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Sample records for murine leukemia inhibitory

  1. Molecular cloning and expression of the human homologue of the murine gene encoding myeloid leukemia-inhibitory factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, N.M.; Gearing, D.P.; King, J.A.; Willson, T.A.; Hilton, D.J.; Nicola, N.A.; Metcalf, D.

    1988-01-01

    A human homologue of the recently cloned murine leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF) gene was isolated from a genomic library by using the marine cDNA as a hybridization probe. The nucleotide sequence of the human gene indicated that human LIF has 78% amino acid sequence identity with murine LIF, with no insertions or deletions, and that the region of the human gene encoding the mature protein has one intervening sequence. After oligonucleotide-mediated mutagenesis, the mature protein-coding region of the LIF gene was introduced into the yeast expression vector YEpsec1. Yeast cells transformed with the resulting recombinant could be induced with galactose to produce high levels of a factor that induced the differentiation of murine M1 leukemic cells in a manner analogous to murine LIF. This factor competed with 125 I-labeled native murine LIF for binding to specific cellular receptors on murine cells, compatible with a high degree of structural similarity between the murine and human factors

  2. Murine and human leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchenal, J H

    1975-01-01

    Essentially all the drugs which are active against human leukemias and lymphomas are active against one type or another of the rodent leukemias and lymphomas. Leukemia L1210 has been generally the most successful screening tool for clinically active compounds. Leukemia P388, however, seems to be better in detecting active antibiotics and natural products and P1534 is particularly sensitive to the Vinca alkaloids, while L5178Y, EARAD, and 6C3HED are useful in detecting the activities of various asparaginase containing fractions. Cell cultures of these leukemias can demonstrate mechanism of drug action and quantitate resistance. Spontaneous AKR leukemia is a model of the advanced human disease. In these leukemias vincristine and prednisone produce a 4 log cell kill. Cytoxan and arabinosyl cytosine (Ara-C) are also effective. On the other hand drugs such as mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate which are highly active in the maintenance phase of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and in L1210 have little or no activity against the AKR spontaneous system. Mouse leukemias can also detect schedule dependence, synergistic combinations, cross resistance, oral activity, and the ability of drugs to pass the blood brain barrier. A case in point is the Ara-C analog 2,2'-anhydro-arabinofuranosyl-5-fluorocytosine (AAFC) which is not schedule dependent, is active orally, is potentiated by thioguanine, and is effective against intracerebrally inoculated mouse leukemia. AAFC and its analogs might thus be a considerable improvement over Ara-C which is at the present time the most important component of the combination treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).

  3. Ecotropic murine leukemia virus-induced fusion of murine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, A.; Chen, T.; Lowy, A.; Cortez, N.G.; Silagi, S.

    1986-01-01

    Extensive fusion occurs upon cocultivation of murine fibroblasts producing ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) with a large variety of murine cell lines in the presence of the polyene antibiotic amphotericin B, the active component of the antifungal agent Fungizone. The resulting polykaryocytes contain nuclei from both infected and uninfected cells, as evidenced by autoradiographic labeling experiments in which one or the other parent cell type was separately labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine and fused with an unlabeled parent. This cell fusion specifically requires the presence of an ecotropic MuLV-producing parent and is not observed for cells producing xenotropic, amphotropic, or dualtropic viruses. Mouse cells infected with nonecotropic viruses retain their sensitivity toward fusion, whereas infection with ecotropic viruses abrogates the fusion of these cells upon cocultivation with other ecotropic MuLV-producing cells. Nonmurine cells lacking the ecotropic gp70 receptor are not fused under similar conditions. Fusion is effectively inhibited by monospecific antisera to gp70, but not by antisera to p15(E), and studies with monoclonal antibodies identify distinct amino- and carboxy-terminal gp70 regions which play a role in the fusion reaction. The enhanced fusion which occurs in the presence of amphotericin B provides a rapid and sensitive assay for the expression of ecotropic MuLVs and should facilitate further mechanistic studies of MuLV-induced fusion of murine cells

  4. Murine leukemia viruses: objects and organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) are among the simplest retroviruses. Prototypical gammaretroviruses encode only the three polyproteins that will be used in the assembly of progeny virus particles. These are the Gag polyprotein, which is the structural protein of a retrovirus particle, the Pol protein, comprising the three retroviral enzymes-protease, which catalyzes the maturation of the particle, reverse transcriptase, which copies the viral RNA into DNA upon infection of a new host cell, and integrase, which inserts the DNA into the chromosomal DNA of the host cell, and the Env polyprotein, which induces the fusion of the viral membrane with that of the new host cell, initiating infection. In general, a productive MLV infection has no obvious effect upon host cells. Although gammaretroviral structure and replication follow the same broad outlines as those of other retroviruses, we point out a number of significant differences between different retroviral genera.

  5. Transgene stability for three replication competent murine leukemia virus vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch, M.; Carrasco, M.L.; Jespersen, T.

    2004-01-01

    cassette consisting of an internal ribosome entry site followed by the enhanced green fluorescent protein coding sequence inserted in different configurations into murine leukemia virus genomes. In two of the constructs, the insert was located in the upstream part of the U3 region while in the third...

  6. Selective host range restriction of goat cells for recombinant murine leukemia virus and feline leukemia virus type A.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischinger, P J; Thiel, H J; Blevins, C S; Dunlop, N M

    1981-01-01

    We isolated a strain of normal goat fibroblasts which was uniquely selective in that it allowed the replication of xenotropic murine leukemia virus but not polytropic recombinant murine leukemia virus. In addition, feline leukemia virus type A replication was severely diminished in these goat cells, whereas feline leukemia virus type B and feline endogenous RD114-CCC viruses replicated efficiently. No other known cells exhibit this pattern of virus growth restriction. These goat cells allow t...

  7. Leukemia inhibitory factor increases glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; O'Neill, Hayley M; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Members of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family, IL-6 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) have been shown to increase glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. However, the metabolic effects of another family member, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), are not well...

  8. Single Amino Acid Insertion in Loop 4 Confers Amphotropic Murine Leukemia Virus Receptor Function upon Murine Pit1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundorf, Mikkel D.; Pedersen, Finn Skou; O'Hara, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Pit1 is the human receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B), while the related human protein Pit2 is a receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV). The A-MuLV-related isolate 10A1 can utilize both Pit1 and Pit2 as receptors. A stretch...

  9. Genomic rearrangement in radiation-induced murine myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    After whole body irradiation of 3Gy X ray to C3H/He male mice, acute myeloid leukemia is induced at an incidence of 20 to 30% within 2 years. We have studied the mechanism of occurrence of this radiation-induced murine myeloid leukemia. Detection and isolation of genomic structural aberration which may be accumulated accompanied with leukemogenesis are helpful in analyzing the complicated molecular process from radiation damage to leukemogenesis. So, our research work was done in three phases. First, structures of previously characterized oncogenes and cytokine-related genes were analyzed, and abnormal structures of fms(protooncogene encoding M-CSF receptor gene)-related and myc-related genes were found in several leukemia cells. Additionally, genomic structural aberration of IL-3 gene was observed in some leukemia cells, so that construction of genomic libraries and cloning of the abnormal IL-3 genomic DNAs were performed to characterize the structure. Secondly, because the breakage of chromosome 2 that is frequently observed in myeloid leukemia locates in proximal position of IL-1 gene cluster in some cases, the copy number of IL-1 gene was determined and the gene was cloned. Lastly, the abnormal genome of leukemia cell was cloned by in-gel competence reassociation method. We discussed these findings and evaluated the analysis of the molecular process of leukemogenesis using these cloned genomic fragments. (author)

  10. Chimeras of receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus/feline leukemia virus B and amphotropic murine leukemia virus reveal different modes of receptor recognition by retrovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; Johann, Stephen V; van Zeijl, Marja

    1995-01-01

    Glvr1 encodes the human receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B), while the related gene Glvr2 encodes the human receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (A-MLVs). The two proteins are 62% identical in their amino acid sequences...

  11. An HSEF for murine myeloid leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.; Cronkite, E.P.; Bullis, J.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wuu, C.S.; Marino, S.A.; Zaider, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1996-10-01

    In the past decade, a large amount of effort has gone into the development of hit size effectiveness functions (HSEFs), with the ultimate aim of replacing the present absorbed dose-RBE-Q system. However, the absorbed dose determined at the tissue level is incapable of providing information on single hits on (doses to) the single cell. As a result, it is necessary to resort to microdosimetry, which is capable of providing not only the number of hits on cells, but the distribution of hit sizes as well. From this information, an HSEF can be derived. However, to date there have been no sets of data available on animals exposed to radiations of several qualities, and for which microdosimetric data were available. The objective of the present set of experiments was to remedy this situation. Large numbers of mice were exposed to radiations of several different qualities, and were observed throughout their entire lifespan for the appearance of myeloid leukemia. The HSEF developed for this neoplasm is presented and discussed.

  12. An HSEF for murine myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.; Cronkite, E.P.; Bullis, J.E.; Wuu, C.S.; Marino, S.A.; Zaider, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the past decade, a large amount of effort has gone into the development of hit size effectiveness functions (HSEFs), with the ultimate aim of replacing the present absorbed dose-RBE-Q system. However, the absorbed dose determined at the tissue level is incapable of providing information on single hits on (doses to) the single cell. As a result, it is necessary to resort to microdosimetry, which is capable of providing not only the number of hits on cells, but the distribution of hit sizes as well. From this information, an HSEF can be derived. However, to date there have been no sets of data available on animals exposed to radiations of several qualities, and for which microdosimetric data were available. The objective of the present set of experiments was to remedy this situation. Large numbers of mice were exposed to radiations of several different qualities, and were observed throughout their entire lifespan for the appearance of myeloid leukemia. The HSEF developed for this neoplasm is presented and discussed

  13. Macropinocytosis is the Entry Mechanism of Amphotropic Murine Leukemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Izabela; Vilhardt, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    of infection. Understanding how pathogens and toxins exploit or divert endocytosis pathways has advanced our understanding of membrane trafficking pathways, which benefits development of new therapeutical schemes and methods of drug delivery. We show here that Murine Leukemia Virus (A-MLV) pseudotyped......, or NIH-3T3 cells knocked-down for caveolin expression, was unaffected. Conversely, A-MLV infection of NIH-3T3 and HeLa cells was sensitive to amiloride analogues and actin-depolymerizing drugs that interfere with macropinocytosis. Further manipulation of the actin cytoskeleton through conditional...... with the amphotropic (expands the host range to many mammalian cells) envelope protein gains entry into host cells by macropinocytosis. Macropinosomes form as large, fluid-filled vacuoles (up to 10 μm) following collapse of cell surface protrusions and membrane scission. We use drugs or introduction of mutant proteins...

  14. Enhancers Are Major Targets for Murine Leukemia Virus Vector Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ravin, Suk See; Su, Ling; Theobald, Narda; Choi, Uimook; Macpherson, Janet L.; Poidinger, Michael; Symonds, Geoff; Pond, Susan M.; Ferris, Andrea L.; Hughes, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retroviral vectors have been used in successful gene therapies. However, in some patients, insertional mutagenesis led to leukemia or myelodysplasia. Both the strong promoter/enhancer elements in the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based vectors and the vector-specific integration site preferences played an important role in these adverse clinical events. MLV integration is known to prefer regions in or near transcription start sites (TSS). Recently, BET family proteins were shown to be the major cellular proteins responsible for targeting MLV integration. Although MLV integration sites are significantly enriched at TSS, only a small fraction of the MLV integration sites (integration map of more than one million integration sites from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a clinically relevant MLV-based vector. The integration sites form ∼60,000 tight clusters. These clusters comprise ∼1.9% of the genome. The vast majority (87%) of the integration sites are located within histone H3K4me1 islands, a hallmark of enhancers. The majority of these clusters also have H3K27ac histone modifications, which mark active enhancers. The enhancers of some oncogenes, including LMO2, are highly preferred targets for integration without in vivo selection. IMPORTANCE We show that active enhancer regions are the major targets for MLV integration; this means that MLV preferentially integrates in regions that are favorable for viral gene expression in a variety of cell types. The results provide insights for MLV integration target site selection and also explain the high risk of insertional mutagenesis that is associated with gene therapy trials using MLV vectors. PMID:24501411

  15. Murine leukemia virus (MLV replication monitored with fluorescent proteins

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    Bittner Alexandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer gene therapy will benefit from vectors that are able to replicate in tumor tissue and cause a bystander effect. Replication-competent murine leukemia virus (MLV has been described to have potential as cancer therapeutics, however, MLV infection does not cause a cytopathic effect in the infected cell and viral replication can only be studied by immunostaining or measurement of reverse transcriptase activity. Results We inserted the coding sequences for green fluorescent protein (GFP into the proline-rich region (PRR of the ecotropic envelope protein (Env and were able to fluorescently label MLV. This allowed us to directly monitor viral replication and attachment to target cells by flow cytometry. We used this method to study viral replication of recombinant MLVs and split viral genomes, which were generated by replacement of the MLV env gene with the red fluorescent protein (RFP and separately cloning GFP-Env into a retroviral vector. Co-transfection of both plasmids into target cells resulted in the generation of semi-replicative vectors, and the two color labeling allowed to determine the distribution of the individual genomes in the target cells and was indicative for the occurrence of recombination events. Conclusions Fluorescently labeled MLVs are excellent tools for the study of factors that influence viral replication and can be used to optimize MLV-based replication-competent viruses or vectors for gene therapy.

  16. Modeling of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia : An Overview of In Vivo Murine and Human Xenograft Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sontakke, Pallavi; Jaques, Jenny; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, a wide variety of in vivo mouse models have been generated in order to unravel the molecular pathology of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and to develop and improve therapeutic approaches. These models range from (conditional) transgenic models, knock-in models, and murine bone

  17. Antibody responses against xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus envelope in a murine model.

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    Natalia Makarova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV was recently discovered to be the first human gammaretrovirus that is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer (PC. Although a mechanism for XMRV carcinogenesis is yet to be established, this virus belongs to the family of gammaretroviruses well known for their ability to induce cancer in the infected hosts. Since its original identification XMRV has been detected in several independent investigations; however, at this time significant controversy remains regarding reports of XMRV detection/prevalence in other cohorts and cell type/tissue distribution. The potential risk of human infection, coupled with the lack of knowledge about the basic biology of XMRV, warrants further research, including investigation of adaptive immune responses. To study immunogenicity in vivo, we vaccinated mice with a combination of recombinant vectors expressing codon-optimized sequences of XMRV gag and env genes and virus-like particles (VLP that had the size and morphology of live infectious XMRV.Immunization elicited Env-specific binding and neutralizing antibodies (NAb against XMRV in mice. The peak titers for ELISA-binding antibodies and NAb were 1:1024 and 1:464, respectively; however, high ELISA-binding and NAb titers were not sustained and persisted for less than three weeks after immunizations.Vaccine-induced XMRV Env antibody titers were transiently high, but their duration was short. The relatively rapid diminution in antibody levels may in part explain the differing prevalences reported for XMRV in various prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome cohorts. The low level of immunogenicity observed in the present study may be characteristic of a natural XMRV infection in humans.

  18. Leukemia inhibitory factor tips the immune balance towards regulatory T cells in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, K.; Van den Haute, C.; Baekelandt, V.; Lucas, S.; van Horssen, J.; Somers, V.; Van Wijmeersch, B.; Stinissen, P.; Hendriks, J.J.A.; Slaets, H.; Hellings, N.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), for which current treatments are unable to prevent disease progression. Based on its neuroprotective and neuroregenerating properties, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a member of the interleukin-6

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: murine leukemia virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term murine leukemia virus 名詞 一般 * * *... * マウス白血病ウイルス マウスハッケツビョウウイルス マウスハッケツビョーウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906060491156251 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 murine leukemia virus

  20. Therapeutic activity of two xanthones in a xenograft murine model of human chronic lymphocytic leukemia

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    Berthou Christian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that allanxanthone C and macluraxanthone, two xanthones purified from Guttiferae trees, display in vitro antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities in leukemic cells from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and leukemia B cell lines. Results Here, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic effects of the two xanthones in a xenograft murine model of human CLL, developed by engrafting CD5-transfected chronic leukemia B cells into SCID mice. Treatment of the animals with five daily injections of either allanxanthone C or macluraxanthone resulted in a significant prolongation of their survival as compared to control animals injected with the solvent alone (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.0141, respectively. The same treatment of mice which were not xenografted induced no mortality. Conclusion These data show for the first time the in vivo antileukemic activities of two plant-derived xanthones, and confirm their potential interest for CLL therapy.

  1. Human interleukin for DA cells or leukemia inhibitory factor is released by Vero cells in human embryo coculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaxanthos-Roche, A; Taupin, J L; Mayer, G; Daniel, J Y; Moreau, J F

    1994-09-01

    In the light of the newly discovered implications of human interleukin for DA cells and leukemia inhibitory factor in embryology, we searched for the presence of this soluble cytokine in the supernatant of Vero cell coculture systems. Using a bioassay as well as a specific ELISA, we demonstrated that Vero cells are able to release large quantities of human interleukin for DA cells and leukemia inhibitory factor in the embryo-growing medium of such cocultures.

  2. Nature of leukemic stem cells in murine myelogenous leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Nemoto, K.; Nishimura, M.; Hayata, I.; Inoue, T.; Seki, M.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the nature of myelogenous leukemic stem cells in mice. L-8057, a megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line used in this study, produces in vivo and in vitro colonies. By means of typical chromosomal aberrations in L-8057, one can conveniently detect the origin of the cells in each colony derived from a leukemic stem cell. Direct evidence of whether cells from each colony had leukemogenicity in recipient mice was successfully obtained by the colony transplantation assay. Both leukemic colony-forming unit-spleen (L-CFU-s) and leukemic colony-forming unit-culture (L-CFU-c) in L-8057 may have belonged to the same differentiating stage in the stem cells because of their similar radiosensitivity, although some parts of the L-CFU of L-8057 seemed to have lost their capability to regenerate L-CFU-s when the cells were plated in dishes. This leukemic stem cell preserves high self-renewal ability in vitro after 10 passages. In addition, in vitro colony formation by this leukemic cell during the above course of serial passages did not require any additional exogenous stimulators. The same sort of trials have been made on other types of leukemias. Leukemic stem cells showed remarkable variety in their response to stimulating factors and in their self-renewal activity, which suggests that they may have consisted of heterogeneous populations

  3. Biochemical analysis of murine leukemia viruses isolated from radiation-induced leukemias of strain BALB/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.W.; Hopkins, N.; Fleissner, E.

    1980-01-01

    Murine leukemia viruses isolated from radiation-induced BALB/c leukemias were characterized with respect to viral proteins and RNA. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral structural proteins revealed that for p12, p15, p30, and gp70, three to four electrophoretic variants of each could be detected. There was no correlation found between any of these mobilities and N- or B-tropism of the viruses. Proteins of all xenotropic viral isolates were identical in their gel electrophoretic profiles. The similar phenotypes of multiple viral clones from individual leukemias and of isolates grown in different cells suggest that the polymorphism of ecotropic viruses was generated in vivo rather than during in vitro virus growth. By two-dimensional fingerprinting of RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotides from 70S viral RNA, the previously reported association of N- and B-tropism with two distinct oligonucleotides was confirmed. The presence of two other oligonucleotides was correlated with positive and negative phenotypes of the virus-coded G/sub IX/ cell surface antigen. The RNAs of two B-tropic isolates with distinctive p15 and p12 phenotypes differed from the RNA of a prototype N-tropic virus by the absence of three oligonucleotides mapping in the 5' portion (gag region) of the prototype RNA. In addition, one small-plaque B-tropic virus displayed extensive changes in the RNA sequences associated with the env region of the prototype

  4. Bone marrow stromal elements in murine leukemia; Decreased CSF-producing fibroblasts and normal IL-1 expression by macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Ishay, Z [Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School (Israel); Barak, V [Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Oncology, Hadassah University Hospital (Israel); Shoshan, S [Faculty of Dental Medicine, Connective Tissue Research Laboratory, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel); Prindull, G [Department of Pediatrics, University of Gottingen, Gottingen (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-01-01

    A study of bone marrow stromal elements in murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was carried out. Our previous studies had indicated marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML. In the current investigation, separate stromal cells were cultured and the results obtained have shown that, while marrow stromal macrophages are normal in leukemia and express adequate amounts of IL-1, the fibroblasts are markedly reduced. However, if sufficient fibroblasts are pooled in vitro, they produce adequate amounts of CSF. Test of TNF{alpha} in leukemic cells CM, as possible cause of marrow stromal inhibition in leukemia, had not disclosed this cytokine. Further, it was observed that total body lethal irradiation of leukemic mice aggravates the stromal deficiency, confirming results of our previous investigations. It is concluded that bone marrow stromal deficiency in murine AML is due to decreased fibroblasts and, implicity, reduced CSF production. (author).

  5. Production of feline leukemia inhibitory factor with biological activity in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegi, R; Hatoya, S; Tsujimoto, Y; Takenaka, S; Nishimura, T; Wijewardana, V; Sugiura, K; Takahashi, M; Kawate, N; Tamada, H; Inaba, T

    2016-07-15

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a cytokine which is essential for oocyte and embryo development, embryonic stem cell, and induced pluripotent stem cell maintenance. Leukemia inhibitory factor improves the maturation of oocytes in the human and the mouse. However, feline LIF (fLIF) cloning and effects on oocytes during IVM have not been reported. Thus, we cloned complete cDNA of fLIF and examined its biological activity and effects on oocytes during IVM in the domestic cat. The aminoacid sequence of fLIF revealed a homology of 81% or 92% with that of mouse or human. The fLIF produced by pCold TF DNA in Escherichia coli was readily soluble and after purification showed bioactivity in maintaining the undifferentiated state of mouse embryonic stem cells and enhancing the proliferation of human erythrocyte leukemia cells. Furthermore, 10- and 100-ng/mL fLIF induced cumulus expansion with or without FSH and EGF (P Feline LIF will further improve reproduction and stem cell research in the feline family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic Wnt5a expression in murine hair follicle cycle and its inhibitory effects on follicular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, De-Ren; Lv, Zhong-Fa; Qiao, Gang

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the dynamic expression of Wnt family member 5A (Wingless-type MMTV integration Wnt site family, member 5a) in murine hair cycle and its inhibitory effects on follicle in vivo. Situ hybridization in full-thickness skin was used to observe the change of mouse protein expression in different growth stages, and Ad-Wnt5a was injected after defeathering to observe the hair follicle growth in vivo. The Wnt5a mRNA was expressed at birth, and was firstly increased then decreased along with the progress of the hair cycle. It reached the peak in advanced stage of growth cycle (P<0.05). Rhoa and β-catenin expression levels were significantly decreased in three groups. Rac2 expression was significantly up-regulated, and the expression level of Wnt5a, Shh and Frizzled2 was increased, but less significantly than group 2. The expression of Wnt5a mRNA is consistent with change of murine follicle cycle, and has obvious inhibitory effects on the growth of hair follicle in vivo, indicating that it is antagonistic to Wnts pathway and interferes the growth of follicle together. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus and amphotropic murine leukemia virus are not downregulated in productively infected cells

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    Eiden Maribeth V

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last several decades it has been noted, using a variety of different methods, that cells infected by a specific gammaretrovirus are resistant to infection by other retroviruses that employ the same receptor; a phenomenon termed receptor interference. Receptor masking is thought to provide an earlier means of blocking superinfection, whereas receptor down regulation is generally considered to occur in chronically infected cells. Results We used replication-competent GFP-expressing viruses containing either an amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MLV or the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV envelope. We also constructed similar viruses containing fluorescence-labeled Gag proteins for the detection of viral particles. Using this repertoire of reagents together with a wide range of antibodies, we were able to determine the presence and availability of viral receptors, and detect viral envelope proteins and particles presence on the cell surface of chronically infected cells. Conclusions A-MLV or GALV receptors remain on the surface of chronically infected cells and are detectable by respective antibodies, indicating that these receptors are not downregulated in these infected cells as previously proposed. We were also able to detect viral envelope proteins on the infected cell surface and infected cells are unable to bind soluble A-MLV or GALV envelopes indicating that receptor binding sites are masked by endogenously expressed A-MLV or GALV viral envelope. However, receptor masking does not completely prevent A-MLV or GALV superinfection.

  8. Properties of murine leukemia viruses produced by leukemic cells established from NIH Swiss mice with radiation-induced leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumoto, Masaaki; Nishikawa, Ryosuke; Takamori, Yasuhiko; Iwai, Yoshiaki; Iwai, Mineko [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan); Imai, Shunsuke; Morimoto, Junji; Tsubura, Yoshihiko

    1984-06-01

    Three leukemic cell lines, designated NIH-RL1, NIH-RL2 and NFS-RL1, were established from spleen and thymuses of NIH Swiss and NFS mice with radiation-induced leukemia. The culture fluids of these cell lines contained RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RDDP) activities associated with particles of buoyant density of 1.15-1.17 (g/cm/sup 3/). The divalent cation reqirement of these enzymes was characteristic for that of murine leukemia viruses. In competition radioimmunoassay, a major core protein, p30, was detected in culture fluid of each leukemic cell line. Competition curves of viral p30 produced by these cell lines revealed that these viruses were very similar to those of xenotropic viruses of NZB mice. These viruses were undetectable both by XC plaque assay using SC-1 cells as an indicator cell, and by mink S/sup +/L/sup -/ focus induction assay. These viruses also lacked productive infectivity to mink lung cells (CCL-64), and were nononcogenic in syngeneic mice when the viruses were intrathymically inoculated.

  9. Leukemia inhibitory factor and its role in physiologic and pathological processes

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    Grégory Alfonso García

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF is celular comunication mediator that shows a very wide range of biologic activities that include the cell differentiation, cell growth and proliferation, cell trophic and anti-apoptotic effect, cell protection of different cells and tissue types, regulating energetic and bone metabolism, neural development, embryogenesis, reparation and remodelation tissue, and modulation of inflammation. Due to its pleiotrophic activities, LIF is central in the pathologic events related to many disorders. In this review, the diverse topics are alluded to.

  10. Emodin Induces Apoptotic Death in Murine Myelomonocytic Leukemia WEHI-3 Cells In Vitro and Enhances Phagocytosis in Leukemia Mice In Vivo

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    Yuan-Chang Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emodin is one of major compounds in rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L., a plant used as herbal medicine in Chinese population. Although many reports have shown that emodin exhibits anticancer activity in many tumor cell types, there is no available information addressing emodin-affected apoptotic responses in the murine leukemia cell line (WEHI-3 and modulation of the immune response in leukemia mice. We investigated that emodin induced cytotoxic effects in vitro and affected WEHI-3 cells in vivo. This study showed that emodin decreased viability and induced DNA fragmentation in WEHI-3 cells. Cells after exposure to emodin for 24 h have shown chromatin condensation and DNA damage. Emodin stimulated the productions of ROS and Ca2+ and reduced the level of ΔΨm by flow cytometry. Our results from Western blotting suggest that emodin triggered apoptosis of WEHI-3 cells through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, caspase cascade-dependent and -independent mitochondrial pathways. In in vivo study, emodin enhanced the levels of B cells and monocytes, and it also reduced the weights of liver and spleen compared with leukemia mice. Emodin promoted phagocytic activity by monocytes and macrophages in comparison to the leukemia mice group. In conclusions, emodin induced apoptotic death in murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells and enhanced phagocytosis in the leukemia animal model.

  11. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus does not pose a risk to blood recipient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Roger Y; Hackett, John; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Dorsey, Kerri; Wu, Yanyun; Zou, Shimian; Qiu, Xiaoxing; Swanson, Priscilla; Schochetman, Gerald; Gao, Kui; Carrick, James M; Krysztof, David E; Stramer, Susan L

    2012-02-01

    When xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was first reported in association with chronic fatigue syndrome, it was suggested that it might offer a risk to blood safety. Thus, the prevalence of the virus among blood donors and, if present, its transmissibility by transfusion need to be defined. Two populations of routine blood donor samples (1435 and 13,399) were obtained for prevalence evaluations; samples from a linked donor-recipient repository were also evaluated. Samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to XMRV-related recombinant antigens and/or for XMRV RNA, using validated, high-throughput systems. The presence of antibodies to XMRV could not be confirmed among a total of 17,249 blood donors or recipients (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-0.017%); 1763 tested samples were nonreactive for XMRV RNA (0%; 95% CI, 0%-0.17%). Evidence of infection was absent from 109 recipients and 830 evaluable blood samples tested after transfusion of a total of 3741 blood components. XMRV and related murine leukemia virus (MLV) markers are not present among a large population of blood donors and evidence of transfusion transmission could not be detected. Thus, these viruses do not currently pose a threat to blood recipient safety and further actions relating to XMRV and MLV are not justified. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. cis elements and trans-acting factors involved in dimer formation of murine leukemia virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, A C; Roy, C; Wang, P A; Erard, M; Housset, V; Gabus, C; Paoletti, C; Darlix, J L

    1990-02-01

    The genetic material of all retroviruses examined so far consists of two identical RNA molecules joined at their 5' ends by the dimer linkage structure (DLS). Since the precise location of the DLS as well as the mechanism and role(s) of RNA dimerization remain unclear, we analyzed the dimerization process of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) genomic RNA. For this purpose we derived an in vitro model for RNA dimerization. By using this model, murine leukemia virus RNA was shown to form dimeric molecules. Deletion mutagenesis in the 620-nucleotide leader of MoMuLV RNA showed that the dimer promoting sequences are located within the encapsidation element Psi between positions 215 and 420. Furthermore, hybridization assays in which DNA oligomers were used to probe monomer and dimer forms of MoMuLV RNA indicated that the DLS probably maps between positions 280 and 330 from the RNA 5' end. Also, retroviral nucleocapsid protein was shown to catalyze dimerization of MoMuLV RNA and to be tightly bound to genomic dimer RNA in virions. These results suggest that MoMuLV RNA dimerization and encapsidation are probably controlled by the same cis element, Psi, and trans-acting factor, nucleocapsid protein, and thus might be linked during virion formation.

  13. Transient virus expression during murine leukemia induction by x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, M.

    1977-01-01

    Most x-irradiation-induced thymomas in C57BL/6 mice are virus-free when assayed by immunofluorescence for the gs antigen (gsa) of murine leukemia virus (MuLV). Virus was induced transiently in bone marrow cells and later appeared in thymus cells. Six to 7 weeks post irradiation, thymocytes and bone marrow cells were MuLV gsa-negative and remained negative for the lifetime of most animals, whether or not they contracted overt leukemia. During the period when MuLV gsa-positive bone marrow cells were found, XC-positive syncytia-producing bone marrow cells were also found. Virus information was expressed, therefore, for a limited duration, long before any signs of leukemia in the animal were evident. MuLV gsa-positive thymocytes taken from mice 4 weeks after x-irradiation were cocultivated with a series of indicator cells. B-tropic virus, in addition to a xenotropic virus, was isolated from these cells. Ecotropic virus was not found in normal mouse thymocytes, in irradiated thymocytes a few days after termination of the X-irradiation sequence, or in most primary thymomas. All thymocytes produced only xenotropic virus in the cocultivation assays. Expression of the ecotropic virus was, therefore, transient, as assayed by immunofluorescence, XC syncytia formation, and virus isolation from MuLV gsa-positive thymus cells

  14. Growth hormone, interferon-gamma, and leukemia inhibitory factor utilize insulin receptor substrate-2 in intracellular signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argetsinger, L S; Norstedt, G; Billestrup, Nils

    1996-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) is tyrosyl-phosphorylated following stimulation of 3T3-F442A fibroblasts with growth hormone (GH), leukemia inhibitory factor and interferon-gamma. In response to GH and leukemia inhibitory factor, IRS-2 is immediately...... for GH is further demonstrated by the finding that GH stimulates association of IRS-2 with the 85-kDa regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and with the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. These results are consistent with the possibility that IRS-2 is a downstream signaling partner...

  15. Detection of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus in Prostate Biopsy Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, F. A.; Mirza, T.; Khanani, R.; Khan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of Xenotropic murine leukemia virus related virus (XMRV) infection with prostate cancer and compare it with benign prostate hyperplasia. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology and Molecular Pathology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2012. Methodology: XMRV was screened in 50 prostate cancer and 50 benign prostatic hyperplasia biopsies using conventional end-point PCR. Other studied variables were family history of prostate cancer, patients age and Gleason score. Results: XMRV was detected in 4 (8%) of the 50 prostate cancer biopsy specimens compared to none in biopsies with benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, there was no significant statistical association of XMRV infection with the other variables. Conclusion: A low frequency of XMRV infection was found in this case-control study. Men, who harbor XMRV infection, may be at increased risk of prostate cancer but this needs to be investigated further at a larger scale. (author)

  16. Radiommunoassay of murine leukemia virus p30 using staphylococcus aureus as immunoadsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.P.; Klitzman, J.M.; Hellstroem, E.; Washington Univ. Medical School, Seattle; Washington Univ., Seattle

    1978-01-01

    A competition radioimmunoassay for murine leukemia virus p30 has been developed. Serial dilutions of the unknown in wells of microtiter plates are incubated with 125 I-labeled p30 and goat antiserum specific for p30. Bound p30 is then removed by an immunoadsorbent specific for goat immunoglobulin, prepared from S. aureus. An internal standard of 51 Cr is used to correct for volumetric errors, the amount of the labeled p30 precipitated being calculated from the 125 I/ 51 Cr ratio of the supernatant. The assay is rapid, being completed within 2 h, precise, having a coefficient of variation less than 1%, and sensitive, being capable of detecting p30 concentrations as low as 2 ng/ml in a volume of 0.02 ml. It has been used to measure p30 levels in a series of MCA-induced fibrosarcomas of BALB/c mice. (Auth.)

  17. Removal of xenotropic murine leukemia virus by nanocellulose based filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asper, M; Hanrieder, T; Quellmalz, A; Mihranyan, A

    2015-11-01

    The removal of xenotrpic murine leukemia virus (xMuLV) by size-exclusion filter paper composed of 100% naturally derived cellulose was validated. The filter paper was produced using cellulose nanofibers derived from Cladophora sp. algae. The filter paper was characterized using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, helium pycnometry, and model tracer (100 nm latex beads and 50 nm gold nanoparticles) retention tests. Following the filtration of xMuLV spiked solutions, LRV ≥5.25 log10 TCID50 was observed, as limited by the virus titre in the feed solution and sensitivity of the tissue infectivity test. The results of the validation study suggest that the nanocellulose filter paper is useful for removal of endogenous rodent retroviruses and retrovirus-like particles during the production of recombinant proteins. Copyright © 2015 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Laboratory and wild-derived mice with multiple loci for production of xenotropic murine leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, C A; Hartley, J W; Morse, H C

    1984-07-01

    Mendelian segregation analysis was used to define genetic loci for the induction of infectious xenotropic murine leukemia virus in several laboratory and wild-derived mice. MA/My mice contain two loci for xenotropic virus inducibility, one of which, Bxv -1, is the only induction locus carried by five other inbred strains. The second, novel MA/My locus, designated Mxv -1, is unlinked to Bxv -1 and shows a lower efficiency of virus induction. The NZB mouse carries two induction loci; both are distinct from Bxv -1 since neither is linked to the Pep-3 locus on chromosome 1. Finally, one partially inbred strain derived from the wild Japanese mouse, Mus musculus molossinus, carries multiple (at least three) unlinked loci for induction of xenotropic virus. Although it is probable that inbred strains inherited xenotropic virus inducibility from Japanese mice, our data suggest that none of the induction loci carried by this particular M. m. molossinus strain are allelic with Bxv -1.

  19. Genetic mapping of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-inducing loci in five mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, C A; Rowe, W P

    1980-07-01

    A single mendelian gene was identified for induction of the endogenous xenotropic murine leukemia virus in five mouse strains (C57BL/10, C57L, C57BR, AKR, and BALB/c). This locus, designated Bxv-1, mapped to the same site on chromosome 1 in all strains: Id-1-Pep-3-[Bxv-1-Lp]. Thus, inducibility loci for xenotropic virus are more limited in number and chromosomal distribution than ecotropic inducibility loci. Virus expression in mice with Bxv-1 was induced by treatment of fibroblasts with 5-iododeoxyuridine or by exposure of spleen cells to a B cell mitogen, bacterial lipopolysaccharide. An analysis of the hamster X mouse somatic cell hybrids indicated that chromosome 1, alone, was sufficient for virus induction.

  20. A flavone derivative from Sesbania sesban leaves and its cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianhar, Hanhan, E-mail: liadewi@chem.itb.ac.id; Syah, Yana Maolana, E-mail: liadewi@chem.itb.ac.id; Mujahidin, Didin, E-mail: liadewi@chem.itb.ac.id; Hakim, Euis Holisotan, E-mail: liadewi@chem.itb.ac.id; Juliawaty, Lia Dewi, E-mail: liadewi@chem.itb.ac.id [Natural Product Chemistry Research Group, Organic Chemistry Division, Program Study of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganeca 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Sesbania sesban, locally named as Jayanti, is one of Indonesia plants belonging to Fabaceae family. This species is traditionally used by Indonesian people to cure digestive disorders, fever, or headache. Jayanti can grow well in tropical to subtropical region, such as in Asia and Africa. Based on literature, qualitative analysis of the methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban showed that it contained flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. In addition, the activity assay of extracts of different tissues of this species showed antitumor, antimalarial, and antidiabetic activityies (leaves and seed extracts), antioxidants (flower extract), and analgesic (wood extract). Though the extracts of S. sesban parts showed interesting activities, chemical study of those extracts have not been widely reported. Therefore, the objective of this research was to isolate the secondary metabolites from methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban and to determine their cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells. One compound has been obtained and identified as 3-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone (1), a new isolated compound from nature. This compound was obtained through separation of methanol extract using various chromatographic techniques, such as vacuum liquid chromatography and radial chromatography. The structure elucidation of isolated compound was based on 1D NMR ({sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR) and 2D NMR (HMBC). The cytotoxicity of methanol extract and compound 1 against murine leukemia P-388 cells examined through MTT assay showed IC{sub 50} value of 60.04 μg/mL and 5.40 μg/mL, respectively.

  1. A flavone derivative from Sesbania sesban leaves and its cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianhar, Hanhan; Syah, Yana Maolana, E-mail: liadewi@chem.itb.ac.id; Mujahidin, Didin; Hakim, Euis Holisotan, E-mail: liadewi@chem.itb.ac.id; Juliawaty, Lia Dewi, E-mail: liadewi@chem.itb.ac.id [Natural Product Chemistry Research Group, Organic Chemistry Division, Program Study of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganeca 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Sesbania sesban, locally named as Jayanti, is one of Indonesia plants belonging to Fabaceae family. This species is traditionally used by Indonesian people to cure digestive disorders, fever, or headache. Jayanti can grow well in tropical to subtropical region, such as in Asia and Africa. Based on literature, qualitative analysis of the methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban showed that it contained flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. In addition, the activity assay of extracts of different tissues of this species showed antitumor, antimalarial, and antidiabetic activityies (leaves and seed extracts), antioxidants (flower extract), and analgesic (wood extract). Though the extracts of S. sesban parts showed interesting activities, chemical study of those extracts have not been widely reported. Therefore, the objective of this research was to isolate the secondary metabolites from methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban and to determine their cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells. One compound has been obtained and identified as 3-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone (1), a new isolated compound from nature. This compound was obtained through separation of methanol extract using various chromatographic techniques, such as vacuum liquid chromatography and radial chromatography. The structure elucidation of isolated compound was based on 1D NMR ({sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR) and 2D NMR (HMBC). The cytotoxicity of methanol extract and compound 1 against murine leukemia P-388 cells examined through MTT assay showed IC{sub 50} value of 60.04 μg/mL and 5.40 μg/mL, respectively.

  2. A flavone derivative from Sesbania sesban leaves and its cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianhar, Hanhan; Syah, Yana Maolana; Mujahidin, Didin; Hakim, Euis Holisotan; Juliawaty, Lia Dewi

    2014-03-01

    Sesbania sesban, locally named as Jayanti, is one of Indonesia plants belonging to Fabaceae family. This species is traditionally used by Indonesian people to cure digestive disorders, fever, or headache. Jayanti can grow well in tropical to subtropical region, such as in Asia and Africa. Based on literature, qualitative analysis of the methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban showed that it contained flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. In addition, the activity assay of extracts of different tissues of this species showed antitumor, antimalarial, and antidiabetic activityies (leaves and seed extracts), antioxidants (flower extract), and analgesic (wood extract). Though the extracts of S. sesban parts showed interesting activities, chemical study of those extracts have not been widely reported. Therefore, the objective of this research was to isolate the secondary metabolites from methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban and to determine their cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells. One compound has been obtained and identified as 3-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone (1), a new isolated compound from nature. This compound was obtained through separation of methanol extract using various chromatographic techniques, such as vacuum liquid chromatography and radial chromatography. The structure elucidation of isolated compound was based on 1D NMR (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) and 2D NMR (HMBC). The cytotoxicity of methanol extract and compound 1 against murine leukemia P-388 cells examined through MTT assay showed IC50 value of 60.04 μg/mL and 5.40 μg/mL, respectively.

  3. A flavone derivative from Sesbania sesban leaves and its cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianhar, Hanhan; Syah, Yana Maolana; Mujahidin, Didin; Hakim, Euis Holisotan; Juliawaty, Lia Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Sesbania sesban, locally named as Jayanti, is one of Indonesia plants belonging to Fabaceae family. This species is traditionally used by Indonesian people to cure digestive disorders, fever, or headache. Jayanti can grow well in tropical to subtropical region, such as in Asia and Africa. Based on literature, qualitative analysis of the methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban showed that it contained flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. In addition, the activity assay of extracts of different tissues of this species showed antitumor, antimalarial, and antidiabetic activityies (leaves and seed extracts), antioxidants (flower extract), and analgesic (wood extract). Though the extracts of S. sesban parts showed interesting activities, chemical study of those extracts have not been widely reported. Therefore, the objective of this research was to isolate the secondary metabolites from methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban and to determine their cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells. One compound has been obtained and identified as 3-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone (1), a new isolated compound from nature. This compound was obtained through separation of methanol extract using various chromatographic techniques, such as vacuum liquid chromatography and radial chromatography. The structure elucidation of isolated compound was based on 1D NMR ( 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR) and 2D NMR (HMBC). The cytotoxicity of methanol extract and compound 1 against murine leukemia P-388 cells examined through MTT assay showed IC 50 value of 60.04 μg/mL and 5.40 μg/mL, respectively

  4. Association of the leukemia inhibitory factor gene mutation and the antiphospholipid antibodies in the peripheral blood of infertile women

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Králíčková, M.; Ulčová-Gallová, Z.; Šíma, R.; Vaněček, T.; Šíma, Petr; Křižan, Jiří; Suchá, J.; Uher, P.; Hes, O.; Novotný, Z.; Rokyta, Z.; Větvička, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2007), s. 543-548 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/05/0078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : leukemia inhibitory faktor * lif gene mutation * antiphospholipid antibodies Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007

  5. Differential Susceptibility of Spleen Focus-Forming Virus and Murine Leukemia Viruses to Ansamycin Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horoszewicz, Julius S.; Leong, Susan S.; Carter, William A.

    1977-01-01

    The streptovaricin complex (SvCx) and rifamycin SV derivatives display potent antiviral activity against the polycythemic strain of Friend leukemia virus (FV-P), as measured by a reduction in the number of spleen foci produced in mice. Such reductions may be explained by inactivation of functions of (i) the spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV), (ii) its “helper” murine leukemia virus (MuLV), or (iii) both viruses normally present in FV-P. We noted that preincubation of FV-P with fractionation products of SvCx, or derivatives of rifamycin SV, at low concentrations (3 to 5 μg/ml) reduces the number of spleen foci 80 to 97%, whereas titers of MuLV (from the same inoculum) remain unaffected (MuLV titers were measured by XC, S+L−, and “helper activity” assays). Our findings indicate a remarkable biological selectivity of ansamycins, as well as nonansamycin components of SvCx, against the transforming and defective spleen focus-forming virus as compared to MuLV. Thus, the drugs might be useful in distinguishing other types of oncornaviruses. PMID:18986

  6. Deficient leukemia inhibitory factor signaling in muscle precursor cells from patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Christa; Brandt, Claus; Schultz, Ninna S

    2012-01-01

    The cytokine leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF) is expressed by skeletal muscle and induces proliferation of muscle precursor cells, an important feature of skeletal muscle maintenance and repair. We hypothesized that muscle precursor cells from patients with type 2 diabetes had a deficient response...... nor proliferation rate was affected. In conclusion, although LIF and LIFR proteins were increased in muscle tissue and myoblasts from diabetic patients, LIF signaling and LIF-stimulated cell proliferation were impaired in diabetic myoblasts, suggesting a novel mechanism by which muscle function......RNA knockdown of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)3 in myoblast cultures established from healthy individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes. Myoblast proliferation rate was assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. LIF and LIFR proteins were increased in both muscle tissue and cultured myoblasts...

  7. Leukemia inhibitory factor favours neurogenic differentiation of long-term propagated human midbrain precursor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K; Widmer, Hans R; Zimmer, Jens

    2009-01-01

    There is a lot of excitement about the potential use of multipotent neural stem cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the strategy is compromised by the general loss of multipotency and ability to generate neurons after long-term in vitro propagation. In the present study......, human embryonic (5 weeks post-conception) ventral mesencephalic (VM) precursor cells were propagated as neural tissue-spheres (NTS) in epidermal growth factor (EGF; 20 ng/ml) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2; 20 ng/ml). After more than 325 days, the NTS were transferred to media containing either...... EGF+FGF2, EGF+FGF2+heparin or leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF; 10 ng/ml)+FGF2+heparin. Cultures were subsequently propagated for more than 180 days with NTS analyzed at various time-points. Our data show for the first time that human VM neural precursor cells can be long-term propagated as NTS...

  8. Mechanism of infectivity of a murine leukemia virus in adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.L.; Barrington, M.H.; Lerner, R.A.; Dixon, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Infection of adult BALB/c mice with murine leukemia virus (MuLV) induces typical thymic lymphomas. Expression of virus was measured by using a radioimmunoassay for murine P-30, a virion core protein. Nineteen days after injection of MuLV-S into adult mice, there were 0.3μg P-30/ml of serum. X-irradiation permitted the early expression of high levels of viremia, when given before or after MuLV-S administration, and it also hastened the development of lymphomas. Seventeen to 21 days after injection of MuLV-S into x-irradiated (600 rads) adult mice, there were 2.7 μg of P-30/ml of serum. The virus produced by infected adult mice was infectious and oncogenic when given to newborn mice. Several lines of evidence are presented that suggest the mechanism by which x-irradiation permits early expession of virion proteins and lymphomas is not immunosuppression

  9. Simplified Method to Produce Human Bioactive Leukemia Inhibitory Factor in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houman Kahroba

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Human leukemia inhibitory factor (hLIF is a poly functional cytokine with numerous regulatory effects on different cells. Main application of hLIF is maintaining pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. hLIF indicated effective work in implantation rate of fertilized eggs and multiple sclerosis (MS treatment. Low production of hLIF in eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic host’s problems for human protein production convinced us to develop a simple way to reach high amount of this widely used clinical and research factor. Objectives In this study we want to purify recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor in single simple method. Materials and Methods This is an experimental study, gene expression: human LIF gene was codon optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and attached his-tag tail to make it extractable. After construction and transformation of vector to E. coli, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG used for induction. Single step immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC used for purification confirmed by Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE and western blotting. Bioactivity of the hLIF were tested by MTT assay with TF-1 cells and CISH gene stimulation in monocyte and TF-1 by real-time PCR. Induction by 0.4 mM of IPTG in 25°C for 3 hours indicated best result for soluble expression. SPSS indicated P ˂ 0.05 that is significant for our work. Results Cloning, expression, and extraction of bio active rhLIF was successfully achieved according MTT assay and real time PCR after treatment of TF-1 and monocyte cell lines. Conclusions We developed an effective single step purification method to produce bioactive recombinant hLIF in E. coli. For the first time we used CISH gene stimulating for bioactivity test for qualifying of recombinant hLIF for application.

  10. Immunotherapy of murine leukemia. Efficacy of passive serum therapy of Friend leukemia virus-induced disease in immunocompromised mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovesi, E.V.; Livnat, D.; Collins, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the passive therapy of Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV)-induced disease with chimpanzee anti-F-MuLV serum is accompanied by the development of host antiviral humoral and cellular immunity, the latter measurable in adoptive transfer protocols and by the ability of serum-protected mice to resist virus rechallenge. The present study was designed to further examine the contribution of various compartments of the host immune system to serum therapy itself, as well as to the acquired antiviral immunity that develops in serum-protected mice, through the use of naturally immunocompromised animals [e.g., nude athymic mice and natural killer (NK)-deficient beige mutant mice] or mice treated with immunoabrogating agents such as sublethal irradiation, cyclophosphamide [Cytoxan (Cy)], cortisone, and 89 Sr. The studies in nude mice indicate that while mature T-cells are not needed for effective serum therapy, they do appear to be necessary for the long-term resistance of serum-protected mice to virus rechallenge and for the generation of the cell population(s) responsible for adoptive transfer of antiviral immunity. Furthermore, this acquired resistance is not due to virus neutralization by serum antibodies since antibody-negative, Cy-treated, serum-protected mice still reject the secondary virus infection. Lastly, while the immunocompromise systems examined did effect various host antiviral immune responses, none of them, including the NK-deficient beige mutation, significantly diminished the efficacy of the passive serum therapy of F-MuLV-induced disease

  11. Mutations of the kissing-loop dimerization sequence influence the site specificity of murine leukemia virus recombination in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, J G; Lund, Anders Henrik; Duch, M

    2000-01-01

    synthesis in newly infected cells. We have previously shown that template shifts within the 5' leader of murine leukemia viruses occur preferentially within the kissing stem-loop motif, a cis element crucial for in vitro RNA dimer formation. By use of a forced recombination approach based on single......-cycle transfer of Akv murine leukemia virus-based vectors harboring defective primer binding site sequences, we now report that modifications of the kissing-loop structure, ranging from a deletion of the entire sequence to introduction of a single point mutation in the loop motif, significantly disturb site...... specificity of recombination within the highly structured 5' leader region. In addition, we find that an intact kissing-loop sequence favors optimal RNA encapsidation and vector transduction. Our data are consistent with the kissing-loop dimerization model and suggest that a direct intermolecular RNA...

  12. [Inhibitory effect of murine cytomegalovirus infection on neural stem cells' differentiation and its mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-feng; Fang, Feng; Dong, Yong-sui; Zhou, Hua; Zhen, Hong; Liu, Jin; Li, Ge

    2006-07-01

    expression of Wnt-1 and Ngn1 may be involved in the inhibitory effect of murine cytomegalovirus infection on neural stem cells' differentiation, which may lead to a new strategy for preventing and treating brain abnormalities caused by CMV infection through regulating these two signal pathways.

  13. Leukemia inhibitory factor in rat fetal lung development: expression and functional studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nogueira-Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF and interleukin-6 (IL-6 are members of the family of the glycoprotein 130 (gp130-type cytokines. These cytokines share gp130 as a common signal transducer, which explains why they show some functional redundancy. Recently, it was demonstrated that IL-6 promotes fetal lung branching. Additionally, LIF has been implicated in developmental processes of some branching organs. Thus, in this study LIF expression pattern and its effects on fetal rat lung morphogenesis were assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: LIF and its subunit receptor LIFRα expression levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot in fetal rat lungs of different gestational ages, ranging from 13.5 to 21.5 days post-conception. Throughout all gestational ages studied, LIF was constitutively expressed in pulmonary epithelium, whereas LIFRα was first mainly expressed in the mesenchyme, but after pseudoglandular stage it was also observed in epithelial cells. These results point to a LIF epithelium-mesenchyme cross-talk, which is known to be important for lung branching process. Regarding functional studies, fetal lung explants were cultured with increasing doses of LIF or LIF neutralizing antibodies during 4 days. MAPK, AKT, and STAT3 phosphorylation in the treated lung explants was analyzed. LIF supplementation significantly inhibited lung growth in spite of an increase in p44/42 phosphorylation. On the other hand, LIF inhibition significantly stimulated lung growth via p38 and Akt pathways. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study describes that LIF and its subunit receptor LIFRα are constitutively expressed during fetal lung development and that they have an inhibitory physiological role on fetal lung branching.

  14. Antileukemic effect of zerumbone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier in WEHI-3B cell-induced murine leukemia model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman HS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Heshu Sulaiman Rahman,1–3 Abdullah Rasedee,1,2 Chee Wun How,2 Nazariah Allaudin Zeenathul,1,2 Max Stanley Chartrand,4 Swee Keong Yeap,2 Ahmad Bustamam Abdul,2,5 Sheau Wei Tan,2 Hemn Hassan Othman,1,3 Zahra Ajdari,6 Farideh Namvar,7 Palanisamy Arulselvan,2 Sharida Fakurazi,2,5 Parvaneh Mehrbod,2 Nasibeh Daneshvar,2 Hasina Begum2 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimany, Sulaimany City, Northern Iraq; 4DigiCare Behavioral Research, Casa Grande, AZ, USA; 5Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 7Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Cancer nanotherapy is progressing rapidly with the introduction of many innovative drug delivery systems to replace conventional therapy. Although the antitumor activity of zerumbone (ZER has been reported, there has been no information available on the effect of ZER-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC (ZER-NLC on murine leukemia cells. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo effects of ZER-NLC on murine leukemia induced with WEHI-3B cells were investigated. The results from 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, Hoechst 33342, Annexin V, cell cycle, and caspase activity assays showed that the growth of leukemia cells in vitro was inhibited by ZER-NLC. In addition, outcomes of histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, and Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analyses revealed that the number of leukemia cells in the spleen of BALB/c leukemia mice significantly decreased after 4 weeks of oral treatment with various doses of ZER-NLC. Western blotting and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays confirmed the antileukemia effects

  15. Solution Properties of Murine Leukemia Virus Gag Protein: Differences from HIV-1 Gag▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Siddhartha A. K.; Zuo, Xiaobing; Clark, Patrick K.; Campbell, Stephen J.; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Immature retrovirus particles are assembled from the multidomain Gag protein. In these particles, the Gag proteins are arranged radially as elongated rods. We have previously characterized the properties of HIV-1 Gag in solution. In the absence of nucleic acid, HIV-1 Gag displays moderately weak interprotein interactions, existing in monomer-dimer equilibrium. Neutron scattering and hydrodynamic studies suggest that the protein is compact, and biochemical studies indicate that the two ends can approach close in three-dimensional space, implying the need for a significant conformational change during assembly. We now describe the properties of the Gag protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV), a gammaretrovirus. We found that this protein is very different from HIV-1 Gag: it has much weaker protein-protein interaction and is predominantly monomeric in solution. This has allowed us to study the protein by small-angle X-ray scattering and to build a low-resolution molecular envelope for the protein. We found that MLV Gag is extended in solution, with an axial ratio of ∼7, comparable to its dimensions in immature particles. Mutational analysis suggests that runs of prolines in its matrix and p12 domains and the highly charged stretch at the C terminus of its capsid domain all contribute to this extended conformation. These differences between MLV Gag and HIV-1 Gag and their implications for retroviral assembly are discussed. PMID:21917964

  16. Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV)-based Coronavirus Spike-pseudotyped Particle Production and Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Jean Kaoru; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2016-01-01

    Viral pseudotyped particles (pp) are enveloped virus particles, typically derived from retroviruses or rhabdoviruses, that harbor heterologous envelope glycoproteins on their surface and a genome lacking essential genes. These synthetic viral particles are safer surrogates of native viruses and acquire the tropism and host entry pathway characteristics governed by the heterologous envelope glycoprotein used. They have proven to be very useful tools used in research with many applications, such as enabling the study of entry pathways of enveloped viruses and to generate effective gene-delivery vectors. The basis for their generation lies in the capacity of some viruses, such as murine leukemia virus (MLV), to incorporate envelope glycoproteins of other viruses into a pseudotyped virus particle. These can be engineered to contain reporter genes such as luciferase, enabling quantification of virus entry events upon pseudotyped particle infection with susceptible cells. Here, we detail a protocol enabling generation of MLV-based pseudotyped particles, using the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spike (S) as an example of a heterologous envelope glycoprotein to be incorporated. We also describe how these particles are used to infect susceptible cells and to perform a quantitative infectivity readout by a luciferase assay. PMID:28018942

  17. B lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region 1: An oncogenic mediator in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qipeng; Li, Qiaqia; Zhu, Sen; Yi, Yang; Cao, Qi

    2018-06-01

    B lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region 1 (BMI1), a core member of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), has been intensely investigated in the field of cancer epigenetics for decades. Widely known as a critical regulator in cellular physiology, BMI1 is essential in self-renewal and differentiation in different lineages of stem cells. BMI1 also plays a significant role in cancer etiology for its involvement in pathological progress such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell maintenance, propagation, and differentiation. Importantly, overexpression of BMI1 is predictive for drug resistance, tumor recurrence, and eventual therapy failure of various cancer subtypes, which renders the pharmacological targeting at BMI1 as a novel and promising therapeutic approach. The study on prostate cancer, a prevalent hormone-related cancer among men, has promoted enormous research advancements in cancer genetics and epigenetics. This review summarizes the role of BMI1 as an oncogenic and epigenetic regulator in tumor initiation, progression, and relapse of prostate cancer.

