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Sample records for murine glioblastoma cell

  1. Autotaxin inhibition with PF8380 enhances the radiosensitivity of human and murine glioblastoma cell lines

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    Sandeep R Bhave

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is an aggressive primary brain tumor that is radio-resistant and recurs despite aggressive surgery, chemo and radiotherapy. Autotaxin (ATX is over expressed in various cancers including GBM and is implicated in tumor progression, invasion, and angiogenesis. Using the ATX specific inhibitor, PF-8380, we studied ATX as a potential target to enhance radiosensitivity in GBM.Methods and Materials: Mouse GL-261 and Human U87MG cells were used as GBM cell models. Clonogenic survival assays and tumor transwell invasion assays were performed using PF-8380 to evaluate role of ATX in survival and invasion. Radiation dependent activation of Akt was analyzed by immunoblotting. Tumor induced angiogenesis was studied using the dorsal skin-fold model in Gl-261. Heterotopic mouse GL-261 tumors were used to evaluate the efficacy of PF-8380 as a radiosensitizer.Results: Pretreatment of GL-261 and U87-MG cells with 1µM PF-8380 followed by 4Gy irradiation resulted in decreased clonogenic survival, decreased migration (33% in GL-261;P = 0.002 and 17.9% in U87; P = 0.012 decreased invasion (35.6% in GL-261; P = 0.0037 and 31.8% in U87; P = 0.002, and attenuated radiation induced Akt phosphorylation. In the tumor window model inhibition of ATX abrogated radiation-induced tumor neovascularization (65%; P=0.011. In a heterotopic mouse GL-261 tumors untreated mice took 11.2 days to reach a tumor volume of 7000 mm3 , however combination of PF-8380 (10mg/kg with irradiation (5 fractions of 2Gy took more than 32 days to reach a tumor volume of 7000 mm3 .Conclusion: Inhibition of ATX by PF8380 led to decreased invasion and enhanced radiosensitization of glioma cells. Radiation induced activation of Akt was abrogated by inhibition of ATX. Furthermore, inhibition of ATX led to diminished tumor vascularity and delayed tumor growth. These results suggest that inhibition of ATX may ameliorate glioblastoma response to radiotherapy.

  2. Human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes express a distinct RNA profile compared to human control and murine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulzewsky, Frank; Arora, Sonali; de Witte, Lot; Ulas, Thomas; Markovic, Darko; Schultze, Joachim L; Holland, Eric C; Synowitz, Michael; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2016-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor in adults. It is strongly infiltrated by microglia and peripheral monocytes that support tumor growth. In the present study we used RNA sequencing to compare the expression profile of CD11b(+) human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes (hGAMs) to CD11b(+) microglia isolated from non-tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis showed a clear separation of the two sample groups and we identified 334 significantly regulated genes in hGAMs. In comparison to human control microglia hGAMs upregulated genes associated with mitotic cell cycle, cell migration, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix organization. We validated the expression of several genes associated with extracellular matrix organization in samples of human control microglia, hGAMs, and the hGAMs-depleted fraction via qPCR. The comparison to murine GAMs (mGAMs) showed that both cell populations share a significant fraction of upregulated transcripts compared with their respective controls. These genes were mostly related to mitotic cell cycle. However, in contrast to murine cells, human GAMs did not upregulate genes associated to immune activation. Comparison of human and murine GAMs expression data to several data sets of in vitro-activated human macrophages and murine microglia showed that, in contrast to mGAMs, hGAMs share a smaller overlap to these data sets in general and in particular to cells activated by proinflammatory stimulation with LPS + INFγ or TNFα. Our findings provide new insights into the biology of human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes and give detailed information about the validity of murine experimental models. GLIA 2016 GLIA 2016;64:1416-1436. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  4. Adoptive Cell Therapies for Glioblastoma

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    Kevin James Bielamowicz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common and most aggressive primary brain malignancy and, as it stands, is virtually incurable. With the current standard-of-care, maximum feasible surgical resection followed by radical radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide, survival rates are at a median of 14.6 months from diagnosis in molecularly unselected patients(1. Collectively, the current knowledge suggests that the continued tumor growth and survival is in part due to failure to mount an effective immune response. While this tolerance is subtended by the tumor being utterly self, it is to a great extent due to local and systemic immune compromise mediated by the tumor. Different cell modalities including lymphokine-activated killer (LAK cells, natural killer (NK cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL, and transgenic chimeric antigen receptor (CAR- or αβ T cell receptor (TCR grafted T cells are being explored to recover and or redirect the specificity of the cellular arm of the immune system towards the tumor complex. Promising phase I/II trials of such modalities have shown early indications of potential efficacy while maintaining a favorable toxicity profile. Efficacy will need to be formally tested in phase II/III clinical trials. Given the high morbidity and mortality of GBM, it is imperative to further investigate and possibly integrate such novel cell-based therapies into the current standards-of-care and herein we collectively assess and critique the state-of-the-knowledge pertaining to these efforts.

  5. Adoptive Cell Therapies for Glioblastoma

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    Bielamowicz, Kevin; Khawja, Shumaila; Ahmed, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive primary brain malignancy and, as it stands, is virtually incurable. With the current standard of care, maximum feasible surgical resection followed by radical radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide, survival rates are at a median of 14.6 months from diagnosis in molecularly unselected patients (1). Collectively, the current knowledge suggests that the continued tumor growth and survival is in part due to failure to mount an effective immune response. While this tolerance is subtended by the tumor being utterly “self,” it is to a great extent due to local and systemic immune compromise mediated by the tumor. Different cell modalities including lymphokine-activated killer cells, natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and transgenic chimeric antigen receptor or αβ T cell receptor grafted T cells are being explored to recover and or redirect the specificity of the cellular arm of the immune system toward the tumor complex. Promising phase I/II trials of such modalities have shown early indications of potential efficacy while maintaining a favorable toxicity profile. Efficacy will need to be formally tested in phase II/III clinical trials. Given the high morbidity and mortality of GBM, it is imperative to further investigate and possibly integrate such novel cell-based therapies into the current standards-of-care and herein we collectively assess and critique the state-of-the-knowledge pertaining to these efforts. PMID:24273748

  6. Coordination of glioblastoma cell motility by PKCι

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    Baldwin R Mitchell

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, in part because of its highly invasive nature. The tumor suppressor PTEN is frequently mutated in glioblastoma and is known to contribute to the invasive phenotype. However the downstream events that promote invasion are not fully understood. PTEN loss leads to activation of the atypical protein kinase C, PKCι. We have previously shown that PKCι is required for glioblastoma cell invasion, primarily by enhancing cell motility. Here we have used time-lapse videomicroscopy to more precisely define the role of PKCι in glioblastoma. Results Glioblastoma cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically were unable to coordinate the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod. Instead, some cells generated multiple small, short-lived protrusions while others generated a diffuse leading edge that formed around the entire circumference of the cell. Confocal microscopy showed that this behavior was associated with altered behavior of the cytoskeletal protein Lgl, which is known to be inactivated by PKCι phosphorylation. Lgl in control cells localized to the lamellipod leading edge and did not associate with its binding partner non-muscle myosin II, consistent with it being in an inactive state. In PKCι-depleted cells, Lgl was concentrated at multiple sites at the periphery of the cell and remained in association with non-muscle myosin II. Videomicroscopy also identified a novel role for PKCι in the cell cycle. Cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically entered mitosis normally, but showed marked delays in completing mitosis. Conclusions PKCι promotes glioblastoma motility by coordinating the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod and has a role in remodeling the cytoskeleton at the lamellipod leading edge, promoting the dissociation of Lgl from non-muscle myosin II. In addition PKCι is required

  7. PCDH10 is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echizen, Kanae; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hayashi, Tomoatsu; Sabit, Hemragul; Furuta, Takuya; Nakai, Miyuki; Koyama-Nasu, Ryo; Nishimura, Yukiko; Taniue, Kenzui; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Hirano, Shinji; Terai, Kenta; Todo, Tomoki; Ino, Yasushi; Mukasa, Akitake; Takayanagi, Shunsaku; Ohtani, Ryohei; Saito, Nobuhito; Akiyama, Tetsu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PCDH10 is required for the proliferation, survival and self-renewal of glioblastoma cells. • PCDH10 is required for glioblastoma cell migration and invasion. • PCDH10 is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. • PCDH10 may be a promising target for the therapy of glioblastoma. - Abstract: Protocadherin10 (PCDH10)/OL-protocadherin is a cadherin-related transmembrane protein that has multiple roles in the brain, including facilitating specific cell–cell connections, cell migration and axon guidance. It has recently been reported that PCDH10 functions as a tumor suppressor and that its overexpression inhibits proliferation or invasion of multiple tumor cells. However, the function of PCDH10 in glioblastoma cells has not been elucidated. In contrast to previous reports on other tumors, we show here that suppression of the expression of PCDH10 by RNA interference (RNAi) induces the growth arrest and apoptosis of glioblastoma cells in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that knockdown of PCDH10 inhibits the growth of glioblastoma cells xenografted into immunocompromised mice. These results suggest that PCDH10 is required for the proliferation and tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. We speculate that PCDH10 may be a promising target for the therapy of glioblastoma

  8. CCL5, CCR1 and CCR5 in murine glioblastoma: immune cell infiltration and survival rates are not dependent on individual expression of either CCR1 or CCR5

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    Pham, Kien; Luo, Defang; Liu, Che; Harrison, Jeffrey K.

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor. Microglia/macrophages are found within human GBM where they likely promote tumor progression. We report that CCL5, CCR1, and CCR5 are expressed in glioblastoma. Individual deletion of CCR1 or CCR5 had little to no effect on survival of tumor bearing mice, or numbers of glioblastoma-infiltrated microglia/macrophages or lymphocytes. CCL5 promoted in vitro migration of wild type, CCR1- or CCR5-deficient microglia/macrophages that w...

  9. Target-specific delivery of doxorubicin to human glioblastoma cell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdullah Tahir Bayraç

    2018-01-29

    Jan 29, 2018 ... was previously selected for specific recognition of glioblastoma and represented many advantageous ... antigens, receptors or any 3-D structure on the target cells ..... both PSMA (?) and PSMA (-) prostate cancers.

  10. Ecotropic murine leukemia virus-induced fusion of murine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, A.; Chen, T.; Lowy, A.; Cortez, N.G.; Silagi, S.

    1986-01-01

    Extensive fusion occurs upon cocultivation of murine fibroblasts producing ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) with a large variety of murine cell lines in the presence of the polyene antibiotic amphotericin B, the active component of the antifungal agent Fungizone. The resulting polykaryocytes contain nuclei from both infected and uninfected cells, as evidenced by autoradiographic labeling experiments in which one or the other parent cell type was separately labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine and fused with an unlabeled parent. This cell fusion specifically requires the presence of an ecotropic MuLV-producing parent and is not observed for cells producing xenotropic, amphotropic, or dualtropic viruses. Mouse cells infected with nonecotropic viruses retain their sensitivity toward fusion, whereas infection with ecotropic viruses abrogates the fusion of these cells upon cocultivation with other ecotropic MuLV-producing cells. Nonmurine cells lacking the ecotropic gp70 receptor are not fused under similar conditions. Fusion is effectively inhibited by monospecific antisera to gp70, but not by antisera to p15(E), and studies with monoclonal antibodies identify distinct amino- and carboxy-terminal gp70 regions which play a role in the fusion reaction. The enhanced fusion which occurs in the presence of amphotericin B provides a rapid and sensitive assay for the expression of ecotropic MuLVs and should facilitate further mechanistic studies of MuLV-induced fusion of murine cells

  11. Mesenchymal stem cell-like properties of CD133+ glioblastoma initiating cells

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    Pavon, Lorena Favaro; Sibov, Tatiana Tais; de Oliveira, Daniela Mara; Marti, Luciana C.; Cabral, Francisco Romero; de Souza, Jean Gabriel; Boufleur, Pamela; Malheiros, Suzana M.F.; de Paiva Neto, Manuel A.; da Cruz, Edgard Ferreira; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana Marisa; Cavalheiro, Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is composed of dividing tumor cells, stromal cells and tumor initiating CD133+ cells. Recent reports have discussed the origin of the glioblastoma CD133+ cells and their function in the tumor microenvironment. The present work sought to investigate the multipotent and mesenchymal properties of primary highly purified human CD133+ glioblastoma-initiating cells. To accomplish this aim, we used the following approaches: i) generation of tumor subspheres of CD133+ selected cells from primary cell cultures of glioblastoma; ii) analysis of the expression of pluripotency stem cell markers and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers in the CD133+ glioblastoma-initiating cells; iii) side-by-side ultrastructural characterization of the CD133+ glioblastoma cells, MSC and CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells isolated from human umbilical cord blood (UCB); iv) assessment of adipogenic differentiation of CD133+ glioblastoma cells to test their MSC-like in vitro differentiation ability; and v) use of an orthotopic glioblastoma xenograft model in the absence of immune suppression. We found that the CD133+ glioblastoma cells expressed both the pluripotency stem cell markers (Nanog, Mush-1 and SSEA-3) and MSC markers. In addition, the CD133+ cells were able to differentiate into adipocyte-like cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the CD133+ glioblastoma-initiating cells had ultrastructural features similar to those of undifferentiated MSCs. In addition, when administered in vivo to non-immunocompromised animals, the CD133+ cells were also able to mimic the phenotype of the original patient's tumor. In summary, we showed that the CD133+ glioblastoma cells express molecular signatures of MSCs, neural stem cells and pluripotent stem cells, thus possibly enabling differentiation into both neural and mesodermal cell types. PMID:27244897

  12. The effects of antiepileptic drugs on the growth of glioblastoma cell lines

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    Lee, Ching-Yi; Lai, Hung-Yi; Chiu, Angela; Chan, She-Hung; Hsiao, Ling-Ping; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effects of antiepileptic drug compounds on glioblastoma cellular growth, we exposed glioblastoma cell lines to select antiepileptic drugs. The effects of selected antiepileptic drugs on glioblastoma cells were measured by MTT assay. For compounds showing significant inhibition, cell cycle analysis was performed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. The antiepileptic compounds selected for screening included carbamazepine, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levet...

  13. Periarteriolar Glioblastoma Stem Cell Niches Express Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hira, Vashendriya V. V.; Wormer, Jill R.; Kakar, Hala; Breznik, Barbara; van der Swaan, Britt; Hulsbos, Renske; Tigchelaar, Wikky; Tonar, Zbynek; Khurshed, Mohammed; Molenaar, Remco J.; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2018-01-01

    In glioblastoma, a fraction of malignant cells consists of therapy-resistant glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) residing in protective niches that recapitulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niches in bone marrow. We have previously shown that HSC niche proteins stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α),

  14. Multifaceted role of galectin-3 on human glioblastoma cell motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debray, Charles; Vereecken, Pierre; Belot, Nathalie; Teillard, Peggy; Brion, Jean-Pierre; Pandolfo, Massimo; Pochet, Roland

    2004-01-01

    Astrocytic tumors' aggressiveness results from an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell death favoring growth, but also from the propensity of tumor cells to detach from the primary tumor site, migrate, and invade the surrounding parenchyma. Astrocytic tumor progression is known to be associated with an increased expression of galectin-3. We investigated in cell culture how galectin-3 expression affects astrocytoma cell motility. Galectin-3 deficient cells were obtained by stable transfection of the U373 glioblastoma cell line with a specific expression antisense plasmid. Cultured galectin-3 deficient glioblastoma cells showed increased motility potential on laminin and modifications in the cytoskeleton reorganization. In addition, c-DNA microarrays and quantitative immunofluorescence analysis showed that galectin-3 deficient U373 cells have an increased expression of integrins-α6 and -β1, proteins known to be implicated in the regulation of cell adhesion

  15. Nestin expression in the cell lines derived from glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselska, Renata; Kuglik, Petr; Cejpek, Pavel; Svachova, Hana; Neradil, Jakub; Loja, Tomas; Relichova, Jirina

    2006-01-01

    Nestin is a protein belonging to class VI of intermediate filaments that is produced in stem/progenitor cells in the mammalian CNS during development and is consecutively replaced by other intermediate filament proteins (neurofilaments, GFAP). Down-regulated nestin may be re-expressed in the adult organism under certain pathological conditions (brain injury, ischemia, inflammation, neoplastic transformation). Our work focused on a detailed study of the nestin cytoskeleton in cell lines derived from glioblastoma multiforme, because re-expression of nestin together with down-regulation of GFAP has been previously reported in this type of brain tumor. Two cell lines were derived from the tumor tissue of patients treated for glioblastoma multiforme. Nestin and other cytoskeletal proteins were visualized using imunocytochemical methods: indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold-labelling. Using epifluorescence and confocal microscopy, we described the morphology of nestin-positive intermediate filaments in glioblastoma cells of both primary cultures and the derived cell lines, as well as the reorganization of nestin during mitosis. Our most important result came through transmission electron microscopy and provided clear evidence that nestin is present in the cell nucleus. Detailed information concerning the pattern of the nestin cytoskeleton in glioblastoma cell lines and especially the demonstration of nestin in the nucleus represent an important background for further studies of nestin re-expression in relationship to tumor malignancy and invasive potential

  16. Single-Cell RNA Sequencing of Glioblastoma Cells.

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    Sen, Rajeev; Dolgalev, Igor; Bayin, N Sumru; Heguy, Adriana; Tsirigos, Aris; Placantonakis, Dimitris G

    2018-01-01

    Single-cell RNA sequencing (sc-RNASeq) is a recently developed technique used to evaluate the transcriptome of individual cells. As opposed to conventional RNASeq in which entire populations are sequenced in bulk, sc-RNASeq can be beneficial when trying to better understand gene expression patterns in markedly heterogeneous populations of cells or when trying to identify transcriptional signatures of rare cells that may be underrepresented when using conventional bulk RNASeq. In this method, we describe the generation and analysis of cDNA libraries from single patient-derived glioblastoma cells using the C1 Fluidigm system. The protocol details the use of the C1 integrated fluidics circuit (IFC) for capturing, imaging and lysing cells; performing reverse transcription; and generating cDNA libraries that are ready for sequencing and analysis.

  17. A kinome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila Glia reveals that the RIO kinases mediate cell proliferation and survival through TORC2-Akt signaling in glioblastoma.

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    Renee D Read

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma, the most common primary malignant brain tumor, is incurable with current therapies. Genetic and molecular analyses demonstrate that glioblastomas frequently display mutations that activate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK and Pi-3 kinase (PI3K signaling pathways. In Drosophila melanogaster, activation of RTK and PI3K pathways in glial progenitor cells creates malignant neoplastic glial tumors that display many features of human glioblastoma. In both human and Drosophila, activation of the RTK and PI3K pathways stimulates Akt signaling along with other as-yet-unknown changes that drive oncogenesis. We used this Drosophila glioblastoma model to perform a kinome-wide genetic screen for new genes required for RTK- and PI3K-dependent neoplastic transformation. Human orthologs of novel kinases uncovered by these screens were functionally assessed in mammalian glioblastoma models and human tumors. Our results revealed that the atypical kinases RIOK1 and RIOK2 are overexpressed in glioblastoma cells in an Akt-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that overexpressed RIOK2 formed a complex with RIOK1, mTor, and mTor-complex-2 components, and that overexpressed RIOK2 upregulated Akt signaling and promoted tumorigenesis in murine astrocytes. Conversely, reduced expression of RIOK1 or RIOK2 disrupted Akt signaling and caused cell cycle exit, apoptosis, and chemosensitivity in glioblastoma cells by inducing p53 activity through the RpL11-dependent ribosomal stress checkpoint. These results imply that, in glioblastoma cells, constitutive Akt signaling drives RIO kinase overexpression, which creates a feedforward loop that promotes and maintains oncogenic Akt activity through stimulation of mTor signaling. Further study of the RIO kinases as well as other kinases identified in our Drosophila screen may reveal new insights into defects underlying glioblastoma and related cancers and may reveal new therapeutic opportunities for these cancers.

  18. Glioblastoma stem-like cells give rise to tumour endothelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Rong; Chadalavada, Kalyani; Wilshire, Jennifer; Kowalik, Urszula; Hovinga, Koos E.; Geber, Adam; Fligelman, Boris; Leversha, Margaret; Brennan, Cameron; Tabar, Viviane

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is among the most aggressive of human cancers. A key feature of GBMs is the extensive network of abnormal vasculature characterized by glomeruloid structures and endothelial hyperplasia. Yet the mechanisms of angiogenesis and the origin of tumour endothelial cells remain poorly

  19. Fenofibrate induces ketone body production in melanoma and glioblastoma cells

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    Maja M Grabacka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate, bHB, acetoacetate are mainly produced in the liver during prolonged fasting or starvation. bHB is a very efficient energy substrate for sustaining ATP production in peripheral tissues; importantly its consumption is preferred over glucose. However, the majority of malignant cells, particularly cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin such as glioblastoma, are not able to use ketone bodies as a source of energy. Here, we report a novel observation that fenofibrate, a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa agonist, induces bHB production in melanoma and glioblastoma cells, as well as in neurospheres composed of nontransformed cells. Unexpectedly, this effect is not dependent on PPARa activity or its expression level. The fenofibrate-induced ketogenesis is accompanied by growth arrest and down-regulation of transketolase, but the NADP/NADPH and GSH/GSSG ratios remain unaffected. Our results reveal a new, intriguing aspect of cancer cell biology and highlight the benefits of fenofibrate as a supplement to both canonical and dietary (ketogenic therapeutic approaches against glioblastoma.

  20. CAR T-Cell Therapies in Glioblastoma: A First Look.

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    Migliorini, Denis; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Stupp, Roger; Linette, Gerald P; Posey, Avery D; June, Carl H

    2018-02-01

    Glioblastoma is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients includes surgery to the extent, temozolomide combined with radiotherapy, and alternating electric fields therapy. After recurrence, there is no standard therapy and survival is less than 9 months. Recurrent glioblastoma offers a unique opportunity to investigate new treatment approaches in a malignancy known for remarkable genetic heterogeneity, an immunosuppressive microenvironment, and a partially permissive anatomic blood-brain barrier. Results from three first-in-man chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell trials targeting IL13Rα2, Her2/CMV, and EGFRvIII have recently been reported. Each one of these trials addresses important questions, such as T-cell trafficking to CNS, engraftment and persistence, tumor microenvironment remodeling, and monitoring of glioma response to CAR T cells. Objective radiologic responses have been reported. Here, we discuss and summarize the results of these trials and suggest opportunities for the field. Clin Cancer Res; 24(3); 535-40. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Deregulation of a STAT3-IL8 Signaling Pathway Promotes Human Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation and Invasiveness

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    de la Iglesia, Núria; Konopka, Genevieve; Lim, Kah Leong; Nutt, Catherine L.; Bromberg, Jacqueline F.; Frank, David A.; Mischel, Paul S.; Louis, David N.; Bonni, Azad

    2009-01-01

    Inactivation of the tumor suppressor PTEN is recognized as a major event in the pathogenesis of the brain tumor glioblastoma. However, the mechanisms by which PTEN loss specifically impacts the malignant behavior of glioblastoma cells including their proliferation and propensity for invasiveness remain poorly understood. Genetic studies suggest that the transcription factor STAT3 harbors a PTEN-regulated tumor suppressive function in mouse astrocytes. Here, we report that STAT3 plays a critical tumor suppressive role in PTEN-deficient human glioblastoma cells. Endogenous STAT3 signaling is specifically inhibited in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma cells. Strikingly, reactivation of STAT3 in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma cells inhibits their proliferation, invasiveness, and ability to spread on myelin. We also identify the chemokine IL8 as a novel target gene of STAT3 in human glioblastoma cells. Activated STAT3 occupies the endogenous IL8 promoter and directly represses IL8 transcription. Consistent with these results, IL8 is upregulated in PTEN-deficient human glioblastoma tumors. Importantly, IL8 repression mediates STAT3-inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation, invasiveness, and spreading on myelin. Collectively, our findings uncover a novel link between STAT3 and IL8 whose deregulation plays a key role in the malignant behavior of PTEN-deficient glioblastoma cells. These studies suggest that STAT3 activation or IL8 inhibition may have potential in patient-tailored treatment of PTEN-deficient brain tumors. PMID:18524891

  2. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae-Hee, E-mail: leedneo@gmail.com [Departments of Surgery and Pharmacology and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Dong-Wook [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology, University of VA (United States); Jung, Chang-Hwa [Division of Metabolism and Functionality Research, Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong J. [Departments of Surgery and Pharmacology and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Park, Daeho, E-mail: daehopark@gist.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway.

  3. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway

  4. Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells: Relationship with Neural Stem Cells and the Micro-Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Goffart, Nicolas; KROONEN, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO grade IV) is the most common and lethal subtype of primary brain tumor with a median overall survival of 15 months from the time of diagnosis. The presence in GBM of a cancer population displaying neural stem cell (NSC) properties as well as tumor-initiating abilities and resistance to current therapies suggests that these glioblastoma-initiating cells (GICs) play a central role in tumor development and are closely related to NSCs. However, it is nowadays sti...

  5. Adhesion signaling promotes protease‑driven polyploidization of glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercapide, Javier; Lorico, Aurelio

    2014-11-01

    An increase in ploidy (polyploidization) causes genomic instability in cancer. However, the determinants for the increased DNA content of cancer cells have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether adhesion induces polyploidization in human U87MG glioblastoma cells. For this purpose, we employed expression vectors that reported transcriptional activation by signaling networks implicated in cancer. Signaling activation induced by intercellular integrin binding elicited both extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) and Notch target transcription. Upon the prolonged activation of both ERK and Notch target transcription induced by integrin binding to adhesion protein, cell cultures accumulated polyploid cells, as determined by cell DNA content distribution analysis and the quantification of polynucleated cells. This linked the transcriptional activation induced by integrin adhesion to the increased frequency of polyploidization. Accordingly, the inhibition of signaling decreased the extent of polyploidization mediated by protease‑driven intracellular invasion. Therefore, the findings of this study indicate that integrin adhesion induces polyploidization through the stimulation of glioblastoma cell invasiveness.

  6. Thrombopoietin inhibits murine mast cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fabrizio; Ghinassi, Barbara; Lorenzini, Rodolfo; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Rana, Rosa Alba; Nishikawa, Mitsuo; Partamian, Sandra; Migliaccio, Giovanni; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2009-01-01

    We have recently shown that Mpl, the thrombopoietin receptor, is expressed on murine mast cells and on their precursors and that targeted deletion of the Mpl gene increases mast cell differentiation in mice. Here we report that treatment of mice with thrombopoietin, or addition of this growth factor to bone marrow-derived mast cell cultures, severely hampers the generation of mature cells from their precursors by inducing apoptosis. Analysis of the expression profiling of mast cells obtained in the presence of thrombopoietin suggests that thrombopoietin induces apoptosis of mast cells by reducing expression of the transcription factor Mitf and its target anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2. PMID:18276801

  7. Stem Cell Niches in Glioblastoma: A Neuropathological View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Schiffer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM stem cells (GSCs, responsible for tumor growth, recurrence, and resistance to therapies, are considered the real therapeutic target, if they had no molecular mechanisms of resistance, in comparison with the mass of more differentiated cells which are insensitive to therapies just because of being differentiated and nonproliferating. GSCs occur in tumor niches where both stemness status and angiogenesis are conditioned by the microenvironment. In both perivascular and perinecrotic niches, hypoxia plays a fundamental role. Fifteen glioblastomas have been studied by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence for stemness and differentiation antigens. It has been found that circumscribed necroses develop inside hyperproliferating areas that are characterized by high expression of stemness antigens. Necrosis developed inside them because of the imbalance between the proliferation of tumor cells and endothelial cells; it reduces the number of GSCs to a thin ring around the former hyperproliferating area. The perinecrotic GSCs are nothing else that the survivors remnants of those populating hyperproliferating areas. In the tumor, GSCs coincide with malignant areas so that the need to detect where they are located is not so urgent.

  8. Gaussian graphical modeling reveals specific lipid correlations in glioblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nikola S.; Krumsiek, Jan; Theis, Fabian J.; Böhm, Christian; Meyer-Bäse, Anke

    2011-06-01

    Advances in high-throughput measurements of biological specimens necessitate the development of biologically driven computational techniques. To understand the molecular level of many human diseases, such as cancer, lipid quantifications have been shown to offer an excellent opportunity to reveal disease-specific regulations. The data analysis of the cell lipidome, however, remains a challenging task and cannot be accomplished solely based on intuitive reasoning. We have developed a method to identify a lipid correlation network which is entirely disease-specific. A powerful method to correlate experimentally measured lipid levels across the various samples is a Gaussian Graphical Model (GGM), which is based on partial correlation coefficients. In contrast to regular Pearson correlations, partial correlations aim to identify only direct correlations while eliminating indirect associations. Conventional GGM calculations on the entire dataset can, however, not provide information on whether a correlation is truly disease-specific with respect to the disease samples and not a correlation of control samples. Thus, we implemented a novel differential GGM approach unraveling only the disease-specific correlations, and applied it to the lipidome of immortal Glioblastoma tumor cells. A large set of lipid species were measured by mass spectrometry in order to evaluate lipid remodeling as a result to a combination of perturbation of cells inducing programmed cell death, while the other perturbations served solely as biological controls. With the differential GGM, we were able to reveal Glioblastoma-specific lipid correlations to advance biomedical research on novel gene therapies.

  9. Preferential Iron Trafficking Characterizes Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schonberg, David L; Miller, Tyler E; Wu, Qiulian

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas display hierarchies with self-renewing cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). RNA sequencing and enhancer mapping revealed regulatory programs unique to CSCs causing upregulation of the iron transporter transferrin, the top differentially expressed gene compared with tissue......, to propagate and form tumors in vivo. Depleting ferritin disrupted CSC mitotic progression, through the STAT3-FoxM1 regulatory axis, revealing an iron-regulated CSC pathway. Iron is a unique, primordial metal fundamental for earliest life forms, on which CSCs have an epigenetically programmed, targetable...

