at 1.8 mg/kg for 21 days. Five rats from each group were anaesthetized with ketamine on days 14, 21 and 28. Gastric tissues were excised and fixed in Neutral buffered formalin. This was followed by paraffin wax embedding method and sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin and for immunolocalisation of EGFR and PECAM-1. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. There was a significant difference in the ulcer index in the corpus of control and treated rats throughout the experimental period (p = 0.0001). H&E stained sections showed a gradual restoration of the epithelial lining in the treated groups. Immunohistochemical examination showed that M. paradisiaca significantly increased (p Musa paradisiaca in attenuating the damaging effects of aspirin on the gastric mucosa was observed as there was a significantly increased reactivity for EGFR and PECAM-1 in the gastric corpus in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. The transcriptional regulatory network mediated by banana (Musa acuminata) dehydration-responsive element binding (MaDREB) transcription factors in fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jian-Fei; Chen, Jian-Ye; Liu, Xun-Cheng; Han, Yan-Chao; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Shan, Wei; Tang, Yang; Wu, Ke-Qiang; He, Jun-Xian; Lu, Wang-Jin

    2017-04-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex, genetically programmed process involving the action of critical transcription factors (TFs). Despite the established significance of dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) TFs in plant abiotic stress responses, the involvement of DREBs in fruit ripening is yet to be determined. Here, we identified four genes encoding ripening-regulated DREB TFs in banana (Musa acuminata), MaDREB1, MaDREB2, MaDREB3, and MaDREB4, and demonstrated that they play regulatory roles in fruit ripening. We showed that MaDREB1-MaDREB4 are nucleus-localized, induced by ethylene and encompass transcriptional activation activities. We performed a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) experiment for MaDREB2 and identified 697 genomic regions as potential targets of MaDREB2. MaDREB2 binds to hundreds of loci with diverse functions and its binding sites are distributed in the promoter regions proximal to the transcriptional start site (TSS). Most of the MaDREB2-binding targets contain the conserved (A/G)CC(G/C)AC motif and MaDREB2 appears to directly regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in fruit ripening. In combination with transcriptome profiling (RNA sequencing) data, our results indicate that MaDREB2 may serve as both transcriptional activator and repressor during banana fruit ripening. In conclusion, our study suggests a hierarchical regulatory model of fruit ripening in banana and that the MaDREB TFs may act as transcriptional regulators in the regulatory network. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. A Ser/Thr protein kinase phosphorylates MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase 1) during banana fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-08-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis during ripening. ACS isozymes are regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. However, in banana, an important climacteric fruit, little is known about post-translational regulation of ACS. Here, we report the post-translational modification of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACS1), a ripening inducible isozyme in the ACS family, which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis during banana fruit ripening. Immunoprecipitation analyses of phospholabeled protein extracts from banana fruit using affinity-purified anti-MA-ACS1 antibody have revealed phosphorylation of MA-ACS1, particularly in ripe fruit tissue. We have identified the induction of a 41-kDa protein kinase activity in pulp at the onset of ripening. The 41-kDa protein kinase has been identified as a putative protein kinase by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Biochemical analyses using partially purified protein kinase fraction from banana fruit have identified the protein kinase as a Ser/Thr family of protein kinase and its possible involvement in MA-ACS1 phosphorylation during ripening. In vitro phosphorylation analyses using synthetic peptides and site-directed mutagenized recombinant MA-ACS1 have revealed that serine 476 and 479 residues at the C-terminal region of MA-ACS1 are phosphorylated. Overall, this study provides important novel evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of MA-ACS1 at the molecular level as a possible mechanism of post-translational regulation of this key regulatory protein in ethylene signaling pathway in banana fruit during ripening.