  18. Expression of mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus-related transcripts in AKR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.; Laigret, F.; Rodi, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors used a synthetic 16-base-pair mink cell focus-forming (MCF) env-specific oligomer as radiolabeled probe to study MCF murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related transcripts in brain, kidney, liver, spleen, and thymus tissues of AKR mice ranging from 5 weeks to 6 months (mo) of age. Tissue-specific expression of poly(A) + RNAs was seen. In addition, all the tissues tested contained 3.0-kb messages. The transcription of these MCF-related mRNAs was independent of the presence of ecotropic and xenotropic MuLVs. In general, expression of the MCF env-related transcripts appeared to peak at 2 mo of age; these messages were barely detectable in brain, kidney, liver, and spleen tissues after 2 mo and in thymus tissue after 4 mo of age. All of the subgenomic MCF env-related mRNAs appeared to contain the 190-base-pair cellular DNA insert, characteristic of the long terminal repeats associated with endogenous MCF env-related proviruses. No genomic-size (8.4-kb) transcripts corresponding to endogenous MCF-related proviruses were detected. An 8.4-kb MCF env-related mRNA was first seen at 3 mo of age, exclusively in thymus tissue. This species most likely represents the first appearance of a recombinant MCF-related MuLV genome. The transcripts which were detected in thymus tissue might be involved in the generation of leukemogenic MCF viruses

  19. Endophilins interact with Moloney murine leukemia virus Gag and modulate virion production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Camilli Pietro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The retroviral Gag protein is the central player in the process of virion assembly at the plasma membrane, and is sufficient to induce the formation and release of virus-like particles. Recent evidence suggests that Gag may co-opt the host cell's endocytic machinery to facilitate retroviral assembly and release. Results A search for novel partners interacting with the Gag protein of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV via the yeast two-hybrid protein-protein interaction assay resulted in the identification of endophilin 2, a component of the machinery involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We demonstrate that endophilin interacts with the matrix or MA domain of the Gag protein of Mo-MuLV, but not of human immunodeficiency virus, HIV. Both exogenously expressed and endogenous endophilin are incorporated into Mo-MuLV viral particles. Titration experiments suggest that the binding sites for inclusion of endophilin into viral particles are limited and saturable. Knock-down of endophilin with small interfering RNA (siRNA had no effect on virion production, but overexpression of endophilin and, to a lesser extent, of several fragments of the protein, result in inhibition of Mo-MuLV virion production, but not of HIV virion production. Conclusions This study shows that endophilins interact with Mo-MuLV Gag and affect virion production. The findings imply that endophilin is another component of the large complex that is hijacked by retroviruses to promote virion production.

  20. Murine Leukemia Virus Uses TREX Components for Efficient Nuclear Export of Unspliced Viral Transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshie Sakuma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously we reported that nuclear export of both unspliced and spliced murine leukemia virus (MLV transcripts depends on the nuclear export factor (NXF1 pathway. Although the mRNA export complex TREX, which contains Aly/REF, UAP56, and the THO complex, is involved in the NXF1-mediated nuclear export of cellular mRNAs, its contribution to the export of MLV mRNA transcripts remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the involvement of TREX components in the export of MLV transcripts. Depletion of UAP56, but not Aly/REF, reduced the level of both unspliced and spliced viral transcripts in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, depletion of THO components, including THOC5 and THOC7, affected only unspliced viral transcripts in the cytoplasm. Moreover, the RNA immunoprecipitation assay showed that only the unspliced viral transcript interacted with THOC5. These results imply that MLV requires UAP56, THOC5 and THOC7, in addition to NXF1, for nuclear export of viral transcripts. Given that naturally intronless mRNAs, but not bulk mRNAs, require THOC5 for nuclear export, it is plausible that THOC5 plays a key role in the export of unspliced MLV transcripts.

  1. Leukemia inhibitory factor tips the immune balance towards regulatory T cells in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Kris; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle; Lucas, Sophie; van Horssen, Jack; Somers, Veerle; Van Wijmeersch, Bart; Stinissen, Piet; Hendriks, Jerome J A; Slaets, Helena; Hellings, Niels

    2015-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), for which current treatments are unable to prevent disease progression. Based on its neuroprotective and neuroregenerating properties, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a member of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) cytokine family, is proposed as a novel candidate for MS therapy. However, its effect on the autoimmune response remains unclear. In this study, we determined how LIF modulates T cell responses that play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MS. We demonstrate that expression of the LIF receptor was strongly increased on immune cells of MS patients. LIF treatment potently boosted the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in CD4(+) T cells isolated from healthy controls and MS patients with low serum levels of IL-6. Moreover, IL-6 signaling was reduced in the donors that responded to LIF treatment in vitro. Our data together with previous findings revealing that IL-6 inhibits Treg development, suggest an opposing function of LIF and IL-6. In a preclinical animal model of MS we shifted the LIF/IL-6 balance in favor of LIF by CNS-targeted overexpression. This increased the number of Tregs in the CNS during active autoimmune responses and reduced disease symptoms. In conclusion, our data show that LIF downregulates the autoimmune response by enhancing Treg numbers, providing further impetus for the use of LIF as a novel treatment for MS and other autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Leukemia inhibitory factor promote trophoblast invasion via urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qin; Dai, Kuixing; Cui, Xinyuan; Yu, Ming; Yang, Xuesong; Yan, Bin; Liu, Shuai; Yan, Qiu

    2016-05-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related syndrome which can cause perinatal mortality and morbidity. Inadequate invasion by trophoblast cells may lead to poor perfusion of the placenta, even result in preeclampsia. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying placentation facilitates the better intervention of preeclampsia. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is involved in the physiological and pathological processes. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is an important regulator in the establishment of pregnancy. However, the expression of uPAR in preeclamptic patients and its relationship with LIF remains unclear. In the current study, we found that the level of uPAR was relatively lower in the placentas from preeclamptic patients as compared with normal pregnant women. LIF promoted trophoblast cell outgrowth by upregulating uPAR in an explants culture, and LIF also enhanced migration and invasion potential through uPAR in trophoblast JAR and JEG-3 cell lines, and with increased gelatinolytic activities of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The effect of LIF and uPAR on trophoblast migration and invasion was mediated by PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Our data indicates the roles of LIF in promoting trophoblast migration and invasion through uPAR and suggest that abnormal expression of uPAR might be associated with the etiology of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. No evidence of murine leukemia virus-related viruses in live attenuated human vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Switzer

    Full Text Available The association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-related virus (XMRV in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome reported in previous studies remains controversial as these results have been questioned by recent data. Nonetheless, concerns have been raised regarding contamination of human vaccines as a possible source of introduction of XMRV and MLV into human populations. To address this possibility, we tested eight live attenuated human vaccines using generic PCR for XMRV and MLV sequences. Viral metagenomics using deep sequencing was also done to identify the possibility of other adventitious agents.All eight live attenuated vaccines, including Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV (SA-14-14-2, varicella (Varivax, measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR-II, measles (Attenuvax, rubella (Meruvax-II, rotavirus (Rotateq and Rotarix, and yellow fever virus were negative for XMRV and highly related MLV sequences. However, residual hamster DNA, but not RNA, containing novel endogenous gammaretrovirus sequences was detected in the JEV vaccine using PCR. Metagenomics analysis did not detect any adventitious viral sequences of public health concern. Intracisternal A particle sequences closest to those present in Syrian hamsters and not mice were also detected in the JEV SA-14-14-2 vaccine. Combined, these results are consistent with the production of the JEV vaccine in Syrian hamster cells.We found no evidence of XMRV and MLV in eight live attenuated human vaccines further supporting the safety of these vaccines. Our findings suggest that vaccines are an unlikely source of XMRV and MLV exposure in humans and are consistent with the mounting evidence on the absence of these viruses in humans.

  4. Dual effect of LPS on murine myeloid leukemia cells: Pro-proliferation and anti-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lingling [Department of Pediatrics, Jingjiang People' s Hospital, Yangzhou University, Jingjiang 214500 (China); Noncoding RNA Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Zhao, Yingmin [Department of Pediatrics, Jingjiang People' s Hospital, Yangzhou University, Jingjiang 214500 (China); Gu, Xin; Wang, Jijun; Pang, Lei; Zhang, Yanqing; Li, Yaoyao; Jia, Xiaoqin; Wang, Xin [Noncoding RNA Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Gu, Jian [Department of Hematology, Yangzhou University School of Clinical Medicine, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Yu, Duonan, E-mail: duonan@yahoo.com [Department of Pediatrics, Jingjiang People' s Hospital, Yangzhou University, Jingjiang 214500 (China); Noncoding RNA Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Prevention and Treatment of Senile Disease, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Institute of Comparative Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Disease and Zoonosis, Yangzhou 225001 (China)

    2016-06-10

    Modification of the bone marrow microenvironment is considered as a promising strategy to control leukemic cell proliferation, diseases progression and relapse after treatment. However, due to the diversity and complexity of the cellular and molecular compartments in the leukemic microenvironment, it is extremely difficult to dissect the role of each individual molecule or cell type in vivo. Here we established an in vitro system to dissect the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stromal cells and endothelial cells in the growth of mouse myeloid tumor cells and B-lymphoma cells. We found that either LPS or bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer in culture is required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. Surprisingly, the growth of myeloid leukemic cells on stromal cells is strongly inhibited when coupled with LPS in culture. This opposing effect of LPS, a complete switch from pro-proliferation to antitumor growth is due, at least in part, to the rapidly increased production of interleukin 12, Fas ligand and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 from stromal cells stimulated by LPS. These results demonstrate that LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor cell proliferation, thus changing the disease course of myeloid leukemias through its direct effect or modulation of the tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • LPS alone in culture is required for the proliferation of murine myeloid tumor cells. • Bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer is also required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. • However, the growth of myeloid tumor cells is inhibited when LPS and stromal cells are both available in culture. • Thus LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor growth through its direct effect or modulation of tumor microenvironment.

  5. Dual effect of LPS on murine myeloid leukemia cells: Pro-proliferation and anti-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lingling; Zhao, Yingmin; Gu, Xin; Wang, Jijun; Pang, Lei; Zhang, Yanqing; Li, Yaoyao; Jia, Xiaoqin; Wang, Xin; Gu, Jian; Yu, Duonan

    2016-01-01

    Modification of the bone marrow microenvironment is considered as a promising strategy to control leukemic cell proliferation, diseases progression and relapse after treatment. However, due to the diversity and complexity of the cellular and molecular compartments in the leukemic microenvironment, it is extremely difficult to dissect the role of each individual molecule or cell type in vivo. Here we established an in vitro system to dissect the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stromal cells and endothelial cells in the growth of mouse myeloid tumor cells and B-lymphoma cells. We found that either LPS or bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer in culture is required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. Surprisingly, the growth of myeloid leukemic cells on stromal cells is strongly inhibited when coupled with LPS in culture. This opposing effect of LPS, a complete switch from pro-proliferation to antitumor growth is due, at least in part, to the rapidly increased production of interleukin 12, Fas ligand and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 from stromal cells stimulated by LPS. These results demonstrate that LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor cell proliferation, thus changing the disease course of myeloid leukemias through its direct effect or modulation of the tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • LPS alone in culture is required for the proliferation of murine myeloid tumor cells. • Bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer is also required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. • However, the growth of myeloid tumor cells is inhibited when LPS and stromal cells are both available in culture. • Thus LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor growth through its direct effect or modulation of tumor microenvironment.

  6. Phenethyl ester and amide of Ferulic Acids: Synthesis and bioactivity against P388 Leukemia Murine Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus; Soekamto, N. H.; Seniwati; Islam, M. F.; Sultan

    2018-03-01

    Bioactivity of a compound is closely related to the molecular structure of the compound concerned, its strength being the quantitative relation of the strength of the activity of the group it possesses. The combining of moieties of the active compounds will produce more active compounds. Most phenolic compounds as well as compounds containing moiety phenethyl groups have potential activity as anticancer. Combining phenolic groups and phenethyl groups in a compound will result in compounds having strong anticancer bioactivity. This study aims to combine the feruloyl and phenethyl groups to form esters and amides by synthesize of phenethyl trans-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (5) and trans-3-(4- hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-phenethylacrylamide (6) from ferulic acid with phenethyl alcohol and phenethylamine, and to study their bioactivity as anticancer. The synthesis of both compounds was conducted via indirect reaction, including acetylation, chlorination, esterfication/amidation, and deacetylation. Structures of products were characterized by FTIR and NMR data, and their bioactivity assay of the compounds against P388 Leukemia Murine Cells was conducted by an MTT method. Results showed that the compound 5 was obtained as a yellow gel with the IC50 of 10.79 μg/mL (36.21 μΜ), and the compound 6 was a yellowish solid with a melting point of 118-120°C and the IC50 of 29.14 μg/mL (97.79 μΜ). These compounds were more active than the analog compounds.

  7. Molecular cloning of osteoma-inducing replication-competent murine leukemia viruses from the RFB osteoma virus stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene; Behnisch, Werner; Schmidt, Jörg

    1992-01-01

    We report the molecular cloning of two replication-competent osteoma-inducing murine leukemia viruses from the RFB osteoma virus stock (M. P. Finkel, C. A. Reilly, Jr., B. O. Biskis, and I. L. Greco, p. 353-366, in C. H. G. Price and F. G. M. Ross, ed., Bone--Certain Aspects of Neoplasia, 1973......). Like the original RFB osteoma virus stock, viruses derived from the molecular RFB clones induced multiple osteomas in mice of the CBA/Ca strain. The cloned RFB viruses were indistinguishable by restriction enzyme analysis and by nucleotide sequence analysis of their long-terminal-repeat regions...

  8. Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Kusumi, Shizuyo

    1992-01-01

    Leukemia is the first malignant disease found among A-bomb survivors. Leukemia registration has greatly contributed to epidemiological and hematological studies on A-bomb radiation-related leukemia and other hematopoietic diseases, consisting of community population and the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) sample (approximately 120,000 persons containing A-bomb survivors). Using the fixed LSS cohort, the prevalence rate of leukemia reached the peak during the years 1950-1954, and thereafter, it has been gradually decreased. However, risk patterns for leukemia are still unsolved: has leukemia risk increased in recent years?; are serial changes in leukemia risk influenced by age at the time of exposure (ATE)?; is there variation between Hiroshima and Nagasaki?; and others. To solve these questions, leukemia data are now under analysis using the revised DS86. Relative risk for leukemia, especially chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), is found to be linearly increased with increasing bone marrow doses. Serial patterns of both excess risk and excess relative risk have revealed that leukemia risk is high at 5-10 years after A-bombing in younger A-bomb survivors ATE. The influence of age ATE on serial changes is noticeable in ALL. Another factor involved in the prevalence of leukemia is background (spontaneously developed leukemia), which is the recent interest because young A-bomb survivors ATE reach the cancer-prone age. (N.K.)

  9. Androgen-independent proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells infected by xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakoki, Katsura; Kamiyama, Haruka; Izumida, Mai; Yashima, Yuka; Hayashi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Naoki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • XMRV infection induces androgen-independent growth in LNCaP cells. • XMRV infection reduces expression of androgen receptor. • XMRV promotes appearance of androgen blocker-resistant prostate cancer cells. - Abstract: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a novel gammaretrovirus that was originally isolated from human prostate cancer. It is now believed that XMRV is not the etiologic agent of prostate cancer. An analysis of murine leukemia virus (MLV) infection in various human cell lines revealed that prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected by XMRV, and this suggested that XMRV infection may confer some sort of growth advantage to prostate cancer cell lines. To examine this hypothesis, androgen-dependent LNCaP cells were infected with XMRV and tested for changes in certain cell growth properties. We found that XMRV-infected LNCaP cells can proliferate in the absence of the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Moreover, androgen receptor expression is significantly reduced in XMRV-infected LNCaP cells. Such alterations were not observed in uninfected and amphotropic MLV-infected LNCaP cells. This finding explains why prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected with XMRV

  10. Replacement of Murine Leukemia Virus Readthrough Mechanism by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Frameshift Allows Synthesis of Viral Proteins and Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Marie-Noëlle; Brakier-Gingras, Léa; Lemay, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Retroviruses use unusual recoding strategies to synthesize the Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor of viral enzymes. In human immunodeficiency virus, ribosomes translating full-length viral RNA can shift back by 1 nucleotide at a specific site defined by the presence of both a slippery sequence and a downstream stimulatory element made of an extensive secondary structure. This so-called frameshift mechanism could become a target for the development of novel antiviral strategies. A different recoding strategy is used by other retroviruses, such as murine leukemia viruses, to synthesize the Gag-Pol precursor; in this case, a stop codon is suppressed in a readthrough process, again due to the presence of a specific structure adopted by the mRNA. Development of antiframeshift agents will greatly benefit from the availability of a simple animal and virus model. For this purpose, the murine leukemia virus readthrough region was rendered inactive by mutagenesis and the frameshift region of human immunodeficiency virus was inserted to generate a chimeric provirus. This substitution of readthrough by frameshift allows the synthesis of viral proteins, and the chimeric provirus sequence was found to generate infectious viruses. This system could be a most interesting alternative to study ribosomal frameshift in the context of a virus amenable to the use of a simple animal model. PMID:12584361

  11. Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  12. Effects of leukemia inhibitory factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on free radicals and endogenous stem cell proliferation in a mouse model of cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihui; Li, Yadan; Lin, Yufeng; Ye, Xue; Zang, Dawei

    2012-07-05

    The present study established a mouse model of cerebral infarction by middle cerebral artery occlusion, and monitored the effect of 25 μg/kg leukemia inhibitory factor and (or) basic fibroblast growth factor administration 2 hours after model establishment. Results showed that following administration, the number of endogenous neural stem cells in the infarct area significantly increased, malondialdehyde content in brain tissue homogenates significantly decreased, nitric oxide content, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity significantly elevated, and mouse motor function significantly improved as confirmed by the rotarod and bar grab tests. In particular, the effect of leukemia inhibitory factor in combination with basic fibroblast growth factor was the most significant. Results indicate that leukemia inhibitory factor and basic fibroblast growth factor can improve the microenvironment after cerebral infarction by altering free radical levels, improving the quantity of endogenous neural stem cells, and promoting neurological function of mice with cerebral infarction.

  13. Mutational library analysis of selected amino acids in the receptor binding domain of envelope of Akv murine leukemia virus by conditionally replication competent bicistronic vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrami, Shervin; Jespersen, Thomas; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2003-01-01

    The envelope protein of retroviruses is responsible for viral entry into host cells. Here, we describe a mutational library approach to dissect functional domains of the envelope protein involving a retroviral vector, which expresses both the envelope protein of Akv murine leukemia virus (MLV) an...

  14. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTPRS Is an Inhibitory Receptor on Human and Murine Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunin, A.; Sisirak, V.; Ghosh, H.S.; Grajkowska, L.T.; Hou, Z.E.; Miron, M.; Yang, C.; Ceribelli, M.; Uetani, N.; Chaperot, L.; Plumas, J.; Hendriks, W.J.; Tremblay, M.L.; Hacker, H.; Staudt, L.M.; Green, P.H.; Bhagat, G.; Reizis, B.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are primary producers of type I interferon (IFN) in response to viruses. The IFN-producing capacity of pDCs is regulated by specific inhibitory receptors, yet none of the known receptors are conserved in evolution. We report that within the human immune system,

  15. Interleukin-4 but not interleukin-10 inhibits the production of leukemia inhibitory factor by rheumatoid synovium and synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechanet, J; Taupin, J L; Chomarat, P; Rissoan, M C; Moreau, J F; Banchereau, J; Miossec, P

    1994-12-01

    The expression of the proinflammatory cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been reported in the cartilage and synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Here, we show that high levels of LIF were constitutively produced by cultures of synovium pieces. Low levels of LIF were produced spontaneously by isolated synoviocytes, but interleukin (IL)-1 beta caused a fourfold enhancement of this secretion. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 reduced the production of LIF by synovium pieces by 75%, as observed earlier with IL-6, IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. IL-4 had a direct effect since it inhibited LIF production by unstimulated and IL-1 beta- or TNF-alpha-stimulated synoviocytes. Conversely, IL-4 enhanced the production of IL-6, which shares with LIF biological activities and receptor components. The inhibitory effect of IL-4 was dose dependent and was reversed using a blocking anti-IL-4 receptor antibody. Similar inhibitory action of IL-4 on LIF production was observed on synovium pieces from patients with osteoarthritis and on normal synoviocytes. IL-10, another anti-inflammatory cytokine acting on monocytes, had no effect on LIF production by either synovium pieces or isolated synoviocytes. Thus, the production of LIF by synovium tissue was inhibited by IL-4 through both a direct effect on synoviocytes and an indirect effect by inhibition of the production of LIF-inducing cytokines.

  16. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) enhances MAP2 + and HUC/D + neurons and influences neurite extension during differentiation of neural progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (L1F), a member of the Interleukin 6 cytokine family, has a role in differentiation of Human Neural Progenitor (hNP) cells in vitro. hNP cells, derived from Human Embryonic Stem (hES) cells, have an unlimited capacity for self-renewal in monolayer cultu...

  17. Role of the Leukemia-Inhibitory Factor Gene Mutations in Infertile Women:The Embryo-Endometrial Cytokine Cross Talk during Implantation-a Delicate Homeostatic Equilibrium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Králíčková, M.; Šíma, Petr; Rokyta, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2005), s. 179-186 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/02/1232; GA ČR GA301/05/0078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : leukemia inhibitory factor * interleukin 11 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  18. Inhibitory mechanism of peptides and antibodies targeting murine urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    drugs, a detailed mechanistic understanding must be obtained. One peptide and two antibodies were studied in this thesis. First, an engineered cyclic peptide, mupain-1-16 with an unnatural amino acid in the P1 position and the sequence CPAYS[L-3-(N-Amidino-4-piperidyl)alanine]YLDC was investigated...... different conformational and inhibitory mechanisms both in vivo and in vitro. Their similar epitopes, but different functions revealed two different allosteric regulation mechanisms for antibodies binding to serine proteases. Both the peptidic inhibitors and the allosteric mechanisms of uPA are believed...

  19. Inhibitory effect of kefiran on ovalbumin-induced lung inflammation in a murine model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Lee, Mee-Young; Kim, So-Young; Park, Bo-Young; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, In-Young; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu

    2008-12-01

    Kefiran is a major component of kefir which is a microbial symbiont mixture that produces jelly-like grains. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic availability of kefiran on the ovalbumin-induced asthma mouse model in which airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness were found in the lung. BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged to ovalbumin were treated intra-gastrically with kefiran 1 hour before the ovalbumin challenge. Kefiran significantly suppressed ovalbumin-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) to inhaled methacholine. Administration of kefiran significantly inhibited the release of both eosinophils and other inflammatory cells into bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue which was measured by Diff-Quik. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) were also reduced to normal levels after administration of kefiran in BAL fluid. Histological studies demonstrate that kefiran substantially inhibited ovalbumin-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue by H&E staining and goblet cell hyperplasia in the airway by PAS staining. Taken above data, kefiran may be useful for the treatment of inflammation of lung tissue and airway hyper-responsiveness in a murine model and may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic bronchial asthma.

  20. [Inhibitory effect of RNA interference targeting GFI-1 on the proliferation of atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia NT1 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Liu, H; Lin, Z H; Qian, J; Xu, X R

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effects of RNA interference targeting GFI-1 on growth and proliferation of atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia (aCML) NT1 cells. NT1 cells were transfected with PBS and liposome complex (vehicle group), scrambled siRNA and liposome complex (negative control, NC group), and GFI-1 siRNA and liposome complex (GFI-1 siRNA group), respectively. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were performed to examine the expression levels of GFI-1 mRNA and protein, respectively. The proliferation abilities of NT1 cells of the three groups were evaluated by MTT assay. The cell cycle in cells of the three groups was analyzed by flow cytometry. Moreover, nude mouse xenograft model was used to detect the tumor formation ability in the three group cells. Quantitative real-time PCR data showed that the expression level of GFI-1 mRNA in GFI-1 siRNA group was significantly lower than those of NC group and vehicle group [(0.367±0.017) vs. (0.918±0.006) and (1.010±0.005), respectively, (PNT1 cells in the GFI-1 siRNA group (0.667±0.059) was significantly lower than those of the NC group (1.096±0.049) and vehicle group (1.193±0.064, P=0.023). Flow cytometry data showed that sub-G1 and G0/G1 phase proportions of the GFI-1 siRNA group were significantly higher than those of the NC and vehicle groups [sub-G1: (8.2±2.5)% vs. (1.9±1.3)% and (2.0±3.6)%, respectively, (PNT1 cells, which may provide a new therapeutic target for atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia.

  1. Functional interaction between the N- and C-terminal domains of murine leukemia virus surface envelope protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.-W.; Roth, Monica J.

    2003-01-01

    A series of murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) with chimeric envelope proteins (Env) was generated to map functional interactions between the N- and the C-terminal domains of surface proteins (SU). All these chimeras have the 4070A amphotropic receptor-binding region flanked by various lengths of Moloney ecotropic N- and C-terminal Env. A charged residue, E49 (E16 on the mature protein), was identified at the N-terminals of Moloney MuLV SU that is important for the interaction with the C-terminal domain of the SU. The region that interacts with E49 was localized between junction 4 (R265 of M-MuLV Env) and junction 6 (L374 of M-MuLV Env) of SU. Sequencing the viable chimeric Env virus populations identified residues within the SU protein that improved the replication kinetics of the input chimeric Env viruses. Mutations in the C-domain of SU (G387E/R, L435I, L442P) were found to improve chimera IV4, which displayed a delayed onset of replication. The replication of AE6, containing a chimeric junction in the SU C-terminus, was improved by mutations in the N-domain (N40H, E80K), the proline-rich region (Q252R), or the transmembrane protein (L538N). Altogether, these observations provide insights into the structural elements required for Env function

  2. Frequent dual initiation of reverse transcription in murine leukemia virus-based vectors containing two primer-binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, Yegor A.; Pathak, Vinay K.

    2003-01-01

    Retroviruses package two copies of viral RNA into each virion. Although each RNA contains a primer-binding site for initiation of DNA synthesis, it is unknown whether reverse transcription is initiated on both RNAs. To determine whether a single virion is capable of initiating reverse transcription more than once, we constructed a murine leukemia virus-based vector containing a second primer-binding site (PBS) derived from spleen necrosis virus and inserted the green fluorescent protein gene (GFP) between the two PBSs. Initiation of reverse transcription at either PBS results in a provirus that expresses GFP. However, initiation at both PBSs can result in the deletion of GFP, which can be detected by flow cytometry and Southern blotting analysis. Approximately 22-29% of the proviruses formed deleted the GFP in a single replication cycle, indicating the minimum proportion of virions that initiated reverse transcription on both PBSs. These results show that a significant proportion of MLV-based vectors containing two PBSs have the capacity to initiate reverse transcription more than once

  3. Fidelity of target site duplication and sequence preference during integration of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanggu Kim

    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-related virus (XMRV is a new human retrovirus associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. The causal relationship of XMRV infection to human disease and the mechanism of pathogenicity have not been established. During retrovirus replication, integration of the cDNA copy of the viral RNA genome into the host cell chromosome is an essential step and involves coordinated joining of the two ends of the linear viral DNA into staggered sites on target DNA. Correct integration produces proviruses that are flanked by a short direct repeat, which varies from 4 to 6 bp among the retroviruses but is invariant for each particular retrovirus. Uncoordinated joining of the two viral DNA ends into target DNA can cause insertions, deletions, or other genomic alterations at the integration site. To determine the fidelity of XMRV integration, cells infected with XMRV were clonally expanded and DNA sequences at the viral-host DNA junctions were determined and analyzed. We found that a majority of the provirus ends were correctly processed and flanked by a 4-bp direct repeat of host DNA. A weak consensus sequence was also detected at the XMRV integration sites. We conclude that integration of XMRV DNA involves a coordinated joining of two viral DNA ends that are spaced 4 bp apart on the target DNA and proceeds with high fidelity.

  4. PCR and serology find no association between xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satterfield Brent C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV is a retrovirus implicated in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Press releases have suggested that it could contribute to autism spectrum disorder (ASD. In this study we used two PCR assays and one antibody assay to screen 25 blood samples from autistic children born to mothers with CFS and from 20 mixed controls including family members of the children assayed, people with fibromyalgia and people with chronic Lyme disease. Using a real-time PCR assay, we screened an additional 48 South Carolina autism disorder samples, 96 Italian ASD samples, 61 South Carolina ASD samples and 184 healthy controls. Despite having the ability to detect low copy number XMRV DNA in a large background of cellular DNA, none of the PCR assays found any evidence of XMRV infection in blood cells from patients or controls. Further, no anti-XMRV antibodies were detected, ruling out possible low level or abortive infections in blood or in other reservoirs. These results imply that XMRV is not associated with autism.

  5. Alpha-phellandrene-induced DNA damage and affect DNA repair protein expression in WEHI-3 murine leukemia cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jen-Jyh; Wu, Chih-Chung; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Weng, Shu-Wen; Ma, Yi-Shih; Huang, Yi-Ping; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-11-01

    Although there are few reports regarding α-phellandrene (α-PA), a natural compound from Schinus molle L. essential oil, there is no report to show that α-PA induced DNA damage and affected DNA repair associated protein expression. Herein, we investigated the effects of α-PA on DNA damage and repair associated protein expression in murine leukemia cells. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure the effects of α-PA on total cell viability and the results indicated that α-PA induced cell death. Comet assay and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride staining were used for measuring DNA damage and condensation, respectively, and the results indicated that α-PA induced DNA damage and condensation in a concentration-dependent manner. DNA gel electrophoresis was used to examine the DNA damage and the results showed that α-PA induced DNA damage in WEHI-3 cells. Western blotting assay was used to measure the changes of DNA damage and repair associated protein expression and the results indicated that α-PA increased p-p53, p-H2A.X, 14-3-3-σ, and MDC1 protein expression but inhibited the protein of p53, MGMT, DNA-PK, and BRCA-1. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Lysosomal processing of sialoglycoconjugates in a wheat germ agglutinin resistant variant of EL4 murine leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devino, N.L.

    1989-01-01

    Metabolic studies were undertaken in EL4 murine leukemia in WB6, a wheat germ agglutinin-resistant variant of EL4, in order to identify any differences in lysosomal processing of sialoglyco-conjugates. Five lysosomal acid hydrolases, acetylesterase, acid phosphatase, β-galactosidase, α-mannosidase, and neuraminidase, were studied using fluorescent 4-methylumbelliferyl substrates. No significant differences were found in the total activity of any of these enzymes in EL4 and WB6. Cells were incubated in the presence of N-acetylmannosamine, the metabolic precursor of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid). Free sialic acid accumulated in the lysosomes of WB6 but not of EL4. The accumulation of lysosomal free sialic acid in WB6 showed a dependence on the concentration of N-acetylmannosamine in the growth medium. Metabolic labelling with [6- 3 H]-N-acetylmannosamine showed that WB6 accumulated lysosomal free sialic acid even at very low concentrations of N-acetylmannosamine. The two cell lines differed in their distribution of radiolabelled neutral sugars, free sialic acid, and sialoglycoproteins. The velocity of 3 H-sialic acid release was 3.7-fold lower in WB6 than in EL4, suggesting that WB6 has a defect in lysosomal sialic acid transport. The metabolic consequences of this defect are examined, in light of other biochemical and immunological data on these cells

  7. Hypermutability of mouse chromosome 2 during the development of x-ray-induced murine myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rithidech, K.; Bond, V.P.; Cronkite, E.P.; Thompson, M.H.; Bullis, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    In an effort to identify the precise role of a deletion at regions D-E of mouse chromosome 2 [del2(D-E)] during the development of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia, we conducted a serial sacrifice study in which metaphase chromosomes were examined by the G-banding technique. Such metaphase cells were collected from x-irradiated mice during the period of transformation of some of the normal hematopoietic cells to the fully developed leukemic phenotype. A group of 250 CBA/Ca male mice (10-12 weeks old) were exposed to a single dose of 2 Gy of 250-kilovolt-peak x-rays; 42 age-matched male mice served as controls. Groups of randomly selected mice were sacrificed at 20 hr, 1 week, and then at intervals of 3 months up to 24 months after x-irradiation. Slides for cytogenetic, hematological, and histological examination were prepared for each animal at each sacrifice time. The majority of such lesions were translocations at 2F or 2H, strongly suggesting hyper mutability of these sites on mouse chromosome 2. No lesions were found in control mice. The finding leads to the possibility that genomic lesions close to 2D and 2E are aberrants associated with radiation leukemogenesis, whereas a single clone of cells with a del2(D-E) may lead directly to overt leukemia. The data also indicate that leukemic transformation arises from the cumulative effects of multiple genetic events on chromosome 2, reinforcing the thesis that multiple steps of mutation occur in the pathogenesis of cancer. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Vaccination of adult and newborn mice of a resistant strain (C57BL/6J) against challenge with leukemias induced by Moloney murine leukemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Adult or newborn C57BL/6J mice were immunized with isogenic Moloney strain MuLV-induced leukemia cells irradiated with 10,000 rads or treated with low concentrations of formalin. Groups of immunized and control mice were challenged with a range of doses of viable leukemia cells, and tumor deaths were recorded for 90 days after challenge. Then, the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths were calculated for immunized and control mice. The logarithm of their ratio quantified the degree of protection provided by immunization. For adult C57BL/6J mice, a single immunization with MuLV-induced leukemia cells was not effective; either cells plus Bacillus Calmette-Guerin or Corynebacterium parvum, or else two immunizations with irradiated leukemia cells were needed to produce statistically significant increases in the values of the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths. Cross-protection was obtained by immunization with other isogenic MuLV-induced leukemias, but not by immunization with isogenic carcinogen-induced tumors or with an isogenic spontaneous leukemia. For newborn mice, a single injection of irradiated leukemia cells provided 1.3 to 1.5 logs of protection, and admixture of B. Calmette-Guerin or C. parvum increased this protection to 2.4 to 2.7 logs. Since irradiated and frozen-thawed MuLV-induced leukemia cells contained viable MuLV, leukemia cells treated with 0.5 or 1.0% formalin were tested as an alternative. A single injection of formalin-treated isogenic leukemia cells admixed with C. parvum provided between 1.7 and 2.8 logs of protection. These results demonstrate that a single vaccination of newborn animals against a highly antigenic virally induced leukemia produces strong protection against a subsequent challenge with viable leukemia cells

  9. The immunological effect of 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA treatment on murine T-cell leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingying Cheng; Fungwin Shen; Ronghwa Lin

    1996-01-01

    8-Methoxyproralen (8-MOP) plus long-wavelength UV radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm) have been used to treat various diseases such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, systemic scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis and rejection of heart transplants. However, the immunological mechanism of this treatment remains unknown. In this report, we investigated the effect of 8-MOP/UVA on the modulation of the immunogenicity of a T-cell leukemia cell line (RL ''male'' 1 cells). The results demonstrated that the stimulator function of the in vitro 8-MOP/UVA-treated RL ''male'' 1 cells was enhanced in both RL ''male'' 1-specific allogeneic and syngeneic immune responses. Furthermore, the enhancement of the immunogenicity of the 8-MOP/UVA-treated RL ''male'' 1 cells was found to be strongly associated with the increase of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on these 8-MOP/UVA-treated tumor cells. Therefore, our findings suggested that the alteration of the expression of the immune-related cell surface molecules might be an important effect of 8-MOP/UVA treatment on the elevation of the immunogenicity of the 8-MOP/UVA-treated tumor cells. (Author)

  10. The immunological effect of 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA treatment on murine T-cell leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingying Cheng; Fungwin Shen; Ronghwa Lin [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China)

    1996-09-01

    8-Methoxyproralen (8-MOP) plus long-wavelength UV radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm) have been used to treat various diseases such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, systemic scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis and rejection of heart transplants. However, the immunological mechanism of this treatment remains unknown. In this report, we investigated the effect of 8-MOP/UVA on the modulation of the immunogenicity of a T-cell leukemia cell line (RL ``male`` 1 cells). The results demonstrated that the stimulator function of the in vitro 8-MOP/UVA-treated RL ``male`` 1 cells was enhanced in both RL ``male`` 1-specific allogeneic and syngeneic immune responses. Furthermore, the enhancement of the immunogenicity of the 8-MOP/UVA-treated RL ``male`` 1 cells was found to be strongly associated with the increase of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on these 8-MOP/UVA-treated tumor cells. Therefore, our findings suggested that the alteration of the expression of the immune-related cell surface molecules might be an important effect of 8-MOP/UVA treatment on the elevation of the immunogenicity of the 8-MOP/UVA-treated tumor cells. (Author).

  11. Cell division requirement for activation of murine leukemia virus in cell culture by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otten, J.A.; Quarles, J.M.; Tennant, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    Actively dividing cultures of AKR mouse cells were exposed to relatively low dose-rates of γ radiation and tested for activation of endogenous leukemia viruses. Efficient and reproducible induction of virus was obtained with actively dividing cells, but cultures deprived of serum to inhibit cell division before and during γ irradiation were not activated, even when medium with serum was added immediately after irradiation. These results show that cell division was required for virus induction but that a stable intermediate similar to the state induced by halogenated pyrimidines was not formed. In actively dividing AKR cell cultures, virus activation appeared to be proportional to the dose of γ radiation; the estimated frequency of activation was 1-8 x 10 - 5 per exposed cell and the efficiency of activation was approximately 0.012 inductions per cell per rad. Other normal primary and established mouse cell cultures tested were not activated by γ radiation. The requirement of cell division for radiation and chemical activation may reflect some common mechanism for initiation of virus expression

  12. IL-35 mitigates murine acute graft-versus-host disease with retention of graft-versus-leukemia effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Wu, Y; Wang, Y; Cai, Y; Hu, B; Bao, G; Fang, H; Zhao, L; Ma, S; Cheng, Q; Song, Y; Liu, Y; Zhu, Z; Chang, H; Yu, X; Sun, A; Zhang, Y; Vignali, D A A; Wu, D; Liu, H

    2015-04-01

    IL-35 is a newly discovered inhibitory cytokine secreted by regulatory T cells (Tregs) and may have therapeutic potential in several inflammatory disorders. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and caused by donor T cells and inflammatory cytokines. The role of IL-35 in aGVHD is still unknown. Here we demonstrate that IL-35 overexpression suppresses CD4(+) effector T-cell activation, leading to a reduction in alloreactive T-cell responses and aGVHD severity. It also leads to the expansion of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in the aGVHD target organs. Furthermore, IL-35 overexpression results in a selective decrease in the frequency of Th1 cells and an increase of IL-10-producing CD4(+) T cells in aGVHD target tissues. Serum levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-22 and IL-23 decrease and IL-10 increases in response to IL-35. Most importantly, IL-35 preserves graft-versus-leukemia effect. Finally, aGVHD grade 2-4 patients have decreased serum IL-35 levels comparing with time-matched patients with aGVHD grade 0-1. Our findings indicate that IL-35 has an important role in reducing aGVHD through promoting the expansion of Tregs and repressing Th1 responses, and should be investigated as the therapeutic strategy for aGVHD.

  13. Effect of doxorubicin/pluronic SP1049C on tumorigenicity, aggressiveness, DNA methylation and stem cell markers in murine leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Y Alakhova

    Full Text Available Pluronic block copolymers are potent sensitizers of multidrug resistant cancers. SP1049C, a Pluronic-based micellar formulation of doxorubicin (Dox has completed Phase II clinical trial and demonstrated safety and efficacy in patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. This study elucidates the ability of SP1049C to deplete cancer stem cells (CSC and decrease tumorigenicity of cancer cells in vivo.P388 murine leukemia ascitic tumor was grown in BDF1 mice. The animals were treated with: (a saline, (b Pluronics alone, (c Dox or (d SP1049C. The ascitic cancer cells were isolated at different passages and examined for 1 in vitro colony formation potential, 2 in vivo tumorigenicity and aggressiveness, 3 development of drug resistance and Wnt signaling activation 4 global DNA methylation profiles, and 5 expression of CSC markers.SP1049C treatment reduced tumor aggressiveness, in vivo tumor formation frequency and in vitro clonogenic potential of the ascitic cells compared to drug, saline and polymer controls. SP1049C also prevented overexpression of BCRP and activation of Wnt-β-catenin signaling observed with Dox alone. Moreover, SP1049C significantly altered the DNA methylation profiles of the cells. Finally, SP1049C decreased CD133(+ P388 cells populations, which displayed CSC-like properties and were more tumorigenic compared to CD133(- cells.SP1049C therapy effectively suppresses the tumorigenicity and aggressiveness of P388 cells in a mouse model. This may be due to enhanced activity of SP1049C against CSC and/or altered epigenetic regulation restricting appearance of malignant cancer cell phenotype.

  14. Leukemia inhibitory factor increases the proliferation of human endometrial stromal cells and expression of genes related to pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Salehnia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concerning the low population of human endometrial mesenchymal cells within the tissue and their potential application in the clinic and tissue engineering, some researches have been focused on their in vitro expansion. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF as a proliferative factor on the expansion and proliferation of human endometrial stromal cells. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the isolated and cultured human endometrial stromal cells from women at ovulatory phase aged 20-35 years, after fourth passage were divided into control and LIF-treated groups. In the experimental group, the endometrial cells were treated by 10 ng/ml LIF in culture media and the cultured cells without adding LIF considered as control group. Both groups were evaluated and compared for proliferation rate using MTT assay, for CD90 marker by flow cytometric analysis and for the expression of Oct4, Nanog, PCNA and LIFr genes using real-time RT-PCR. Results: The proliferation rate of control and LIF-treated groups were 1.17±0.17 and 1.61±0.06 respectively and there was a significant increase in endometrial stromal cell proliferation following in vitro treatment by LIF compared to control group (p=0.049. The rate of CD90 positive cells was significantly increased in LIFtreated group (98.96±0.37% compared to control group (94.26±0.08% (p=0.0498. Also, the expression ratio of all studied genes was significantly increased in the LIFtreated group compared to control group (p=0.0479. Conclusion: The present study showed that LIF has a great impact on proliferation, survival, and maintenance of pluripotency of human endometrial stromal cells and it could be applicable in cell therapies.

  15. Oxygen radical detoxification enzymes in doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant P388 murine leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramu, A.; Cohen, L.; Glaubiger, D.

    1984-01-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms for the cytotoxic effects of anthracycline compounds suggests that the effect is mediated through the formation of intracellular superoxide radicals. It is therefore possible that doxorubicin resistance is associated with increased intracellular enzyme capacity to convert these superoxide radicals to inactive metabolites. We have measured the relative activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in P388 mouse leukemia cells and in a doxorubicin-resistant subline. Since oxygen-reactive metabolites also play a role in mediating the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation, the radiosensitivity of both cell lines was also studied. No significant differences in superoxide dismutase activity between these cell lines was observed, indicating that they have a similar capacity to convert superoxide anion radicals to hydrogen peroxide. P388 cells that are resistant to doxorubicin have 1.5 times the glutathione content and 1.5 times the activity of glutathione peroxidase measured in drug-sensitive P388 cells. However, incubation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, which covalently binds glutathione, had no effect on the sensitivity of either cell line to doxorubicin. Measured catalase activity in drug-resistant P388 cells was one-third of the activity measured in doxorubicin-sensitive P388 cells. The activity of this enzyme was much higher than that of glutathione peroxidase in terms of H 2 O 2 deactivation in both cell lines. It is therefore unlikely that doxorubicin-resistant P388 cells have an increased ability to detoxify reactive oxygen metabolites when compared to drug-sensitive cells. Doxorubicin-resistant P388 cells were significantly more sensitive to X-irradiation than were drug-sensitive P388 cells. These observations suggest that the difference in catalase activity in these cell lines may be associated with the observed differences in radiosensitivity

  16. Sequences responsible for the distinctive hemolytic potentials of Friend and Moloney murine leukemia viruses are dispersed but confined to the psi-gag-PR region.

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, J; Corbin, A; Pozo, F; Orsoni, S; Sitbon, M

    1993-01-01

    Friend and Moloney murine leukemia viruses (F- and M-MuLV) induce distinct diseases in hematopoietic tissues following inoculation of newborn mice of susceptible strains. F-MuLV induces erythroleukemia preceded by severe early hemolytic anemia; M-MuLV induces thymomas and only very mild hemolysis. The major viral determinant of severe early hemolytic anemia residues in the env gene, but sequences located outside this gene can modulate this effect. By means of genetic chimeras of F- and M-MuLV...

  17. Friend and Moloney murine leukemia viruses specifically recombine with different endogenous retroviral sequences to generate mink cell focus-forming viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, L H; Cloyd, M W

    1985-01-01

    A group of mink cell focus-forming (MCF) viruses was derived by inoculation of NFS/N mice with Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV 1387) and was compared to a similarly derived group of MCF viruses from mice inoculated with Friend MuLV (Fr-MuLV 57). Antigenic analyses using monoclonal antibodies specific for MCF virus and xenotropic MuLV envelope proteins and genomic structural analyses by RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotide finger-printing indicated that the Moloney and Friend MCF viruses arose by recombination of the respective ecotropic MuLVs with different endogenous retrovirus sequences of NFS mice.

  18. Tropism, Cytotoxicity, and Inflammatory Properties of Two Envelope Genes of Murine Leukemia Virus Type-Endogenous Retroviruses of C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Kwan Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Envelope (env proteins of certain endogenous retroviruses (ERVs participate in various pathophysiological processes. In this study, we characterized pathophysiologic properties of two murine leukemia virus-type ERV (MuLV-ERV env genes cloned from the ovary of C57BL/6J mice. The two env genes (named ENVOV1 and ENVOV2, with 1,926\\,bp coding region, originated from two MuLV-ERV loci on chromosomes 8 and 18, respectively. ENVOV1 and ENVOV2 were ~75 kDa and predominantly expressed on the cell membrane. They were capable of producing pseudotype murine leukemia virus virions. Tropism trait and infectivity of ENVOV2 were similar to the polytropic env; however, ENVOV1 had very low level of infectivity. Overexpression of ENVOV2, but not ENVOV1, exerted cytotoxic effects and induced expression of COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and iNOS. These findings suggest that the ENVOV1 and ENVOV2 are capable of serving as an env protein for virion assembly, and they exert differential cytotoxicity and modulation of inflammatory mediators.

  19. Lentin, a novel and potent antifungal protein from shitake mushroom with inhibitory effects on activity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase and proliferation of leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Patrick H K; Ng, T B

    2003-11-14

    From the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Lentinus edodes, a novel protein designated lentin with potent antifungal activity was isolated. Lentin was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S. The N-terminal sequence of lentin manifested similarity to endoglucanase. Lentin, which had a molecular mass of 27.5 kDa, inhibited mycelial growth in a variety of fungal species including Physalospora piricola, Botrytis cinerea and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Lentin also exerted an inhibitory activity on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and proliferation of leukemia cells.

  20. In vitro detection of mdr1 mRNA in murine leukemia cells with 111In-labeled oligonucleotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Jingming; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Kinuya, Seigo; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Matsushita, Ryo; Nomura, Masaaki

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of intracellular mdr1 mRNA expression detection with radiolabeled antisense oligonucleotide (ODN) was investigated in the murine leukemia cell line, P388/S, and its subclonal, adriamycin-resistant cell line, P388/R. The expression level of mdr1 mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Existence of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon was assessed via cellular uptake of 99m Tc-sestamibi (MIBI), a known substrate for P-glycoprotein. A 15-mer phosphorothioate antisense ODN complementary to the sequences located at -1 to 14 of mdr1 mRNA and its corresponding sense ODN were conjugated with the cyclic anhydride of diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (cDTPA) via an amino group linked to the terminal phosphate at the 5' end at pH 8-9. The DTPA-ODN complexes at concentrations of 0.1-17.4 μMwere reacted with 111 InCl 3 at pH 5 for 1 h. The hybridization affinity of labeled ODN was evaluated with size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography following incubation with the complementary sequence. Cellular uptake of labeled ODN was examined in vitro. Furthermore, enhancing effects of synthetic lipid carriers (Transfast) on transmembrane delivery of ODN were assessed. P388/R cells displayed intense mdr1 mRNA expression in comparison with P388/S cells. 99m Tc-MIBI uptake in P388/S cells was higher than that in P388/R cells. Specific radioactivity up to 1,634 MBq/nmol was achieved via elevation of added radioactivity relative to ODN molar amount. The hybridization affinity of antisense 111 In-ODN was preserved at approximately 85% irrespective of specific activity. Cellular uptake of antisense 111 In-ODN did not differ from that of sense 111 In-ODN in either P388/S cells or P388/R cells. However, lipid carrier incorporation significantly increased transmembrane delivery of 111 In-ODN; moreover, specific uptake of antisense 111 In-ODN was demonstrated in P388/R cells. Radiolabeling of ODN at high specific

  1. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy with 90Y but not 177Lu is effective treatment in a syngeneic murine leukemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnnie J Orozco

    Full Text Available Radioimmunotherapy (RIT for treatment of hematologic malignancies has primarily employed monoclonal antibodies (Ab labeled with 131I or 90Y which have limitations, and alternative radionuclides are needed to facilitate wider adoption of RIT. We therefore compared the relative therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of anti-CD45 RIT employing 90Y and 177Lu in a syngeneic, disseminated murine myeloid leukemia (B6SJLF1/J model. Biodistribution studies showed that both 90Y- and 177Lu-anti-murine CD45 Ab conjugates (DOTA-30F11 targeted hematologic tissues, as at 24 hours 48.8 ± 21.2 and 156 ± 14.6% injected dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g of 90Y-DOTA-30F11 and 54.2 ± 9.5 and 199 ± 11.7% ID/g of 177Lu-DOTA-30F11 accumulated in bone marrow (BM and spleen, respectively. However, 90Y-DOTA-30F11 RIT demonstrated a dose-dependent survival benefit: 60% of mice treated with 300 µCi 90Y-DOTA-30F11 lived over 180 days after therapy, and mice treated with 100 µCi 90Y-DOTA-30F11 had a median survival 66 days. 90Y-anti-CD45 RIT was associated with transient, mild myelotoxicity without hepatic or renal toxicity. Conversely, 177Lu- anti-CD45 RIT yielded no long-term survivors. Thus, 90Y was more effective than 177Lu for anti-CD45 RIT of AML in this murine leukemia model.

  2. The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shiliang; Sorensen, Annette Balle; Kunder, Sandra; Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Morris, David W.; Schmidt, Joerg; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2006-01-01

    ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas

  3. Quantitative assay for the number of leukemic spleen colony forming unit in radiation-induced murine myeloid leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nara, N [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Bessho, M

    1981-11-01

    In mice with myelogenous leukemia, leukemic spleen colony forming units were assayed quantitatively. When 5 x 10/sup 3/ - 2 x 10/sup 4/ leukemic cells were transplanted to other mice of the same strain, a rectilinear relationship (p < 0.01) was found between the number of the cells transplanted and that of the colonies formed on the surface of the spleen. From these results, the authors considered that myelogenous leukemia in mice is an adequate model for acute myelogenous leukemia in human adults, and that the quantitative assay of the leukemic colony forming units can be used for sensitivity tests of antileukemic agents.

  4. Luzindole but not 4-phenyl-2- propionamidotetralin (4P-PDOT) diminishes the inhibitory effect of melatonin on murine Colon 38 cancer growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winczyk, Katarzyna; Fuss-Chmielewska, Julita; Lawnicka, Hanna; Pawlikowski, Marek; Karasek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Our earlier studies have shown that MLT exerts the inhibitory effect on murine cancer via membrane and nuclear receptors. We have found that the antagonist of MT1 receptors does not diminish the antiproliferative effect of MLT on Colon 38 cells, and the contribution of MT2 receptors has been suggested to be responsible. Therefore, in the present study we have examined the influence of the 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4P-PDOT), which is a selective antagonist of MT2 membrane receptor, and luzindole - an antagonist of both membrane receptors, on an oncostatic action of MLT. The murine cancer cell line Colon 38 was used in the experiments. In 48 hrs cell culture the effects of MLT, 4P-PDOT and luzindole administered alone and MLT applied jointly with either 4P-PDOT or luzindole were examined. The growth of cancer cells was assessed using the modified colorimetric Mosmann method. Melatonin at both examined concentrations (10-7, 10-9 M) significantly decreased the viability of cancer cells. The selective antagonist of MT2 membrane receptor, namely 4P-PDOT and luzindole applied separately did not have an effect on the growth of Colon 38 cells. The addition of 4P-PDOT to MLT did not change the inhibitory effect of MLT, whereas luzindole given together with MLT diminished, but failed to block totally, the oncostatic properties of MLT. The obtained data and our previous studies conducted on Colon 38 cancer indicate that membrane melatonin receptors are not indispensable to the oncostatic action of melatonin and thus other pathways such as nuclear signaling and receptor-independent mechanism may be also involved.

  5. Noninfectious virus-like particles produced by Moloney murine leukemia virus-based retrovirus packaging cells deficient in viral envelope become infectious in the presence of lipofection reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Murai, F; Miyanohara, A; Friedmann, T

    1997-09-30

    Retrovirus packaging cell lines expressing the Moloney murine leukemia virus gag and pol genes but lacking virus envelope genes produce virus-like particles constitutively, whether or not they express a transcript from an integrated retroviral provirus. In the absence of a proviral transcript, the assembled particles contain processed gag and reverse transcriptase, and particles made by cells expressing an integrated lacZ provirus also contain viral RNA. The virus-like particles from both cell types are enveloped and are secreted/budded into the extracellular space but are noninfectious. Their physicochemical properties are similar to those of mature retroviral particles. The noninfectious gag pol RNA particles can readily be made infectious by the addition of lipofection reagents to produce preparations with titers of up to 10(5) colony-forming units per ml.