  10. Hypofractionated radiation induces a decrease in cell proliferation but no histological damage to organotypic multicellular spheroids of human glioblastomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaijk, P.; Troost, D.; Sminia, P.; Hulshof, M. C.; van der Kracht, A. H.; Leenstra, S.; Bosch, D. A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of radiation on glioblastoma, using an organotypic multicellular spheroid (OMS) model. Most glioblastoma cell lines are, in contrast to glioblastomas in vivo, relatively radiosensitive. This limits the value of using cell lines for studying the

  11. Proliferative capacity of murine hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, S.; Botnick, L.E.; Hannon, E.C.; Vigneulle, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a decrease in self-renewal capacity with serial transfer of murine hematopoietic stem cells. Production of differentiated cell progeny is maintained longer than stem cell self-renewal. In normal animals the capacity for self-renewal is not decreased with increasing donor age. The stem cell compartment in normal animals, both young and old, appears to be proliferatively quiescent. After apparent recovery from the alkylating agent busulfan, the probability of stem cell self-renewal is decreased, there is a permanent defect in the capacity of the bone marrow for serial transplantation, and the stem cells are proliferatively active. These findings support a model of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment as a continuum of cells with decreasing capacities for self-renewal, increasing likelihood for differentiation, and increasing proliferative activity. Cells progress in the continuum in one direction and such progression is not reversible

  12. VEGF promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of human glioblastoma stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Naoki; Soeda, Akio; Inagaki, Akihito; Onodera, Masafumi; Maruyama, Hidekazu; Hara, Akira; Kunisada, Takahiro; Mori, Hideki; Iwama, Toru

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in malignant brain tumors, and these CSCs may play a pivotal role in tumor initiation, growth, and recurrence. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and the neurogenesis of neural stem cells. Using CSCs derived from human glioblastomas and a retrovirus expressing VEGF, we examined the effects of VEGF on the properties of CSCs in vitro and in vivo. Although VEGF did not affect the property of CSCs in vitro, the injection of mouse brains with VEGF-expressing CSCs led to the massive expansion of vascular-rich GBM, tumor-associated hemorrhage, and high morbidity, suggesting that VEGF promoted tumorigenesis via angiogenesis. These results revealed that VEGF induced the proliferation of VEC in the vascular-rich tumor environment, the so-called stem cell niche

  13. Invasive Glioblastoma Cells Acquire Stemness and Increased Akt Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Molina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most frequent and most aggressive brain tumor in adults. The dismal prognosis is due to postsurgery recurrences arising from escaped invasive tumor cells. The signaling pathways activated in invasive cells are under investigation, and models are currently designed in search for therapeutic targets. We developed here an in vivo model of human invasive GBM in mouse brain from a GBM cell line with moderate tumorigenicity that allowed simultaneous primary tumor growth and dispersal of tumor cells in the brain parenchyma. This strategy allowed for the first time the isolation and characterization of matched sets of tumor mass (Core and invasive (Inv cells. Both cell populations, but more markedly Inv cells, acquired stem cell markers, neurosphere renewal ability, and resistance to rapamycin-induced apoptosis relative to parental cells. The comparative phenotypic analysis between Inv and Core cells showed significantly increased tumorigenicity in vivo and increased invasion with decreased proliferation in vitro for Inv cells. Examination of a large array of signaling pathways revealed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk down-modulation and Akt activation in Inv cells and an opposite profile in Core cells. Akt activation correlated with the increased tumorigenicity, stemness, and invasiveness, whereas Erk activation correlated with the proliferation of the cells. These results underscore complementary roles of the Erk and Akt pathways for GBM proliferation and dispersal and raise important implications for a concurrent inhibitory therapy.

  14. Cyclophilin B supports Myc and mutant p53-dependent survival of glioblastoma multiforme cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Won; Schroeder, Mark A; Sarkaria, Jann N; Bram, Richard J

    2014-01-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive, treatment-refractory type of brain tumor for which effective therapeutic targets remain important to identify. Here, we report that cyclophilin B (CypB), a prolyl isomerase residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), provides an essential survival signal in glioblastoma multiforme cells. Analysis of gene expression databases revealed that CypB is upregulated in many cases of malignant glioma. We found that suppression of CypB reduced cell proliferation and survival in human glioblastoma multiforme cells in vitro and in vivo. We also found that treatment with small molecule inhibitors of cyclophilins, including the approved drug cyclosporine, greatly reduced the viability of glioblastoma multiforme cells. Mechanistically, depletion or pharmacologic inhibition of CypB caused hyperactivation of the oncogenic RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, induction of cellular senescence signals, and death resulting from loss of MYC, mutant p53, Chk1, and Janus-activated kinase/STAT3 signaling. Elevated reactive oxygen species, ER expansion, and abnormal unfolded protein responses in CypB-depleted glioblastoma multiforme cells indicated that CypB alleviates oxidative and ER stresses and coordinates stress adaptation responses. Enhanced cell survival and sustained expression of multiple oncogenic proteins downstream of CypB may thus contribute to the poor outcome of glioblastoma multiforme tumors. Our findings link chaperone-mediated protein folding in the ER to mechanisms underlying oncogenic transformation, and they make CypB an attractive and immediately targetable molecule for glioblastoma multiforme therapy.

  15. Modeling microenvironmental regulation of glioblastoma stem cells: a biomaterials perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, John M.; Sirianni, Rachael W.

    2018-02-01

    Following diagnosis of a glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumor, surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiation together yield a median patient survival of only 15 months. Importantly, standard treatments fail to address the dynamic regulation of the brain tumor microenvironment that actively supports tumor progression and treatment resistance. It is becoming increasingly recognized that specialized niches within the tumor microenvironment maintain a population of highly malignant glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). GSCs are resistant to traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy, suggesting that they may be responsible for the near universal rates of tumor recurrence and associated morbidity in GBM. Thus, disrupting microenvironmental support for GSCs could be critical to developing more effective GBM therapies. Three-dimensional (3D) culture models of the tumor microenvironment are powerful tools for identifying key biochemical and biophysical inputs that impact malignant behaviors. Such systems have been used effectively to identify conditions that regulate GSC proliferation, invasion, stem-specific phenotypes, and treatment resistance. Considering the significant role that GSC microenvironments play in regulating this tumorigenic sub-population, these models may be essential for uncovering mechanisms that limit GSCs malignancy.

  16. Tumor and Endothelial Cell Hybrids Participate in Glioblastoma Vasculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufiane El Hallani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab has shown a high but transient efficacy in glioblastoma (GBM. Indeed, GBM is one of the most angiogenic human tumors and endothelial proliferation is a hallmark of the disease. We therefore hypothesized that tumor cells may participate in endothelial proliferation of GBM. Materials and Methods. We used EGFR FISH Probe to detect EGFR amplification and anti-CD31, CD105, VE-cadherin, and vWF to identify endothelial cells. Endothelial and GBM cells were grown separately, labeled with GFP and DsRed lentiviruses, and then cocultured with or without contact. Results. In a subset of GBM tissues, we found that several tumor endothelial cells carry EGFR amplification, characteristic of GBM tumor cells. This observation was reproduced in vitro: when tumor stem cells derived from GBM were grown in the presence of human endothelial cells, a fraction of them acquired endothelial markers (CD31, CD105, VE-cadherin, and vWF. By transduction with GFP and DsRed expressing lentiviral vectors, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is due to cell fusion and not transdifferentiation. Conclusion. A fraction of GBM stem cells thus has the capacity to fuse with endothelial cells and the resulting hybrids may participate in tumor microvascular proliferation and in treatment resistance.

  17. Cerebellar giant cell glioblastoma multiforme in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhansu Sekhar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a rare tumor that accounts for only 1% of all cases of GBM and its giant cell variant is even much rarely encountered in adults. A case of cerebellar giant cell GBM managed at our institution reporting its clinical presentation, radiological and histological findings, and treatment instituted is described. In conjunction, a literature review, including particular issues, clinical data, advances in imaging studies, pathological characteristics, treatment options, and the behavior of such malignant tumor is presented. It is very important for the neurosurgeon to make the differential diagnosis between the cerebellar GBM, and other diseases such as metastasis, anaplastic astrocytomas, and cerebellar infarct because their treatment modalities, prognosis, and outcome are different.

  18. Inhibition of notch signaling in glioblastoma targets cancer stem cells via an endothelial cell intermediate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovinga, Koos E.; Shimizu, Fumiko; Wang, Rong; Panagiotakos, Georgia; van der Heijden, Maartje; Moayedpardazi, Hamideh; Correia, Ana Sofia; Soulet, Denis; Major, Tamara; Menon, Jayanthi; Tabar, Viviane

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly heterogeneous malignant tumor. Recent data suggests the presence of a hierarchical organization within the GBM cell population that involves cancer cells with stem-like behavior, capable of repopulating the tumor and contributing to its resistance to

  19. Natural killer (NK) cells inhibit systemic metastasis of glioblastoma cells and have therapeutic effects against glioblastomas in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se Jeong; Kang, Won Young; Yoon, Yeup; Jin, Ju Youn; Song, Hye Jin; Her, Jung Hyun; Kang, Sang Mi; Hwang, Yu Kyeong; Kang, Kyeong Jin; Joo, Kyeung Min; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2015-12-24

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by extensive local invasion, which is in contrast with extremely rare systemic metastasis of GBM. Molecular mechanisms inhibiting systemic metastasis of GBM would be a novel therapeutic candidate for GBM in the brain. Patient-derived GBM cells were primarily cultured from surgical samples of GBM patients and were inoculated into the brains of immune deficient BALB/c-nude or NOD-SCID IL2Rgamma(null) (NSG) mice. Human NK cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononucleated cells and expanded in vitro. Patient-derived GBM cells in the brains of NSG mice unexpectedly induced spontaneous lung metastasis although no metastasis was detected in BALB/c-nude mice. Based on the difference of the innate immunity between two mouse strains, NK cell activities of orthotopic GBM xenograft models based on BALB/c-nude mice were inhibited. NK cell inactivation induced spontaneous lung metastasis of GBM cells, which indicated that NK cells inhibit the systemic metastasis. In vitro cytotoxic activities of human NK cells against GBM cells indicated that cytotoxic activity of NK cells against GBM cells prevents systemic metastasis of GBM and that NK cells could be effective cell therapeutics against GBM. Accordingly, NK cells transplanted into orthotopic GBM xenograft models intravenously or intratumorally induced apoptosis of GBM cells in the brain and showed significant therapeutic effects. Our results suggest that innate NK immunity is responsible for rare systemic metastasis of GBM and that sufficient supplementation of NK cells could be a promising immunotherapeutic strategy for GBM in the brain.

  20. Intracranial AAV-IFN-β gene therapy eliminates invasive xenograft glioblastoma and improves survival in orthotopic syngeneic murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GuhaSarkar, Dwijit; Neiswender, James; Su, Qin; Gao, Guangping; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    The highly invasive property of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and genetic heterogeneity are largely responsible for tumor recurrence after the current standard-of-care treatment and thus a direct cause of death. Previously, we have shown that intracranial interferon-beta (IFN-β) gene therapy by locally administered adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) successfully treats noninvasive orthotopic glioblastoma models. Here, we extend these findings by testing this approach in invasive human GBM xenograft and syngeneic mouse models. First, we show that a single intracranial injection of AAV encoding human IFN-β eliminates invasive human GBM8 tumors and promotes long-term survival. Next, we screened five AAV-IFN-β vectors with different promoters to drive safe expression of mouse IFN-β in the brain in the context of syngeneic GL261 tumors. Two AAV-IFN-β vectors were excluded due to safety concerns, but therapeutic studies with the other three vectors showed extensive tumor cell death, activation of microglia surrounding the tumors, and a 56% increase in median survival of the animals treated with AAV/P2-Int-mIFN-β vector. We also assessed the therapeutic effect of combining AAV-IFN-β therapy with temozolomide (TMZ). As TMZ affects DNA replication, an event that is crucial for second-strand DNA synthesis of single-stranded AAV vectors before active transcription, we tested two TMZ treatment regimens. Treatment with TMZ prior to AAV-IFN-β abrogated any benefit from the latter, while the reverse order of treatment doubled the median survival compared to controls. These studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential of intracranial AAV-IFN-β therapy in a highly migratory GBM model as well as in a syngeneic mouse model and that combination with TMZ is likely to enhance its antitumor potency. © 2016 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Synemin promotes AKT-dependent glioblastoma cell proliferation by antagonizing PP2A

    OpenAIRE

    Pitre, Aaron; Davis, Nathan; Paul, Madhumita; Orr, A Wayne; Skalli, Omar

    2012-01-01

    The intermediate filament protein synemin is present in astrocyte progenitors and glioblastoma cells but not in mature astrocytes. Here we demonstrate a role for synemin in enhancing glioblastoma cell proliferation and clonogenic survival, as synemin RNA interference decreased both behaviors by inducing G1 arrest along with Rb hypophosphorylation and increased protein levels of the G1/S inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1. Akt involvement was demonstrated by decreased phosphorylation of its substr...

  2. Sprouty2 enhances the tumorigenic potential of glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Whi; Wollmann, Guido; Urbiola, Carles; Fogli, Barbara; Florio, Tullio; Geley, Stephan; Klimaschewski, Lars

    2018-02-23

    Sprouty2 (SPRY2), a feedback regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, has been shown to be associated with drug resistance and cell proliferation in glioblastoma (GBM), but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly defined. SPRY2 expression and survival patterns of patients with gliomas were analyzed using publicly available databases. Effects of RNA interference targeting SPRY2 on cellular proliferation in established GBM or patient-derived GBM stemlike cells were examined. Loss- or gain-of-function of SPRY2 to regulate the tumorigenic capacity was assessed in both intracranial and subcutaneous xenografts. SPRY2 was found to be upregulated in GBM, which correlated with reduced survival in GBM patients. SPRY2 knockdown significantly impaired proliferation of GBM cells but not of normal astrocytes. Silencing of SPRY2 increased epidermal growth factor-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt activation causing premature onset of DNA replication, increased DNA damage, and impaired proliferation, suggesting that SPRY2 suppresses DNA replication stress. Abrogating SPRY2 function strongly inhibited intracranial tumor growth and led to significantly prolonged survival of U87 xenograft-bearing mice. In contrast, SPRY2 overexpression promoted tumor propagation of low-tumorigenic U251 cells. The present study highlights an antitumoral effect of SPRY2 inhibition that is based on excessive activation of ERK signaling and DNA damage response, resulting in reduced cell proliferation and increased cytotoxicity, proposing SPRY2 as a promising pharmacological target in GBM patients.

  3. Bee venom induces apoptosis and suppresses matrix metaloprotease-2 expression in human glioblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sisakht

    Full Text Available Abstract Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor representing with poor prognosis, therapy resistance and high metastasis rate. Increased expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2, a member of matrix metalloproteinase family proteins, has been reported in many cancers including glioblastoma. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression has resulted in reduced aggression of glioblastoma tumors in several reports. In the present study, we evaluated effect of bee venom on expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 as well as potential toxicity and apoptogenic properties of bee venom on glioblastoma cells. Human A172 glioblastoma cells were treated with increasing concentrations of bee venom. Then, cell viability, apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity were measured using MMT assay, propidium iodide staining, real time-PCR, and zymography, respectively. The IC50 value of bee venom was 28.5 µg/ml in which it leads to decrease of cell viability and induction of apoptosis. Incubation with bee venom also decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in this cell line (p < 0.05. In zymography, there was a reverse correlation between bee venom concentration and total matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Induction of apoptosis as well as inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and expression can be suggested as molecular mechanisms involved in cytotoxic and antimetastatic effects of bee venom against glioblastoma cells.

  4. The antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of apigenin on glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Trevor A; Santee, Brittany N; Williams, Lauren P; Kunze, Rachel A; Heinze, Chelsae E; Huseman, Eric D; Gryka, Rebecca J; Simpson, Denise S; Amos, Samson

    2017-07-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is highly proliferative, infiltrative, malignant and the most deadly form of brain tumour. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed, amplified and mutated in GBM and has been shown to play key and important roles in the proliferation, growth and survival of this tumour. The goal of our study was to investigate the antiproliferative, apoptotic and molecular effects of apigenin in GBM. Proliferation and viability tests were carried out using the trypan blue exclusion, MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Flow cytometry was used to examine the effects of apigenin on the cell cycle check-points. In addition, we determined the effects of apigenin on EGFR-mediated signalling pathways by Western blot analyses. Our results showed that apigenin reduced cell viability and proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner while increasing cytotoxicity in GBM cells. Treatment with apigenin-induced is poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage and caused cell cycle arrest at the G2M checkpoint. Furthermore, our data revealed that apigenin inhibited EGFR-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathways and attenuated the expression of Bcl-xL. Our results demonstrated that apigenin has potent inhibitory effects on pathways involved in GBM proliferation and survival and could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent for GBM. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. The Human Glioblastoma Cell Culture Resource: Validated Cell Models Representing All Molecular Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most frequent and malignant form of primary brain tumor. GBM is essentially incurable and its resistance to therapy is attributed to a subpopulation of cells called glioma stem cells (GSCs. To meet the present shortage of relevant GBM cell (GC lines we developed a library of annotated and validated cell lines derived from surgical samples of GBM patients, maintained under conditions to preserve GSC characteristics. This collection, which we call the Human Glioblastoma Cell Culture (HGCC resource, consists of a biobank of 48 GC lines and an associated database containing high-resolution molecular data. We demonstrate that the HGCC lines are tumorigenic, harbor genomic lesions characteristic of GBMs, and represent all four transcriptional subtypes. The HGCC panel provides an open resource for in vitro and in vivo modeling of a large part of GBM diversity useful to both basic and translational GBM research.

  6. Study of interaction of GNR with glioblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, Arti; Cardoso-Avila, P. E.; Sridharan, Sangita; Sahu, Aditi; Nair, Jyothi; Dongre, Harsh; Goda, Jayant S.; Sawant, Sharada; Dutt, Shilpee; Pichardo-Molina, J. L.; Murali Krishna, C.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation resistance is one of the major causes of recurrence and failure of radiotherapy. Different methods have been used to increase the efficacy of radiation therapy and at the same time restrict the radiation resistivity. From last few years nanoparticles have played a key role in the enhancement of radiosensitization. The densely packed nanoparticles can selectively scatter or absorb the high radiations, which allow better targeting of cellular components within the tumor hence resulting in increased radiation damage to the cancer cells. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the highly radioresistant brain cancer. Current treatment methods are surgical resection followed by concurrent chemo and radiation therapy. In this study we have used in-house engineered gold nano rodes (GNR) and analyzed their effect on U-87MG cell lines. MTT assay was employed to determine the cytotoxic concentration of the nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the effect of gold nanoparticles on glioma cells, which was followed by transmission electron microscopic examinations to visualize their cellular penetration. Our data shows that GNR were able to penetrate the cells and induce cytotoxicity at the concentration of 198 μM as determined by MTT assay at 24 post GNP treatment. Additionally, we show that Raman spectroscopy, could classify spectra between untreated and cells treated with nanoparticles. Taken together, this study shows GNR penetration and cytotoxicity in glioma cells thereby providing a rationale to use them in cancer therapeutics. Future studies will be carried out to study the biological activity of the formulation as a radiosensitizer in GBM.

  7. Glioblastoma: Molecular Pathways, Stem Cells and Therapeutic Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhanwar-Uniyal, Meena; Labagnara, Michael; Friedman, Marissa; Kwasnicki, Amanda; Murali, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), a WHO-defined Grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and aggressive CNS malignancy. Despite current treatment modalities, the survival time remains dismal. The main cause of mortality in patients with this disease is reoccurrence of the malignancy, which is attributed to treatment-resistant cancer stem cells within and surrounding the primary tumor. Inclusion of novel therapies, such as immuno- and DNA-based therapy, may provide better means of treating GBM. Furthermore, manipulation of recently discovered non-coding microRNAs, some of which regulate tumor growth through the development and maintenance of GBM stem cells, could provide new prospective therapies. Studies conducted by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) also demonstrate the role of molecular pathways, specifically the activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, in GBM tumorigenesis. Inhibition of the aforementioned pathway may provide a more direct and targeted method to GBM treatment. The combination of these treatment modalities may provide an innovative therapeutic approach for the management of GBM

  8. Glioblastoma: Molecular Pathways, Stem Cells and Therapeutic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhanwar-Uniyal, Meena, E-mail: meena_jhanwar@nymc.edu; Labagnara, Michael; Friedman, Marissa; Kwasnicki, Amanda; Murali, Raj [Department of Neurosurgery, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States)

    2015-03-25

    Glioblastoma (GBM), a WHO-defined Grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and aggressive CNS malignancy. Despite current treatment modalities, the survival time remains dismal. The main cause of mortality in patients with this disease is reoccurrence of the malignancy, which is attributed to treatment-resistant cancer stem cells within and surrounding the primary tumor. Inclusion of novel therapies, such as immuno- and DNA-based therapy, may provide better means of treating GBM. Furthermore, manipulation of recently discovered non-coding microRNAs, some of which regulate tumor growth through the development and maintenance of GBM stem cells, could provide new prospective therapies. Studies conducted by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) also demonstrate the role of molecular pathways, specifically the activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, in GBM tumorigenesis. Inhibition of the aforementioned pathway may provide a more direct and targeted method to GBM treatment. The combination of these treatment modalities may provide an innovative therapeutic approach for the management of GBM.

  9. CAR T Cell Therapy for Glioblastoma: Recent Clinical Advances and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Stephen J; Desai, Arati S; Linette, Gerald P; June, Carl H; O'Rourke, Donald M

    2018-03-02

    In patients with certain hematologic malignancies, the use of autologous T cells genetically modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has led to unprecedented clinical responses. Although progress in solid tumors has been elusive, recent clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility and safety of CAR T cell therapy for glioblastoma. In addition, despite formidable barriers to T cell localization and effector function in glioblastoma, signs of efficacy have been observed in select patients. In this review, we begin with a discussion of established obstacles to systemic therapy in glioblastoma and how these may be overcome by CAR T cells. We continue with a summary of previously published CAR T cell trials in GBM, and end by outlining the key therapeutic challenges associated with the use of CAR T cells in this disease.

  10. Changes in chromatin state reveal ARNT2 at a node of a tumorigenic transcription factor signature driving glioblastoma cell aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogeas, Alexandra; Morvan-Dubois, Ghislaine; El-Habr, Elias A; Lejeune, François-Xavier; Defrance, Matthieu; Narayanan, Ashwin; Kuranda, Klaudia; Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny; Sayd, Salwa; Delaunay, Virgile; Dubois, Luiz G; Parrinello, Hugues; Rialle, Stéphanie; Fabrega, Sylvie; Idbaih, Ahmed; Haiech, Jacques; Bièche, Ivan; Virolle, Thierry; Goodhardt, Michele; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Junier, Marie-Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Although a growing body of evidence indicates that phenotypic plasticity exhibited by glioblastoma cells plays a central role in tumor development and post-therapy recurrence, the master drivers of their aggressiveness remain elusive. Here we mapped the changes in active (H3K4me3) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone modifications accompanying the repression of glioblastoma stem-like cells tumorigenicity. Genes with changing histone marks delineated a network of transcription factors related to cancerous behavior, stem state, and neural development, highlighting a previously unsuspected association between repression of ARNT2 and loss of cell tumorigenicity. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ARNT2 expression in cell sub-populations within proliferative zones of patients' glioblastoma. Decreased ARNT2 expression was consistently observed in non-tumorigenic glioblastoma cells, compared to tumorigenic cells. Moreover, ARNT2 expression correlated with a tumorigenic molecular signature at both the tissue level within the tumor core and at the single cell level in the patients' tumors. We found that ARNT2 knockdown decreased the expression of SOX9, POU3F2 and OLIG2, transcription factors implicated in glioblastoma cell tumorigenicity, and repressed glioblastoma stem-like cell tumorigenic properties in vivo. Our results reveal ARNT2 as a pivotal component of the glioblastoma cell tumorigenic signature, located at a node of a transcription factor network controlling glioblastoma cell aggressiveness.

  11. Live attenuated measles virus vaccine therapy for locally established malignant glioblastoma tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shammari AM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M Al-Shammari,1 Farah E Ismaeel,2 Shahlaa M Salih,2 Nahi Y Yaseen11Experimental Therapy Department, Iraqi Center for Cancer and Medical Genetic Researches, Mustansiriya University, 2Departments of Biotechnology, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans, with poor prognosis. A new glioblastoma cell line (ANGM5 was established from a cerebral glioblastoma multiforme in a 72-year-old Iraqi man who underwent surgery for an intracranial tumor. This study was carried out to evaluate the antitumor effect of live attenuated measles virus (MV Schwarz vaccine strain on glioblastoma multiforme tumor cell lines in vitro. Live attenuated MV Schwarz strain was propagated on Vero, human rhabdomyosarcoma, and human glioblastoma-multiform (ANGM5 cell lines. The infected confluent monolayer appeared to be covered with syncytia with granulation and vacuolation, as well as cell rounding, shrinkage, and large empty space with cell debris as a result of cell lysis and death. Cell lines infected with virus have the ability for hemadsorption to human red blood cells after 72 hours of infection, whereas no hemadsorption of uninfected cells is seen. Detection of MV hemagglutinin protein by monoclonal antibodies in infected cells of all cell lines by immunocytochemistry assay gave positive results (brown color in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Cell viability was measured after 72 hours of infection by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results showed a significant cytotoxic effect for MV (P≤0.05 on growth of ANGM5 and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines after 72 hours of infection. Induction of apoptosis by MV was assessed by measuring mitochondrial membrane potentials in tumor cells after 48, 72, and 120 hours of infection. Apoptotic cells were counted, and the mean percentage of dead cells was significantly higher after 48, 72

  12. N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl) retinamide potentiated paclitaxel for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in glioblastoma C6 and RG2 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Janardhanan, Rajiv; Butler, Jonathan T.; Banik, Naren L.; Ray, Swapan K.

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastoma grows aggressively due to its ability to maintain abnormally high potentials for cell proliferation. The present study examines the synergistic actions of N-(4-hdroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) and paclitaxel (PTX) to control the growth of rat glioblastoma C6 and RG2 cell lines. 4-HPR induced astrocytic differentiation was accompanied by increased expression of the tight junction protein e-cadherin and sustained down regulation of Id2 (member of inhibitor of differentiation family...

  13. Angiogenic Gene Signature Derived from Subtype Specific Cell Models Segregate Proneural and Mesenchymal Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Sharma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Intertumoral molecular heterogeneity in glioblastoma identifies four major subtypes based on expression of molecular markers. Among them, the two clinically interrelated subtypes, proneural and mesenchymal, are the most aggressive with proneural liable for conversion to mesenchymal upon therapy. Using two patient-derived novel primary cell culture models (MTA10 and KW10, we developed a minimal but unique four-gene signature comprising genes vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A, vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B and angiopoietin 1 (ANG1, angiopoietin 2 (ANG2 that effectively segregated the proneural (MTA10 and mesenchymal (KW10 glioblastoma subtypes. The cell culture preclassified as mesenchymal showed elevated expression of genes VEGF-A, VEGF-B and ANG1, ANG2 as compared to the other cell culture model that mimicked the proneural subtype. The differentially expressed genes in these two cell culture models were confirmed by us using TCGA and Verhaak databases and we refer to it as a minimal multigene signature (MMS. We validated this MMS on human glioblastoma tissue sections with the use of immunohistochemistry on preclassified (YKL-40 high or mesenchymal glioblastoma and OLIG2 high or proneural glioblastoma tumor samples (n = 30. MMS segregated mesenchymal and proneural subtypes with 83% efficiency using a simple histopathology scoring approach (p = 0.008 for ANG2 and p = 0.01 for ANG1. Furthermore, MMS expression negatively correlated with patient survival. Importantly, MMS staining demonstrated spatiotemporal heterogeneity within each subclass, adding further complexity to subtype identification in glioblastoma. In conclusion, we report a novel and simple sequencing-independent histopathology-based biomarker signature comprising genes VEGF-A, VEGF-B and ANG1, ANG2 for subtyping of proneural and mesenchymal glioblastoma.

  14. Over-expression of CHAF1A promotes cell proliferation and apoptosis resistance in glioblastoma cells via AKT/FOXO3a/Bim pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Honghai; Du, Bin; Jiang, Huili; Gao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Chromatinassembly factor 1 subunit A (CHAF1A) has been reported to be involved in several human diseases including cancer. However, the biological and clinical significance of CHAF1A in glioblastoma progression remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that up-regulation of CHAF1A happens frequently in glioblastoma tissues and is associated with glioblastoma prognosis. Knockout of CHAF1A by CRISPR/CAS9 technology induce G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in glioblastoma cell U251 and U87. In addition, inhibition of CHAF1A influenced the signal transduction of the AKT/FOXO3a/Bim axis, which is required for glioblastoma cell proliferation. Taken together, these results show that CHAF1A contributes to the proliferation of glioblastoma cells and may be developed as a de novo drug target and prognosis biomarker of glioblastoma.

  15. Over-expression of CHAF1A promotes cell proliferation and apoptosis resistance in glioblastoma cells via AKT/FOXO3a/Bim pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Honghai; Du, Bin [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250013 (China); Jiang, Huili [Friendship Nephrology and Blood Purification Center, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250013 (China); Gao, Jun, E-mail: gaoj1666@126.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250013 (China)

    2016-01-22

    Chromatinassembly factor 1 subunit A (CHAF1A) has been reported to be involved in several human diseases including cancer. However, the biological and clinical significance of CHAF1A in glioblastoma progression remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that up-regulation of CHAF1A happens frequently in glioblastoma tissues and is associated with glioblastoma prognosis. Knockout of CHAF1A by CRISPR/CAS9 technology induce G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in glioblastoma cell U251 and U87. In addition, inhibition of CHAF1A influenced the signal transduction of the AKT/FOXO3a/Bim axis, which is required for glioblastoma cell proliferation. Taken together, these results show that CHAF1A contributes to the proliferation of glioblastoma cells and may be developed as a de novo drug target and prognosis biomarker of glioblastoma.

  16. Ion channel expression patterns in glioblastoma stem cells with functional and therapeutic implications for malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Pollak

    Full Text Available Ion channels and transporters have increasingly recognized roles in cancer progression through the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and death. Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs are a source of tumor formation and recurrence in glioblastoma multiforme, a highly aggressive brain cancer, suggesting that ion channel expression may be perturbed in this population. However, little is known about the expression and functional relevance of ion channels that may contribute to GSC malignancy. Using RNA sequencing, we assessed the enrichment of ion channels in GSC isolates and non-tumor neural cell types. We identified a unique set of GSC-enriched ion channels using differential expression analysis that is also associated with distinct gene mutation signatures. In support of potential clinical relevance, expression of selected GSC-enriched ion channels evaluated in human glioblastoma databases of The Cancer Genome Atlas and Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas Project correlated with patient survival times. Finally, genetic knockdown as well as pharmacological inhibition of individual or classes of GSC-enriched ion channels constrained growth of GSCs compared to normal neural stem cells. This first-in-kind global examination characterizes ion channels enriched in GSCs and explores their potential clinical relevance to glioblastoma molecular subtypes, gene mutations, survival outcomes, regional tumor expression, and experimental responses to loss-of-function. Together, the data support the potential biological and therapeutic impact of ion channels on GSC malignancy and provide strong rationale for further examination of their mechanistic and therapeutic importance.

  17. Ion channel expression patterns in glioblastoma stem cells with functional and therapeutic implications for malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Julia; Rai, Karan G; Funk, Cory C; Arora, Sonali; Lee, Eunjee; Zhu, Jun; Price, Nathan D; Paddison, Patrick J; Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Rostomily, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    Ion channels and transporters have increasingly recognized roles in cancer progression through the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and death. Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) are a source of tumor formation and recurrence in glioblastoma multiforme, a highly aggressive brain cancer, suggesting that ion channel expression may be perturbed in this population. However, little is known about the expression and functional relevance of ion channels that may contribute to GSC malignancy. Using RNA sequencing, we assessed the enrichment of ion channels in GSC isolates and non-tumor neural cell types. We identified a unique set of GSC-enriched ion channels using differential expression analysis that is also associated with distinct gene mutation signatures. In support of potential clinical relevance, expression of selected GSC-enriched ion channels evaluated in human glioblastoma databases of The Cancer Genome Atlas and Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas Project correlated with patient survival times. Finally, genetic knockdown as well as pharmacological inhibition of individual or classes of GSC-enriched ion channels constrained growth of GSCs compared to normal neural stem cells. This first-in-kind global examination characterizes ion channels enriched in GSCs and explores their potential clinical relevance to glioblastoma molecular subtypes, gene mutations, survival outcomes, regional tumor expression, and experimental responses to loss-of-function. Together, the data support the potential biological and therapeutic impact of ion channels on GSC malignancy and provide strong rationale for further examination of their mechanistic and therapeutic importance.