  11. Efectos de dos sistemas de producción en el contenido de minerales en el fruto de Musa AAB Simmonds

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    Guerra Hernández Katty Julia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de producción orgánico y/o ecológico tienen como objetivo garantizar la sostenibilidad y la renovación de base natural, mediante la limitación del uso de productos de síntesis química para favorecer el ambiente y la salud humana. Teniendo en cuenta estas características, se estudió el efecto de los sistemas de producción orgánico y convencional sobre el contenido de nutrientes minerales del fruto del plátano Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds, durante el proceso de maduración. Las determinaciones se realizaron en la Universidad de Córdoba (Montería, Colombia con el fin de establecer las diferencias en el contenido de minerales en los frutos en ambos sistemas y en diferentes estados de maduración. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 5 y cinco repeticiones. Los factores fueron: sistema de producción y estado de maduración; los cinco niveles del segundo factor correspondieron a los grados de maduración: verde-oscuro (V, verde-claro (VC, amarillo-verde (AV, amarillo (A y muy amarillo (MA. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que entre ambos sistemas de producción y en distintos grados de maduración, se presentan diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en los contenidos de calcio, magnesio, potasio, sodio, hierro y zinc.

  12. Evaluación de micorrizas nativas en plantas de plátano Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds en fase de vivero

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    José Luis Barrera-Violeth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se evalúo el efecto de la aplicación de tres géneros nativos de micorrizas vesículo arbusculares sobre el crecimiento de plantas de plátano Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds en etapa de vivero. Las cepas se obtuvieron de la colección del Laboratorio de Fitopatología de la Universidad de Córdoba, las cuales fueron aisladas de cultivos de plátano en los municipios de Lorica, Los Córdobas y San Bernardo del Viento. Se utilizó el diseño experimental completamente al azar, con seis tratamientos (T: Glomus sp. (T1, Acaullospora sp. (T2, Scutellospora sp. (T3, una combinación de los géneros Glomus, Acaullospora y Scutellospora (T4, un tratamiento químico de fosfato diamónico, DAP (T5 y un control absoluto (T6, con diez repeticiones por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que con la combinación de géneros de micorrizas (T4 se obtuvo un mayor número de esporas y un porcentaje más alto de infección, seguido de los tratamientos T1, T3 y T2. Además, con esta combinación se encontraron diferencias significativas en diámetro del pseudotallo, relación de área foliar:peso fresco y seco de raíz, en comparación con los demás tratamientos. El área foliar y la longitud de raíz fueron más altos en el tratamiento T5.

  13. Electrons in water radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverne, J.A.; Pimblott, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrated electron is the main reducing species produced in the radiolysis of water. Many studies have examined its reactivity using pulsed radiolysis techniques and competition kinetics. Data bases list hundreds of rate coefficients for reaction of the hydrated electron with substances ranging from inorganic ions like nitrate to biopolymers like DNA. Although the chemistry of the hydrated electron is often examined, its mechanism of formation and variation in yield are considerable less known, especially under extreme conditions such as in high temperature water or with heavy ion radiolysis. This work will examine various aspects of the radiation chemistry of the hydrated electron beginning with the generation of secondary electrons in primary energy loss events during the passage of ionizing radiation to the radiolytic yields of the hydrated electron produced by different types of radiation. Ion radiation is a 'white light source.' Energy losses range from the minimum excitation energy of the medium up to the kinematic maximum determined by the collision parameters. However, certain energy loss events are more probable than others. The dipole oscillator strength distributions of media essentially give the probability of energy loss events in collisions with no momentum transfer. Dipole oscillator distributions have been constructed from experimental data for a wide variety of materials including all the phases of water. Calculations using cross sections based on dipole oscillator distributions show that the most probable energy loss event in water is only about 20 eV with an average value closer to 60 eV. The preponderance of energy loss events of less than 100 eV means that many low energy electrons are formed by the passage of a single ion. Low energy electrons have short mean free paths and they remain in the vicinity of the primary energy loss events. The spatial distribution of these low energy electrons defines the radial track structure of the incident

  14. Irradiation of fresh Cavendish bananas (Musa cavendishii) and mangoes (Mangifera indica Linn. var. carabao). The microbiological aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabastro, E.F.; Pineda, A.S.; Pangan, A.C.; Valle, M.J. del

    1978-01-01

    Spoilage-causing organisms of Cavendish bananas and Carabao mangoes were isolated by subculturing spoiled fruit tissues and their pathogenicity determined by subsequent inoculation of the organisms into healthy fruits. Isolated from bananas were species of Colletotrichum and two types of Fusarium and Thielaviopsis and from mangoes species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus. Results of in vitro radiation-resistance studies on two spoilage organisms of mangoes showed that the Colletotrichum sp., with D 10 of 54krad, is more radiation-resistant than the Aspergillus sp., which has a D 10 of 25krad. Bananas exposed to radiation doses ranging from 5 to 37krad developed darkening of peel, softening of texture and acceleration of spoilage with increasing dose. Doses of 16 to 28krad applied to mangoes delayed the rate of appearance of spoilage organisms and had no adverse effect on the general appearance of the fruit. (author)