  6. The virion RNA species of the Kirsten murine sarcoma-leukemia virus complex released from a clonally related series of mouse cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clewley, J.P.; Avery, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    We have characterized the virion RNA species of Kirsten sarcoma (KiSV) and Kirsten leukemia (KiLV) viruses released from a clonally related series of mouse cells (14). We have identified the KiLV and KiSV genome RNAs. In addition to the viral RNA species we find large amounts of a virus-like RNA (VL30 RNA), which is heterogeneous and shows variability in its expression. The amount of VL30 RNA in virions does not correlate with the state of transformation of the cells releasing the virus or the ability of the virus to transform other cells. Characterization of RNA rescued from non-producer cells has revealed a sarcoma virus (KiSVsub(SB3) with an oligonucleotide fingerprint different from that of a standard KiSV RNA, suggesting that it has lost some viral sequences. The oligonucleotide fingerprints of KiLV and VL30 RNAs are distinct from each other and from those reported for other murine leukemia virus RNAs. (Author)

  7. Anti-proliferative, Cytotoxic and NF-ĸB Inhibitory Properties of Spiro(Lactone-Cyclohexanone) Compounds in Human Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhenna, Mustapha M; Orlikova, Barbora; Talhi, Oualid; Schram, Ben; Pinto, Diana C G A; Taibi, Nadia; Bachari, Khaldoun; Diederich, Marc; Silva, Artur M S; Mameri, Nabil

    2017-09-01

    NF-ĸB affects most aspects of cellular physiology. Deregulation of NF-ĸB signaling is associated with inflammatory diseases and cancer. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic and NF-ĸB inhibition potential of new spiro(lactone-cyclohexanone) compounds in two different human leukemia cell lines (U937 and K562). The anti-proliferative effects of the spiro(lactone-cyclohexanone) compounds on human K562 and U937 cell lines was evaluated by trypan blue staining, as well as their involvement in NF-kB regulation were analyzed by luciferase reporter gene assay, Caspase-3/7 activities were evaluated to analyze apoptosis induction. Both spiro(coumarin-cyclohexanone) 4 and spiro(6- methyllactone-cyclohexanone) 9 down-regulated cancer cell viability and proliferation. Compound 4 inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-ĸB activation in a dose-dependent manner and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in both leukemia cell lines. Results show that compound 4 and compound 9 have potential as anti-cancer agents. In addition, compound 4 exerted NF-kB inhibition activity in leukemia cancer cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of activating mutations of NOTCH3 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and anti-leukemic activity of NOTCH3 inhibitory antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi-Elias, P; Hu, T; Jenkins, D; Firestone, B; Gans, S; Kurth, E; Capodieci, P; Deplazes-Lauber, J; Petropoulos, K; Thiel, P; Ponsel, D; Hee Choi, S; LeMotte, P; London, A; Goetcshkes, M; Nolin, E; Jones, M D; Slocum, K; Kluk, M J; Weinstock, D M; Christodoulou, A; Weinberg, O; Jaehrling, J; Ettenberg, S A; Buckler, A; Blacklow, S C; Aster, J C; Fryer, C J

    2016-11-24

    Notch receptors have been implicated as oncogenic drivers in several cancers, the most notable example being NOTCH1 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). To characterize the role of activated NOTCH3 in cancer, we generated an antibody that detects the neo-epitope created upon gamma-secretase cleavage of NOTCH3 to release its intracellular domain (ICD3), and sequenced the negative regulatory region (NRR) and PEST (proline, glutamate, serine, threonine) domain coding regions of NOTCH3 in a panel of cell lines. We also characterize NOTCH3 tumor-associated mutations that result in activation of signaling and report new inhibitory antibodies. We determined the structural basis for receptor inhibition by obtaining the first co-crystal structure of a NOTCH3 antibody with the NRR protein and defined two distinct epitopes for NRR antibodies. The antibodies exhibit potent anti-leukemic activity in cell lines and tumor xenografts harboring NOTCH3 activating mutations. Screening of primary T-ALL samples reveals that 2 of 40 tumors examined show active NOTCH3 signaling. We also identified evidence of NOTCH3 activation in 12 of 24 patient-derived orthotopic xenograft models, 2 of which exhibit activation of NOTCH3 without activation of NOTCH1. Our studies provide additional insights into NOTCH3 activation and offer a path forward for identification of cancers that are likely to respond to therapy with NOTCH3 selective inhibitory antibodies.

  9. Inhibitory effects of Morinda citrifolia extract and its constituents on melanogenesis in murine B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Megumi; Itoh, Kimihisa; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Morinda citrifolia (noni) extract and its constituents on α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated melanogenesis in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells (B16 cells). A 50% ethanolic extract of noni seeds (MCS-ext) showed significant inhibition of melanogenesis with no effect on cell proliferation. MCS-ext was more active than noni leaf and fruit flesh extracts. Activity guided fractionation of MCS-ext led to the isolation of two lignans, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1) and americanin A (2), as active constituents. To elucidate the mechanism of melanogenesis inhibition by the lignans, α-MSH-stimulated B16 cells were treated with 1 (5 μM) and 2 (200 μM). Time-dependent increases of intracellular melanin content and tyrosinase activity, during 24 to 72 h, were inhibited significantly by treatment with the lignans. The activity of 1 was greater than that of 2. Western blot analysis suggested that the lignans inhibited melanogenesis by down regulation of the levels of phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, resulting in suppression of tyrosinase expression.

  10. Fbxl10 overexpression in murine hematopoietic stem cells induces leukemia involving metabolic activation and upregulation of Nsg2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueda, Takeshi; Nagamachi, Akiko; Takubo, Keiyo

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported deficiency for Samd9L, which was cloned as a candidate gene for -7/7q- syndrome, accelerated leukemia cooperatively with enhanced expression of a histone demethylase F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 10 (Fbxl10, also known as Jhdm1b, Kdm2b, and Ndy1). To further...... with a normal G0 to G1 entry, resulting in pleiotropic progenitor cell expansion. Fbxl10 Tg HSCs displayed enhanced expression of neuron specific gene family member 2 (Nsg2) and forced expression of Nsg2 in primary bone marrow cells resulted in expansion of immature cells. In addition, the genes involved....... These findings define Fbxl10 as a bona fide oncogene, whose deregulated expression contributes to the development of leukemia involving metabolic proliferative advantage and Nsg2-mediated impaired differentiation....

  11. Inhibitory effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor on viability and neurite growth of murine hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia CHEN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the mediation effect of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR in the effect of brainderived neurotrophic factor precursor (proBDNF on viability and neurite growth of murine hippocampal neurons. Methods  Hippocampal neurons were obtained from p75NTR+/+ and p75NTR-/- 18-day mice and primarily cultured. For p75NTR+/+ neurons, three experimental groups were set, i.e. control, proBDNF (30ng/ml, and proBDNF (30ng/ml+p75/Fc (30µg/ml groups. For p75NTR-/- neurons, two experimental groups were set, i.e. control and proBDNF (30ng/ml groups. MTT assays were performed after 24h to examine the viability of neonatal primary neurons. Immunofluorescent staining was conducted after 72h to investigate the neurite length. Results With MAP2 and DAPI double fluorescent staining it was identified that the neonatal hippocampal neurons were successfully cultured in vitro with high purity. For viability assay of p75NTR+/+ neurons, it was found that the absorbance value at 570nm (A570 in proBDNF group was significantly lower than that in control group (P0.05. With neurite growth assay of p75NTR+/+ neurons, it was found that the neurite length in proBDNF group was significantly shorter than that in control group (P0.05. With neurite growth assay of p75NTR-/- neurons, no difference in neurite length was observed between proBDNF group and control group. Conclusion proBDNF may inhibit the neuronal viability and neurite growth via p75NTR. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.09.03

  12. Novel quinazolinone MJ-29 triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress and intrinsic apoptosis in murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells and inhibits leukemic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Cheng Lu

    Full Text Available The present study was to explore the biological responses of the newly compound, MJ-29 in murine myelomonocytic leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vitro and in vivo fates. We focused on the in vitro effects of MJ-29 on ER stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic death in WEHI-3 cells, and to hypothesize that MJ-29 might fully impair the orthotopic leukemic mice. Our results indicated that a concentration-dependent decrease of cell viability was shown in MJ-29-treated cells. DNA content was examined utilizing flow cytometry, whereas apoptotic populations were determined using annexin V/PI, DAPI staining and TUNEL assay. Increasing vital factors of mitochondrial dysfunction by MJ-29 were further investigated. Thus, MJ-29-provaked apoptosis of WEHI-3 cells is mediated through the intrinsic pathway. Importantly, intracellular Ca(2+ release and ER stress-associated signaling also contributed to MJ-29-triggered cell apoptosis. We found that MJ-29 stimulated the protein levels of calpain 1, CHOP and p-eIF2α pathways in WEHI-3 cells. In in vivo experiments, intraperitoneal administration of MJ-29 significantly improved the total survival rate, enhanced body weight and attenuated enlarged spleen and liver tissues in leukemic mice. The infiltration of immature myeloblastic cells into splenic red pulp was reduced in MJ-29-treated leukemic mice. Moreover, MJ-29 increased the differentiations of T and B cells but decreased that of macrophages and monocytes. Additionally, MJ-29-stimulated immune responses might be involved in anti-leukemic activity in vivo. Based on these observations, MJ-29 suppresses WEHI-3 cells in vitro and in vivo, and it is proposed that this potent and selective agent could be a new chemotherapeutic candidate for anti-leukemia in the future.

  13. Murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vector has differential integration patterns in human cell lines used to produce recombinant factor VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cristina Correa de Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nowadays recombinant factor VIII is produced in murine cells including in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO and baby hamster kidney cells (BHK. Previous studies, using the murine leukemia virus-derived retroviral vector pMFG-FVIII-P140K, modified two recombinant human cell lines, HepG2 and Hek293 to produce recombinant factor VIII. In order to characterize these cells, the present study aimed to analyze the integration pattern of retroviral vector pMFG-FVIII-P140K.METHODS: This study used ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction to locate the site of viral vector integration by sequencing polymerase chain reaction products. The sequences were compared to genomic databases to characterize respective clones.RESULTS: The retroviral vector presented different and non-random profiles of integration between cells lines. A preference of integration for chromosomes 19, 17 and 11 was observed for HepG2FVIIIdB/P140K and chromosome 9 for Hek293FVIIIdB/P140K. In genomic regions such as CpG islands and transcription factor binding sites, there was no difference in the integration profiles for both cell lines. Integration in intronic regions of encoding protein genes (RefSeq genes was also observed in both cell lines. Twenty percent of integrations occurred at fragile sites in the genome of the HepG2 cell line and 17% in Hek293.CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the cell type can affect the profile of chromosomal integration of the retroviral vector used; these differences may interfere in the level of expression of recombinant proteins.

  14. Growth hormone, interferon-gamma, and leukemia inhibitory factor promoted tyrosyl phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argetsinger, L S; Hsu, G W; Myers, M G

    1995-01-01

    ), the principle substrate of the insulin receptor. Tyrosyl phosphorylation of IRS-1 is a critical step in insulin signaling and provides binding sites for proteins with the appropriate Src homology 2 domains, including the 85-kDa regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3'-kinase. In 3T3-F442A fibroblasts......., Campbell, G. S., Allevato, G., Billestrup, N., Norstedt, G., and Carter-Su, C. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 21709-21717). When other cytokines that activate JAK2 were tested for the ability to stimulate the tyrosyl phosphorylation of IRS-1, stimulation was detected with interferon-gamma and leukemia...... to JAK2. GH is also shown to stimulate binding of IRS-1 to the 85-kDa regulatory subunit of PI 3'-kinase. The ability of GH to stimulate tyrosyl phosphorylation of IRS-1 and its association with PI 3'-kinase provides a biochemical basis for responses shared by insulin and GH including the well...

  15. The conserved His8 of the Moloney murine leukemia virus Env SU subunit directs the activity of the SU-TM disulphide bond isomerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kejun; Zhang, Shujing; Kronqvist, Malin; Ekstroem, Maria; Wallin, Michael; Garoff, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Murine leukemia virus (MLV) fusion is controlled by isomerization of the disulphide bond between the receptor-binding surface (SU) and fusion-active transmembrane subunits of the Env-complex. The bond is in SU linked to a CXXC motif. This carries a free thiol that upon receptor binding can be activated (ionized) to attack the disulphide and rearrange it into a disulphide isomer within the motif. To find out whether His8 in the conserved SPHQ sequence of Env directs thiol activation, we analyzed its ionization in MLV vectors with wtEnv and Env with His8 deleted or substituted for Tyr or Arg, which partially or completely arrests fusion. The ionization was monitored by following the pH effect on isomerization in vitro by Ca 2+ depletion or in vivo by receptor binding. We found that wtEnv isomerized optimally at slightly basic pH whereas the partially active mutant required higher and the inactive mutants still higher pH. This suggests that His8 directs the ionization of the CXXC thiol

  16. Replacement of the murine leukemia virus (MLV) envelope gene with a truncated HIV envelope gene in MLV generates a virus with impaired replication capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nack, Ursula; Schnierle, Barbara S.

    2003-01-01

    Murine leukemia virus (MLV) capsid particles can be efficiently pseudotyped with a variant of the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) containing the surface glycoprotein gp120-SU and a carboxyl-terminally truncated transmembrane (TM) protein, with only seven cytoplasmic amino acids. MLV/HIV pseudotyped vector particles acquire the natural host tropism of HIV-1 and their entry is dependent on the presence of CD4 and an appropriate co-receptor on the surface of the target cell. We describe here the construction of chimeric MLV/HIV proviruses containing the truncated HIV envelope gene. The MLV/HIV provirus was generated by direct replacement of the MLV envelope gene with HIV Env coding sequences either with or without the additional inclusion of the woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE). Chimeric MLV/HIV particles could be generated from transfected 293T cells and were able to infect CD4/CXCR4-positive target cells. However, the second round of infection of target cells was severely impaired, despite the fact that the WPRE element enhanced the amount of viral mRNA detected. Viral particles released from infected cells showed reduced HIV Env incorporation, indicating that additional factors required for efficient replication of MLV/HIV pseudotyped viruses are missing

  17. Highly Efficient Transfer of Chromosomes to a Broad Range of Target Cells Using Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Expressing Murine Leukemia Virus-Derived Envelope Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruhiko Suzuki

    Full Text Available Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT is an essential step for introducing chromosomes from donor cells to recipient cells. MMCT allows not only for genetic/epigenetic analysis of specific chromosomes, but also for utilization of human and mouse artificial chromosomes (HACs/MACs as gene delivery vectors. Although the scientific demand for genome scale analyses is increasing, the poor transfer efficiency of the current method has hampered the application of chromosome engineering technology. Here, we developed a highly efficient chromosome transfer method, called retro-MMCT, which is based on Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing envelope proteins derived from ecotropic or amphotropic murine leukemia viruses. Using this method, we transferred MACs to NIH3T3 cells with 26.5 times greater efficiency than that obtained using the conventional MMCT method. Retro-MMCT was applicable to a variety of recipient cells, including embryonic stem cells. Moreover, retro-MMCT enabled efficient transfer of MAC to recipient cells derived from humans, monkeys, mice, rats, and rabbits. These results demonstrate the utility of retro-MMCT for the efficient transfer of chromosomes to various types of target cell.

  18. Inclusion of Moloney murine leukemia virus elements upstream of the transgene cassette in an E1-deleted adenovirus leads to an unusual genomic integration in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Changyu; O'Connell, Brian C.; Baum, Bruce J.

    2003-01-01

    Classically, the 5' and 3' long terminal repeats (LTRs) are considered necessary but not sufficient for retroviral integration. Recently, we reported that inclusion of these and additional elements from Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) facilitated transgene integration, without retroviral integrase, when placed in an adenoviral context (AdLTR-luc vector) (Nat. Biotech. 18 (2000), 176; Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 300 (2003), 115). To help understand this nonhomologous DNA recombination event, we constructed another vector, AdELP-luc, with 2.7 kb of MoMLV elements identically placed into an E1-deleted adenovirus type 5 backbone upstream of a luciferase cDNA reporter gene. Unlike AdLTR-luc, no MoMLV elements were placed downstream of the expression cassette. AdELP-luc readily infected epithelial cells in vitro. Southern hybridizations with DNA from cloned cells showed that disruption of the MoMLV sequences occurred. One cell clone, grown in vitro without any special selection medium for 9 months, exhibited stable vector integration and luciferase activity. Importantly, both Southern hybridization and FISH analyses showed that in addition to the MoMLV elements and expression cassette, substantial adenoviral sequence downstream of the luciferase cDNA was genomically integrated. These results suggest that the 2.7 kb of MoMLV sequence included in AdELP-luc have cis-acting functions and mediates an unusual integration event

  19. Generation of thermostable Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase variants using site saturation mutagenesis library and cell-free protein expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Yuta; Li, Tongyang; Baba, Misato; Nakamura, Miyo; Ito, Masaaki; Kojima, Kenji; Takita, Teisuke; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi

    2017-12-01

    We attempted to increase the thermostability of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) reverse transcriptase (RT). The eight-site saturation mutagenesis libraries corresponding to Ala70-Arg469 in the whole MMLV RT (Thr24-Leu671), in each of which 1 out of 50 amino acid residues was replaced with other amino acid residue, were constructed. Seven-hundred and sixty eight MMLV RT clones were expressed using a cell-free protein expression system, and their thermostabilities were assessed by the temperature of thermal treatment at which they retained cDNA synthesis activity. One clone D200C was selected as the most thermostable variant. The highest temperature of thermal treatment at which D200C exhibited cDNA synthesis activity was 57ºC, which was higher than for WT (53ºC). Our results suggest that a combination of site saturation mutagenesis library and cell-free protein expression system might be useful for generation of thermostable MMLV RT in a short period of time for expression and selection.

  20. A small and efficient dimerization/packaging signal of rat VL30 RNA and its use in murine leukemia virus-VL30-derived vectors for gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, C; Gabus, C; Darlix, J L

    1994-02-01

    Retroviral genomes consist of two identical RNA molecules associated at their 5' ends by the dimer linkage structure located in the packaging element (Psi or E) necessary for RNA dimerization in vitro and packaging in vivo. In murine leukemia virus (MLV)-derived vectors designed for gene transfer, the Psi + sequence of 600 nucleotides directs the packaging of recombinant RNAs into MLV virions produced by helper cells. By using in vitro RNA dimerization as a screening system, a sequence of rat VL30 RNA located next to the 5' end of the Harvey mouse sarcoma virus genome and as small as 67 nucleotides was found to form stable dimeric RNA. In addition, a purine-rich sequence located at the 5' end of this VL30 RNA seems to be critical for RNA dimerization. When this VL30 element was extended by 107 nucleotides at its 3' end and inserted into an MLV-derived vector lacking MLV Psi +, it directed the efficient encapsidation of recombinant RNAs into MLV virions. Because this VL30 packaging signal is smaller and more efficient in packaging recombinant RNAs than the MLV Psi + and does not contain gag or glyco-gag coding sequences, its use in MLV-derived vectors should render even more unlikely recombinations which could generate replication-competent viruses. Therefore, utilization of the rat VL30 packaging sequence should improve the biological safety of MLV vectors for human gene transfer.

  1. Two short basic sequences surrounding the zinc finger of nucleocapsid protein NCp10 of Moloney murine leukemia virus are critical for RNA annealing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rocquigny, H; Ficheux, D; Gabus, C; Allain, B; Fournie-Zaluski, M C; Darlix, J L; Roques, B P

    1993-02-25

    The 56 amino acid nucleocapsid protein (NCp10) of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, contains a CysX2CysX4HisX4Cys zinc finger flanked by basic residues. In vitro NCp10 promotes genomic RNA dimerization, a process most probably linked to genomic RNA packaging, and replication primer tRNA(Pro) annealing to the initiation site of reverse transcription. To characterize the amino-acid sequences involved in the various functions of NCp10, we have synthesized by solid phase method the native protein and a series of derived peptides shortened at the N- or C-terminus with or without the zinc finger domain. In the latter case, the two parts of the protein were linked by a Glycine - Glycine spacer. The in vitro studies of these peptides show that nucleic acid annealing activities of NCp10 do not require a zinc finger but are critically dependent on the presence of specific sequences located on each side of the CCHC domain and containing proline and basic residues. Thus, deletion of 11R or 49PRPQT, of the fully active 29 residue peptide 11RQGGERRRSQLDRDGGKKPRGPRGPRPQT53 leads to a complete loss of NCp10 activity. Therefore it is proposed that in NCp10, the zinc finger directs the spatial recognition of the target RNAs by the basic domains surrounding the zinc finger.

  2. Murine leukemia virus pol gene products: analysis with antisera generated against reverse transcriptase and endonuclease fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.C.; Court, D.L.; Zweig, M.; Levin, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The organization of the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) pol gene was investigated by expressing molecular clones containing AKR MuLV reverse transcriptase or endonuclease or both gene segments in Escherichia coli and generating specific antisera against the expressed bacterial proteins. Reaction of these antisera with detergent-disrupted virus precipitated and 80-kilodalton (kDa) protein, the MuLV reverse transcriptase, and a 46-kDa protein which we believe is the viral endonuclease. A third (50-kDa) protein, related to reverse transcriptase, was also precipitated. Bacterial extracts of clones expressing reverse transcriptase and endonuclease sequences competed with the viral 80- and 46-kDa proteins, respectively. These results demonstrate that the antisera are specific for viral reverse transcriptase and endonuclease. Immunoprecipitation of AKR MuLV with antisera prepared against a bacterial protein containing only endonuclease sequences led to the observation that reverse transcriptase and endonuclease can be associated as a complex involving a disulfide bond(s)

  3. The important role of von Willebrand factor in platelet-derived FVIII gene therapy for murine hemophilia A in the presence of inhibitory antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q; Schroeder, J A; Kuether, E L; Montgomery, R R

    2015-07-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that targeting FVIII expression to platelets results in FVIII storage together with von Willebrand factor (VWF) in platelet α-granules and that platelet-derived FVIII (2bF8) corrects the murine hemophilia A phenotype even in the presence of high-titer anti-FVIII inhibitory antibodies (inhibitors). To explore how VWF has an impact on platelet gene therapy for hemophilia A with inhibitors. 2bF8 transgenic mice in the FVIII(-/-) background (2bF8(tg+/-) F8(-/-) ) with varying VWF phenotypes were used in this study. Animals were analyzed by VWF ELISA, FVIII activity assay, Bethesda assay and tail clip survival test. Only 18% of 2bF8(tg+/-) F8(-/-) VWF(-/-) animals, in which VWF was deficient, survived the tail clip challenge with inhibitor titers of 3-8000 BU mL(-1) . In contrast, 82% of 2bF8(tg+/-) F8(-/-) VWF(+/+) mice, which had normal VWF levels, survived tail clipping with inhibitor titers of 10-50,000 BU mL(-1) . All 2bF8(tg+/-) F8(-/-) VWF(-/-) mice without inhibitors survived tail clipping and no VWF(-/-) F8(-/-) mice survived this challenge. Because VWF is synthesized by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes and is distributed in both plasma and platelets in peripheral blood, we further investigated the effect of each compartment of VWF on platelet-FVIII gene therapy for hemophilia A with inhibitors. In the presence of inhibitors, 42% of animals survived tail clipping in the group with plasma-VWF and 50% survived in the platelet-VWF group. VWF is essential for platelet gene therapy for hemophilia A with inhibitors. Both platelet-VWF and plasma-VWF are required for optimal platelet-derived FVIII gene therapy for hemophilia A in the presence of inhibitors. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  4. Effect of leukemia inhibitory factor on long-term propagation of precursor cells derived from rat forebrain subventricular zone and ventral mesencephalon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K; Zimmer, Jens; Wahlberg, Lars U

    2008-01-01

    Tissue blocks containing neural precursor cells were isolated from the rat forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) and ventral mesencephalon (VM) and propagated as neural tissue-spheres (NTS). In the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), SVZ-derived NTS were...... propagated and maintained for more than 6 months with a cell population doubling time of 21.5 days. The replacement of EGF by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) resulted in a cell population doubling time of 19.8 days, corresponding to a 10-fold increase in estimated cell numbers over a period of 70 days......, at which point these NTS ceased to grow. In the presence of FGF2 and LIF, VM-derived NTS displayed a cell population doubling time of 24.6 days, which was maintained over a period of more than 200 days. However, when LIF was replaced by EGF, the cell numbers only increased 1.2 fold over 50 days. Using...

  5. Functional Interplay Between Murine Leukemia Virus Glycogag, Serinc5, and Surface Glycoprotein Governs Virus Entry, with Opposite Effects on Gammaretroviral and Ebolavirus Glycoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadvinder S. Ahi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gammaretroviruses, such as murine leukemia viruses (MLVs, encode, in addition to the canonical Gag, Pol, and Env proteins that will form progeny virus particles, a protein called “glycogag” (glycosylated Gag. MLV glycogag contains the entire Gag sequence plus an 88-residue N-terminal extension. It has recently been reported that glycogag, like the Nef protein of HIV-1, counteracts the antiviral effects of the cellular protein Serinc5. We have found, in agreement with prior work, that glycogag strongly enhances the infectivity of MLVs with some Env proteins but not those with others. In contrast, however, glycogag was detrimental to MLVs carrying Ebolavirus glycoprotein. Glycogag could be replaced, with respect to viral infectivity, by the unrelated S2 protein of equine infectious anemia virus. We devised an assay for viral entry in which virus particles deliver the Cre recombinase into cells, leading to the expression of a reporter. Data from this assay showed that both the positive and the negative effects of glycogag and S2 upon MLV infectivity are exerted at the level of virus entry. Moreover, transfection of the virus-producing cells with a Serinc5 expression plasmid reduced the infectivity and entry capability of MLV carrying xenotropic MLV Env, particularly in the absence of glycogag. Conversely, Serinc5 expression abrogated the negative effects of glycogag upon the infectivity and entry capability of MLV carrying Ebolavirus glycoprotein. As Serinc5 may influence cellular phospholipid metabolism, it seems possible that all of these effects on virus entry derive from changes in the lipid composition of viral membranes.

  6. Novel cytotoxic exhibition mode of antimicrobial peptide anoplin in MEL cells, the cell line of murine Friend leukemia virus-induced leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Na; Fu, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Shi-Fu; Chen, Wei; Jin, Yuan-Ting; Zhao, Fu-Kun

    2013-09-01

    Anoplin is a recently discovered antimicrobial peptide (AMP) isolated from the venom sac of the spider wasp Anoplius samariensis, and it is one of the shortest α-helical AMP found naturally to date consisting of only ten amino acids. Previous results showed that anoplin exhibits potent antimicrobial activity but little hemolytic activity. In this study, we synthesized anoplin, studied its cytotoxicity in Friend virus-induced leukemia cells [murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells], and proposed its possible mechanism. Our results showed that anoplin could inhibit the proliferation of MEL cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner via disrupting the integrity of cell membrane, which indicated that anoplin exerts its cytotoxicity efficacy. In addition, the cell cycle distribution of MEL cells was arrested in the G₀/G₁ phase significantly. However, anoplin could not induce obvious apoptosis in MEL cells, as well as anoplin could not induce visible changes on morphology and quantity in the bone marrow cells isolated from normal mice. All of these results indicate that anoplin, as generally believed, is a selective AMP, a value characteristic in the design of safe therapeutic agents. The cytotoxicity of anoplin on MEL cells was mainly attributable to the plasma membrane perturbation and also to the intracellular events such as the arrest of cell cycle. Although this is an initial study that explored the activity of anoplin in vitro rather than in vivo, with the increasing resistance of conventional chemotherapy, there is no doubt that anoplin has desirable feature to be developed as a novel and selective anticancer agent. Copyright © 2013 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2 regulates leukemia inhibitory factor signaling through JAK-STAT pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasingh, Johnson; Bright, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are genetically normal, pluripotent cells, capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all cell lineages. While leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) maintains pluripotency in mouse ES cells, retinoic acid and other nuclear hormones induce neuro-glial differentiation in mouse and human ES cells in culture. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent nuclear receptor transcription factors that regulate cell growth and differentiation in many cell types. However, the role of PPARs in the regulation of ES cell growth and differentiation is not known. In this study, we show that LIF induces proliferation and self-renewal of mouse D3-ES cells in culture. However, treatment with 15-Deoxy-Δ 12,14 -Prostaglandin J 2 (15d-PGJ2), a natural ligand for PPARγ, or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) results in a dose-dependent decrease in proliferation and self-renewal in D3-ES cells. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses showed that LIF induces tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK1, TYK2 and STAT3 in 30 min and treatment with 15d-PGJ2 or ATRA results in a dose-dependent decrease in LIF-induced phosphorylation of JAK1 and STAT3 in D3-ES cells. However, treatment of D3-ES cells with Ciglitazone or 15d-PGJ2 for 48 h in culture resulted in a dose-dependent increase in PPARγ protein expression. These results suggest that PPARγ agonists regulate LIF signaling through JAK-STAT pathway leading to growth and self-renewal of ES cells

  8. An Endogenous Murine Leukemia Viral Genome Contaminant in a Commercial RT-PCR Kit is Amplified Using Standard Primers for XMRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazawa Takayuki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During pilot studies to investigate the presence of viral RNA of xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-related virus (XMRV infection in sera from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS patients in Japan, a positive band was frequently detected at the expected product size in negative control samples when detecting a partial gag region of XMRV using a one-step RT-PCR kit. We suspected that the kit itself might have been contaminated with small traces of endogenous MLV genome or XMRV and attempted to evaluate the quality of the kit in two independent laboratories. We purchased four one-step RT-PCR kits from Invitrogen, TaKaRa, Promega and QIAGEN in Japan. To amplify the partial gag gene of XMRV or other MLV-related viruses, primer sets (419F and 1154R, and GAG-I-F and GAG-I-R which have been widely used in XMRV studies were employed. The nucleotide sequences of the amplicons were determined and compared with deposited sequences of a polytropic endogenous MLV (PmERV, XMRV and endogenous MLV-related viruses derived from CFS patients. We found that the enzyme mixtures of the one-step RT-PCR kit from Invitrogen were contaminated with RNA derived from PmERV. The nucleotide sequence of a partial gag region of the contaminant amplified by RT-PCR was nearly identical (99.4% identity to a PmERV on chromosome 7 and highly similar (96.9 to 97.6% to recently identified MLV-like viruses derived from CFS patients. We also determined the nucleotide sequence of a partial env region of the contaminant and found that it was almost identical (99.6% to the PmERV. In the investigation of XMRV infection in patients of CFS and prostate cancer, researchers should prudently evaluate the test kits for the presence of endogenous MLV as well as XMRV genomes prior to PCR and RT-PCR tests.

  9. Absence of evidence of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related virus infection in persons with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and healthy controls in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Switzer William M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background XMRV, a xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV-related virus, was recently identified by PCR testing in 67% of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and in 3.7% of healthy persons from the United States. To investigate the association of XMRV with CFS we tested blood specimens from 51 persons with CFS and 56 healthy persons from the US for evidence of XMRV infection by using serologic and molecular assays. Blinded PCR and serologic testing were performed at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and at two additional laboratories. Results Archived blood specimens were tested from persons with CFS defined by the 1994 international research case definition and matched healthy controls from Wichita, Kansas and metropolitan, urban, and rural Georgia populations. Serologic testing at CDC utilized a Western blot (WB assay that showed excellent sensitivity to MuLV and XMRV polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies, and no reactivity on sera from 121 US blood donors or 26 HTLV-and HIV-infected sera. Plasma from 51 CFS cases and plasma from 53 controls were all WB negative. Additional blinded screening of the 51 cases and 53 controls at the Robert Koch Institute using an ELISA employing recombinant Gag and Env XMRV proteins identified weak seroreactivity in one CFS case and a healthy control, which was not confirmed by immunofluorescence. PCR testing at CDC employed a gag and a pol nested PCR assay with a detection threshold of 10 copies in 1 ug of human DNA. DNA specimens from 50 CFS patients and 56 controls and 41 US blood donors were all PCR-negative. Blinded testing by a second nested gag PCR assay at the Blood Systems Research Institute was also negative for DNA specimens from the 50 CFS cases and 56 controls. Conclusions We did not find any evidence of infection with XMRV in our U.S. study population of CFS patients or healthy controls by using multiple molecular and serologic assays. These data do not support an

  10. Experimental studies of leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoro, Kenjiro

    1977-01-01

    Mouse leukemia, especially the relationship between that and endogenous type-C RNA virus (murine leukemia virus, MLV), was generally discussed centering around the recent findings and reports. Correlation of carcinogenesis due to x-rays and carcinogens with the occurrence of MLV, the relationship of total body fractionated x-ray irradiation and successive acellular transmission by the neonatal inoculation with MLV, and the relationship between N-nitrosobutylurea or N-nitrosoethylurea and MLV were discussed. The relationship between the occurrence of MLV and thymus or spleen was also discussed. Biotic differences in mice and rats, the relationship between MLV the organotropism of MLV and provocation of leukemia, the directivity of MLV to thymus and the etiologic correlation of rat leukemia or mouse leukemia with MLV were mentioned. (Ichikawa, K.)

  11. Noninfectious virus-like particles produced by Moloney murine leukemia virus-based retrovirus packaging cells deficient in viral envelope become infectious in the presence of lipofection reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjai; Murai, Fukashi; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Friedmann, Theodore

    1997-01-01

    Retrovirus packaging cell lines expressing the Moloney murine leukemia virus gag and pol genes but lacking virus envelope genes produce virus-like particles constitutively, whether or not they express a transcript from an integrated retroviral provirus. In the absence of a proviral transcript, the assembled particles contain processed gag and reverse transcriptase, and particles made by cells expressing an integrated lacZ provirus also contain viral RNA. The virus-like particles from both cell types are enveloped and are secreted/budded into the extracellular space but are noninfectious. Their physicochemical properties are similar to those of mature retroviral particles. The noninfectious gag pol RNA particles can readily be made infectious by the addition of lipofection reagents to produce preparations with titers of up to 105 colony-forming units per ml. PMID:9380714

  12. Reproductive survival and hypoxic protection as a function of radiation ionization density. Further studies with murine leukemia cells irradiated in vitro with monoenergetic accelerated charged particles and assayed in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Murine lymphocytic leukemia P-388 cells have been irradiated in vitro under aerobic or hypoxic conditions with monoenergetic track segments of beams of accelerated helium or boron ions, and survival of their reproductive capacity assessed in vivo. These cells showed a maximum cell killing per rad at a relatively low ionization density (ca. 60--80 keV/μm) and their response ceased to depend on the presence or absence of oxygen at all LET values above ea. 100 keV/μm. This is similar to the LET dependence of cell killing reported recently for human lymphocytes which die a nonreproductive interphase death, and differs from the response of human kidney-derived cells which have been studied in vitro by other workers. The significance of these differences in predicting the response of cells and tissues to radiations such as fast neutrons or pi - mesons which produce wide spectra of ionization densities is discussed briefly

  13. Expression of antigens coded in murine leukemia viruses on thymocytes of allogeneic donor origin in AKR mice following syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wustrow, T.P.; Good, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Removal of T-lymphocytes from marrow inoculum with monoclonal antibody plus complement permitted establishment of long-lived allogeneic chimeras between C57BL/6 and AKR/J mice. Development of leukemia was prevented for 15 mo. Protection from leukemia occurred with both young (4 wk) and older (4 mo) recipients. AKR mice reconstituted with syngeneic marrow or control AKR mice all developed leukemia-lymphoma before 1 yr of age. During spontaneous lymphomagenesis in AKR mice, amplified expression of gag or env gene-coded virus antigens on the surface of thymocytes preceded leukemia development and evidence for amplification of other virus genes. These changes generally appeared before 6 mo. Similar viral gene expression and viral gene amplification occurred in the thymus and spleen cells of leukemia-resistant chimeric mice. Using monoclonal antibodies to Mr 70,000 glycoprotein epitopes characteristic of ecotropic, xenotropic, or dualtropic viruses, antigens marking each virus form were found on thymocytes of allogeneic 4-wk and 4-mo chimeras as well as on the cells of AKR mice and of AKR mice reconstituted with syngeneic marrow. Flow cytometric analysis showed amplification of the virus genes in mice protected from leukemia-lymphoma by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from leukemia-resistant mice. Allogeneic chimeras and syngeneically transplanted mice both showed evidence of accelerated viremia and of recombinant virus formation. The findings suggest that an event essential to leukemogenesis which occurs within the AKR lymphoid cells or their environment is lacking in the allogeneic chimeras. The nature of this influence of a resistance gene or genes introduced into AKR mice by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation deserves further study

  14. One-year enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay follow-up of human interleukin for Da cells/leukemia inhibitory factor in blood and urine of 22 kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, D; Taupin, J L; Combe, C; Potaux, L; Gualde, N; Moreau, J F

    1994-12-15

    The cytokine human interleukin for Da cells/leukemia inhibitory factor (HILDA/LIF) exerts multiple biological effects in vitro. In mice, high circulating levels of HILDA/LIF induce a wide range of pathophysiological events, some of them closely involved with immunological and inflammatory responses. Using a sandwich ELISA recognizing the natural human HILDA/LIF molecule with a threshold of 50 pg/ml in urine and 150 pg/ml in plasma, we monitored the urine and plasma HILDA/LIF levels of 22 patients in their first year after a kidney transplant. HILDA/LIF urine excretion is increased during acute rejection, and infections also trigger heavy HILDA/LIF plasma concentrations or urine excretion. In addition, this study raises the question of HILDA/LIF involvement in post-kidney-transplant phenomena such as hypercalcemia, osteoporosis, or the reversal of anemia.

  15. The SANT2 domain of the murine tumor cell DnaJ-like protein 1 human homologue interacts with alpha1-antichymotrypsin and kinetically interferes with its serpin inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroczynska, Barbara; Evangelista, Christina M; Samant, Shalaka S; Elguindi, Ebrahim C; Blond, Sylvie Y

    2004-03-19

    The murine tumor cell DnaJ-like protein 1 or MTJ1/ERdj1 is a membrane J-domain protein enriched in microsomal and nuclear fractions. We previously showed that its lumenal J-domain stimulates the ATPase activity of the molecular chaperone BiP/GRP78 (Chevalier, M., Rhee, H., Elguindi, E. C., and Blond, S. Y. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 19620-19627). MTJ1/ERdj1 also contains a large carboxyl-terminal cytosolic extension composed of two tryptophan-mediated repeats or SANT domains for which the function(s) is unknown. Here we describe the cloning of the human homologue HTJ1 and its interaction with alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin (ACT), a member of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) family. The interaction was initially identified in a two-hybrid screening and further confirmed in vitro by dot blots, native electrophoresis, and fluorescence studies. The second SANT domain of HTJ1 (SANT2) was found to be sufficient for binding to ACT, both in yeast and in vitro. Single tryptophan-alanine substitutions at two strictly conserved residues significantly (Trp-497) or totally (Trp-520) abolished the interaction with ACT. SANT2 binds to human ACT with an intrinsic affinity equal to 0.5 nm. Preincubation of ACT with nearly stoichiometric concentrations of SANT2 wild-type but not SANT2: W520A results in an apparent loss of ACT inhibitory activity toward chymotrypsin. Kinetic analysis indicates that the formation of the covalent inhibitory complex ACT-chymotrypsin is significantly delayed in the presence of SANT2 with no change on the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. This work demonstrates for the first time that the SANT2 domain of MTJ1/HTJ1/ERdj1 mediates stable and high affinity protein-protein interactions.

  16. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor counter-regulates dexamethasone-induced annexin 1 expression and influences the release of eicosanoids in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Wang, Yu; Li, Jia-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Hui; Tang, Hong-Tai; Xia, Zhao-Fan

    2013-10-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine and glucocorticoid (GC) counter-regulator, has emerged as an important modulator of inflammatory responses. However, the molecular mechanisms of MIF counter-regulation of GC still remain incomplete. In the present study, we investigated whether MIF mediated the counter-regulation of the anti-inflammatory effect of GC by affecting annexin 1 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that stimulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in down-regulation of annexin 1, while GC dexamethasone (Dex) or Dex plus LPS led to significant up-regulation of annexin 1 expression. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of intracellular MIF increased annexin 1 expression with or without incubation of Dex, whereas Dex-induced annexin 1 expression was counter-regulated by the exogenous application of recombinant MIF. Moreover, recombinant MIF counter-regulated, in a dose-dependent manner, inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) activation and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ) release by Dex in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with LPS. Endogenous depletion of MIF enhanced the effects of Dex, reflected by further decease of cPLA2α expression and lower PGE2 and LTB4 release in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Based on these data, we suggest that MIF counter-regulates Dex-induced annexin 1 expression, further influencing the activation of cPLA2α and the release of eicosanoids. These findings will add new insights into the mechanisms of MIF counter-regulation of GC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Triple basepair changes within and adjacent to the conserved YY1 motif upstream of the U3 enhancer repeats of SL3-3 murine leukemia virus cause a small but significant shortening of latency of T-lymphoma induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shiliang; Lovmand, Jette; Soerensen, Annette Balle; Luz, Arne; Schmidt, Joerg; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2003-01-01

    A highly conserved sequence upstream of the transcriptional enhancer in the U3 of murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) was reported to mediate negative regulation of their expression. In transient expression studies, negative regulation was reported to be conferred by coexpression of the transcription factor YY1, which binds to a motif in the upstream conserved region (UCR). To address the function of the UCR and its YY1-motif in an in vivo model of MLV-host interactions we introduced six consecutive triple basepair mutations into this region of the potent T-lymphomagenic SL3-3 MLV. We report that all mutants have retained their replication competence and that they all, like the SL3-3 wild type (wt), induce T-cell lymphomas when injected into newborn mice of the SWR strain. However, all mutants induced disease with slightly shorter latency periods than the wt SL3-3, suggesting that the YY1 motif as well as its immediate context in the UCR have a negative effect on the pathogenicity of the virus. This result may have implications for the design of retroviral vectors

  18. Uterine Msx-1 and Wnt4 signaling becomes aberrant in mice with the loss of leukemia inhibitory factor or Hoxa-10: evidence for a novel cytokine-homeobox-Wnt signaling in implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Takiko; Song, Haengseok; Guo, Yong; Riesewijk, Anne; Mosselman, Sietse; Das, Sanjoy K; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2004-05-01

    Successful implantation absolutely depends on the reciprocal interaction between the implantation-competent blastocyst and the receptive uterus. Expression and gene targeting studies have shown that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a cytokine of the IL-6 family, and Hoxa-10, an abdominalB-like homeobox gene, are crucial to implantation and decidualization in mice. Using these mutant mice, we sought to determine the importance of Msx-1 (another homeobox gene formerly known as Hox-7.1) and of Wnt4 (a ligand of the Wnt family) signaling in implantation because of their reported functions during development. We observed that Msx-1, Wnt4, and a Wnt antagonist sFRP4 are differentially expressed in the mouse uterus during the periimplantation period, suggesting their role in implantation. In addition, we observed an aberrant uterine expression of Msx-1 and sFRP4 in Lif mutant mice, and of Wnt4 and sFRP4 in Hoxa-10 mutant mice, further reinforcing the importance of these signaling pathways in implantation. Collectively, the present results provide evidence for a novel cytokine-homeotic-Wnt signaling network in implantation.

  19. Characterization of the methotrexate transport pathway in murine L1210 leukemia cells: Involvement of a membrane receptor and a cytosolic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.M.; Ratnam, M.; Rodeman, K.M.; Freisheim, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    A radioiodinated photoaffinity analogue of methotrexate, N α -(4-amino-4-deoxy-10-methyl-pteroyl)-N ε -(4-azidosalicylyl)-L-lysine (APA-ASA-Lys), was recently used to identify the plasma membrane derived binding protein involved in the transport of this folate antagonist into murine L1210 cells. The labeled protein has an apparent molecular weight of 46K-48K when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but no such labeling occurs in a methotrexate transport-defective cell line (L1210/R81). Labeling of the total cytosolic protein from disrupted cells, followed by electrophoresis and autoradiography, showed, among other proteins, a 21K band, corresponding to dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), in both the parent and R81 cells and a 38K band only in the parent cells. However, when whole cells were UV irradiated at various times at 37 degree C following addition of radiolabeled APA-ASA-Lys, the 38K protein and DHFR were the only cytosolic proteins labeled in the parent cells, while the intact R81 cells showed no labeled cytosolic protein, since the photoprobe is not transported. Further, when the parent cells were treated with a pulse of radiolabeled photoprobe, followed by UV irradiation at different times at 37 degree C, the probe appeared sequentially on the 48K membrane protein and both the 38K cytosolic protein and dihydrofolate reductase. A 48K protein could be detected in both parent L1210 cells and the R81 cells on Western blots using antisera to a membrane folate binding protein from human placenta. These results suggest a vectorial transport of APA-ASA-Lys or methotrexate and reduced folate coenzymes into murine L1210 cells mediated by a 48K integral membrane protein and a 38K cytosolic or peripheral membrane protein. The 38K protein may help in the trafficking of reduced folate coenzymes, shuttling them to various cytosolic targets

  20. The Effects of Curcuma longa L., Purple Sweet Potato, and Mixtures of the Two on Immunomodulation in C57BL/6J Mice Infected with LP-BM5 Murine Leukemia Retrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jeung; Lee, Dasom; Lee, Minhee; Kwon, Han-Ol; Kim, Hyesook; Park, Jeongjin; Jeon, Woojin; Cha, Minseok; Jun, Suhwa; Park, Kwangjin; Lee, Jeongmin

    2018-06-04

    The immune response is stimulated to protect the body from external antigens and is controlled by several types of immune cells. In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of Curcuma longa L., purple sweet potato, and mixtures of the two (CPM) were investigated in C57BL/6 mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV). Mice were divided into seven groups as follows: normal control, infected control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection), positive control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of red ginseng 300 mg/kg body weight), the original powder of C. longa L. (C; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of C 189 mg/kg body weight), the original powder of purple sweet potato (P; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of P 1811 mg/kg body weight), CPM Low (CPL; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+CPM 2 g/kg body weight), and CPM High (CPH; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+CPM 5 g/kg body weight). Dietary supplementation lasted for 12 weeks. Dietary supplementation of CPM inhibited LP-BM5 MuLV-induced lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly and inhibited reduction of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I and II. Moreover, CPM reduced the decrease in T- and B cell proliferation, reduced the population of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells, and remedied the unbalanced production of T helper-1 (Th1)/T helper-2 (Th2) cytokines in LP-BM5 MuLV-infected mice. In addition, CPM inhibited reduction of phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages and decreased serum levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin E (IgE), and immunoglobulin G (IgG). These results suggest that CPM had a positive effect on immunomodulation in C57BL/6 mice induced by LP-BM5 leukemia retrovirus infection.

  1. Induction of the 5S RNP-Mdm2-p53 ribosomal stress pathway delays the initiation but fails to eradicate established murine acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaako, P; Ugale, A; Wahlestedt, M; Velasco-Hernandez, T; Cammenga, J; Lindström, M S; Bryder, D

    2017-01-01

    Mutations resulting in constitutive activation of signaling pathways that regulate ribosome biogenesis are among the most common genetic events in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, whether ribosome biogenesis presents as a therapeutic target to treat AML remains unexplored. Perturbations in ribosome biogenesis trigger the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP)-Mdm2-p53 ribosomal stress pathway, and induction of this pathway has been shown to have therapeutic efficacy in Myc-driven lymphoma. In the current study we address the physiological and therapeutic role of the 5S RNP-Mdm2-p53 pathway in AML. By utilizing mice that have defective ribosome biogenesis due to downregulation of ribosomal protein S19 (Rps19), we demonstrate that induction of the 5S RNP-Mdm2-p53 pathway significantly delays the initiation of AML. However, even a severe Rps19 deficiency that normally results in acute bone marrow failure has no consistent efficacy on already established disease. Finally, by using mice that harbor a mutation in the Mdm2 gene disrupting its binding to 5S RNP, we show that loss of the 5S RNP-Mdm2-p53 pathway is dispensable for development of AML. Our study suggests that induction of the 5S RNP-Mdm2-p53 ribosomal stress pathway holds limited potential as a single-agent therapy in the treatment of AML.

  2. X-ray crystal structure of the N-terminal region of Moloney murine leukemia virus integrase and its implications for viral DNA recognition: N-Terminal Region of M-MuLV Integrase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Rongjin [Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Aiyer, Sriram [Department of Pharmacology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Cote, Marie L. [Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, UMDNJ, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Xiao, Rong [Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Jiang, Mei [Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Acton, Thomas B. [Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Roth, Monica J. [Department of Pharmacology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Montelione, Gaetano T. [Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey 08854; Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, UMDNJ, Piscataway New Jersey 08854

    2017-02-03

    The retroviral integrase (IN) carries out the integration of a dsDNA copy of the viral genome into the host DNA, an essential step for viral replication. All IN proteins have three general domains, the N-terminal domain (NTD), the catalytic core domain, and the C-terminal domain. The NTD includes an HHCC zinc finger-like motif, which is conserved in all retroviral IN proteins. Two crystal structures of Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) IN N-terminal region (NTR) constructs that both include an N-terminal extension domain (NED, residues 1–44) and an HHCC zinc-finger NTD (residues 45–105), in two crystal forms are reported. The structures of IN NTR constructs encoding residues 1–105 (NTR1–105) and 8–105 (NTR8–105) were determined at 2.7 and 2.15 Å resolution, respectively and belong to different space groups. While both crystal forms have similar protomer structures, NTR1–105 packs as a dimer and NTR8–105 packs as a tetramer in the asymmetric unit. The structure of the NED consists of three anti-parallel β-strands and an α-helix, similar to the NED of prototype foamy virus (PFV) IN. These three β-strands form an extended β-sheet with another β-strand in the HHCC Zn2+ binding domain, which is a unique structural feature for the M-MuLV IN. The HHCC Zn2+ binding domain structure is similar to that in HIV and PFV INs, with variations within the loop regions. Differences between the PFV and MLV IN NEDs localize at regions identified to interact with the PFV LTR and are compared with established biochemical and virological data for M-MuLV. Proteins 2017; 85:647–656.

  3. The Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase p110α Isoform Regulates Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor Expression via c-Myc and miR-125b to Promote Cell Proliferation in Medulloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Salm

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MB is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood and represents the main cause of cancer-related death in this age group. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K pathway has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of medulloblastoma cell survival and proliferation, but the molecular mechanisms and downstream effectors underlying PI3K signaling still remain elusive. The impact of RNA interference (RNAi-mediated silencing of PI3K isoforms p110α and p110δ on global gene expression was investigated by DNA microarray analysis in medulloblastoma cell lines. A subset of genes with selectively altered expression upon p110α silencing in comparison to silencing of the closely related p110δ isoform was revealed. Among these genes, the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor α (LIFR α was validated as a novel p110α target in medulloblastoma. A network involving c-Myc and miR-125b was shown to be involved in the control of LIFRα expression downstream of p110α. Targeting the LIFRα by RNAi, or by using neutralizing reagents impaired medulloblastoma cell proliferation in vitro and induced a tumor volume reduction in vivo. An analysis of primary tumors revealed that LIFRα and p110α expression were elevated in the sonic hedgehog (SHH subgroup of medulloblastoma, indicating its clinical relevance. Together, these data reveal a novel molecular signaling network, in which PI3K isoform p110α controls the expression of LIFRα via c-Myc and miR-125b to promote MB cell proliferation.

  4. Growth-inhibitory effects of the red alga Gelidium amansii on cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue-Hwa; Tu, Ching-Jung; Wu, Hsiao-Ting

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Gelidium amansii, an edible red agar cultivated off the northeast coast of Taiwan, on the growth of two lines of cancer cells, murine hepatoma (Hepa-1) and human leukemia (HL-60) cells, as well as a normal cell line, murine embryo fibroblast cells (NIH-3T3). The potential role of G. amansii on the induction of apoptosis was also examined. The results indicated that all extracts from G. amansii, including phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and methanol extracts from dried algae as well as the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) extract from freeze-dried G. amansii agar, inhibited the growth of Hepa-1 and NIH-3T3 cells, but not the growth of HL-60 cells. Annexin V-positive cells were observed in methanol and DMSO extract-treated, but not PBS extract-treated Hepa-1 and NIH-3T3 cells, suggesting that the lipid-soluble extracts of G. amansii induced apoptosis. In summary, extracts of G. amansii from various preparations exhibited antiproliferative effects on Hepa-1 and NIH-3T3 cells, and apoptosis may play a role in the methanol and DMSO extract-induced inhibitory effects. However, the antiproliferative effects of PBS extracts was not through apoptosis. Moreover, the growth-inhibitory effects of G. amansii were not specific to cancer cells.

  5. Leukemia - B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia and Hairy Cell Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leukemia - B-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia and Hairy Cell Leukemia Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Stages Treatment Options About Clinical Trials Latest Research ...

  6. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CML; Chronic myeloid leukemia; Chronic granulocytic leukemia; Leukemia - chronic granulocytic ... nuclear disaster. It takes many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated for cancer ...

  7. The 0.3-kb fragment containing the R-U5-5'leader sequence of Friend murine leukemia virus influences the level of protein expression from spliced mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Yeng Cheng; Seki, Yohei; Machinaga, Akihito; Ogita, Nobuo; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka

    2013-04-19

    A neuropathogenic variant of Friend murine leukemia virus (Fr-MLV) clone A8 induces spongiform neurodegeneration when infected into neonatal rats. Studies with chimeras constructed from the A8 virus and the non-neuropathogenic Fr-MLV clone 57 identified a 0.3-kb KpnI-AatII fragment containing a R-U5-5'leader sequence as an important determinant for inducing spongiosis, in addition to the env gene of A8 as the primary determinant. This 0.3-kb fragment contains a 17-nucleotide difference between the A8 and 57 sequences. We previously showed that the 0.3-kb fragment influences expression levels of Env protein in both cultured cells and rat brain, but the corresponding molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Studies with expression vectors constructed from the full-length proviral genome of Fr-MLV that incorporated the luciferase (luc) gene instead of the env gene found that the vector containing the A8-0.3-kb fragment yielded a larger amount of spliced luc-mRNA and showed higher expression of luciferase when compared to the vector containing the 57-0.3-kb fragment. The amount of total transcripts from the vectors, the poly (A) tail length of their mRNAs, and the nuclear-cytoplasm distribution of luc-mRNA in transfected cells were also evaluated. The 0.3-kb fragment did not influence transcription efficiency, mRNA polyadenylation or nuclear export of luc-mRNA. Mutational analyses were carried out to determine the importance of nucleotides that differ between the A8 and 57 sequences within the 0.3-kb fragment. In particular, seven nucleotides upstream of the 5'splice site (5'ss) were found to be important in regulating the level of protein expression from spliced messages. Interestingly, these nucleotides reside within the stem-loop structure that has been speculated to limit the recognition of 5'ss. The 0.3-kb fragment containing the R-U5-5'leader sequence of Fr-MLV influences the level of protein expression from the spliced-mRNA by regulating the splicing

  8. Monocytic leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M T

    1980-05-01

    The monocytic leukemias may be subdivided into acute monocytic leukemia, acute myelomonocytic leukemia, and subacute and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. The clinical features of acute monocytic and acute myelomonocytic leukemias are similar and are manifestations of bone marrow failure. Gingival hypertrophy and skin infiltration are more frequent in acute monocytic leukemia. Cytomorphologically the blast cells in acute monocytic leukemia may be undifferentiated or differentiated, whereas in the acute myelomonocytic variety there are mixed populations of monocytic and myeloblastic cells. Cytochemical characteristics include strongly positive reactions for nonspecific esterase, inhibited by fluoride. The functional characteristics of acute monocytic and acute myelomonocytic cells resemble those of monocytes and include glass adherence and phagocytoses, the presence of Fc receptors for IgG and C'3, and the production of colony stimulating activity. Subacute and chronic myelomonocytic leukemias are insidious and slowly progressive diseases characterized by anemia and peripheral blood monocytosis. Atypical monocytes called paramyeloid cells are characteristic. The drugs used in the treatment of acute monocytic and acute myelomonocytic leukemias include cytosine arabinoside, the anthracyclines, and VP 16-213. Drug therapy in subacute and chronic myelomonocytic leukemias is not usually indicated, although VP 16-213 has been claimed to be effective.

  9. Clinical-Grade-Expanded Regulatory T Cells Prevent Graft-versus-Host Disease While Allowing a Powerful T Cell-Dependent Graft-versus-Leukemia Effect in Murine Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Papa, Beatrice; Ruggeri, Loredana; Urbani, Elena; Baldoni, Stefano; Cecchini, Debora; Zei, Tiziana; Iacucci Ostini, Roberta; Crescenzi, Barbara; Carotti, Alessandra; Pierini, Antonio; Sportoletti, Paolo; Di Bartolomeo, Paolo; Falzetti, Franca; Mecucci, Cristina; Velardi, Andrea; Martelli, Massimo F; Di Ianni, Mauro

    2017-11-01

    We developed a good manufacturing practices-compatible expansion protocol to improve number and purity of regulatory T cells (Tregs) available for clinical trials. Six clinical-grade separation procedures were performed, followed by expansion with high-dose interleukin (IL)-2, anti-CD3/anti-CD28 TCR stimulation, and rapamycin for 19 days achieving a median of 8.5-fold (range, 6.25 to 13.7) expansion. FOXP3 expression was stably maintained over the culture period, while the percentage of CD127 was significantly reduced. The in vitro suppression assay showed a strong Mixed Lymphocytes Reaction inhibition. In vitro amplification did not induce any karyotypic modification. To evaluate the graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)/graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) bifunctional axis, expanded Tregs and conventional T cells (Tcons) were tested in NOD/SCID/IL2Rgnull mice injected with primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, AML cell line, acute lymphoid leukemia Philadelphia cell line, or Burkitt-like lymphoma cell line. All mice that received leukemia cells together with expanded Tregs and Tcons were rescued from leukemia and survived without GVHD, showing that Treg expansion procedure did not compromise GVHD control and the strong Tcon-mediated GVL activity. This report might represent the basis for treating high-risk leukemia and/or relapsed/refractory leukemia patients with high-dose Treg/Tcons. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibitory noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Destexhe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cortical neurons in vivo may operate in high-conductance states, in which the major part of the neuron's input conductance is due to synaptic activity, sometimes several-fold larger than the resting conductance. We examine here the contribution of inhibition in such high-conductance states. At the level of the absolute conductance values, several studies have shown that cortical neurons in vivo are characterized by strong inhibitory conductances. However, conductances are balanced and spiking activity is mostly determined by fluctuations, but not much is known about excitatory and inhibitory contributions to these fluctuations. Models and dynamic-clamp experiments show that, during high-conductance states, spikes are mainly determined by fluctuations of inhibition, or by inhibitory noise. This stands in contrast to low-conductance states, in which excitatory conductances determine spiking activity. To determine these contributions from experimental data, maximum likelihood methods can be designed and applied to intracellular recordings in vivo. Such methods indicate that action potentials are indeed mostly correlated with inhibitory fluctuations in awake animals. These results argue for a determinant role for inhibitory fluctuations in evoking spikes, and do not support feed-forward modes of processing, for which opposite patterns are predicted.