  18. Hypofractionated radiation induces a decrease in cell proliferation but no histological damage to organotypic multicellular spheroids of human glioblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaaijk, P.; Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Troost, D.; Leenstra, S.; Bosch, D.A.; Sminia, P.; Hulshof, M.C.C.M..; Kracht, A.H.W. van der

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of radiation on glioblastoma, using an organotypic multicellular spheroid (OMS) model. Most glioblastoma cell lines are, in contrast to glioblastomas in vivo, relatively radiosensitive. This limits the value of using cell lines for studying the radiation effect of glioblastomas. The advantage of OMS is maintenance of the characteristics of the original tumour, which is lost in conventional cell cultures. OMS prepared from four glioblastomas were treated with hypofractionated radiation with a radiobiologically equivalent dose to standard radiation treatment for glioblastomas patients. After treatment, the histology as well as the cell proliferation of the OMS was examined. After radiation, a significant decrease in cell proliferation was found, although no histological damage to the OMS was observed. The modest effects of radiation on the OMS are in agreement with the limited therapeutic value of radiotherapy for glioblastoma patients. Therefore, OMS seems to be a good alternative for cell lines to study the radiobiological effect on glioblastomas. (author)

  19. Hypofractionated radiation induces a decrease in cell proliferation but no histological damage to organotypic multicellular spheroids of human glioblastomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaaijk, P [Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of (Neuro) Pathology; [Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Troost, D [Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of (Neuro) Pathology; Leenstra, S; Bosch, D A [Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Sminia, P; Hulshof, M C.C.M.; Kracht, A.H.W. van der [Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of (Experimental) Radiotherapy

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of radiation on glioblastoma, using an organotypic multicellular spheroid (OMS) model. Most glioblastoma cell lines are, in contrast to glioblastomas in vivo, relatively radiosensitive. This limits the value of using cell lines for studying the radiation effect of glioblastomas. The advantage of OMS is maintenance of the characteristics of the original tumour, which is lost in conventional cell cultures. OMS prepared from four glioblastomas were treated with hypofractionated radiation with a radiobiologically equivalent dose to standard radiation treatment for glioblastomas patients. After treatment, the histology as well as the cell proliferation of the OMS was examined. After radiation, a significant decrease in cell proliferation was found, although no histological damage to the OMS was observed. The modest effects of radiation on the OMS are in agreement with the limited therapeutic value of radiotherapy for glioblastoma patients. Therefore, OMS seems to be a good alternative for cell lines to study the radiobiological effect on glioblastomas. (author).

  20. Bioactive form of resveratrol in glioblastoma cells and its safety for normal brain cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Shu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Resveratrol, a plant polyphenol existing in grapes and many other natural foods, possesses a wide range of biological activities including cancer prevention. It has been recognized that resveratrol is intracellularly biotransformed to different metabolites, but no direct evidence has been available to ascertain its bioactive form because of the difficulty to maintain resveratrol unmetabolized in vivo or in vitro. It would be therefore worthwhile to elucidate the potential therapeutic implications of resveratrol metabolism using a reliable resveratrol-sensitive cancer cells.Objective: To identify the real biological form of trans-resveratrol and to evaluate the safety of the effective anticancer dose of resveratrol for the normal brain cells.Methods: The samples were prepared from the condition media and cell lysates of human glioblastoma U251 cells, and were purified by solid phase extraction (SPE. The samples were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS analysis. According to the metabolite(s, trans-resveratrol was biotransformed in vitro by the method described elsewhere, and the resulting solution was used to treat U251 cells. Meanwhile, the responses of U251 and primarily cultured rat normal brain cells (glial cells and neurons to 100μM trans-resveratrol were evaluated by multiple experimental methods.Results: The results revealed that resveratrol monosulfate was the major metabolite in U251 cells. About half fraction of resveratrol monosulfate was prepared in vitro and this trans-resveratrol and resveratrol monosulfate mixture showed little inhibitory effect on U251 cells. It is also found that rat primary brain cells (PBCs not only resist 100μM but also tolerate as high as 200μM resveratrol treatment.Conclusions: Our study thus demonstrated that trans-resveratrol was the bioactive form in glioblastoma cells and, therefore, the biotransforming

  1. Glioblastoma Inhibition by Cell Surface Immunoglobulin Protein EWI-2, In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Kolesnikova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available EWI-2, a cell surface IgSF protein, is highly expressed in normal human brain but is considerably diminished in glioblastoma tumors and cell lines. Moreover, loss of EWI-2 expression correlated with a shorter survival time in human glioma patients, suggesting that EWI-2 might be a natural inhibitor of glioblastoma. In support of this idea, EWI-2 expression significantly impaired both ectopic and orthotopic tumor growth in nude mice in vivo. In vitro assays provided clues regarding EWI-2 functions. Expression of EWI-2 in T98G and/or U87-MG malignant glioblastoma cell lines failed to alter two-dimensional cell proliferation but inhibited glioblastoma colony formation in soft agar and caused diminished cell motility and invasion. At the biochemical level, EWI-2 markedly affects the organization of four molecules (tetraspanin proteins CD9 and CD81 and matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MT1-MMP, which play key roles in the biology of astrocytes and gliomas. EWI-2 causes CD9 and CD81 to become more associated with each other, whereas CD81 and other tetraspanins become less associated with MMP-2 and MT1-MMP. We propose that EWI-2 inhibition of glioblastoma growth in vivo is at least partly explained by the capability of EWI-2 to inhibit growth and/or invasion in vitro. Underlying these functional effects, EWI-2 causes a substantial molecular reorganization of multiple molecules (CD81, CD9, MMP-2, and MT1-MMP known to affect proliferation and/or invasion of astrocytes and/or glioblastomas.

  2. [2,4-(13)C]β-hydroxybutyrate metabolism in astrocytes and C6 glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloqayli, Haytham; Melø, Torun M; Haukvik, Anne; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2011-08-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if the ketogenic diet could be useful for glioblastoma patients. The hypothesis tested was whether glioblastoma cells can metabolize ketone bodies. Cerebellar astrocytes and C6 glioblastoma cells were incubated in glutamine and serum free medium containing [2,4-(13)C]β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) with and without glucose. Furthermore, C6 cells were incubated with [1-(13)C]glucose in the presence and absence of BHB. Cell extracts were analyzed by mass spectrometry and media by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and HPLC. Using [2,4-(13)C]BHB and [1-(13)C]glucose it could be shown that C6 cells, in analogy to astrocytes, had efficient mitochondrial activity, evidenced by (13)C labeling of glutamate, glutamine and aspartate. However, in the presence of glucose, astrocytes were able to produce and release glutamine, whereas this was not accomplished by the C6 cells, suggesting lack of anaplerosis in the latter. We hypothesize that glioblastoma cells kill neurons by not supplying the necessary glutamine, and by releasing glutamate.

  3. N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl) retinamide potentiated paclitaxel for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in glioblastoma C6 and RG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Rajiv; Butler, Jonathan T.; Banik, Naren L.; Ray, Swapan K.

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastoma grows aggressively due to its ability to maintain abnormally high potentials for cell proliferation. The present study examines the synergistic actions of N-(4-hdroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) and paclitaxel (PTX) to control the growth of rat glioblastoma C6 and RG2 cell lines. 4-HPR induced astrocytic differentiation was accompanied by increased expression of the tight junction protein e-cadherin and sustained down regulation of Id2 (member of inhibitor of differentiation family), catalytic subunit of rat telomerase reverse transcriptase (rTERT), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Flow cytometric analysis showed that the microtubule stabilizer PTX caused cell cycle deregulation due to G2/M arrest. This in turn could alter the fate of kinetochore-spindletube dynamics thereby halting cell cycle progression. An interesting observation was induction of G1/S arrest by combination of 4-HPR and PTX, altering the G2/M arrest induced by PTX alone. This was further ratified by the upregulation of tumor suppressor protein retinoblastoma, which repressed the expression of the key signaling moieties to induce G1/S arrest. Collectively, combination of 4-HPR and PTX diminished the survival factors (e.g., rTERT, PCNA, and Bcl-2) to make glioblastoma cells highly prone to apoptosis with activation of cysteine proteases (e.g., calpain, cathepsins, caspase-8, caspase-3) in two glioblastoma cell lines. Hence, combination 4-HPR and PTX can be considered as an effective therapeutic strategy for controlling the growth of heterogeneous glioblastoma cell populations. PMID:19285047

  4. Heterogenic expression of stem cell markers in patient-derived glioblastoma spheroid cultures exposed to long-term hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Tine; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Petterson, Stine Asferg

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the time profile of hypoxia and stem cell markers in glioblastoma spheroids of known molecular subtype. MATERIALS & METHODS: Patient-derived glioblastoma spheroids were cultured up to 7 days in either 2% or 21% oxygen. Levels of proliferation (Ki-67), hypoxia (HIF-1α, CA9...

  5. Downregulation of mitochondrial UQCRB inhibits cancer stem cell-like properties in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Narae; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Jung, Hye Jin

    2018-01-01

    Glioblastoma stem cell targeted therapies have become a powerful strategy for the treatment of this deadliest brain tumor. We demonstrate for the first time that downregulation of mitochondrial ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) inhibits the cancer stem cell-like properties in human glioblastoma cells. The synthetic small molecules targeting UQCRB significantly suppressed not only the self-renewal capacity such as growth and neurosphere formation, but also the metastatic potential such as migration and invasion of glioblastoma stem‑like cells (GSCs) derived from U87MG and U373MG at subtoxic concentrations. Notably, the UQCRB inhibitors repressed c‑Met-mediated downstream signal transduction and hypoxia‑inducible factor‑1α (HIF‑1α) activation, thereby reducing the expression levels of GSC markers including CD133, Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2 in the GSCs. Furthermore, the UQCRB inhibitors decreased mitochondrial ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential in the GSCs, indicating that they regulate the mitochondrial function in GSCs. Indeed, the knockdown of UQCRB gene by UQCRB siRNA significantly inhibited the cancer stem cell-like phenotypes as well as the expression of stemness markers by blocking mitochondrial ROS/HIF‑1α/c‑Met pathway in U87MG GSCs. These findings suggest that UQCRB and its inhibitors could be a new therapeutic target and lead compounds for eliminating cancer stem cells in glioblastoma.

  6. Protective Effect of Gwakhyangjeonggisan Herbal Acupuncture Solution in Glioblastoma Cells: Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Seok Lee

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Neurological disorders have been one of main therapeutic targets of acupuncture. The present study investigated the protective effects of Gwakhyangjeonggisan herbal acupuncture solution (GHAS. Methods : We performed 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay in glioblastoma cells, and did microarray analysis with cells exposed to reactive oxigen species (ROS of hydrogen peroxide by 8.0 k Human cDNA, with cut-off level of 2-fold changes in gene expression. Results : MTT assay showed protective effect of GHAS on the glioblastoma cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide. When glioblastoma cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide, 24 genes were downregulated. When the cells were pretreated with GHAS before exposure to hydrogen peroxide, 46 genes were downregulated. Many of the genes downregulated by hydrogen peroxide stimulation were decreased in the amount of downregulation or reversed to upregulation. Conclusions : The gene expression changes observed in the present study are supposed to be related to the protective molecular mechanism of GHAS in the glioblastoma cells exposed to ROS stress.

  7. Glioblastoma-infiltrated innate immune cells resemble M0 macrophage phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Wei, Jun; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Healy, Luke M.; Maiti, Sourindra N.; Wang, Qianghu; Elakkad, Ahmed; Liebelt, Brandon D.; Yaghi, Nasser K.; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker; Huang, Neal; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Prabhu, Sujit S.; Rao, Ganesh; Sawaya, Raymond; Langford, Lauren A.; Bruner, Janet M.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Bar-Or, Amit; Li, Wei; Colen, Rivka R.; Curran, Michael A.; Bhat, Krishna P.; Antel, Jack P.; Cooper, Laurence J.; Sulman, Erik P.; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas are highly infiltrated by diverse immune cells, including microglia, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Understanding the mechanisms by which glioblastoma-associated myeloid cells (GAMs) undergo metamorphosis into tumor-supportive cells, characterizing the heterogeneity of immune cell phenotypes within glioblastoma subtypes, and discovering new targets can help the design of new efficient immunotherapies. In this study, we performed a comprehensive battery of immune phenotyping, whole-genome microarray analysis, and microRNA expression profiling of GAMs with matched blood monocytes, healthy donor monocytes, normal brain microglia, nonpolarized M0 macrophages, and polarized M1, M2a, M2c macrophages. Glioblastoma patients had an elevated number of monocytes relative to healthy donors. Among CD11b+ cells, microglia and MDSCs constituted a higher percentage of GAMs than did macrophages. GAM profiling using flow cytometry studies revealed a continuum between the M1- and M2-like phenotype. Contrary to current dogma, GAMs exhibited distinct immunological functions, with the former aligned close to nonpolarized M0 macrophages. PMID:26973881

  8. New perspective for GdNCT. Gd-DTPA reaches the nucleus of glioblastoma cells in culture and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasio, G. de; Gilbert, B.; Frazer, B.H.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the prospects of gadolinium as a neutron capture therapy agent by combining three independent techniques to study the uptake of Gd-DTPA in vitro, in cultured glioblastoma cells, and in vivo, in the glioblastoma tissue sections after injection of Gd-DTPA and tumor extraction. We show that gadolinium not only penetrates the plasma membrane of glioblastoma cells grown in culture, but we also observe a statistically significant higher concentration of Gd in the nucleus relative to the cytoplasm. For the in vivo experiments, Gd-DTPA was administered to 6 glioblastoma patients before neurosurgery. The extracted bioptic tissue was then analyzed with spectromictroscopy, showing Gd localized in the nuclei of glioblastoma cells in 5 patients out of the 6 analyzed. (author)

  9. The role of IDH1 mutated tumour cells in secondary glioblastomas: an evolutionary game theoretical view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, David; Scott, Jacob G.; Rockne, Russ; Swanson, Kristin R.; Anderson, Alexander R. A.

    2011-02-01

    Recent advances in clinical medicine have elucidated two significantly different subtypes of glioblastoma which carry very different prognoses, both defined by mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH-1). The mechanistic consequences of this mutation have not yet been fully clarified, with conflicting opinions existing in the literature; however, IDH-1 mutation may be used as a surrogate marker to distinguish between primary and secondary glioblastoma multiforme (sGBM) from malignant progression of a lower grade glioma. We develop a mathematical model of IDH-1 mutated secondary glioblastoma using evolutionary game theory to investigate the interactions between four different phenotypic populations within the tumor: autonomous growth, invasive, glycolytic, and the hybrid invasive/glycolytic cells. Our model recapitulates glioblastoma behavior well and is able to reproduce two recent experimental findings, as well as make novel predictions concerning the rate of invasive growth as a function of vascularity, and fluctuations in the proportions of phenotypic populations that a glioblastoma will experience under different microenvironmental constraints.

  10. The role of IDH1 mutated tumour cells in secondary glioblastomas: an evolutionary game theoretical view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basanta, David; Scott, Jacob G; Anderson, Alexander R A; Rockne, Russ; Swanson, Kristin R

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in clinical medicine have elucidated two significantly different subtypes of glioblastoma which carry very different prognoses, both defined by mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH-1). The mechanistic consequences of this mutation have not yet been fully clarified, with conflicting opinions existing in the literature; however, IDH-1 mutation may be used as a surrogate marker to distinguish between primary and secondary glioblastoma multiforme (sGBM) from malignant progression of a lower grade glioma. We develop a mathematical model of IDH-1 mutated secondary glioblastoma using evolutionary game theory to investigate the interactions between four different phenotypic populations within the tumor: autonomous growth, invasive, glycolytic, and the hybrid invasive/glycolytic cells. Our model recapitulates glioblastoma behavior well and is able to reproduce two recent experimental findings, as well as make novel predictions concerning the rate of invasive growth as a function of vascularity, and fluctuations in the proportions of phenotypic populations that a glioblastoma will experience under different microenvironmental constraints

  11. Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells: Relationship with Neural Stem Cells and the Micro-Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffart, Nicolas [Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, GIGA-Neurosciences Research Center, University of Liège, Liège 4000 (Belgium); Kroonen, Jérôme [Human Genetics, CHU and University of Liège, Liège 4000 (Belgium); The T& P Bohnenn Laboratory for Neuro-Oncology, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht 3556 (Netherlands); Rogister, Bernard, E-mail: Bernard.Register@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, GIGA-Neurosciences Research Center, University of Liège, Liège 4000 (Belgium); Department of Neurology, CHU and University of Liège, Liège 4000 (Belgium); GIGA-Development, Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, University of Liège, Liège 4000 (Belgium)

    2013-08-14

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO grade IV) is the most common and lethal subtype of primary brain tumor with a median overall survival of 15 months from the time of diagnosis. The presence in GBM of a cancer population displaying neural stem cell (NSC) properties as well as tumor-initiating abilities and resistance to current therapies suggests that these glioblastoma-initiating cells (GICs) play a central role in tumor development and are closely related to NSCs. However, it is nowadays still unclear whether GICs derive from NSCs, neural progenitor cells or differentiated cells such as astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. On the other hand, NSCs are located in specific regions of the adult brain called neurogenic niches that have been shown to control critical stem cell properties, to nourish NSCs and to support their self-renewal. This “seed-and-soil” relationship has also been adapted to cancer stem cell research as GICs also require a specific micro-environment to maintain their “stem cell” properties. In this review, we will discuss the controversies surrounding the origin and the identification of GBM stem cells and highlight the micro-environment impact on their biology.

  12. Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells: Relationship with Neural Stem Cells and the Micro-Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffart, Nicolas; Kroonen, Jérôme; Rogister, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO grade IV) is the most common and lethal subtype of primary brain tumor with a median overall survival of 15 months from the time of diagnosis. The presence in GBM of a cancer population displaying neural stem cell (NSC) properties as well as tumor-initiating abilities and resistance to current therapies suggests that these glioblastoma-initiating cells (GICs) play a central role in tumor development and are closely related to NSCs. However, it is nowadays still unclear whether GICs derive from NSCs, neural progenitor cells or differentiated cells such as astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. On the other hand, NSCs are located in specific regions of the adult brain called neurogenic niches that have been shown to control critical stem cell properties, to nourish NSCs and to support their self-renewal. This “seed-and-soil” relationship has also been adapted to cancer stem cell research as GICs also require a specific micro-environment to maintain their “stem cell” properties. In this review, we will discuss the controversies surrounding the origin and the identification of GBM stem cells and highlight the micro-environment impact on their biology

  13. Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells: Relationship with Neural Stem Cells and the Micro-Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Goffart

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO grade IV is the most common and lethal subtype of primary brain tumor with a median overall survival of 15 months from the time of diagnosis. The presence in GBM of a cancer population displaying neural stem cell (NSC properties as well as tumor-initiating abilities and resistance to current therapies suggests that these glioblastoma-initiating cells (GICs play a central role in tumor development and are closely related to NSCs. However, it is nowadays still unclear whether GICs derive from NSCs, neural progenitor cells or differentiated cells such as astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. On the other hand, NSCs are located in specific regions of the adult brain called neurogenic niches that have been shown to control critical stem cell properties, to nourish NSCs and to support their self-renewal. This “seed-and-soil” relationship has also been adapted to cancer stem cell research as GICs also require a specific micro-environment to maintain their “stem cell” properties. In this review, we will discuss the controversies surrounding the origin and the identification of GBM stem cells and highlight the micro-environment impact on their biology.

  14. Three-dimensional Invasion of Human Glioblastoma Cells Remains Unchanged by X-ray and Carbon Ion Irradiation In Vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eke, Iris; Storch, Katja; Kaestner, Ina; Vehlow, Anne [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Faethe, Christina; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang [Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Taucher-Scholz, Gisela [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Temme, Achim; Schackert, Gabriele [Section of Experimental Neurosurgery/Tumor Immunology, Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Cordes, Nils, E-mail: Nils.Cordes@Oncoray.de [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Cell invasion represents one of the major determinants that treatment has failed for patients suffering from glioblastoma. Contrary findings have been reported for cell migration upon exposure to ionizing radiation. Here, the migration and invasion capability of glioblastoma cells on and in collagen type I were evaluated upon irradiation with X-rays or carbon ions. Methods and Materials: Migration on and invasion in collagen type I were evaluated in four established human glioblastoma cell lines exposed to either X-rays or carbon ions. Furthermore, clonogenic radiation survival, proliferation (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine positivity), DNA double-strand breaks ({gamma}H2AX/53BP1-positive foci), and expression of invasion-relevant proteins (eg, {beta}1 integrin, FAK, MMP2, and MMP9) were explored. Migration and invasion assays for primary glioblastoma cells also were carried out with X-ray irradiation. Results: Neither X-ray nor carbon ion irradiation affected glioblastoma cell migration and invasion, a finding similarly observed in primary glioblastoma cells. Intriguingly, irradiated cells migrated unhampered, despite DNA double-strand breaks and reduced proliferation. Clonogenic radiation survival was increased when cells had contact with extracellular matrix. Specific inhibition of the {beta}1 integrin or proliferation-associated signaling molecules revealed a critical function of JNK, PI3K, and p38 MAPK in glioblastoma cell invasion. Conclusions: These findings indicate that X-rays and carbon ion irradiation effectively reduce proliferation and clonogenic survival without modifying the migration and invasion ability of glioblastoma cells in a collagen type I environment. Addition of targeted agents against members of the MAPK and PI3K signaling axis to conventional chemoradiation therapy seems potentially useful to optimize glioblastoma therapy.

  15. Single-Cell RNA-Seq Analysis of Infiltrating Neoplastic Cells at the Migrating Front of Human Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Darmanis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common primary brain cancer in adults and is notoriously difficult to treat because of its diffuse nature. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq on 3,589 cells in a cohort of four patients. We obtained cells from the tumor core as well as surrounding peripheral tissue. Our analysis revealed cellular variation in the tumor’s genome and transcriptome. We were also able to identify infiltrating neoplastic cells in regions peripheral to the core lesions. Despite the existence of significant heterogeneity among neoplastic cells, we found that infiltrating GBM cells share a consistent gene signature between patients, suggesting a common mechanism of infiltration. Additionally, in investigating the immunological response to the tumors, we found transcriptionally distinct myeloid cell populations residing in the tumor core and the surrounding peritumoral space. Our data provide a detailed dissection of GBM cell types, revealing an abundance of information about tumor formation and migration. : Darmanis et al. perform single-cell transcriptomic analyses of neoplastic and stromal cells within and proximal to primary glioblastomas. The authors describe a population of neoplastic-infiltrating glioblastoma cells as well as a putative role of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in supporting tumor growth. Keywords: single cell, RNA-seq, glioma, glioblastoma, GBM, brain, heterogeneity, infiltrating, diffuse, checkpoint

  16. Evaluation of photodynamic treatment efficiency on glioblastoma cells received from malignant lesions: initial studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina; Kyurkchiev, Dobroslav; Tumangelova-Yuzeir, Kalina; Angelov, Ivan; Genova-Hristova, Tsanislava; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana; Minkin, Krassimir

    2018-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy is well-established and extensively used method in treatment of different cancer types. This research reveals its potential in the treatment of cultivated human glioblastoma cells with adherent morphology. As the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of the drugs is a significant problem that could not be solved easily for large biomolecules, we search for an appropriate low-molecular weight photosensitizer that could be applied for photodynamic treatment of glioblastoma cells. We used delta-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), which could pass BBB and plays the role of precursor of a protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) - photosensitizer, that is accumulated selectively in the tumour cells and could be a proper tool in PDT of glioblastoma. However, differences from patient to patient and between the cell activities could also lead to different effectiveness of the PDT treatment of the tumour areas. Therefore in our study we investigated not only the effect of using different fluence rates and light doses, but aims to establish more efficient values for further clinical applications for each sub-type of the GBM lesions. For the needs of PDT application an illumination device was developed in Laboratory of Biophotonics, BAS based on light-emitting diode (LED) matrix light sources for therapeutic application emitting at 635 nm. The device is optimized for PDT in combination with aminolevulinic acid/protoporphyrin IX applied as a photosensitizer drug. By the means of FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson, USA) and Cell Quest Software was made evaluation of PDT effect on used human glioblastoma cells. Treatment of glioblastoma tumours continues to be a very serious issue and there is growing need in development of new concepts, methods and cancer-fighting strategies. PDT may contribute in accomplishing better results in cancer treatment and can be applied as well in combination with other techniques.

  17. Proliferative and Invasive Effects of Progesterone-Induced Blocking Factor in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Gutiérrez-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF is a progesterone (P4 regulated protein expressed in different types of high proliferative cells including astrocytomas, the most frequent and aggressive brain tumors. It has been shown that PIBF increases the number of human astrocytoma cells. In this work, we evaluated PIBF regulation by P4 and the effects of PIBF on proliferation, migration, and invasion of U87 and U251 cells, both derived from human glioblastomas. PIBF mRNA expression was upregulated by P4 (10 nM from 12 to 24 h. Glioblastoma cells expressed two PIBF isoforms, 90 and 57 kDa. The content of the shorter isoform was increased by P4 at 24 h, while progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 (10 μM blocked this effect. PIBF (100 ng/mL increased the number of U87 cells on days 4 and 5 of treatment and induced cell proliferation on day 4. Wound-healing assays showed that PIBF increased the migration of U87 (12–48 h and U251 (24 and 48 h cells. Transwell invasion assays showed that PIBF augmented the number of invasive cells in both cell lines at 24 h. These data suggest that PIBF promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of human glioblastoma cells.

  18. Cytomegalovirus infection induces a stem cell phenotype in human primary glioblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornara, O; Bartek, J; Rahbar, A

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is associated with poor prognosis despite aggressive surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Unfortunately, this standard therapy does not target glioma cancer stem cells (GCSCs), a subpopulation of GBM cells that can give rise to recurrent tumors. GBMs express...... human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) proteins, and previously we found that the level of expression of HCMV immediate-early (IE) protein in GBMs is a prognostic factor for poor patient survival. In this study, we investigated the relation between HCMV infection of GBM cells and the presence of GCSCs. Primary...... GBMs were characterized by their expression of HCMV-IE and GCSCs marker CD133 and by patient survival. The extent to which HCMV infection of primary GBM cells induced a GCSC phenotype was evaluated in vitro. In primary GBMs, a large fraction of CD133-positive cells expressed HCMV-IE, and higher co...

  19. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cells in Tumor Suppressor Mouse Models of Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara Llaguno, Sheila R; Xie, Xuanhua; Parada, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    The cellular origins and the mechanisms of progression, maintenance of tumorigenicity, and therapeutic resistance are central questions in the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) field. Using tumor suppressor mouse models, our group recently reported two independent populations of adult GBM-initiating central nervous system progenitors. We found different functional and molecular subtypes depending on the tumor-initiating cell lineage, indicating that the cell of origin is a driver of GBM subtype diversity. Using an in vivo model, we also showed that GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs) or glioma stem cells (GSCs) contribute to resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and that genetic ablation of GSCs leads to a delay in tumor progression. These studies are consistent with the cell of origin and CSCs as critical regulators of the pathogenesis of GBM. © 2016 Alcantara Llaguno et al; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Establishment and Characterization of a Tumor Stem Cell-Based Glioblastoma Invasion Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stine Skov; Meyer, Morten; Petterson, Stine Asferg

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor. Recurrence is inevitable and most likely connected to tumor invasion and presence of therapy resistant stem-like tumor cells. The aim was therefore to establish and characterize a three-dimensional in vivo-like in vitro model taking...... invasion and tumor stemness into account. METHODS: Glioblastoma stem cell-like containing spheroid (GSS) cultures derived from three different patients were established and characterized. The spheroids were implanted in vitro into rat brain slice cultures grown in stem cell medium and in vivo into brains...... of immuno-compromised mice. Invasion was followed in the slice cultures by confocal time-lapse microscopy. Using immunohistochemistry, we compared tumor cell invasion as well as expression of proliferation and stem cell markers between the models. RESULTS: We observed a pronounced invasion into brain slice...

  1. Local delivery of cannabinoid-loaded microparticles inhibits tumor growth in a murine xenograft model of glioblastoma multiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Hernán Pérez de la Ossa

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana and their derivatives, are currently investigated due to their potential therapeutic application for the management of many different diseases, including cancer. Specifically, Δ(9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and Cannabidiol (CBD - the two major ingredients of marijuana - have been shown to inhibit tumor growth in a number of animal models of cancer, including glioma. Although there are several pharmaceutical preparations that permit the oral administration of THC or its analogue nabilone or the oromucosal delivery of a THC- and CBD-enriched cannabis extract, the systemic administration of cannabinoids has several limitations in part derived from the high lipophilicity exhibited by these compounds. In this work we analyzed CBD- and THC-loaded poly-ε-caprolactone microparticles as an alternative delivery system for long-term cannabinoid administration in a murine xenograft model of glioma. In vitro characterization of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles showed that this method of microencapsulation facilitates a sustained release of the two cannabinoids for several days. Local administration of THC-, CBD- or a mixture (1:1 w:w of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles every 5 days to mice bearing glioma xenografts reduced tumour growth with the same efficacy than a daily local administration of the equivalent amount of those cannabinoids in solution. Moreover, treatment with cannabinoid-loaded microparticles enhanced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and angiogenesis in these tumours. Our findings support that THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles could be used as an alternative method of cannabinoid delivery in anticancer therapies.