  15. Candida xinjiangensis sp. nov., a new anamorphic yeast species isolated from Scolytus scheryrewi Semenov in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Dian-Peng; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2017-03-01

    Three yeast strains designated as S44, XF1 and XF2, respectively, were isolated from Scolytus scheryrewi Semenov of apricot tree in Shule County, Xinjiang, China, and were demonstrated to be a new member of the genus Candida by sequence comparisons of 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. BLASTn alignments on NCBI showed that the similarity of 26S rRNA gene sequences of S44 (type strain) to all sequences of other Candida yeasts was very low (≦93 %). The phylogenetic tree based on the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and ITS region sequences revealed that the strain S44 is closely related to C. blattae, C. dosseyi, C. pruni, C. asparagi, C. fructus and C. musae. However, the strain S44 is distinguished from these Candida species by the physiological characteristics. Moreover, the strain S44 formed typical pseudohyphae when grown on cornmeal agar at 25 °C for 7 days, but did not form ascospores in sporulation medium for 3-4 weeks. Therefore, the name Candida xinjiangensis is proposed for the novel species, with S44 (=KCTC T 27747) as the type strain.

  16. Electronic emission and electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  17. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Diaz Cordero, Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces

  18. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    "[to] promote the understanding and, acceptance of and growth in the number of electronic transactions .... Chapter III of the ECT Act is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic. Commerce ... Communications Technology Law 146. 22.

  19. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  20. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  1. Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  2. Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…

  3. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-08

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces. The stickers can be wrappable, placed on surfaces, glued on walls or mirrors or wood or stone, and have electronics (112, 122, 132) which may or may not be ultrathin. Packaging for the electronic sticker can use polymer on cellulose manufacturing and/or three dimensional (3-D) printing. The electronic stickers may provide lighting capability, sensing capability, and/or recharging capabilities.

  4. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  5. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.

  6. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K; Gascó, M; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M; Panagiotopoulos, P; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P; Sæbø, Ø

    2016-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies.This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  7. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  8. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  9. `Twisted' electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2018-04-01

    Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.

  10. Management of Fruit Species in Urban Home Gardens of Argentina Atlantic Forest as an Influence for Landscape Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Violeta; Pochettino, María L; Hilgert, Norma I

    2017-01-01

    Home gardens are considered germplasm repositories and places for experimentation, thus they are key sites for the domestication of plants. Domestication is considered a constant process that occurs along a continuum from wild to managed to domesticated populations. Management may lead to the modification of populations and in other cases to their distribution, changing population structure in a landscape. Our objective is focused on the management received in home gardens by perennial species of fruits. For this, the management practices applied to native and exotic perennial fruits species by a group of 20 women in the periurban zone of Iguazú, Argentina, were analyzed. In-depth interviews were conducted, as well as guided tours for the recognition and collection of specimens of species and ethnovarieties. Sixty-six fruit species managed in the home gardens were recorded. The predominant families are Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, and Rosaceae. The fruit species with the highest number of associated management practices are pitanga ( Eugenia uniflora ) and pindó ( Syagrus rommanzoffiana ). The 10 species with the highest management intensity are (in decreasing order of intensity) banana ( Musa x paradisiaca ), palta ( Persea americana ), pitanga ( E. uniflora ), mango ( Mangifera indica ), cocú ( Allophylus edulis ), mamón ( Carica papaya ), guayaba ( Psidium guajava ), limón mandarina ( Citrus x taitensis ), güembé ( Philodendron bipinnatifidum ), and mandarina ( Citrus reticulata ). Among the families with the greatest modifications in their distribution, abundance and presence of ethnovarieties in domestic gardens, are the native Myrtaceae and the exotic Rutaceae. The main management practices involved are cultivation, tolerance, transplant and enhancement in decreasing order. It can be concluded that in Iguazú, fruit species management shows both in plant germplasm as in environment a continuum that through tolerance, transplant and cultivation latu sensu has