  11. Leukemia -- Eosinophilic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Leukemia - Eosinophilic Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Stages Treatment Options About Clinical Trials Latest Research ...

  12. Simple and efficient expression of codon-optimized mouse leukemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To obtain a higher yield of mouse leukemia inhibitory factor to maintain the proliferation potential of pluripotent ... It induces mouse myeloid leukemic M1 cells of terminal ... induces the production of acute phase proteins by lipocyte ...

  13. Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  14. Atypical Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myeloproliferative neoplasms, leukemia , and other conditions . Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia Key Points Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease ... chance of recovery) and treatment options. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia is a disease in which too many myelocytes ...

  15. Understanding Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for as long as they take it. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is another treatment option that is only done if CML is not responding as expected to drug therapy. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) . Some CLL patients do not need treatment ...

  16. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acute types. Symptoms include Infections Fever Loss of appetite Tiredness Easy bruising or bleeding Swollen lymph nodes Night sweats Shortness of breath Pain in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother ...

  17. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia Overview Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is an uncommon type of cancer of the blood cells. The term "chronic" in chronic myelogenous leukemia indicates that this cancer ...

  18. Role of Setbp1 in Myeloid Leukemia Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-05

    Nhu Nguyen1,Vijay Negi1, Kevin Oakley1, Bartlomiej Przychodzen2, Jaroslaw P. Maciejewski2,3, and Yang Du1,3 1Department of Pediatrics, Uniformed...Sozer S, Ashton J, Rossi RM, et al. 2007. Leukemia stem cells in a genetically defined murine model of blast-crisis CML. Blood 110:2578- 85 86

  19. Leukemia revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E P

    1980-01-01

    Selected features of the historical development of our knowledge of leukemia are discussed. The use of different methodologies for study of the nature of leukemic cell proliferation are analyzed. The differences between older cell kinetic data using tritiated thymidine and autoradiography and the newer cell culture methods are more apparent than real. It is suggested that tritiated thymidine and extracorporeal irradiation of the blood may be useful for therapeutic agents that have not been given an adequate trial. Radiation leukemogenesis presents an opportunity for study of the nature of leukemogenesis that has not been exploited adequately.

  20. Leukemia revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Selected features of the historical development of our knowledge of leukemia are discussed. The use of different methodologies for study of the nature of leukemic cell proliferation are analyzed. The differences between older cell kinetic data using tritiated thymidine and autoradiography and the newer cell culture methods are more apparent than real. It is suggested that tritiated thymidine and extracorporeal irradiation of the blood may be useful for therapeutic agents that have not been given an adequate trial. Radiation leukemogenesis presents an opportunity for study of the nature of leukemogenesis that has not been exploited adequately

  1. The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linet, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards

  2. Radiogenic leukemia revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloney, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation-induced leukemia is considered to be similar to the de novo disease. However, following an analysis of clinical and hematological findings in leukemia occurring in irradiated cervical cancer patients, adult Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, and spondylitics treated with x-ray, striking differences were noted. Acute leukemias in cervical cancer patients and Japanese survivors were similar in type to acute de novo leukemias in adults. Cell types among spondylitics were very dissimilar; rare forms, eg, acute erythromyelocytic leukemia (AEL) and acute megakaryocytic leukemia, were increased. Pancytopenia occurred in 25 of 35 cases and erythromyelodysplastic disorders were noted in seven of 35 acute cases. The leukemias and myelodysplastic disorders closely resembled those occurring in patients treated with alkylating agents. This similarity suggests a common pathogenesis involving marrow stem cell injury and extra-medullary mediators of hematopoiesis. Investigation of early acute leukemias and myelodysplastic disorders with newer techniques may provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of leukemia in humans

  3. Kelainan Hemostasis pada Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelly Dia Rofinda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Leukemia adalah penyakit keganasan pada jaringan hematopoietik yang ditandai denganpenggantian elemen sumsum tulang normal oleh sel darah abnormal atau sel leukemik. Salah satu manifestasi klinisdari leukemia adalah perdarahan yang disebabkan oleh berbagai kelainan hemostasis.Kelainan hemostasis yang dapat terjadi pada leukemia berupa trombositopenia, disfungsi trombosit,koagulasi intravaskuler diseminata, defek protein koagulasi, fibrinolisis primer dan trombosis. Patogenesis danpatofosiologi kelainan hemostasis pada leukemia tersebut terjadi dengan berbagai mekanisme.Kata kunci: leukemia, kelainan hemostasisAbstractBackground: AbstractLeukemia is a malignancy of hematopoietic tissue which is characterized bysubstituted of bone marrow element with abnormal blood cell or leukemic cell. One of clinical manifestation ofleukemia is bleeding that is caused by several hemostasis disorders.Hemostasis disorders in leukemia such asthrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction, disseminated intravascular coagulation, coagulation protein defect, primaryfibrinolysis and thrombosis. Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of thus hemostasis disorders in leukemia occur withdifferent mechanism.Keywords: leukemia, hemostasis disorder

  4. Vitamin E - its status and role in leukemia and lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, J.; Das, S.; Sanyal, U.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study has been performed on the relationship between vitamin E and immuno-function in normal and malignant condition in human and murine systems. Further, the effects of supplemental vitamin E on tumor take, host survival and tumor growth has been studied in a transplantable lymphoma in mice. Vitamin E was assayed in serum samples from normal subjects and from patient with leukemia and lymphoma by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) The murine group included Dalton's ascite lymphoma (DL), Schwartz lymphoblastic leukemia (SVL) and Moloney lymphoblastic leukemia (MVL). Serum vitamin E was found to be lower than that of the normal controls in all cases of leukemia and lymphoma both in human and lymphoma. Supplementary vitamin E administered at the initial phase of development of murine lymphomas reduced the rate of tumor growth, improved host survival and elevated serum vitamin E level. Vitamin E supplementation also activated specific induced blastogenesis of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and elevated serum IgG level. IgM remained unaltered and and macrophage activity did not seem to be affected. The present findings indicated a low status of vitamin E in tumor bearing host and beneficial effect of supplemental vitamin E on the host which was mediated by the host immune system. (author)

  5. BCR-ABL1- positive chronic myeloid leukemia with erythrocytosis presenting as polycythemia vera: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornea, Mihaela I Precup; Levrat, Emmanuel; Pugin, Paul; Betticher, Daniel C

    2015-04-08

    The World Health Organization classification of chronic myeloproliferative disease encompasses eight entities of bone marrow neoplasms, among them Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1-positive chronic myeloid leukemia and polycythemia vera. Polycythemia vera requires, in the majority of cases (95%), the negativity of Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 rearrangement and the presence of the Janus kinase 2 mutation. We report a case of erythrocytosis as the primary manifestation of a chronic myeloid leukemia, with the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome and the Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 fusion gene, and in the absence of any Janus kinase 2 mutation. A 68-year-old Caucasian woman, with a history of cigarette consumption and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (undergoing continuous positive airway pressure treatment) had presented to our institution with fatigue and a hemoglobin level of 18.6g/L, with slight leukocytosis at 16G/L, and no other anomalies on her complete blood cell count. Examination of her arterial blood gases found only a slight hypoxemia; erythropoietin and ferritin levels were very low and could not explain a secondary erythrocytosis. Further analyses revealed the absence of any Janus kinase 2 mutation, thus excluding polycythemia vera. Taken together with a high vitamin B12 level, we conducted a Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 gene analysis and bone marrow cytogenetic analysis, both of which returned positive, leading to the diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. To date, this case is the first description of a Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1-positive chronic myeloid leukemia, presenting with erythrocytosis as the initial manifestation, and mimicking a Janus kinase 2 V617F-negative polycythemia vera. Her impressive response to imatinib

  6. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood ...

  7. Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood ...

  8. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  9. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  10. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used for painful and enlarged lymph nodes. Blood transfusions or platelet transfusions may be required if blood ... unexplained fatigue, bruising, excessive sweating, or weight loss. Alternative ... Leukemia - chronic lymphocytic (CLL); Blood cancer - chronic lymphocytic leukemia; Bone marrow cancer - chronic ...

  11. Chronic neutrophilic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, Arthur; Burch, Micah; Krause, John R

    2018-01-01

    Chronic neutrophilic leukemia is a rare myeloproliferative disorder characterized by a sustained peripheral blood neutrophilia, absence of the BCR/ABL oncoprotein, bone marrow hypercellularity with less than 5% myeloblasts and normal neutrophil maturation, and no dysplasia. This leukemia has been associated with mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) that may activate this receptor, leading to the proliferation of neutrophils that are the hallmark of chronic neutrophilic leukemia. We present a case of chronic neutrophilic leukemia and discuss the criteria for diagnosis and the significance of mutations found in this leukemia.

  12. Regulatory T cells-derived IL-35 promotes the growth of adult acute myeloid leukemia blasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qianshan; Pan, Ying; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Huiping; Xiong, Shudao; Li, Qing; Wang, Jia; Tao, Lili; Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Rui; Zhai, Zhimin

    2015-11-15

    Tumor immune escape mechanism mediated by CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a key factor in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). IL-35, as a novel inhibitory cytokine, is produced by Tregs specially and regulates functions of Tregs in murine. However, IL-35 expression of Tregs in human is still disputed, and its role in AML is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found that IL-35 was expressed highly in peripheral blood plasma of adult patients with AML and significantly correlated with the clinical stages of malignancy. Tregs-derived from adult AML patients produced IL-35 in a stimulation-dependent manner. IL-35 promoted AML blasts immune escape by expanding Tregs and inhibiting CD4+CD25-effector T cells (Teffs). Furthermore, IL-35 directly promoted the proliferation of AML blasts and reduced the apoptosis of AML blasts. Together, our study demonstrates that IL-35-derived from Tregs promotes the growth of adult AML blasts, suggesting that IL-35 has an important role in the pathogenesis of AML. © 2015 UICC.

  13. Cell surface antigens of radiation leukemia virus-induced BALB/c leukemias defined by syngeneic cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yukio; Oettgen, H.F.; Obata, Yuichi; Nakayama, Eiichi.

    1989-01-01

    Two cell surface antigens of mouse leukemias were defined by BALB/c cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) generated against syngeneic radiation leukemia virus (RadLV)-induced leukemia, BALBRV1 or BALBRVD. Hyperimmunization of BALB/c mice with irradiated leukemias followed by in vitro sensitization of primed spleen cells resulted in the generation of CTL with high killing activity. The specificity of CTL was examined by direct cytotoxicity assays and competitive inhibition assays. A shared cell surface antigen, designated as BALBRV1 antigen, was detected by BALB/c anti-BALBRV1 CTL. BALBRV1 antigen was expressed not only on RadLV-induced BALB/c leukemias except for BALBRVD, but also on spontaneous or X-ray-induced BALB/c leukemias, chemically-induced leukemias with the H-2 d haplotype and some chemically-induced BALB/c sarcomas. In contrast, a unique cell surface antigen, designated as BALBRVD antigen, was detected by BALB/c anti-BALBRVD CTL. BALBRVD antigen was expressed only on BALBRVD, but not on thirty-nine normal lymphoid or tumor cells. These two antigens could be distinguished from those previously defined on Friend, Moloney, Rauscher or Gross murine leukemia virus (MuLV) leukemias, or MuLV-related antigens. Both cytotoxic responses were blocked by antisera against H-2K d , but not H-2D d . The relationship of BALBRV1 antigen and BALBRVD antigen to endogenous MuLV is discussed with regard to the antigenic distribution on tumor cell lines. (author)

  14. Binding of Dumbbell Oligonucleotides to MoMuLV Reverse Transcriptase: Inhibitory Properties of RNase H Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dumbbell oligonucleotides with loops of various chemistry were synthesized. Incubation of dumbbell oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate bonds or trimethylene phosphate linkages in loops with S1 nuclease did not result in significant cleavage under conditions which led to the degradation of dumbbell oligonucleotide containing phophodiester bonds in the loops. The binding of reverse transcriptase of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV was evaluated with all the five oligonucleotides. The protein binds to all the dumbbell oligonucleotides with similar affinity. The dissociation constants evaluated using PAGE band mobility shift assays were of the order of 10-7. The inhibitory properties of the retroviral RNase H activity was evaluated using 3H –UTP-labeled RNA:RNA-DNA hybrid. It was found that the best dumbbell oligonucleotide, inhibitor contained phosphorothioate residues in both the loops. Our value studies demonstrated that this particularly designed oligonucleotide displays an IC50 of 18 nM in its inhibition on the reverse transcriptase RNase H activity, a magnitude lower than that of first nucleotide reverse transcriptase of HIV-1, tenofovir, introduced by Gilead Science in the market.

  15. What You Need to Know about Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Leukemia This booklet is about leukemia. Leukemia is cancer of the blood and bone marrow ( ... This book covers: Basics about blood cells and leukemia Types of doctors who treat leukemia Treatments for ...

  16. Comparative analysis of radiation- and virus-induced leukemias in BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, E.W.; Binari, R.; Fleissner, E.

    1985-01-01

    Endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) proviral copies were analyzed in thymomas induced in normal BALB/c (Fv-1b) and in Fv-1n congenic mice by X-irradiation. Both strains of mice developed leukemia with similar kinetics, indicating that N-tropism of endogenous MuLV was not a rate-limiting factor in development of disease. Southern blot analysis, using a probe specific for ecotropic virus and for ecotropic-specific sequences retained in pathogenic, env-recombinant viruses, showed that the majority of radiation leukemias lacked newly acquired, clonally integrated, proviruses. This was in contrast to virus-induced leukemias, which routinely exhibited several new proviral integration sites. When an internal proviral DNA restriction fragment was monitored, some radiation leukemias showed evidence of nonclonal infection, accounting for more frequent isolation of infectious virus from such leukemias. Differences in expression of T-cell surface antigens were found in X-ray-induced and virus-induced leukemias. All radiation leukemias were TL positive, whereas virus-induced leukemias were primarily negative for TL. Some differences were also found in Lyt-1 and Lyt-2 expression. The data as a whole suggest that, in the majority of cases, radiation leukemogenesis is not initiated by a viral route--that is, the sort of viral mechanism for which exogenous infection by known pathogenic MuLV is the paradigm

  17. Endogenous retroviruses mobilized during friend murine leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Stefano; Rosenke, Kyle; Hansen, Ethan; Hendrick, Duncan; Malik, Frank; Evans, Leonard H

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated in a mouse model that infection with a retrovirus can lead not only to the generation of recombinants between exogenous and endogenous gammaretrovirus, but also to the mobilization of endogenous proviruses by pseudotyping entire polytropic proviral transcripts and facilitating their infectious spread to new cells. However, the frequency of this occurrence, the kinetics, and the identity of mobilized endogenous proviruses was unclear. Here we find that these mobilized transcripts are detected after only one day of infection. They predominate over recombinant polytropic viruses early in infection, persist throughout the course of disease and are comprised of multiple different polytropic proviruses. Other endogenous retroviral elements such as intracisternal A particles (IAPs) were not detected. The integration of the endogenous transcripts into new cells could result in loss of transcriptional control and elevated expression which may facilitate pathogenesis, perhaps by contributing to the generation of polytropic recombinant viruses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Collateral methotrexate resistance in cisplatin-selected murine leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to anticancer drugs is a major cause of failure of many therapeutic protocols. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The exact mechanism depends upon the drug of interest as well as the tumor type treated. While studying a cell line selected for its resistance to cisplatin we noted that the cells expressed a >25,000-fold collateral resistance to methotrexate. Given the magnitude of this resistance we elected to investigate this intriguing collateral resistance. From a series of investigations we have identified an alteration in a membrane protein of the resistant cell as compared to the sensitive cells that could be the primary mechanism of resistance. Our studies reviewed here indicate decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of a protein (molecular mass = 66 in the resistant cells, which results in little or no transfer of methotrexate from the medium into the cell. Since this is a relatively novel function for tyrosine phosphorylation, this information may provide insight into possible pharmacological approaches to modify therapeutic regimens by analyzing the status of this protein in tumor samples for a better survival of the cancer patients.

  19. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, M; Tomonaga, M; Amenomori, T; Matsuo, T [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1991-12-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5{approx}0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author).

  20. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may increase the risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia include: Previous cancer treatment. Children and adults who've had certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other kinds of cancer may have an increased ... leukemia. Exposure to radiation. People exposed to very high ...

  1. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Amenomori, T.; Matsuo, T.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5∼0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  2. Progress in the leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galton, D.A.G.; Spiers, A.S.D.

    1971-01-01

    Recent work on the epidemiology of leukemia is reviewed in relation to factors of possible etiologic importance. There is still much geographic variation in the accuracy of diagnosis, the reliability of death certification, and the provision of national registries for classifying leukemia according to cytologic type. This variation and the low incidence of all types of leukemia make difficult the recognition of potentially significant distributions or trends that might suggest the operation of environmental leukemogens and their interaction with genetically determined susceptibility. Exposure to ionizing radiation remains the only predisposing factor beyond doubt for acute and chronic granulocytic leukemia, but its exact role remains obscure. There is no evidence that radiation plays a part in the etiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In the population of survivors of the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion of 1945, the incidence of leukemia (mainly CGL), though declining in the second 10-year period, was still higher than that of Japan as a whole. The suggestion that the exposure of women to radiation could increase the likelihood of leukemia in their still unconceived children was examined by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in a prospective study of 17,700 children, and no increase in the incidence of leukemia was found in the children of parents who had been heavily exposed to radiation before conception. In the 1960's a decline in the United States mortality rates for leukemia among the white population was recorded. This decline was most marked in children below age 5, and it was suggested that the decline could have resulted from a drop in the use of diagnostic radiology in pregnant women following the reports in 1956 of the Medical Research Council and the National Academy of Sciences on the biologic hazards of radiation. A similar decline in mortality was reported from Norway. (464 references) (U.S.)

  3. In Vivo RNA Interference Screening Identifies a Leukemia-Specific Dependence on Integrin Beta 3 Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G.; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Hartwell, Kimberly A.; Chu, Lisa P.; Järås, Marcus; Puram, Rishi V.; Puissant, Alexandre; Callahan, Kevin P.; Ashton, John; McConkey, Marie E.; Poveromo, Luke P.; Cowley, Glenn S.; Kharas, Michael G.; Labelle, Myriam; Shterental, Sebastian; Fujisaki, Joji; Silberstein, Lev; Alexe, Gabriela; Al-Hajj, Muhammad A.; Shelton, Christopher A.; Armstrong, Scott A.; Root, David E.; Scadden, David T.; Hynes, Richard O.; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Jordan, Craig T.; Ebert, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We used an in vivo short hairpin RNA (shRNA) screening approach to identify genes that are essential for MLL-AF9 acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We found that Integrin Beta 3 (Itgb3) is essential for murine leukemia cells in vivo, and for human leukemia cells in xenotransplantation studies. In leukemia cells, Itgb3 knockdown impaired homing, downregulated LSC transcriptional programs, and induced differentiation via the intracellular kinase, Syk. In contrast, loss of Itgb3 in normal HSPCs did not affect engraftment, reconstitution, or differentiation. Finally, we confirmed that Itgb3 is dispensable for normal hematopoiesis and required for leukemogenesis using an Itgb3 knockout mouse model. Our results establish the significance of the Itgb3 signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target in AML. PMID:23770013

  4. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  5. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... better. Most children with ALL can be cured. Children often have a better outcome than adults. ... Both leukemia itself and the treatment can lead to many problems such as bleeding, weight loss, and infections.

  6. AKT capture by feline leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Maki; Umehara, Daigo; Odahara, Yuka; Miyake, Ariko; Ngo, Minh Ha; Ohsato, Yoshiharu; Hisasue, Masaharu; Nakaya, Masa-Aki; Watanabe, Shinya; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    Oncogene-containing retroviruses are generated by recombination events between viral and cellular sequences, a phenomenon called "oncogene capture". The captured cellular genes, referred to as "v-onc" genes, then acquire new oncogenic properties. We report a novel feline leukemia virus (FeLV), designated "FeLV-AKT", that has captured feline c-AKT1 in feline lymphoma. FeLV-AKT contains a gag-AKT fusion gene that encodes the myristoylated Gag matrix protein and the kinase domain of feline c-AKT1, but not its pleckstrin homology domain. Therefore, it differs structurally from the v-Akt gene of murine retrovirus AKT8. AKT may be involved in the mechanisms underlying malignant diseases in cats.

  7. Occupation and leukemia in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talibov, Madar; Kautiainen, Susanna; Martinsen, Jan Ivar

    2012-01-01

    We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries.......We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries....

  8. Derepression of the Iroquois Homeodomain Transcription Factor Gene IRX3 Confers Differentiation Block in Acute Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D.D. Somerville

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iroquois homeodomain transcription factor gene IRX3 is expressed in the developing nervous system, limb buds, and heart, and transcript levels specify obesity risk in humans. We now report a functional role for IRX3 in human acute leukemia. Although transcript levels are very low in normal human bone marrow cells, high IRX3 expression is found in ∼30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, ∼50% with T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and ∼20% with B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, frequently in association with high-level HOXA gene expression. Expression of IRX3 alone was sufficient to immortalize hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs in myeloid culture and induce lymphoid leukemias in vivo. IRX3 knockdown induced terminal differentiation of AML cells. Combined IRX3 and Hoxa9 expression in murine HSPCs impeded normal T-progenitor differentiation in lymphoid culture and substantially enhanced the morphologic and phenotypic differentiation block of AML in myeloid leukemia transplantation experiments through suppression of a terminal myelomonocytic program. Likewise, in cases of primary human AML, high IRX3 expression is strongly associated with reduced myelomonocytic differentiation. Thus, tissue-inappropriate derepression of IRX3 contributes significantly to the block in differentiation, which is the pathognomonic feature of human acute leukemias.

  9. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute myeloid leukemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside ... develops quickly. Both adults and children can get acute myeloid leukemia ( AML ). This article is about AML in children.

  10. Inheritance of leukemia in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao

    1991-01-01

    Since Gardner et al. reported an increased incidence of leukemia among children of workers of a nuclear reactor in Sellafield, UK, there have been a number of discussions on the possibility of increased incidence of leukemia among children born from parents exposed to radiation or chemical agents. In this present paper, apart from the leukemia incidence in children from atomic bomb survivors which was discussed by Dr. Yoshimoto, familial leukemia, i.e., a cluster of leukemia among family members within four genetic relations, was discussed with special reference to the age distribution, type of leukemia and consanguinity. Leukemia in twin and leukemias in individuals with congenital anomalies with or without chromosome abnormalities were also discussed. (author)

  11. Stages of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  12. Potent anti-leukemia activities of humanized CD19-targeted CAR-T cells in patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiang; Wang, Gang; Cheng, Hai; Wei, Chen; Qi, Kunming; Sang, Wei; Zhenyu, Li; Shi, Ming; Li, Huizhong; Qiao, Jianlin; Pan, Bin; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Qingyun; Zeng, Lingyu; Niu, Mingshan; Jing, Guangjun; Zheng, Junnian; Xu, Kailin

    2018-04-10

    Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has shown promising results for relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The immune response induced by murine single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of the CAR may limit CAR-T cell persistence and thus increases the risk of leukemia relapse. In this study, we developed a novel humanized scFv from the murine FMC63 antibody. A total of 18 R/R ALL patients with or without prior murine CD19 CAR-T therapy were treated with humanized CD19-targeted CAR-T cells (hCART19s). After lymphodepletion chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide and fludarabine, the patients received a single dose (1 × 10 6 /kg) of autologous hCART19s infusion. Among the 14 patients without previous CAR-T therapy, 13 (92.9%) achieved complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi) on day 30, whereas 1 of the 3 patients who failed a second murine CAR-T infusion achieved CR after hCART19s infusion. At day 180, the overall and leukemia-free survival rates were 65.8% and 71.4%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of relapse was 22.6%, and the non-relapse mortality rate was 7.1%. During treatment, 13 patients developed grade 1-2 cytokine release syndrome (CRS), 4 patients developed grade 3-5 CRS, and 1 patient experienced reversible neurotoxicity. These results indicated that hCART19s could induce remission in patients with R/R B-ALL, especially in patients who received a reinfusion of murine CAR-T. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Chemical exposure and leukemia clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the heterogeneous distribution of leukemia in childhood and in adults. The topic of cluster reports and generalized clustering is addressed. These issues are applied to what is known of the risk factor for both adult and childhood leukemia. Finally, the significance of parental occupational exposure and childhood leukemia is covered. (author). 23 refs

  14. Congenital Leukemia in Down's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, W.; Khan, F.; Muzaffar, M.; Khan, U. A.; Rehman, M. U.; Khan, M. A.; Bari, A.

    2006-01-01

    Congenital Leukemia is a condition and often associated with fatal outcome/sup 1/. Most of the neonatal cases reported have acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia, in contrast to the predominance of acute lymphoblastic leukemia found in later childhood. congenital leukemia is occasionally associated with number of congenital anomalies and with chromosomal disorders such as Down's syndrome. Subtle cytogenetic abnormalities may occur more commonly in the affected infants and their parents, when studied with newer cytogenetic techniques/sup 2/. Inherent unstable hematopoieses resulting from chromosomal aberration in children with Downs's syndrome can present with transient myeloproliferative disorder, mimicking leukemia which undergoes spontaneous recovery/sup 3/. Only few cases of congenital leukemia with Downs syndrome, presented as congenital leukemia. (author)

  15. PD-1hiTIM-3+ T cells associate with and predict leukemia relapse in AML patients post allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Y; Zhang, J; Claxton, D F; Ehmann, W C; Rybka, W B; Zhu, L; Zeng, H; Schell, T D; Zheng, H

    2015-01-01

    Prognosis of leukemia relapse post allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is poor and effective new treatments are urgently needed. T cells are pivotal in eradicating leukemia through a graft versus leukemia (GVL) effect and leukemia relapse is considered a failure of GVL. T-cell exhaustion is a state of T-cell dysfunction mediated by inhibitory molecules including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3). To evaluate whether T-cell exhaustion and inhibitory pathways are involved in leukemia relapse post alloSCT, we performed phenotypic and functional studies on T cells from peripheral blood of acute myeloid leukemia patients receiving alloSCT. Here we report that PD-1 hi TIM-3 + cells are strongly associated with leukemia relapse post transplantation. Consistent with exhaustion, PD-1 hi TIM-3 + T cells are functionally deficient manifested by reduced production of interleukin 2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). In addition, these cells demonstrate a phenotype consistent with exhausted antigen-experienced T cells by losing T N and T EMRA subsets. Importantly, increase of PD-1 hi TIM-3 + cells occurs before clinical diagnosis of leukemia relapse, suggesting their predictive value. Results of our study provide an early diagnostic approach and a therapeutic target for leukemia relapse post transplantation

  16. Ref-1/APE1 as a Transcriptional Regulator and Novel Therapeutic Target in Pediatric T-cell Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jixin; Fishel, Melissa L; Reed, April M; McAdams, Erin; Czader, Magdalena B; Cardoso, Angelo A; Kelley, Mark R

    2017-07-01

    The increasing characterization of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has led to the identification of multiple molecular targets but has yet to translate into more effective targeted therapies, particularly for high-risk, relapsed T-cell ALL. Searching for master regulators controlling multiple signaling pathways in T-ALL, we investigated the multifunctional protein redox factor-1 (Ref-1/APE1), which acts as a signaling "node" by exerting redox regulatory control of transcription factors important in leukemia. Leukemia patients' transcriptome databases showed increased expression in T-ALL of Ref-1 and other genes of the Ref-1/SET interactome. Validation studies demonstrated that Ref-1 is expressed in high-risk leukemia T cells, including in patient biopsies. Ref-1 redox function is active in leukemia T cells, regulating the Ref-1 target NF-κB, and inhibited by the redox-selective Ref-1 inhibitor E3330. Ref-1 expression is not regulated by Notch signaling, but is upregulated by glucocorticoid treatment. E3330 disrupted Ref-1 redox activity in functional studies and resulted in marked inhibition of leukemia cell viability, including T-ALL lines representing different genotypes and risk groups. Potent leukemia cell inhibition was seen in primary cells from ALL patients, relapsed and glucocorticoid-resistant T-ALL cells, and cells from a murine model of Notch-induced leukemia. Ref-1 redox inhibition triggered leukemia cell apoptosis and downregulation of survival genes regulated by Ref-1 targets. For the first time, this work identifies Ref-1 as a novel molecular effector in T-ALL and demonstrates that Ref-1 redox inhibition results in potent inhibition of leukemia T cells, including relapsed T-ALL. These data also support E3330 as a specific Ref-1 small-molecule inhibitor for leukemia. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(7); 1401-11. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article...

  18. Mouse models in leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Human Philadelphia-positive leukemia results from a balanced chromosomal translocation, which fuses the BCR gene on chromosome 22 to the ABL proto-oncogene on chromosome 9. The understanding of Ph-positive leukemogenesis has advanced enormously over

  19. Leukemia & Lymphoma Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be the exclusive property of The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society which in its sole discretion may use this material as it sees fit. I agree to the terms of the Standard Photography Release.* Submit * This field is required * Please fix the validation error messages in the Form Your story was ...

  20. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) KidsHealth / For Parents / Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) What's in this article? About Leukemia Causes ...

  1. How Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myeloid Leukemia? More In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment Back To Top Imagine a world ...

  2. Leukemia and radium groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, B.L.; Letourneau, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    In the August 2, 1985, issue of JAMMA, Lyman et al claim to have shown an association between leukemia incidence in Florida and radium in groundwater supplies. Although cautious in their conclusions, the authors imply that this excess in leukemia was in fact caused by radiation. The authors believe they have not presented a convincing argument for causation. The radiation doses at these levels of exposure could account for only a tiny fraction of the leukemia excess

  3. Overview on available animal models for application in leukemia research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkhardt, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, I.; Cobaleda, C.; Hauer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The term ''leukemia'' encompasses a group of diseases with a variable clinical and pathological presentation. Its cellular origin, its biology and the underlying molecular genetic alterations determine the very variable and individual disease phenotype. The focus of this review is to discuss the most important guidelines to be taken into account when we aim at developing an ''ideal'' animal model to study leukemia. The animal model should mimic all the clinical, histological and molecular genetic characteristics of the human phenotype and should be applicable as a clinically predictive model. It should achieve all the requirements to be used as a standardized model adaptive to basic research as well as to pharmaceutical practice. Furthermore it should fulfill all the criteria to investigate environmental risk factors, the role of genomic mutations and be applicable for therapeutic testing. These constraints limit the usefulness of some existing animal models, which are however very valuable for basic research. Hence in this review we will primarily focus on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) to study the most frequent types of childhood leukemia. GEMMs are robust models with relatively low site specific variability and which can, with the help of the latest gene modulating tools be adapted to individual clinical and research questions. Moreover they offer the possibility to restrict oncogene expression to a defined target population and regulate its expression level as well as its timely activity. Until recently it was only possible in individual cases to develop a murin model, which fulfills the above mentioned requirements. Hence the development of new regulatory elements to control targeted oncogene expression should be priority. Tightly controlled and cell specific oncogene expression can then be combined with a knock-in approach and will depict a robust murine model, which enables almost physiologic oncogene

  4. Tumor suppressors BTG1 and IKZF1 cooperate during mouse leukemia development and increase relapse risk in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheijen, Blanca; Boer, Judith M; Marke, René; Tijchon, Esther; van Ingen Schenau, Dorette; Waanders, Esmé; van Emst, Liesbeth; van der Meer, Laurens T; Pieters, Rob; Escherich, Gabriele; Horstmann, Martin A; Sonneveld, Edwin; Venn, Nicola; Sutton, Rosemary; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Kuiper, Roland P; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; den Boer, Monique L; van Leeuwen, Frank N

    2017-03-01

    Deletions and mutations affecting lymphoid transcription factor IKZF1 (IKAROS) are associated with an increased relapse risk and poor outcome in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, additional genetic events may either enhance or negate the effects of IKZF1 deletions on prognosis. In a large discovery cohort of 533 childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, we observed that single-copy losses of BTG1 were significantly enriched in IKZF1 -deleted B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( P =0.007). While BTG1 deletions alone had no impact on prognosis, the combined presence of BTG1 and IKZF1 deletions was associated with a significantly lower 5-year event-free survival ( P =0.0003) and a higher 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse ( P =0.005), when compared with IKZF1 -deleted cases without BTG1 aberrations. In contrast, other copy number losses commonly observed in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, such as CDKN2A/B, PAX5, EBF1 or RB1 , did not affect the outcome of IKZF1 -deleted acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. To establish whether the combined loss of IKZF1 and BTG1 function cooperate in leukemogenesis, Btg1 -deficient mice were crossed onto an Ikzf1 heterozygous background. We observed that loss of Btg1 increased the tumor incidence of Ikzf1 +/- mice in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, murine B cells deficient for Btg1 and Ikzf1 +/- displayed increased resistance to glucocorticoids, but not to other chemotherapeutic drugs. Together, our results identify BTG1 as a tumor suppressor in leukemia that, when deleted, strongly enhances the risk of relapse in IKZF1 -deleted B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and augments the glucocorticoid resistance phenotype mediated by the loss of IKZF1 function. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  5. Inhibitory Effect of Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii Extract on Melanin Synthesis via Repression of Tyrosinase Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hwayong; Song, Kwang Hoon; Jung, Pil Mun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Ro, Hyunju; Kim, Mi Yoon; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2013-01-01

    To identify the active compound arctigenin in Fructus Arctii (dried seed of medicinal plant Arctium lappa) and to elucidate the inhibitory mechanism in melanogenesis, we analyzed melanin content and tyrosinase activity on B16BL6 murine melanoma and melan-A cell cultures. Water extracts of Fructus Arctii were shown to inhibit tyrosinase activity in vitro and melanin content in ? -melanocyte stimulating hormone-stimulated cells to similar levels as the well-known kojic acid and arbutin, respect...

  6. SB-715992 in Treating Patients With Acute Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, or Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  7. Phase 1 study of INNO-406, a dual Abl/Lyn kinase inhibitor, in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias after imatinib resistance or intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarjian, Hagop; le Coutre, Phillipp; Cortes, Jorge; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; Nagler, Arnon; Hochhaus, Andreas; Kimura, Shinya; Ottmann, Oliver

    2010-06-01

    : INNO-406, a dual v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog (Abl)/v-yes-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral-related oncogene homolog (Lyn) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has demonstrated specific Lyn kinase inhibitory activity with no or limited activity against other sarcoma (Src) family member kinases. Several breakpoint cluster region (Bcr)-Abl kinase domain mutations are sensitive to INNO-406 in vitro, including mutations that involve a phenylalanine-to-leucine or phenylalanine-to-valine substitution at codon 317 (F317L and F317V, respectively). In the current study, the authors evaluated the use of INNO-406 in patients with Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) after imatinib resistance or intolerance. : A dose-escalation study was conducted at a starting dose of oral INNO-406 30 mg once daily. Cohorts of at least 3 patients were treated at each dose level until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was reached. Twice-daily dosing also was evaluated. Therapy was allowed to continue for a maximum of 24 months. : INNO-406 was administered to 56 patients with imatinib resistance (n = 40) or intolerance (n = 16). Other previous treatments included nilotinib (n = 20 patients), dasatinib (n = 26 patients), and dasatinib/nilotinib (n = 9 patients). Common mutations at the time of study entry included a tyrosine-to-histidine substitution at codon 253 (Y253H) (n = 6 patients), a glycine-to-glutamic acid substitution at codon 250 (G250E) (n = 4 patients), a threonine-to-isoleucine substitution at codon 315 (T315I) (n = 4 patients), and F317L (n = 3 patients). Of 31 patients with CML in chronic phase who received INNO-406, the major cytogenetic response rate was 19%. No responses were observed in patients who had CML in accelerated phase, CML in blastic phase, or Ph-positive ALL. The dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) at an INNO-406 dose of 480 mg twice daily were liver function abnormalities and

  8. Extramedullary leukemia in children with acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støve, Heidi Kristine; Sandahl, Julie Damgaard; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of extramedullary leukemia (EML) in childhood acute myeloid leukemia is not clarified. PROCEDURE: This population-based study included 315 children from the NOPHO-AML 2004 trial. RESULTS: At diagnosis, 73 (23%) patients had EML: 39 (12%) had myeloid sarcoma...... the OS. No patients relapsed at the primary site of the myeloid sarcoma despite management without radiotherapy....

  9. Childhood Leukemia and Primary Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Singer, Amanda W.; Miller, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer, affecting 3,800 children per year in the United States. Its annual incidence has increased over the last decades, especially among Latinos. Although most children diagnosed with leukemia are now cured, many suffer long-term complications, and primary prevention efforts are urgently needed. The early onset of leukemia – usually before age five – and the presence at birth of “pre-leukemic” genetic signatures indicate that pre- and postnatal events are critical to the development of the disease. In contrast to most pediatric cancers, there is a growing body of literature – in the United States and internationally – that has implicated several environmental, infectious, and dietary risk factors in the etiology of childhood leukemia, mainly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common subtype. For example, exposures to pesticides, tobacco smoke, solvents, and traffic emissions have consistently demonstrated positive associations with the risk of developing childhood leukemia. In contrast, intake of vitamins and folate supplementation during the pre-conception period or pregnancy, breastfeeding, and exposure to routine childhood infections have been shown to reduce the risk of childhood leukemia. Some children may be especially vulnerable to these risk factors, as demonstrated by a disproportionate burden of childhood leukemia in the Latino population of California. The evidence supporting the associations between childhood leukemia and its risk factors – including pooled analyses from around the world and systematic reviews – is strong; however, the dissemination of this knowledge to clinicians has been limited. To protect children’s health, it is prudent to initiate programs designed to alter exposure to well-established leukemia risk factors rather than to suspend judgement until no uncertainty remains. Primary prevention programs for childhood leukemia would also result in the significant co

  10. Sequence analysis of Leukemia DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacong, Nasria; Lusiyanti, Desy; Irawan, Muhammad. Isa

    2018-03-01

    Cancer is a very deadly disease, one of which is leukemia disease or better known as blood cancer. The cancer cell can be detected by taking DNA in laboratory test. This study focused on local alignment of leukemia and non leukemia data resulting from NCBI in the form of DNA sequences by using Smith-Waterman algorithm. SmithWaterman algorithm was invented by TF Smith and MS Waterman in 1981. These algorithms try to find as much as possible similarity of a pair of sequences, by giving a negative value to the unequal base pair (mismatch), and positive values on the same base pair (match). So that will obtain the maximum positive value as the end of the alignment, and the minimum value as the initial alignment. This study will use sequences of leukemia and 3 sequences of non leukemia.

  11. High Throughput Drug Sensitivity Assay and Genomics- Guided Treatment of Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Acute Leukemia of Ambiguous Lineage; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  12. ZFP521 regulates murine hematopoietic stem cell function and facilitates MLL-AF9 leukemogenesis in mouse and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Brian S; Rybak, Adrian P; Beerman, Isabel; Heesters, Balthasar; Mercier, Francois E; Scadden, David T; Bryder, David; Baron, Roland; Rossi, Derrick J

    2017-08-03

    The concept that tumor-initiating cells can co-opt the self-renewal program of endogenous stem cells as a means of enforcing their unlimited proliferative potential is widely accepted, yet identification of specific factors that regulate self-renewal of normal and cancer stem cells remains limited. Using a comparative transcriptomic approach, we identify ZNF521 / Zfp521 as a conserved hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-enriched transcription factor in human and murine hematopoiesis whose function in HSC biology remains elusive. Competitive serial transplantation assays using Zfp521 -deficient mice revealed that ZFP521 regulates HSC self-renewal and differentiation. In contrast, ectopic expression of ZFP521 in HSCs led to a robust maintenance of progenitor activity in vitro. Transcriptional analysis of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples revealed that ZNF521 is highly and specifically upregulated in AMLs with MLL translocations. Using an MLL-AF9 murine leukemia model and serial transplantation studies, we show that ZFP521 is not required for leukemogenesis, although its absence leads to a significant delay in leukemia onset. Furthermore, knockdown of ZNF521 reduced proliferation in human leukemia cell lines possessing MLL-AF9 translocations. Taken together, these results identify ZNF521/ZFP521 as a critical regulator of HSC function, which facilitates MLL-AF9-mediated leukemic disease in mice.

  13. Succesful therapy of viral leukemia by transplantation of histocompatibly unmatched marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith, R.F.; OKunewick, J.P.; Kuhnert, P.M.; Brozovich, B.J.; Weaver, E.V.

    1978-01-01

    The therapeutic effectiveness on murine viral-leukemia of allogeneic or hybrid hematopoietic cells transplanted from leukemia-virus resistant donors was evaluated and compared with that of syngeneic cells. Transplantation of syngeneic cells gave no protection to the viral-leukemic mice. Transplantation of spleen cells from allogeneic donors resulted in early deaths of both leukemic and non-leukemic recipients. Transplantation of hybrid spleen cells resulted in no long-term survival of the leukemic mice. However, there were a number of long-term survivors among the leukemic recipients of allogeneic or hybrid marrow cells. Engraftment of allogeneic marrow resulted in a large number of survivors. Hybrid marrow recipients showed an even better survival, but some leukemia relapses. Tests of the longterm survivors revealed that even though they gave no evidence of leukemia they still harbored the active virus. This suggests that the mechanism of protection may be related to some inherent characteristic of the donor cells rendering them refractory to viral transformation. A difference in graft-versus-host (GvH) response between the leukemic and control mice was also found after transplantation of allogeneic cells. While all of the controls died of GvH reaction, none of the leukemic recipients showed severe GvH response, suggesting a possible effect of the leukemia on histocompatibility. No GvH reaction was found with hybrid marrow engraftment, although some of the leukemic recipients reconstituted with F 1 cells did die of leukemic relapse. (author)

  14. Effects of Radix Adenophorae and Cyclosporine A on an OVA-Induced Murine Model of Asthma by Suppressing to T Cells Activity, Eosinophilia, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Soo Roh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of Radix Adenophorae extract (RAE on ovalbumin-induced asthma murine model. To study the anti-inflammatory and antiasthmatic effects of RAE, we examined the development of pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation and inhibitory effects of T cells in murine by RAE and cyclosporine A (CsA. We examined determination of airway hyperresponsiveness, flow cytometric analysis (FACS, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, quantitative real time (PCR, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and Masson trichrome staining in lung tissue, lung weight, total cells, and eosinophil numbers in lung tissue. We demonstrated how RAE suppressed development on inflammation and decreased airway damage.

  15. β-Arrestin2 mediates progression of murine primary myelofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Lindsay Am; Wisler, James W; Kim, Jihee; Theriot, Barbara; Huang, LiYin; Price, Trevor; Yang, Haeyoon; Chen, Minyong; Chen, Wei; Sipkins, Dorothy; Fedoriw, Yuri; Walker, Julia Kl; Premont, Richard T; Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2017-12-21

    Primary myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative neoplasm associated with significant morbidity and mortality, for which effective therapies are lacking. β-Arrestins are multifunctional adaptor proteins involved in developmental signaling pathways. One isoform, β-arrestin2 (βarr2), has been implicated in initiation and progression of chronic myeloid leukemia, another myeloproliferative neoplasm closely related to primary myelofibrosis. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between βarr2 and primary myelofibrosis. In a murine model of MPLW515L-mutant primary myelofibrosis, mice transplanted with donor βarr2-knockout (βarr2-/-) hematopoietic stem cells infected with MPL-mutant retrovirus did not develop myelofibrosis, whereas controls uniformly succumbed to disease. Although transplanted βarr2-/- cells homed properly to marrow, they did not repopulate long-term due to increased apoptosis and decreased self-renewal of βarr2-/- cells. In order to assess the effect of acute loss of βarr2 in established primary myelofibrosis in vivo, we utilized a tamoxifen-induced Cre-conditional βarr2-knockout mouse. Mice that received Cre (+) donor cells and developed myelofibrosis had significantly improved survival compared with controls. These data indicate that lack of antiapoptotic βarr2 mediates marrow failure of murine hematopoietic stem cells overexpressing MPLW515L. They also indicate that βarr2 is necessary for progression of primary myelofibrosis, suggesting that it may serve as a novel therapeutic target in this disease.

  16. [Acute myeloid leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Ken

    2007-02-01

    The annual incident rate of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is now 10 per million in Japan, against 5 to 9 per million in the USA and Europe. Overall long-term survival has now been achieved for more than 50% of pediatric patients with AML in the USA and in Europe. The prognostic factors of pediatric AML were analyzed,and patients with AML were classified according to prognostic factors. The t(15;17), inv(16) and t(8;21) have emerged as predictors of good prognosis in children with AML. Monosomy 7, monosomy 5 and del (5 q) abnormalities showed a poor prognosis. In addition to chromosomal deletions, FLT 3/ITD identifies pediatric patients with a particularly poor prognosis. Clinical trials of AML feature intensive chemotherapy with or without subsequent stem cell transplantation. Risk group stratification is becoming increasingly important in planning AML therapy. APL can be distinguished from other subtypes of AML by virtue of its excellent response and overall outcome as a result of differentiation therapy with ATRA. Children with Down syndrome and AML have been shown to have a superior prognosis to AML therapy compared to other children with AML. The results of the Japan Cooperative Study Group protocol ANLL 91 was one of the best previously reported in the literature. With the consideration of quality of life (QOL), risk-adapted therapy was introduced in the AML 99 trial conducted by the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group. A high survival rate of 79% at 3 years was achieved for childhood de novo AML in the AML 99 trial. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the treatment strategy according to risk stratification based on leukemia cell biology and response to the initial induction therapy in children with AML, the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) has organized multi-center phase II trials in children with newly diagnosed AML.

  17. Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. Hypoxia-Activated Prodrug TH-302 Targets Hypoxic Bone Marrow Niches in Preclinical Leukemia Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Juliana; Ramirez, Marc S; Millward, Niki Zacharias; Velez, Juliana; Harutyunyan, Karine G; Lu, Hongbo; Shi, Yue-Xi; Matre, Polina; Jacamo, Rodrigo; Ma, Helen; Konoplev, Sergej; McQueen, Teresa; Volgin, Andrei; Protopopova, Marina; Mu, Hong; Lee, Jaehyuk; Bhattacharya, Pratip K; Marszalek, Joseph R; Davis, R Eric; Bankson, James A; Cortes, Jorge E; Hart, Charles P; Andreeff, Michael; Konopleva, Marina

    2016-04-01

    To characterize the prevalence of hypoxia in the leukemic bone marrow, its association with metabolic and transcriptional changes in the leukemic blasts and the utility of hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 in leukemia models. Hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy was utilized to interrogate the pyruvate metabolism of the bone marrow in the murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) model. Nanostring technology was used to evaluate a gene set defining a hypoxia signature in leukemic blasts and normal donors. The efficacy of the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 was examined in the in vitro and in vivo leukemia models. Metabolic imaging has demonstrated increased glycolysis in the femur of leukemic mice compared with healthy control mice, suggesting metabolic reprogramming of hypoxic bone marrow niches. Primary leukemic blasts in samples from AML patients overexpressed genes defining a "hypoxia index" compared with samples from normal donors. TH-302 depleted hypoxic cells, prolonged survival of xenograft leukemia models, and reduced the leukemia stem cell pool in vivo In the aggressive FLT3/ITD MOLM-13 model, combination of TH-302 with tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib had greater antileukemia effects than either drug alone. Importantly, residual leukemic bone marrow cells in a syngeneic AML model remain hypoxic after chemotherapy. In turn, administration of TH-302 following chemotherapy treatment to mice with residual disease prolonged survival, suggesting that this approach may be suitable for eliminating chemotherapy-resistant leukemia cells. These findings implicate a pathogenic role of hypoxia in leukemia maintenance and chemoresistance and demonstrate the feasibility of targeting hypoxic cells by hypoxia cytotoxins. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Cancers other than leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, G W; Kato, H [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-09-01

    Cancers which are unlikely to appear among atomic bomb survirors in excess of natural incidence include skin cancer and bone cancer, as these appear to require for their initiation doses that are incompatible with life if administered on a whole body basis. Although chronic lymphocytic leukemia continues to provide an important exception, and for many sites of cancer there is not yet evidence that radiation has increased incidence above normal levels, the data on A-bomb survivors are otherwise consistent with the hypothesis that the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation is general, involving all tissues. Studies of cancer among A-bomb survivors are notably limited with respect to the influence of variables other than dose, age, sex, and time. It seems highly desirable that other risk factors be studied in conjunction with radiation dose and demographic variables in an effort to detect interactions that might provide clues as to the etiology of cancer and as to the mechanisms by which ionizing radiation produces cancer. Provisional estimates suggest that the absolute risk of cancer, in terms of excess cases per 10/sup 6/ person-year rads (T65 dose) are about 1.6 for leukemia, 1.2 for thyroid, 2.1 for breast and 2.0 for lung, when estimation is based on age-ATB groups that have demonstrated these effects.

  20. An inhibitory switch derepressed by pbx, hox, and Meis/Prep1 partners regulates DNA-binding by pbx1 and E2a-pbx1 and is dispensable for myeloid immortalization by E2a-pbx1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, K R; Knoepfler, P; McGrath, S; Kamps, M P

    1999-12-23

    The Pbx/Exd family of homeodomain (HD) proteins contribute to the transcriptional and developmental roles of other Hox and Meis/Prep1/Hth HD proteins through heterodimer formation. E2a-Pbx1 is an oncogenic derrivative of Pbx1 produced by the t(1;19) translocation in pediatric pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. E2a-Pbx1 heterodimerizes with Hox but not with Meis/Prep1 proteins, produces acute myeloid leukemia in mice, and blocks differentiation of cultured murine myeloid progenitors. Here, we characterize negative and positive regulatory sequences that flank the Pbx1 HD and determine their importance for myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1. A 25 residue predicted alpha helix preceding the Pbx1 HD bound the HD and prevented both its binding to DNA and its ability to heterodimerize with Hox proteins. Addition of 39 residues N-terminal to this inhibitory helix exposed a Pbx dimerization interface that orchestrated cooperative DNA-binding of E2a-Pbx1 and all Pbx proteins as homodimers and heterdimers. Sequences inhibiting DNA-binding and mediating Pbx dimerization coincided with those reported to have nuclear export function. An additional 103 residues N-terminal to the Pbx dimerization interface restored heterodimerization with Hox and Meis1/Prep1 proteins. This negative switch domain - comprised of the inhibitory helix and N-terminal regions required for its partner-mediated derepression - was dispensable for myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1. While stabilizing the heterodimer, the 310 helix C-terminal to the Pbx1 HD was also dispensable for the ability of E2a-Pbx1 to heterodimerize with Hox proteins and immortalize myeloblasts. Retention of myeloid immortalization by E2a-Pbx1 proteins lacking all Pbx1 sequences N- or C-terminal to the HD indicates that Hox proteins, or a yet undefined factor that binds the Pbx1 HD and derepresses DNA-binding by the HD, cooperate with E2a-Pbx1 in myeloid immortalization.

  1. Inhibitory effects of Citrus hassaku extract and its flavanone glycosides on melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kimihisa; Hirata, Noriko; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Wakabayashi, Keitaro; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    The 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from the unripe fruit of Citrus hassaku exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The CH-ext showed antioxidant activity, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation of the CH-ext indicated that flavanone glycoside-rich fractions showed potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Further examination revealed that the tyrosinase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the CH-ext were attributable to naringin and neohesperidin, respectively. The CH-ext showed inhibition of melanogenesis without any effects on cell proliferation in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells after glucosamine exposure. The topical application of the CH-ext to the dorsal skin of brownish guinea pigs showed in vivo preventive effects against UVB-induced pigmentation.

  2. Interleukin-2 production by human leukemia cell lines of pre-B cell origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holan, V.; Minowada, J.

    1993-01-01

    Cells of 7 tested human leukemia cell lines of pre-B cell origin (as characterized by immunophenotyping and by the expression of cytoplasmic micro chains, but not by surface immunoglobulins) produced after stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) a lymphokine activity which supported the growth of the interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent CTLL-2 cell line. Three pieces of evidence indicate that the secreted lymphokine was functionally and antigenically very similar, if not identical, to human IL-2: (1) The lymphokine supported the growth of murine IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cells, which did not respond to human lymphokines other than IL-2, but it did not stimulate the growth of murine IL-3-dependent FDC-P2 cells, (2) the biological activity of the lymphokine was was inhibited by monoclonal antibody (mAb) anti-human-IL-2, and (3) the proliferation of IL-2-dependent cells in the presence of the active materials was completely inhibited by the inclusion of the anti-mouse-IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) mAb. Since leukemia cells of immature B-cell origin also synthesize IL-2R, the human pre-B cell leukemias could represent another type of hematological malignancy where the autocrine processes of IL-2 production and utilization are involved in the expansion of the disease. (author)

  3. Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the lymph system . Having relatives who are Russian Jews or Eastern European Jews. Signs and symptoms ... information about clinical trials is also available. To Learn More About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia For more information ...

  4. Down syndrome preleukemia and leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly W; Taub, Jeffrey W; Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi; Roberts, Irene; Vyas, Paresh

    2015-02-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) and acute leukemias acute have unique biological, cytogenetic, and intrinsic factors that affect their treatment and outcome. Myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome (ML-DS) is associated with high event-free survival (EFS) rates and frequently preceded by a preleukemia condition, the transient abnormal hematopoiesis (TAM) present at birth. For acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), their EFS and overall survival are poorer than non-DS ALL, it is important to enroll them on therapeutic trials, including relapse trials; investigate new agents that could potentially improve their leukemia-free survival; and strive to maximize the supportive care these patients need. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Central nervous system in leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phair, J P; Anderson, R E; Namiki, Hideo

    1964-03-12

    The present report summarizes the pertinent clinical and pathologic findings in 165 cases of leukemia in atomic bomb exposed victims autopsied during the period 1949 to 1962 at ABCC in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Significant parenchymal hemorrhage occurred most often in acute myelogenous leukemia and was markedly increased in patients dying with high terminal white blood cell counts. Possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral hemorrhage in leukemia are discussed. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and subdural hematoma were not related to leukocytosis but appeared to be influenced by marked thrombocytopenia. Leukemic infiltrates of a diffuse nature involving the meninges were paradoxically increased in patients receiving adequate chemotherapy. Meningeal tumors did not show this peculiar relationship to therapy and were not found in association with lymphatic leukemia. Infections involving the central nervous system were confined to patients receiving chemotherapy including steroids. 39 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  6. Pharmacogenetics in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Meyling H.; Pottier, Nicolas; Kager, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Progress in the treatment of acute leukemia in children has been remarkable, from a disease being lethal four decades ago to current cure rates exceeding 80%. This exemplary progress is largely due to the optimization of existing treatment modalities rather than the discovery of new antileukemic agents. However, despite these high cure rates, the annual number of children whose leukemia relapses after their initial therapy remains greater than that of new cases of most types of childhood cancers. The aim of pharmacogenetics is to develop strategies to personalize treatment and tailor therapy to individual patients, with the goal of optimizing efficacy and safety through better understanding of human genome variability and its influence on drug response. In this review, we summarize recent pharmacogenomic studies related to the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. These studies illustrate the promise of pharmacogenomics to further advance the treatment of human cancers, with childhood leukemia serving as a paradigm. PMID:19100367

  7. PROGRESS IN ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadia, Tapan M.; Ravandi, Farhad; O’Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2014-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Steady gains in clinical research and a renaissance of genomics in leukemia have led to improved outcomes. The recognition of tremendous heterogeneity in AML has allowed individualized treatments of specific disease entities within the context of patient age, cytogenetics, and mutational analysis. The following is a comprehensive review of the current state of AML therapy and a roadmap of our approach to these distinct disease entities. PMID:25441110

  8. Plasma cell leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández de Larrea, C; Kyle, R A; Durie, B G M

    2013-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells. It is classified as either primary PCL occurring at diagnosis or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinic......-pathological entity with different cytogenetic and molecular findings. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and survival duration. The diagnosis is based upon the percentage (≥ 20%) and absolute number (≥ 2 × 10(9)/l) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is proposed that the thresholds...... regimens and bortezomib-based regimens are recommended followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation if feasible. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. Prospective multicenter studies are required to provide revised definitions and better understanding...