  2. miR-340 inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation by suppressing CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xuesong; Gong, Xuhai; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Jinghui; Sun, Jiahang; Guo, Mian

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma development is often associated with alteration in the activity and expression of cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin-dependent kinases (CKDs) and cyclins, resulting in aberrant cell proliferation. Recent studies have highlighted the pivotal roles of miRNAs in controlling the development and growth of glioblastoma. Here, we provide evidence for a function of miR-340 in the inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation. We found that miR-340 is downregulated in human glioblastoma tissue samples and several established glioblastoma cell lines. Proliferation and neurosphere formation assays revealed that miR-340 plays an oncosuppressive role in glioblastoma, and that its ectopic expression causes significant defect in glioblastoma cell growth. Further, using bioinformatics, luciferase assay and western blot, we found that miR-340 specifically targets the 3′UTRs of CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2, leading to the arrest of glioblastoma cells in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase. Confirming these results, we found that re-introducing CDK6, cyclin-D1 or cyclin-D2 expression partially, but significantly, rescues cells from the suppression of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest mediated by miR-340. Collectively, our results demonstrate that miR-340 plays a tumor-suppressive role in glioblastoma and may be useful as a diagnostic biomarker and/or a therapeutic avenue for glioblastoma. - Highlights: • miR-340 is downregulated in glioblastoma samples and cell lines. • miR-340 inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation. • miR-340 directly targets CDK6, cyclin-D1, and cyclin-D2. • miR-340 regulates glioblastoma cell proliferation via CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2

  3. miR-340 inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation by suppressing CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuesong; Gong, Xuhai [Department of Neurology, Daqing Oilfield General Hospital, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163001 (China); Chen, Jing [Department of Neurology, Daqing Longnan Hospital, Daqing, Heilongjiang, 163001 China (China); Zhang, Jinghui [Department of Cardiology, The Fourth Hospital of Harbin City, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150026 (China); Sun, Jiahang [Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150086 (China); Guo, Mian, E-mail: guomian_hyd@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150086 (China)

    2015-05-08

    Glioblastoma development is often associated with alteration in the activity and expression of cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin-dependent kinases (CKDs) and cyclins, resulting in aberrant cell proliferation. Recent studies have highlighted the pivotal roles of miRNAs in controlling the development and growth of glioblastoma. Here, we provide evidence for a function of miR-340 in the inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation. We found that miR-340 is downregulated in human glioblastoma tissue samples and several established glioblastoma cell lines. Proliferation and neurosphere formation assays revealed that miR-340 plays an oncosuppressive role in glioblastoma, and that its ectopic expression causes significant defect in glioblastoma cell growth. Further, using bioinformatics, luciferase assay and western blot, we found that miR-340 specifically targets the 3′UTRs of CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2, leading to the arrest of glioblastoma cells in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase. Confirming these results, we found that re-introducing CDK6, cyclin-D1 or cyclin-D2 expression partially, but significantly, rescues cells from the suppression of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest mediated by miR-340. Collectively, our results demonstrate that miR-340 plays a tumor-suppressive role in glioblastoma and may be useful as a diagnostic biomarker and/or a therapeutic avenue for glioblastoma. - Highlights: • miR-340 is downregulated in glioblastoma samples and cell lines. • miR-340 inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation. • miR-340 directly targets CDK6, cyclin-D1, and cyclin-D2. • miR-340 regulates glioblastoma cell proliferation via CDK6, cyclin-D1 and cyclin-D2.

  4. Investigating Ceria Nanocrystals Uptake by Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells and its Related Effects: An Electron Microscopy Study

    KAUST Repository

    Aloufi, Bader

    2017-01-22

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles have been utilized widely nowadays in cancer research. It has been suggested by many studies that these nanoparticles are capable of having dual antioxidant behavior in healthy and cancer microenvironment; where in physiological condition, they act as antioxidant and do not affect the healthy cells, while in tumor-like condition; they act as an oxidase, and result in a selective killing for the cancer cells. In this experiment, the interaction of nanoceria with glioblastoma and healthy astrocyte cells was examined, and further correlated with the in vitro cytotoxic effects of various nanoceria concentrations (100 and 300 µg/ml) and exposure times (12, 24, and 48 hours). Electron microscopes were used to investigate the cellular-NPs interactions, and to examine the related cytotoxic effects in combination with trypan blue and propidium iodide viability assays. Our data suggest the following results. First, the two cell lines demonstrated capability of taken up the ceria through endocytosis pathway, where the NPs were recognized engulfed by double membrane vesicles at various regions over the cellular cytoplasm. Secondly, cerium oxide nanoparticles were found to affect the glioblastoma cells, but not so severely the corresponding healthy astrocytes at the various concentrations and incubation times, as revealed by the viability assays and the electron microscopy analysis. Thirdly, the viability of the glioblastoma cells after the treatment displayed a declined trend when increasing the ceria concentrations, but did not show such dependency with regard to the different time points. In all cases, the healthy astrocyte cells showed slight alterations in mitochondrial shape which did not influence their viability. Among the various nanoceria concentrations and exposure times, the most efficient dose of treatment was found to be with a concentration of 300 µg/ml at a time point of 24-hour, where higher reduction on the viability of

  5. Repopulation capacity during fractionated irradiation of squamous cell carcinomas and glioblastomas in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budach, Wilfried; Gioioso, Danielle; Taghian, Alphonse; Stuschke, Martin; Suit, Herman D

    1997-10-01

    Purpose: Determination of clonogenic cell proliferation of three highly malignant squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and two glioblastoma cell lines during a 20-day course of fractionated irradiation under in vitro conditions. Methods and Materials: Tumor cells in exponential growth phase were plated in 24-well plastic flasks and irradiated 24 h after plating with 250 kV x-rays at room temperature. Six fractions with single doses between 0.6 and 9 Gy were administered in 1.67, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days. Colony growth was monitored for at least 60 days after completion of irradiation. Wells with confluent colonies were considered as 'recurrences' and wells without colonies as 'controlled'. The dose required to control 50% of irradiated wells (WCD{sub 50}) was estimated by a logistic regression for the different overall treatment times. The effective doubling time of clonogenic cells (T{sub eff}) was determined by a direct fit using the maximum likelihood method. Results: The increase of WCD{sub 50} within 18.3 days was highly significant for all tumor cell lines accounting for 7.9 and 12.0 Gy in the two glioblastoma cell lines and for 12.7, 14.0, and 21.7 Gy in the three SCC cell lines. The corresponding T{sub eff}s were 4.4 and 2.0 days for glioblastoma cell lines and 2.4, 4.2, and 1.8 days for SCC cell lines. Population doubling times (PDT) of untreated tumor cells ranged from 1.0 to 1.9 days, showing no correlation with T{sub eff}s. T{sub eff} was significantly longer than PDT in three of five tumor cell lines. No significant differences were observed comparing glioblastomas and SCC. Increase of WCD{sub 50} with time did not correlate with T{sub eff} but with T{sub eff}* InSF2 (surviving fraction at 2 Gy). Conclusion: The intrinsic ability of SCC and glioblastoma cells to repopulate during fractionated irradiation could be demonstrated. Repopulation induced dose loss per day depends on T{sub eff} and intrinsic radiation sensitivity. Proliferation during treatment was

  6. Second Generation Amphiphilic Poly-Lysine Dendrons Inhibit Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation without Toxicity for Neurons or Astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Janiszewska

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas are the most common malignant primary brain tumours in adults and one of the most aggressive and difficult-to-treat cancers. No effective treatment exits actually for this tumour and new therapeutic approaches are needed for this disease. One possible innovative approach involves the nanoparticle-mediated specific delivery of drugs and/or genetic material to glioblastoma cells where they can provide therapeutic benefits. In the present work, we have synthesised and characterised several second generation amphiphilic polylysine dendrons to be used as siRNA carriers. We have found that, in addition to their siRNA binding properties, these new compounds inhibit the proliferation of two glioblastoma cell lines while being nontoxic for non-tumoural central nervous system cells like neurons and glia, cell types that share the anatomical space with glioblastoma cells during the course of the disease. The selective toxicity of these nanoparticles to glioblastoma cells, as compared to neurons and glial cells, involves mitochondrial depolarisation and reactive oxygen species production. This selective toxicity, together with the ability to complex and release siRNA, suggests that these new polylysine dendrons might offer a scaffold in the development of future nanoparticles designed to restrict the proliferation of glioblastoma cells.

  7. Phenylbutyrate Sensitizes Human Glioblastoma Cells Lacking Wild-Type P53 Function to Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Carlos A.; Feng, Felix Y.; Herman, Joseph M.; Nyati, Mukesh K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ljungman, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Phenylbutyrate (PB) is a HDAC inhibitor used clinically for treatment of urea cycle disorders. Because of its low cytotoxicity, cerebrospinal fluid penetration, and high oral bioavailability, we investigated PB as a potential radiation sensitizer in human glioblastoma cell lines. Methods and Materials: Four glioblastoma cell lines were selected for this study. Phenylbutyrate was used at a concentration of 2 mM, which is achievable in humans. Western blots were used to assess levels of acetylated histone H3 in tumor cells after treatment with PB. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis. Clonogenic assays were performed to assess the effect of PB on radiation sensitivity. We used shRNA against p53 to study the role of p53 in radiosensitization. Results: Treatment with PB alone resulted in hyperacetylation of histones, confirmed by Western blot analysis. The PB alone resulted in cytostatic effects in three cell lines. There was no evidence of G 1 arrest, increase in sub-G 1 fraction or p21 protein induction. Clonogenic assays showed radiosensitization in two lines harboring p53 mutations, with enhancement ratios (± SE) of 1.5 (± 0.2) and 1.3 (± 0.1), respectively. There was no radiopotentiating effect in two cell lines with wild-type p53, but knockdown of wild-type p53 resulted in radiosensitization by PB. Conclusions: Phenylbutyrate can produce p21-independent cytostasis, and enhances radiation sensitivity in p53 mutant human glioblastoma cells in vitro. This suggests the potential application of combined PB and radiotherapy in glioblastoma harboring mutant p53

  8. Circulating endothelial cells and procoagulant microparticles in patients with glioblastoma: prognostic value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Reynés

    Full Text Available AIM: Circulating endothelial cells and microparticles are prognostic factors in cancer. However, their prognostic and predictive value in patients with glioblastoma is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential prognostic value of circulating endothelial cells and microparticles in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with standard radiotherapy and concomitant temozolomide. In addition, we have analyzed the methylation status of the MGMT promoter. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the concomitant treatment. Blood samples from healthy volunteers were also obtained as controls. Endothelial cells were measured by an immunomagnetic technique and immunofluorescence microscopy. Microparticles were quantified by flow cytometry. Microparticle-mediated procoagulant activity was measured by endogen thrombin generation and by phospholipid-dependent clotting time. Methylation status of MGMT promoter was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. RESULTS: Pretreatment levels of circulating endothelial cells and microparticles were higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001. After treatment, levels of microparticles and thrombin generation decreased, and phospholipid-dependent clotting time increased significantly. A high pretreatment endothelial cell count, corresponding to the 99(th percentile in controls, was associated with poor overall survival. MGMT promoter methylation was present in 27% of tumor samples and was associated to a higher overall survival (66 weeks vs 30 weeks, p<0.004. CONCLUSION: Levels of circulating endothelial cells may have prognostic value in patients with glioblastoma.

  9. MiR-18a regulates the proliferation, migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cell by targeting neogenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yichen, E-mail: jeff200064017@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Wang, Ping, E-mail: pingwang8000@163.com [Department of Neurobiology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zhao, Wei, E-mail: 15669746@qq.com [Department of Neurobiology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Yao, Yilong, E-mail: yaoyilong_322@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, Xiaobai, E-mail: paganizonda1991@qq.com [The 96th Class, 7-year Program, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: majun_724@163.com [Department of Neurobiology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Xue, Yixue, E-mail: xueyixue888@163.com [Department of Neurobiology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Yunhui, E-mail: liuyh@sj-hospital.org [Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2014-05-15

    MiR-17-92 cluster has recently been reported as an oncogene in some tumors. However, the association of miR-18a, an important member of this cluster, with glioblastoma remains unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the expression of miR-18a in glioblastoma and its role in biological behavior of U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that miR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines compared with that in human brain tissues and primary normal human astrocytes, and the expression levels were increased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a by dual-luciferase reporter assays. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that its expression levels were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Inhibition of miR-18a expression was established by transfecting exogenous miR-18a inhibitor into U87 and U251 cells, and its effects on the biological behavior of glioblastoma cells were studied using CCK-8 assay, transwell assay and flow cytometry. Inhibition of miR-18a expression in U87 and U251 cells significantly up-regulated neogenin, and dramatically suppressed the abilities of cell proliferation, migration and invasion, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted cellular apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that miR-18a may regulate biological behavior of human glioblastoma cells by targeting neogenin, and miR-18a can serve as a potential target in the treatment of glioblastoma. - Highlights: • MiR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines. • Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a. • Neogenin expressions were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. • Inhibition of miR-18a suppressed biological behavior of glioma cells by up-regulating neogenin.

  10. MiR-18a regulates the proliferation, migration and invasion of human glioblastoma cell by targeting neogenin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yichen; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Wei; Yao, Yilong; Liu, Xiaobai; Ma, Jun; Xue, Yixue; Liu, Yunhui

    2014-01-01

    MiR-17-92 cluster has recently been reported as an oncogene in some tumors. However, the association of miR-18a, an important member of this cluster, with glioblastoma remains unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the expression of miR-18a in glioblastoma and its role in biological behavior of U87 and U251 human glioblastoma cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that miR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines compared with that in human brain tissues and primary normal human astrocytes, and the expression levels were increased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a by dual-luciferase reporter assays. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that its expression levels were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. Inhibition of miR-18a expression was established by transfecting exogenous miR-18a inhibitor into U87 and U251 cells, and its effects on the biological behavior of glioblastoma cells were studied using CCK-8 assay, transwell assay and flow cytometry. Inhibition of miR-18a expression in U87 and U251 cells significantly up-regulated neogenin, and dramatically suppressed the abilities of cell proliferation, migration and invasion, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted cellular apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that miR-18a may regulate biological behavior of human glioblastoma cells by targeting neogenin, and miR-18a can serve as a potential target in the treatment of glioblastoma. - Highlights: • MiR-18a was highly expressed in glioblastoma tissues and U87 and U251 cell lines. • Neogenin was identified as the target gene of miR-18a. • Neogenin expressions were decreased along with the rising pathological grades of glioblastoma. • Inhibition of miR-18a suppressed biological behavior of glioma cells by up-regulating neogenin

  11. Protein kinase D2 regulates migration and invasion of U87MG glioblastoma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhart, Eva; Damm, Sabine; Wintersperger, Andrea [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); DeVaney, Trevor [Institute of Biophysics, Medical University of Graz (Austria); Zimmer, Andreas [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Karl-Franzens University, Graz (Austria); Raynham, Tony; Ireson, Christopher [Cancer Research Technology Ltd, London (United Kingdom); Sattler, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.sattler@medunigraz.at [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)

    2013-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor, which, despite combined modality treatment, reoccurs and is invariably fatal for affected patients. Recently, a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase D (PRKD) family, PRKD2, was shown to be a potent mediator of glioblastoma growth. Here we studied the role of PRKD2 in U87MG glioblastoma cell migration and invasion in response to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), an activator of PRKD2 and a GBM mitogen. Time-lapse microscopy demonstrated that random cell migration was significantly diminished in response to PRKD2 silencing. The pharmacological PRKD family inhibitor CRT0066101 decreased chemotactic migration and invasion across uncoated or matrigel-coated Transwell inserts. Silencing of PRKD2 attenuated migration and invasion of U87MG cells even more effectively. In terms of downstream signaling, CRT0066101 prevented PRKD2 autophosphorylation and inhibited p44/42 MAPK and to a smaller extent p54/46 JNK and p38 MAPK activation. PRKD2 silencing impaired activation of p44/42 MAPK and p54/46 JNK, downregulated nuclear c-Jun protein levels and decreased c-Jun{sup S73} phosphorylation without affecting the NFκB pathway. Finally, qPCR array analyses revealed that silencing of PRKD2 downregulates mRNA levels of integrin alpha-2 and -4 (ITGA2 and -4), plasminogen activator urokinase (PLAU), plasminogen activator urokinase receptor (PLAUR), and matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1). Findings of the present study identify PRKD2 as a potential target to interfere with glioblastoma cell migration and invasion, two major determinants contributing to recurrence of glioblastoma after multimodality treatment. Highlights: • Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces glioma cell migration and invasion. • Part of the effects is mediated by protein kinase D2 (PRKD2) activation. • Inactivation of PRKD2 attenuates glioblastoma cell migration and invasion. • Both, RNAi and pharmacological inhibition of PRKD2 inhibits MAPK

  12. Protein kinase D2 regulates migration and invasion of U87MG glioblastoma cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhart, Eva; Damm, Sabine; Wintersperger, Andrea; DeVaney, Trevor; Zimmer, Andreas; Raynham, Tony; Ireson, Christopher; Sattler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor, which, despite combined modality treatment, reoccurs and is invariably fatal for affected patients. Recently, a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase D (PRKD) family, PRKD2, was shown to be a potent mediator of glioblastoma growth. Here we studied the role of PRKD2 in U87MG glioblastoma cell migration and invasion in response to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), an activator of PRKD2 and a GBM mitogen. Time-lapse microscopy demonstrated that random cell migration was significantly diminished in response to PRKD2 silencing. The pharmacological PRKD family inhibitor CRT0066101 decreased chemotactic migration and invasion across uncoated or matrigel-coated Transwell inserts. Silencing of PRKD2 attenuated migration and invasion of U87MG cells even more effectively. In terms of downstream signaling, CRT0066101 prevented PRKD2 autophosphorylation and inhibited p44/42 MAPK and to a smaller extent p54/46 JNK and p38 MAPK activation. PRKD2 silencing impaired activation of p44/42 MAPK and p54/46 JNK, downregulated nuclear c-Jun protein levels and decreased c-Jun S73 phosphorylation without affecting the NFκB pathway. Finally, qPCR array analyses revealed that silencing of PRKD2 downregulates mRNA levels of integrin alpha-2 and -4 (ITGA2 and -4), plasminogen activator urokinase (PLAU), plasminogen activator urokinase receptor (PLAUR), and matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1). Findings of the present study identify PRKD2 as a potential target to interfere with glioblastoma cell migration and invasion, two major determinants contributing to recurrence of glioblastoma after multimodality treatment. Highlights: • Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces glioma cell migration and invasion. • Part of the effects is mediated by protein kinase D2 (PRKD2) activation. • Inactivation of PRKD2 attenuates glioblastoma cell migration and invasion. • Both, RNAi and pharmacological inhibition of PRKD2 inhibits MAPK

  13. Primary ciliogenesis defects are associated with human astrocytoma/glioblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattner Jerome B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary cilia are non-motile sensory cytoplasmic organelles that have been implicated in signal transduction, cell to cell communication, left and right pattern embryonic development, sensation of fluid flow, regulation of calcium levels, mechanosensation, growth factor signaling and cell cycle progression. Defects in the formation and/or function of these structures underlie a variety of human diseases such as Alström, Bardet-Biedl, Joubert, Meckel-Gruber and oral-facial-digital type 1 syndromes. The expression and function of primary cilia in cancer cells has now become a focus of attention but has not been studied in astrocytomas/glioblastomas. To begin to address this issue, we compared the structure and expression of primary cilia in a normal human astrocyte cell line with five human astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines. Methods Cultured normal human astrocytes and five human astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines were examined for primary cilia expression and structure using indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Monospecific antibodies were used to detect primary cilia and map the relationship between the primary cilia region and sites of endocytosis. Results We show that expression of primary cilia in normal astrocytes is cell cycle related and the primary cilium extends through the cell within a unique structure which we show to be a site of endocytosis. Importantly, we document that in each of the five astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines fully formed primary cilia are either expressed at a very low level, are completely absent or have aberrant forms, due to incomplete ciliogenesis. Conclusions The recent discovery of the importance of primary cilia in a variety of cell functions raises the possibility that this structure may have a role in a variety of cancers. Our finding that the formation of the primary cilium is disrupted in cells derived from astrocytoma/glioblastoma tumors provides the first

  14. HAX-1 Protects Glioblastoma Cells from Apoptosis through the Akt1 Pathway

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    Xin Deng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is the most common malignant tumor in central nervous system (CNS, and it is still insurmountable and has a poor prognosis. The proliferation and survival mechanism of glioma cells needs to be explored further for the development of glioma treatment. Hematopoietic-substrate-1 associated protein X-1 (HAX-1 has been reported as an anti-apoptosis protein that plays an important role in several malignant tumors. However, the effect and mechanism of HAX-1 in glioblastomas remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of HAX-1 in glioblastoma cells and explore the mechanism. The results of clone formation and Edu proliferation assay showed slower multiplication in HAX-1 knock-out cells. Flow cytometry showed cell cycle arrest mainly in G0/G1 phase. Apoptosis due to oxidative stress was increased after HAX-1 was knocked out. Western-blot assay exhibited that the levels of p21, Bax, and p53 proteins were significantly raised, and that the activation of the caspase cascade was enhanced in the absence of HAX-1. The degradation rate and ubiquitination of p53 declined because of the decrease in phosphorylation of proteins MDM2 and Akt1. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP and immunefluorescent co-localization assays were performed to test the influence of HAX-1 on the interaction between Akt1 and Hsp90, which is crucial for the activity of Akt1. In conclusion, this novel study suggested that HAX-1 could affect the Akt1 pathway through Hsp90. The knock-out of HAX-1 leads to the inactivity of the Ak1t/MDM2 axis, which leads to increased levels of p53, and finally generates cell cycle arrest and results in the apoptosis of glioblastoma cells.

  15. Lipoprotein internalisation induced by oncogenic AMPK activation is essential to maintain glioblastoma cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, M; Foretz, M; Viollet, B; Prieto, A; Fraga, M; García-Caballero, T; Costoya, J A; Señarís, R

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic adaptations are essential during tumour growth to maintain the high proliferation levels exhibited by cancer cells. In this study, we examined the transformations that occurred in the lipid metabolism in astrocytic tumours, and the possible role of the fuel-sensing enzyme AMPK. Metabolic targets might help design new and effective drugs for cancer. To accomplish this objective, we studied both mice and human astrocytic tumours. We first used a mouse model of astrocytoma driven by oncogenic H-RasV12 and/or with PTEN deletion based on the common constitutive activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT cascades in human astrocytomas. We then confirmed the results in human glioblastoma cell lines and in glioblastoma tissue samples from patients. We show that the high levels of activated AMPK, observed in astrocytic tumours, increase extracellular lipid internalisation and reduce energy expenditure by inhibiting 'de novo' fatty acid (FA) synthesis, which allows tumour cells to obtain building blocks and energy to be able to create new organelles and new cells. Our findings demonstrate that AMPK plays a crucial role in glioblastoma cell growth and suggest that blocking lipoprotein receptors could potentially be used as a plausible therapeutic approach for these and other type of tumours with high levels of AMPK. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microtubule-severing ATPase spastin in glioblastoma: increased expression in human glioblastoma cell lines and inverse roles in cell motility and proliferation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráberová, Eduarda; Vinopal, Stanislav; Morfini, G.; Liu, P. S.; Sládková, Vladimíra; Sulimenko, Tetyana; Burns, M.R.; Solowska, J.; Kulandaivel, K.; De Chadarévian, J.P.; Legido, A.; Mork, S.J.; Janáček, Jiří; Baas, P.; Dráber, Pavel; Katsetos, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 9 (2011), s. 811-826 ISSN 0022-3069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/10/1701; GA ČR GA204/09/1777; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H084; GA AV ČR KAN200520701; GA MŠk LC545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spastin * glioblastoma * cell motility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.258, year: 2011

  17. hERG1 channels are overexpressed in glioblastoma multiforme and modulate VEGF secretion in glioblastoma cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, A; Becchetti, A; Restano-Cassulini, R; Polvani, S; Hofmann, G; Buccoliero, A M; Paglierani, M; Pollo, B; Taddei, G L; Gallina, P; Di Lorenzo, N; Franceschetti, S; Wanke, E; Arcangeli, A

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have led to considerable advancement in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the relentless cell growth and invasiveness of human gliomas. Partial understanding of these mechanisms has (1) improved the classification for gliomas, by identifying prognostic subgroups, and (2) pointed to novel potential therapeutic targets. Some classes of ion channels have turned out to be involved in the pathogenesis and malignancy of gliomas. We studied the expression and properties of K+ channels in primary cultures obtained from surgical specimens: human ether a gò-gò related (hERG)1 voltage-dependent K+ channels, which have been found to be overexpressed in various human cancers, and human ether a gò-gò-like 2 channels, that share many of hERG1's biophysical features. The expression pattern of these two channels was compared to that of the classical inward rectifying K+ channels, IRK, that are widely expressed in astrocytic cells and classically considered a marker of astrocytic differentiation. In our study, hERG1 was found to be specifically overexpressed in high-grade astrocytomas, that is, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In addition, we present evidence that, in GBM cell lines, hERG1 channel activity actively contributes to malignancy by promoting vascular endothelial growth factor secretion, thus stimulating the neoangiogenesis typical of high-grade gliomas. Our data provide important confirmation for studies proposing the hERG1 channel as a molecular marker of tumour progression and a possible target for novel anticancer therapies. PMID:16175187

  18. Overexpression of CD97 confers an invasive phenotype in glioblastoma cells and is associated with decreased survival of glioblastoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Safaee

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of invasion in glioblastoma (GBM relate to differential expression of proteins conferring increased motility and penetration of the extracellular matrix. CD97 is a member of the epidermal growth factor seven-span transmembrane family of adhesion G-protein coupled receptors. These proteins facilitate mobility of leukocytes into tissue. In this study we show that CD97 is expressed in glioma, has functional effects on invasion, and is associated with poor overall survival. Glioma cell lines and low passage primary cultures were analyzed. Functional significance was assessed by transient knockdown using siRNA targeting CD97 or a non-target control sequence. Invasion was assessed 48 hours after siRNA-mediated knockdown using a Matrigel-coated invasion chamber. Migration was quantified using a scratch assay over 12 hours. Proliferation was measured 24 and 48 hours after confirmed protein knockdown. GBM cell lines and primary cultures were found to express CD97. Knockdown of CD97 decreased invasion and migration in GBM cell lines, with no difference in proliferation. Gene-expression based Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed using The Cancer Genome Atlas, demonstrating an inverse relationship between CD97 expression and survival. GBMs expressing high levels of CD97 were associated with decreased survival compared to those with low CD97 (p = 0.007. CD97 promotes invasion and migration in GBM, but has no effect on tumor proliferation. This phenotype may explain the discrepancy in survival between high and low CD97-expressing tumors. This data provides impetus for further studies to determine its viability as a therapeutic target in the treatment of GBM.

  19. Synemin promotes AKT-dependent glioblastoma cell proliferation by antagonizing PP2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitre, Aaron; Davis, Nathan; Paul, Madhumita; Orr, A Wayne; Skalli, Omar

    2012-04-01

    The intermediate filament protein synemin is present in astrocyte progenitors and glioblastoma cells but not in mature astrocytes. Here we demonstrate a role for synemin in enhancing glioblastoma cell proliferation and clonogenic survival, as synemin RNA interference decreased both behaviors by inducing G1 arrest along with Rb hypophosphorylation and increased protein levels of the G1/S inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1). Akt involvement was demonstrated by decreased phosphorylation of its substrate, p21(Cip1), and reduced Akt catalytic activity and phosphorylation at essential activation sites. Synemin silencing, however, did not affect the activities of PDPK1 and mTOR complex 2, which directly phosphorylate Akt activation sites, but instead enhanced the activity of the major regulator of Akt dephosphorylation, protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A). This was accompanied by changes in PP2A subcellular distribution resulting in increased physical interactions between PP2A and Akt, as shown by proximity ligation assays (PLAs). PLAs and immunoprecipitation experiments further revealed that synemin and PP2A form a protein complex. In addition, treatment of synemin-silenced cells with the PP2A inhibitor cantharidic acid resulted in proliferation and pAkt and pRb levels similar to those of controls. Collectively these results indicate that synemin positively regulates glioblastoma cell proliferation by helping sequester PP2A away from Akt, thereby favoring Akt activation.

  20. Aptamer-conjugated dendrimer-modified quantum dots for glioblastoma cells imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiming; Huang Peng; He Rong; Bao Chenchen; Cui Daxiang; Zhang Xiaomin; Ren Qiushi

    2009-01-01

    Targeted quantum dots have shown potential as a platform for development of cancer imaging. Aptamers have recently been demonstrated as ideal candidates for molecular targeting applications. In present work, polyamidoamine dendrimers were used to modify surface of quantum dots and improve their solubility in water solution. Then, dendrimer-modified quantum dots were conjugated with DNA aptamer, GBI-10, can recognize the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C on the surface of human glioblastoma cells. The dendrimer-modified quantum dots exhibit water-soluble, high quantum yield, and good biocompatibility. Aptamer-conjugated quantum dots can specifically target U251 human glioblastoma cells. High-performance aptamer-conjugated dendrimers modified quantum dot-based nanoprobes have great potential in application such as cancer imaging.

  1. Giant cell glioblastoma in childhood - clinical case from our practice and literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, L.; Hristozova, I.; Minkin, K.; Mihaylova, I.; Katzarov, D.

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare clinical case of brain tumor in childhood - giant cells glioblastoma- The disease was diagnosed in July 2014. Following an evidently total tumor excision, a course of chemotherapy with Vincristine, Vepesid and Cisplatine was applied followed by external beam radiotherapy of total dose 56 Gy. After 4 courses of chemotherapy (Vepesid, Cisplatine and Cyclophosphamide), on the regular MRI - performed in January 2015, local tumor recurrence was discovered requiring re-operation. A local progression of the disease was manifested after 6 courses chemotherapy (Temodal 100 mg 1 tablet daily for 5 days monthly) with increased intracranial pressure, followed by exitus letalis of the patient, 12 months after the diagnosis being made. A rarely met pathology subtype of giant cells glioblastoma in childhood was discussed, its typical MRI image, unfavorable prognosis and manifested radio- and chemo-resistance. Despite the complex treatment including total tumor excision, postoperative radiotherapy with radical irradiation dose and adjuvant chemotherapy the risk of local recurrences and tumor progression is high. With the help of this rarely diagnosed aggressive brain tumor in childhood, we present the need of optimization of the multidisciplinary treatment approach. (authors) Key words: Giant Cell Glioblastoma. Childhood. Surgery. Radiotherapy. Chemotherapy. Complex Treatment

  2. Dormant glioblastoma cells acquire stem cell characteristics and are differentially affected by Temozolomide and AT101 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, Vivian; Hempelmann, Annika; Flüh, Charlotte; Lucius, Ralph; Synowitz, Michael; Hattermann, Kirsten; Held-Feindt, Janka

    2017-12-08

    Cellular dormancy is defined as a state in which cells enter quiescence driven by intrinsic or extrinsic factors, and striking parallels exist between the concept of cellular dormancy in malignancies and the cancer stem cell theory. We showed now that the proven dormancy markers insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5, ephrin receptor A5 and histone cluster 1 H2B family member K were expressed in human glioblastomas in situ , were located in single tumor cells, and could be co-stained with each other and with the stem cell markers krüppel-like factor 4, octamer binding transcription factor 4 and sex determining region Y-box 2. Human non-stem glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures were characterized by expression of individual, cell-type specific dormancy- and stemness-associated markers, which were (up)regulated and could be co-stained in a cell-type specific manner upon Temozolomide-induced dormancy in vitro . The induction patterns of dormancy- and stemness-associated markers were reflected by cell-type specific responses to Temozolomide-induced and combined Temozolomide/AT101-mediated cytotoxicity in different glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures in vitro , and accompanied by higher self-renewal capacity and lower TMZ-sensitivity of Temozolomide-pretreated cells. We postulate that a better understanding of the dormant state of tumor cells is essential to further improve efficiency of treatment.