  11. Management of Fruit Species in Urban Home Gardens of Argentina Atlantic Forest as an Influence for Landscape Domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Furlan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Home gardens are considered germplasm repositories and places for experimentation, thus they are key sites for the domestication of plants. Domestication is considered a constant process that occurs along a continuum from wild to managed to domesticated populations. Management may lead to the modification of populations and in other cases to their distribution, changing population structure in a landscape. Our objective is focused on the management received in home gardens by perennial species of fruits. For this, the management practices applied to native and exotic perennial fruits species by a group of 20 women in the periurban zone of Iguazú, Argentina, were analyzed. In-depth interviews were conducted, as well as guided tours for the recognition and collection of specimens of species and ethnovarieties. Sixty-six fruit species managed in the home gardens were recorded. The predominant families are Rutaceae, Myrtaceae, and Rosaceae. The fruit species with the highest number of associated management practices are pitanga (Eugenia uniflora and pindó (Syagrus rommanzoffiana. The 10 species with the highest management intensity are (in decreasing order of intensity banana (Musa x paradisiaca, palta (Persea americana, pitanga (E. uniflora, mango (Mangifera indica, cocú (Allophylus edulis, mamón (Carica papaya, guayaba (Psidium guajava, limón mandarina (Citrus x taitensis, güembé (Philodendron bipinnatifidum, and mandarina (Citrus reticulata. Among the families with the greatest modifications in their distribution, abundance and presence of ethnovarieties in domestic gardens, are the native Myrtaceae and the exotic Rutaceae. The main management practices involved are cultivation, tolerance, transplant and enhancement in decreasing order. It can be concluded that in Iguazú, fruit species management shows both in plant germplasm as in environment a continuum that through tolerance, transplant and cultivation latu sensu has derived in a

  12. Germylenes: structures, electron affinities, and singlet-triplet gaps of the conventional XGeCY(3) (X = H, F, Cl, Br, and I; Y = F and Cl) species and the unexpected cyclic XGeCY(3) (Y = Br and I) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundhun, Ashwini; Abdallah, Hassan H; Ramasami, Ponnadurai; Schaefer, Henry F

    2010-12-23

    A systematic investigation of the X-Ge-CY(3) (X = H, F, Cl, Br, and I; Y = F, Cl, Br, and I) species is carried out using density functional theory. The basis sets used for all atoms (except iodine) in this work are of double-ζ plus polarization quality with additional s- and p-type diffuse functions, and denoted DZP++. Vibrational frequency analyses are performed to evaluate zero-point energy corrections and to determine the nature of the stationary points located. Predicted are four different forms of neutral-anion separations: adiabatic electron affinity (EA(ad)), zero-point vibrational energy corrected EA(ad(ZPVE)), vertical electron affinity (EA(vert)), and vertical detachment energy (VDE). The electronegativity (χ) reactivity descriptor for the halogens (X = F, Cl, Br, and I) is used as a tool to assess the interrelated properties of these germylenes. The topological position of the halogen atom bound to the divalent germanium center is well correlated with the trend in the electron affinities and singlet-triplet gaps. For the expected XGeCY(3) structures (X = H, F, Cl, Br, and I; Y = F and Cl), the predicted trend in the electron affinities is well correlated with simpler germylene derivatives (J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 8080). The predicted EA(ad(ZPVE)) values with the BHLYP functional range from 1.66 eV (FGeCCl(3)) to 2.20 eV (IGeCF(3)), while the singlet-triplet splittings range from 1.28 eV (HGeCF(3)) to 2.22 eV (FGeCCl(3)). The XGeCY(3) (Y = Br and I) species are most often characterized by three-membered cyclic systems involving the divalent germanium atom, the carbon atom, and a halogen atom.

  13. Biotransformation and neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and its two-electron oxidation product, and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium (MPDP+) species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, E.Y.