  9. Treatment of prolymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, D. Jr.; Coleman, M.

    1982-01-01

    Prolymphocytic leukemia is characterized by marked splenomegaly, distinctive cellular morphologic characteristics, and a poor clinical course. Five patients with typical PL were treated systematically with vincristine/prednisone, chlorambucil/prednisone, splenic irradiation, splenectomy, and other chemotherapy regimens. No patient responded to vincristine/prednisone. Two patients responded to chlorambucil/prednisone, and four patients had brief responses to splenic irradiation. Two patients underwent splenectomy, one of whom had a prolonged clinical remission. There were no complete remissions. No other chemotherapy combinations were of value. The median survival was 33 months. Recommendations are made to use chlorambucil/prednisone or splenic irradiation as initial treatment. Splenectomy should be considered in patients refractory to these modalities. The course of PL may be more protracted than originally reported

  10. Treatment of prolymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, S. Jr.; Coleman, M.

    1982-01-01

    Prolymphocytic leukemia is characterized by marked splenomegaly, distinctive cellular morphologic characteristics, and a poor clinical course. Five patients with typical PL were treated systematically with vincristine/prednisone, chlorambucil/prednisone, splenic irradiation, splenectomy, and other chemotherapy regimens. No patient responded to vincristine/prednisone. Two patients responded to chlorambucil/prednisone, and four patients had brief responses to splenic irradiation. Two patients underwent splenectomy, one of whom had a prolonged clinical remissions. No other chemotherapy combinations were of value. The median survival was 33 months. Recommendations are made to use chlorambucil/prednisone or splenic irradiation as initial treatment. Splenectomy should be considered in patients refractory to these modalities. The course of PL may be more protracted than originally reported

  11. In vitro and in vivo properties of human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody specific for common acute lymphocytic leukemia antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, T.; Endo, K.; Koizumi, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Konishi, J.; Ueda, R.; Nishimura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Watanabe, T.

    1990-01-01

    A human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody specific for a common acute lymphocytic leukemia antigen was efficiently obtained by ligating human heavy-chain enhancer element to the chimeric heavy- and light-chain genes. Cell binding and competitive inhibition assays of both radioiodine and indium-111- (111In) labeled chimeric antibodies demonstrated in vitro immunoreactivity identical with that of the parental murine monoclonal antibodies. The biodistribution of the radiolabeled chimeric antibody in tumor-bearing nude mice was similar to that of the parental murine antibody. Tumor accumulation of radioiodinated parental and chimeric antibodies was lower than that of 111 In-labeled antibodies, probably because of dehalogenation of the radioiodinated antibodies. Indium-111-labeled chimeric antibody clearly visualized xenografted tumor. These results suggest that a human/mouse chimeric antibody can be labeled with 111 In and radioiodine without the loss of its immunoreactivity, and that chimeric antibody localizes in vivo in the same way as the parental murine antibody

  12. Risk-Based Classification System of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-22

    Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  13. Residential mobility and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoon, A T; Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Arah, O A; Cockburn, M; Vergara, X; Kheifets, L

    2018-07-01

    Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility. Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute childhood leukemia: Nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietz, Hallie A

    1997-01-01

    Modern therapy for childhood acute leukemia has provided a dramatically improved prognosis over that of just 30 years ago. In the early 1960's survival rates for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were 4% and 3%, respectively. By the 1980's survival rates had risen to 72% for all and 25% to 40% for AML. Today, a diagnosis of all carries an 80% survival rate and as high as a 90% survival rate for some low-risk subtypes. Such high cure rates depend on intense and complex, multimodal therapeutic protocols. Therefore, nursing care of the child with acute leukemia must meet the demands of complicated medical therapies and balance those with the needs of a sick child and their concerned family. An understanding of disease process and principles of medical management guide appropriate and effective nursing interventions. Leukemia is a malignant disorder of the blood and blood- forming organs (bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen). Most believe that acute leukemia results from a malignant transformation of a single early haematopoietic stem cell that is capable of indefinite self-renewal. These immature cells of blasts do not respond to normal physiologic stimuli for differentiation and gradually become the predominant cell in the bone marrow

  15. INHIBITORY EFFECT OF SALVIA SCLAREA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rakoe

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... This study demonstrated anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity of lavender, sage and ... Green monkey kidney cells were protected from HSV-2 infection by ... The highest inhibitory effect against HSV-2 was observed after treatment ..... some nuclear-replicating eukaryotic DNA viruses with large genomes.

  16. Inhibitory control in childhood stuttering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, K.; de Nil, L.; Van den Bergh, B.R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate whether previously reported parental questionnaire-based differences in inhibitory control (IC; Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) would be supported by direct measurement of IC using a computer task. Method Participants were 30 children who

  17. Comparison of Cultivars and Seasonal Variation in Blueberry (Vaccinium Species) Leaf Extract on Adult T-Cell Leukemia Cell Line Growth Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Kai, Hisahiro; Fuse, Takuichi; Kunitake, Hisato; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Matsuno, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of blueberry leaves on the proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines have previously been reported. A comparison of blueberry leaf extracts from different cultivars and seasonal variation were investigated regarding their effects on ATL cell line proliferation. The inhibitory effects of 80% ethanol leaf extracts from different blueberry cultivars collected from April to December in 2006 or 2008 were evaluated using two ATL cell lines. The bioactivities of ...

  18. Effects of trichostatins on differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Nomura, S.; Beppu, T.

    1987-01-01

    The fungistatic antibiotics trichostatins (TS) A and C were isolated from culture broth of Streptomyces platensis No. 145 and were found to be potent inducers of differentiation in murine erythroleukemia (Friend and RV133) cells at concentrations of 1.5 X 10(-8) M for TSA and 5 X 10(-7) M for TSC. Differentiation induced by TS was cooperatively enhanced by UV irradiation but not by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. This enhanced activity was completely inhibited by adding cycloheximide to the culture medium 2 h after exposure to TS, suggesting that TS are dimethyl sulfoxide-type inducers of erythroid differentiation. No inhibitory effect of TS was observed on macromolecular synthesis in cultured cells

  19. Effect of gene dosage on single-cell hippocampal electrophysiology in a murine model of SSADH deficiency (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dósa, Zita; Nieto-Gonzalez, Jose Luis; Korshoej, Anders Rosendal

    2010-01-01

    phasic GABAergic neurotransmission was unaffected in the same cells. Our results indicate global disruption of cortical networks in SSADH KO mice, affecting both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Our findings provide new clues concerning seizure evolution in the murine model (absence-->tonic-clonic-->status...... epilepticus), and extend pathophysiological insight into human SSADH deficiency....

  20. Feline leukemia virus infection requires a post-receptor binding envelope-dependent cellular component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Naveen; Thickett, Kelly R; Na, Hong; Leung, Cherry; Tailor, Chetankumar S

    2011-12-01

    Gammaretrovirus receptors have been suggested to contain the necessary determinants to mediate virus binding and entry. Here, we show that murine NIH 3T3 and baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells overexpressing receptors for subgroup A, B, and C feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) are weakly susceptible (10(1) to 10(2) CFU/ml) to FeLV pseudotype viruses containing murine leukemia virus (MLV) core (Gag-Pol) proteins, whereas FeLV receptor-expressing murine Mus dunni tail fibroblast (MDTF) cells are highly susceptible (10(4) to 10(6) CFU/ml). However, NIH 3T3 cells expressing the FeLV subgroup B receptor PiT1 are highly susceptible to gibbon ape leukemia virus pseudotype virus, which differs from the FeLV pseudotype viruses only in the envelope protein. FeLV resistance is not caused by a defect in envelope binding, low receptor expression levels, or N-linked glycosylation. Resistance is not alleviated by substitution of the MLV core in the FeLV pseudotype virus with FeLV core proteins. Interestingly, FeLV resistance is alleviated by fusion of receptor-expressing NIH 3T3 and BHK cells with MDTF or human TE671 cells, suggesting the absence of an additional cellular component in NIH 3T3 and BHK cells that is required for FeLV infection. The putative FeLV-specific cellular component is not a secreted factor, as MDTF conditioned medium does not alleviate the block to FeLV infection. Together, our findings suggest that FeLV infection requires an additional envelope-dependent cellular component that is absent in NIH 3T3 and BHK cells but that is present in MDTF and TE671 cells.

  1. Quantitation of human thymus/leukemia-associated antigen by radioimmunoassay in different forms of leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechik, B E; Jason, J; Shore, A; Baker, M; Dosch, H M; Gelfand, E W

    1979-12-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay, increased levels of a human thymus/leukemia-associated antigen (HThy-L) have been detected in leukemic cells and plasma from most patients with E-rosette-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and a number of patients with E-rosette-negative ALL, acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), acute monomyelocytic leukemia (AMML), and acute undifferentiated leukemia (AVL). Low levels of HThy-L have been demonstrated in white cells from patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (stable phase) and in mononuclear cells from patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia. The relationship between HThy-L and differentiation of hematopoietic cells is discussed.

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  3. General Information about Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ALL Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Chronic ...

  4. Application of murine monoclonal antibodies to the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanyl, J.; Coates, A.R.M.; Krambovitis, E.

    1982-01-01

    The immune response during infectious diseases leads to a rise in antibody titre to the various different antigenic determinants of the causative organism. The response is further complicated by the fact that it is relatively unusual for one individual to respond to all antigenic components of an organism. Demonstration of the specific immune response of an infected host by serological tests is often hampered by the broad cross-reactivity between several bacterial antigens. The authors report on a serodiagnostic application of murine monoclonal antibodies (MAB), specific for a human pathogen, M. tuberculosis by a technique which is applicable in principle to the serodiagnosis of many other infectious diseases. The serum diagnostic test is based on the competitive inhibition by human sera of the binding of 125 I-labelled murine monoclonal antibodies to M. tuberculosis-coated polyvinyl plates. Five monoclonal antibodies binding to distinct antigenic determinants of the organism were used as structural probes which conferred their stringent combining site specificities to the polyclonal mixture of antibodies from patients' sera. When compared with healthy controls, increased titres of inhibitory antibodies were found in about 70% of patients with active tuberculosis. The diagnostic value of the individual monoclonal antibodies as well as the benefit from the use of multiple specificity probes has been qualified

  5. Impulsivity: A deficiency of inhibitory control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansbergen, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Impulsivity has been defined as acting without thinking. Impulsivity can be quantified by impulsivity questionnaires, but also by behavioral paradigms which tax inhibitory control. Previous research has repeatedly demonstrated deficient inhibitory control in psychopathological samples characterized

  6. Risk Groups for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells in the blood at the time of diagnosis. Whether the leukemia cells began from B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes. ... How long it is between the time of diagnosis and when the leukemia comes back. Whether the leukemia comes back in ...

  7. Treatment Options for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells in the blood at the time of diagnosis. Whether the leukemia cells began from B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes. ... How long it is between the time of diagnosis and when the leukemia comes back. Whether the leukemia comes back in ...

  8. General Information about Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells in the blood at the time of diagnosis. Whether the leukemia cells began from B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes. ... How long it is between the time of diagnosis and when the leukemia comes back. Whether the leukemia comes back in ...

  9. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with hairy cell leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L; Shaw, A; Slupsky, J; Vos, H; Poppema, S

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with hairy cell leukemia were developed to aid in the diagnosis of this subtype of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and to gain better insight into the origin of hairy cells. Three antibodies were found to be of value in the diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia.

  10. Acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béné, Marie C; Porwit, Anna

    2012-02-01

    The 2008 edition of the WHO Classification of Tumors of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues recognizes a special category called "leukemias of ambiguous lineage." The vast majority of these rare leukemias are classified as mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL), although acute undifferentiated leukemias and natural killer lymphoblastic leukemias are also included. The major immunophenotypic markers used by the WHO 2008 to determine the lineage for these proliferations are myeloperoxidase, CD19, and cytoplasmic CD3. However, extensive immunophenotyping is necessary to confirm that the cells indeed belong to 2 different lineages or coexpress differentiation antigens of more than 1 lineage. Specific subsets of MPAL are defined by chromosomal anomalies such as the t(9;22) Philadelphia chromosome BCR-ABL1 or involvement of the MLL gene on chromosome 11q23. Other MPAL are divided into B/myeloid NOS, T/myeloid NOS, B/T NOS, and B/T/myeloid NOS. MPAL are usually of dire prognosis, respond variably to chemotherapy of acute lymphoblastic or acute myeloblastic type, and benefit most from rapid allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  11. Systematic in vitro and in vivo characterization of Leukemia-inhibiting factor- and Fibroblast growth factor-derived porcine induced pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Jan Ole Bertelsen; Ceylan, Ahmet; Mazzoni, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Derivation and stable maintenance of porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) is challenging. We herein systematically analyzed two piPSC lines, derived by lentiviral transduction and cultured under either leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or fibroblast growth factor (FGF) conditions, to sh...

  12. Childhood leukemia around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Information Bulletin highlights the conclusion made from an Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada (AECB) study on the incidence of childhood leukemia near nuclear facilities. All of the locations with the nuclear facilities are located in Ontario, the nuclear generating stations at Pickering and Bruce; the uranium mines and mills in Elliot Lake; the uranium refining facility in Port Hope; and nuclear research facilities located at Chalk River plus the small nuclear power plant in Rolphton. Two conclusions are drawn from the study: 1) while the rate of childhood leukemias made be higher or lower than the provincial average, there is no statistical evidence that the difference is due to anything but the natural variation in the occurrence of the disease; and 2) the rate of occurrence of childhood leukemia around the Pickering nuclear power station was slightly greater than the Ontario average both before and after the plant opened, but this, too , could be due to the natural variation

  13. Acute leukemia in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emerenciano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

  14. Analysis of telomerase target gene expression effects from murine models in patient cohorts by homology translation and random survival forest modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Otzen Bagger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is an aggressive and rapidly fatal blood cancer that affects patients of any age group. Despite an initial response to standard chemotherapy, most patients relapse and this relapse is mediated by leukemia stem cell (LSC populations. We identified a functional requirement for telomerase in sustaining LSC populations in murine models of AML and validated this requirement using an inhibitor of telomerase in human AML. Here, we describe in detail the contents, quality control and methods of the gene expression analysis used in the published study (Gene Expression Omnibus GSE63242. Additionally, we provide annotated gene lists of telomerase regulated genes in AML and R code snippets to access and analyze the data used in the original manuscript. Keywords: AML, Leukemia, Stem cells, Telomere, Telomerase

  15. A dominantly acting murine allele of Mcm4 causes chromosomal abnormalities and promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce N Bagley

    Full Text Available Here we report the isolation of a murine model for heritable T cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL called Spontaneous dominant leukemia (Sdl. Sdl heterozygous mice develop disease with a short latency and high penetrance, while mice homozygous for the mutation die early during embryonic development. Sdl mice exhibit an increase in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes, and T-ALLs from Sdl mice harbor small amplifications and deletions, including activating deletions at the Notch1 locus. Using exome sequencing it was determined that Sdl mice harbor a spontaneously acquired mutation in Mcm4 (Mcm4(D573H. MCM4 is part of the heterohexameric complex of MCM2-7 that is important for licensing of DNA origins prior to S phase and also serves as the core of the replicative helicase that unwinds DNA at replication forks. Previous studies in murine models have discovered that genetic reductions of MCM complex levels promote tumor formation by causing genomic instability. However, Sdl mice possess normal levels of Mcms, and there is no evidence for loss-of-heterozygosity at the Mcm4 locus in Sdl leukemias. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicate that the Sdl mutation produces a biologically inactive helicase. Together, these data support a model in which chromosomal abnormalities in Sdl mice result from the ability of MCM4(D573H to incorporate into MCM complexes and render them inactive. Our studies indicate that dominantly acting alleles of MCMs can be compatible with viability but have dramatic oncogenic consequences by causing chromosomal abnormalities.

  16. A dominantly acting murine allele of Mcm4 causes chromosomal abnormalities and promotes tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Bruce N; Keane, Thomas M; Maklakova, Vilena I; Marshall, Jonathon G; Lester, Rachael A; Cancel, Michelle M; Paulsen, Alex R; Bendzick, Laura E; Been, Raha A; Kogan, Scott C; Cormier, Robert T; Kendziorski, Christina; Adams, David J; Collier, Lara S

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the isolation of a murine model for heritable T cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL) called Spontaneous dominant leukemia (Sdl). Sdl heterozygous mice develop disease with a short latency and high penetrance, while mice homozygous for the mutation die early during embryonic development. Sdl mice exhibit an increase in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes, and T-ALLs from Sdl mice harbor small amplifications and deletions, including activating deletions at the Notch1 locus. Using exome sequencing it was determined that Sdl mice harbor a spontaneously acquired mutation in Mcm4 (Mcm4(D573H)). MCM4 is part of the heterohexameric complex of MCM2-7 that is important for licensing of DNA origins prior to S phase and also serves as the core of the replicative helicase that unwinds DNA at replication forks. Previous studies in murine models have discovered that genetic reductions of MCM complex levels promote tumor formation by causing genomic instability. However, Sdl mice possess normal levels of Mcms, and there is no evidence for loss-of-heterozygosity at the Mcm4 locus in Sdl leukemias. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicate that the Sdl mutation produces a biologically inactive helicase. Together, these data support a model in which chromosomal abnormalities in Sdl mice result from the ability of MCM4(D573H) to incorporate into MCM complexes and render them inactive. Our studies indicate that dominantly acting alleles of MCMs can be compatible with viability but have dramatic oncogenic consequences by causing chromosomal abnormalities.

  17. The Diversity of Cortical Inhibitory Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKubota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most typical and well known inhibitory action in the cortical microcircuit is a strong inhibition on the target neuron by axo-somatic synapses. However, it has become clear that synaptic inhibition in the cortex is much more diverse and complicated. Firstly, at least ten or more inhibitory non-pyramidal cell subtypes engage in diverse inhibitory functions to produce the elaborate activity characteristic of the different cortical states. Each distinct non-pyramidal cell subtype has its own independent inhibitory function. Secondly, the inhibitory synapses innervate different neuronal domains, such as axons, spines, dendrites and soma, and their IPSP size is not uniform. Thus cortical inhibition is highly complex, with a wide variety of anatomical and physiological modes. Moreover, the functional significance of the various inhibitory synapse innervation styles and their unique structural dynamic behaviors differ from those of excitatory synapses. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the inhibitory mechanisms of the cortical microcircuit.

  18. Association of leukemia with radium groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.; Lyman, C.G.; Johnson, W.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation exposure, including the ingestion of radium, has been causally associated with leukemia in man. Groundwater samples from 27 counties on or near Florida phosphate lands were found to exceed 5 pCi/L total radium in 12.4% of measurements. The incidence of leukemia was greater in those counties with high levels of radium contamination (greater than 10% of the samples contaminated) than in those with low levels of contamination. Rank correlation coefficients of .56 and .45 were observed between the radium contamination level and the incidence of total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia, respectively. The standardized incidence density ratio for those in high-contamination counties was 1.5 for total leukemia and 2.0 for acute myeloid leukemia. Further investigation is necessary, however, before a causal relationship between groundwater radium content and human leukemia can be established

  19. In vitro inducible nitric oxide synthesis inhibitory active constituents from Fraxinus rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N Y; Pae, H O; Ko, Y S; Yoo, J C; Choi, B M; Jun, C D; Chung, H T; Inagaki, M; Higuchi, R; Kim, Y C

    1999-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an H2O extract of the barks of Fraxinus rhynchophylla has furnished two inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitory compounds, ferulaldehyde (1) and scopoletin (3) together with a coumarin, fraxidin (2). Compounds 1 and 3 showed inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in a dose-dependent manner by murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The inhibition of NO synthesis of 1 was reflected in the decreased amount of iNOS protein, as determined by Western blotting.

  20. Imported rickettsioses : think of murine typhus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kleij, FGH; Gansevoort, RT; Kreeftenberg, HG

    Murine typhus is a disease still prevalent in many parts of the world. Because the incidence in the US and Europe has declined rapidly, physicians in these continents have become unfamiliar with the clinical picture. Murine typhus is associated with significant morbidity and fatalities do occur,

  1. Thromboembolism in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Cecilie Utke; Toft, Nina; Tuckuviene, Ruta

    2018-01-01

    Thromboembolism frequently occurs during acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy. We prospectively registered thromboembolic events during treatment of 1772 consecutive Nordic/Baltic ALL patients 1-45years treated according to the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL...

  2. Heterogeneity in acute undifferentiated leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaistre, A; Childs, C C; Hirsch-Ginsberg, C; Reuben, J; Cork, A; Trujillo, J M; Andersson, B; McCredie, K B; Freireich, E; Stass, S A

    1988-01-01

    From January 1985 to May 1987, we studied 256 adults with newly diagnosed acute leukemia. Acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL) was diagnosed in 12 of the 256 (4.6%) cases when lineage could not be delineated by light microscopy and light cytochemistry. To further characterize the blasts, immunophenotyping, ultrastructural myeloperoxidase (UMPO), and ultrastructural platelet peroxidase parameters were examined in 10, 11, and 6 of the 12 cases, respectively. Five cases demonstrated UMPO and were reclassified as acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). Of the six UMPO-negative cases, three had a myeloid and one had a mixed immunophenotype. One UMPO-negative patient with a myeloid immunophenotype was probed for the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (JH) and the beta chain of the T-cell receptor gene (Tcr beta) with no evidence of rearrangement. Six cases were treated with standard acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) chemotherapy and failed to achieve complete remission (CR). Various AML chemotherapeutic regimens produced CR in only 3 of the 12 cases. One case was treated with gamma interferon and the other 2 with high-dose Ara-C. Our findings indicate a myeloid lineage can be detected by UMPO (5/12) in some cases of AUL. A germline configuration with JH and Tcr beta in one case as well as a myeloid immunophenotype in 3 UMPO-negative cases raises the possibility that myeloid lineage commitment may occur in the absence of myeloid peroxidase (MPO) cytochemical positivity.

  3. Clinical Presentations of Acute Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahab, F.; Raziq, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the clinical presentation and epidemiology of various types of acute leukemia with their respective referral source at a tertiary level centre in Peshawar. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, Hayatabad Medical Complex (HMC), Peshawar, from January 2011 to May 2012. Methodology: A total of 618 bone marrow biopsy reports were reviewed. All biopsy reports labeled as acute leukemia were reviewed for age, gender, address, referring unit, diagnosis on bone marrow examination, presenting complaints, duration of illness and findings of clinical examination. Results: Ninety-two patients were diagnosed as suffering from acute leukemias (15%). ALL was most prevalent (46%), followed by AML (38%) and undifferentiated acute leukemia (16%). Males were affected more compared to females (60% vs. 40%). ALL and AML were predominant in pediatric (64%) and adults (77%) patients respectively. Patients from Afghanistan accounted for 33% of all cases followed by Peshawar (14%). Fever (77%), pallor (33%) and bleeding disorders (23%) were the main presenting complaints. Enlargement of liver, spleen and lymph nodes together was associated with ALL compared with AML (p = 0.004). Conclusion: ALL-L1 and AML-M4 were the most common sub-types. Fever, pallor and bleeding disorders were the main presenting complaints. Enlargement of liver, spleen and lymph nodes was more frequently associated with ALL compared to AML. (author)

  4. on Lymphoblastic Leukemia Jurkat Cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human tumor cell line (Hela) by using MTT assay. [13]. In the present study, we have observed the cytotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of C. arvensis against Jurkat cells, a human lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, by using Trypan blue, MTS assay and FACS analysis. It was shown from the trypan blue exclusion assay that ...

  5. Degree of synchronization modulated by inhibitory neurons in clustered excitatory-inhibitory recurrent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyan; Sun, Xiaojuan; Xiao, Jinghua

    2018-01-01

    An excitatory-inhibitory recurrent neuronal network is established to numerically study the effect of inhibitory neurons on the synchronization degree of neuronal systems. The obtained results show that, with the number of inhibitory neurons and the coupling strength from an inhibitory neuron to an excitatory neuron increasing, inhibitory neurons can not only reduce the synchronization degree when the synchronization degree of the excitatory population is initially higher, but also enhance it when it is initially lower. Meanwhile, inhibitory neurons could also help the neuronal networks to maintain moderate synchronized states. In this paper, we call this effect as modulation effect of inhibitory neurons. With the obtained results, it is further revealed that the ratio of excitatory neurons to inhibitory neurons being nearly 4 : 1 is an economic and affordable choice for inhibitory neurons to realize this modulation effect.

  6. Leukemic transformation of donor spleen cells following their transplantation into supralethally irradiated mice with pre-existing viral leukemia. [X Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhnert, P M; OKunewick, J P; Erhard, P

    1974-01-01

    Fialkow et al. previously reported leukemia induction in donor-type cells after treating patients for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with total-body irradiation and hematopoietic cell transplantation. Utilizing a murine model and paralleling their treatment protocol, we have documented that induction of leukemia can occur in normal donor cells transplanted into Rauscher viral leukemic mice at 0, 1 and 2 days after irradiation. The induction of leukemia in the grafted cells was verified by: the occurrence of splenomegaly; and secondary spleen cell transplants, whereby the secondary donors were transplanted mice still alive at 30 days and the secondary recipients were normal unirradiated mice. The spleen weights of the grafted leukemic mice were found to be significantly greater than those of the controls and all secondary recipients that received spleen cells from the primary grafted leukemic mice also died of leukemia. Verification that the regenerating hematopoietic tissue was from donor (males) and not host source (females) was accomplished by spleen chromosome preparations taken from randomly selected mice at 14 and at 30 days after cell transplantation. In these preparations, the Y chromosome was clearly distinguishable on the basis of size, shape, and differential staining. The data indicate that induction of leukemia after whole-body irradiation and hematopoietic cell transplantation can occur in immunologically matched donor cells when a viral agent is present and that the incidence of this induction is not affected by a time delay between irradiation and transplant.

  7. Ezh2 Controls an Early Hematopoietic Program and Growth and Survival Signaling in Early T Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Danis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Early T cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL is an aggressive subtype of ALL distinguished by stem-cell-associated and myeloid transcriptional programs. Inactivating alterations of Polycomb repressive complex 2 components are frequent in human ETP-ALL, but their functional role is largely undefined. We have studied the involvement of Ezh2 in a murine model of NRASQ61K-driven leukemia that recapitulates phenotypic and transcriptional features of ETP-ALL. Homozygous inactivation of Ezh2 cooperated with oncogenic NRASQ61K to accelerate leukemia onset. Inactivation of Ezh2 accentuated expression of genes highly expressed in human ETP-ALL and in normal murine early thymic progenitors. Moreover, we found that Ezh2 contributes to the silencing of stem-cell- and early-progenitor-cell-associated genes. Loss of Ezh2 also resulted in increased activation of STAT3 by tyrosine 705 phosphorylation. Our data mechanistically link Ezh2 inactivation to stem-cell-associated transcriptional programs and increased growth/survival signaling, features that convey an adverse prognosis in patients.

  8. Activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in two L5178Y murine lymphoma cell strains with different radiosensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworska, A.; Rosiek, O.; Witkowska, K.

    1987-01-01

    Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in two murine leukemia L5178Y strains were determined. It was found that the relatively resistant to ionizing radiation L5178Y-R (LY-R) strain has the SOD activity two times higher than L5178Y-S (LY-S), the sensitive one. On the contrary, LY-S has two times higher activity of CAT than LY-R. These results are in agreement with hypotheses of deleterious role of O 2 - and radioprotective role of SOD. 33 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

  9. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description PDGFRB -associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a type of cancer of blood-forming ...

  10. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Monetary rewards modulate inhibitory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcela Herrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to override a dominant response, often referred to as behavioural inhibiton, is considered a key element of executive cognition. Poor behavioural inhibition is a defining characteristic of several neurological and psychiatric populations. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the motivational dimension of behavioural inhibition, with some experiments incorporating emotional contingencies in classical inhibitory paradigms such as the Go/Nogo and Stop Signal Tasks. Several studies have reported a positive modulatory effect of reward on the performance of such tasks in pathological conditions such as substance abuse, pathological gambling, and ADHD. However, experiments that directly investigate the modulatory effects of reward magnitudes on the performance of inhibitory paradigms are rare and consequently, little is known about the finer grained relationship between motivation and self-control. Here, we probed the effect of reward and reward magnitude on behavioural inhibition using two modified version of the widely used Stop Signal Task. The first task compared no reward with reward, whilst the other compared two different reward magnitudes. The reward magnitude effect was confirmed by the second study, whereas it was less compelling in the first study, possibly due to the effect of having no reward in some conditions. In addition, our results showed a kick start effect over global performance measures. More specifically, there was a long lasting improvement in performance throughout the task, when participants received the highest reward magnitudes at the beginning of the protocol. These results demonstrate that individuals’ behavioural inhibition capacities are dynamic not static because they are modulated by the reward magnitude and initial reward history of the task at hand.

  12. The Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østgård, Lene Sofie Granfeldt; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell; Raaschou-Jensen, Klas Kræsten

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The main aim of the Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry (DNLR) was to obtain information about the epidemiology of the hematologic cancers acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). STUDY POPULATION: The registry...... was established in January 2000 by the Danish Acute Leukemia Group and has been expanded over the years. It includes adult AML patients diagnosed in Denmark since 2000, ALL patients diagnosed since 2005, and MDS patients diagnosed since 2010. The coverage of leukemia patients exceeds 99%, and the coverage of MDS...... years. To ensure this high coverage, completeness, and quality of data, linkage to the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Registry of Patients, and several programmed data entry checks are used. CONCLUSION: The completeness and positive predictive values of the leukemia data have...

  13. Leukemia and lymphoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemia has been observed to increase with increasing radiation dose in the A-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first radiation-related cases occurred 3 to 5 years following exposure. The peak incidence years were about 7 to 8 years following exposure and the leukemogenic effect has decreased since that time, but it may last for 40 years or longer in the most heavily exposed persons. A bimodal susceptibility pattern was observed, with peaks following exposure during childhood and after age 50. Latent periods for the development of acute leukemia were shortest in the younger exposed persons. Both acute and chronic forms of leukemia occurred in exposed persons at younger ages in life than normally is expected. The most common types of radiation-induced leukemia were acute and chronic granulocytic in adults and children, and acute lymphocytic in children. The highest radiation-related leukemia risk was for chronic granulocytic leukemia following childhood exposure

  14. Diagnosis of large granular lymphocytic leukemia in a patient previously treated for acute myeloblastic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sinem Civriz Bozdag; Sinem Namdaroglu; Omur Kayikci; Gülsah Kaygusuz; Itir Demiriz; Murat Cinarsoy; Emre Tekgunduz; Fevzi Altuntas

    2013-01-01

    Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia is a lymphoproliferative disease characterized by the clonal expansion of cytotoxic T or natural killer cells. We report on a patient diagnosed with T-cell LGL leukemia two years after the achievement of hematologic remission for acute myeloblastic leukemia.

  15. Secondary acute leukemia - review of 15 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venugopal, P; Rajni, A; Gopal, R; Saikia, T; Kurkure, P A; Nair, C N; Advani, S H

    1988-12-01

    Acute leukemia is a rare complication of long-term chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapy and radiotherapy. With improved survival in cancer patients resulting from modern methods of investigations and treatment, more case of secondary leukemia have come to light. In this review, fifteen cases of secondary leukemia, its prognostic implications and methods to reduce the risk of its development are emphasised. Relevant literature is also reviewed. (author). 3 tabs., 24 refs.

  16. Profile of imatinib in pediatric leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke MJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael J BurkeDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology/Bone Marrow Transplantation, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USAAbstract: Using targeted therapy for treatment of cancer has become the paradigm to which clinical trials aspire. Imatinib, the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, was the first of its kind to specifically target and inhibit the underlying Philadelphia chromosome (Ph+ oncogene found to be driving chronic myeloid leukemia in adults, and has since become standard of care for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in children. Imatinib, with its ability to target Ph+ leukemia, has been successfully incorporated into the treatment of not only pediatric chronic myeloid leukemia but also Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia. With the incorporation of imatinib into combination chemotherapy for pediatric Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia, current survival rates are far higher than at any other time for this once dreadful disease. With more children today receiving treatment with imatinib for either chronic myeloid leukemia or Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia, knowledge is accumulating surrounding the short-term and long-term toxicities observed in children, adolescents, and young adults treated with this TKI. In summary, the TKI imatinib has made a historic impact in the treatment of pediatric Ph+ leukemias, transforming what were once very high-risk diseases with considerable morbidity and mortality into ones that are now very treatable but with a new awareness surrounding the long-term toxicities that may come with this price for cure.Keywords: imatinib, leukemia, lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, pediatric

  17. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute or Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-27

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Essential Thrombocythemia; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  18. Radiation in the treatment of meningeal leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    At the present time, a successful regimen for the eradication of occult meningeal leukemia is the combination of cranial radiotherapy in a dose of 1800 rads in 10 fractions in 12 to 14 days with six doses of intrathecal methotrexate. This regimen, when given with prednisone and vincristine can be expected to give a relapse rate for isolated meningeal leukemia of approximately 5% during the first 2 years of follow-up. A modification of this regimen utilizing craniospinal radiation with prior and concurrent intrathecal methotrexate is given for the treatment of overt meningeal leukemia at diagnosis or for an isolated first relapse with meningeal leukemia. Radiation technique and morbidity are discussed

  19. Leukemia-associated antigens in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G; Capellaro, D; Greaves, M

    1975-12-01

    Rabbit antisera raised against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells were used to distinguish ALL from other leukemias, to identify rare leukemia cells in the bone marrow of patients in remission, and to define human leukemia-associated antigens. Antibody binding was studied with the use of immunofluorescence reagents and the analytic capacity of the Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter-1 (FACS-1). The results indicated that most non-T-cell ALL have three leukemia-associated antigens on their surface which are absent from normal lymphoid cells: 1) an antigen shared with myelocytes, myeloblastic leukemia cells, and fetal liver (hematopoietic) cells; 2) an antigen shared with a subset of intermediate normoblasts in normal bone marrow and fetal liver; and 3) an antigen found thus far only on non-T-cell ALL and in some acute undifferentiated leukemias, which we therefore regard as a strong candidate for a leukemia-specific antigen. These antigens are absent from a subgroup of ALL patients in which the lymphoblasta express T-cell surface markers. Preliminary studies on the bone marrow samples of patients in remission indicated that rare leukemia cells were present in some samples. The implications of these findings with respect to the heterogeneity and cell origin(s) of ALL, its diagnosis, and its potential monitoring during treatment were discussed.

  20. Infection and childhood leukemia: review of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel da Rocha Paiva Maia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze studies that evaluated the role of infections as well as indirect measures of exposure to infection in the risk of childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS : A search in Medline, Lilacs, and SciELO scientific publication databases initially using the descriptors “childhood leukemia” and “infection” and later searching for the words “childhood leukemia” and “maternal infection or disease” or “breastfeeding” or “daycare attendance” or “vaccination” resulted in 62 publications that met the following inclusion criteria: subject aged ≤ 15 years; specific analysis of cases diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or total leukemia; exposure assessment of mothers’ or infants’ to infections (or proxy of infection, and risk of leukemia. RESULTS : Overall, 23 studies that assessed infections in children support the hypothesis that occurrence of infection during early childhood reduces the risk of leukemia, but there are disagreements within and between studies. The evaluation of exposure to infection by indirect measures showed evidence of reduced risk of leukemia associated mainly with daycare attendance. More than 50.0% of the 16 studies that assessed maternal exposure to infection observed increased risk of leukemia associated with episodes of influenza, pneumonia, chickenpox, herpes zoster, lower genital tract infection, skin disease, sexually transmitted diseases, Epstein-Barr virus, and Helicobacter pylori . CONCLUSIONS : Although no specific infectious agent has been identified, scientific evidence suggests that exposure to infections has some effect on childhood leukemia etiology.

  1. Leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Ohkita, T.

    1986-01-01

    Excess risk of leukemia among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors increased with radiation dose in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The incidence of all types of leukemia, except chronic lymphocytic leukemia, has increased among A-bomb survivors. However, chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is thought to be the most characteristic type of the A-bomb induced leukemias. The highest risk of leukemia among A-bomb survivors was recognized in 1951 and has not yet disappeared in survivors in Hiroshima. Excess risk of leukemia in the younger age at time of bomb (ATB) groups appeared early; however, in older age ATB groups it appeared much later especially among Hiroshima survivors. In both cities the effect of radiation exposure on the occurrence of CML was more clearly observable in the younger age ATB groups and occurred more frequently in Hiroshima. Leukemia among individuals exposed in utero and children of A-bomb survivors has not increased significantly. The relationship between radiation induced leukemia and chromosome abnormalities is discussed. Twenty years after the A-bomb, the risk of multiple myeloma (MM) increased among survivors aged 20-59 years ATB. Non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma also increased among A-bomb survivors and showed roughly the same tendency as MM

  2. Leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ohkita, Takeshi; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1986-01-01

    Excess risk of leukemia among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors increased with radiation dose in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The incidence of all types of leukemia, except chronic lymphocytic leukemia, has increased among A-bomb survivors. However, chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is thought to be the most characteristic type of the A-bomb induced leukemias. The highest risk of leukemia among A-bomb survivors was recognized in 1951 and has not yet disappeared in survivors in Hiroshima. Excess risk of leukemia in the younger age at time of bomb (ATB) groups appeared early; however, in the older age ATB groups it appeared much later especially among Hiroshima survivors. In both cities the effect of radiation exposure on the occurrence of CML was more clearly observable in the younger age ATB groups and occurred more frequently in Hiroshima. Leukemia among individuals exposed in utero and children of A-bomb survivors has not increased significantly. The relationship between radiation induced leukemia and chromosome abnormalities is discussed. Twenty years after the A-bomb, the risk of multiple myeloma (MM) increased among survivors aged 20 - 59 years ATB. Non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma also increased among A-bomb survivors and showed roughly the same tendency as MM. (author)

  3. T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Robbie L.; Cooper, Barry; Krause, John R.

    2013-01-01

    T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia is a rare and unusual malignancy characterized by the proliferation of small- to medium-sized prolymphocytes of postthymic origin with distinctive clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic features. Involvement of the peripheral blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and skin can occur. The clinical course is typically very aggressive with poor response to conventional chemotherapy and short survival rates, and the only potential long-ter...

  4. Radiation responses of hematopoietic-cells and inducing acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, Mitsuaki; Hirouchi, Tokuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia has consistently held the interest of researchers from the beginning of radiation carcinogenesis. One of the major reasons for this interest is the availability of several strains of mice that develop leukemia following radiation exposure after a short latency period that resemble those found in A-Bomb survivors. Previous studies have shown that rAML (Radiation-induced Acute Myeloid Leukemia) in mice show inactivation of Sfpi1 gene and a hemizygous deletion in chromosome 2. Leukemic stem cells in murine rAML have been reported to share some characteristics with common myeloid progenitor cells. In this review, we will discuss the possible mechanisms in the development of rAML stem cells, focusing on the alterations found in the leukemic stem cells and as well as the environment in which these leukemic stem cells are developed, such cytokine expression, as Well as alterations that may be found in other cells residing in the bone marrow. Hematopoietic stem cells respond to radiation exposure both as a single cell and as a part of the differentiating hematopoietic tissue for several months prior to its transformation to a rAML stem cell. It is however unclear how these 2 responses contribute to the development of the rAML stem cell. This review covers previous reports and examines the development of the rAML stem cell in detail. (author)

  5. Hepatic leukemia factor promotes resistance to cell death: Implications for therapeutics and chronotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, Katrina M.; Sontag, Ryan L.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological variation related to circadian rhythms and aberrant gene expression patterns are believed to modulate therapeutic efficacy, but the precise molecular determinants remain unclear. Here we examine the regulation of cell death by hepatic leukemia factor (HLF), which is an output regulator of circadian rhythms and is aberrantly expressed in human cancers, using an ectopic expression strategy in JB6 mouse epidermal cells and human keratinocytes. Ectopic HLF expression inhibited cell death in both JB6 cells and human keratinocytes, as induced by serum-starvation, tumor necrosis factor alpha and ionizing radiation. Microarray analysis indicates that HLF regulates a complex multi-gene transcriptional program encompassing upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes, downregulation of pro-apoptotic genes, and many additional changes that are consistent with an anti-death program. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ectopic expression of HLF, an established transcription factor that cycles with circadian rhythms, can recapitulate many features associated with circadian-dependent physiological variation. - Highlights: ► Circadian-dependent physiological variation impacts therapeutic efficacy. ► Hepatic leukemia factor inhibits cell death and is a candidate circadian factor. ► Hepatic leukemia factor anti-death program is conserved in murine and human cells. ► Transcriptomics indicates the anti-death program results from a systems response

  6. Hepatic leukemia factor promotes resistance to cell death: Implications for therapeutics and chronotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, Katrina M. [Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Sontag, Ryan L. [Systems Toxicology Groups, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Weber, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Weber@pnl.gov [Systems Toxicology Groups, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Physiological variation related to circadian rhythms and aberrant gene expression patterns are believed to modulate therapeutic efficacy, but the precise molecular determinants remain unclear. Here we examine the regulation of cell death by hepatic leukemia factor (HLF), which is an output regulator of circadian rhythms and is aberrantly expressed in human cancers, using an ectopic expression strategy in JB6 mouse epidermal cells and human keratinocytes. Ectopic HLF expression inhibited cell death in both JB6 cells and human keratinocytes, as induced by serum-starvation, tumor necrosis factor alpha and ionizing radiation. Microarray analysis indicates that HLF regulates a complex multi-gene transcriptional program encompassing upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes, downregulation of pro-apoptotic genes, and many additional changes that are consistent with an anti-death program. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ectopic expression of HLF, an established transcription factor that cycles with circadian rhythms, can recapitulate many features associated with circadian-dependent physiological variation. - Highlights: ► Circadian-dependent physiological variation impacts therapeutic efficacy. ► Hepatic leukemia factor inhibits cell death and is a candidate circadian factor. ► Hepatic leukemia factor anti-death program is conserved in murine and human cells. ► Transcriptomics indicates the anti-death program results from a systems response.

  7. Epidemiology of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Although the etiology of acute leukemia is largely unknown, some facets of the puzzle are becoming clarified. Recognition of important patterns in age-specific mortality rates has suggested that events early in life, perhaps even prenatally, may have an influence on developing leukemia in childhood. The racial differences evident in mortality, incidence, and immunologic subtype of ALL suggest either differences in exposures to certain factors or differences in responses to those factors by white children. Hereditary factors appear to play a role. Familial and hereditary conditions exist that have high incidences of acute leukemia. Chromosomal anomalies are common in these conditions. Viral infections may play a role by contributing to alteration in genetic material through incorporation of the viral genome. How that virus is dealt with after primary infection seems important. The presence of immunodeficiency may allow wider dissemination or enhanced replication of such viruses, thereby increasing the likelihood of cellular transformation to an abnormal cell. Proliferation of that malignant cell to a clone may depend on other cofactors. Perhaps prolonged exposure to substances like benzene or alkylating agents may enhance these interactions between virus and genetic material. Does this change DNA repair mechanisms. Are viral infections handled differently. Is viral genomic information more easily integrated into host cells. Ionizing radiation has multiple effects. Alteration in genetic material occurs both at the molecular and chromosomal levels. DNA may be altered, lost, or added in the cell's attempt to recover from the injury

  8. HLA-haploidentical transplantation with regulatory and conventional T-cell adoptive immunotherapy prevents acute leukemia relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Massimo F; Di Ianni, Mauro; Ruggeri, Loredana; Falzetti, Franca; Carotti, Alessandra; Terenzi, Adelmo; Pierini, Antonio; Massei, Maria Speranza; Amico, Lucia; Urbani, Elena; Del Papa, Beatrice; Zei, Tiziana; Iacucci Ostini, Roberta; Cecchini, Debora; Tognellini, Rita; Reisner, Yair; Aversa, Franco; Falini, Brunangelo; Velardi, Andrea

    2014-07-24

    Posttransplant relapse is still the major cause of treatment failure in high-risk acute leukemia. Attempts to manipulate alloreactive T cells to spare normal cells while killing leukemic cells have been unsuccessful. In HLA-haploidentical transplantation, we reported that donor-derived T regulatory cells (Tregs), coinfused with conventional T cells (Tcons), protected recipients against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The present phase 2 study investigated whether Treg-Tcon adoptive immunotherapy prevents posttransplant leukemia relapse. Forty-three adults with high-risk acute leukemia (acute myeloid leukemia 33; acute lymphoblastic leukemia 10) were conditioned with a total body irradiation-based regimen. Grafts included CD34(+) cells (mean 9.7 × 10(6)/kg), Tregs (mean 2.5 × 10(6)/kg), and Tcons (mean 1.1 × 10(6)/kg). No posttransplant immunosuppression was given. Ninety-five percent of patients achieved full-donor type engraftment and 15% developed ≥grade 2 acute GVHD. The probability of disease-free survival was 0.56 at a median follow-up of 46 months. The very low cumulative incidence of relapse (0.05) was significantly better than in historical controls. These results demonstrate the immunosuppressive potential of Tregs can be used to suppress GVHD without loss of the benefits of graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity. Humanized murine models provided insights into the mechanisms underlying separation of GVL from GVHD, suggesting the GVL effect is due to largely unopposed Tcon alloantigen recognition in bone marrow. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  9. The Role of B Cells for in Vivo T Cell Responses to a Friend Virus-Induced Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kirk R.; Klarnet, Jay P.; Gieni, Randall S.; Hayglass, Kent T.; Greenberg, Philip D.

    1990-08-01

    B cells can function as antigen-presenting cells and accessory cells for T cell responses. This study evaluated the role of B cells in the induction of protective T cell immunity to a Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV)-induced leukemia (FBL). B cell-deficient mice exhibited significantly reduced tumor-specific CD4^+ helper and CD8^+ cytotoxic T cell responses after priming with FBL or a recombinant vaccinia virus containing F-MuLV antigens. Moreover, these mice had diminished T cell responses to the vaccinia viral antigens. Tumor-primed T cells transferred into B cell-deficient mice effectively eradicated disseminated FBL. Thus, B cells appear necessary for efficient priming but not expression of tumor and viral T cell immunity.

  10. Plasticity of cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froemke, Robert C

    2015-07-08

    Synapses are highly plastic and are modified by changes in patterns of neural activity or sensory experience. Plasticity of cortical excitatory synapses is thought to be important for learning and memory, leading to alterations in sensory representations and cognitive maps. However, these changes must be coordinated across other synapses within local circuits to preserve neural coding schemes and the organization of excitatory and inhibitory inputs, i.e., excitatory-inhibitory balance. Recent studies indicate that inhibitory synapses are also plastic and are controlled directly by a large number of neuromodulators, particularly during episodes of learning. Many modulators transiently alter excitatory-inhibitory balance by decreasing inhibition, and thus disinhibition has emerged as a major mechanism by which neuromodulation might enable long-term synaptic modifications naturally. This review examines the relationships between neuromodulation and synaptic plasticity, focusing on the induction of long-term changes that collectively enhance cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance for improving perception and behavior.

  11. Inability of Kaplan radiation leukemia virus to replicate on mouse fibroblasts is conferred by its long terminal repeat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassart, E.; Paquette, Y.; Jolicoeur, P.

    1988-01-01

    The molecularly cloned infectious Kaplan radiation leukemia virus has previously been shown to be unable to replicate on mouse fibroblasts. To map the viral sequences responsible for this, we constructed chimeric viral DNA genomes in vitro with parental cloned infectious viral DNAs from the nonfibrotropic (F-) BL/VL3 V-13 radiation leukemia virus and the fibrotropic (F+) endogenous BALB/c or Moloney murine leukemia viruses (MuLV). Infectious chimeric MuLVs, recovered after transfection of Ti-6 lymphocytes with these recombinant DNAs, were tested for capacity to replicate on mouse fibroblasts in vitro. We found that chimeric MuLVs harboring the long terminal repeat (LTR) of a fibrotropic MuLV replicated well on mouse fibroblasts. Conversely, chimeric MuLVs harboring the LTR of a nonfibrotropic MuLV were restricted on mouse fibroblasts. These results indicate that the LTR of BL/VL3 radiation leukemia virus harbors the primary determinant responsible for its inability to replicate on mouse fibroblasts in vitro. Our results also show that the primary determinant allowing F+ MuLVs (endogenous BALB/c and Moloney MuLVs) to replicate on mouse fibroblasts in vitro resides within the LTR

  12. Ganoderma lucidum extracts inhibited leukemia WEHI-3 cells in BALB/c mice and promoted an immune response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Hsien; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yang, Jiun-Long; Wu, Chang-Lin; Chang, Shu-Jen; Lu, Kung-Wen; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Hsia, Te-Chun; Lin, Yi-Ting; Ho, Chin-Chih; Wood, W Gibson; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2009-12-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a medicinal mushroom having biological effects such as immunomodulation and anti-tumor actions. In China and many other Asian countries, G. lucidum is used as a folk remedy to promote health and longevity. Although many studies have shown that G. lucidum modulates the immune system, including, for example, antigen-presenting cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and the T and B lymphocytes, the effects of G. lucidum on the WEHI-3 leukemic BALB/c mice are unclear. We attempted to determine whether G. lucidum would promote immune responses in BALB/c mice injected with WEHI-3 leukemia cells. The effects of G. lucidum on the survival rate of WEHI-3 leukemia cells injected into BALB/c mice were examined. It increased the percentages of CD3 and CD19, but decreased the percentages of Mac-3 and CD11b markers, suggesting that differentiation of the precursor of T and B cells was promoted but macrophages were inhibited. It decreased the weight of spleens as compared with control mice. It also promoted phagocytosis by macrophage from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and it also promoted natural killer cell activity. It decreased the percentage of leukemia cells in the spleens of mice before they were injected with WEHI-3 cells. Apparently, G. lucidum affects murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vivo.

  13. Ionizing Radiation–Inducible miR-27b Suppresses Leukemia Proliferation via Targeting Cyclin A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Dongping; Kovalchuk, Anna; Litvinov, Dmitry; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing radiation is a common carcinogen that is important for the development of leukemia. However, the underlying epigenetic mechanisms remain largely unknown. The goal of the study was to explore microRNAome alterations induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in murine thymus, and to determine the role of IR-inducible microRNA (miRNA/miR) in the development of leukemia. Methods and Materials: We used the well-established C57BL/6 mouse model and miRNA microarray profiling to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed in murine thymus in response to irradiation. TIB152 human leukemia cell line was used to determine the role of estrogen receptor–α (ERα) in miR-27b transcription. The biological effects of ectopic miR-27b on leukemogenesis were measured by western immunoblotting, cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle analyses. Results: Here, we have shown that IR triggers the differential expression of miR-27b in murine thymus tissue in a dose-, time- and sex-dependent manner. miR-27b was significantly down-regulated in leukemia cell lines CCL119 and TIB152. Interestingly, ERα was overexpressed in those 2 cell lines, and it was inversely correlated with miR-27b expression. Therefore, we used TIB152 as a model system to determine the role of ERα in miR-27b expression and the contribution of miR-27b to leukemogenesis. β-Estradiol caused a rapid and transient reduction in miR-27b expression reversed by either ERα-neutralizing antibody or ERK1/2 inhibitor. Ectopic expression of miR-27b remarkably suppressed TIB152 cell proliferation, at least in part, by inducing S-phase arrest. In addition, it attenuated the expression of cyclin A2, although it had no effect on the levels of PCNA, PPARγ, CDK2, p21, p27, p-p53, and cleaved caspase-3. Conclusion: Our data reveal that β-estradiol/ERα signaling may contribute to the down-regulation of miR-27b in acute leukemia cell lines through the ERK1/2 pathway, and that miR-27b may function as a tumor

  14. Ionizing Radiation–Inducible miR-27b Suppresses Leukemia Proliferation via Targeting Cyclin A2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Dongping; Kovalchuk, Anna; Litvinov, Dmitry; Kovalchuk, Olga, E-mail: olga.kovalchuk@uleth.ca

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Ionizing radiation is a common carcinogen that is important for the development of leukemia. However, the underlying epigenetic mechanisms remain largely unknown. The goal of the study was to explore microRNAome alterations induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in murine thymus, and to determine the role of IR-inducible microRNA (miRNA/miR) in the development of leukemia. Methods and Materials: We used the well-established C57BL/6 mouse model and miRNA microarray profiling to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed in murine thymus in response to irradiation. TIB152 human leukemia cell line was used to determine the role of estrogen receptor–α (ERα) in miR-27b transcription. The biological effects of ectopic miR-27b on leukemogenesis were measured by western immunoblotting, cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle analyses. Results: Here, we have shown that IR triggers the differential expression of miR-27b in murine thymus tissue in a dose-, time- and sex-dependent manner. miR-27b was significantly down-regulated in leukemia cell lines CCL119 and TIB152. Interestingly, ERα was overexpressed in those 2 cell lines, and it was inversely correlated with miR-27b expression. Therefore, we used TIB152 as a model system to determine the role of ERα in miR-27b expression and the contribution of miR-27b to leukemogenesis. β-Estradiol caused a rapid and transient reduction in miR-27b expression reversed by either ERα-neutralizing antibody or ERK1/2 inhibitor. Ectopic expression of miR-27b remarkably suppressed TIB152 cell proliferation, at least in part, by inducing S-phase arrest. In addition, it attenuated the expression of cyclin A2, although it had no effect on the levels of PCNA, PPARγ, CDK2, p21, p27, p-p53, and cleaved caspase-3. Conclusion: Our data reveal that β-estradiol/ERα signaling may contribute to the down-regulation of miR-27b in acute leukemia cell lines through the ERK1/2 pathway, and that miR-27b may function as a tumor

  15. Treatment-associated leukemia following testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, LB; Andersson, M; Gospodarowicz, M; van Leeuwen, FE; Bergfeldt, K; Lynch, CF; Curtis, RE; Kohler, BA; Wiklund, T; Storm, H; Holowaty, E; Hall, P; Pukkala, E; Sleijfer, DT; Clarke, EA; Boice, JD; Stovall, M; Gilbert, E

    2000-01-01

    Background: Men with testicular cancer are at an increased risk of leukemia, but the relationship to prior treatments is not well characterized. The purpose of our study was to describe the risk of leukemia following radiotherapy and chemotherapy for testicular cancer. Methods: Within a

  16. Treatment of Aggressive NK-Cell Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders Kindberg; Jensen, Paw; Johansen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive NK-cell leukemia is a rare malignancy with neoplastic proliferation of natural killer cells. It often presents with constitutional symptoms, a rapid declining clinical course, and a poor prognosis with a median survival of a few months. The disease is usually resistant to cytotoxic...... literature concerning treatment of aggressive NK-cell leukemia....

  17. The Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Caspar; Geisler, Christian Hartmann; Enggaard, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    AIM: In 2008, the Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry was founded within the Danish National Hematology Database. The primary aim of the registry is to assure quality of diagnosis and care of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Denmark. Secondarily, to evaluate...