  3. P53-dependent antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of trichostatin A (TSA) in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajbouj, K; Mawrin, C; Hartig, R; Schulze-Luehrmann, J; Wilisch-Neumann, A; Roessner, A; Schneider-Stock, R

    2012-05-01

    Glioblastomas are known to be highly chemoresistant, but HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been shown to be of therapeutic relevance for this aggressive tumor type. We treated U87 glioblastoma cells with trichostatin A (TSA) to define potential epigenetic targets for HDACi-mediated antitumor effects. Using a cDNA array analysis covering 96 cell cycle genes, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1) was identified as the major player in TSA-induced cell cycle arrest. TSA slightly inhibited proliferation and viability of U87 cells, cumulating in a G1/S cell cycle arrest. This effect was accompanied by a significant up-regulation of p53 and its transcriptional target p21(WAF1) and by down-regulation of key G1/S regulators, such as cdk4, cdk6, and cyclin D1. Nevertheless, TSA did not induce apoptosis in U87 cells. As expected, TSA promoted the accumulation of total acetylated histones H3 and H4 and a decrease in endogenous HDAC activity. Characterizing the chromatin modulation around the p21(WAF1) promoter after TSA treatment using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we found (1) a release of HDAC1, (2) an increase of acetylated H4 binding, and (3) enhanced recruitment of p53. p53-depleted U87 cells showed an abrogation of the G1/S arrest and re-entered the cell cycle. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that TSA induced the nuclear translocation of p21(WAF1) verifying a cell cycle arrest. On the other hand, a significant portion of p21(WAF1) was present in the cytoplasmic compartment causing apoptosis resistance. Furthermore, TSA-treated p53-mutant cell line U138 failed to show an induction in p21(WAF1), showed a deficient G2/M checkpoint, and underwent mitotic catastrophe. We suggest that HDAC inhibition in combination with other clinically used drugs may be considered an effective strategy to overcome chemoresistance in glioblastoma cells.

  4. Glioblastoma Cell Malignancy and Drug Sensitivity Are Affected by the Cell of Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The identity of the glioblastoma (GBM cell of origin and its contributions to disease progression and treatment response remain largely unknown. We have analyzed how the phenotypic state of the initially transformed cell affects mouse GBM development and essential GBM cell (GC properties. We find that GBM induced in neural stem-cell-like glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-expressing cells in the subventricular zone of adult mice shows accelerated tumor development and produces more malignant GCs (mGC1GFAP that are less resistant to cancer drugs, compared with those originating from more differentiated nestin- (mGC2NES or 2,′3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (mGC3CNP-expressing cells. Transcriptome analysis of mouse GCs identified a 196 mouse cell origin (MCO gene signature that was used to partition 61 patient-derived GC lines. Human GC lines that clustered with the mGC1GFAP cells were also significantly more self-renewing, tumorigenic, and sensitive to cancer drugs compared with those that clustered with mouse GCs of more differentiated origin.

  5. Adenoid glioblastoma

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    Cui-yun SUN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To report the diagnosis and treatment of one case of adenoid glioblastoma and investigate the clinicopathological features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Methods and Results A 63-year-old male patient suffered from left-skewed corner of the mouth for more than 10 d. Brain enhanced MRI revealed a cystic mass in left frontotemporal lobe and metastatic tumor was considered. 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG PET did not detected any sign of malignant neoplasm in the whole body. Under the guide of neuronavigation and ultrasound, the tumor was totally removed under microscope. Histologically, the tumor was located in brain parenchyma and presented a growing pattern of multicentric sheets or nests. Mucus scattered in some regions. Tumor cells were arranged in strip, cribriform, adenoid or papillary patterns. Tumor cells contained few cytoplasm with round or oval uniform hyperchromatic nuclei and occasionally obvious nucleoli. Proliferation of glomeruloid vascular endothelial cells could be seen. Immunohistochemical staining showed the cytoplasm of tumor cells was diffusively positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, vimentin (Vim and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN; nuclei was positive for oligodendrocytes transcription factor-2 (Olig-2 and P53; cytoplasm and nuclei were positive for S-100 protein (S-100; membrane was positive for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. The tumor cells showed a negative reaction for cytokeratin (CK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, CD31, CD34, CAM5.2 and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1. Ki-67 labeling index was 76.80%. The final pathological diagnosis was adenoid glioblastoma. The patient died of respiratroy failure and circulation function failure 12 d after operation. Conclusions Adenoid glioblastoma was a rare glioblastoma subtype. A clear diagnosis depends on histological findings and immunohistochemical

  6. Combined EGFR- and notch inhibition display additive inhibitory effect on glioblastoma cell viability and glioblastoma-induced endothelial cell sprouting in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staberg, Mikkel; Michaelsen, Signe Regner; Olsen, Louise Stobbe

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For Glioblastoma (GBM) patients, a number of anti-neoplastic strategies using specifically targeting drugs have been tested; however, the effects on survival have been limited. One explanation could be treatment resistance due to redundant signaling pathways, which substantiates...... the need for combination therapies. In GBM, both the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the notch signaling pathways are often deregulated and linked to cellular growth, invasion and angiogenesis. Several studies have confirmed cross-talk and co-dependence of these pathways. Therefore, this study....... In order to determine angiogenic processes, we used an endothelial spheroid sprouting assay. For assessment of secreted VEGF from GBM cells we performed a VEGF-quantikine ELISA. RESULTS: GBM cells were confirmed to express EGFR and Notch and to have the capacity to induce endothelial cell sprouting...

  7. Glioblastoma formation from cell population depleted of Prominin1-expressing cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nishide

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Prominin1 (Prom1, also known as CD133 in human has been widely used as a marker for cancer stem cells (CSCs, which self-renew and are tumorigenic, in malignant tumors including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. However, there is other evidence showing that Prom1-negative cancer cells also form tumors in vivo. Thus it remains controversial whether Prom1 is a bona fide marker for CSCs. To verify if Prom1-expressing cells are essential for tumorigenesis, we established a mouse line, whose Prom1-expressing cells can be eliminated conditionally by a Cre-inducible DTA gene on the Prom1 locus together with a tamoxifen-inducible CreER(TM, and generated glioma-initiating cells (GICs-LD by overexpressing both the SV40 Large T antigen and an oncogenic H-Ras(L61 in neural stem cells of the mouse line. We show here that the tamoxifen-treated GICs-LD (GICs-DTA form tumor-spheres in culture and transplantable GBM in vivo. Thus, our studies demonstrate that Prom1-expressing cells are dispensable for gliomagenesis in this mouse model.

  8. IL22/IL-22R pathway induces cell survival in human glioblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Akil

    Full Text Available Interleukin-22 (IL-22 is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that binds to a heterodimeric receptor consisting of IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1 and IL-10R2. IL-22R expression was initially characterized on epithelial cells, and plays an essential role in a number of inflammatory diseases. Recently, a functional receptor was detected on cancer cells such as hepatocarcinoma and lung carcinoma, but its presence was not reported in glioblastoma (GBM. Two GBM cell lines and 10 primary cell lines established from patients undergoing surgery for malignant GBM were used to investigate the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R by using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and confocal microscopy studies. The role of IL-22 in proliferation and survival of GBM cell lines was investigated in vitro by BrdU and ELISA cell death assays. We report herein that the two subunits of the IL-22R complex are expressed on human GBM cells. Their activation, depending on exogenous IL-22, induced antiapoptotic effect and cell proliferation. IL-22 treatment of GBM cells resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated Akt, STAT3 signaling protein and its downstream antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL and decreased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2. In addition, IL-22R subunits were expressed in all the 10 tested primary cell lines established from GBM tumors. Our results showed that IL-22R is expressed on GBM established and primary cell lines. Depending on STAT3, ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, IL-22 induced GBM cell survival. These data are consistent with a potential role of IL-22R in tumorigenesis of GBM. Since endogenous IL-22 was not detected in all studied GBM cells, we hypothesize that IL-22R could be activated by immune microenvironmental IL-22 producing cells.

  9. Induction of cell death in a glioblastoma line by hyperthermic therapy based on gold nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Cabada T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tamara Fernandez Cabada1,2,*, Cristina Sanchez Lopez de Pablo1,3,*, Alberto Martinez Serrano2, Francisco del Pozo Guerrero1,3, Jose Javier Serrano Olmedo1,3,*, Milagros Ramos Gomez1–3,* 1Centre for Biomedical Technology, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; 2Centre for Molecular Biology, "Severo Ochoa" Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; 3Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-bbn, Zaragoza, Spain.*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Metallic nanorods are promising agents for a wide range of biomedical applications. In this study, we developed an optical hyperthermia method capable of inducing in vitro death of glioblastoma cells.Methods: The procedure used was based on irradiation of gold nanorods with a continuous wave laser. This kind of nanoparticle converts absorbed light into localized heat within a short period of time due to the surface plasmon resonance effect. The effectiveness of the method was determined by measuring changes in cell viability after laser irradiation of glioblastoma cells in the presence of gold nanorods.Results: Laser irradiation in the presence of gold nanorods induced a significant decrease in cell viability, while no decrease in cell viability was observed with laser irradiation or incubation with gold nanorods alone. The mechanism of cell death mediated by gold nanorods during photothermal ablation was analyzed, indicating that treatment compromised the integrity of the cell membrane instead of initiating the process of programmed cell death.Conclusion: The use of gold nanorods in hyperthermal therapies is very effective in eliminating glioblastoma cells, and therefore represents an important area of research for therapeutic development.Keywords: laser irradiation, photothermal therapy, surface plasmon resonance, cancer

  10. Murine cell glycolipids customization by modular expression of glycosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Buschbeck, Marcus; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Functional analysis of glycolipids has been hampered by their complex nature and combinatorial expression in cells and tissues. We report an efficient and easy method to generate cells with specific glycolipids. In our proof of principle experiments we have demonstrated the customized expression of two relevant glycosphingolipids on murine fibroblasts, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA-3), a marker for stem cells, and Forssman glycolipid, a xenoantigen. Sets of genes encoding glycosyltansferases were transduced by viral infection followed by multi-color cell sorting based on coupled expression of fluorescent proteins.

  11. Downregulation of TLX induces TET3 expression and inhibits glioblastoma stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qi; Yang, Su; Ye, Peng; Tian, E; Sun, Guoqiang; Zhou, Jiehua; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Chao; Murai, Kiyohito; Zhao, Chunnian; Azizian, Krist T; Yang, Lu; Warden, Charles; Wu, Xiwei; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Brown, Christine; Badie, Behnam; Peng, Ling; Riggs, Arthur D; Rossi, John J; Shi, Yanhong

    2016-02-03

    Glioblastomas have been proposed to be maintained by highly tumorigenic glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) that are resistant to current therapy. Therefore, targeting GSCs is critical for developing effective therapies for glioblastoma. In this study, we identify the regulatory cascade of the nuclear receptor TLX and the DNA hydroxylase Ten eleven translocation 3 (TET3) as a target for human GSCs. We show that knockdown of TLX expression inhibits human GSC tumorigenicity in mice. Treatment of human GSC-grafted mice with viral vector-delivered TLX shRNA or nanovector-delivered TLX siRNA inhibits tumour development and prolongs survival. Moreover, we identify TET3 as a potent tumour suppressor downstream of TLX to regulate the growth and self-renewal in GSCs. This study identifies the TLX-TET3 axis as a potential therapeutic target for glioblastoma.

  12. Glioblastoma familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter O. Arruda

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a family with three members affected by glioblastoma. The proband patient, a 7 year-old girl, developed a rare complication, a pulmonary metastasis. Chromosomal analysis of her peripheral blood lymphocytes showed a normal karyotype (46, XX, without structural abnormalities. Cytogenetic study of the tumor cells disclosed several abnormalities: 46, XX, 7q - / 46, XX, -2, 4p-, 7p-, +15/ 46, XX. Some aspects about genetics of glial neoplasms are discussed.

  13. Glioblastoma progression is assisted by induction of immunosuppressive function of pericytes through interaction with tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdor, Rut; García-Bernal, David; Bueno, Carlos; Ródenas, Mónica; Moraleda, José M.; Macian, Fernando; Martínez, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of immune tolerance during Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) progression, is characterized by high levels expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, which suppress the function of tumor assocciated myeloid cells, and the activation and expansion of tumor antigen specific T cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the failed anti-tumor immune response around the blood vessels during GBM, are poorly understood. The consequences of possible interactions between cancer cells and the perivascular compartment might affect the tumor growth. In this work we show for the first time that GBM cells induce immunomodulatory changes in pericytes in a cell interaction-dependent manner, acquiring an immunosuppresive function that possibly assists the evasion of the anti-tumor immune response and consequently participates in tumor growth promotion. Expression of high levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines was detected in vitro and in vivo in brain pericytes that interacted with GBM cells (GBC-PC). Furthermore, reduction of surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules and major histocompatibility complex molecules in GBC-PC correlated with a failure of antigen presentation to T cells and the acquisition of the ability to supress T cell responses. In vivo, orthotopic xenotransplant of human glioblastoma in an immunocompetent mouse model showed significant GBM cell proliferation and tumor growth after the establishment of interspecific immunotolerance that followed GMB interaction with pericytes. PMID:28978142

  14. Active ras triggers death in glioblastoma cells through hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmeyer, Jean H; Kaul, Aparna; Johnson, Erin E; Maltese, William A

    2008-06-01

    Expression of activated Ras in glioblastoma cells induces accumulation of large phase-lucent cytoplasmic vacuoles, followed by cell death. This was previously described as autophagic cell death. However, unlike autophagosomes, the Ras-induced vacuoles are not bounded by a double membrane and do not sequester organelles or cytoplasm. Moreover, they are not acidic and do not contain the autophagosomal membrane protein LC3-II. Here we show that the vacuoles are enlarged macropinosomes. They rapidly incorporate extracellular fluid-phase tracers but do not sequester transferrin or the endosomal protein EEA1. Ultimately, the cells expressing activated Ras detach from the substratum and rupture, coincident with the displacement of cytoplasm with huge macropinosome-derived vacuoles. These changes are accompanied by caspase activation, but the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor carbobenzoxy-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone does not prevent cell death. Moreover, the majority of degenerating cells do not exhibit chromatin condensation typical of apoptosis. These observations provide evidence for a necrosis-like form of cell death initiated by dysregulation of macropinocytosis, which we have dubbed "methuosis." An activated form of the Rac1 GTPase induces a similar form of cell death, suggesting that Ras acts through Rac-dependent signaling pathways to hyperstimulate macropinocytosis in glioblastoma. Further study of these signaling pathways may lead to the identification of other chemical and physiologic triggers for this unusual form of cell death.

  15. Targeting and Therapy of Glioblastoma in a Mouse Model Using Exosomes Derived From Natural Killer Cells

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    Liya Zhu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveGlioblastoma is a highly aggressive primary brain tumor that is resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Natural killer (NK cells have been used to treat incurable cancers. Recent studies have investigated the effectiveness of NK-cell-derived exosomes (NK-Exo for treating incurable cancers such as melanoma, leukemia, and neuroblastoma; however, NK-Exo have not been used to treat glioblastoma. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effects of NK-Exo against aggressive glioblastoma both in vitro and in vivo and determined the tumor-targeting ability of NK-Exo by performing fluorescence imaging.MethodsU87/MG cells were transfected with the enhanced firefly luciferase (effluc and thy1.1 genes; thy1.1-positive cells were selected using microbeads. U87/MG/F cells were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, western blotting, and luciferase-activity assays. NK-Exo were isolated by ultracentrifugation, purified by density gradient centrifugation, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS, nanoparticle-tracking analysis (NTA, and western blotting. Cytokine levels in NK-Exo were compared to those in NK cells and NK-cell medium by performing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. NK-Exo-induced apoptosis of cancer cells was confirmed by flow cytometry and western blotting. In vivo therapeutic effects and specificity of NK-Exo against glioblastoma were assessed in a xenograft mouse model by fluorescence imaging. Xenograft mice were treated with NK-Exo, which was administered seven times through the tail vein. Tumor growth was monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI, and tumor volume was measured by ultrasound imaging. The mice were intraperitoneally injected with dextran sulfate 2 h before NK-Exo injection to decrease the liver uptake and increase the tumor specificity of NK-Exo.ResultsRT-PCR and western blotting confirmed the gene and protein

  16. Regulation of Murine Natural Killer Cell Commitment

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    Nicholas D Huntington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NK cells can derive from the same precursors as B and T cells, however to achieve lineage specificity, several transcription factors need to be activated or annulled. While a few important transcription factors have identified for NK genesis the mechanisms of how this is achieved is far from resolved. Adding to the complexity of this, NK cells are found and potentially develop in diverse locations in vivo and it remains to be addressed if a common NK cell precursor seeds diverse niches and how transcription factors may differentially regulate NK cell commitment in distinct microenvironments. Here we will summarise some recent findings in NK cell commitment and discuss how a NK cell transcriptional network might be organised, while addressing some misconceptions and anomalies along the way.

  17. Haemopedia: An Expression Atlas of Murine Hematopoietic Cells

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    Carolyn A. de Graaf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoiesis is a multistage process involving the differentiation of stem and progenitor cells into distinct mature cell lineages. Here we present Haemopedia, an atlas of murine gene-expression data containing 54 hematopoietic cell types, covering all the mature lineages in hematopoiesis. We include rare cell populations such as eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, and megakaryocytes, and a broad collection of progenitor and stem cells. We show that lineage branching and maturation during hematopoiesis can be reconstructed using the expression patterns of small sets of genes. We also have identified genes with enriched expression in each of the mature blood cell lineages, many of which show conserved lineage-enriched expression in human hematopoiesis. We have created an online web portal called Haemosphere to make analyses of Haemopedia and other blood cell transcriptional datasets easier. This resource provides simple tools to interrogate gene-expression-based relationships between hematopoietic cell types and genes of interest.

  18. The functional curcumin liposomes induce apoptosis in C6 glioblastoma cells and C6 glioblastoma stem cells in vitro and in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yahua; Ying, Xue; Xu, Haolun; Yan, Helu; Li, Xia; Tang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a kind of malignant gliomas that is almost impossible to cure due to the poor drug transportation across the blood-brain barrier and the existence of glioma stem cells. We prepared a new kind of targeted liposomes in order to improve the drug delivery system onto the glioma cells and induce the apoptosis of glioma stem cells afterward. In this experiment, curcumin was chosen to kill gliomas, while quinacrine was used to induce apoptosis of the glioma stem cells. Also, p -aminophenyl-α-D-mannopyranoside could facilitate the transport of liposomes across the blood-brain barrier and finally target the brain glioma cells. The cell experiments in vitro indicated that the targeted liposomes could significantly improve the anti-tumor effects of the drugs, while enhancing the uptake effects, apoptosis effects, and endocytic effects of C6 glioma cells and C6 glioma stem cells. Given the animal experiments in vivo, we discovered that the targeted liposomes could obviously increase the survival period of brain glioma-bearing mice and inhibit the growth of gliomas. In summary, curcumin and quinacrine liposomes modified with p -aminophenyl-α-D-mannopyranoside is a potential preparation to treat brain glioma cells and brain glioma stem cells.

  19. Analysis of the cytotoxicity of carbon-based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, in human glioblastoma and hepatoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Karolina Ewa; Samluk, Anna; Wierzbicki, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    carbon based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, on glioblastoma and hepatoma cells were compared. First, we confirmed previous results that diamond nanoparticles are practically nontoxic. Second, graphite nanoparticles exhibited a negative impact on glioblastoma, but not on hepatoma cells. The studied...... carbon nanoparticles could be a potentially useful tool for therapeutics delivery to the brain tissue with minimal side effects on the hepatocytes. Furthermore, we showed the influence of the nanoparticles on the stable, fluorescently labeled tumor cell lines and concluded that the labeled cells...

  20. Nanoelectroablation therapy for murine basal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuccitelli, Richard, E-mail: rich@bioelectromed.com [BioElectroMed Corp., 849 Mitten Rd., Suite 104, Burlingame, CA 94010 (United States); Tran, Kevin; Athos, Brian; Kreis, Mark; Nuccitelli, Pamela [BioElectroMed Corp., 849 Mitten Rd., Suite 104, Burlingame, CA 94010 (United States); Chang, Kris S.; Epstein, Ervin H. [The Children' s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609 (United States); Tang, Jean Y. [The Children' s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609 (United States); Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoelectroablation is a new, non-thermal therapy that triggers apoptosis in tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low energy, ultrashort, high voltage pulses ablate the tumor with little or no scar. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoelectroablation eliminates 99.8% of the BCC but may leave a few remnants behind. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pilot clinical trials on human BCCs are ongoing and leave no remnants in most cases. -- Abstract: When skin tumors are exposed to non-thermal, low energy, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF), apoptosis is initiated both in vitro and in vivo. This nanoelectroablation therapy has already been proven effective in treating subdermal murine allograft tumors. We wanted to determine if this therapy would be equally effective in the treatment of autochthonous BCC tumors in Ptch1{sup +/-}K14-Cre-ER p53 fl/fl mice. These tumors are similar to human BCCs in histology and in response to drug therapy . We have treated 27 BCCs across 8 mice with either 300 pulses of 300 ns duration or 2700 pulses of 100 ns duration, all at 30 kV/cm and 5-7 pulses per second. Every nsPEF-treated BCC began to shrink within a day after treatment and their initial mean volume of 36 {+-} 5 (SEM) mm{sup 3} shrunk by 76 {+-} 3% over the ensuing two weeks. After four weeks, they were 99.8% ablated if the size of the treatment electrode matched the tumor size. If the tumor was larger than the 4 mm wide electrode, multiple treatments were needed for complete ablation. Treated tumors were harvested for histological analysis at various times after treatment and exhibited apoptosis markers. Specifically, pyknosis of nuclei was evident as soon as 2 days after nsPEF treatment, and DNA fragmentation as detected via TUNEL staining was also evident post treatment. Nanoelectroablation is effective in triggering apoptosis and remission of radiation-induced BCCs with a single 6 min-long treatment of 2700 pulses.

  1. PCM1 Depletion Inhibits Glioblastoma Cell Ciliogenesis and Increases Cell Death and Sensitivity to Temozolomide

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    Lan B. Hoang-Minh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the molecules implicated in the growth and survival of glioblastoma (GBM cells and their response to temozolomide (TMZ, the standard-of-care chemotherapeutic agent, is necessary for the development of new therapies that would improve the outcome of current GBM treatments. In this study, we characterize the role of pericentriolar material 1 (PCM1, a component of centriolar satellites surrounding centrosomes, in GBM cell proliferation and sensitivity to genotoxic agents such as TMZ. We show that PCM1 is expressed around centrioles and ciliary basal bodies in patient GBM biopsies and derived cell lines and that its localization is dynamic throughout the cell cycle. To test whether PCM1 mediates GBM cell proliferation and/or response to TMZ, we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to generate primary GBM cell lines depleted of PCM1. These PCM1-depleted cells displayed reduced AZI1 satellite protein localization and significantly decreased proliferation, which was attributable to increased apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, PCM1-depleted lines were more sensitive to TMZ toxicity than control lines. The increase in TMZ sensitivity may be partly due to the reduced ability of PCM1-depleted cells to form primary cilia, as depletion of KIF3A also ablated GBM cells' ciliogenesis and increased their sensitivity to TMZ while preserving PCM1 localization. In addition, the co-depletion of KIF3A and PCM1 did not have any additive effect on TMZ sensitivity. Together, our data suggest that PCM1 plays multiple roles in GBM pathogenesis and that associated pathways could be targeted to augment current or future anti-GBM therapies.

  2. Lipoprotein-biomimetic nanostructure enables efficient targeting delivery of siRNA to Ras-activated glioblastoma cells via macropinocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Lin; Jiang, Gan; Song, Qing-Xiang; Gu, Xiao; Hu, Meng; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Song, Hua-Hua; Chen, Le-Pei; Lin, Ying-Ying; Jiang, Di; Chen, Jun; Feng, Jun-Feng; Qiu, Yong-Ming; Jiang, Ji-Yao; Jiang, Xin-Guo; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Gao, Xiao-Ling

    2017-05-01

    Hyperactivated Ras regulates many oncogenic pathways in several malignant human cancers including glioblastoma and it is an attractive target for cancer therapies. Ras activation in cancer cells drives protein internalization via macropinocytosis as a key nutrient-gaining process. By utilizing this unique endocytosis pathway, here we create a biologically inspired nanostructure that can induce cancer cells to `drink drugs' for targeting activating transcription factor-5 (ATF5), an overexpressed anti-apoptotic transcription factor in glioblastoma. Apolipoprotein E3-reconstituted high-density lipoprotein is used to encapsulate the siRNA-loaded calcium phosphate core and facilitate it to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, thus targeting the glioblastoma cells in a macropinocytosis-dependent manner. The nanostructure carrying ATF5 siRNA exerts remarkable RNA-interfering efficiency, increases glioblastoma cell apoptosis and inhibits tumour cell growth both in vitro and in xenograft tumour models. This strategy of targeting the macropinocytosis caused by Ras activation provides a nanoparticle-based approach for precision therapy in glioblastoma and other Ras-activated cancers.

  3. Benzyl isothiocyanate alters the gene expression with cell cycle regulation and cell death in human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Yu, Chien-Chih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Hsia, Te-Chun; Wu, King-Chuen; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Lu, Kung-Wen; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant devastating brain tumor in adults. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is one of the isothiocyanates that have been shown to induce human cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Herein, the effect of BITC on cell viability and apoptotic cell death and the genetic levels of human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells in vitro were investigated. We found that BITC induced cell morphological changes, decreased cell viability and the induction of cell apoptosis in GBM 8401 cells was time-dependent. cDNA microarray was used to examine the effects of BITC on GBM 8401 cells and we found that numerous genes associated with cell death and cell cycle regulation in GBM 8401 cells were altered after BITC treatment. The results show that expression of 317 genes was upregulated, and two genes were associated with DNA damage, the DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) was increased 3.66-fold and the growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible α (GADD45A) was increased 2.34-fold. We also found that expression of 182 genes was downregulated and two genes were associated with receptor for cell responses to stimuli, the EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) was inhibited 2.01-fold and the TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) was inhibited 2.08-fold. BITC inhibited seven mitochondria ribosomal genes, the mitochondrial ribosomal protein; tumor protein D52 (MRPS28) was inhibited 2.06-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L23 (MRPL23) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S12 (MRPS12) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L12 (MRPL12) decreased 2.25-fold and the mitochondria ribosomal protein S34 (MRPS34) was decreased 2.30-fold in GBM 8401 cells. These changes of gene expression can provide the effects of BITC on the genetic level and are

  4. Sulforaphane suppresses the growth of glioblastoma cells, glioblastoma stem cell-like spheroids, and tumor xenografts through multiple cell signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijangi-Vishehsaraei, Khadijeh; Reza Saadatzadeh, M; Wang, Haiyan; Nguyen, Angie; Kamocka, Malgorzata M; Cai, Wenjing; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Halum, Stacey L; Sarkaria, Jann N; Pollok, Karen E; Safa, Ahmad R

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Defects in the apoptotic machinery and augmented survival signals contribute to drug resistance in glioblastoma (GBM). Moreover, another complexity related to GBM treatment is the concept that GBM development and recurrence may arise from the expression of GBM stem cells (GSCs). Therefore, the use of a multifaceted approach or multitargeted agents that affect specific tumor cell characteristics will likely be necessary to successfully eradicate GBM. The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of sulforaphane (SFN)-a constituent of cruciferous vegetables with a multitargeted effect-as a therapeutic agent for GBM. METHODS The inhibitory effects of SFN on established cell lines, early primary cultures, CD133-positive GSCs, GSC-derived spheroids, and GBM xenografts were evaluated using various methods, including GSC isolation and the sphere-forming assay, analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis, cell growth inhibition assay, comet assays for assessing SFN-triggered DNA damage, confocal microscopy, Western blot analysis, and the determination of in vivo efficacy as assessed in human GBM xenograft models. RESULTS SFN triggered the significant inhibition of cell survival and induced apoptotic cell death, which was associated with caspase 3 and caspase 7 activation. Moreover, SFN triggered the formation of mitochondrial ROS, and SFN-triggered cell death was ROS dependent. Comet assays revealed that SFN increased single- and double-strand DNA breaks in GBM. Compared with the vehicle control cells, a significantly higher amount of γ-H2AX foci correlated with an increase in DNA double-strand breaks in the SFN-treated samples. Furthermore, SFN robustly inhibited the growth of GBM cell-induced cell death in established cell cultures and early-passage primary cultures and, most importantly, was effective in eliminating GSCs, which play a major role in drug resistance and disease recurrence. In vivo studies revealed that SFN

  5. Combinatorial Effects of VEGFR Kinase Inhibitor Axitinib and Oncolytic Virotherapy in Mouse and Human Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cell Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipongkor; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Peters, Cole W; Antoszczyk, Slawomir J; Rabkin, Samuel D; Martuza, Robert L

    2018-03-29

    Purpose: Glioblastoma (GBM), a fatal brain cancer, contains a subpopulation of GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) that contribute to resistance to current therapy. Angiogenesis also plays a key role in GBM progression. Therefore, we developed a strategy to target the complex GBM microenvironment, including GSCs and tumor vasculature. Experimental Design: We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of VEFGR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) axitinib in vitro and then tested antitumor efficacy of axitinib in combination with oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) expressing antiangiogenic cytokine murine IL12 (G47Δ-mIL12) in two orthotopic GSC-derived GBM models: patient-derived recurrent MGG123 GSCs, forming vascular xenografts in immunodeficient mice; and mouse 005 GSCs, forming syngeneic tumors in immunocompetent mice. Results: GSCs form endothelial-like tubes and were sensitive to axitinib. G47Δ-mIL12 significantly improved survival, as did axitinib, while dual combinations further extended survival significantly compared with single therapies alone in both models. In MGG123 tumors, axitinib was effective only at high doses (50 mg/kg), alone and in combination with G47Δ-mIL12, and this was associated with greatly decreased vascularity, increased macrophage infiltration, extensive tumor necrosis, and PDGFR/ERK pathway inhibition. In the mouse 005 model, antiglioma activity, after single and combination therapy, was only observed in immunocompetent mice and not the T-cell-deficient athymic mice. Interestingly, immune checkpoint inhibition did not improve efficacy. Conclusions: Systemic TKI (axitinib) beneficially combines with G47Δ-mIL12 to enhance antitumor efficacy in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent orthotopic GBM models. Our results support further investigation of TKIs in combination with oHSV for GBM treatment. Clin Cancer Res; 1-14. ©2018 AACR. ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Targeted destruction of murine macrophage cells with bioconjugated gold nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pissuwan, Dakrong [University of Technology Sydney, Institute for Nanoscale Technology (Australia); Valenzuela, Stella M. [University of Technology Sydney, Department of Medical and Molecular Biosciences (Australia)], E-mail: stella.valenzuela@uts.edu.au; Killingsworth, Murray C. [Sydney South West Pathology Service (Australia)], E-mail: murray.killingsworth@swsahs.nsw.gov.au; Xu, Xiaoda; Cortie, Michael B. [University of Technology Sydney, Institute for Nanoscale Technology (Australia)], E-mail: michael.cortie@uts.edu.au

    2007-12-15

    Gold nanorods manifest a readily tunable longitudinal plasmon resonance with light and consequently have potential for use in photothermal therapeutics. Recent work by others has shown how gold nanoshells and rods can be used to target cancer cells, which can then be destroyed using relatively high power laser radiation ({approx}1x10{sup 5} to 1x10{sup 10} W/m{sup 2}). Here we extend this concept to demonstrate how gold nanorods can be modified to bind to target macrophage cells, and show that high intensity laser radiation is not necessary, with even 5x10{sup 2} W/m{sup 2} being sufficient, provided that a total fluence of {approx}30 J/cm{sup 2} is delivered. We used the murine cell line RAW 264.7 and the monoclonal antibody CD11b, raised against murine macrophages, as our model system and a 5 mW solid state diode laser as our energy source. Exposure of the cells labeled with gold nanorods to a laser fluence of 30 J/cm{sup 2} resulted in 81% cell death compared to only 0.9% in the control, non-labeled cells.