    1989-01-01

    1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) specifically destroys the nitrostriatal tract in humans and certain laboratory animals, and produces a Parkinsonian syndrome. The mechanism of cellular toxicity induced by the metabolites, however, has not been elucidated. The in vitro and in vivo metabolic behavior of MPTP and MPDP + and the possible role of factors other than MAO in determining the fate of these species was examined. Neuromelanin, which enhanced the rate of oxidation of MPDP + to MPP + , may also act as a reservoir in the substantia nigra to trap MPP + and prolong its exposure to susceptible brain neurons. Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), reported to increase the neurotoxic effect of MPTP in mice potentiated the formation of MPDP + from the MAO B catalyzed biotransformation of MPTP and significantly lowered brain dopamine levels in animals pretreated with DDC before MPTP administration. The ability of the dihydropyridinium species to gain access to susceptible neurons via the dopamine uptake system was assessed using the stable, 3,4-dihydro-2-methyl-9-H-indeno [2,1-c]pryidinium (DMIP + ) species. DMIP + , however, proved to be a poor inhibitor of both [ 3 H]dopamine and [ 3 H]MPP + uptake

  14. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  15. Advanced Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-21

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0114 TR-2017-0114 ADVANCED ELECTRONICS Ashwani Sharma 21 Jul 2017 Interim Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...NUMBER Advanced Electronics 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4846 Ashwani Sharma 5e. TASK NUMBER...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (RDMX-17-14919 dtd 20 Mar 2018) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Space Electronics

  16. Electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  17. Adsorption Study on Moringa Oleifera Seeds and Musa Cavendish as Natural Water Purification Agents for Removal of Lead, Nickel and Cadmium from Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N. A. A.; Jayasuriya, N.; Fan, L.

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of plant based materials Moringa oleifera (Moringa) seeds and Musa cavendish (banana peel) for removing heavy metals namely lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) from contaminated groundwater was studied. Tests were carried out with individual and combined biomass at neutral pH condition on synthetic groundwater samples. The optimum biomass doses were determined as 200 mg/L for single biomass and 400 mg/L (in the ratio of 200 mg/L: 200 mg/L) for combined biomasses and used for adsorption isotherm studies with contact time of 30 minutes. Results showed that combined biomasses was able to met the Pb, Ni and Cd WHO standards from higher Pb, Ni and Cd initial concentrations which were up to 40 µg/L, 50 µg/L 9 µg/L, respectively compared to individual biomass of Moringa seed and banana peel. Moringa seeds exhibited the highest removal of Pb (81%) while the combined biomasses was most effective in removing Ni (74%) and Cd (97%) over wider their initial concentration ranges. The experimental data were linearized with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Freundlich model described the Pb adsorption better than the Langmuir model for all the tested biomasses. However, the Langmuir model fit better with the experimental data of Ni adsorption by Moringa seeds. Both models showed negligible differences in the coefficient of determination (R2) when applied for Ni and Cd adsorption on banana peel and combined biomasses, suggesting that there were multiple layers on the biomass interacting with the metals. Chemisorption is suggested to be involved in Pb adsorption for all tested biomasses as the value of nF calculated was lower than one. This type of adsorption could explain the phenomenon of different behavior of Pb removal and the higher Pb adsorption capacity (represented by KF values) compared to Ni and Cd. The study demonstrates that Moringa seeds, banana peel and their combination have the potential to be used as a natural alternative

  18. Respuesta de cultivares de Musa spp. al estrés hídrico in vitro inducido con polietilenglicol 6000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Julio Moreno-Bermúdez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Los plátanos y bananos son cultivos sensibles al déficit hídrico. Las sequías cada vez más prolongadas sugieren la necesidad de obtener plantas tolerantes a este factor; la selección temprana de estas plantas, comparada con la selección en campo, permite ahorrar tiempo y trabajar con mayores volúmenes de individuos. Para ello es conveniente contar con cultivares patrones cuya respuesta al déficit hídrico in vitro sea favorable. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la respuesta de cultivares de Musa spp. con diferente composición genómica al estrés hídrico inducido in vitro con polietilenglicol 6000 (PEG-6000. Se estudiaron los cultivares ‘Pelipita’ (ABB, ‘Manzano’ (AAB y ‘Grande naine’ (AAA. El estrés se indujo con 30 g/L de PEG-6000 en medio de cultivo semisólido de multiplicación. A los 30 días se evaluaron variables indicadoras de estrés morfológicas (altura y número de brotes por explante, fisiológicas (masa fresca y masa seca y bioquímicas (contenido prolina, peróxido de hidrógeno y malondialdehido. En el cultivar ‘Pelipita’ se afectó solamente la altura de las plantas, mientras que en los demás se afectaron todas las variables excepto la masa seca en el ‘Manzano’. En este último y en el ‘Grande naine’ se incrementó la prolina, el peróxido de hidrógeno y el malondialdehido, lo que evidenció un mayor estrés oxidativo y daño en las membranas celulares. Los cultivares estudiados, pudieran emplearse como controles de tolerancia (‘Pelipita’ y sensibilidad (‘Grande naine’ y ‘Manzano’ en la selección in vitro de plantas tolerantes a la sequía, en futuros programas de mejoramiento genético.