  18. The discovery and early understanding of leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, Kim R.

    The early history of leukemia reaches back 200 years. In 1811, Peter Cullen defined a case of splenitis acutus with unexplainable milky blood. Alfred Velpeau defined the leukemia associated symptoms, and observed pus in the blood vessels (1825). Alfred Donne detected a maturation arrest of the white

  19. Esterase reactions in acute myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, L

    1977-05-01

    Specific and nonspecific esterase reactions of bone marrow cells from 14 patients with untreated acute myelomonocytic leukemia and six patients with acute histiomonocytic leukemia were examined. The technic for esterase determination permitted simultaneous visualization of both esterases on the same glass coverslip containing the marrow cells. In cases of acute histiomonocytic leukemia, monocytes, monocytoid hemohistioblasts and undifferentiated blasts stained intensely positive for nonspecific esterase, using alpha-naphthyl acetate as the substrate. No evidence of specific esterase activity using naphthol ASD-chloroacetate as the substrate and fast blue BBN as the dye coupler was apparent in these cells. In all of the cases of acute myelomonocytic leukemia, both specific and nonspecific esterases were visualized within monocytes, monocytoid cells, and granulocytic cells that had monocytoid-type nuclei. Nonspecific esterase activity was not observed in polymorphonuclear leukocytes in cases of myelomonocytic leukemia. The results support a current viewpoint that acute myelomonocytic leukemia may be a variant of acute myeloblastic leukemia, and that cytochemically, many of the leukemic cells in myelomonocytic leukemia share properties of both granulocytes and monocytes.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: chronic myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Central Quintás-Cardama A, Cortes JE. Chronic myeloid leukemia: diagnosis and treatment. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006 Jul;81(7):973-88. Review. Citation on PubMed Skorski T. Genetic mechanisms of chronic myeloid leukemia blastic transformation. Curr Hematol Malig Rep. 2012 Jun; ...

  1. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... studying the leukemia cells collected from the blood, bone marrow, and/or spinal fluid, doctors can determine the type of leukemia a child has. This is important because treatment varies among different types ... blood or bone marrow, doctors can tell whether the Philadelphia chromosome is ...

  2. Thrombocytopenia in leukemia: Pathogenesis and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrabi, Saeid; Behzad, Masumeh Maleki; Jaseb, Kaveh; Saki, Najmaldin

    2018-02-20

    Leukemias, a heterogeneous group of hematological disorders, are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and morphologic abnormalities of hematopoietic cells. Thrombocytopenia is a common problem among leukemia types that can lead to hemorrhagic complications in patients. The purpose of this review article is to identify the conditions associated with the incidence of thrombocytopenia in leukemias. It can be stated that although translocations have been considered responsible for this complication in many studies, other factors such as bone marrow failure, genes polymorphism, a mutation in some transcription factors, and the adverse effects of treatment could be associated with pathogenesis and poor prognosis of thrombocytopenia in leukemias. Considering the importance of thrombocytopenia in leukemias, it is hoped that the recognition of risk factors increasing the incidence of this complication in leukemic patients would be useful for prevention and treatment of this disorder.

  3. Polymer therapeutics with a coiled coil motif targeted against murine BCL1 leukemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pola, Robert; Laga, Richard; Ulbrich, Karel; Sieglová, Irena; Král, Vlastimil; Fábry, Milan; Kabešová, Martina; Kovář, Marek; Pechar, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2013), s. 881-889 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/11/0325; GA AV ČR IAAX00500803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : coiled coil * polymer therapeutics * scFv Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; EC - Immunology (MBU-M); EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 5.788, year: 2013

  4. Polymer cancerostatics with a coiled coil motif targeted against murine leukemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Michal; Pola, Robert; Janoušková, Olga; Sieglová, Irena; Král, Vlastimil; Fábry, Milan; Tomalová, Barbora; Kovář, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, 4 (Suppl) (2017), s. 36 ISSN 2325-9604. [International Conference and Exhibition on Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery. 29.05.2017-31.05.2017, Osaka] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-17207S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : coiled coil * polymer cancerostatics * active targeting Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; EC - Immunology (MBU-M) https://www.scitechnol.com/conference-abstracts/scientific-tracks-abstracts/nanodelivery-2017-proceedings.html

  5. Activation of specific cellular immunity toward murine leukemia in mice rejecting syngeneic somatic hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, W.; Cohen, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    ASL-1 x LM(TK) - somatic hybrid cells form both H-2/sup a/ and H-2/sup k/ antigen complexes. After forming a localized tumor in syngeneic (A/J x C 3 H/HeJ)F 1 mice, they are rejected. Such mice are resistant to otherwise invariably lethal injections of ASL-1 cells, surviving for prolonged and, in some instances, indefinite periods. To examine the basis of immunity, the capacity of spleen cells from mice rejecting hybrid cells to stimulate the release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells was investigated. Cells from the spleens of mice rejecting ASL-1 x LM(TK) - cells stimulated the release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells, but not from Ehrlich ascites or P815 cells. Cells from mice injected with mitomycin-C-treated ASL-1 cells led to the release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells as well, but the extent of 51 Cr release was approximately one-third as occurred in the presence of cells from hybrid cell-injected mice. Cells from noninjected mice or from mice injected with LM(TK) - cells failed to lead to the specific release of 51 Cr from ASL-1 cells. The presence of unlabeled ASL-1 cells, but not Ehrlich ascites cells, competitively inhibited the spleen cell-stimulated release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells. Sera from A/J mice injected with mitomycin-C-treated ASL-1 cells contained antibodies specific for the tumor-associated antigen of ASL-1 cells

  6. Akv murine leukemia virus enhances bone tumorigenesis in hMT-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jörg; Krump-Konvalinkova, Vera; Luz, Arne

    1995-01-01

    hMt-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice (U. Rüther, D. Komitowski, F. R. Schubert, and E. F. Wagner. Oncogene 4, 861–865, 1989) developed bone sarcomas in 20% (3/15) of females at 448 ± 25 days and in 8% (1/12) of males at 523 days. After infection of newborns with Akv, an infectious retrovirus derived from...

  7. In Vitro Assembly of Virus-Like Particles of a Gammaretrovirus, the Murine Leukemia Virus XMRV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadravová, Romana; de Marco, A.; Ulbrich, P.; Štokrová, Jitka; Doležal, Michal; Pichová, Iva; Ruml, T.; Briggs, J. A. G.; Rumlová, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2012), s. 1297-1306 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/1388; GA MŠk 1M0508 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : human-immunodeficiency-virus * Rous sarcoma virus * chronic-fatigue-syndrome * Pfizer monkey virus * N-terminal domain Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.076, year: 2012

  8. 42 CFR 81.24 - Guidelines for leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guidelines for leukemia. 81.24 Section 81.24 Public... Causation § 81.24 Guidelines for leukemia. (a) For claims involving leukemia, DOL will calculate one or more probability of causation estimates from up to three of the four alternate leukemia risk models included in...

  9. Leukemia in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyssel, R; Brill, A B; Woodbury, L A; Nishimura, Edwin T; Ghose, Tarunendu; Hoshino, Takashi; Yamasaki, Mitsuru

    1959-03-01

    This report is intended to provide the basic data pertinent to the leukemia experience observed in the survivors of the Hiroshima atomic explosion. Many of the conclusions in this report are tentative. The one clear fact to emerge is that radiation increases the occurrence rate of leukemia and that the magnitude of increase is dependent on dose received. Additional observations can be made, which, while not definitive in themselves, seem to complement each other, and are corroborated by other experiences in radiation biology. From the data a linear relationship between dose and incidence of leukemia is found. The shape of the relation in the lower dose range is not known with certainty. An approximate minimum time for the appearance of leukemia following radiation is 3 years or less. The data suggest that the time of maximum risk of leukemia may be dependent on the dose of radiation received. In this group the mean latent period is found to lie in the interval between 4 and 8 years following exposure. The length of time during which the increased incidence of leukemia persists is not known. The incidence of the acute leukemias and of chronic granulocytic leukemia is increased in the exposed survivors. The chronic granulocytic variety is disproportionately increased in Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb. No effect of radiation on monocytic or chronic lymphatic leukemia incidence is noted. Aplastic anemia, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis have been investigated. Myelofibrosis is the only one of this group of diseases in which a suggestive relation to radiation exposure is apparent. The natural history of leukemia following radiation does not seem to differ from that of the spontaneously occurring variety. 17 references, 5 figures, 38 tables.

  10. Cytogenetic, clinical, and cytologic characteristics of radiotherapy-related leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, P.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, J.

    1988-01-01

    From 1978 to 1985, we observed eight cases of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia or preleukemia, three cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and three cases of chronic myeloid leukemia in patients previously treated exclusively with radiotherapy for other tumor types. The latent period from administration of radiotherapy to development of leukemia varied between 12 and 243 months. Clonal chromosome aberrations reported previously as characteristic of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia following therapy with alkylating agents were observed in three of the eight patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (5q- and -7) and in two of the three patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (-7 and 12p-). All three patients with radiotherapy-related chronic myeloid leukemia presented a t(9;22)(q34;q11). The results suggest that cytogenetic characteristics may reflect the etiology in radiation-induced acute leukemias, whereas radiation-related chronic myeloid leukemia does not seem to differ chromosomally from de novo cases of the disease

  11. Inhibitory effect of trans-caryophyllene (TC) on leukocyte-endothelial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Chunfeng; Dai, Xinlun; Ao, Yu; Li, Yumei

    2017-08-15

    trans-Caryophyllene (TC) is a major component found in the essential oils of many spices and foods/medicinal plants. It is a natural sesquiterpene and has been the subject of numerous studies. However, the effects of TC on vascular inflammation remain unknown. In this study, we reported that TC treatment in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) prevented attachment of monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 cells to endothelial cells. In addition, in vivo results indicate that TC inhibited macrophage infiltration to the aortic surface and reduced total serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Importantly, administration of TC could inhibit the induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, our data indicate that the inhibitory effects of TC on the expression of VCAM-1 are mediated by the JAK2/STAT1/IRF-1 pathway. TC is a specific agonist of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R). Importantly, we further verified that the inhibitory effects of TC on the expression of IRF-1 and VCAM-1 are dependent on activation of CB2R. Inhibition of CB2R by either specific inhibitors or RNA interference abolished the inhibitory effects of TC on the expression of IRF-1 and VCAM-1. Our results suggest that TC might have a capacity to suppress the development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, S; Manna, A; Sabattini, E; Porcellini, A

    1996-08-01

    We describe a case of a very unusual presentation of rhabdomyosarcoma. An 18-year-old woman presented with symptoms and signs compatible with acute leukemia. The bone marrow picture showed diffuse involvement sustained by undifferentiated blasts that turned out to be of striated muscle origin by immunochemistry. While it is well known that rhabdomyosarcoma may metastasize to the bone marrow, extensive marrow involvement with leukemic spread as a unique clinical manifestation is extremely rare. Our observation further confirms the need to consider rhabdomyosarcoma among the possible differential diagnoses in patients who present with a leukemic picture and atypical blasts lacking all hematopoietic markers.

  13. Hairy cell leukemia-variant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadri, Mohammad I.; Al-Sheikh, Iman H.

    2001-01-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia variant is a very rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorder and is closely related to hairy cell leukemia. We hereby describe a case of hairy cell leukaemia variant for the first time in Saudi Arabia. An elderly Saudi man presented with pallor, massive splenomegaly, and moderate hepatomegaly. Hemoglobin was 7.7 g/dl, Platelets were 134 x109/l and white blood count was 140x10 9/l with 97% being abnormal lymphoid cells with cytoplasmic projections. The morphology, cytochemistry, and immunophenotype of the lymphoid cells were classical of hairy cell leukaemia variant. The bone marrow was easily aspirated and findings were consistent with hairy cell leukaemia variant. (author)

  14. Migration of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells into human bone marrow stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrynikola, V; Bianchi, A; Bradstock, K; Gottlieb, D; Hewson, J

    1994-10-01

    Most cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) arise from malignant transformation of B-cell precursors in the bone marrow. Recent studies have shown that normal and leukemic B-cell precursors bind to bone marrow stromal cells through the beta-1 integrins VLA-4 and VLA-5, thereby exposing early lymphoid cells to regulatory cytokines. It has been recently reported that the pre-B cell line NALM-6 is capable of migrating under layers of murine stromal cells in vitro (Miyake et al. J Cell Biol 1992;119:653-662). We have further analyzed leukemic cell motility using human bone marrow fibroblasts (BMF) as a stromal layer. The precursor-B ALL cell line NALM-6 rapidly adhered to BMF, and underwent migration or tunneling into BMF layers within 5 h, as demonstrated by light and electron microscopy, and confirmed by a chromium-labeling assay. Migration was also observed with the precursor-B ALL lines Reh and KM-3, with a T leukemia line RPMI-8402, the monocytic line U937, and the mature B line Daudi. In contrast, mature B (Raji), myeloid (K562, HL-60), and T lines (CCRF-CEM, MOLT-4) did not migrate. When cases of leukemia were analyzed, BMF migration was largely confined to precursor-B ALL, occurring in eight of 13 cases tested. Of other types of leukemia, migration was observed in one of four cases of T-ALL, but no evidence was seen in six acute myeloid leukemias and two patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Only minimal migration into BMF was observed with purified sorted CD10+ CD19+ early B cells from normal adult marrow, while normal mature B lymphocytes from peripheral blood did not migrate. ALL migration was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies to the beta sub-unit of the VLA integrin family, and by a combination of antibodies to VLA-4 and VLA-5. Partial inhibition was also observed when leukemic cells were incubated with antibodies to VLA-4, VLA-5, or VLA-6 alone. In contrast, treatment of stromal cells with antibodies to vascular cell adhesion molecule or

  15. Phytochemical screening and in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening and in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of seven plant extracts. Titilayo Johnson, Oduje A. Akinsanmi, Enoch J. Banbilbwa, Tijani A. Yahaya, Karima Abdulaziz, Kolade Omole ...

  16. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-26

    Feb 26, 2013 ... especially the four bacteria isolates used in this study are present in the epiphgram of both normal and ... Keyword: Albino snail, Archachatina marginata, Inhibitory activity, Epiphgram, Bacteria isolate. Introduction .... evolution.

  17. Characterization and partial purification of Candida albicans Secretory IL-12 Inhibitory Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Jyotsna

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that supernatant from Candida albicans (CA culture contains a Secretory Interleukin (IL-12 Inhibitory Factor (CA-SIIF, which inhibits IL-12 production by human monocytes. However, the effect of CA-SIIF on secretion of other cytokines by monocytes is unknown, and detailed characterization of this factor has not been performed. Results In this study, we demonstrate that the IL-12 inhibitory activity of CA-SIIF was serum-independent, based on the reduction of IL-12 levels in monocytes stimulated under serum-independent conditions. The minimal inhibitory dose of CA-SIIF was found to be 200 μg/ml. Investigation of CA-SIIF's effect on macrophages IL-12 production in vitro and in vivo also showed that CA-SIIF inhibited IL-12 production by murine macrophages both in vitro (from 571 ± 24 pg/ml to 387 ± 87 pg/ml; P = 0.05 and in vivo (from 262 ± 6 pg/ml to 144 ± 30 pg/ml; P P P P Conclusion CA-SIIF is a glycoprotein which exhibits serum-independent inhibition of IL-12 production from monocytes in vitro and in vivo, and also modulates differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells. These results suggest important role for CA-SIIF in interactions of C. albicans with the host immune system.

  18. Absolute Configurations and NO Inhibitory Activities of Terpenoids from Curcuma longa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Ji, Feifei; Kang, Jing; Wang, Hao; Li, Shen; Jin, Da-Qing; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Hongwei; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2015-06-24

    Curcuma longa L., belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, is a perennial herb and has been used as a spice and a pigment in the food industry. In the ongoing search for inhibitory reagents of NO production and survey of the chemical composition of natural vegetable foods, the chemical constituents of C. longa used as spice were investigated. This investigation resulted in the isolation of 2 new terpenoids and 14 known analogues. Their structures were established on the basis of the extensive analyses of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations of 1-4 were elucidated by comparison of the calculated and experimental ECD spectra. Among them, compound 1 is a rare norditerpene with an ent-labdane skeleton, and 2 is a skeletally novel sesquiterpene having an eight-membered ring. All of the compounds were found to possess NO inhibitory activities in murine microglial BV-2 cells. The discovery of two new compounds in this chemical investigation further disclosed the chemical composition of C. longa used a food spice, and the bioassay implied that the natural food spice C. longa, containing terpenoids with NO inhibitory activities, may be potentially promotive to human health.

  19. Targeting of the BLT2 in chronic myeloid leukemia inhibits leukemia stem/progenitor cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Meifang; Ai, Hongmei; Li, Tao [Department of Laboratory Medicine, JingZhou Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Jingzhou (China); Rajoria, Pasupati; Shahu, Prakash [Department of Clinical Medicine, Medical School of Yangtze University, Jingzhou (China); Li, Xiansong, E-mail: lixiansongjz@hotmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, JingZhou Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Jingzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) has significantly improved clinical outcome for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. However, patients develop resistance when the disease progresses to the blast phase (BP) and the mechanisms are not well understood. Here we show that BCR-ABL activates BLT2 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells to promote leukemogenesis and this involves the p53 signaling pathway. Compared to normal bone marrow (NBM), the mRNA and protein levels of BLT2 are significantly increased in BP-CML CD34{sup +} stem/progenitor cells. This is correlated with increasing BCR-ABL expression. In contrast, knockdown of BCR-ABL or inhibition of its tyrosine kinase activity decreases Blt2 protein level. BLT2 inhibition induces apoptosis, inhibits proliferation, colony formation and self-renewal capacity of CD34{sup +} cells from TKI-resistant BP-CML patients. Importantly, the inhibitory effects of BCR-ABL TKI on CML stem/progenitor cells are further enhanced upon combination with BLT2 inhibition. We further show that BLT2 activation selectively suppresses p53 but not Wnt or BMP-mediated luciferase activity and transcription. Our results demonstrate that BLT2 is a novel pathway activated by BCR-ABL and critically involved in the resistance of BP-CML CD34{sup +} stem/progenitors to TKIs treatment. Our findings suggest that BLT2 and p53 can serve as therapeutic targets for CML treatment. - Highlights: • BCR-ABL regulates BLT2 expression to promote leukemogenesis. • BLT2 is essential to maintain CML cell function. • Activation of BLT2 suppresses p53 signaling pathway in CML cells. • Inhibition of BLT2 and BCR-ABL synergize in eliminating CML CD34{sup +} stem/progenitors.

  20. Sensitivity of PCR assays for murine gammaretroviruses and mouse contamination in human blood samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling Lee

    Full Text Available Gammaretroviruses related to murine leukemia virus (MLV have variously been reported to be present or absent in blood from chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME patients and healthy controls. Using subjects from New York State, we have investigated by PCR methods whether MLV-related sequences can be identified in nucleic acids isolated from whole blood or from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs or following PBMC culture. We have also passaged the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP following incubation with plasma from patients and controls and assayed nucleic acids for viral sequences. We have used 15 sets of primers that can effectively amplify conserved regions of murine endogenous and exogenous retrovirus sequences. We demonstrate that our PCR assays for MLV-related gag sequences and for mouse DNA contamination are extremely sensitive. While we have identified MLV-like gag sequences following PCR on human DNA preparations, we are unable to conclude that these sequences originated in the blood samples.

  1. Leukemia in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, A B; Heyssel, R; Itoga, T; Tomonaga, M

    1960-08-01

    In the 13.5 years following the detonation of the atomic bomb, 95 cases of leukemia have been observed in the Nagasaki survivors. This increase is highly significant statistically. The increased leukemia risk apparently started 1.5 to 2.5 years following radiation exposure, and has lasted through 1958. Acute leukemias of all types and chronic granulocytic leukemia are increased, (with the possible exception of the Schilling type of acute monocytic leukemia). Males in general, and individuals in the younger ages (0 to 09), are apparently most sensitive. The risk of radiation induction of leukemia is related to the size of the dose. The shape of the curve does not differ greatly from a linear model, but is consistent with a variety of hypotheses. The data in the low dose region are too limited to be of significance in evaluating the risk of low doses of radiation. The data suggest that high radiation doses may be associated with a decrease in the latent period to leukemia induction. 43 references, 2 figures, 31 tables.

  2. Radiotherapy for leukemia in children, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Toru; Konishi, Kiyosaburo; Sato, Noriko; Fujiwara, Fumihiro

    1983-01-01

    Following the development of effective chemotherapy for producing remissions of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), a new phenomenon has emerged in this disease--central nervous system (CNS) leukemia. CNS leukemia has become an increasingly frequent obstacle to prolongation of initial complete remission. Prophylactic irradiation of the CNS concomitant with intrathecal administration of methotrexate (IT-MTX) has proved to be effective in the reduction of CNS involvement. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of irradiation for prevention of CNS leukemia and to discuss their implications. The patients consisted of 32 children with acute leukemia, admitted to MAIZURU National Hospital from 1966 to 1980; 22 patients of them had ALL, the others ANLL (acute non-lymphocytic leukemia). Preventive CNS therapy was started in 1974, (group A), but there was no prevention before 1974 (group B). 1. In group B, six patients was treated by therapeutic cranial irradiation, but all cases resulted in death. 2. In group A, seven patients was treated by prophylactic cranial irradiation combined with IT-MTX, and all of them have been alive without CNS relapse for 2 to 4 2/3 years after therapy. 3. In group A, none of 7 patients (0 %) relapsed CNS leukemia initially as compared to 7 (50 %) of 14 in group B, thus preventive efficacy was clear. 4. There were no severe complications attributable to the radiotherapy, with or without IT-MTX. (author)

  3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Current Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eun-Mi; Kittai, Adam; Tabbara, Imad A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common type of leukemia in adults, and while in early, asymptomatic stages treatment is not indicated, the threat to the quality of life and increased mortality of patients posed by more advanced-stage disease necessitate therapeutic intervention. Guidelines of when and how to treat are not well-established because CLL is a disease of the elderly and it is important to balance preservation of functional status and control of the disease. Advances in molecular and genetic profiling has led to the ability to identify sub-groups of patients with CLL whose disease may respond to selected therapy. This review discusses current standard therapies in the major sub-groups of CLL based on age and functional status, in both the front-line and relapsed/refractory settings. It also provides a concise review of novel agents that have shown considerable efficacy in CLL. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Hairy cell leukemia: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Timothy; Mobarek, Dalia; Wegge, Julia; Tabbara, Imad A

    2008-10-01

    Hairy cell Leukemia (HCL) is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder that was characterized in the late 1950s. HCL is defined, according to the WHO classification, as a mature (peripheral) B-cell neoplasm (1). HCL accounts for between 2-3% of all leukemia cases, with about 600 new cases diagnosed in the U.S. each year (1). HCL occurs more commonly in males, with an overall male to female ratio of approximately 4:1. The median age of onset is 52 years. This disease is seen more commonly in Caucasians and appears to be especially frequent in Ashkenazi Jewish males, with rare occurrence in persons of Asian and African descents (1). Hairy cells are distinct, clonal B cells arrested at a late stage of maturation. They are small B lymphoid cells that possess oval nuclei and abundant cytoplasm with characteristic micro-filamentous ("hairy") projections. They strongly express CD103, CD22, and CD11c (2). These cells typically infiltrate the bone marrow, the spleen, and to a lesser extent the liver, lymph nodes, and skin. Many patients present with splenomegaly and pancytopenia. Other clinical manifestations include recurrent opportunistic infections and vasculitis. Historically, HCL was considered uniformly fatal (2). However, recent treatment advances, using purine analogues such as Cladribine and Pentostatin, led to a significant improvement in prognosis with achievement of high response rates and durable remissions (2).

  5. Leukemia and ionizing radiation revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M. [Cuttler & Associates Inc., Vaughan, Ontario (Canada); Welsh, J.S. [Loyola University-Chicago, Dept. or Radiation Oncology, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois (United States)

    2016-03-15

    A world-wide radiation health scare was created in the late 19508 to stop the testing of atomic bombs and block the development of nuclear energy. In spite of the large amount of evidence that contradicts the cancer predictions, this fear continues. It impairs the use of low radiation doses in medical diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. This brief article revisits the second of two key studies, which revolutionized radiation protection, and identifies a serious error that was missed. This error in analyzing the leukemia incidence among the 195,000 survivors, in the combined exposed populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, invalidates use of the LNT model for assessing the risk of cancer from ionizing radiation. The threshold acute dose for radiation-induced leukemia, based on about 96,800 humans, is identified to be about 50 rem, or 0.5 Sv. It is reasonable to expect that the thresholds for other cancer types are higher than this level. No predictions or hints of excess cancer risk (or any other health risk) should be made for an acute exposure below this value until there is scientific evidence to support the LNT hypothesis. (author)

  6. Extramedullary leukemia in children presenting with proptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Milind

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We highlight the orbital manifestations of acute myeloid leukemia and the role of peripheral blood smear in the diagnosis of these cases. A total of 12 patients who presented with proptosis and were subsequently diagnosed to have acute myeloid leukemia based on incision biopsy or peripheral blood smear were included in the study. Results A retrospective review of all cases of acute myeloid leukemia presenting to the Orbital clinic was performed. The age at presentation, gender, presenting features, duration of symptoms and fundus features were noted. In addition the temporal relationship of the orbital disease to the diagnosis of leukemia, laterality, location of the orbital mass, imaging features and the diagnostic tools used to diagnose leukemia were noted. The median age at presentation was 6 years. The male: female ratio was 0.7:1. None of these patients had been diagnosed earlier as having acute myeloid leukemia. The presenting features included proptosis in all patients, orbital mass in 5 (41.7%, visual symptoms in 2 (16.7% and subconjunctival hemorrhage in one patient (8.3%. A diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia was established by incision biopsy in 4 patients, subsequently confirmed by peripheral blood smear testing and bone marrow biopsy in 2 patients which revealed the presence of systemic involvement. Imprint smears of the biopsy identified blasts in 2 of 4 cases. In 8 patients presenting with ocular manifestations, diagnosis was established by peripheral blood smear examination alone which revealed a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia. Conclusion A peripheral blood smear should be performed in all cases of sudden onset proptosis or an orbital mass in children and young adults along with an orbital biopsy. It can always be complemented with a bone marrow biopsy especially in cases of aleukemic leukemia or when the blood smear is inconclusive.

  7. [Cytomorphology of acute mixed leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucić, Mirna; Batinić, Drago; Zadro, Renata; Mrsić, Sanja; Labar, Boris

    2008-10-01

    Biphenotypic acute leukemias (AL) with blasts expressing both myeloid and lymphoid antigens are grouped with undifferentiated AL and bilineal AL in the group of AL of ambiguous lineage. Not all AL with myeloid and lymphoid antigens (ALMy+Ly) are true biphenotypic AL. According to EGIL scoring system, true biphenotypic ALMy+Ly are those with a sum of antigens 2 or more points for both myeloid and lymphoid lineage or for B and T lineage. The aim of this study was to compare cytomorphology and immunophenotype of AL to better understand the relation of certain AL morphology, immunophenotype, cytogenetics and molecular biology of biphenotypic AL. The study included a group of 169 AL patients treated from 1985 till 1991, and a group of 102 AL patients treated from 1993 till 1996 at Zagreb University Hospital Center. Bone marrow and peripheral blood of the two groups of AL patients were analyzed according to Pappenheim (May-Grunwald-Giemsa), cytochemical and alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) immunocytochemical staining. Flow cytometry immunophenotyping of bone marrow was also done in both patient groups. In the group of 169 adult AL patients, 116 were cytomorphologically classified as acute myeloblastic leukemias (AML), 35 as acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL) and 18 as acute undifferentiated leukemias (ANLM). In 6 (3.4%) of 169 AL patients, blasts expressed both myeloid and lymphoid antigens. In the group of 102 AL patients there were 19 (18.6%) ALMy+Ly. In 64 patients cytomorphologically classified into AML subgroup out of 102 AL patients, there were 15 (14.7%/102; 23.4%/64) AML with lymphoid antigens (AMLLy+). In 35 patients cytomorphologically diagnosed as ALL and 3 as ANLM out of 102 AL, there were 4 (3.9%/102; 10.5%/38) ALL with myeloid antigens (ALLMy+). The incidence of mixed AL in 102 AL was more consistent with other studies, pointing to the necessity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), CD7 and TdT determination as part of standard immunophenotyping

  8. Fungal natural products targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Kildgaard, Sara; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults from the western world. No curative treatments of CLL are presently known so the treatment strategy today is primarily to prolong patient survival,1 why we have initiated new activities towards discovery of novel compounds......,3 This includes analysis of the spectroscopic data generated from LC-DAD-MS to reveal whether the active principles are either structurally known compounds or are likely to be novel compounds. This paper will illustrate our integrated discovery approaches and recent findings of anti-leukemia compounds....

  9. Gastrointestinal complications of leukemia and its treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, T.B.; Bjelland, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemia represents 4% of all cancer deaths and is the leading cause of death from malignancy for all patients under 30 years of age. Various rare, usually preterminal gastrointestinal complications of leukemia have been reported. These complications are becoming more common and no longer should be considered unusual. Their increasing incidence is the result of new, more aggressive treatment methods and increased patient lifespan. The authors describe the relative incidence and common radiographic presentations of leukemia-related gastrointestinal disease and emphasize that its prognosis is favorable with prompt diagnosis and treatment

  10. Circumvention of glucocorticoid resistance in childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarman, E G; Kaspers, G J L; Pieters, R; Rottier, M M A; Veerman, A J P

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we determined if in vitro resistance to prednisolone and dexamethasone could be circumvented by cortivazol or methylprednisolone, or reversed by meta-iodobenzylguanidine in pediatric lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemia. As there were strong correlations between the LC50 values (drug concentration inducing 50% leukemic cell kill, LCK) of the different glucocorticoids and median prednisolone/methylprednisolone, prednisolone/dexamethasone and prednisolone/cortivazol LC50 ratios did not differ between the leukemia subtypes, we conclude that none of the glucocorticoids had preferential anti-leukemic activity. Meta-iodobenzylguanidine however, partially reversed glucocorticoid resistance in 19% of the lymphoblastic leukemia samples.

  11. Occupation, hobbies, and acute leukemia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul D; Shore, David L; Rauscher, Garth H; Sandler, Dale P

    2005-10-01

    Occupational and industrial exposures have been implicated in the etiology of leukemia, yet uncertainty remains regarding potential high risk occupations. We examined the associations between self-reported occupations and hobbies and acute leukemia risk using data from 811 cases and 637 controls participating in a case-control study in the U.S. and Canada. We found that several occupations may increase the risk of acute leukemia, particularly occupations related to petroleum products, rubber, nuclear energy, munitions, plastics, and electronics manufacturing. Differences were noted according to histological type. Other occupations and hobbies were not clearly associated with risk.

  12. Omacetaxine Mepesuccinate for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosshandler, Yasmin; Shen, Ann Q; Cortes, Jorge; Khoury, Hanna Jean

    2016-05-01

    Omacetaxine mepesuccinate is approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic or accelerated phase resistant to two or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This review summarizes the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of omacetaxine mepesuccinate. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate has activity in chronic myeloid leukemia, especially in the chronic phase, regardless of the presence of ABL1 kinase domain mutations. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate has distinct but manageable adverse events profile. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate is a treatment option for a subset of patients with refractory chronic myeloid leukemia.

  13. Leukemia-Initiating Cells in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Shi Hao; Bertulfo, Fatima Carla; Sanda, Takaomi

    2017-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of immature T-cell precursors. T-ALL has many similar pathophysiological features to acute myeloid leukemia, which has been extensively studied in the establishment of the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory, but the CSC concept in T-ALL is still debatable. Although leukemia-initiating cells (LICs), which can generate leukemia in a xenograft setting, have been found in both human T-AL...

  14. 5-Fluoro-2'-Deoxycytidine and Tetrahydrouridine in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-03

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. Enhancers of Polycomb EPC1 and EPC2 sustain the oncogenic potential of MLL leukemia stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu; Spencer, Gary J; Lynch, James T; Ciceri, Filippo; Somerville, Tim D D; Somervaille, Tim C P

    2013-01-01

    Through a targeted knockdown (KD) screen of chromatin regulatory genes we identified the EP400 complex components EPC1 and EPC2 as critical oncogenic co-factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). EPC1 and EPC2 were required for the clonogenic potential of human AML cells of multiple molecular subtypes. Focusing on MLL-mutated AML as an exemplar, Epc1 or Epc2 KD induced apoptosis of murine MLL-AF9 AML cells and abolished leukemia stem cell potential. By contrast, normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) were spared. Similar selectivity was observed for human primary AML cells versus normal CD34+ HSPC. In keeping with these distinct functional consequences, Epc1 or Epc2 KD induced divergent transcriptional consequences in murine MLL-AF9 granulocyte-macrophage progenitor-like (GMP) cells versus normal GMP, with a signature of increased MYC activity in leukemic but not normal cells. This was caused by accumulation of MYC protein and was also observed following KD of other EP400 complex genes. Pharmacological inhibition of MYC:MAX dimerization, or concomitant MYC KD, reduced apoptosis following EPC1 KD, linking the accumulation of MYC to cell death. Therefore EPC1 and EPC2 are components of a complex which directly or indirectly serves to prevent MYC accumulation and AML cell apoptosis, thus sustaining oncogenic potential. PMID:24166297

  16. Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment Option Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a swollen spleen. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment options ... cell leukemia has not responded to treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  17. General Information about Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the lymph system . Having relatives who are Russian Jews or Eastern European Jews. Signs and symptoms ... information about clinical trials is also available. To Learn More About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia For more information ...

  18. Cytogenetic basis of acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J H; Pittman, S M; Singh, S; Wass, E J; Vincent, P C; Gunz, F W

    1975-10-01

    The chromosomes of 12 adult patients with acute leukemia were analyzed by conventional means and by Giemsa and centromeric banding techniques. Acute myeloblastic leukemia was diagnosed in 7, acute myelomonocytic leukemia in 2, and acute undifferentiated leukemia in 3. Bone marrow was aspirated from patients when in relapse or remission, and both euploid and aneuploid cells were examined. All patients showed trisomy no. 9 and many showed additional numerical or structural changes in some or all their cells. These changes included monosomy no. 21 and/or monosomy no. 8. The proportion of trisomy no. 9 cells was 30-50% in patients in full remission and up to 100% in patients in relapse; thus trisomy no. 9 might be an important marker of leukemic cells. A mechanism was proposed to explain the induction and selection of the trisomy no. 9 karotype.

  19. Leukemia -- Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Leukemia - Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Stages Treatment Options About Clinical Trials Latest Research ...

  20. General Information About Hairy Cell Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment . Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment . Gender and age may affect the risk of hairy ... in the shape of blood cells. Blood chemistry studies : A procedure in which a blood sample is ...

  1. Proceedings of the symposium on leukemia clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elaguppillai, V [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Goyette, J P [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Advisory Committee on Radiological Protection; Hill, G; Krewski, D [Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Osborne, R V [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1992-07-01

    Clusters of leukemia in populations living in specific locations in various countries have been examined by scientific and medical experts for many years. In general, the reason for the existence of these clusters is unknown. The recent discovery of a small cluster of leukemias among children who were born in the vicinity of a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility in England has stimulated wide interest in the possible occurrence of clusters of leukemia around nuclear facilities. The purpose of this symposium was to present scientific evidence concerning the existence of leukemia clusters in the population, to discuss possible causes for these clusters and to suggest directions for future research. Distinguished speakers from Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and the U.S.A. participated in this symposium. (author).

  2. Cellular immune therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, Arnon P.; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; Kipps, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Although chemotherapy can induce complete responses in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), it is not considered curative. Treated patients generally develop recurrent disease requiring additional therapy, which can cause worsening immune dysfunction, myelosuppression, and selection for

  3. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  4. Eliminating Hairy Cell Leukemia Minimal Residual Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, patients with hairy cell leukemia who have disease-related symptoms that require treatment will be randomly assigned to receive cladribine with either concurrent rituximab or rituximab at least 6 months after completing cladribine therapy.

  5. Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluid (CSF), the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord, for examination in a lab. Flow cytometry tests. Using markers on leukemia cells collected from the blood, bone marrow, and/or CSF, doctors can determine the type ...

  6. Proceedings of the symposium on leukemia clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elaguppillai, V.; Goyette, J.P.; Osborne, R.V.

    1992-07-01

    Clusters of leukemia in populations living in specific locations in various countries have been examined by scientific and medical experts for many years. In general, the reason for the existence of these clusters is unknown. The recent discovery of a small cluster of leukemias among children who were born in the vicinity of a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility in England has stimulated wide interest in the possible occurrence of clusters of leukemia around nuclear facilities. The purpose of this symposium was to present scientific evidence concerning the existence of leukemia clusters in the population, to discuss possible causes for these clusters and to suggest directions for future research. Distinguished speakers from Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and the U.S.A. participated in this symposium. (author)

  7. The frontal lobes and inhibitory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Seiki

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies using traditional tasks of inhibitory functions, such as the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) and the Go/No-Go Task have revealed that the frontal lobe is responsible for several types of inhibitory functions. However, the detailed psychological nature of the inhibitory functions and the precise location of their critical foci within the frontal lobe remain to be investigated. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides spatial and temporal resolution that allowed us to illuminate at least 4 frontal regions involved in inhibitory functions: the dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and rostral parts of the frontal lobe and the presupplementary motor area (preSMA). The ventrolateral part of the frontal lobe in the right hemisphere was activated during response inhibition. The preSMA in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition of proactive interference immediately after the dimension changes of the WCST. The rostral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition long after the dimension changes. The dorsolateral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated at the dimension changes in the first time, but not in the second time. These findings provide clues to our understanding of functional differentiation of inhibitory functions and their localization in the frontal lobe. (author)

  8. Flexible brain network reconfiguration supporting inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy; Banich, Marie T

    2015-08-11

    The ability to inhibit distracting stimuli from interfering with goal-directed behavior is crucial for success in most spheres of life. Despite an abundance of studies examining regional brain activation, knowledge of the brain networks involved in inhibitory control remains quite limited. To address this critical gap, we applied graph theory tools to functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected while a large sample of adults (n = 101) performed a color-word Stroop task. Higher demand for inhibitory control was associated with restructuring of the global network into a configuration that was more optimized for specialized processing (functional segregation), more efficient at communicating the output of such processing across the network (functional integration), and more resilient to potential interruption (resilience). In addition, there were regional changes with right inferior frontal sulcus and right anterior insula occupying more central positions as network hubs, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex becoming more tightly coupled with its regional subnetwork. Given the crucial role of inhibitory control in goal-directed behavior, present findings identifying functional network organization supporting inhibitory control have the potential to provide additional insights into how inhibitory control may break down in a wide variety of individuals with neurological or psychiatric difficulties.

  9. Autonomous growth potential of leukemia blast cells is associated with poor prognosis in human acute leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowski Ann A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have described a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mouse model that permits the subcutaneous growth of primary human acute leukemia blast cells into a measurable subcutaneous nodule which may be followed by the development of disseminated disease. Utilizing the SCID mouse model, we examined the growth potential of leukemic blasts from 133 patients with acute leukemia, (67 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and 66 acute myeloid leukemia (AML in the animals after subcutaneous inoculation without conditioning treatment. The blasts displayed three distinct growth patterns: "aggressive", "indolent", or "no tumor growth". Out of 133 leukemias, 45 (33.8% displayed an aggressive growth pattern, 14 (10.5% displayed an indolent growth pattern and 74 (55.6% did not grow in SCID mice. The growth probability of leukemias from relapsed and/or refractory disease was nearly 3 fold higher than that from patients with newly diagnosed disease. Serial observations found that leukemic blasts from the same individual, which did not initiate tumor growth at initial presentation and/or at early relapse, may engraft and grow in the later stages of disease, suggesting that the ability of leukemia cells for engraftment and proliferation was gradually acquired following the process of leukemia progression. Nine autonomous growing leukemia cell lines were established in vitro. These displayed an aggressive proliferation pattern, suggesting a possible correlation between the capacity of human leukemia cells for autonomous proliferation in vitro and an aggressive growth potential in SCID mice. In addition, we demonstrated that patients whose leukemic blasts displayed an aggressive growth and dissemination pattern in SClD mice had a poor clinical outcome in patients with ALL as well as AML. Patients whose leukemic blasts grew indolently or whose leukemia cells failed to induce growth had a significantly longer DFS and more favorable clinical course.

  10. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Mediates Proliferative GN via CD74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djudjaj, Sonja; Lue, Hongqi; Rong, Song; Papasotiriou, Marios; Klinkhammer, Barbara M.; Zok, Stephanie; Klaener, Ole; Braun, Gerald S.; Lindenmeyer, Maja T.; Cohen, Clemens D.; Bucala, Richard; Tittel, Andre P.; Kurts, Christian; Moeller, Marcus J.; Floege, Juergen; Ostendorf, Tammo

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic proliferation of mesangial and parietal epithelial cells (PECs) is a hallmark of various glomerulonephritides. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that mediates inflammation by engagement of a receptor complex involving the components CD74, CD44, CXCR2, and CXCR4. The proliferative effects of MIF may involve CD74 together with the coreceptor and PEC activation marker CD44. Herein, we analyzed the effects of local glomerular MIF/CD74/CD44 signaling in proliferative glomerulonephritides. MIF, CD74, and CD44 were upregulated in the glomeruli of patients and mice with proliferative glomerulonephritides. During disease, CD74 and CD44 were expressed de novo in PECs and colocalized in both PECs and mesangial cells. Stress stimuli induced MIF secretion from glomerular cells in vitro and in vivo, in particular from podocytes, and MIF stimulation induced proliferation of PECs and mesangial cells via CD74. In murine crescentic GN, Mif-deficient mice were almost completely protected from glomerular injury, the development of cellular crescents, and the activation and proliferation of PECs and mesangial cells, whereas wild-type mice were not. Bone marrow reconstitution studies showed that deficiency of both nonmyeloid and bone marrow–derived Mif reduced glomerular cell proliferation and injury. In contrast to wild-type mice, Cd74-deficient mice also were protected from glomerular injury and ensuing activation and proliferation of PECs and mesangial cells. Our data suggest a novel molecular mechanism and glomerular cell crosstalk by which local upregulation of MIF and its receptor complex CD74/CD44 mediate glomerular injury and pathologic proliferation in GN. PMID:26453615

  11. Leukemia risk following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, R.E.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Stovall, M.; Flannery, J.T.; Moloney, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate further the relationship between high-dose radiotherapy and leukemia incidence, a nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 22,753 women who were 18-month survivors of invasive breast cancer diagnosed from 1935 to 1972. Women treated for breast cancer after 1973 were excluded to minimize the possible confounding influence of treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. The cases had histologically confirmed leukemia reported to the Connecticut Tumor Registry (CTR) between 1935 and 1984. A total of 48 cases of leukemia following breast cancer were included in the study. Two controls were individually matched to each leukemia case on the basis of age, calendar year when diagnosed with breast cancer, and survival time. Leukemia diagnoses were verified by one hematologist. Radiation dose to active bone marrow was estimated by medical physicists on the basis of the original radiotherapy records of study subjects. Local radiation doses to each of the 16 bone marrow components for each patient were reconstructed; the dose averaged over the entire body was 530 rad (5.3 Gy). Based on this dosage and assuming a linear relationship between dose and affect, a relative risk (RR) in excess of 10 would have been expected. However, there was little evidence that radiotherapy increased the overall risk of leukemia (RR = 1.16; 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.6 to 2.1). The risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, one of the few malignancies without evidence for an association with ionizing radiation, was not significantly increased (RR = 1.8; n = 10); nor was the risk for all other forms of leukemia (RR = 1.0; n = 38). There was no indication that risk varied over categories of radiation dose

  12. Improvement of Leukemia diagnose with molecular techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Rudin, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to contribute with new techniques to the clinical diagnosis and to the monitoring of mycloid chronic leukemias in Costa Rica. The same one achieved to determine that is viable to apply radioactive and non reactive methodologies, for the molecular detection of the Philadelphia chromosome.It also found that the application of techniques of cellular biology, helps to classify better the mycloide leukemias and the chronic mycloproliferatives and miclodisplaced disorders. (S. Grainger) [es

  13. [Report of a case of megakaryoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J A; Timóteo, T; Elisário, L

    1990-01-01

    We diagnosed a 20 year old young girl, with clinical and laboratorial evidence of pancytopenia, an acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. The difficulty in arriving at this conclusion was only surpassed with the help of monoclonal antibodies. With the presentation of this case we approach the problematics in obtaining the diagnostic of the megakaryoblastic leukemia. This is fundamental, owing to the possibilities of morphological presentation under undifferentiated blasts or of the type M1 or L2 (FAB).

  14. Thymic irradiation and chronic myelogenous leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimaoka, K.; Sokal, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Two cases of Ph positive chronic myelogenous leukemia with a history of thymic irradiation are presented. Both patients received radiation therapy from low voltage x-ray equipment at two to three months of age. Leukemia developed 18 and 22 years later. Presentation, response to antileukemic therapy, and clinical course did not differ from that of other patients with this disease treated in our department

  15. Childhood leukemia around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, M.

    1992-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies on health effects of living near nuclear facilities have been rare and, indeed, radiobiological models would not predict any detectable increase in cancer risk to the general public from very low levels of radioactivity emitted by nuclear installations. Thus recent evidence suggesting an excess of childhood leukemias in the vicinity of certain nuclear sites in the United Kingdom has generated considerable controversy. To help resolve the uncertainty and enhance interpretability of results, future epidemiologic studies will need to be designed with great care (and within realistic cost limits). This commentary suggests three areas for methodologic consideration: 1. definition and modelling of radiation exposure; 2. selection of cancer sites and sensitive subgroups, and 3. use of incidence of mortality data. Specific suggestions for further epidemiologic research are offered as well. (author). 8 refs

  16. Alloreactive natural killer cells for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia: from stem cell transplantation to adoptive immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana eRuggeri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer cells express activating and inhibitory receptors which recognize MHC class I alleles, termed Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIRs. Preclinical and clinical data from haploidentical T-cell depleted stem cell transplantation have demonstrated that alloreactive KIR-L mismatched natural killer cells play a major role as effectors against acute myeloid leukemia. Outside the transplantation setting, several reports have proven the safety and feasibility of natural killer cell infusion in acute myeloid leukemia patients and, in some cases, provided evidence that transferred NK cells are functionally alloreactive and may have a role in disease control. Aim of the present work is to briefly summarize the most recent advances in the field by moving from the first preclinical and clinical demonstration of donor NK alloreactivity in the transplantation setting to the most recent attempts of exploiting the use of alloreactive NK cell infusion as a means of adoptive immunotherapy against acute myeloid leukemia. Altogether, these data highlight the pivotal role of NK cells for the development of novel immunological approaches in the clinical management of acute myeloid leukemia.

  17. Reemergence of Murine Typhus in the US

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-21

    Dr. Lucas Blanton discusses the Reemergence of Murine Typhus in Galveston Texas in 2013.  Created: 4/21/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2015.

  18. Childhood Leukemia--A Look at the Past, the Present and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Regina; Barber, William H.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of childhood leukemia. The causes, the survival period, different types (acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and hairy cell leukemia), symptoms, treatment, side effects of treatment (including learning problems), and the expected future direction of…

  19. Organizers of inhibitory synapses come of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger-Burg, Dilja; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Brose, Nils

    2017-08-01

    While the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses is known to encompass a highly complex molecular machinery, the equivalent organizational structure of inhibitory synapses has long remained largely undefined. In recent years, however, substantial progress has been made towards identifying the full complement of organizational proteins present at inhibitory synapses, including submembranous scaffolds, intracellular signaling proteins, transsynaptic adhesion proteins, and secreted factors. Here, we summarize these findings and discuss future challenges in assigning synapse-specific functions to the newly discovered catalog of proteins, an endeavor that will depend heavily on newly developed technologies such as proximity biotinylation. Further advances are made all the more essential by growing evidence that links inhibitory synapses to psychiatric and neurological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bilingual Contexts Modulate the Inhibitory Control Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study investigated influences of language contexts on inhibitory control and the underlying neural processes. Thirty Cantonese–Mandarin–English trilingual speakers, who were highly proficient in Cantonese (L1 and Mandarin (L2, and moderately proficient in English (L3, performed a picture-naming task in three dual-language contexts (L1-L2, L2-L3, and L1-L3. After each of the three naming tasks, participants performed a flanker task, measuring contextual effects on the inhibitory control system. Behavioral results showed a typical flanker effect in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition, but not in the L1-L2 condition, which indicates contextual facilitation on inhibitory control performance by the L1-L2 context. Whole brain analysis of the fMRI data acquired during the flanker tasks showed more neural activations in the right prefrontal cortex and subcortical areas in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition on one hand as compared to the L1-L2 condition on the other hand, suggesting greater involvement of the cognitive control areas when participants were performing the flanker task in L2-L3 and L1-L3 contexts. Effective connectivity analyses displayed a cortical-subcortical-cerebellar circuitry for inhibitory control in the trilinguals. However, contrary to the right-lateralized network in the L1-L2 condition, functional networks for inhibitory control in the L2-L3 and L1-L3 condition are less integrated and more left-lateralized. These findings provide a novel perspective for investigating the interaction between bilingualism (multilingualism and inhibitory control by demonstrating instant behavioral effects and neural plasticity as a function of changes in global language contexts.

  1. Inhibitory neurons modulate spontaneous signaling in cultured cortical neurons: density-dependent regulation of excitatory neuronal signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Michael; Guaraldi, Mary; Shea, Thomas B

    2010-01-01

    Cortical neuronal activity depends on a balance between excitatory and inhibitory influences. Culturing of neurons on multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) has provided insight into the development and maintenance of neuronal networks. Herein, we seeded MEAs with murine embryonic cortical/hippocampal neurons at different densities ( 1000 cells mm −2 ) and monitored resultant spontaneous signaling. Sparsely seeded cultures displayed a large number of bipolar, rapid, high-amplitude individual signals with no apparent temporal regularity. By contrast, densely seeded cultures instead displayed clusters of signals at regular intervals. These patterns were observed even within thinner and thicker areas of the same culture. GABAergic neurons (25% of total neurons in our cultures) mediated the differential signal patterns observed above, since addition of the inhibitory antagonist bicuculline to dense cultures and hippocampal slice cultures induced the signal pattern characteristic of sparse cultures. Sparsely seeded cultures likely lacked sufficient inhibitory neurons to modulate excitatory activity. Differential seeding of MEAs can provide a unique model for analyses of pertubation in the interaction between excitatory and inhibitory function during aging and neuropathological conditions where dysregulation of GABAergic neurons is a significant component

  2. Blimp-1 impairs T cell function via upregulation of TIGIT and PD-1 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liuluan; Kong, Yaxian; Zhang, Jianhong; Claxton, David F; Ehmann, W Christopher; Rybka, Witold B; Palmisiano, Neil D; Wang, Ming; Jia, Bei; Bayerl, Michael; Schell, Todd D; Hohl, Raymond J; Zeng, Hui; Zheng, Hong

    2017-06-19

    T cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) domain (TIGIT) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) are important inhibitory receptors that associate with T cell exhaustion in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we aimed to determine the underlying transcriptional mechanisms regulating these inhibitory pathways. Specifically, we investigated the role of transcription factor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) in T cell response and transcriptional regulation of TIGIT and PD-1 in AML. Peripheral blood samples collected from patients with AML were used in this study. Blimp-1 expression was examined by flow cytometry. The correlation of Blimp-1 expression to clinical characteristics of AML patients was analyzed. Phenotypic and functional studies of Blimp-1-expressing T cells were performed using flow cytometry-based assays. Luciferase reporter assays and ChIP assays were applied to assess direct binding and transcription activity of Blimp-1. Using siRNA to silence Blimp-1, we further elucidated the regulatory role of Blimp-1 in the TIGIT and PD-1 expression and T cell immune response. Blimp-1 expression is elevated in T cells from AML patients. Consistent with exhaustion, Blimp-1 + T cells upregulate multiple inhibitory receptors including PD-1 and TIGIT. In addition, they are functionally impaired manifested by low cytokine production and decreased cytotoxicity capacity. Importantly, the functional defect is reversed by inhibition of Blimp-1 via siRNA knockdown. Furthermore, Blimp-1 binds to the promoters of PD-1 and TIGIT and positively regulates their expression. Our study demonstrates an important inhibitory effect of Blimp-1 on T cell response in AML; thus, targeting Blimp-1 and its regulated molecules to improve the immune response may provide effective leukemia therapeutics.

  3. Blimp-1 impairs T cell function via upregulation of TIGIT and PD-1 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuluan Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM domain (TIGIT and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1 are important inhibitory receptors that associate with T cell exhaustion in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. In this study, we aimed to determine the underlying transcriptional mechanisms regulating these inhibitory pathways. Specifically, we investigated the role of transcription factor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1 in T cell response and transcriptional regulation of TIGIT and PD-1 in AML. Methods Peripheral blood samples collected from patients with AML were used in this study. Blimp-1 expression was examined by flow cytometry. The correlation of Blimp-1 expression to clinical characteristics of AML patients was analyzed. Phenotypic and functional studies of Blimp-1-expressing T cells were performed using flow cytometry-based assays. Luciferase reporter assays and ChIP assays were applied to assess direct binding and transcription activity of Blimp-1. Using siRNA to silence Blimp-1, we further elucidated the regulatory role of Blimp-1 in the TIGIT and PD-1 expression and T cell immune response. Results Blimp-1 expression is elevated in T cells from AML patients. Consistent with exhaustion, Blimp-1+ T cells upregulate multiple inhibitory receptors including PD-1 and TIGIT. In addition, they are functionally impaired manifested by low cytokine production and decreased cytotoxicity capacity. Importantly, the functional defect is reversed by inhibition of Blimp-1 via siRNA knockdown. Furthermore, Blimp-1 binds to the promoters of PD-1 and TIGIT and positively regulates their expression. Conclusions Our study demonstrates an important inhibitory effect of Blimp-1 on T cell response in AML; thus, targeting Blimp-1 and its regulated molecules to improve the immune response may provide effective leukemia therapeutics.

  4. Reanalysis of atomic bomb survivors' leukemia based on the recent classification for leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao.

    1990-01-01

    Four hundred and ninety-three A-bomb survivors developing leukemia, who had been exposed within 9,000 m from the hypocenter, were entered on the study for reanalysis of their disease based on the new classification. Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) showed the highest concordance rate (95%) between the previous and new classifications. For 10 survivors previously diagnosed as having chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a new classification diagnosed CLL as well in 3 and adult T-cell leukemia in the other 7. None of the A-bomb survivors exposed to one Gy or more had subtype M3 of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), although the exposed group had almost the same distribution pattern of AML subtypes as the naturally induced leukemic group. The incidence of CML was significantly lower than that of AML in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. As A-bomb survivors were older at the time of A-bombing, the relative risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was decreased; that of CML and other types of leukemia was increased. An increased relative risk of ALL and CML tended to be associated with larger doses. A significantly shortened interval between A-bomb exposure and the development of leukemia was also associated with larger doses. (N.K.)

  5. T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia display dysregulated expression of immune checkpoints and activation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Marzia; Gentilcore, Giusy; Heimersson, Kia; Mozaffari, Fariba; Näsman-Glaser, Barbro; Young, Emma; Rosenquist, Richard; Hansson, Lotta; Österborg, Anders; Mellstedt, Håkan

    2017-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by impaired immune functions largely due to profound T-cell defects. T-cell functions also depend on co-signaling receptors, inhibitory or stimulatory, known as immune checkpoints, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1). Here we analyzed the T-cell phenotype focusing on immune checkpoints and activation markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients (n=80) with different clinical characteristics and compared them to healthy controls. In general, patients had higher absolute numbers of CD3 + cells and the CD8 + subset was particularly expanded in previously treated patients. Progressive patients had higher numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + cells expressing PD-1 compared to healthy controls, which was more pronounced in previously treated patients ( P =0.0003 and P =0.001, respectively). A significant increase in antigen-experienced T cells was observed in patients within both the CD4 + and CD8 + subsets, with a significantly higher PD-1 expression. Higher numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + cells with intracellular CTLA-4 were observed in patients, as well as high numbers of proliferating (Ki67 + ) and activated (CD69 + ) CD4 + and CD8 + cells, more pronounced in patients with active disease. The numbers of Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells were substantially increased in patients compared to controls ( P leukemia T cells display increased expression of immune checkpoints, abnormal subset distribution, and a higher proportion of proliferating cells compared to healthy T cells. Disease activity and previous treatment shape the T-cell profile of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in different ways. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  6. Overexpression of Rac1 in leukemia patients and its role in leukemia cell migration and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiying; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wei, Hui; Xing, Haiyan; Liu, Hang; Wang, Yanzhong; Tang, Kejing; Peng, Leiwen; Tian, Zheng; Wang, Jianxiang

    2009-01-01

    Rac1 belongs to the Rho family that act as critical mediators of signaling pathways controlling cell migration and proliferation and contributes to the interactions of hematopoietic stem cells with their microenvironment. Alteration of Rac1 might result in unbalanced interactions and ultimately lead to leukemogenesis. In this study, we analyze the expression of Rac1 protein in leukemia patients and determine its role in the abnormal behaviours of leukemic cells. Rac1 protein is overexpressed in primary acute myeloid leukemia cells as compared to normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of Rac1 in leukemia cell lines induced inhibition of cell migration, proliferation, and colony formation. Additionally, blocking Rac1 activity by an inhibitor of Rac1-GTPase, NSC23766, suppressed cell migration and growth. We conclude that overexpression of Rac1 contributes to the accelerated migration and high proliferation potential of leukemia cells, which could be implicated in leukemia development and progression.