  7. Targeted destruction of murine macrophage cells with bioconjugated gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissuwan, Dakrong; Valenzuela, Stella M.; Killingsworth, Murray C.; Xu, Xiaoda; Cortie, Michael B.

    2007-12-01

    Gold nanorods manifest a readily tunable longitudinal plasmon resonance with light and consequently have potential for use in photothermal therapeutics. Recent work by others has shown how gold nanoshells and rods can be used to target cancer cells, which can then be destroyed using relatively high power laser radiation (˜1×105 to 1×1010 W/m2). Here we extend this concept to demonstrate how gold nanorods can be modified to bind to target macrophage cells, and show that high intensity laser radiation is not necessary, with even 5×102 W/m2 being sufficient, provided that a total fluence of ˜30 J/cm2 is delivered. We used the murine cell line RAW 264.7 and the monoclonal antibody CD11b, raised against murine macrophages, as our model system and a 5 mW solid state diode laser as our energy source. Exposure of the cells labeled with gold nanorods to a laser fluence of 30 J/cm2 resulted in 81% cell death compared to only 0.9% in the control, non-labeled cells.

  8. Targeted destruction of murine macrophage cells with bioconjugated gold nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pissuwan, Dakrong; Valenzuela, Stella M.; Killingsworth, Murray C.; Xu, Xiaoda; Cortie, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    Gold nanorods manifest a readily tunable longitudinal plasmon resonance with light and consequently have potential for use in photothermal therapeutics. Recent work by others has shown how gold nanoshells and rods can be used to target cancer cells, which can then be destroyed using relatively high power laser radiation (∼1x10 5 to 1x10 10 W/m 2 ). Here we extend this concept to demonstrate how gold nanorods can be modified to bind to target macrophage cells, and show that high intensity laser radiation is not necessary, with even 5x10 2 W/m 2 being sufficient, provided that a total fluence of ∼30 J/cm 2 is delivered. We used the murine cell line RAW 264.7 and the monoclonal antibody CD11b, raised against murine macrophages, as our model system and a 5 mW solid state diode laser as our energy source. Exposure of the cells labeled with gold nanorods to a laser fluence of 30 J/cm 2 resulted in 81% cell death compared to only 0.9% in the control, non-labeled cells

  9. Analysis of gene expression and chemoresistance of CD133+ cancer stem cells in glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lizhi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a small population of cancer stem cells in adult and pediatric brain tumors has been identified. Some evidence has suggested that CD133 is a marker for a subset of leukemia and glioblastoma cancer stem cells. Especially, CD133 positive cells isolated from human glioblastoma may initiate tumors and represent novel targets for therapeutics. The gene expression and the drug resistance property of CD133 positive cancer stem cells, however, are still unknown. Results In this study, by FACS analysis we determined the percentage of CD133 positive cells in three primary cultured cell lines established from glioblastoma patients 10.2%, 69.7% and 27.5%, respectively. We also determined the average mRNA levels of markers associated with neural precursors. For example, CD90, CD44, CXCR4, Nestin, Msi1 and MELK mRNA on CD133 positive cells increased to 15.6, 5.7, 337.8, 21.4, 84 and 1351 times, respectively, compared to autologous CD133 negative cells derived from cell line No. 66. Additionally, CD133 positive cells express higher levels of BCRP1 and MGMT mRNA, as well as higher mRNA levels of genes that inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, CD133 positive cells were significantly resistant to chemotherapeutic agents including temozolomide, carboplatin, paclitaxel (Taxol and etoposide (VP16 compared to autologous CD133 negative cells. Finally, CD133 expression was significantly higher in recurrent GBM tissue obtained from five patients as compared to their respective newly diagnosed tumors. Conclusion Our study for the first time provided evidence that CD133 positive cancer stem cells display strong capability on tumor's resistance to chemotherapy. This resistance is probably contributed by the CD133 positive cell with higher expression of on BCRP1 and MGMT, as well as the anti-apoptosis protein and inhibitors of apoptosis protein families. Future treatment should target this small population of CD133 positive cancer stem cells in

  10. β-Arrestin 1 has an essential role in neurokinin-1 receptor-mediated glioblastoma cell proliferation and G2/M phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Xin; Li, Xiao-Fang; Yuan, Guo-Qiang; Hu, Hui; Song, Xiao-Yun; Li, Jing-Yi; Miao, Xiao-Kang; Zhou, Tian-Xiong; Yang, Wen-Le; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Mou, Ling-Yun; Wang, Rui

    2017-05-26

    Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor and has a poor prognosis. Tachykinin receptor neurokinin-1 (NK1R) is a promising target in glioblastoma therapy because of its overexpression in human glioblastoma. NK1R agonists promote glioblastoma cell growth, whereas NK1R antagonists efficiently inhibit cell growth both in vitro and in vivo However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these effects are incompletely understood. β-Arrestins (ARRBs) serve as scaffold proteins and adapters to mediate intracellular signal transduction. Here we show that the ARRB1-mediated signaling pathway is essential for NK1-mediated glioblastoma cell proliferation. ARRB1 knockdown significantly inhibited NK1-mediated glioblastoma cell proliferation and induced G 2 /M phase cell cycle arrest. ARRB1 knockdown cells showed remarkable down-regulation of CDC25C/CDK1/cyclin B1 activity. We also demonstrated that ARRB1 mediated prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt in glioblastoma cells induced by NK1R activation. ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation are involved in regulating CDC25C/CDK1/cyclin B1 activity. The lack of long-term ERK1/2 and Akt activation in ARRB1 knockdown cells was at least partly responsible for the delayed cell cycle progression and proliferation. Moreover, we found that ARRB1-mediated ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation regulated the transcriptional activity of both NF-κB and AP-1, which were involved in cyclin B1 expression. ARRB1 deficiency increased the sensitivity of glioblastoma cells to the treatment of NK1R antagonists. Taken together, our results suggest that ARRB1 plays an essential role in NK1R-mediated cell proliferation and G 2 /M transition in glioblastoma cells. Interference with ARRB1-mediated signaling via NK1R may have potential significance for therapeutic strategies targeting glioblastoma. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Flow cytometric quantification of radiation responses of murine peritoneal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokita, N.; Raju, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Methods have been developed to distinguish subpopulations of murine peritoneal cells, and these were applied to the measurement of early changes in peritoneal cells after irradiation. The ratio of the two major subpopulations in the peritoneal fluid, lymphocytes and macrophages, was measured rapidly by means of cell volume distribution analysis as well as by hypotonic propidium iodide (PI) staining. After irradiation, dose and time dependent changes were noted in the cell volume distributions: a rapid loss of peritoneal lymphocytes, and an increase in the mean cell volume of macrophages. The hypotonic PI staining characteristics of the peritoneal cells showed two or three distinctive G 1 peaks. The ratio of the areas of these peaks was also found to be dependent of the radiation dose and the time after irradiation. These results demonstrate that these two parameters may be used to monitor changes induced by irradiation (biological dosimetry), and to sort different peritoneal subpopulations

  12. Biomimetic brain tumor niche regulates glioblastoma cells towards a cancer stem cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Chiang; Lee, I-Chi; Chen, Pin-Yuan

    2018-05-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant primary brain tumor and contains tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs), which support the progression of tumor growth. The selection of CSCs and facilitation of the brain tumor niches may assist the development of novel therapeutics for GBM. Herein, hydrogel materials composed of agarose and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HMC) in different concentrations were established and compared to emulate brain tumor niches and CSC microenvironments within a label-free system. Human GBM cell line, U-87 MG, was cultured on a series of HMC-agarose based culture system. Cell aggregation and spheroids formation were investigated after 4 days of culture, and 2.5% HMC-agarose based culture system demonstrated the largest spheroids number and size. Moreover, CD133 marker expression of GBM cells after 6 days of culture in 2.5% HMC-agarose based culture system was 60%, relatively higher than the control group at only 15%. Additionally, cells on 2.5% HMC-agarose based culture system show the highest chemoresistance, even at the high dose of 500 µM temozolomide for 72 h, the live cell ratio was still > 80%. Furthermore, the results also indicate that the expression of ABCG2 gene was up-regulated after culture in 2.5% HMC-agarose based culture system. Therefore, our results demonstrated that biomimetic brain tumor microenvironment may regulate GBM cells towards the CSC phenotype and expression of CSC characteristics. The microenvironment selection and spheroids formation in HMC-agarose based culture system may provide a label-free CSC selection strategy and drug testing model for future biomedical applications.

  13. miR-124 and miR-137 inhibit proliferation of glioblastoma multiforme cells and induce differentiation of brain tumor stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Joseph F

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is an invariably fatal central nervous system tumor despite treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Further insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive GBM formation are required to improve patient outcome. MicroRNAs are emerging as important regulators of cellular differentiation and proliferation, and have been implicated in the etiology of a variety of cancers, yet the role of microRNAs in GBM remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of microRNAs in regulating the differentiation and proliferation of neural stem cells and glioblastoma-multiforme tumor cells. Methods We used quantitative RT-PCR to assess microRNA expression in high-grade astrocytomas and adult mouse neural stem cells. To assess the function of candidate microRNAs in high-grade astrocytomas, we transfected miR mimics to cultured-mouse neural stem cells, -mouse oligodendroglioma-derived stem cells, -human glioblastoma multiforme-derived stem cells and -glioblastoma multiforme cell lines. Cellular differentiation was assessed by immunostaining, and cellular proliferation was determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Results Our studies revealed that expression levels of microRNA-124 and microRNA-137 were significantly decreased in anaplastic astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade III and glioblastoma multiforme (World Health Organization grade IV relative to non-neoplastic brain tissue (P erbB tumors and cluster of differentiation 133+ human glioblastoma multiforme-derived stem cells (SF6969. Transfection of microRNA-124 or microRNA-137 also induced G1 cell cycle arrest in U251 and SF6969 glioblastoma multiforme cells, which was associated with decreased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 6 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pSer 807/811 proteins. Conclusion microRNA-124 and microRNA-137 induce differentiation of adult mouse neural stem cells, mouse

  14. Heterogenic expression of stem cell markers in patient-derived glioblastoma spheroid cultures exposed to long-term hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Tine; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Petterson, Stine Asferg

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the time profile of hypoxia and stem cell markers in glioblastoma spheroids of known molecular subtype. MATERIALS & METHODS: Patient-derived glioblastoma spheroids were cultured up to 7 days in either 2% or 21% oxygen. Levels of proliferation (Ki-67), hypoxia (HIF-1α, CA9...... and VEGF) and stem cell markers (CD133, nestin and musashi-1) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Hypoxia markers as well as CD133 and partially nestin increased in long-term hypoxia. The proliferation rate and spheroid size were highest in normoxia. CONCLUSION: We found differences...... in hypoxia and stem cell marker profiles between the patient-derived glioblastoma cultures. This heterogeneity should be taken into consideration in development of future therapeutic strategies....

  15. Pluronic-based micelle encapsulation potentiates myricetin-induced cytotoxicity in human glioblastoma cells

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    Tang XJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiang-Jun Tang,1,* Kuan-Ming Huang,1,* Hui Gui,1,* Jun-Jie Wang,2 Jun-Ti Lu,1 Long-Jun Dai,1,3 Li Zhang,1 Gang Wang2 1Department of Neurosurgery, TaiHe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Jiangsu University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: As one of the natural herbal flavonoids, myricetin has attracted much research interest, mainly owing to its remarkable anticancer properties and negligible side effects. It holds great potential to be developed as an ideal anticancer drug through improving its bioavailability. This study was performed to investigate the effects of Pluronic-based micelle encapsulation on myricetin-induced cytotoxicity and the mechanisms underlying its anticancer properties in human glioblastoma cells. Cell viability was assessed using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay and a real-time cell analyzer. Immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction techniques were used for determining the expression levels of related molecules in protein and mRNA. The results indicated that myricetin-induced cytotoxicity was highly potentiated by the encapsulation of myricetin. Mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was demonstrated to be involved in myricetin-induced glioblastoma cell death. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/PI3K/Akt pathway located in the plasma membrane and cytosol and the RAS-ERK pathway located in mitochondria served as upstream and downstream targets, respectively, in myricetin-induced apoptosis. MiR-21 inhibitors interrupted the expression of EGFR, p-Akt, and K-Ras in the same fashion as myricetin-loaded mixed micelles (MYR-MCs and miR-21 expression were dose-dependently inhibited by MYR-MCs, indicating the interaction of miR-21 with MYR-MCs. This study provided evidence

  16. Extracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate: a novel actor in human glioblastoma stem cell survival.

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    Elena Riccitelli

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas are the most frequent and aggressive intracranial neoplasms in humans, and despite advances and the introduction of the alkylating agent temozolomide in therapy have improved patient survival, resistance mechanisms limit benefits. Recent studies support that glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs, a cell subpopulation within the tumour, are involved in the aberrant expansion and therapy resistance properties of glioblastomas, through still unclear mechanisms. Emerging evidence suggests that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P a potent onco-promoter able to act as extracellular signal, favours malignant and chemoresistance properties in GSCs. Notwithstanding, the origin of S1P in the GSC environment remains unknown. We investigated S1P metabolism, release, and role in cell survival properties of GSCs isolated from either U87-MG cell line or a primary culture of human glioblastoma. We show that both GSC models, grown as neurospheres and expressing GSC markers, are resistant to temozolomide, despite not expressing the DNA repair protein MGMT, a major contributor to temozolomide-resistance. Pulse experiments with labelled sphingosine revealed that both GSC types are able to rapidly phosphorylate the long-chain base, and that the newly produced S1P is efficiently degraded. Of relevance, we found that S1P was present in GSC extracellular medium, its level being significantly higher than in U87-MG cells, and that the extracellular/intracellular ratio of S1P was about ten-fold higher in GSCs. The activity of sphingosine kinases was undetectable in GSC media, suggesting that mechanisms of S1P transport to the extracellular environment are constitutive in GSCs. In addition we found that an inhibitor of S1P biosynthesis made GSCs sensitive to temozolomide (TMZ, and that exogenous S1P reverted this effect, thus involving extracellular S1P as a GSC survival signal in TMZ resistance. Altogether our data implicate for the first time GSCs as a pivotal source

  17. Cancer stem cells from a rare form of glioblastoma multiforme involving the neurogenic ventricular wall

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    Li Shengwen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cancer stem cell (CSC hypothesis posits that deregulated neural stem cells (NSCs form the basis of brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. GBM, however, usually forms in the cerebral white matter while normal NSCs reside in subventricular and hippocampal regions. We attempted to characterize CSCs from a rare form of glioblastoma multiforme involving the neurogenic ventricular wall. Methods We described isolating CSCs from a GBM involving the lateral ventricles and characterized these cells with in vitro molecular biomarker profiling, cellular behavior, ex vivo and in vivo techniques. Results The patient’s MRI revealed a heterogeneous mass with associated edema, involving the left subventricular zone. Histological examination of the tumor established it as being a high-grade glial neoplasm, characterized by polygonal and fusiform cells with marked nuclear atypia, amphophilic cytoplasm, prominent nucleoli, frequent mitotic figures, irregular zones of necrosis and vascular hyperplasia. Recurrence of the tumor occurred shortly after the surgical resection. CD133-positive cells, isolated from the tumor, expressed stem cell markers including nestin, CD133, Ki67, Sox2, EFNB1, EFNB2, EFNB3, Cav-1, Musashi, Nucleostemin, Notch 2, Notch 4, and Pax6. Biomarkers expressed in differentiated cells included Cathepsin L, Cathepsin B, Mucin18, Mucin24, c-Myc, NSE, and TIMP1. Expression of unique cancer-related transcripts in these CD133-positive cells, such as caveolin-1 and −2, do not appear to have been previously reported in the literature. Ex vivo organotypic brain slice co-culture showed that the CD133+ cells behaved like tumor cells. The CD133-positive cells also induced tumor formation when they were stereotactically transplanted into the brains of the immune-deficient NOD/SCID mice. Conclusions This brain tumor involving the neurogenic lateral ventricular wall was comprised of tumor-forming, CD133-positive cancer

  18. Nanomelatonin triggers superior anticancer functionality in a human malignant glioblastoma cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sanjeev Kumar; Srivastava, Anup Kumar; Dev, Atul; Kaundal, Babita; Choudhury, Subhasree Roy; Karmakar, Surajit

    2017-09-01

    Melatonin (MEL) has promising medicinal value as an anticancer agent in a variety of malignancies, but there are difficulties in achieving a therapeutic dose due to its short half-life, low bioavailability, poor solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism. In this study chitosan/tripolyphosphate (TPP) nanoparticles were prepared by an ionic gelation method to overcome the therapeutic challenges of melatonin and to improve its anticancer efficacy. Characterization of the melatonin-loaded chitosan (MEL-CS) nanoformulation was performed using transmission and scanning electron microscopies, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. In vitro release, cellular uptake and efficacy studies were tested for their enhanced anticancer potential in human U87MG glioblastoma cells. Confocal studies revealed higher cellular uptake of MEL-CS nanoparticles and enhanced anticancer efficacy in human malignant glioblastoma cancer cells than in healthy non-malignant human HEK293T cells in mono- and co-culture models. Our study has shown for the first time that MEL-CS nanocomposites are therapeutically more effective as compared to free MEL at inducing functional anticancer efficacy in the human brain tumour U87MG cell line.

  19. Modeled microgravity suppressed invasion and migration of human glioblastoma U87 cells through downregulating store-operated calcium entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zi-xuan [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Rao, Wei [Department of Neurosurgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Wang, Huan [Department of Dermatology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Wang, Nan-ding [Department of Cardiology, Xi' an Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Si, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiao; Li, Jun-chang [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Wang, Zong-ren, E-mail: zongren@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China)

    2015-02-13

    Glioblastoma is the most common brain tumor and is characterized with robust invasion and migration potential resulting in poor prognosis. Previous investigations have demonstrated that modeled microgravity (MMG) could decline the cell proliferation and attenuate the metastasis potential in several cell lines. In this study, we studied the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials of glioblastoma in human glioblastoma U87 cells. We found that MMG stimulation significantly attenuated the invasion and migration potentials, decreased thapsigargin (TG) induced store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and downregulated the expression of Orai1 in U87 cells. Inhibition of SOCE by 2-APB or stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) downregulation both mimicked the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials in U87 cells. Furthermore, upregulation of Orai1 significantly weakened the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials in U87 cells. Therefore, these findings indicated that MMG stimulation inhibited the invasion and migration potentials of U87 cells by downregulating the expression of Orai1 and sequentially decreasing the SOCE, suggesting that MMG might be a new potential therapeutic strategy in glioblastoma treatment in the future. - Highlights: • Modeled microgravity (MMG) suppressed migration and invasion in U87 cells. • MMG downregulated the SOCE and the expression of Orai1. • SOCE inhibition mimicked the effects of MMG on migration and invasion potentials. • Restoration of SOCE diminished the effects of MMG on migration and invasion.

  20. Modeled microgravity suppressed invasion and migration of human glioblastoma U87 cells through downregulating store-operated calcium entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Zi-xuan; Rao, Wei; Wang, Huan; Wang, Nan-ding; Si, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiao; Li, Jun-chang; Wang, Zong-ren

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common brain tumor and is characterized with robust invasion and migration potential resulting in poor prognosis. Previous investigations have demonstrated that modeled microgravity (MMG) could decline the cell proliferation and attenuate the metastasis potential in several cell lines. In this study, we studied the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials of glioblastoma in human glioblastoma U87 cells. We found that MMG stimulation significantly attenuated the invasion and migration potentials, decreased thapsigargin (TG) induced store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and downregulated the expression of Orai1 in U87 cells. Inhibition of SOCE by 2-APB or stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) downregulation both mimicked the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials in U87 cells. Furthermore, upregulation of Orai1 significantly weakened the effects of MMG on the invasion and migration potentials in U87 cells. Therefore, these findings indicated that MMG stimulation inhibited the invasion and migration potentials of U87 cells by downregulating the expression of Orai1 and sequentially decreasing the SOCE, suggesting that MMG might be a new potential therapeutic strategy in glioblastoma treatment in the future. - Highlights: • Modeled microgravity (MMG) suppressed migration and invasion in U87 cells. • MMG downregulated the SOCE and the expression of Orai1. • SOCE inhibition mimicked the effects of MMG on migration and invasion potentials. • Restoration of SOCE diminished the effects of MMG on migration and invasion

  1. [RITA combined with temozolomide inhibits the proliferation of human glioblastoma U87 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Yan; Feng, Xiao-Li; Song, Xin-Pei; Zeng, Huan-Chao; Cao, Zhong-Xu; Xiao, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Bao; Wu, Qing-Hua

    2016-10-20

    To observe the effect of RITA, a small molecule that targets p53, combined with temozolomide (TMZ) on proliferation, colony formation and apoptosis of human glioblastoma U87 cells and explore the underlying mechanism. Cultured U87 cells were treated with RITA (1, 5, 10, 20 µmol/L), TMZ, or RITA+TMZ (half dose) for 24, 48 or 72 h. MTS assay were used to detect the cell proliferation, and the cell proliferation rate and inhibitory rate were calculated. The effect of combined treatments was evaluated by the q value. The expressions of p53, p21 and other apoptosis-associated genes were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting; cell apoptosis was assayed using flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI double staining; colony formation of the cells was detected with crystal violet staining. MTS assay showed that RITA at the 4 doses more potently inhibited U87 cell viability than TMZ at 72 h (P=0.000) with inhibitory rates of 25.94%-41.38% and 3.84%-8.20%, respectively. RITA combined with TMZ caused a more significant inhibition of U87 cells (29.21%-52.11%) than RITA (PRITA+TMZ for 48 h resulted in q values exceeding 1.2 and showed an obvious synergistic effect of the drugs. Both RITA and TMZ, especially the latter, significantly increased the expressions of p53, p21, puma, and other apoptosis-associated genes to accelerate apoptosis and inhibit the growth and colony formation of U87 cells, and the effect was more obvious with a combined treatment. RITA inhibits the growth of human glioblastoma cells and enhance their sensitivity to TMZ by up-regulating p53 expression, and when combined, RITA and TMZ show a synergistic effect to cause a stronger cell inhibition.

  2. Assessment of the proliferation status of glioblastoma cell and tumour tissue after nanoplatinum treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutwin, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Jaworski, Slawomir

    2017-01-01

    nanoparticles (NP-Pt). The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the antiproliferative properties of NP-Pt and cisplatin against U87 and U118 glioma cell lines and U87 tumour tissue. NP-Pt and cisplatin were incubated with U87 and U118 glioma cells or administered directly into glioma tumour tissue. Cell...... and the migration of cancer cells but also downregulated the level of PCNA protein expression in tumour tissue. Furthermore, NP-Pt caused oxidative DNA damage in tumour tissue to a higher degree than cisplatin. Consequently, NP-Pt can be considered as an effective inhibitor of glioblastoma tumour cell proliferation....... However, the mechanism of action and potential side effects need to be elucidated further...

  3. Suppression of survivin expression in glioblastoma cells by the Ras inhibitor farnesylthiosalicylic acid promotes caspase-dependent apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Roy; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Rechavi, Gideon; Kloog, Yoel

    2006-09-01

    The Ras inhibitor farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS) has been shown to induce apoptosis in glioblastoma multiforme, but its mechanism of action was unknown. We show that FTS or dominant-negative Ras, by deregulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt signaling, decreases survivin gene transcripts in U87 glioblastoma multiforme, leading to disappearance of survivin protein and cell death. FTS affected both Ras-controlled regulators of survivin transcription and Ras-regulated survival signals. Thus, Ras inhibition by FTS resulted in release of the survivin "brake" on apoptosis and in activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway: dephosphorylation of Bad, activation of Bax, release of cytochrome c, and caspase activation. FTS-induced apoptosis of U87 cells was strongly attenuated by forced expression of survivin or by caspase inhibitors. These results show that resistance to apoptosis in glioblastoma multiforme can be abolished by a single Ras inhibitor, which targets both survivin, a critical inhibitor of apoptosis, and the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic machinery.

  4. Radiotherapy effect on the release of tumor micro-vesicles by glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a major therapeutic tool for glioblastoma (GBM). However, the post-radiation recurrence is almost inevitable, due to the emergence of a subpopulation of radioresistant cancer cells with greater proliferative, invasive, and pro-angiogenic capacities. The objective of this study was to investigate in vitro how irradiated cancer cells affect the function of untreated neighboring tumor cells and endothelial cells, focusing on signals exchange initiated by irradiation, such as soluble factors and tumor micro-vesicles (TMVs). Radiotherapy has slowed down the proliferation of GBM cells (T98G, U87) and induced mitotic death of 50-60%, without significant apoptosis. Through long-term monitoring of cell growth (xCELLigence) and wound-healing assay, we have confirmed that surviving GBM cells after irradiation release signals that can change the functions of endothelial cells HUVEC and non-irradiated tumor cells. In addition to the secretion of known soluble factors (VEGF, uPA), we were able to show using scanning electron microscopy and the Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), the release of tumor micro-vesicles (TMVS), whose size was generally less than 500 nm. By NTA and flow cytometry, we have shown that the release of TMVs (exosome + 'shedding vesicles') can be significantly stimulated by irradiation in two lines, in a time-dependent manner. According to the proteomics analysis, soluble factors such as VEGF or IL-8, well known as pro-angiogenic factors, rather contribute to promote the survival or proliferation of HUVEC, while the released TMVs after irradiation, significantly altered the migration abilities of non-irradiated HUVEC and tumor cells. The pro-migratory properties of TMVs could thus contribute to glioblastoma recurrence after irradiation. (author) [fr

  5. Anticancer potential and mechanism of action of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) supercritical CO₂ extract in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Lollett, Ivonne V; Escalon, Enrique; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is among the less-investigated species of Curcuma for anticancer properties. We have investigated the anticancer potential and the mechanism of action of a supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) in the U-87MG human glioblastoma cell line. CA demonstrated higher cytotoxicity than temozolomide, etoposide, curcumin, and turmeric force with IC50, IC75, and IC90 values of 4.92 μg/mL, 12.87 μg/mL, and 21.30 μg/mL, respectively. Inhibitory concentration values of CA for normal embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell line (mHypoE-N1) is significantly higher than glioblastoma cell line, indicating the specificity of CA against brain tumor cells. CompuSyn analysis indicates that CA acts synergistically with temozolomide and etoposide for the cytotoxicity with combination index values of <1. CA treatment also induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and downregulates genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation, telomerase activity, oncogenesis, and drug resistance in glioblastoma cells. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Nanotechnology applications for glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduom, Edjah K; Bouras, Alexandros; Kaluzova, Milota; Hadjipanayis, Costas G

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma remains one of the most difficult cancers to treat and represents the most common primary malignancy of the brain. Although conventional treatments have found modest success in reducing the initial tumor burden, infiltrating cancer cells beyond the main mass are responsible for tumor recurrence and ultimate patient demise. Targeting residual infiltrating cancer cells requires the development of new treatment strategies. The emerging field of cancer nanotechnology holds promise in the use of multifunctional nanoparticles for imaging and targeted therapy of glioblastoma. This article examines the current state of nanotechnology in the treatment of glioblastoma and directions of further study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Skalsky

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive malignant tumor involving glial cells in the human brain. We used high-throughput sequencing to comprehensively profile the small RNAs expressed in glioblastoma and non-tumor brain tissues. MicroRNAs (miRNAs made up the large majority of small RNAs, and we identified over 400 different cellular pre-miRNAs. No known viral miRNAs were detected in any of the samples analyzed. Cluster analysis revealed several miRNAs that were significantly down-regulated in glioblastomas, including miR-128, miR-124, miR-7, miR-139, miR-95, and miR-873. Post-transcriptional editing was observed for several miRNAs, including the miR-376 family, miR-411, miR-381, and miR-379. Using the deep sequencing information, we designed a lentiviral vector expressing a cell suicide gene, the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK gene, under the regulation of a miRNA, miR-128, that was found to be enriched in non-tumor brain tissue yet down-regulated in glioblastomas, Glioblastoma cells transduced with this vector were selectively killed when cultured in the presence of ganciclovir. Using an in vitro model to recapitulate expression of brain-enriched miRNAs, we demonstrated that neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells transduced with the miRNA-regulated HSV-TK vector are protected from killing by expression of endogenous miR-128. Together, these results provide an in-depth analysis of miRNA dysregulation in glioblastoma and demonstrate the potential utility of these data in the design of miRNA-regulated therapies for the treatment of brain cancers.

  8. Establishment and Characterization of a Tumor Stem Cell-Based Glioblastoma Invasion Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Skov Jensen

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor. Recurrence is inevitable and most likely connected to tumor invasion and presence of therapy resistant stem-like tumor cells. The aim was therefore to establish and characterize a three-dimensional in vivo-like in vitro model taking invasion and tumor stemness into account.Glioblastoma stem cell-like containing spheroid (GSS cultures derived from three different patients were established and characterized. The spheroids were implanted in vitro into rat brain slice cultures grown in stem cell medium and in vivo into brains of immuno-compromised mice. Invasion was followed in the slice cultures by confocal time-lapse microscopy. Using immunohistochemistry, we compared tumor cell invasion as well as expression of proliferation and stem cell markers between the models.We observed a pronounced invasion into brain slice cultures both by confocal time-lapse microscopy and immunohistochemistry. This invasion closely resembled the invasion in vivo. The Ki-67 proliferation indexes in spheroids implanted into brain slices were lower than in free-floating spheroids. The expression of stem cell markers varied between free-floating spheroids, spheroids implanted into brain slices and tumors in vivo.The established invasion model kept in stem cell medium closely mimics tumor cell invasion into the brain in vivo preserving also to some extent the expression of stem cell markers. The model is feasible and robust and we suggest the model as an in vivo-like model with a great potential in glioma studies and drug discovery.