  19. Caracterización morfológica y contenido de almidón resistente y disponible en bananos (Musa sapientum exportables del Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Omar Martínez-Mora

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La investigación tuvo como objetivo fundamental, la caracterización morfológica del almidón nativo de banano (Musa sapientum, contenido en almidón resistente (AR y disponible (AD, de las variedades de banano de exportación: Cavendish (AC, Filipino (AF, Orito (AO y Valery (AV.Material y Métodos: Se determinó tamaño y forma del gránulo de almidón a través de microscopia electrónica de barrido. La cuantificación del AR por medición de su fracción no hidrolizada, luego de un ataque de pepsina, y para la fracción del AD un ataque de amilasa pancreática a la fracción no hidrolizada. Se midió la absorbancia de las dos soluciones de AR y AD a 510nm contra el blanco del reactivo.Resultados: El tamaño de los gránulos de almidón de: AF, AV y AC fueron en promedio 28μm y para el AO, de 35μm aproximadamente. La forma que predominó fue la oval esférica. El contenido de AR y AD estuvo en el rango de 49 a 58,5% y de 41 a 50%, respectivamente.Conclusiones: El almidón resistente, análogo de la fibra y útil en la nutrición humana, se presentó en valores importantes en las muestras de las diferentes variedades de banano exportable del Ecuador, alrededor del 54%. Según los resultados, el almidón de banano de las variedades estudiadas puede ser incorporado en la elaboración de alimentos que demanden características funcionales, principalmente por su alto contenido en almidón resistente.

  20. Healing effects of Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca in diabetic rats with co-occurring gastric ulcer: cytokines and growth factor by PCR amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohan; Gautam, Manish Kumar; Singh, Amit; Goel, Raj Kumar

    2013-11-05

    The present study evaluates the effects of extract of Musa sapientum fruit (MSE) on ulcer index, blood glucose level and gastric mucosal cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β and growth factor, TGF-α (affected in diabetes and chronic ulcer) in acetic acid (AA)-induced gastric ulcer (GU) in diabetic (DR) rat. MSE (100 mg/kg, oral), omeprazole (OMZ, 2.0 mg/kg, oral), insulin (INS, 4 U/kg, sc) or pentoxyphylline (PTX, 10 mg/kg, oral) were given once daily for 10 days in 14 days post-streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneal)-induced diabetic rats while, the normal/diabetic rats received CMC for the same period after induction of GU with AA. Ulcer index was calculated based upon the product of length and width (mm2/rat) of ulcers while, TNF-α, IL-1β and TGF-α were estimated in the gastric mucosal homogenate from the intact/ulcer region. Phytochemical screening and HPTLC analysis of MSE was done following standard procedures. An increase in ulcer index, TNF-α and IL-1β were observed in normal (NR)-AA rat compared to NR-normal saline rat, which were further increased in DR-AA rat while, treatments of DR-AA rat with MSE, OMZ, INS and PTX reversed them, more so with MSE and PTX. Significant increase in TGF-α was found in NR-AA rat which did not increase further in DR-AA rat. MSE and PTX tended to increase while, OMZ and INS showed little or no effect on TGF-α in AA-DR rat. Phytochemical screening of MSE showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids and alkaloids and HPTLC analysis indicated the presence of eight active compounds. MSE showed antidiabetic and better ulcer healing effects compared with OMZ (antiulcer) or INS (antidiabetic) in diabetic rat and could be more effective in diabetes with concurrent gastric ulcer.