  7. Overexpression of Rac1 in leukemia patients and its role in leukemia cell migration and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiying [State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); Rao, Qing, E-mail: raoqing@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China); Wang, Min; Wei, Hui; Xing, Haiyan; Liu, Hang; Wang, Yanzhong; Tang, Kejing; Peng, Leiwen; Tian, Zheng; Wang, Jianxiang [State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin 300020 (China)

    2009-09-04

    Rac1 belongs to the Rho family that act as critical mediators of signaling pathways controlling cell migration and proliferation and contributes to the interactions of hematopoietic stem cells with their microenvironment. Alteration of Rac1 might result in unbalanced interactions and ultimately lead to leukemogenesis. In this study, we analyze the expression of Rac1 protein in leukemia patients and determine its role in the abnormal behaviours of leukemic cells. Rac1 protein is overexpressed in primary acute myeloid leukemia cells as compared to normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of Rac1 in leukemia cell lines induced inhibition of cell migration, proliferation, and colony formation. Additionally, blocking Rac1 activity by an inhibitor of Rac1-GTPase, NSC23766, suppressed cell migration and growth. We conclude that overexpression of Rac1 contributes to the accelerated migration and high proliferation potential of leukemia cells, which could be implicated in leukemia development and progression.

  8. Perspectives on the causes of childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemels, Joseph

    2012-04-05

    Acute leukemia is the most common cancer in children but the causes of the disease in the majority of cases are not known. About 80% are precursor-B cell in origin (CD19+, CD10+), and this immunophenotype has increased in incidence over the past several decades in the Western world. Part of this increase may be due to the introduction of new chemical exposures into the child's environment including parental smoking, pesticides, traffic fumes, paint and household chemicals. However, much of the increase in leukemia rates is likely linked to altered patterns of infection during early childhood development, mirroring causal pathways responsible for a similarly increased incidence of other childhood-diagnosed immune-related illnesses including allergy, asthma, and type 1 diabetes. Factors linked to childhood leukemia that are likely surrogates for immune stimulation include exposure to childcare settings, parity status and birth order, vaccination history, and population mixing. In case-control studies, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is consistently inversely associated with greater exposure to infections, via daycare and later birth order. New evidence suggests also that children who contract leukemia may harbor a congenital defect in immune responder status, as indicated by lower levels of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 at birth in children who grow up to contract leukemia, as well as higher need for clinical care for infections within the first year of life despite having lower levels of exposure to infections. One manifestation of this phenomenon may be leukemia clusters which tend to appear as a leukemia "outbreak" among populations with low herd immunity to a new infection. Critical answers to the etiology of childhood leukemia will require incorporating new tools into traditional epidemiologic approaches - including the classification of leukemia at a molecular scale, better exposure assessments at all points in a child's life, a comprehensive

  9. Search for infective mammalian type-C virus-related genes in the DNA of human sarcomas and leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, M O; Gilden, R V; Charman, H; Rice, N; Heberling, R; McAllister, R M

    1978-06-15

    DNA was extracted from two human sarcoma cell lines, TE-32 and TE-418, and the leukemic cells from five children with acute myelocytic leukemia, three children with acute lymphocytic leukemia and four adults with acute myelocytic leukemia. The DNAs, assayed for infectivity by transfection techniques, induced no measurable virus by methods which would detect known mammalian C-type antigens or RNA-directed DNA polymerase in TE-32, D-17 dog cells and other indicator cells, nor did they recombine with or rescue endogenous human or exogenous murine or baboon type-C virus. Model systems used as controls were human sarcoma cells, TE-32 and HT-1080, and human lymphoma cells TE-543, experimentally infected with KiMuLV, GaLV or baboon type-C virus, all of which released infectious virus and whose DNAs were infectious for TE-32 and D-17 dog cells. Other model systems included two baboon placentas and one embryonic cell strain spontaneously releasing infectious endogenous baboon virus and yielding DNAs infectious for D-17 dog cells but not for TE-32 cells. Four other baboon embryonic tissues and two embryonic cell strains, releasing either low levels of virus or no virus, did not yield infectious DNA.

  10. CD19/CD22 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells and Chemotherapy in Treating Children or Young Adults With Recurrent or Refractory CD19 Positive B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-20

    B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; CD19 Positive; Minimal Residual Disease; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  11. HA-1 T TCR T Cell Immunotherapy for the Treating of Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia After Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-30

    HLA-A*0201 HA-1 Positive Cells Present; Minimal Residual Disease; Recurrent Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia; Recurrent Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  12. Genetics Home Reference: cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Acute myeloid leukemia Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (3 links) Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center National Cancer Institute: Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment St. Jude Children's Research Hospital General Information ...

  13. Study of ultrasonic imagine of spleen in patients with leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hui; Zhou Chunyan; Jiang Ju; Luo Liying; Huang Yanhong

    2011-01-01

    To investigate spleen ultrasonic imagine in patients with leukemia and to provide basis information for preventing and treat disease,the spleens imaging of 158 patients with leukemia were detected by B mode ultrasonicgraphy and the data of clinical medical examination were analyzed.The results showed that the spleens' ultrasonic imagine of patients with leukemia were not related to the degree of anemia.The ultrasonic imagines of spleen in patients with chronic leukemia were different to the other kinds of leukemia.The ultrasonic imagine of spleens in leukemia patients are related to types and development of leukemia.The B-ultrasound screening should be used to help clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with leukemia. (authors)

  14. Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairy cell leukemia treatment options include surveillance, chemotherapy, targeted therapy/immunotherapy, and splenectomy. The decision to treat is based on cytopenias, splenomegaly, or infectious complications. Get detailed information about hairy cell leukemia in this clinician summary.

  15. Trisomy/tetrasomy 13 in seven cases of acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekantaiah, C; Baer, M R; Morgan, S; Isaacs, J D; Miller, K B; Sandberg, A A

    1990-11-01

    We report the clinical presentation and the morphologic, histochemical, and immunophenotypic characteristics of seven patients with acute leukemia who had trisomy/tetrasomy 13 as the sole cytogenetic abnormality in their leukemia. Five patients had trisomy 13 at diagnosis of acute leukemia. All five of these patients had undifferentiated leukemias. The sixth patient, who had French-American-British (FAB) type M2 acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), and the seventh patient with biphenotypic acute leukemia developed the trisomic clone as a new abnormality late in the course of their disease. A review of the literature revealed 28 previously reported hematologic malignancies with trisomy 13 or tetrasomy 13q as a solitary cytogenetic abnormality. Trisomy 13 appears to represent another rare but nonrandom cytogenetic abnormality in acute leukemia. In our series trisomy 13 is largely associated with acute leukemia with little myeloid or lymphoid differentiation.

  16. Do We Know What Causes Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Be Prevented? More In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia About Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment Back To Top Imagine a world ...

  17. Correlation between enzymes inhibitory effects and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and phytochemical content of fractions was investigated. The n-butanol fraction showed significant α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects (IC50 values 15.1 and 39.42 μg/ml, respectively) along with the remarkable antioxidant activity when compared to the other fractions. High performance liquid chromatography ...

  18. Phenotypic characterisation and assessment of the inhibitory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six strains of Lactobacillus spp. were isolated from fermenting corn slurry, fresh cow milk, and the faeces of pig, albino rat, and human infant. Their inhibitory action was tested against some spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Lactobacillus acidophilus isolated from milk was found to display a higher antagonistic effect with ...

  19. Phenotypic characterisation and assessment of the inhibitory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred

    inhibitory potential of Lactobacillus isolates from different sources. Oyetayo, V.O.. Department of ... Six strains of Lactobacillus spp. were isolated from fermenting corn slurry, fresh cow milk, and the faeces of pig, albino rat, and human ... the growth of some pathogens by Lactobacillus reuteri BSA 13, obtained from pig faeces.

  20. Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiying; Wu, Hanrong

    2011-02-01

    Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) was investigated to explore the cognitive mechanism underlying DD. According to the definition of developmental dyscalculia, 19 children with DD-only and 10 children with DD&RD (DD combined with reading disability) were selected step by step, children in two control groups were matched with children in case groups by gender and age, and the match ratio was 1:1. Psychological testing software named DMDX was used to measure inhibitory ability of the subjects. The differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks and differences of accuracy in incongruent condition of color-word Stroop tasks and object inhibition tasks between DD-only children and their controls reached significant levels (P<0.05), and the differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks between dyscalculic and normal children did not disappear after controlling the non-executive components. The difference of accuracy in color-word incongruent tasks between children with DD&RD and normal children reached significant levels (P<0.05). Children with DD-only confronted with general inhibitory deficits, while children with DD&RD confronted with word inhibitory deficits only.

  1. The role of regulatory T cells during the attenuation of graft-versus-leukemia activity following donor leukocyte infusion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Sun; Lim, Ji-Young; Cho, Byung-Sik; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Jeong, Dae Chul; Youn, Hyewon; Lee, Chulbom; Choi, Eun Young; Min, Chang-Ki

    2011-12-01

    We investigated how the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect is attenuated in the tumor microenvironment using a murine model of non-myeloablative allo-HSCT (NM-HSCT) plus delayed donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) in a haploidentical B6→F1 strain combination. In-line with aggravated leukemia growth, the proportions of effector T cells expressing IFN-γ (Teffs) in spleen were reduced and attenuated GVL activity was found to be accompanied by a rebound in CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in tumor-draining lymph nodes and tumor tissues. DLI-derived Tregs and Teffs may be potential indicators of presence of leukemic progression after DLI in this GVL model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. AR-42 and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-12

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  3. Endogenous retrovirus induces leukemia in a xenograft mouse model for primary myelofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviai, Ioanna; Ziegler, Marion; Bergholz, Ulla; Oler, Andrew J; Stübig, Thomas; Prassolov, Vladimir; Fehse, Boris; Kozak, Christine A; Kröger, Nicolaus; Stocking, Carol

    2014-06-10

    The compound immunodeficiencies in nonobese diabetic (NOD) inbred mice homozygous for the Prkdc(scid) and Il2rg(null) alleles (NSG mice) permit engraftment of a wide-range of primary human cells, enabling sophisticated modeling of human disease. In studies designed to define neoplastic stem cells of primary myelofibrosis (PMF), a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by profound disruption of the hematopoietic microenvironment, we observed a high frequency of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in NSG mice. AML was of mouse origin, confined to PMF-xenografted mice, and contained multiple clonal integrations of ecotropic murine leukemia virus (E-MuLV). Significantly, MuLV replication was not only observed in diseased mice, but also in nontreated NSG controls. Furthermore, in addition to the single ecotropic endogenous retrovirus (eERV) located on chromosome 11 (Emv30) in the NOD genome, multiple de novo germ-line eERV integrations were observed in mice from each of four independent NSG mouse colonies. Analysis confirmed that E-MuLV originated from the Emv30 provirus and that recombination events were not necessary for virus replication or AML induction. Pathogenicity is thus likely attributable to PMF-mediated paracrine stimulation of mouse myeloid cells, which serve as targets for retroviral infection and transformation, as evidenced by integration into the Evi1 locus, a hotspot for retroviral-induced myeloid leukemia. This study thus corroborates a role of paracrine stimulation in PMF disease progression, underlines the importance of target cell type and numbers in MuLV-induced disease, and mandates awareness of replicating MuLV in NOD immunodeficient mice, which can significantly influence experimental results and their interpretation.

  4. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cells for the Treatment of B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Tomuleasa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T-cell technology has seen a rapid development over the last decade mostly due to the potential that these cells may have in treating malignant diseases. It is a generally accepted principle that very few therapeutic compounds deliver a clinical response without treatment-related toxicity, and studies have shown that CAR T-cells are not an exception to this rule. While large multinational drug companies are currently investigating the potential role of CAR T-cells in hematological oncology, the potential of such cellular therapies are being recognized worldwide as they are expected to expand in the patient to support the establishment of the immune memory, provide a continuous surveillance to prevent and/or treat a relapse, and keep the targeted malignant cell subpopulation in check. In this article, we present the possible advantages of using CAR T-cells in treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia, presenting the technology and the current knowledge in their preclinical and early clinical trial use. Thus, this article first presents the main present-day knowledge on the standard of care for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Afterward, current knowledge is presented about the use of CAR T-cells in cancer immunotherapy, describing their design, the molecular constructs, and the preclinical data on murine models to properly explain the background for their clinical use. Last, but certainly not least, this article presents the use of CAR T-cells for the immunotherapy of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, describing both their potential clinical advantages and the possible side effects.

  5. Chromosome aberrations and oncogene alterations in atomic bomb related leukemias - different mechanisms from de novo leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, H.; Kamada, N.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that leukemia occurred more frequently among atomic bomb survivors. In 132 atomic bomb related ( AB- related) leukemia patients during 1978-1999, 33 acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients had their exposure doses of more than 1Gy (DS86). Chromosome aberrations of the 33 patients were compared with those from 588 de novo AML/MDS patients who had been bone before August 1945 as control. No FAB M3 patient was observed in the exposed group. Most AB-related AML preceded a long term of MDS stage. Twenty seven of the 33 patients showed complex types of chromosome aberrations with more than three chromosomes involving chromosomes 5,7 and 11. The number of chromosomes abnormality per cell in the AB-related leukemia was 3.78 while 0.92 in de novo leukemia. Only one of the 33 patients had normal karyotype, while 44.1% in de novo leukemia patients. Translocations of chromosome 11 at 11q13 to 11q23 and deletion/ loss of chromosome 20 were frequently observed in AB-related leukemia. No leukemia-type specific translocations such as t(8;21),t(15;17) and 11q23 were found in the 33 AB-related leukemia patients. Furthermore, molecular analyses using FISH and PCR-SSCP revealed the presence of breakpoint located outside of MLL gene in the patients with translocations at 11q22-23 and DNA base derangements of RUNT domain of AML1(CBF β 2)gene with AML/MDS patients without t(8;21) and with a high dose of exposure. These results suggest that AB-related leukemia derives from an exposed pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell which has been preserved for a long time in the bone marrow, expressing high genetic instability such as microsatellite instability. On the other hand, de novo leukemia develops from a committed hematopoietic stem cell and shows simple and leukemia-type specific chromosome aberrations. These findings are important for understanding mechanisms for radiation-induced leukemia

  6. Helicobacter pylori impairs murine dendritic cell responses to infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori, a human pathogen associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric malignancies, is generally viewed as an extracellular microorganism. Here, we show that H. pylori replicates in murine bone marrow derived-dendritic cells (BMDCs within autophagosomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 10-fold increase of CFU is found between 2 h and 6 h p.i. in H. pylori-infected BMDCs. Autophagy is induced around the bacterium and participates at late time points of infection for the clearance of intracellular H. pylori. As a consequence of infection, LC3, LAMP1 and MHC class II molecules are retained within the H. pylori-containing vacuoles and export of MHC class II molecules to cell surface is blocked. However, formalin-fixed H. pylori still maintain this inhibitory activity in BMDC derived from wild type mice, but not in from either TLR4 or TLR2-deficient mice, suggesting the involvement of H. pylori-LPS in this process. TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 expression was also modulated upon infection showing a TLR2-specific dependent IL-10 secretion. No IL-12 was detected favoring the hypothesis of a down modulation of DC functions during H. pylori infection. Furthermore, antigen-specific T cells proliferation was also impaired upon infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: H. pylori can infect and replicate in BMDCs and thereby affects DC-mediated immune responses. The implication of this new finding is discussed for the biological life cycle of H. pylori in the host.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA Familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA Printable PDF Open All Close ... on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) LEUKEMIA, ACUTE MYELOID Sources for This Page Carmichael CL, Wilkins EJ, ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... binding factor acute myeloid leukemia Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) LEUKEMIA, ACUTE MYELOID Sources for This Page Goyama S, Mulloy JC. Molecular ...

  9. Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Leukemia in a Black Malian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... BPDCN in Mali. KEYWORDS: Acute Leukemia, black african, dendritic cell, Mali ... myeloid neoplasm by the 2008 world health organization classification of .... There are many standardized treatment regimens, and many protocols with ... leukemia chemotherapy regimen[7,11] or chronic leukemia treatment ...

  10. Chronic myeloid leukemia: reminiscences and dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Tariq I.; Radich, Jerald P.; Deininger, Michael W.; Apperley, Jane F.; Hughes, Timothy P.; Harrison, Christine J.; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Saglio, Giuseppe; Cortes, Jorge; Daley, George Q.

    2016-01-01

    With the deaths of Janet Rowley and John Goldman in December 2013, the world lost two pioneers in the field of chronic myeloid leukemia. In 1973, Janet Rowley, unraveled the cytogenetic anatomy of the Philadelphia chromosome, which subsequently led to the identification of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene and its principal pathogenetic role in the development of chronic myeloid leukemia. This work was also of major importance to support the idea that cytogenetic changes were drivers of leukemogenesis. John Goldman originally made seminal contributions to the use of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation from the late 1970s onwards. Then, in collaboration with Brian Druker, he led efforts to develop ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the late 1990s. He also led the global efforts to develop and harmonize methodology for molecular monitoring, and was an indefatigable organizer of international conferences. These conferences brought together clinicians and scientists, and accelerated the adoption of new therapies. The abundance of praise, tributes and testimonies expressed by many serve to illustrate the indelible impressions these two passionate and affable scholars made on so many people’s lives. This tribute provides an outline of the remarkable story of chronic myeloid leukemia, and in writing it, it is clear that the historical triumph of biomedical science over this leukemia cannot be considered without appreciating the work of both Janet Rowley and John Goldman. PMID:27132280

  11. Radiotherapy for leukemia in children, (1). Radiotherapy for central nervous system leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Toru; Konishi, Kiyosaburo; Sato, Noriko; Fujiwara, Fumihiro [Maizuru National Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)

    1983-07-01

    Following the development of effective chemotherapy for producing remissions of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), a new phenomenon has emerged in this disease--central nervous system (CNS) leukemia. CNS leukemia has become an increasingly frequent obstacle to prolongation of initial complete remission. Prophylactic irradiation of the CNS concomitant with intrathecal administration of methotrexate (IT-MTX) has proved to be effective in the reduction of CNS involvement. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of irradiation for prevention of CNS leukemia and to discuss their implications. The patients consisted of 32 children with acute leukemia, admitted to MAIZURU National Hospital from 1966 to 1980; 22 patients of them had ALL, the others ANLL (acute non-lymphocytic leukemia). Preventive CNS therapy was started in 1974, (group A), but there was no prevention before 1974 (group B). 1. In group B, six patients was treated by therapeutic cranial irradiation, but all cases resulted in death. 2. In group A, seven patients was treated by prophylactic cranial irradiation combined with IT-MTX, and all of them have been alive without CNS relapse for 2 to 4 2/3 years after therapy. 3. In group A, none of 7 patients (0 %) relapsed CNS leukemia initially as compared to 7 (50 %) of 14 in group B, thus preventive efficacy was clear. 4. There were no severe complications attributable to the radiotherapy, with or without IT-MTX.

  12. Diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demitrovicova, L.; Mikuskova, E.; Copakova, L.; Leitnerova, M.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was the first cancer associated with the specific chromosomal aberration. Philadelphia chromosome due to translocation (9, 22) is present in 95% cases, fusion gene BCR/ABL is present in 100% cases at the time of diagnosis. Disease has its own characteristics detectable by physical examination, by the examination of blood count and differential and by cytomorhologic examination of bone marrow, however the diagnosis of CML is determined by cytogenetics and molecular genetics. If the diagnosis of Ph+ BCR/ABL positive CML is confirmed, the disease is treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). TKI don´t affect formation of leukemic gene BCR/ABL, but they can stop the action of this gene. The target therapy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors markedly improved the survival of patients with CML by inhibition the proliferation of leukemic clone on the clinically safety level of minimal disease, although probably this treatment cannot cure the CML. Cytogenetics and molecular genetics are very important at the monitoring of residual disease with sensitivity 10"-"6. (author)

  13. Signaling pathways regulating murine pancreatic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Palle

    2012-01-01

    The recent decades have seen a huge expansion in our knowledge about pancreatic development. Numerous lineage-restricted transcription factor genes have been identified and much has been learned about their function. Similarly, numerous signaling pathways important for pancreas development have...... been identified and the specific roles have been investigated by genetic and cell biological methods. The present review presents an overview of the principal signaling pathways involved in regulating murine pancreatic growth, morphogenesis, and cell differentiation....

  14. Inhibitory coupling between inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro-da-Silva Alfredo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Local inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn play an important role in the control of excitability at the segmental level and thus determine how nociceptive information is relayed to higher structures. Regulation of inhibitory interneuron activity may therefore have critical consequences on pain perception. Indeed, disinhibition of dorsal horn neuronal networks disrupts the balance between excitation and inhibition and is believed to be a key mechanism underlying different forms of pain hypersensitivity and chronic pain states. In this context, studying the source and the synaptic properties of the inhibitory inputs that the inhibitory interneurons receive is important in order to predict the impact of drug action at the network level. To address this, we studied inhibitory synaptic transmission in lamina II inhibitory interneurons identified under visual guidance in spinal slices taken from transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of the GAD promoter. The majority of these cells fired tonically to a long depolarizing current pulse. Monosynaptically evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs in these cells were mediated by both GABAA and glycine receptors. Consistent with this, both GABAA and glycine receptor-mediated miniature IPSCs were recorded in all of the cells. These inhibitory inputs originated at least in part from local lamina II interneurons as verified by simultaneous recordings from pairs of EGFP+ cells. These synapses appeared to have low release probability and displayed potentiation and asynchronous release upon repeated activation. In summary, we report on a previously unexamined component of the dorsal horn circuitry that likely constitutes an essential element of the fine tuning of nociception.

  15. Myeloblastic and lymphoblastic markers in acute undifferentiated leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumak, K H; Baker, M A; Taub, R N; Coleman, M S

    1980-11-01

    Blast cells were obtained from 17 patients with acute undifferentiated leukemia and 13 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis. The blasts were tested with anti-i serum in cytotoxicity tests and with antisera to myeloblastic leukemia-associated antigens in immunofluorescence tests. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TDT) content of the blasts was also measured. Lymphoblasts react strongly with anti-i, do not react with anti-myeloblast serum, and have high levels of TDT; myeloblasts react weakly with anti-i, do not react with anti-myeloblast serum, and have very low levels of TDT. Of the 17 patients with acute undifferentiated leukemia, there were six with blasts which reacted like lymphoblasts, six with blasts which reacted like myeloblasts, and five with blasts bearing different combinations of these lymphoblastic and myeloblastic markers. Eight of the 11 patients with lymphoblastic or mixed lymphoblastic-myeloblastic markers, but only one of the six with myeloblastic markers, achieved complete or partial remission in response to therapy. Thus, in acute undifferentiated leukemia, classification of blasts with these markers may be of prognostic value. Of the 13 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crises, the markers were concordant (for myeloblasts) in only two cases. Three of the 13 patients had TDT-positive blasts, but the reactions of these cells with anti-i and with anti-myeloblast serum differed from those seen with lymphoblasts from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although the cell involved in "lymphoid" blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia is similar in many respects to that involved in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, these cells are not identical.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii Extract on Melanin Synthesis via Repression of Tyrosinase Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwayong; Song, Kwang Hoon; Jung, Pil Mun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Mi Yoon; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2013-01-01

    To identify the active compound arctigenin in Fructus Arctii (dried seed of medicinal plant Arctium lappa) and to elucidate the inhibitory mechanism in melanogenesis, we analyzed melanin content and tyrosinase activity on B16BL6 murine melanoma and melan-A cell cultures. Water extracts of Fructus Arctii were shown to inhibit tyrosinase activity in vitro and melanin content in α-melanocyte stimulating hormone-stimulated cells to similar levels as the well-known kojic acid and arbutin, respectively. The active compound arctigenin of Fructus Arctii displayed little or no cytotoxicity at all concentrations examined and decreased the relative melanin content and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Melanogenic inhibitory activity was also identified in vivo with zebrafish embryo. To determine the mechanism of inhibition, the effects of arctigenin on tyrosinase gene expression and tyrosinase promoter activity were examined. Also in addition, in the signaling cascade, arctigenin dose dependently decreased the cAMP level and promoted the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. This result suggests that arctigenin downregulates cAMP and the tyrosinase enzyme through its gene promoter and subsequently upregulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity by increasing phosphorylation in the melanogenesis signaling pathway, which leads to a lower melanin content. PMID:23781272

  17. Inhibitory Effect of Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii Extract on Melanin Synthesis via Repression of Tyrosinase Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwayong Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the active compound arctigenin in Fructus Arctii (dried seed of medicinal plant Arctium lappa and to elucidate the inhibitory mechanism in melanogenesis, we analyzed melanin content and tyrosinase activity on B16BL6 murine melanoma and melan-A cell cultures. Water extracts of Fructus Arctii were shown to inhibit tyrosinase activity in vitro and melanin content in α-melanocyte stimulating hormone-stimulated cells to similar levels as the well-known kojic acid and arbutin, respectively. The active compound arctigenin of Fructus Arctii displayed little or no cytotoxicity at all concentrations examined and decreased the relative melanin content and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Melanogenic inhibitory activity was also identified in vivo with zebrafish embryo. To determine the mechanism of inhibition, the effects of arctigenin on tyrosinase gene expression and tyrosinase promoter activity were examined. Also in addition, in the signaling cascade, arctigenin dose dependently decreased the cAMP level and promoted the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. This result suggests that arctigenin downregulates cAMP and the tyrosinase enzyme through its gene promoter and subsequently upregulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity by increasing phosphorylation in the melanogenesis signaling pathway, which leads to a lower melanin content.

  18. Preschool Inhibitory Control Predicts ADHD Group Status and Inhibitory Weakness in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisa A; Schneider, Heather; Mahone, E Mark

    2017-12-26

    Discriminative utility of performance measures of inhibitory control was examined in preschool children with and without ADHD to determine whether performance measures added to diagnostic prediction and to prediction of informant-rated day-to-day executive function. Children ages 4-5 years (N = 105, 61% boys; 54 ADHD, medication-naïve) were assessed using performance measures (Auditory Continuous Performance Test for Preschoolers-Commission errors, Conflicting Motor Response Test, NEPSY Statue) and caregiver (parent, teacher) ratings of inhibition (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool version). Performance measures and parent and teacher reports of inhibitory control significantly and uniquely predicted ADHD group status; however, performance measures did not add to prediction of group status beyond parent reports. Performance measures did significantly predict classroom inhibitory control (teacher ratings), over and above parent reports of inhibitory control. Performance measures of inhibitory control may be adequate predictors of ADHD status and good predictors of young children's classroom inhibitory control, demonstrating utility as components of clinical assessments. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Daunorubicin Hydrochloride, Cytarabine and Oblimersen Sodium in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  20. Appearance and Disappearance of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) in Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    OpenAIRE

    Payandeh, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Edris; Khodarahmi, Reza; Sadeghi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are the most common leukemias of the elderly (>43 year). However, the sequential occurrence of CML followed by CLL in the same patient is extremely rare. In our report, a 52-year-old female was diagnosed with CLL (type of bone marrow (BM) infiltration was nodular and interstitial) and was treated with chlorambucil. 64 months after the diagnosis of CLL, she developed CML. She was treated with imatinib (400mg/day). After a fe...

  1. Appearance and Disappearance of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) in Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payandeh, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Edris; Khodarahmi, Reza; Sadeghi, Masoud

    2014-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are the most common leukemias of the elderly (>43 year). However, the sequential occurrence of CML followed by CLL in the same patient is extremely rare. In our report, a 52-year-old female was diagnosed with CLL (type of bone marrow (BM) infiltration was nodular and interstitial) and was treated with chlorambucil. 64 months after the diagnosis of CLL, she developed CML. She was treated with imatinib (400mg/day). After a few months, signs of CML were disappeared and CLL became dominant. This is first reported case.

  2. Apparent feline leukemia virus-induced chronic lymphocytic leukemia and response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristy N; Wright, Zachary

    2010-04-01

    Chylothorax secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was diagnosed in a feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-positive 8-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair feline. The leukemia resolved following therapy with chlorambucil, prednisone, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and lomustine. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CLL in an FeLV-positive cat. Although a causative relationship cannot be proven, patients diagnosed with either disease may benefit from diagnostics to rule out the presence of the other concurrent condition. Copyright 2009 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Leukemias in the progeny of exposed parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenko, M.M.; Gudkova, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of leukemias among the progeny of exposed parents. The parents were exposed as a result of discharge of radioactive waste from the Mayak atomic plant into the Techa river in the Southern Urals. The doses per parents gonads, ranging from 0.035 to 1.27 Sv, were due to external exposure in 1950-1956 and to incorporation of Cs-137. Nine cases with leukemia and four with lympohoma were recorded in 13.500 antenatally exposed subjects and descendants of exposed parents over the period of 1950 to 1988. The leukemia morbidity index for the progeny of exposed parents was 2.51, which virtually not statistically differ from that in control group. Refs. 7, figs. 3, tabs. 3

  4. Late effects of childhood leukemia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, Joy M; Raman, Sripriya; McClellan, Wendy S; August, Keith J

    2011-09-01

    As survival rates for children treated for childhood cancers become significantly better, the focus is increasingly on determining the late effects of treatments and the best ways to monitor for them and prevent their occurrence. This review focuses on recent literature discussing the late effects of treatment in patients treated for acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia during childhood. The late effects of therapy for childhood leukemia include secondary malignancy, cardiotoxicity, obesity, endocrine abnormalities, reproductive changes, neurocognitive deficits, and psychosocial effects. As clinicians have become more aware of the late effects of therapy, treatment regimens have been changed to decrease late effects, but patients still require long-term follow-up for their prevention and treatment.

  5. Marijuana Smoking in Patients With Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Sara; Yacoub, Abraham; Cheema, Asima; Rihana, Nancy; Russo, Robin; Velez, Ana Paula; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Sandin, Ramon L; Bohra, Chandrashekar; Gajanan, Ganesh; Greene, John N

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, marijuana (cannabis) is a widely used drug. The incidence of marijuana smoking is increasing and is second only to tobacco as the most widely smoked substance in the general population. It is also the second most commonly used recreational drug after alcohol. Some adverse effects of marijuana smoking have been documented; however, the number of studies on the pulmonary effects of marijuana in individuals with leukemia is limited. In our case series, we report on 2 men with acute myeloid leukemia with miliary nodular lung patterns on computed tomography of the chest due to heavy marijuana use. We also report on 2 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had a history of smoking marijuana and then developed lung opacities consistent with mold infection.

  6. A typical presentation of acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayakumar N

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A young man who presented with fever, altered sensorium and sudden onset tachypnea, is described. Arterial blood gas analysis, revealed the presence of severe high anion gap metabolic acidosis, with compensatory respiratory alkalosis and normal oxygen saturation. A detailed neurological, nephrological, biochemical and hematological evaluation, revealed the presence of Acute myeloid leukemia, with lactic acidosis and hyponatremia. There are very few reports of presentation of leukemia as lactic acidosis. This case report highlights the need for emergency room physicians, to consider the possibility of lactic acidosis, as one of the causes of high anion gap acidosis and to meticulously investigate the cause of lactic acidosis. We describe a rare clinical instance of lactic acidosis as the presenting manifestation of Acute myeloid leukemia.

  7. The Antimalarial Chloroquine Suppresses LPS-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Confers Protection against Murine Endotoxic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, which catalyzes maturation of proinflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-18, is implicated and essentially involved in many kinds of inflammatory disorders. Chloroquine (CQ is a traditional antimalarial drug and also possesses an anti-inflammatory property. In this study, we investigated whether CQ suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation and thereby confers protection against murine endotoxic shock. CQ attenuated NF-κB and MAPK activation and prohibited expression of IL-1β, IL-18, and Nlrp3 in LPS treated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs, demonstrating its inhibitory effect on the priming signal of NLRP3 activation. Then, CQ was shown to inhibit caspase-1 activation and ASC specks formation in BMDMs, which indicates that CQ also suppresses inflammasome assembly, the second signal for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In a murine endotoxic shock model, CQ effectively improved survival and markedly reduced IL-1β and IL-18 production in serum, peritoneal fluid, and lung tissues. Moreover, CQ reduced protein levels of NLRP3 and caspases-1 p10 in lung homogenates of mice with endotoxic shock, which may possibly explain its anti-inflammatory activity and life protection efficacy in vivo. Overall, our results demonstrate a new role of CQ that facilitates negative regulation on NLRP3 inflammasome, which thereby confers protection against lethal endotoxic shock.

  8. Mutations that abrogate transactivational activity of the feline leukemia virus long terminal repeat do not affect virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abujamra, Ana L.; Faller, Douglas V.; Ghosh, Sajal K.

    2003-01-01

    The U3 region of the LTR of oncogenic Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) and feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) have been previously reported to activate expression of specific cellular genes in trans, such as MHC class I, collagenase IV, and MCP-1, in an integration-independent manner. It has been suggested that transactivation of these specific cellular genes by leukemia virus U3-LTR may contribute to the multistage process of leukemogenesis. The U3-LTR region, necessary for gene transactivational activity, also contains multiple transcription factor-binding sites that are essential for normal virus replication. To dissect the promoter activity and the gene transactivational activity of the U3-LTR, we conducted mutational analysis of the U3-LTR region of FeLV-A molecular clone 61E. We identified minimal nucleotide substitution mutants on the U3 LTR that did not disturb transcription factor-binding sites but abrogated its ability to transactivate the collagenase gene promoter. To determine if these mutations actually have altered any uncharacterized important transcription factor-binding site, we introduced these U3-LTR mutations into the full-length infectious molecular clone 61E. We demonstrate that the mutant virus was replication competent but could not transactivate cellular gene expression. These results thus suggest that the gene transactivational activity is a distinct property of the LTR and possibly not related to its promoter activity. The cellular gene transactivational activity-deficient mutant FeLV generated in this study may also serve as a valuable reagent for testing the biological significance of LTR-mediated cellular gene activation in the tumorigenesis caused by leukemia viruses

  9. Comparison of Cultivars and Seasonal Variation in Blueberry (Vaccinium Species) Leaf Extract on Adult T-Cell Leukemia Cell Line Growth Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Hisahiro; Fuse, Takuichi; Kunitake, Hisato; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Matsuno, Koji

    2014-06-30

    The inhibitory effects of blueberry leaves on the proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines have previously been reported. A comparison of blueberry leaf extracts from different cultivars and seasonal variation were investigated regarding their effects on ATL cell line proliferation. The inhibitory effects of 80% ethanol leaf extracts from different blueberry cultivars collected from April to December in 2006 or 2008 were evaluated using two ATL cell lines. The bioactivities of leaf extracts of rabbit-eye blueberry ( Vaccinium virgatum Aiton; RB species), southern highbush blueberry ( V. spp.; SB species), northern highbush blueberry ( V. corymbosum L.; NB species), and wild blueberry ( V. bracteatum Thunb.; WB species) were compared. Of these, leaves of the RB species collected in December showed a significantly stronger inhibitory effect in both cell lines than the SB, NB, or WB species. These results suggest elevated biosynthesis of ATL-preventative bioactive compounds in the leaves of the RB species before the defoliation season.

  10. Retinoic acid induces signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1, STAT2, and p48 expression in myeloid leukemia cells and enhances their responsiveness to interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, S; Ronni, T; Lehtonen, A; Sareneva, T; Melén, K; Nordling, S; Levy, D E; Julkunen, I

    1997-06-01

    IFNs are antiproliferative cytokines that have growth-inhibitory effects on various normal and malignant cells. Therefore, they have been used in the treatment of certain forms of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia and hairy cell leukemia. However, there is little evidence that IFNs would be effective in the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia, and molecular mechanisms underlying IFN unresponsiveness have not been clarified. Here we have studied the activation and induction of IFN-specific transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1, STAT2, and p48 in all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-differentiated myeloid leukemia cells using promyelocytic NB4, myeloblastic HL-60, and monoblastic U937 cells as model systems. These cells respond to ATRA by growth inhibition and differentiation. We show that in undifferentiated NB4 cells, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase and MxB gene expression is not activated by IFN-alpha, possibly due to a relative lack of signaling molecules, especially p48 protein. However, during ATRA-induced differentiation, steady-state STAT1, STAT2, and especially p48 mRNA and corresponding protein levels were elevated both in NB4 and U937 cells, apparently correlating to an enhanced responsiveness of these cells to IFNs. ATRA treatment of NB4 cells sensitized them to IFN action as seen by increased IFN-gamma activation site DNA-binding activity or by efficient formation of IFN-alpha-specific ISGF3 complex and subsequent oligoadenylate synthetase and MxB gene expression. Lack of p48 expression could be one of the mechanisms of promyelocytic leukemia cell escape from growth-inhibitory effects of IFN-alpha.

  11. Phase II trial of vindesine in patients with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaroff, R B; Arlin, Z; Young, C W

    1979-01-01

    Vindesine was administered to 18 patients with acute leukemia who had failed conventional chemotherapy. Each course of therapy consisted of an iv bolus infusion at a dose of 1-2 mg/m2 given daily x 5-10 days. Of 13 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, two had partial remissions which lasted 2 and 3 months and five had minor responses. One of three patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia and one of two patients with blastic crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia each had a minor response. The data suggest that vindesine has activity in the treatment of acute leukemia.

  12. DMPD: The actions of bacterial DNA on murine macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10534106 The actions of bacterial DNA on murine macrophages. Sester DP, Stacey KJ, ... Show The actions of bacterial DNA on murine macrophages. PubmedID 10534106 Title The actions of bacterial DNA on murine macrophage

  13. Brick mortar exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic-Denic, L; Jankovic, S; Marinkovic, J; Radovanovic, Z

    1995-01-01

    A case-control study of 130 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 130 controls matched with respect to sex, age (2 years), type of residence (urban-rural) and area of residence (according to the national per capita income) was carried out. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, apart of four risk factors already described in the literature (work in a hazardous industry, hair dye use, family history of leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation), brick mortar exposure was also significantly related to CLL.

  14. Brick mortar exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic-Denic, Lj.; Jankovic, S.; Marinkovic, J.; Radovanovic, Z.

    1995-01-01

    A case-control study of 130 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 130 controls matched with respect to sex, age (2 years), type of residence, (urban-rural) and area of residence (according to the national per capita income) was carried out. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, apart of four risk factors already described in the literature (work in a hazardous industry, hair dye use, family history of leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation), brick mortar exposure was also significantly related to CLL. (author)

  15. Brick mortar exposure and chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic-Denic, Lj; Jankovic, S [Institute of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Marinkovic, J [Institute of Social Medicine, Statistics and Healt Research, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Radovanovic, Z [Department of Community Medicine and Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, 13110 Safat (Kuwait)

    1996-12-31

    A case-control study of 130 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 130 controls matched with respect to sex, age (2 years), type of residence, (urban-rural) and area of residence (according to the national per capita income) was carried out. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that, apart of four risk factors already described in the literature (work in a hazardous industry, hair dye use, family history of leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic radiation), brick mortar exposure was also significantly related to CLL. (author) 1 tab., 30 refs.

  16. More child leukemia near nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    A French study shows that there are more cases of child leukemia near nuclear power plants but the statistics is low: only 14 cases detected. The same study shows that the excess is not due to the releases of gaseous effluents from the plant, there is no relationship between the excess and a particular type of plant or even a particular plant. Some experts suggest that it might be the movement and intermingling of populations in the plant area that ease the propagation of infectious agents involved in child acute leukemia. A similar result was obtained in Germany a few years ago. (A.C.)

  17. Exploiting Inhibitory Siglecs to Combat Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0302 TITLE: Exploiting Inhibitory Siglecs to Combat Food Allergies PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael Kulis, Ph.D...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC 27599 REPORT DATES: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR...Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite

  18. Inhibitory Interneurons, Oxidative Stress, and Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Elyse M.; O’Donnell, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Translational studies are becoming more common in schizophrenia research. The past couple of decades witnessed the emergence of novel ideas regarding schizophrenia pathophysiology that originated from both human and animal studies. The findings that glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid transmission are affected in the disease led to the hypothesis of altered inhibitory neurotransmission as critical for cognitive deficits and to an exploration of novel therapeutic approaches aimed at restorin...

  19. Enzyme inhibitory activity of selected Philippine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasotona, Joseph S.; Hernandez, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    In the Philippines, the number one cause of death are cardiovascular diseases. Diseases linked with inflammation are proliferating. This research aims to identify plant extracts that have potential activity of cholesterol-lowering, anti-hypertension, anti-gout, anti-inflammatory and fat blocker agents. Although there are commercially available drugs to treat the aforementioned illnesses, these medicine have adverse side-effects, aside from the fact that they are expensive. The results of this study will serve as added knowledge to contribute to the development of cheaper, more readily available, and effective alternative medicine. 100 plant extracts from different areas in the Philippines have been tested for potential inhibitory activity against Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA), Lipoxygenase, and Xanthine Oxidase. The plant samples were labeled with codes and distributed to laboratories for blind testing. The effective concentration of the samples tested for Xanthine oxidase is 100 ppm. Samples number 9, 11, 14, 29, 43, 46, and 50 have shown significant inhibitory activity at 78.7%, 78.4%, 70%, 89.2%, 79%, 67.4%, and 67.5% respectively. Samples tested for Lipoxygenase inhibition were set at 33ppm. Samples number 2, 37, 901, 1202, and 1204 have shown significant inhibitory activity at 66, 84.9%, 88.55%, 93.3%, and 84.7% respectively. For HMG-CoA inhibition, the effective concentration of the samples used was 100 ppm. Samples number 1 and 10 showed significant inhibitory activity at 90.1% and 81.8% respectively. (author)

  20. Management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Furman, Richard R; Zent, Clive S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) is usually diagnosed in asymptomatic patients with early-stage disease. The standard management approach is careful observation, irrespective of risk factors unless patients meet the International Workshop on CLL (IWCLL) criteria for "active disease," which requires treatment. The initial standard therapy for most patients combines an anti-CD20 antibody (such as rituximab, ofatumumab, or obinutuzumab) with chemotherapy (fludarabine/cyclophosphamide [FC], bendamustine, or chlorambucil) depending on multiple factors including the physical fitness of the patient. However, patients with very high-risk CLL because of a 17p13 deletion (17p-) with or without mutation of TP53 (17p-/TP53mut) have poor responses to chemoimmunotherapy and require alternative treatment regimens containing B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway inhibitors. The BCR signaling pathway inhibitors (ibrutinib targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase [BTK] and idelalisib targeting phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase delta [PI3K-delta], respectively) are currently approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory CLL and all patients with 17p- (ibrutinib), and in combination with rituximab for relapsed/refractory patients (idelalisib). These agents offer great efficacy, even in chemotherapy refractory CLL, with increased tolerability, safety, and survival. Ongoing studies aim to determine the best therapy combinations with the goal of achieving long-term disease control and the possibility of developing a curative regimen for some patients. CLL is associated with a wide range of infectious, autoimmune, and malignant complications. These complications result in considerable morbidity and mortality that can be minimized by early detection and aggressive management. This active monitoring requires ongoing patient education, provider vigilance, and a team approach to patient care.

  1. Epidemiological assessment of leukemia in Kazakhstan, 2003- 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igissinov, Nurbek; Kulmirzayeva, Dariyana; Moore, Malcolm A; Igissinov, Saginbek; Baidosova, Gulnara; Akpolatova, Gulnur; Bukeyeva, Zhanar; Omralina, Yelvira

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem facing the entire world, and Kazakhstan is not the exception. The aim of this study was to present an epidemiological assessment of leukemia in the population of Kazakhstan during 2003-2012. This descriptive and retrospective study was based on data obtained from all oncological organizations of the whole country. Age standardized incidence rates per 100,000 population for leukemia were calculated. Totally, 6,741 new cases of leukemia were registered in Kazakhstan during the 10 year period. The mean age of patients with leukemia was 48.5. The ASRs for leukemia among men and women were 5.3 and 3.6, respectively (pKazakhstan, especially in the north of the country. The incidence of leukemia was significantly higher in males and increased with age. Determining and controlling important risk factors of leukemia may lead to decrease in its burden.

  2. Leukemia-Initiating Cells in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shi Hao; Bertulfo, Fatima Carla; Sanda, Takaomi

    2017-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a hematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of immature T-cell precursors. T-ALL has many similar pathophysiological features to acute myeloid leukemia, which has been extensively studied in the establishment of the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory, but the CSC concept in T-ALL is still debatable. Although leukemia-initiating cells (LICs), which can generate leukemia in a xenograft setting, have been found in both human T-ALL patients and animal models, the nature and origin of LICs are largely unknown. In this review, we discuss recent studies on LICs in T-ALL and the potential mechanisms of LIC emergence in this disease. We focus on the oncogenic transcription factors TAL1, LMO2 , and NOTCH1 and highlight the significance of the transcriptional regulatory programs in normal hematopoietic stem cells and T-ALL.

  3. Leukemia-Initiating Cells in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Hao Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL is a hematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of immature T-cell precursors. T-ALL has many similar pathophysiological features to acute myeloid leukemia, which has been extensively studied in the establishment of the cancer stem cell (CSC theory, but the CSC concept in T-ALL is still debatable. Although leukemia-initiating cells (LICs, which can generate leukemia in a xenograft setting, have been found in both human T-ALL patients and animal models, the nature and origin of LICs are largely unknown. In this review, we discuss recent studies on LICs in T-ALL and the potential mechanisms of LIC emergence in this disease. We focus on the oncogenic transcription factors TAL1, LMO2, and NOTCH1 and highlight the significance of the transcriptional regulatory programs in normal hematopoietic stem cells and T-ALL.

  4. Occurrence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritish K Bhattacharyya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most common leukemia of adults in the western world and constitutes about 33% of all leukemia′s. The incidence of CLL increases with age and are more common in older population. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML on the contrary occurs in both young adults and elderly and is a chronic myeloproliferative disease that originates from abnormal pluripotent stem cells and results in involvement of multiple hematopoietic lineages, but predominantly myeloid and less commonly lymphoid. Association between CLL and myeloid malignancies (CML, acute myeloid leukemia and MDS, myelodysplastic syndrome is rare. In literature documenting CLL and CML in same patients, occur either simultaneously or CML is preceded by CLL.

  5. Radioinduced leukemia. An introduction to the study of experimental leukemia in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudon, P.P.

    1974-01-01

    This thesis attempts to gain insight into any mechanisms involved in the onset of irradiation-induced leukemia in mice, then to show up the presence of a virus in the same animals. Concerning the mechanisms of radio-induced leukemias the pathogenic factors according to Kaplan are analysed: role of the thymus and cell mutation theory; lymphoid leukemias of extra-thymic origin; leukemogenesis co-factor; inhibiting action of the bone narrow. Evidence of the virus in mice was obtained by the use of electron microscopy, by inoculation. The contribution of experimental leukemia research is analysed, especially as it affects the therapeutic aspect. It is shown that in spite of setbacks in the most recent research on man, therapeutic trials on animals should be viewed from the angle of imminent human applications [fr

  6. Enhancement by dimethyl myleran of donor type chimerism in murine recipients of bone marrow allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, T.; Terenzi, A.; Singer, T.S.; Salomon, O.; Reisner, Y.

    1989-01-01

    A major problem in using murine models for studies of bone marrow allograft rejection in leukemia patients is the narrow margin in which graft rejection can be analyzed. In mice irradiated with greater than 9 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) rejection is minimal, whereas after administration of 8 Gy TBI, which spares a significant number of clonable T cells, a substantial frequency of host stem cells can also be detected. In current murine models, unlike in humans, bone marrow allograft rejection is generally associated with full autologous hematopoietic reconstitution. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the myeloablative drug dimethyl myleran (DMM) on chimerism status following transplantation of T cell-depleted allogenic bone marrow (using C57BL/6 donors and C3H/HeJ recipients, conditioned with 8 Gy TBI). Donor type chimerism 1 to 2 months post-transplant of 1 to 3 x 10(6) bone marrow cells was markedly enhanced by using DMM one day after TBI and prior to transplantation. Conditioning with cyclophosphamide instead of DMM, in combination with 8 Gy TBI, did not enhance engraftment of donor type cells. Artificial reconstitution of T cells, after conditioning with TBI plus DMM, by adding mature thymocytes, or presensitization with irradiated donor type spleen cells 1 week before TBI and DMM, led to strong graft rejection and consequently to severe anemia. The anti-donor responses in these models were proportional to the number of added T cells and to the number of cells used for presensitization, and they could be neutralized by increasing the bone marrow inoculum

  7. Acute erythroblastic leukemia presenting as acute undifferentiated leukemia: a report of two cases with ultrastructural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiffers, J; Bernard, P; Larrue, J; Dachary, D; David, B; Boisseau, M; Broustet, A

    1985-01-01

    This report describes two elderly patients with acute leukemia in which blast cells were undifferentiated with conventional light microscopy (L.M.) and cytochemistry. Blast cells were identified as belonging to the erythroblastic line by their ultrastructural features: glycogen deposits, lipidic vacuoles, cytoplasmic ferritin molecules and rhopheocytotic invagination. Moreover, blast cells were surrounding a central macrophage. Thus, these two patients had acute erythroblastic leukemia which differs from erythroleukemia (M6 of FAB classification) in which blast cells present myeloblastic characteristics.

  8. Identification of de Novo Fanconi Anemia in Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Fanconi Anemia; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  9. Analysis of peroxidase-negative acute unclassifiable leukemias by monoclonal antibodies. 1. Acute myelogenous leukemia and acute myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, N; Tanaka, R; Kajihara, H; Kuramoto, A

    1988-11-01

    In this study, pretreatment peripheral and/or bone marrow blasts from 12 patients with acute unclassifiable leukemia (AUL) expressing the myeloid-related cell-surface antigen (CD 11) were isolated for further analysis. Despite a lack of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, 1 patient's blasts contained cytoplasmic Auer rods. The circulating blasts from another patient expressed MPO while maintaining the same surface phenotype during 20 months of clinical follow-up. In addition, the blasts from 3 cases demonstrated both myelomonocytic and monocyte-specific surface antigens, whereas the remaining 9 cases completely lacked any monocyte-specific antigen detectable by monoclonal antibodies, Mo2, My4 and Leu M3 (CD 14). The first case eventually was diagnosed as acute myelomonocytic leukemia and the second as acute myelogenous leukemia by means of immunophenotypic analysis using flow cytometry (FACS IV). In addition, the presence of MPO protein was identified in the cytoplasm of blast cells from 5 patients with AUL by means of a cytoplasmic immunofluorescence test using a monoclonal antibody (MA1). Our study indicates that non-T, non-B AUL expressing OKM1 (CD 11) antigens include acute leukemias which are unequivocally identifiable as being of either myeloid or myelomonocytic origin. However, further investigations, including immunophenotypic and cytoplasmic analysis, ultrastructural cytochemistry and gene analysis with molecular probes (tests applicable to normal myeloid cells), are necessary in order to determine the actual origin of blasts and to recognize the differentiation stages of the various types of leukemic cells from patients with undifferentiated forms of leukemia.

  10. Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) account for about 20% of childhood myeloid leukemias. Other myeloid malignancies include transient abnormal myelopoiesis and myelodysplastic syndrome. Get detailed information about the classification, clinical presentation, diagnostic and molecular evaluation, prognosis, and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent disease in this summary for clinicians.

  11. B16-BL6 melanoma cells release inhibitory factor(s) of active pump activity in isolated lymph vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, K; Mizuno, R; Ohhashi, T

    2001-12-01

    We investigated whether supernatant cultured with melanoma cell lines B16-BL6 and K1735 or the Lewis lung carcinoma cell line (LLC) can regulate lymphatic pump activity with bioassay preparations isolated from murine iliac lymph vessels. B16-BL6 and LLC supernatants caused significant dilation of lymph microvessels with cessation of pump activity. B16-BL6 supernatant produced dose-related cessation of lymphatic pump activity. There was no significant tachyphylaxis in the supernatant-mediated inhibitory response of lymphatic pump activity. Pretreatment with 3 x 10(-5) M N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or 10(-7) M or 10(-6) M glibenclamide and 5 x 10(-4) M 5-hydroxydecanoic acid caused significant reduction of supernatant-mediated inhibitory responses. Simultaneous treatment with 10(-3) M L-arginine and 3 x 10(-5) M L-NAME significantly lessened L-NAME-induced inhibition of the supernatant-mediated response, suggesting that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) plays important roles in supernatant-mediated inhibitory responses. Chemical treatment dialyzed substances of B16-BL6 cells may release nonpeptide substance(s) of <1,000 MW, resulting in significant cessation of lymphatic pump activity via production and release of endogenous NO and activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channels.

  12. Interleukin-1 beta gene deregulation associated with chromosomal rearrangement: A candidate initiating event for murine radiation-myeloid leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.; Boultwood, J.; Breckon, G.; Masson, W.; Adam, J.; Shaw, A.R.; Cox, R.

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in CBA/H mice following exposure to single acute doses of ionizing radiation has previously been determined. A high proportion of these AMLs are characterized by rearrangement of murine chromosome 2 in the C2 and/or E5-F regions, and there is evidence that these events are a direct consequence of radiation damage to multipotential hemopoietic cells. Using a combination of in situ chromosome hybridization and mRNA analyses, we show that the cytokine gene interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) is encoded in the chromosome 2 F region and is translocated in a chromosome 2---2 rearrangement in an x-ray-induced AML (N36). Also, IL-1 beta is specifically deregulated in N36 and in two other chromosome 2-rearranged AMLs but not in a fourth, which has two cytogenetically normal chromosome 2 copies. We suggest that radiation-induced specific chromosome 2 rearrangement associated with IL-1 beta deregulation may initiate murine leukemogenesis through the uncoupling of normal proliferative control mechanisms in multipotential hemopoietic cells

  13. The Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østgård, Lene Sofie Granfeldt; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell; Raaschou-Jensen, Klas Kræsten

    2016-01-01

    years. To ensure this high coverage, completeness, and quality of data, linkage to the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Registry of Patients, and several programmed data entry checks are used. CONCLUSION: The completeness and positive predictive values of the leukemia data have...

  14. Differentiation Therapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocek, Elzbieta; Marcinkowska, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a predominant acute leukemia among adults, characterized by accumulation of malignantly transformed immature myeloid precursors. A very attractive way to treat myeloid leukemia, which is now called ‘differentiation therapy’, was proposed as in vitro studies have shown that a variety of agents stimulate differentiation of the cell lines isolated from leukemic patients. One of the differentiation-inducing agents, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which can induce granulocytic differentiation in myeloid leukemic cell lines, has been introduced into clinics to treat patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in which a PML-RARA fusion protein is generated by a t(15;17)(q22;q12) chromosomal translocation. Because differentiation therapy using ATRA has significantly improved prognosis for patients with APL, many efforts have been made to find alternative differentiating agents. Since 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25D) is capable of inducing in vitro monocyte/macrophage differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells, clinical trials have been performed to estimate its potential to treat patients with AML or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Unfortunately therapeutic concentrations of 1,25D can induce potentially fatal systemic hypercalcemia, thus limiting clinical utility of that compound. Attempts to overcome this problem have focused on the synthesis of 1,25D analogs (VDAs) which retain differentiation inducing potential, but lack its hypercalcemic effects. This review aims to discuss current problems and potential solutions in differentiation therapy of AML

  15. Testicular granulocytic sarcoma without systemic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, B. W.; Wauters, C. A. P.; Karthaus, H. F. M.