  9. 3-Bromopyruvate treatment induces alterations of metabolic and stress-related pathways in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasserini, Davide; Davidescu, Magdalena; Orvietani, Pier Luigi; Susta, Federica; Macchioni, Lara; Petricciuolo, Maya; Castigli, Emilia; Roberti, Rita; Binaglia, Luciano; Corazzi, Lanfranco

    2017-01-30

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumour of adults. The metabolic phenotype of GBM cells is highly dependent on glycolysis; therefore, therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with glycolytic pathways are under consideration. 3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) is a potent antiglycolytic agent, with a variety of targets and possible effects on global cell metabolism. Here we analyzed the changes in protein expression on a GBM cell line (GL15 cells) caused by 3BP treatment using a global proteomic approach. Validation of differential protein expression was performed with immunoblotting and enzyme activity assays in GL15 and U251 cell lines. The results show that treatment of GL15 cells with 3BP leads to extensive changes in the expression of glycolytic enzymes and stress related proteins. Importantly, other metabolisms were also affected, including pentose phosphate pathway, aminoacid synthesis, and glucose derivatives production. 3BP elicited the activation of stress response proteins, as shown by the phosphorylation of HSPB1 at serine 82, caused by the concomitant activation of the p38 pathway. Our results show that inhibition of glycolysis in GL15 cells by 3BP influences different but interconnected pathways. Proteome analysis may help in the molecular characterization of the glioblastoma response induced by pharmacological treatment with antiglycolytic agents. Alteration of the glycolytic pathway characterizes glioblastoma (GBM), one of the most common brain tumours. Metabolic reprogramming with agents able to inhibit carbohydrate metabolism might be a viable strategy to complement the treatment of these tumours. The antiglycolytic agent 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) is able to strongly inhibit glycolysis but it may affect also other cellular pathways and its precise cellular targets are currently unknown. To understand the protein expression changes induced by 3BP, we performed a global proteomic analysis of a GBM cell line (GL15) treated with 3BP. We

  10. New Molecules and Old Drugs as Emerging Approaches to Selectively Target Human Glioblastoma Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Würth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite relevant progress obtained by multimodal treatment, glioblastoma (GBM, the most aggressive primary brain tumor, is still incurable. The most encouraging advancement of GBM drug research derives from the identification of cancer stem cells (CSCs, since these cells appear to represent the determinants of resistance to current standard therapies. The goal of most ongoing studies is to identify drugs able to affect CSCs biology, either inducing selective toxicity or differentiating this tumor cell population into nontumorigenic cells. Moreover, the therapeutic approach for GBM could be improved interfering with chemo- or radioresistance mechanisms, microenvironment signals, and the neoangiogenic process. During the last years, molecular targeted compounds such as sorafenib and old drugs, like metformin, displayed interesting efficacy in preclinical studies towards several tumors, including GBM, preferentially affecting CSC viability. In this review, the latest experimental results, controversies, and prospective application concerning these promising anticancer drugs will be discussed.

  11. The Effect of Z-Ligustilide on the Mobility of Human Glioblastoma T98G Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yin

    Full Text Available Z-ligustilide (LIG, an essential oil extract from Radix Angelica sinensis, has broad pharmaceutical applications in treating cardio-vascular diseases and ischemic brain injury. Recently, LIG has been connected to Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM because of its structural similarity to 3-n-alkyphthalide (NBP, which is specifically cytotoxic to GBM cells. Hence, we investigated LIG's effect on GBM T98G cells. The study shows that LIG can significantly reduce T98G cells' migration in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the attenuation of cellular mobility can be linked to the activity of the Rho GTPases (RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42, the three critical molecular switches governing cytoskeleton remodeling; thus, regulating cell migration. LIG significantly reduces the expression of RhoA and affects in a milder manner the expression of Cdc42 and Rac1.

  12. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of human glioblastoma cells in response to ITE treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bo; Zhou, Yanwen; Zheng, Min; Wang, Ying-Jie

    2015-09-01

    A ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is recently revealed to play a key role in embryogenesis and tumorigenesis (Feng et al. [1], Safe et al. [2]) and 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) (Song et al. [3]) is an endogenous AhR ligand that possesses anti-tumor activity. In order to gain insights into how ITE acts via the AhR in embryogenesis and tumorigenesis, we analyzed the genome-wide transcriptional profiles of the following three groups of cells: the human glioblastoma U87 parental cells, U87 tumor sphere cells treated with vehicle (DMSO) and U87 tumor sphere cells treated with ITE. Here, we provide the details of the sample gathering strategy and show the quality controls and the analyses associated with our gene array data deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under the accession code of GSE67986.

  13. Regulation of YKL-40 expression during genotoxic or microenvironmental stress in human glioblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Nanna; Johansen, Julia S; Hansen, Lasse T

    2005-01-01

    YKL-40 is a 40 kDa secreted glycoprotein belonging to the family of 'mammalian chitinase-like proteins', but without chitinase activity. YKL-40 has a proliferative effect on fibroblasts, chondrocytes and synoviocytes, and chemotactic effect on endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells. Elevated...... material from glioblastomas patients. We investigated the expression of YKL-40 in three human malignant glioma cell lines exposed to different types of stress. Whereas a polymerase chain reaction transcript was detectable in all three cell lines, only U87 produced measurable amounts of YKL-40 protein. In U...... is attenuated by p53. In contrast, both basic fibroblast growth factor and tumor necrosing factor-alpha repressed YKL-40. These are the first data on regulation of YKL-40 in cancer cells. Diverse types of stress resulted in YKL-40 elevation, which strongly supports an involvement of YKL-40 in the malignant...

  14. Modeling the Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme and Cancer Stem Cells with Ordinary Differential Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, Kristen; Burke, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Despite improvements in cancer therapy and treatments, tumor recurrence is a common event in cancer patients. One explanation of recurrence is that cancer therapy focuses on treatment of tumor cells and does not eradicate cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are postulated to behave similar to normal stem cells in that their role is to maintain homeostasis. That is, when the population of tumor cells is reduced or depleted by treatment, CSCs will repopulate the tumor, causing recurrence. In this paper, we study the application of the CSC Hypothesis to the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme by immunotherapy. We extend the work of Kogan et al. (2008) to incorporate the dynamics of CSCs, prove the existence of a recurrence state, and provide an analysis of possible cancerous states and their dependence on treatment levels.

  15. Activated platelet-derived growth factor autocrine pathway drives the transformed phenotype of a human glioblastoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassbotn, F S; Ostman, A; Langeland, N; Holmsen, H; Westermark, B; Heldin, C H; Nistér, M

    1994-02-01

    Human glioblastoma cells (A172) were found to concomitantly express PDGF-BB and PDGF beta-receptors. The receptors were constitutively autophosphorylated in the absence of exogenous ligand, suggesting the presence of an autocrine PDGF pathway. Neutralizing PDGF antibodies as well as suramin inhibited the autonomous PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity and resulted in up-regulation of receptor protein. The interruption of the autocrine loop by the PDGF antibodies reversed the transformed phenotype of the glioblastoma cell, as determined by (1) diminished DNA synthesis, (2) inhibition of tumor colony growth, and (3) reversion of the transformed morphology of the tumor cells. The PDGF antibodies showed no effect on the DNA synthesis of another glioblastoma cells line (U-343MGa 31L) or on Ki-ras-transformed fibroblasts. The present study demonstrates an endogenously activated PDGF pathway in a spontaneous human glioblastoma cell line. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the autocrine PDGF pathway drives the transformed phenotype of the tumor cells, a process that can be blocked by extracellular antagonists.

  16. Cell cycle and aging, morphogenesis, and response to stimuli genes are individualized biomarkers of glioblastoma progression and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Southey Bruce R

    2011-06-01

    . Biological processes associated glioblastoma survival included morphogenesis, cell cycle, aging, response to stimuli, and programmed cell death. Conclusions Known biomarkers of glioblastoma survival were confirmed, and new general and clinical-dependent gene profiles were uncovered. The comparison of biomarkers across glioblastoma phases and functional analyses offered insights into the role of genes. These findings support the development of more accurate and personalized prognostic tools and gene-based therapies that improve the survival and quality of life of individuals afflicted by glioblastoma multiforme.

  17. Inhibition of histone deacetylases sensitizes glioblastoma cells to lomustine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staberg, Mikkel; Michaelsen, Signe Regner; Rasmussen, Rikke Darling

    2017-01-01

    the sensitizing effect of the HDACi trichostatin A (TSA) to the alkylating agent lomustine (CCNU), which is used in the clinic for the treatment of GBM. METHODS: Twelve primary GBM cell cultures grown as neurospheres were used in this study, as well as one established GBM-derived cell line (U87 MG). Histone...... are problems that call for a prompt development of novel therapeutic strategies. While only displaying modest efficacies as mono-therapy in pre-clinical settings, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have shown promising sensitizing effects to a number of cytotoxic agents. Here, we sought to investigate...

  18. P2X7 receptor activation induces cell death and microparticle release in murine erythroleukemia cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinescu, P.; Wang, B.; Kovacevic, K.; Jalilian, I.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Wiley, J.S.; Sluyter, R.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular ATP induces cation fluxes in and impairs the growth of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells in a manner characteristic of the purinergic P2X7 receptor, however the presence of P2X7 in these cells is unknown. This study investigated whether MEL cells express functional P2X7. RT-PCR,

  19. Glioblastoma Stem Cells Microenvironment: The Paracrine Roles of the Niche in Drug and Radioresistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Fidoamore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among all solid tumors, the high-grade glioma appears to be the most vascularized one. In fact, “microvascular hyperplasia” is a hallmark of GBM. An altered vascular network determines irregular blood flow, so that tumor cells spread rapidly beyond the diffusion distance of oxygen in the tissue, with the consequent formation of hypoxic or anoxic areas, where the bulk of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs reside. The response to this event is the induction of angiogenesis, a process mediated by hypoxia inducible factors. However, this new capillary network is not efficient in maintaining a proper oxygen supply to the tumor mass, thereby causing an oxygen gradient within the neoplastic zone. This microenvironment helps GSCs to remain in a “quiescent” state preserving their potential to proliferate and differentiate, thus protecting them by the effects of chemo- and radiotherapy. Recent evidences suggest that responses of glioblastoma to standard therapies are determined by the microenvironment of the niche, where the GSCs reside, allowing a variety of mechanisms that contribute to the chemo- and radioresistance, by preserving GSCs. It is, therefore, crucial to investigate the components/factors of the niche in order to formulate new adjuvant therapies rendering more efficiently the gold standard therapies for this neoplasm.

  20. MicroRNA-Mediated Dynamic Bidirectional Shift between the Subclasses of Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun K. Rooj

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale transcriptomic profiling of glioblastoma (GBM into subtypes has provided remarkable insight into the pathobiology and heterogeneous nature of this disease. The mechanisms of speciation and inter-subtype transitions of these molecular subtypes require better characterization to facilitate the development of subtype-specific targeting strategies. The deregulation of microRNA expression among GBM subtypes and their subtype-specific targeting mechanisms are poorly understood. To reveal the underlying basis of microRNA-driven complex subpopulation dynamics within the heterogeneous intra-tumoral ecosystem, we characterized the expression of the subtype-enriched microRNA-128 (miR-128 in transcriptionally and phenotypically diverse subpopulations of patient-derived glioblastoma stem-like cells. Because microRNAs are capable of re-arranging the molecular landscape in a cell-type-specific manner, we argue that alterations in miR-128 levels are a potent mechanism of bidirectional transitions between GBM subpopulations, resulting in intermediate hybrid stages and emphasizing highly intricate intra-tumoral networking.

  1. Glioblastoma-targeted CD4+ CAR T cells mediate superior antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongrui; Aguilar, Brenda; Starr, Renate; Alizadeh, Darya; Brito, Alfonso; Sarkissian, Aniee; Ostberg, Julie R; Forman, Stephen J; Brown, Christine E

    2018-05-17

    Chimeric antigen receptor-modified (CAR-modified) T cells have shown promising therapeutic effects for hematological malignancies, yet limited and inconsistent efficacy against solid tumors. The refinement of CAR therapy requires an understanding of the optimal characteristics of the cellular products, including the appropriate composition of CD4+ and CD8+ subsets. Here, we investigated the differential antitumor effect of CD4+ and CD8+ CAR T cells targeting glioblastoma-associated (GBM-associated) antigen IL-13 receptor α2 (IL13Rα2). Upon stimulation with IL13Rα2+ GBM cells, the CD8+ CAR T cells exhibited robust short-term effector function but became rapidly exhausted. By comparison, the CD4+ CAR T cells persisted after tumor challenge and sustained their effector potency. Mixing with CD4+ CAR T cells failed to ameliorate the effector dysfunction of CD8+ CAR T cells, while surprisingly, CD4+ CAR T cell effector potency was impaired when coapplied with CD8+ T cells. In orthotopic GBM models, CD4+ outperformed CD8+ CAR T cells, especially for long-term antitumor response. Further, maintenance of the CD4+ subset was positively correlated with the recursive killing ability of CAR T cell products derived from GBM patients. These findings identify CD4+ CAR T cells as a highly potent and clinically important T cell subset for effective CAR therapy.

  2. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells expressing yeast cytosinedeaminase::uracil phosphoribosyltransferase inhibit intracerebral rat glioblastoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Altanerova, V.; Cihova, M.; Babič, Michal; Rychly, B.; Ondicova, K.; Mravec, B.; Altaner, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 130, č. 10 (2012), s. 2455-2463 ISSN 0020-7136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : glioblastoma * mesenchymal stem cells * suicide gene therapy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 6.198, year: 2012

  3. Anti-tumor activities of luteolin and silibinin in glioblastoma cells: overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented luteolin and silibinin to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis in glioblastoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Ray, Swapan K

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma is the deadliest brain tumor in humans. High systemic toxicity of conventional chemotherapies prompted the search for natural compounds for controlling glioblastoma. The natural flavonoids luteolin (LUT) and silibinin (SIL) have anti-tumor activities. LUT inhibits autophagy, cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis and induces apoptosis; while SIL activates caspase-8 cascades to induce apoptosis. However, synergistic anti-tumor effects of LUT and SIL in glioblastoma remain unknown. Overexpression of tumor suppressor microRNA (miR) could enhance the anti-tumor effects of LUT and SIL. Here, we showed that 20 µM LUT and 50 µM SIL worked synergistically for inhibiting growth of two different human glioblastoma U87MG (wild-type p53) and T98G (mutant p53) cell lines and natural combination therapy was more effective than conventional chemotherapy (10 µM BCNU or 100 µM TMZ). Combination of LUT and SIL caused inhibition of growth of glioblastoma cells due to induction of significant amounts of apoptosis and complete inhibition of invasion and migration. Further, combination of LUT and SIL inhibited rapamycin (RAPA)-induced autophagy, a survival mechanism, with suppression of PKCα and promotion of apoptosis through down regulation of iNOS and significant increase in expression of the tumor suppressor miR-7-1-3p in glioblastoma cells. Our in vivo studies confirmed that overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented anti-tumor activities of LUT and SIL in RAPA pre-treated both U87MG and T98G tumors. In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrated that overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented the anti-tumor activities of LUT and SIL to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis for controlling growth of different human glioblastomas in vivo.

  4. Pharmacokinetic analysis of 111 in-labeled liposomal Doxorubicin in murine glioblastoma after blood-brain barrier disruption by focused ultrasound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yi Yang

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of targeted and untargeted (111In-doxorubicin liposomes after these have been intravenously administrated to tumor-bearing mice in the presence of blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB-D induced by focused ultrasound (FUS. An intracranial brain tumor model in NOD-scid mice using human brain glioblastoma multiforme (GBM 8401 cells was developed in this study. (111In-labeled human atherosclerotic plaque-specific peptide-1 (AP-1-conjugated liposomes containing doxorubicin (Lipo-Dox; AP-1 Lipo-Dox were used as a microSPECT probe for radioactivity measurements in the GBM-bearing mice. Compared to the control tumors treated with an injection of (111In-AP-1 Lipo-Dox or (111In-Lipo-Dox, the animals receiving the drugs followed by FUS exhibited enhanced accumulation of the drug in the brain tumors (p<0.05. Combining sonication with drugs significantly increased the tumor-to-normal brain doxorubicin ratio of the target tumors compared to the control tumors. The tumor-to-normal brain ratio was highest after the injection of (111In-AP-1 Lipo-Dox with sonication. The (111In-liposomes micro-SPECT/CT should be able to provide important information about the optimum therapeutic window for the chemotherapy of brain tumors using sonication.

  5. Actin cytoskeleton organization, cell surface modification and invasion rate of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in PTEN and p53 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuzenova, Cholpon S.; Fiedler, Vanessa; Memmel, Simon; Katzer, Astrid; Hartmann, Susanne; Krohne, Georg; Zimmermann, Heiko; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Polat, Bülent; Flentje, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma cells exhibit highly invasive behavior whose mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The present study explores the relationship between the invasion capacity of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in p53 and PTEN status, expression of mTOR and several other marker proteins involved in cell invasion, actin cytoskeleton organization and cell morphology. We found that two glioblastoma lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN genes (U373-MG and SNB19) exhibited the highest invasion rates through the Matrigel or collagen matrix. In DK-MG (p53wt/PTENwt) and GaMG (p53mut/PTENwt) cells, F-actin mainly occurred in the numerous stress fibers spanning the cytoplasm, whereas U87-MG (p53wt/PTENmut), U373-MG and SNB19 (both p53mut/PTENmut) cells preferentially expressed F-actin in filopodia and lamellipodia. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the abundant filopodia and lamellipodia in the PTEN mutated cell lines. Interestingly, the gene profiling analysis revealed two clusters of cell lines, corresponding to the most (U373-MG and SNB19, i.e. p53 and PTEN mutated cells) and less invasive phenotypes. The results of this study might shed new light on the mechanisms of glioblastoma invasion. - Highlights: • We examine 5 glioblastoma lines on the invasion capacity and actin cytoskeleton. • Glioblastoma cell lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN were the most invasive. • Less invasive cells showed much less lamellipodia, but more actin stress fibers. • A mechanism for the differences in tumor cell invasion is proposed

  6. Actin cytoskeleton organization, cell surface modification and invasion rate of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in PTEN and p53 status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuzenova, Cholpon S., E-mail: djuzenova_t@ukw.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, D-97080 Würzburg (Germany); Fiedler, Vanessa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, D-97080 Würzburg (Germany); Memmel, Simon [Lehrstuhl für Biotechnologie und Biophysik, Universität Würzburg, Biozentrum Am Hubland, 97070 Würzburg (Germany); Katzer, Astrid; Hartmann, Susanne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, D-97080 Würzburg (Germany); Krohne, Georg [Elektronenmikroskopie, Biozentrum, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97070 Würzburg (Germany); Zimmermann, Heiko [Hauptabteilung Biophysik and Kryotechnologie, Fraunhofer-Institut für Biomedizinische Technik, Lehrstuhl für Molekulare und Zelluläre Biotechnologie/Nanotechnologie, Universität des Saarlandes, Ensheimer Strasse 48, 66386 St. Ingbert (Germany); Scholz, Claus-Jürgen [Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research, University Hospital, Versbacher Strasse 7, 97078 Würzburg (Germany); Polat, Bülent; Flentje, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, D-97080 Würzburg (Germany); and others

    2015-01-15

    Glioblastoma cells exhibit highly invasive behavior whose mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The present study explores the relationship between the invasion capacity of 5 glioblastoma cell lines differing in p53 and PTEN status, expression of mTOR and several other marker proteins involved in cell invasion, actin cytoskeleton organization and cell morphology. We found that two glioblastoma lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN genes (U373-MG and SNB19) exhibited the highest invasion rates through the Matrigel or collagen matrix. In DK-MG (p53wt/PTENwt) and GaMG (p53mut/PTENwt) cells, F-actin mainly occurred in the numerous stress fibers spanning the cytoplasm, whereas U87-MG (p53wt/PTENmut), U373-MG and SNB19 (both p53mut/PTENmut) cells preferentially expressed F-actin in filopodia and lamellipodia. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the abundant filopodia and lamellipodia in the PTEN mutated cell lines. Interestingly, the gene profiling analysis revealed two clusters of cell lines, corresponding to the most (U373-MG and SNB19, i.e. p53 and PTEN mutated cells) and less invasive phenotypes. The results of this study might shed new light on the mechanisms of glioblastoma invasion. - Highlights: • We examine 5 glioblastoma lines on the invasion capacity and actin cytoskeleton. • Glioblastoma cell lines mutated in both p53 and PTEN were the most invasive. • Less invasive cells showed much less lamellipodia, but more actin stress fibers. • A mechanism for the differences in tumor cell invasion is proposed.

  7. Effects of trichostatins on differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Nomura, S.; Beppu, T.

    1987-01-01

    The fungistatic antibiotics trichostatins (TS) A and C were isolated from culture broth of Streptomyces platensis No. 145 and were found to be potent inducers of differentiation in murine erythroleukemia (Friend and RV133) cells at concentrations of 1.5 X 10(-8) M for TSA and 5 X 10(-7) M for TSC. Differentiation induced by TS was cooperatively enhanced by UV irradiation but not by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. This enhanced activity was completely inhibited by adding cycloheximide to the culture medium 2 h after exposure to TS, suggesting that TS are dimethyl sulfoxide-type inducers of erythroid differentiation. No inhibitory effect of TS was observed on macromolecular synthesis in cultured cells

  8. Glioblastoma cells labeled by robust Raman tags for enhancing imaging contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ching; Chang, Yung-Ching; Wu, Yi-Syuan; Sun, Wei-Lun; Liu, Chan-Chuan; Sze, Chun-I; Chen, Shiuan-Yeh

    2018-05-01

    Complete removal of a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a highly malignant brain tumor, is challenging due to its infiltrative characteristics. Therefore, utilizing imaging agents such as fluorophores to increase the contrast between GBM and normal cells can help neurosurgeons to locate residual cancer cells during image guided surgery. In this work, Raman tag based labeling and imaging for GBM cells in vitro is described and evaluated. The cell membrane of a GBM adsorbs a substantial amount of functionalized Raman tags through overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and "broadcasts" stronger pre-defined Raman signals than normal cells. The average ratio between Raman signals from a GBM cell and autofluorescence from a normal cell can be up to 15. In addition, the intensity of these images is stable under laser illuminations without suffering from the severe photo-bleaching that usually occurs in fluorescent imaging. Our results show that labeling and imaging GBM cells via robust Raman tags is a viable alternative method to distinguish them from normal cells. This Raman tag based method can be used solely or integrated into an existing fluorescence system to improve the identification of infiltrative glial tumor cells around the boundary, which will further reduce GBM recurrence. In addition, it can also be applied/extended to other types of cancer to improve the effectiveness of image guided surgery.

  9. Activation of PPARγ mediates icaritin-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongji; Shi, Ling; Liu, Yuan; Li, Peng; Jiang, Guoping; Gao, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yongbin; Jiang, Chuanwu; Zhu, Weiping; Han, Hongxing; Ju, Fang

    2018-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most prevalent primary malignancy of the brain. This study was designed to investigate whether icaritin exerts anti-neoplastic activity against GBM in vitro. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was utilized to examine the viability of GBM cells. The apoptotic cell population was measured by flow cytometry analysis. Cell cycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry as well. Western blot analysis was performed to examine the level of biomarker proteins in GBM cells. Levels of PPARγ mRNA and protein were detected by qPCR and western blot analysis, respectively. To examine the role of PPARγ in the anti-neoplastic activity of icaritin, PPARγ antagonist GW9662 or PPARγ siRNA was used. The activity of PPARγ was determined by DNA binding and luciferase assays. Our findings revealed that icaritin markedly suppresses cell growth in a dose-dependent and time-dependent fashion. The cell population at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle was significantly increased following icaritin treatment. Meanwhile, icaritin promoted apoptotic cell death in T98G and U87MG cells. Further investigation showed upregulation of PPARγ played a key role in the anti-neoplastic activities of icaritin. Moreover, our result demonstrated activation of AMPK signaling by icaritin mediated the modulatory effect of icaritin on PPARγ. Our results suggest the PPARγ may mediate anti-neoplastic activities against GBM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulation of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor cells using ising model on the Creutz Cellular Automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züleyha, Artuç; Ziya, Merdan; Selçuk, Yeşiltaş; Kemal, Öztürk M.; Mesut, Tez

    2017-11-01

    Computational models for tumors have difficulties due to complexity of tumor nature and capacities of computational tools, however, these models provide visions to understand interactions between tumor and its micro environment. Moreover computational models have potential to develop strategies for individualized treatments for cancer. To observe a solid brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we present a two dimensional Ising Model applied on Creutz cellular automaton (CCA). The aim of this study is to analyze avascular spherical solid tumor growth, considering transitions between non tumor cells and cancer cells are like phase transitions in physical system. Ising model on CCA algorithm provides a deterministic approach with discrete time steps and local interactions in position space to view tumor growth as a function of time. Our simulation results are given for fixed tumor radius and they are compatible with theoretical and clinic data.

  11. Bcl-w Enhances Mesenchymal Changes and Invasiveness of Glioblastoma Cells by Inducing Nuclear Accumulation of β-Catenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Sang; Woo, Eun Young; Kwon, Junhye; Park, Myung-Jin; Lee, Jae-Seon; Han, Young-Hoon; Bae, In Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Bcl-w a pro-survival member of the Bcl-2 protein family, is expressed in a variety of cancer types, including gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas, as well as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and lethal brain tumor type. Previously, we demonstrated that Bcl-w is upregulated in gastric cancer cells, particularly those displaying infiltrative morphology. These reports propose that Bcl-w is strongly associated with aggressive characteristic, such as invasive or mesenchymal phenotype of GBM. However, there is no information from studies of the role of Bcl-w in GBM. In the current study, we showed that Bcl-w is upregulated in human glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grade IV) tissues, compared with normal and glioma (WHO grade III) tissues. Bcl-w promotes the mesenchymal traits of glioblastoma cells by inducing vimentin expression via activation of transcription factors, β-catenin, Twist1 and Snail in glioblastoma U251 cells. Moreover, Bcl-w induces invasiveness by promoting MMP-2 and FAK activation via the PI3K-p-Akt-p-GSK3β-β-catenin pathway. We further confirmed that Bcl-w has the capacity to induce invasiveness in several human cancer cell lines. In particular, Bcl-w-stimulated β-catenin is translocated into the nucleus as a transcription factor and promotes the expression of target genes, such as mesenchymal markers or MMPs, thereby increasing mesenchymal traits and invasiveness. Our findings collectively indicate that Bcl-w functions as a positive regulator of invasiveness by inducing mesenchymal changes and that trigger their aggressiveness of glioblastoma cells. PMID:23826359

  12. Vacquinol-1 inducible cell death in glioblastoma multiforme is counter regulated by TRPM7 activity induced by exogenous ATP

    OpenAIRE

    Sander, Philip; Mostafa, Haouraa; Soboh, Ayman; Schneider, Julian M.; Pala, Andrej; Baron, Ann-Kathrin; Moepps, Barbara; Wirtz, C. Rainer; Georgieff, Michael; Schneider, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most malignant brain tumors in humans and have a very poor prognosis. New therapeutic options are urgently needed. A novel drug, Vacquinol-1 (Vac), a quinolone derivative, displays promising properties by inducing rapid cell death in GBM but not in non-transformed tissues. Features of this type of cell death are compatible with a process termed methuosis. Here we tested Vac on a highly malignant glioma cell line observed by long-term video microscopy. Human dental-...

  13. Fluorine-labeled Dasatinib Nanoformulations as Targeted Molecular Imaging Probes in a PDGFB-driven Murine Glioblastoma Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Benezra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dasatinib, a new-generation Src and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR inhibitor, is currently under evaluation in high-grade glioma clinical trials. To achieve optimum physicochemical and/or biologic properties, alternative drug delivery vehicles may be needed. We used a novel fluorinated dasatinib derivative (F-SKI249380, in combination with nanocarrier vehicles and metabolic imaging tools (microPET to evaluate drug delivery and uptake in a platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB-driven genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM of high-grade glioma. We assessed dasatinib survival benefit on the basis of measured tumor volumes. Using brain tumor cells derived from PDGFB-driven gliomas, dose-dependent uptake and time-dependent inhibitory effects of F-SKI249380 on biologic activity were investigated and compared with the parent drug. PDGFR receptor status and tumor-specific targeting were non-invasively evaluated in vivo using 18F-SKI249380 and 18F-SKI249380-containing micellar and liposomal nanoformulations. A statistically significant survival benefit was found using dasatinib (95 mg/kg versus saline vehicle (P < .001 in tumor volume-matched GEMM pairs. Competitive binding and treatment assays revealed comparable biologic properties for F-SKI249380 and the parent drug. In vivo, Significantly higher tumor uptake was observed for 18F-SKI249380-containing micelle formulations [4.9 percentage of the injected dose per gram tissue (%ID/g; P = .002] compared to control values (1.6%ID/g. Saturation studies using excess cold dasatinib showed marked reduction of tumor uptake values to levels in normal brain (1.5%ID/g, consistent with in vivo binding specificity. Using 18F-SKI249380-containing micelles as radiotracers to estimate therapeutic dosing requirements, we calculated intratumoral drug concentrations (24–60 nM that were comparable to in vitro 50% inhibitory concentration values. 18F-SKI249380 is a PDGFR-selective tracer, which

  14. The Role of the MHV Receptor and Related Glycoproteins in Murine Hepatitis Virus Infection of Murine Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-13

    vaccinia virus-T7 RNA polymerase s y stem for e xpression of target genes . Mol . Cell . BioI . 7 : 2538-2544 . Gagneten , S ., Gout , 0 ., Dubois-Dalcq...glycoprotein. These results showed f or the first time that two murine CEA- related genes can be co-expressed in some cell lines from inbred mice...49 Southern Hybridization ................ . ............ 50 Subcloning of PCR Products and Gene Cloning ........ 51 Growth

  15. Combined VEGF and CXCR4 antagonism targets the GBM stem cell population and synergistically improves survival in an intracranial mouse model of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Amy; Sengupta, Rajarshi; Warrington, Nicole M; Smith, Erin; Wen, Patrick Y; Brekken, Rolf A; Romagnoli, Barbara; Douglas, Garry; Chevalier, Eric; Bauer, Michael P; Dembowsky, Klaus; Piwnica-Worms, David; Rubin, Joshua B

    2014-10-30

    Glioblastoma recurrence involves the persistence of a subpopulation of cells with enhanced tumor-initiating capacity (TIC) that reside within the perivascular space, or niche (PVN). Anti-angiogenic therapies may prevent the formation of new PVN but have not prevented recurrence in clinical trials, suggesting they cannot abrogate TIC activity. We hypothesized that combining anti-angiogenic therapy with blockade of PVN function would have superior anti-tumor activity. We tested this hypothesis in an established intracranial xenograft model of GBM using a monoclonal antibody specific for murine and human VEGF (mcr84) and a Protein Epitope Mimetic (PEM) CXCR4 antagonist, POL5551. When doses of POL5551 were increased to overcome an mcr84-induced improvement in vascular barrier function, combinatorial therapy significantly inhibited intracranial tumor growth and improved survival. Anti-tumor activity was associated with significant changes in tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, and a reduction in the numbers of perivascular cells expressing the TIC marker nestin. A direct effect on TICs was demonstrated for POL5551, but not mcr84, in three primary patient-derived GBM isolates. These findings indicate that targeting the structure and function of the PVN has superior anti-tumor effect and provide a strong rationale for clinical evaluation of POL5551 and Avastin in patients with GBM.

  16. Culture conditions defining glioblastoma cells behavior: what is the impact for novel discoveries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledur, Pítia Flores; Onzi, Giovana Ravizzoni; Zong, Hui; Lenz, Guido

    2017-09-15

    In cancer research, the use of established cell lines has gradually been replaced by primary cell cultures due to their better representation of in vivo cancer cell behaviors. However, a major challenge with primary culture involves the finding of growth conditions that minimize alterations in the biological state of the cells. To ensure reproducibility and translational potentials for research findings, culture conditions need to be chosen so that the cell population in culture best mimics tumor cells in vivo . Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive and heterogeneous tumor types and the GBM research field would certainly benefit from culture conditions that could maintain the original plethora of phenotype of the cells. Here, we review culture media and supplementation options for GBM cultures, the rationale behind their use, and how much those choices affect drug-screening outcomes. We provide an overview of 120 papers that use primary GBM cultures and discuss the current predominant conditions. We also show important primary research data indicating that "mis-cultured" glioma cells can acquire unnatural drug sensitivity, which would have devastating effects for clinical translations. Finally, we propose the concurrent test of four culture conditions to minimize the loss of cell coverage in culture.