    2005-01-01

    This case report describes a unilateral testicular granulocytic sarcoma or chloroma. Because of the relatively immature nature of the tumor cells, the histological diagnosis can be difficult. Granulocytic sarcomas are well known in patients with systemic leukemia and can sometimes precede a systemic

  16. TARGETED NANOPARTICLES FOR PEDIATRIC LEUKEMIA THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz eBasha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The two major forms of leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and acute myeloid leukemia (AML account for about one third of the malignancies diagnosed in children. Despite the marked successes in ALL and AML treatment, concerns remain regarding the occurrence of resistant disease in subsets of patients the residual effects of therapy that often persist for decades beyond the cessation of treatment. Therefore, new approaches are needed to reduce or to avoid off target toxicities, associated with chemotherapy and their long term residual effects. Recently, nanotechnology has been employed to enhance cancer therapy, via improving the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of anti-cancer agents. While in the last several years, numerous review articles appeared detailing the size, composition, assembly and performance evaluation of different types of drug carrying nanoparticles, the description and evaluation of lipoprotein based drug carriers have been conspicuously absent from most of these major reviews. The current review focuses on such information regarding nanoparticles with an emphasis on high density lipoprotein (HDL-based drug delivery systems to examine their potential role(s in the enhanced treatment of children with leukemia.

  17. Modeling Human Leukemia Immunotherapy in Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Xia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The currently available human tumor xenograft models permit modeling of human cancers in vivo, but in immunocompromised hosts. Here we report a humanized mouse (hu-mouse model made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue plus hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a leukemia-associated fusion gene MLL-AF9. In addition to normal human lymphohematopoietic reconstitution as seen in non-leukemic hu-mice, these hu-mice showed spontaneous development of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, which was transplantable to secondary recipients with an autologous human immune system. Using this model, we show that lymphopenia markedly improves the antitumor efficacy of recipient leukocyte infusion (RLI, a GVHD-free immunotherapy that induces antitumor responses in association with rejection of donor chimerism in mixed allogeneic chimeras. Our data demonstrate the potential of this leukemic hu-mouse model in modeling leukemia immunotherapy, and suggest that RLI may offer a safe treatment option for leukemia patients with severe lymphopenia.

  18. Macroglobulinemia in a child with acute leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cejka, J.; Bollinger, R.O.; Schuit, H.R.E.; Lusher, J.M.; Chang, C.H.; Zuelzer, W.W.

    1974-01-01

    A 12-yr-old boy with acute leukemia was found to have paraproteinemia and Bence-Jones proteinuria. The paraprotein was characterized as immunoglobulin M, type κ and the Bence Jones protein as free κ-chains. Increased amounts of β2-microglobulin were found in the patient’s serum and urine. Electron

  19. Psychotherapy for Some Anxiety Sequelae of Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Trevor

    1999-01-01

    This case study describes use of a program of self-mediated recording and intervention, including distraction techniques, with monitoring within the family, with an 8-year-old child with leukemia and a generalized anxiety about health. Anxiety was reduced to the normal range and maintained at that level at a nine-month followup assessment.…

  20. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  1. Neonatal acute megakaryoblastic leukemia mimicking congenital neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Yukako; Makimoto, Masami; Nomura, Keiko; Hoshino, Akihiro; Hamashima, Takeru; Hiwatari, Mitsuteru; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Takita, Junko; Yoshida, Taketoshi; Kanegane, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We describe a neonate with abdominal distension, massive hepatomegaly, and high serum neuron-specific enolase level suggestive of congenital neuroblastoma. The patient died of pulmonary hemorrhage after therapy. Autopsy revealed that the tumor cells in the liver indicated acute megakaryocytic leukemia with the RBM15-MKL1 fusion gene.

  2. Differentiation Therapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocek, Elzbieta; Marcinkowska, Ewa, E-mail: ema@cs.uni.wroc.pl [Department of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, ul Tamka 2, Wroclaw 50-137 (Poland)

    2011-05-16

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a predominant acute leukemia among adults, characterized by accumulation of malignantly transformed immature myeloid precursors. A very attractive way to treat myeloid leukemia, which is now called ‘differentiation therapy’, was proposed as in vitro studies have shown that a variety of agents stimulate differentiation of the cell lines isolated from leukemic patients. One of the differentiation-inducing agents, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which can induce granulocytic differentiation in myeloid leukemic cell lines, has been introduced into clinics to treat patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in which a PML-RARA fusion protein is generated by a t(15;17)(q22;q12) chromosomal translocation. Because differentiation therapy using ATRA has significantly improved prognosis for patients with APL, many efforts have been made to find alternative differentiating agents. Since 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D) is capable of inducing in vitro monocyte/macrophage differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells, clinical trials have been performed to estimate its potential to treat patients with AML or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Unfortunately therapeutic concentrations of 1,25D can induce potentially fatal systemic hypercalcemia, thus limiting clinical utility of that compound. Attempts to overcome this problem have focused on the synthesis of 1,25D analogs (VDAs) which retain differentiation inducing potential, but lack its hypercalcemic effects. This review aims to discuss current problems and potential solutions in differentiation therapy of AML.

  3. Azithromycin prophylaxis and treatment of murine toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F; Hammouda, Ehab; Tawfik, Abdulkader; Al-Omar, Othman M; Abu El-Asrar, Ahmed M

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate the azithromycin effects alone and in combination with other agents in the prophylaxis and treatment of murine toxoplasmosis. A total of 280 BALB/c mice were included, and 2 x 103 Toxoplasma organisms of the RH strain Toxoplasma gondii strain ATCC50174 were given intraperitoneally to each mouse. In experiment one, 40 animals were given azithromycin 200 milligram/kilogram/daily for 3 days starting the day of inoculation, 40 mice were control. In experiment 2, the treatment was started 48 hours after inoculation and given daily for 3 days: one group received azithromycin 200 milligram/kilogram/day, the second group received pyrimethamine 25 milligram/kilogram/day, and the sulfadiazine 100 milligram/kilogram/day. The third group was control. In experiment 3, 7 groups of animals received one of the following (1) none, (2) azithromycin 200 milligram/kilogram/day, (3) pyrimethamine 25 milligram/kilogram/day and sulfadiazine 100 milligram/kilogram/day, (4) azithromycin and sulfadiazine, (5) azithromycin and pyrimethamine, (6) azithromycin with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine, (7) sulfadiazine alone. Treatment was initiated 72 hours after inoculation for 3 days. The study was conducted at the Animal Care Facility of King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Animals that received azithromycin simultaneously with inoculation survived, and all control animals died. All animals died in groups receiving single drug therapy. Animals treated with azithromycin and sulfadiazine showed a survival rate of 40%, sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine 40%, or azithromycin with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine 95% (p<0.0001). Azithromycin alone was found to be effective in the prophylaxis of murine toxoplasmosis. Combination therapy was effective in the treatment of murine toxoplasmosis.

  4. Recombinant EphB4-HSA Fusion Protein and Azacitidine or Decitabine for Relapsed or Refractory Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, or Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Previously Treated With a Hypomethylating Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Myelodysplasia-Related Changes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  5. Efficacy of posaconazole in murine experimental sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Silva, Fabiola; Capilla, Javier; Mayayo, Emilio; Guarro, Josep

    2012-05-01

    We developed a murine model of systemic sporotrichosis by using three strains of each of the two commonest species causing sporotrichosis, i.e., Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis, in order to evaluate the efficacy of posaconazole (PSC). The drug was administered at a dose of 2.5 or 5 mg/kg of body weight twice a day by gavage, and one group was treated with amphotericin B (AMB) as a control treatment. Posaconazole, especially at 5 mg/kg, showed good efficacy against all the strains tested, regardless of their MICs, as measured by prolonged survival, tissue burden reduction, and histopathology.

  6. Irradiation Design for an Experimental Murine Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros-Zebadua, P.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Suarez-Campos, J. E.; Celis, M. A.; Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.; Rubio-Osornio, M. C.; Custodio-Ramirez, V.; Paz, C.

    2010-01-01

    In radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, small animal experimental models are frequently used, since there are still a lot of unsolved questions about the biological and biochemical effects of ionizing radiation. This work presents a method for small-animal brain radiotherapy compatible with a dedicated 6MV Linac. This rodent model is focused on the research of the inflammatory effects produced by ionizing radiation in the brain. In this work comparisons between Pencil Beam and Monte Carlo techniques, were used in order to evaluate accuracy of the calculated dose using a commercial planning system. Challenges in this murine model are discussed.

  7. Thrombopoietin inhibits murine mast cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fabrizio; Ghinassi, Barbara; Lorenzini, Rodolfo; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Rana, Rosa Alba; Nishikawa, Mitsuo; Partamian, Sandra; Migliaccio, Giovanni; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2009-01-01

    We have recently shown that Mpl, the thrombopoietin receptor, is expressed on murine mast cells and on their precursors and that targeted deletion of the Mpl gene increases mast cell differentiation in mice. Here we report that treatment of mice with thrombopoietin, or addition of this growth factor to bone marrow-derived mast cell cultures, severely hampers the generation of mature cells from their precursors by inducing apoptosis. Analysis of the expression profiling of mast cells obtained in the presence of thrombopoietin suggests that thrombopoietin induces apoptosis of mast cells by reducing expression of the transcription factor Mitf and its target anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2. PMID:18276801

  8. Gold nanoparticles enhance the anti-leukemia action of a 6-mercaptopurine chemotherapeutic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadlo, Paul; Sinani, Vladimir A; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Kam, Nadine Wong Shi; Lee, Jungwoo; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2008-01-15

    6-mercaptopurine and its riboside derivatives are some of the most widely utilized anti-leukemic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Their short biological half-life and severe side effects limit their use. A new delivery method for these drugs based on 4-5 nm gold nanoparticles can potentially resolve these issues. We have found substantial enhancement of the antiproliferative effect against K-562 leukemia cells of Au nanoparticles bearing 6-mercaptopurine-9-beta-d-ribofuranoside compared to the same drug in typically administered free form. The improvement was attributed to enhanced intracellular transport followed by the subsequent release in lysosomes. Enhanced activity and nanoparticle carriers will make possible the reduction of the overall concentration of the drug, renal clearance, and, thus, side effects. The nanoparticles with mercaptopurine also showed excellent stability over 1 year without loss of inhibitory activity.

  9. Predicting radiation effects on the development of leukemic stem cells based on studies of leukemias induced by high- and low-dose-rate radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirouchi, Tokuhisa

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important causes of radiation-induced cancers, particularly leukemia, is gene mutations resulting from single and double strand breaks in the DNA. Tanaka et al. (2003) reported life shortening in specific pathogen free male and female B6C3F1 mice continuously exposed to γ rays at a low dose rate of 20 mGy/22 h/d for 400 days from 8 weeks of age. Early death due to cancer, mostly malignant lymphomas, was observed in both sexes. A significant increase in the incidence of myeloid leukemia, resulting in early death, was also reported in males. It is expected however, that at 20 mGy/22 h/d, which is equivalent to a dose of 15 μGy/min, DNA strand breaks induced in these cells are repaired soon after they occur. Murine leukemias induced by high-dose-rate radiation were also found in males, and 80% of the mice with leukemia had hemizygous deletions in chromosome 2 around the PU.1 gene and they appeared to be derived from DNA strand breaks. Majority of these leukemia showing hemizygous deletions in chromosome 2 revealed point mutations in the remaining alleles resulting in PU.1 inactivation, which was reported to be related to leukemogenesis. These point mutations are assumed to be independent of DNA strand breaks that occur immediately after irradiation, as they appear at later time after irradiation. This review discusses the effect of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and also mutagenesis induced independently of DNA strand breaks in hematopoietic cells contributing to the development of the first leukemic stem cell. (author)

  10. Inhibitory neurotransmission and olfactory memory in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassani, Abdessalam Kacimi; Giurfa, Martin; Gauthier, Monique; Armengaud, Catherine

    2008-11-01

    In insects, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission through ligand-gated chloride channel receptors. Both GABA and glutamate have been identified in the olfactory circuit of the honeybee. Here we investigated the role of inhibitory transmission mediated by GABA and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in olfactory learning and memory in honeybees. We combined olfactory conditioning with injection of ivermectin, an agonist of GluCl receptors. We also injected a blocker of glutamate transporters (L-trans-PDC) or a GABA analog (TACA). We measured acquisition and retention 1, 24 and 48 h after the last acquisition trial. A low dose of ivermectin (0.01 ng/bee) impaired long-term olfactory memory (48 h) while a higher dose (0.05 ng/bee) had no effect. Double injections of ivermectin and L-trans-PDC or TACA had different effects on memory retention, depending on the doses and agents combined. When the low dose of ivermectin was injected after Ringer, long-term memory was again impaired (48 h). Such an effect was rescued by injection of both TACA and L-trans-PDC. A combination of the higher dose of ivermectin and TACA decreased retention at 48 h. We interpret these results as reflecting the involvement of both GluCl and GABA receptors in the impairment of olfactory long-term memory induced by ivermectin. These results illustrate the diversity of inhibitory transmission and its implication in long-term olfactory memory in honeybees.

  11. Premature chromosome condensation studies in human leukemia. I. Pretreatment characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittelman, W N; Broussard, L C; McCredie, K

    1979-11-01

    The phenomenon of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) was used to compare the bone marrow proliferation characteristics of 163 patients with various forms of leukemia prior to the initiation of new therapy. The proliferative potential index (PPI, or fraction of G1 cells in late G1 phase) and the fraction of cells in S phase was determined and compared to the type of disease and the bone marrow blast infiltrate for each patient. Previously untreated patients with acute leukemia exhibited an average PPI value three times that of normal bone marrow (37.5% for acute myeloblastic leukemia [AML], acute monomyeloblastic leukemia [AMML], or acute promyelocytic leukemia [APML] and 42% for acute lymphocytic leukemia [ALL] or acute undifferentiated leukemia [AUL]). Untreated chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients showed intermediate PPI values (25.2%), whereas CML patients with controlled disease exhibited nearly normal PPI values (14.6%). On the other hand, blastic-phase CML patients exhibited PPI values closer to that observed in patients with acute leukemia (35.4%). Seven patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) exhibited even higher PPI values. No correlations were observed between PPI values, fraction of cells in S phase, and marrow blast infiltrate. For untreated acute disease patients, PPI values were prognostic for response only at low and high PPI values. These results suggest that the PCC-determined proliferative potential is a biologic reflection of the degree of malignancy within the bone marrow.

  12. Nec-1 Enhances Shikonin-Induced Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells by Inhibition of RIP-1 and ERK1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Pan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1 inhibits necroptosis by allosterically inhibiting the kinase activity of receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1, which plays a critical role in necroptosis. RIP1 is a crucial adaptor kinase involved in the activation of NF-κB, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs. NF-κB, ROS and MAPKs all play important roles in apoptotic signaling. Nec-1 was regarded as having no effect on apoptosis. Here, we report that Nec-1 increased the rate of nuclear condensation and caspases activation induced by a low concentration of shikonin (SHK in HL60, K562 and primary leukemia cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of RIP1 significantly enhanced shikonin-induced apoptosis in K562 and HL60 cells. Shikonin treatment alone could slightly inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in leukemia cells, and the inhibitory effect on ERK1/2 was significantly augmented by Nec-1. We also found that Nec-1 could inhibit NF-κB p65 translocation to the nucleus at a later stage of SHK treatment. In conclusion, we found that Nec-1 can promote shikonin-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. The mechanism by which Nec-1 sensitizes shikonin-induced apoptosis appears to be the inhibition of RIP1 kinase-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document Nec-1 sensitizes cancer cells to apoptosis.

  13. Open Label, Phase II Study to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety of Oral Nilotinib in Philadelphia Positive (Ph+) Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-20

    Leukemia; Leukemia,Pediatric; Leukemia, Myleiod; Leukemia, Mylegenous, Chronic; Leukemia, Mylegenous, Accelerated; BCR-ABL Positive; Myeloproliferative Disorder; Bone Marrow Disease; Hematologic Diseases; Neoplastic Processes; Imatinib; Dasatinib; Enzyme Inhibitor; Protein Kinase Inhibitor

  14. Vorinostat and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-26

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  15. Dasatinib accelerates valproic acid-induced acute myeloid leukemia cell death by regulation of differentiation capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Kyoung Heo

    Full Text Available Dasatinib is a compound developed for chronic myeloid leukemia as a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor against wild-type BCR-ABL and SRC family kinases. Valproic acid (VPA is an anti-epileptic drug that also acts as a class I histone deacetylase inhibitor. The aim of this research was to determine the anti-leukemic effects of dasatinib and VPA in combination and to identify their mechanism of action in acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells. Dasatinib was found to exert potent synergistic inhibitory effects on VPA-treated AML cells in association with G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction involving the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase and caspase-3, -7 and -9. Dasatinib/VPA-induced cell death thus occurred via caspase-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, MEK/ERK and p38 MAPK inhibitors efficiently inhibited dasatinib/VPA-induced apoptosis. The combined effect of dasatinib and VPA on the differentiation capacity of AML cells was more powerful than the effect of each drug alone, being sufficiently strong to promote AML cell death through G1 cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. MEK/ERK and p38 MAPK were found to control dasatinib/VPA-induced apoptosis as upstream regulators, and co-treatment with dasatinib and VPA to contribute to AML cell death through the regulation of differentiation capacity. Taken together, these results indicate that combined dasatinib and VPA treatment has a potential role in anti-leukemic therapy.

  16. [Virulence of Sporothrix globosa in murine models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo; Pérez Gaete, Salomón; Rodríguez Badilla, Valentina; Vieille Oyarzo, Peggy; Opazo Sanchez, Héctor

    The sporothricosis disease is an infection caused by species included in Sporothrix schenkii complex. Verify the virulence of a strain of S. globosa using two different concentrations of inoculum by intraperitoneally and subcutaneously, into a mouse model. Nonrandomized pilot study, in murine inoculated with a strain of S. globosa (CBS 14.076M) by intraperitoneally and subcutaneously with inoculum concentrations of 0.5 and 4 McFarland. For this purpose 18 rodents CF-1 (ISP, Santiago, Chile) were used. The studied strain did not induce illness or injury on animals, they all survived and neither the tissue culture nor the histopathological analysis showed fungal growth or suggestive infection by organ abnormalities. The S. globosa strain did not present any virulence enough to cause disease at 0.5 and 4.0 McFarland concentration inoculum when inoculated in both intraperitoneally and subcutaneously, in murine models. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain Function in Young Patients Receiving Methotrexate for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Long-Term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Children; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  18. Aldose reductase inhibitory compounds from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ha Na; Lee, Min Young; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Suh, Hong-Won; Lim, Soon Sung

    2013-09-01

    As part of our ongoing search for natural sources of therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetic complications, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of components of the fruit of Xanthium strumarium (X. strumarium) on aldose reductase (AR) and galactitol formation in rat lenses with high levels of glucose. To identify the bioactive components of X. strumarium, 7 caffeoylquinic acids and 3 phenolic compounds were isolated and their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with published data. The abilities of 10 X. strumarium-derived components to counteract diabetic complications were investigated by means of inhibitory assays with rat lens AR (rAR) and recombinant human AR (rhAR). From the 10 isolated compounds, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed the most potent inhibition, with IC₅₀ values of 0.30 and 0.67 μM for rAR and rhAR, respectively. In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed competitive inhibition of rhAR. Furthermore, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate inhibited galactitol formation in the rat lens and in erythrocytes incubated with a high concentration of glucose, indicating that this compound may be effective in preventing diabetic complications.

  19. Rational decision-making in inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Pradeep; Yu, Angela J

    2011-01-01

    An important aspect of cognitive flexibility is inhibitory control, the ability to dynamically modify or cancel planned actions in response to changes in the sensory environment or task demands. We formulate a probabilistic, rational decision-making framework for inhibitory control in the stop signal paradigm. Our model posits that subjects maintain a Bayes-optimal, continually updated representation of sensory inputs, and repeatedly assess the relative value of stopping and going on a fine temporal scale, in order to make an optimal decision on when and whether to go on each trial. We further posit that they implement this continual evaluation with respect to a global objective function capturing the various reward and penalties associated with different behavioral outcomes, such as speed and accuracy, or the relative costs of stop errors and go errors. We demonstrate that our rational decision-making model naturally gives rise to basic behavioral characteristics consistently observed for this paradigm, as well as more subtle effects due to contextual factors such as reward contingencies or motivational factors. Furthermore, we show that the classical race model can be seen as a computationally simpler, perhaps neurally plausible, approximation to optimal decision-making. This conceptual link allows us to predict how the parameters of the race model, such as the stopping latency, should change with task parameters and individual experiences/ability.

  20. When is an Inhibitory Synapse Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ning; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    1990-10-01

    Interactions between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs on dendrites determine the level of activity in neurons. Models based on the cable equation predict that silent shunting inhibition can strongly veto the effect of an excitatory input. The cable model assumes that ionic concentrations do not change during the electrical activity, which may not be a valid assumption, especially for small structures such as dendritic spines. We present here an analysis and computer simulations to show that for large Cl^- conductance changes, the more general Nernst-Planck electrodiffusion model predicts that shunting inhibition on spines should be much less effective than that predicted by the cable model. This is a consequence of the large changes in the intracellular ionic concentration of Cl^- that can occur in small structures, which would alter the reversal potential and reduce the driving force for Cl^-. Shunting inhibition should therefore not be effective on spines, but it could be significantly more effective on the dendritic shaft at the base of the spine. In contrast to shunting inhibition, hyperpolarizing synaptic inhibition mediated by K^+ currents can be very effective in reducing the excitatory synaptic potentials on the same spine if the excitatory conductance change is less than 10 nS. We predict that if the inhibitory synapses found on cortical spines are to be effective, then they should be mediated by K^+ through GABA_B receptors.

  1. Rational Decision-Making in Inhibitory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Pradeep; Yu, Angela J.

    2011-01-01

    An important aspect of cognitive flexibility is inhibitory control, the ability to dynamically modify or cancel planned actions in response to changes in the sensory environment or task demands. We formulate a probabilistic, rational decision-making framework for inhibitory control in the stop signal paradigm. Our model posits that subjects maintain a Bayes-optimal, continually updated representation of sensory inputs, and repeatedly assess the relative value of stopping and going on a fine temporal scale, in order to make an optimal decision on when and whether to go on each trial. We further posit that they implement this continual evaluation with respect to a global objective function capturing the various reward and penalties associated with different behavioral outcomes, such as speed and accuracy, or the relative costs of stop errors and go errors. We demonstrate that our rational decision-making model naturally gives rise to basic behavioral characteristics consistently observed for this paradigm, as well as more subtle effects due to contextual factors such as reward contingencies or motivational factors. Furthermore, we show that the classical race model can be seen as a computationally simpler, perhaps neurally plausible, approximation to optimal decision-making. This conceptual link allows us to predict how the parameters of the race model, such as the stopping latency, should change with task parameters and individual experiences/ability. PMID:21647306

  2. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-09-13

    Knowledge representation and extraction are very important tasks in data mining. In this work, we proposed a variety of rule-based greedy algorithms that able to obtain knowledge contained in a given dataset as a series of inhibitory rules containing an expression “attribute ≠ value” on the right-hand side. The main goal of this paper is to determine based on rule characteristics, rule length and coverage, whether the proposed rule heuristics are statistically significantly different or not; if so, we aim to identify the best performing rule heuristics for minimization of rule length and maximization of rule coverage. Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  3. Mechanisms underlying electrical and mechanical responses of the bovine retractor penis to inhibitory nerve stimulation and to an inhibitory extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N. G.; Muir, T. C.

    1985-01-01

    The response of the bovine retractor penis (BRP) to stimulation of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) inhibitory nerves and to an inhibitory extract prepared from this muscle have been studied using intracellular microelectrode, sucrose gap and conventional mechanical recording techniques. Both inhibitory nerve stimulation and inhibitory extract hyperpolarized the membrane potential and relaxed spontaneous or guanethidine (3 X 10(-5) M)-induced tone. These effects were accompanied by an increase in membrane resistance. Following membrane potential displacement from an average value of -53 +/- 7 mV (n = 184; Byrne & Muir, 1984) inhibitory potentials to nerve stimulation were abolished at approximately -30 mV; there was no evidence of reversal. Displacement by inward hyperpolarizing current over the range -45 to -60 mV increased the inhibitory response to nerve stimulation and to inhibitory extract; at more negative potential values (above approximately -60 mV) the inhibitory potential decreased and was abolished (approximately -103 mV). There was no evidence of reversal. Removal of [K+]o reversibly reduced hyperpolarization to nerve stimulation and inhibitory extract. No enhancement was observed. Increasing the [K+]o to 20 mM reduced the inhibitory potential to nerve stimulation but this was restored by passive membrane hyperpolarization. Inhibitory potentials were obtained at membrane potential values exceeding that of the estimated EK (-49 mV). [Cl-]o-free or [Cl-]o-deficient solutions reduced and abolished (after some 20-25 min) the hyperpolarization produced by inhibitory nerve stimulation or inhibitory extract. The inhibitory potential amplitude following nerve stimulation was not restored by passive displacement of the membrane potential from -26 to -104 mV approximately. Ouabain (1-5 X 10(-5) M) reduced then (45-60 min later) abolished the inhibitory potential to nerve stimulation. The effects of this drug on the extract were not investigated. It is

  4. Anti-Melanogenic Property of Geoditin A in Murine B16 Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Tao Che

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Geoditin A, an isomalabaricane triterpene isolated from marine sponge Geodia japonica, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in leukemia HL60 cells and human colon HT29 cancer cells through an oxidative stress, a process also interfering with normal melanogenesis in pigment cells. Treatment of murine melanoma B16 cells with geoditin A decreased expression of melanogenic proteins and cell melanogenesis which was aggravated with adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536, indicating melanogenic inhibition was mediated through a cAMP-dependent signaling pathway. Immunofluorescence microscopy and glycosylation studies revealed abnormal glycosylation patterns of melanogenic proteins (tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1, and a co-localization of tyrosinase with calnexin (CNX and lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1, implicating a post-translational modification in the ER and a degradation of tyrosinase in the lysosome. Taken together, potent anti-melanogenic property and the relatively low cytotoxicity of geoditin A have demonstrated its therapeutic potential as a skin lightening agent.

  5. Effects of imatinib and nilotinib on the whole transcriptome of cultured murine osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Gyöngyi; Balla, Bernadett; Horváth, Péter; Kövesdi, Andrea; Lakatos, Gergely; Takács, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Tóbiás, Bálint; Árvai, Kristóf; Kósa, János Pál; Lakatos, Péter

    2016-09-01

    Numerous clinical observations have confirmed that breakpoint cluster region-abelson fusion oncoprotein tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in leukemia treatment alter bone physiology in a complex manner. The aim of the present study was to analyze the whole transcriptome of cultured murine osteoblasts and determine the changes following treatment with imatinib and nilotinib using Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation and Detection next generation RNA sequencing. This study also aimed to identify candidate signaling pathways and network regulators by multivariate Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Based on the right-tailed Fisher's exact test, significantly altered pathways including upstream regulators were defined for each drug. The correlation between these pathways and bone metabolism was also examined. The preliminary results suggest the two drugs have different mechanisms of action on osteoblasts, and imatinib was shown to have a greater effect on gene expression. Data also indicated the potential role of a number of genes and signaling cascades that may contribute to identifying novel targets for the treatment of metabolic bone diseases.

  6. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor as an incriminating agent in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Azza Gaber Antar; Hammam, Mostafa Ahmed; Habib, Mona SalahEldeen; Elnaidany, Nada Farag; Kamh, Mona Eaid

    2018-03-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune skin disorder in which the loss of melanocytes is mainly attributed to defective autoimmune mechanisms and, lately, there has been more emphasis on autoinflammatory mediators. Among these is the macrophage migration inhibitory factor, which is involved in many autoimmune skin diseases. However, little is known about the contribution of this factor to vitiligo vulgaris. To determine the hypothesized role of migration inhibitory factor in vitiligo via estimation of serum migration inhibitory factor levels and migration inhibitory factor mRNA concentrations in patients with vitiligo compared with healthy controls. We also aimed to assess whether there is a relationship between the values of serum migration inhibitory factor and/or migration inhibitory factor mRNA with disease duration, clinical type and severity in vitiligo patients. Evaluation of migration inhibitory factor serum level and migration inhibitory factor mRNA expression by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively, were performed for 50 patients with different degrees of vitiligo severity and compared to 15 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers as controls. There was a highly significant increase in serum migration inhibitory factor and migration inhibitory factor mRNA levels in vitiligo cases when compared to controls (pvitiligo patients, and each of them with duration and severity of vitiligo. In addition, patients with generalized vitiligo have significantly elevated serum migration inhibitory factor and mRNA levels than control subjects. Small number of investigated subjects. Migration inhibitory factor may have an active role in the development of vitiligo, and it may also be a useful index of disease severity. Consequently, migration inhibitory factor may be a new treatment target for vitiligo patients.

  7. Clearance of 131I-labeled murine monoclonal antibody from patients' blood by intravenous human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.S.; Sivolapenko, G.B.; Hird, V.; Davies, K.A.; Walport, M.; Ritter, M.A.; Epenetos, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Five patients treated with intraperitoneal 131I-labeled mouse monoclonal antibody for ovarian cancer also received i.v. exogenous polyclonal human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody. The pharmacokinetics of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody in these patients were compared with those of 28 other patients receiving i.p.-radiolabeled monoclonal antibody for the first time without exogenous human anti-murine immunoglobulin, and who had no preexisting endogenous human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody. Patients receiving i.v. human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody demonstrated a rapid clearance of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody from their circulation. The (mean) maximum 131I blood content was 11.4% of the injected activity in patients receiving human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody compared to 23.3% in patients not given human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody. Intravenous human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody decreased the radiation dose to bone marrow (from 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody in the vascular compartment) 4-fold. Following the injection of human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody, 131I-monoclonal/human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody immune complexes were rapidly transported to the liver. Antibody dehalogenation in the liver was rapid, with 87% of the injected 131I excreted in 5 days. Despite the efficient hepatic uptake of immune complexes, dehalogenation of monoclonal antibody was so rapid that the radiation dose to liver parenchyma from circulating 131I was decreased 4-fold rather than increased. All patients developed endogenous human anti-murine immunoglobulin antibody 2 to 3 weeks after treatment

  8. Cranial computerized tomography in children suffering from acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, O.

    1981-01-01

    Cranial computerized (axial) tomography permits a more complete neurologic supervision of children with acute leukemia and a better knowledge of the frequency and varieties of cerebral complications in leukemia. Endocranial complications in acute leukemia are essentially infiltrative, hemorrhagic, infectious or iatrogenic. Cranial computerized tomography can demonstrate cerebral changes in meningeal leukemia, hemorrhages, calcifications, brain atrophy or leukencephalopathy. The preliminary results of cranial computerized tomography in childhood leukemia suggest that the iatrogenic main lesion of the brain due to combined radiation-chemotherapy is atrophy whereas that of the intrathecal cytostatic therapy is demyelination. Accurate diagnostics and control of possible cerebral complications in therapy of leukemia is essentially for appropriate therapeutic management. For that cranial computerized tomography is the best method to a effective supervision of the brain. (author)

  9. Identification of an MLC suppressor cell population in acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, C.F.; Broxmeyer, H.E.; Hansen, J.; Pollack, M.; Dupont, B.

    1978-01-01

    The MLC data from the 20 nonsuppressing patients and the 10 suppressing leukemia patients were analyzed with regard to HLA-A, -B, and -C antigens in the leukemia patients and compared with the presence or absence of suppression. These results demonstrate a significant increase (p < 0.02, Mann-Whitney U test) of HLA antigens Al, A3, and A11 in the leukemia suppressor group. Seven of the 10 leukemia patients showing suppression were A1, A3, or A11, while only 4 of the 20 nonsuppressing leukemia patients carried any of these three HLA-A antigens. The studies demonstrate that a nonspecific suppression of MLC responses is observed in 33% of the patients with acute leukemia

  10. Frank hematuria as the presentation feature of acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriya Owais

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Muco-cutaneous bleeding is a common presenting feature of acute leukemias. Mucosal bleeding usually manifests as gum bleeding and/or epistaxis but may occur in any mucosal surface of the body. Hematuria as an isolated or main presenting feature of acute leukemia is rare. We describe two cases of acute leukemia, a 19 year old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a 52 year old male with acute myeloid leukemia, both presenting with gross hematuria. There was no demonstrable leukemic infiltration of the urinary tract on imaging studies. Hematuria in these patients was likely to be due to occult leukemic infiltration of the urinary system, aggravated by thrombocytopenia, as it subsided after starting chemotherapy. Our cases highlight that hematuria should be remembered as a rare presenting feature of acute leukemia.

  11. The inhibitory NKR-P1B:Clr-b recognition axis facilitates detection of oncogenic transformation and cancer immunosurveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanaka, M; Fine, Jason; Kirkham, Christina

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells express receptors specific for MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules involved in "missing-self" recognition of cancer and virus-infected cells. Here we elucidate the role of MHC-I-independent NKR-P1B:Clr-b interactions in the detection of oncogenic transformation by NK cells. Ras......-b protein, in turn promoting missing-self recognition via the NKR-P1B inhibitory receptor. Both Ras- and c-Myc-mediated Clr-b loss selectively augmented cytotoxicity of oncogene-transformed leukemia cells by NKR-P1B+ NK cells in vitro and enhanced rejection by WT mice in vivo. Interestingly, genetic...

  12. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Presented as Multiple Breast Masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayrak, Ilkay Koray; Yalin, Turkay; Ozmen, Zafer; Aksoz, Tolga; Doughanji, Roula

    2009-01-01

    Breast metastases in cases leukemia are very rare and occur primarily in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. We report the involvement of breast metastases in a 30-year-old woman with acute T cell lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient's mammograms revealed an extremely dense pattern with ill-defined, denser mass-like lesions in both breasts. A bilateral breast ultrasonographic evaluation revealed lobular-shaped and partly ill-defined hypoechoic masses with a multi-septated nodular (mottled) appearance

  13. Cytosine Arabinoside Influx and Nucleoside Transport Sites in Acute Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wiley, J. S.; Jones, S. P.; Sawyer, W. H.; Paterson, A. R. P.

    1982-01-01

    Although cytosine arabinoside (araC) can induce a remission in a majority of patients presenting with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), a minority fail to respond and moreover the drug has less effect in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The carrier-mediated influx of araC into purified blasts from patients with AML, ALL, and acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL) has been compared to that of normal lymphocytes and polymorphs. Blasts showed a larger mediated influx of araC than mature cells...

  14. Fatal Candidemia in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-16

    Profoosionaf 7 ,0 Fatal Candidemia in a Patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Brittany Lenz, MD, Arturo Dominguez, MD, Adnan Mir, MD, PhD Objectives...with pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia was admitted for presumed septic shock secondary to an unknown infectious etiology. The patient was...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Fatal Candidcn1ia in a Patient \\\\ith Acute Lympboblastic Leukemia Brittany Lenz. MD. Arturo Dominguez.. MD. Adnan J’vlir. MD, PhD

  15. The contribution of benzene to smoking-induced leukemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, J E; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Schulz, M R; Ball, L M; Duell, E J

    2000-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of leukemia; benzene, an established leukemogen, is present in cigarette smoke. By combining epidemiologic data on the health effects of smoking with risk assessment techniques for low-dose extrapolation, we assessed the proportion of smoking-induced total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) attributable to the benzene in cigarette smoke. We fit both linear and quadratic models to data from two benzene-exposed occupational cohorts t...

  16. Pupils with leukemia and their reintegration into school

    OpenAIRE

    Purkat, Maja

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common childhood malignancies is leukemia. Treatments are now much more successful than in the past, but many children with leukemia are facing difficulties when returning to school. For pupils with leukemia, school is very important, providing them with a feeling of normalcy and hope for the future. But when such a child, with all his or her characteristics, returns to school, he meets with certain requirements. He or she encounters obstacles which are directly or indirectly ...

  17. An Approach for Leukemia Classification Based on Cooperative Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Torkaman, Atefeh; Charkari, Nasrollah Moghaddam; Aghaeipour, Mahnaz

    2011-01-01

    Hematological malignancies are the types of cancer that affect blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes. As these tissues are naturally connected through the immune system, a disease affecting one of them will often affect the others as well. The hematological malignancies include; Leukemia, Lymphoma, Multiple myeloma. Among them, leukemia is a serious malignancy that starts in blood tissues especially the bone marrow, where the blood is made. Researches show, leukemia is one of the common cancers ...

  18. Overview on available animal models for application in leukemia research; Uebersicht ueber vorhandene Tiermodelle, die fuer die Leukaemieforschung angewandt werden koennten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkhardt, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, I.; Cobaleda, C.; Hauer, J.

    2015-01-15

    The term ''leukemia'' encompasses a group of diseases with a variable clinical and pathological presentation. Its cellular origin, its biology and the underlying molecular genetic alterations determine the very variable and individual disease phenotype. The focus of this review is to discuss the most important guidelines to be taken into account when we aim at developing an ''ideal'' animal model to study leukemia. The animal model should mimic all the clinical, histological and molecular genetic characteristics of the human phenotype and should be applicable as a clinically predictive model. It should achieve all the requirements to be used as a standardized model adaptive to basic research as well as to pharmaceutical practice. Furthermore it should fulfill all the criteria to investigate environmental risk factors, the role of genomic mutations and be applicable for therapeutic testing. These constraints limit the usefulness of some existing animal models, which are however very valuable for basic research. Hence in this review we will primarily focus on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) to study the most frequent types of childhood leukemia. GEMMs are robust models with relatively low site specific variability and which can, with the help of the latest gene modulating tools be adapted to individual clinical and research questions. Moreover they offer the possibility to restrict oncogene expression to a defined target population and regulate its expression level as well as its timely activity. Until recently it was only possible in individual cases to develop a murin model, which fulfills the above mentioned requirements. Hence the development of new regulatory elements to control targeted oncogene expression should be priority. Tightly controlled and cell specific oncogene expression can then be combined with a knock-in approach and will depict a robust murine model, which enables almost physiologic oncogene

  19. Do Children with Better Inhibitory Control Donate More? Differentiating between Early and Middle Childhood and Cool and Hot Inhibitory Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control may play an important part in prosocial behavior, such as donating behavior. However, it is not clear at what developmental stage inhibitory control becomes associated with donating behavior and which aspects of inhibitory control are related to donating behavior during development in early to middle childhood. The present study aimed to clarify these issues with two experiments. In Experiment 1, 103 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers completed cool (Stroop-like and hot (delay of gratification inhibitory control tasks and a donating task. The results indicated that there were no relationships between cool or hot inhibitory control and donating behavior in the whole group and each age group of the preschoolers. In Experiment 2, 140 elementary school children in Grades 2, 4, and 6 completed cool (Stroop-like and hot (delay of gratification inhibitory control tasks and a donating task. The results showed that inhibitory control was positively associated with donating behavior in the whole group. Cool and hot inhibitory control respectively predicted donating behavior in the second and sixth graders. Therefore, the present study reveals that donating behavior increasingly relies on specific inhibitory control, i.e., hot inhibitory control as children grow in middle childhood.

  20. Leukemia in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors from 1946 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, Takeshi

    1976-01-01

    In five recent years, 134 deaths from leukemia among Hiroshima citizen were recorded. Of these, 23 cases (17 acute and 6 chronic types) were atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2,000 m of the hypocenter. Fifteen of them (65%) were over 60 years of age. The frequency of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was still low. Although the risk of leukemia was greatly reduced after 1961, and the frequency of chronic granulocytic leukemia (one of the most characteristic type of Hiroshima atomic bomb-induced leukemia) was also decreased, the death rate from leukemia among survivors exposed within 2,000 m or 1,500 m from the hypocenter was about 3 to 4 times higher than the mean death rate in all Japan. Therefore, careful and long-range follow-up surveillance should be continued. A brief review was also made of relevant studies such as the influence of environmental and host factors in the epidemiology of leukemia, the incidence of leukemia in children exposed in utero, and leukemia in offspring of atomic bomb survivors. (Evans, J.)

  1. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRA-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link) Genetic Testing Registry: Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (3 links) Cancer.Net: Leukemia - Eosinophilic: Treatment MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Eosinophil Count - Absolute Seattle ...

  2. The biology and targeting of FLT3 in pediatric leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen eAnnesley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite remarkable improvement in treatment outcomes in pediatric leukemia over the past several decades, the prognosis for high risk groups of acute myeloid leukemia (AML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, as well as for relapsed leukemia, remains poor. Intensified chemotherapy regimens have somewhat improved success rates, but at the cost of drastically increased morbidity and long term adverse effects. With the success of imatinib in Philadelphia-chromosome positive leukemia and all-trans retinoic acid in acute promyelocytic leukemia, the quest to find additional molecularly targeted therapies has generated much excitement over the past 15 years. Another such possible target in pediatric acute leukemia is FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3. FLT3 aberrations are among the most frequently identified transforming events in AML, and have significant clinical implications in both high risk pediatric AML and in certain high risk groups of pediatric ALL. Therefore, the successful targeting of FLT3 has tremendous potential to improve outcomes in these subsets of patients. This article will give an overview of the molecular function and signaling of the FLT3 receptor, as well as its pathogenic role in leukemia. We review the discovery of targeting FLT3, discuss currently available FLT3 inhibitors in pediatric leukemia and results of clinical trials to date, and finally, consider the future promise and challenges of FLT3 inhibitor therapy.

  3. Global Characteristics of Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Samad, A; Pombo-de-Oliveira, MS; Scelo, G; Smith, MT; Feusner, J; Wiemels, JL; Metayer, C

    2014-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) comprises approximately 5–10% of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases in the US. While variation in this percentage among other populations was noted previously, global patterns of childhood APL have not been thoroughly characterized. In this comprehensive review of childhood APL, we examined its geographic pattern and the potential contribution of environmental factors to observed variation. In 142 studies (spanning >60 countries) identified, variation was apparent—de novo APL represented from 2% (Switzerland) to >50% (Nicaragua) of childhood AML in different geographic regions. Because a limited number of previous studies addressed specific environmental exposures that potentially underlie childhood APL development, we gathered 28 childhood cases of therapy-related APL, which exemplified associations between prior exposures to chemotherapeutic drugs/radiation and APL diagnosis. Future population-based studies examining childhood APL patterns and the potential association with specific environmental exposures and other risk factors are needed. PMID:25445717

  4. Cytogenetic patterns in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, J R; Rowley, J D

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of chromosomal banding patterns in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) reveals that approximately 50% of patients have an abnormal karyotype. Although there is substantial variability, certain nonrandom abnormalities occur, e.g., +8, -7, and the 8;21 translocation (often accompanied by loss of an X or Y chromosome). The 15;17 translocation appears to be highly specific for acute promyelocytic leukemia. These abnormalities usually are not seen in remission, but reappear in relapse, sometimes exhibiting further clonal evolution; a +8 is the most frequently observed evolutionary change. Patients with ANLL following treatment of a malignant lymphoma tend to have hypodiploid modal numbers and frequently show loss of a chromosome No. 5 or No. 7.

  5. Biological Prognostic Markers in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Vroblová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most frequent leukemic disease of adults in the Western world. It is remarkable by an extraordinary heterogeneity of clinical course with overall survival ranging from several months to more than 15 years. Classical staging sytems by Rai and Binet, while readily available and useful for initial assessment of prognosis, are not able to determine individual patient’s ongoing clinical course of CLL at the time of diagnosis, especially in early stages. Therefore, newer biological prognostic parameters are currently being clinically evaluated. Mutational status of variable region of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (IgVH, cytogenetic aberrations, and both intracellular ZAP- 70 and surface CD38 expression are recognized as parameters with established prognostic value. Molecules regulating the process of angiogenesis are also considered as promising markers. The purpose of this review is to summarize in detail the specific role of these prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  6. Optimization of experimental human leukemia models (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Pankov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actual problem of assessing immunotherapy prospects including antigenpecific cell therapy using animal models was covered in this review.Describe the various groups of currently existing animal models and methods of their creating – from different immunodeficient mice to severalvariants of tumor cells engraftment in them. The review addresses the possibility of tumor stem cells studying using mouse models for the leukemia treatment with adoptive cell therapy including WT1. Also issues of human leukemia cells migration and proliferation in a mice withdifferent immunodeficiency degree are discussed. To assess the potential immunotherapy efficacy comparison of immunodeficient mouse model with clinical situation in oncology patients after chemotherapy is proposed.

  7. Quantitation of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) in blood plasma and leukemia cells of patients receiving the drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, P; Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Siimes, M; Jänne, J

    1980-11-15

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), a cytostatic compound which apparently interferes with the metabolism and/or functions of the natural polyamines (spermidine and spermine), was effectively taken up by cultured human lymphocytic leukemia cells, rapidly resulting in the formation of a concentration gradient of up to 1,000-fold across the cell membrane in cells grown in the presence of micromolar concentrations of the drug. For an anti-proliferative effect on the leukemia cells, an intracellular concentration of more than 0.5 mM was required. The uptake of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) was critically dependent on the growth rate of the leukemia cells. Low intracellular concentrations of the drug were present in cells growing slowly, whereas in rapidly dividing cells the intracellular concentration of the drug approached 5mM. When given as repeated intravenous infusions to two leukemic children, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) exhibited sharp and transient peaks of plasma concentration, the drug having an apparent half-life in plasma of only 1-2 h. However, as in cultured cells, the drug was rapidly concentrated in the leukemia cells, reaching concentrations that were distinctly anti-proliferative. In contrast to the rapid disappearance of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) from plasma, the circulation leukemia cells retained the drug for a period of several days with only minimal decrease in the initial concentrations. Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) was given to the patients for 1 to 2 months as intravenous infusions, the timing of which was determined by regular assays of the drug concentrations in the leukemia cells. In agreement with the results obtained with the cultured cells, and intracellular concentration of about 0.5 to 1mM was apparently required for growth-inhibitory action to occur. Regular determination of the cellular drug concentrations indicated that methylglyoxal bis(quanylhydrazone) could be given as weekly infusions. This treatment

  8. Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in a glue sniffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, M A; Early, A P; Marinello, M J; Preisler, H D

    1985-09-01

    A 17-year-old white male with a past history of chronic inhalational abuse of plastic glue was referred to our institution for sore throat, cervical adenopathy, and an abnormal peripheral blood smear. A diagnosis of acute myelomonocytic leukemia was made and abnormalities in cytogenetic studies were demonstrated. Specific inquiry regarding this form of drug exposure should be pursued when searching for possible etiologies of malignant disease.

  9. Splenic irradiation in chronic myeloid leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukku, S.; Baboo, H.A.; Venkataratnam, S.; Vidyasagar, M.S.; Patel, N.L. (Department of Radiation Therapy, Gujarat Cancer Research Institute, Ahmedabad, India)

    1983-01-01

    Results of splenic irradiation as the initial and only method of treatment are reported in 25 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Peripheral remission was induced in all the patients. Induction was achieved after a short period of 11 to 30 days in the majority of the patients, the longest period being 40 days. Several patients were in remission 9 months after treatment. The results are compared with those obtained by chemotherapy. Some advantages of splenic irradiation over chemotherapy are emphasized.

  10. Immunophenotyping in leukemia and its diagnostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Kresno

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification of cell surface markers, defined as clusters of differentiation antigens (CD’s could be used to classify and sub-classify leukemia. Although the same antigens are expressed on normal cells, the phenotype on malignant cells are aberrantly and frequently asynchronously expressed and may be present in combinations not observed in normal blood or bone marrow. Aberrant expression of surface antigens corresponds with poor therapeutic response and short survival. Additional surface marker analysis complementary to morphologic evaluation and cytochemical staining has greatly improved our ability to characterize hematologic malignancies. A review and illustration on the diagnostic significance of immunophenotyping in leukemia will be presented. Data from 225 patients having complete assessments including morphology, cytochemistry and immunophenotyping in the period of 1994-2001 were collected and analyzed. Based on morphologic evaluation and cytochemistry, the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia were established in 51.1% and 48.9% of cases, respectively. Based on immunophenotyping AML was found in 49.0% of the cases. ALL could be classified into 4.9% pre-B-ALL, 18.7% B-ALL, and 14.7% T-ALL. Cases expressing cross-lineage antigens were found in 12.7%. The prognostic significance of these aberrant expression of antigens for those cases has yet to be established but some of the cases responded poorly to therapy. Immunophenotyping provides the tool to: 1 distinguish normal from clonal populations of leukemic cells; 2 define lineage and reveal the stage of maturation; 3 identify inappropriate expression of lineage associated antigens; 4 provides more informations to establish diagnosis and prognosis compared to standard methods. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 195-202 Keywords: Immunophenotyping, clusters of differentiation antigens, lineage associated antigens

  11. Cell biological effects of total body irradiation on growth and differentiation of acute myelogenous leukemia cells compared to normal bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberger, J S; Weichselbaum, R R; Botnick, L E; Sakakeeny, M; Moloney, W C

    1979-01-01

    Radiation therapy is used as total body treatment in preparation of the acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patient for bone marrow transplantation. Many AML patients will have residual leukemia cells at the time of total body irradiation (TBI). In the present study, the effect of TBI on leukemic myeloid cells was compared to the effect on normal marrow granulocytic stem cells (CFUc) in vitro. Little difference from that of normal CFUc was found in the radiosensitivity of two mouse myeloid leukemia cell lines. The effect of TBI on growth of WEHI-3 or J774 cells in millipore diffusion chambers was stimulatory. These AML cell lines as well as others derived from Friend or Abelson virus infected in vitro long term mouse marrow cultures showed some morphologic differentiation by 7 days growth in diffusion chambers in irradiated heterologous rat hosts, but immature cells predominated by day 21. Thus, evidence in murine models of AML indicates that residual AML cells surviving chemotherapy will show no greater susceptibility to radiation killing compared to normal stem cells and will rapidly repopulate the irradiated host.

  12. Nootropic dipeptide noopept enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povarov, I S; Kondratenko, R V; Derevyagin, V I; Ostrovskaya, R U; Skrebitskii, V G

    2015-01-01

    Application of nootropic agent Noopept on hippocampal slices from Wistar rats enhanced the inhibitory component of total current induced by stimulation of Shaffer collaterals in CA1 pyramidal neurons, but did not affect the excitatory component. A direct correlation between the increase in the amplitude of inhibitory current and agent concentration was found. The substance did not affect the release of inhibitory transmitters from terminals in the pyramidal neurons, which indicated changes in GABAergic interneurons.

  13. An activating mutation of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) in adult T cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Mathew A; Olson, Sydney; Sundaramoorthi, Hemalatha; Cates, Kitra; Cheng, Xiaogang; Harding, John; Martens, Andrew; Challen, Grant A; Tyagi, Manoj; Ratner, Lee; Rauch, Daniel

    2018-03-14

    The human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax drives cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis early in the pathogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Subsequently, likely as a result of specific immuno-editing, Tax expression is downregulated and functionally replaced by somatic driver mutations of the host genome. Both amplification and point mutations of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) have been previously detected in ATL, and the K59R mutation is the most common single-nucleotide variation in IRF4 and is found exclusively in ATL. Here high throughput whole-exome sequencing revealed recurrent activating genetic alterations in the T cell receptor, CD28, and NF-kB pathways. Moreover, we found that IRF4, which is transcriptionally activated downstream of these pathways, is frequently mutated in ATL. IRF4 RNA, protein, and IRF4 transcriptional targets are uniformly elevated in HTLV transformed cells and ATL cell lines, and IRF4 was bound to genomic regulatory DNA of many of these transcriptional targets in HTLV-1 transformed cell lines. We further noted that the K59R IRF4 mutant is expressed at higher levels in the nucleus than is wild-type IRF4, and is transcriptionally more active. Expression of both wild-type and the K59R mutant of IRF4 from a constitutive promoter in retrovirally transduced murine bone marrow cells increased the abundance of T lymphocytes but not myeloid cells or B lymphocytes in mice. IRF4 may represent a therapeutic target in ATL since ATL cells select for a mutant of IRF4 with higher nuclear expression and transcriptional activity, and over-expression of IRF4 induces the expansion of T lymphocytes in vivo. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Anatomy and Histology of the Human and Murine Prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittmann, Michael

    2018-05-01

    The human and murine prostate glands have similar functional roles in the generation of seminal fluid to assist in reproduction. There are significant differences in the anatomy and histology of murine and human prostate and knowledge of the normal anatomy and histology of the murine prostate is essential to interpreting changes in genetically engineered mouse models. In this review, the normal anatomy and histology of both human and mouse prostate will be described. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  15. Timing control by redundant inhibitory neuronal circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tristan, I., E-mail: itristan@ucsd.edu; Rulkov, N. F.; Huerta, R.; Rabinovich, M. [BioCircuits Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Rhythms and timing control of sequential activity in the brain is fundamental to cognition and behavior. Although experimental and theoretical studies support the understanding that neuronal circuits are intrinsically capable of generating different time intervals, the dynamical origin of the phenomenon of functionally dependent timing control is still unclear. Here, we consider a new mechanism that is related to the multi-neuronal cooperative dynamics in inhibitory brain motifs consisting of a few clusters. It is shown that redundancy and diversity of neurons within each cluster enhances the sensitivity of the timing control with the level of neuronal excitation of the whole network. The generality of the mechanism is shown to work on two different neuronal models: a conductance-based model and a map-based model.

  16. A recombinant wheat serpin with inhibitory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren K; Dahl, Søren Weis; Nørgård, Anette

    1996-01-01

    A full-length clone encoding the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) serpin WSZ1 was isolated from a cDNA library based on mRNA from immature grain. The 398 amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA was corroborated by sequencing CNBr peptides of WSZ1 purified from resting grain. WSZ1 belongs to the sub......A full-length clone encoding the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) serpin WSZ1 was isolated from a cDNA library based on mRNA from immature grain. The 398 amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA was corroborated by sequencing CNBr peptides of WSZ1 purified from resting grain. WSZ1 belongs...... sequencing indicated that only few serpins are encoded by wheat, but at least three distinct genes are expressed in the grain. Cleavage experiments on a chymotrypsin column suggested a Gln-Gln reactive site bond not previously observed in inhibitory serpins....

  17. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  18. Impaired inhibitory control in recreational cocaine users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza S Colzato

    Full Text Available Chronic use of cocaine is associated with impairment in response inhibition but it is an open question whether and to which degree findings from chronic users generalize to the upcoming type of recreational users. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult recreational users and in a cocaine-free-matched sample controlled for age, race, gender distribution, level of intelligence, and alcohol consumption. Response inhibition and response execution were measured by a stop-signal paradigm. Results show that users and non users are comparable in terms of response execution but users need significantly more time to inhibit responses to stop-signals than non users. Interestingly, the magnitude of the inhibitory deficit was positively correlated with the individuals lifetime cocaine exposure suggesting that the magnitude of the impairment is proportional to the degree of cocaine consumed.

  19. Serum trypsin inhibitory capacity in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Mehrabifar, Hamid; Homayooni, Fatemeh; Naderi, Mohammad; Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Ghavami, Saeid

    2009-01-01

    It has been established that overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs during hemodialysis causing oxidation of proteins. Alpha-1-antitrypsin is the major circulating anti-protease which contains methionine in the active site. The aim of the present study was to measure the level of serum trypsin inhibitory capacity (sTIC) in hemodialysis patients. This case-control study was performed in 52 hemodialysis patients and 49 healthy controls. sTIC was measured by enzymatic assay. The sTIC was significantly (P< 0.001) lower in hemodialysis patients (1.87 + - 0.67 micron mol/min/mL) than healthy controls (2.83 + - 0.44 micron mol/min/L). Reduction of sTIC may be due to the oxidation of methionine residue in the reactive site of alpha-1 antitrypsin. (author)

  20. Timing control by redundant inhibitory neuronal circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tristan, I.; Rulkov, N. F.; Huerta, R.; Rabinovich, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rhythms and timing control of sequential activity in the brain is fundamental to cognition and behavior. Although experimental and theoretical studies support the understanding that neuronal circuits are intrinsically capable of generating different time intervals, the dynamical origin of the phenomenon of functionally dependent timing control is still unclear. Here, we consider a new mechanism that is related to the multi-neuronal cooperative dynamics in inhibitory brain motifs consisting of a few clusters. It is shown that redundancy and diversity of neurons within each cluster enhances the sensitivity of the timing control with the level of neuronal excitation of the whole network. The generality of the mechanism is shown to work on two different neuronal models: a conductance-based model and a map-based model