  17. Responses of the Murine Myeloid Colony-Forming Cell to Ansamycin Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horoszewicz, Julius S.; Carter, William A.

    1974-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of murine myeloid colony-forming cells to the antiproliferative activities of three ansamycin antibiotics was determined. These cells were found to be 10- to 40-fold more susceptible than the corresponding human ones. PMID:4151701

  18. CAR T-cell therapy for glioblastoma: ready for the next round of clinical testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzing, Brooke L; Gottschalk, Stephen M; Krenciute, Giedre

    2018-05-01

    The outcome for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor, and there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic approaches. T cells genetically modified with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) hold the promise to improve outcomes since they recognize and kill cells through different mechanisms than conventional therapeutics. Areas covered: This article reviews CAR design, tumor associated antigens expressed by GBMs that can be targeted with CAR T cells, preclinical and clinical studies conducted with CAR T cells, and genetic approaches to enhance their effector function. Expert commentary: While preclinical studies have highlighted the potent anti-GBM activity of CAR T cells, the initial foray of CAR T-cell therapies into the clinic resulted only in limited benefits for GBM patients. Additional genetic modification of CAR T cells has resulted in a significant increase in their anti-GBM activity in preclinical models. We are optimistic that clinical testing of these enhanced CAR T cells will be safe and result in improved anti-glioma activity in GBM patients.

  19. Global DNA methylation synergistically regulates the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Johnson, Jacqueline; St John, Justin C

    2018-05-02

    Replication of mitochondrial DNA is strictly regulated during differentiation and development allowing each cell type to acquire its required mtDNA copy number to meet its specific needs for energy. Undifferentiated cells establish the mtDNA set point, which provides low numbers of mtDNA copy but sufficient template for replication once cells commit to specific lineages. However, cancer cells, such as those from the human glioblastoma multiforme cell line, HSR-GBM1, cannot complete differentiation as they fail to enforce the mtDNA set point and are trapped in a 'pseudo-differentiated' state. Global DNA methylation is likely to be a major contributing factor, as DNA demethylation treatments promote differentiation of HSR-GBM1 cells. To determine the relationship between DNA methylation and mtDNA copy number in cancer cells, we applied whole genome MeDIP-Seq and RNA-Seq to HSR-GBM1 cells and following their treatment with the DNA demethylation agents 5-azacytidine and vitamin C. We identified key methylated regions modulated by the DNA demethylation agents that also induced synchronous changes to mtDNA copy number and nuclear gene expression. Our findings highlight the control exerted by DNA methylation on the expression of key genes, the regulation of mtDNA copy number and establishment of the mtDNA set point, which collectively contribute to tumorigenesis.

  20. Mobile phone specific electromagnetic fields induce transient DNA damage and nucleotide excision repair in serum-deprived human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Serori, Halh; Ferk, Franziska; Kundi, Michael; Bileck, Andrea; Gerner, Christopher; Mišík, Miroslav; Nersesyan, Armen; Waldherr, Monika; Murbach, Manuel; Lah, Tamara T; Herold-Mende, Christel; Collins, Andrew R; Knasmüller, Siegfried

    2018-01-01

    Some epidemiological studies indicate that the use of mobile phones causes cancer in humans (in particular glioblastomas). It is known that DNA damage plays a key role in malignant transformation; therefore, we investigated the impact of the UMTS signal which is widely used in mobile telecommunications, on DNA stability in ten different human cell lines (six brain derived cell lines, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, liver and buccal tissue derived cells) under conditions relevant for users (SAR 0.25 to 1.00 W/kg). We found no evidence for induction of damage in single cell gel electrophoresis assays when the cells were cultivated with serum. However, clear positive effects were seen in a p53 proficient glioblastoma line (U87) when the cells were grown under serum free conditions, while no effects were found in p53 deficient glioblastoma cells (U251). Further experiments showed that the damage disappears rapidly in U87 and that exposure induced nucleotide excision repair (NER) and does not cause double strand breaks (DSBs). The observation of NER induction is supported by results of a proteome analysis indicating that several proteins involved in NER are up-regulated after exposure to UMTS; additionally, we found limited evidence for the activation of the γ-interferon pathway. The present findings show that the signal causes transient genetic instability in glioma derived cells and activates cellular defense systems.

  1. Extracts of Artocarpus communis Induce Mitochondria-Associated Apoptosis via Pro-oxidative Activity in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang-Wen Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is an extremely aggressive and devastating malignant tumor in the central nervous system. Its incidence is increasing and the prognosis is poor. Artocarpin is a natural prenylated flavonoid with various anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. Studies have shown that artocarpin is associated with cell death of primary glioblastoma cells. However, the in vivo effects and the cellular and molecular mechanisms modulating the anticancer activities of artocarpin remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that treating the glioblastoma cell lines U87 and U118 cells with artocarpin induced apoptosis. Artocarpin-induced apoptosis is associated with caspase activation and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage and is mediated by the mitochondrial pathway. This is associated with mitochondrial depolarization, mitochondrial-derived reactive oxidative species (ROS production, cytochrome c release, Bad and Bax upregulations, and Bcl-2 downregulation. Artocarpin induced NADPH oxidase/ROS generation plays an important role in the mitochondrial pathway activation. Furthermore, we found artocarpin-induced ROS production in mitochondria is associated with Akt- and ERK1/2 activation. After treatment with artocarpin, ROS causes PI3K/Akt/ERK1/2-induced cell death of these tumor cells. These observations were further verified by the results from the implantation of both U87 and U118 cells into in vivo mouse. In conclusion, our findings suggest that artocarpin induces mitochondria-associated apoptosis of glioma cells, suggesting that artocarpine can be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for future GBM treatment.

  2. The kin17 Protein in Murine Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise C. Ramos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available kin17 has been described as a protein involved in the processes of DNA replication initiation, DNA recombination, and DNA repair. kin17 has been studied as a potential molecular marker of breast cancer. This work reports the detection and localization of this protein in the murine melanoma cell line B16F10-Nex2 and in two derived subclones with different metastatic potential, B16-8HR and B16-10CR. Nuclear and chromatin-associated protein fractions were analyzed, and kin17 was detected in all fractions, with an elevated concentration observed in the chromatin-associated fraction of the clone with low metastatic potential, suggesting that the kin17 expression level could be a marker of melanoma.

  3. Targeting and killing of glioblastoma with activated T cells armed with bispecific antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitron, Ian M; Thakur, Archana; Norkina, Oxana; Barger, Geoffrey R; Lum, Lawrence G; Mittal, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Since most glioblastomas express both wild-type EGFR and EGFRvIII as well as HER2/neu, they are excellent targets for activated T cells (ATC) armed with bispecific antibodies (BiAbs) that target EGFR and HER2. ATC were generated from PBMC activated for 14 days with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody in the presence of interleukin-2 and armed with chemically heteroconjugated anti-CD3×anti-HER2/neu (HER2Bi) and/or anti-CD3×anti-EGFR (EGFRBi). HER2Bi- and/or EGFRBi-armed ATC were examined for in vitro cytotoxicity using MTT and 51 Cr-release assays against malignant glioma lines (U87MG, U118MG, and U251MG) and primary glioblastoma lines. EGFRBi-armed ATC killed up to 85% of U87, U118, and U251 targets at effector:target ratios (E:T) ranging from 1:1 to 25:1. Engagement of tumor by EGFRBi-armed ATC induced Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion by armed ATC. HER2Bi-armed ATC exhibited comparable cytotoxicity against U118 and U251, but did not kill HER2-negative U87 cells. HER2Bi- or EGFRBi-armed ATC exhibited 50—80% cytotoxicity against four primary glioblastoma lines as well as a temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant variant of U251. Both CD133– and CD133+ subpopulations were killed by armed ATC. Targeting both HER2Bi and EGFRBi simultaneously showed enhanced efficacy than arming with a single BiAb. Armed ATC maintained effectiveness after irradiation and in the presence of TMZ at a therapeutic concentration and were capable of killing multiple targets. High-grade gliomas are suitable for specific targeting by armed ATC. These data, together with additional animal studies, may provide the preclinical support for the use of armed ATC as a valuable addition to current treatment regimens

  4. Connection between cell phone use, p53 gene expression in different zones of glioblastoma multiforme and survival prognoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akhavan-Sigari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate p53 gene expression in the central and peripheral zones of glioblastoma multiforme using a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technique in patients who use cell phones ≥3 hours a day and determine its relationship to clinicopathological findings and overall survival. Sixty-three patients (38 males and 25 females, diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, underwent tumor resection between 2008 and 2011. Patient ages ranged from 25 to 88 years, with a mean age of 55. The levels of expression of p53 in the central and peripheral zone of the GBM were quantified by RT-PCR. Data on p53 gene expression from the central and peripheral zone, the related malignancy and the clinicopatholagical findings (age, gender, tumor location and size, as well as overall survival, were analyzed. Forty-one out of 63 patients (65% with the highest level of cell phone use (≥3 hours/day had higher mutant type p53 expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.034. Results from the present study on the use of mobile phones for ≥3 hours a day show a consistent pattern of increased risk for the mutant type of p53 gene expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma, and that this increase was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival time. The risk was not higher for ipsilateral exposure. We found that the mutant type of p53 gene expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma was increased in 65% of patients using cell phones ≥3 hours a day.

  5. Chlorotoxin Fused to IgG-Fc Inhibits Glioblastoma Cell Motility via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonari Kasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotoxin is a 36-amino acid peptide derived from Leiurus quinquestriatus (scorpion venom, which has been shown to inhibit low-conductance chloride channels in colonic epithelial cells. Chlorotoxin also binds to matrix metalloproteinase-2 and other proteins on glioma cell surfaces. Glioma cells are considered to require the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 during invasion and migration. In this study, for targeting glioma, we designed two types of recombinant chlorotoxin fused to human IgG-Fcs with/without a hinge region. Chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fcs was designed as a dimer of 60 kDa with a hinge region and a monomer of 30 kDa without a hinge region. The monomeric and dimeric forms of chlorotoxin inhibited cell proliferation at 300 nM and induced internalization in human glioma A172 cells. The monomer had a greater inhibitory effect than the dimer; therefore, monomeric chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fc was multivalently displayed on the surface of bionanocapsules to develop a drug delivery system that targeted matrix metalloproteinase-2. The target-dependent internalization of bionanocapsules in A172 cells was observed when chlorotoxin was displayed on the bionanocapsules. This study indicates that chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fcs could be useful for the active targeting of glioblastoma cells.

  6. Suppression of Peroxiredoxin 4 in Glioblastoma Cells Increases Apoptosis and Reduces Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Song, Jieun; Alcantara Llaguno, Sheila R.; Murnan, Eric; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Palanichamy, Kamalakannan; Yi, Ji-Yeun; Viapiano, Mariano Sebastian; Nakano, Ichiro; Yoon, Sung Ok; Wu, Hong; Parada, Luis F.; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy, is incurable despite the best combination of current cancer therapies. For the development of more effective therapies, discovery of novel candidate tumor drivers is urgently needed. Here, we report that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is a putative tumor driver. PRDX4 levels were highly increased in a majority of human GBMs as well as in a mouse model of GBM. Reducing PRDX4 expression significantly decreased GBM cell growth and radiation resistance in vitro with increased levels of ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In a syngenic orthotopic transplantation model, Prdx4 knockdown limited GBM infiltration and significantly prolonged mouse survival. These data suggest that PRDX4 can be a novel target for GBM therapies in the future. PMID:22916164

  7. Suppression of peroxiredoxin 4 in glioblastoma cells increases apoptosis and reduces tumor growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyong Kim

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy, is incurable despite the best combination of current cancer therapies. For the development of more effective therapies, discovery of novel candidate tumor drivers is urgently needed. Here, we report that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4 is a putative tumor driver. PRDX4 levels were highly increased in a majority of human GBMs as well as in a mouse model of GBM. Reducing PRDX4 expression significantly decreased GBM cell growth and radiation resistance in vitro with increased levels of ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In a syngenic orthotopic transplantation model, Prdx4 knockdown limited GBM infiltration and significantly prolonged mouse survival. These data suggest that PRDX4 can be a novel target for GBM therapies in the future.

  8. The role of glioma stem cells in chemotherapy resistance and glioblastoma multiforme recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffinger, Brenda; Spencer, Drew; Pytel, Peter; Ahmed, Atique U.; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2016-01-01

    Glioma stem cells (GSCs) constitute a slow-dividing, small population within a heterogeneous glioblastoma. They are able to self-renew, recapitulate a whole tumor, and differentiate into other specific GBM subpopulations. Therefore, they have been held responsible for malignant relapse after primary standard therapy and the poor prognosis of recurrent GBM. The failure of current therapies to eliminate specific GSC subpopulations has been considered a major factor contributing to the inevitable recurrence in GBM patients following treatment. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance of GSCs and the reasons why complete eradication of GSCs is so difficult to achieve. We will also describe the targeted therapies currently available towards GSCs and possible mechanisms to overcome such chemoresistance and avoid therapeutic relapse. PMID:26027432

  9. Co-expression of TIMP-1 and its cell surface binding partner CD63 in glioblastomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Mia D.; Matos, Ana L.S.A.

    2018-01-01

    scoring. CD63 expression in tumor-associated microglia/macrophages was examined by double-immunofluorescence with ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1). The association between CD63 and TIMP-1 was investigated using previously obtained TIMP-1 data from our astrocytoma cohort. Cellular co-expression...... of CD63 was widely distributed in astrocytomas with a significantly increased level in glioblastomas. CD63 levels did not significantly correlate with patient survival at a protein level, and CD63 did not augment the prognostic significance of TIMP-1. Up to 38% of the CD63+ cells expressed Iba1; however......, Iba1 did not appear to impact the prognostic value of CD63. A significant correlation was found between TIMP-1 and CD63, and the TIMP-1 and CD63 proteins were co-expressed at the cellular level and located in close molecular proximity, suggesting that TIMP-1 and CD63 could be co...

  10. MiRNA-125a-5p inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation and promotes cell differentiation by targeting TAZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jian; Xiao, Gelei [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Peng, Gang [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Liu, Dingyang [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Wang, Zeyou [Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Liao, Yiwei; Liu, Qing [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Wu, Minghua [The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Yuan, Xianrui, E-mail: xry69@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China)

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • Expression of miR-125a-5p is inversely correlated with that of TAZ in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p represses TAZ expression in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p directly targets the 3′ UTR of TAZ mRNA and promotes its degradation. • MiR-125a-5p represses CTGF and survivin via TAZ, and inhibits glioma cell growth. • MiR-125a-5p inhibits the stem cell features of HFU-251 MG cells. - Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal brain tumor due to the resistance to conventional therapies, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. TAZ, an important mediator of the Hippo pathway, was found to be up-regulated in diverse cancers, including in GBM, and plays important roles in tumor initiation and progression. However, little is known about the regulation of TAZ expression in tumors. In this study, we found that miR-125a-5p is an important regulator of TAZ in glioma cells by directly targeting the TAZ 3′ UTR. MiR-125a-5p levels are inversely correlated with that of TAZ in normal astrocytes and a panel of glioma cell lines. MiR-125a-5p represses the expression of TAZ target genes, including CTGF and survivin, and inhibits cell proliferation and induces the differentiation of GBM cells; whereas over-expression of TAZ rescues the effects of miR-125a-5p. This study revealed a mechanism for TAZ deregulation in glioma cells, and also demonstrated a tumor suppressor role of miR-125a-5p in glioblastoma cells.

  11. MiRNA-125a-5p inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation and promotes cell differentiation by targeting TAZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jian; Xiao, Gelei; Peng, Gang; Liu, Dingyang; Wang, Zeyou; Liao, Yiwei; Liu, Qing; Wu, Minghua; Yuan, Xianrui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Expression of miR-125a-5p is inversely correlated with that of TAZ in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p represses TAZ expression in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p directly targets the 3′ UTR of TAZ mRNA and promotes its degradation. • MiR-125a-5p represses CTGF and survivin via TAZ, and inhibits glioma cell growth. • MiR-125a-5p inhibits the stem cell features of HFU-251 MG cells. - Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal brain tumor due to the resistance to conventional therapies, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. TAZ, an important mediator of the Hippo pathway, was found to be up-regulated in diverse cancers, including in GBM, and plays important roles in tumor initiation and progression. However, little is known about the regulation of TAZ expression in tumors. In this study, we found that miR-125a-5p is an important regulator of TAZ in glioma cells by directly targeting the TAZ 3′ UTR. MiR-125a-5p levels are inversely correlated with that of TAZ in normal astrocytes and a panel of glioma cell lines. MiR-125a-5p represses the expression of TAZ target genes, including CTGF and survivin, and inhibits cell proliferation and induces the differentiation of GBM cells; whereas over-expression of TAZ rescues the effects of miR-125a-5p. This study revealed a mechanism for TAZ deregulation in glioma cells, and also demonstrated a tumor suppressor role of miR-125a-5p in glioblastoma cells

  12. Characterization of radioresistant variant from U251 human glioblastoma cell line and the role of antioxdant enzymes in its radioresistancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Chahn; Park, In Chul; Park, Myung Jin; Woo, Sang Hyeok; Rhee, Chang Hum; Hong, Seok-II

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the radioresistant mechanism in glioblastoma multiforme(GBM), we isolated the radioresistant clone (RRC) from U251 human glioblastoma cell line by exposing to repeated fractions of 3 Gy γ-radiation for six months. RRC had higher radioresistance than the parent cell line as measured by clonogenic survival assay. FACS analysis showed that RRC had a delayed G2 arrest after radiation. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), were activated up to 5 folds in RRC after radiation. Erk 1/2 activation was higher in RRC than in the parent cell. Therefore, radioresistancy in RRC might be due to the delayed cell cycle, the coordinated high activation of antioxidant enzyme rather than a single enzyme alone,and higher activation of Erk 1/2

  13. Glucocorticoids promote a glioma stem cell-like phenotype and resistance to chemotherapy in human glioblastoma primary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostopoulou, Ourania N; Mohammad, Abdul-Aleem; Bartek, Jiri

    2018-01-01

    Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are glioblastoma (GBM) cells that are resistant to therapy and can give rise to recurrent tumors. The identification of patient-related factors that support GSCs is thus necessary to design effective therapies for GBM patients. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to treat GBM......-associated edema. However, glucocorticoids participate in the physiological response to psychosocial stress, which has been linked to poor cancer prognosis. This raises concern that glucocorticoids affect the tumor and GSCs. Here, we treated primary human GBM cells with dexamethasone and evaluated GC......-driven changes in cell morphology, proliferation, migration, gene expression, secretory activity and growth as neurospheres. Dexamethasone treatment of GBM cells appeared to promote the development of a GSC-like phenotype and conferred resistance to physiological stress and chemotherapy. We also analyzed...

  14. The radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cell lines after hypoxia-induced Bax expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.K.; Hu, L.J.; Kong, E.L.; Lamborn, K.R.; Deen, D.F.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Radiation therapy is the most effective treatment after surgery for patients with malignant gliomas. However, the hypoxic cells exclusive to tumor tissue have proven resistant to both radiotherapy and many forms of chemotherapy. In order to specifically target these hypoxic cells, U-251 MG and U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells were stably transfected with constructs containing the suicide gene Bax under the regulation of nine copies of hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs). During hypoxia, the transcriptional complex hypoxia-inducible-factor 1 (HIF-1) binds to HRE and facilitates the transcription of downstream genes. Previously, hypoxia-induced Bax expression in transfected U-251 and U-87 clone cells has been shown to increase cell killing. The benefits of the gene therapy could be further expanded if Bax also acted to increase the sensitivity of these clone cells to radiation. To determine whether this was the case, parent and clone cells were irradiated with graded doses of X-rays under hypoxic conditions. These cells were then left hypoxic for varying durations of time, after which they were incubated for two weeks under aerated conditions to assay for clonogenic cell survival. After less than an hour under hypoxia, both U-251 and U-87 clone cells appeared significantly more sensitive to radiation than their respective parent cells. However, after longer amounts of time under anoxia, higher surviving fractions were found in each clone that were consistent with those of their respective parent cell line, showing that potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) had occurred in the clone cells. Parent cells did not exhibit PLDR. Results are inconclusive at this point in time. Western blot analyses detailing the amount of Bax expression at each time point as well as further research exploring different durations of hypoxia will be necessary to reveal the nature of the correlation between Bax expression and radiosensitivity. Supported by NS-42927 and CA-85356

  15. Baicalein induces cell death in murine T cell lymphoma via inhibition of thioredoxin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Raghavendra S; Pal, Debojyoti; Checker, Rahul; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh K

    2017-10-01

    We have earlier demonstrated the radioprotective potential of baicalein using murine splenic lymphocytes. Here, we have studied the effect of baicalein on murine T cell lymphoma EL4 cells and investigated the underlying mechanism of action. We observed that baicalein induced a dose dependent cell death in EL4 cells in vitro and significantly reduced the frequency of cancer stem cells. Previously, we have reported that murine and human T cell lymphoma cells have increased oxidative stress tolerance capacity due to active thioredoxin system. Hence, we monitored the effect of baicalein on thioredoxin system in EL4 cells. Docking studies revealed that baicalein could bind to the active site of thioredoxin reductase. Baicalein treatment led to significant reduction in the activity of thioredoxin reductase and nuclear levels of thioredoxin-1 thereby increasing ASK1 levels and caspase-3 activity. Interestingly, CRISPR-Cas9 based knock-out of ASK1 or over-expression of thioredoxin-1 abolished anti-tumor effects of baicalein in EL4 cells. Further, baicalein administration significantly reduced intra-peritoneal tumor burden of EL4 cells in C57BL/6 mice. Thus, our study describes anti-tumor effects of baicalein in EL4 cells via inhibition of thioredoxin system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of AKT signaling by supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Portalatin, Gilda; Quirin, Karl-W; Escalon, Enrique; Khatib, Ziad; Melnick, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a less-investigated herb for anticancer properties than other related Curcuma species. AKT (a serine/threonine protein kinase B, originally identified as an oncogene in the transforming retrovirus AKT8) plays a central role in the development and promotion of cancer. In this investigation, we have analyzed the effect of supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (CA) on the genetic pathways associated with AKT signaling in human glioblastoma cells. The inhibitory effect of supercritical CO2 extract of mango ginger (Curcuma amada) on AKT signaling was investigated in U-87MG glioblastoma cells. CA was highly cytotoxic to glioblastoma cell line (IC50=4.92±0.81 µg/mL) compared to mHypoE-N1 normal mouse hypothalamus cell line (IC50=40.57±0.06 µg/mL). CA inhibits AKT (protein Kinase B) and adenosine monophophate -activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) phosphorylation significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The cell migration which is necessary for invasion and metastasis was also inhibited by CA treatment, with about 43% reduction at 20 µg/mL concentration. Analysis of mRNA and protein expression of genes associated with apoptosis, cell proliferation and angiogenesis showed that CA modulates expression of genes associated with apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-X, BNIP3, caspase-3, mutant p53 and p21), cell proliferation (Ki67) and angiogenesis vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Additionally, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and AMPKα genes interacting with the AKT signaling pathway were also downregulated by CA treatment. These results indicate the molecular targets and mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of CA in human glioblastoma cells.

  17. HMGA1 silencing reduces stemness and temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colamaio, Marianna; Tosti, Nadia; Puca, Francesca; Mari, Alessia; Gattordo, Rosaria; Kuzay, Yalçın; Federico, Antonella; Pepe, Anna; Sarnataro, Daniela; Ragozzino, Elvira; Raia, Maddalena; Hirata, Hidenari; Gemei, Marica; Mimori, Koshi; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Battista, Sabrina; Fusco, Alfredo

    2016-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) develops from a small subpopulation of stem-like cells, which are endowed with the ability to self-renew, proliferate and give rise to progeny of multiple neuroepithelial lineages. These cells are resistant to conventional chemo- and radiotherapy and are hence also responsible for tumor recurrence. HMGA1 overexpression has been shown to correlate with proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis of GBMs and to affect self-renewal of cancer stem cells from colon cancer. The role of HMGA1 in GBM tumor stem cells is not completely understood. We have investigated the role of HMGA1 in brain tumor stem cell (BTSC) self-renewal, stemness and resistance to temozolomide by shRNA- mediated HMGA1 silencing. We first report that HMGA1 is overexpressed in a subset of BTSC lines from human GBMs. Then, we show that HMGA1 knockdown reduces self-renewal, sphere forming efficiency and stemness, and sensitizes BTSCs to temozolomide. Interestingly, HMGA1 silencing also leads to reduced tumor initiation ability in vivo. These results demonstrate a pivotal role of HMGA1 in cancer stem cell gliomagenesis and endorse HMGA1 as a suitable target for CSC-specific GBM therapy.

  18. Cyclophilin B Supports Myc and Mutant p53 Dependent Survival of Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Won; Schroeder, Mark A.; Sarkaria, Jann N.; Bram, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive, treatment-refractory type of brain tumor for which effective therapeutic targets remain important to identify. Here we report that cyclophilin B (CypB), a prolyl isomerase residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), provides an essential survival signal in GBM cells. Analysis of gene expression databases revealed that CypB is upregulated in many cases of malignant glioma. We found that suppression of CypB reduced cell proliferation and survival in human GBM cells in vitro and in vivo. We also found that treatment with small molecule inhibitors of cyclophilins, including the approved drug cyclosporine, greatly reduced the viability of GBM cells. Mechanistically, depletion or pharmacologic inhibition of CypB caused hyperactivation of the oncogenic RAS-MAPK pathway, induction of cellular senescence signals, and death resulting from loss of MYC, mutant p53, Chk1 and JAK/STAT3 signaling. Elevated reactive oxygen species, ER expansion and abnormal unfolded protein responses in CypB-depleted GBM cells indicated that CypB alleviates oxidative and ER stresses and coordinates stress adaptation responses. Enhanced cell survival and sustained expression of multiple oncogenic proteins downstream of CypB may thus contribute to the poor outcome of GBM tumors. Our findings link chaperone-mediated protein folding in the ER to mechanisms underlying oncogenic transformation, and they make CypB an attractive and immediately targetable molecule for GBM therapy. PMID:24272483

  19. DNER, an epigenetically modulated gene, regulates glioblastoma-derived neurosphere cell differentiation and tumor propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Xia, Shuli; Lal, Bachchu; Eberhart, Charles G; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Maciaczyk, Jarek; Matsui, William; Dimeco, Francesco; Piccirillo, Sara M; Vescovi, Angelo L; Laterra, John

    2009-07-01

    Neurospheres derived from glioblastoma (GBM) and other solid malignancies contain neoplastic stem-like cells that efficiently propagate tumor growth and resist cytotoxic therapeutics. The primary objective of this study was to use histone-modifying agents to elucidate mechanisms by which the phenotype and tumor-promoting capacity of GBM-derived neoplastic stem-like cells are regulated. Using established GBM-derived neurosphere lines and low passage primary GBM-derived neurospheres, we show that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors inhibit growth, induce differentiation, and induce apoptosis of neoplastic neurosphere cells. A specific gene product induced by HDAC inhibition, Delta/Notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor (DNER), inhibited the growth of GBM-derived neurospheres, induced their differentiation in vivo and in vitro, and inhibited their engraftment and growth as tumor xenografts. The differentiating and tumor suppressive effects of DNER, a noncanonical Notch ligand, contrast with the previously established tumor-promoting effects of canonical Notch signaling in brain cancer stem-like cells. Our findings are the first to implicate noncanonical Notch signaling in the regulation of neoplastic stem-like cells and suggest novel neoplastic stem cell targeting treatment strategies for GBM and potentially other solid malignancies.

  20. The regrowth kinetic of the surviving population is independent of acute and chronic responses to temozolomide in glioblastoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Andrew Oliveira; Dalsin, Eloisa; Onzi, Giovana Ravizzoni; Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo Cremonese; Lenz, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy acts on cancer cells by producing multiple effects on a cell population including cell cycle arrest, necrosis, apoptosis and senescence. However, often a subpopulation of cells survives and the behavior of this subpopulation, which is responsible for cancer recurrence, remains obscure. Here we investigated the in vitro short- and long-term responses of six glioblastoma cell lines to clinically relevant doses of temozolomide for 5 days followed by 23 days of recovery, mimicking the standard schedule used in glioblastoma patient for this drug. These cells presented different profiles of sensitivity to temozolomide with varying levels of cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence, followed by a regrowth of the surviving cells. The initial reduction in cell number and the subsequent regrowth was analyzed with four new parameters applied to Cumulative Population Doubling (CPD) curves that describe the overall sensitivity of the population and the characteristic of the regrowth: the relative end point CPD (RendCPD); the relative Area Under Curve (rAUC); the Relative Time to Cross a Threshold (RTCT); and the Relative Proliferation Rate (RPR). Surprisingly, the kinetics of regrowth were not predicted by the mechanisms activated after treatment nor by the acute or overall sensitivity. With this study we added new parameters that describe key responses of glioblastoma cell populations to temozolomide treatment. These parameters can also be applied to other cell types and treatments and will help to understand the behavior of the surviving cancer cells after treatment and shed light on studies of cancer resistance and recurrence. - Highlights: • Little is known about the behavior of the glioma cells surviving to TMZ. • The short- and long-term response of six glioma cells lines to TMZ varies considerably. • These glioma cells lines recovered proliferation after therapeutic levels of TMZ. • The growth velocity of the surviving cells was different from the

  1. The regrowth kinetic of the surviving population is independent of acute and chronic responses to temozolomide in glioblastoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Andrew Oliveira, E-mail: andrewbiomed@gmail.com [Department of Biophysics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dalsin, Eloisa, E-mail: dalsineloisa@gmail.com [Department of Biophysics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Onzi, Giovana Ravizzoni, E-mail: gioonzi@gmail.com [Department of Biophysics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Center of Biotechnology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo Cremonese, E-mail: eduardochiela@gmail.com [Department of Biophysics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lenz, Guido, E-mail: lenz@ufrgs.br [Department of Biophysics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Center of Biotechnology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    Chemotherapy acts on cancer cells by producing multiple effects on a cell population including cell cycle arrest, necrosis, apoptosis and senescence. However, often a subpopulation of cells survives and the behavior of this subpopulation, which is responsible for cancer recurrence, remains obscure. Here we investigated the in vitro short- and long-term responses of six glioblastoma cell lines to clinically relevant doses of temozolomide for 5 days followed by 23 days of recovery, mimicking the standard schedule used in glioblastoma patient for this drug. These cells presented different profiles of sensitivity to temozolomide with varying levels of cell cycle arrest, autophagy and senescence, followed by a regrowth of the surviving cells. The initial reduction in cell number and the subsequent regrowth was analyzed with four new parameters applied to Cumulative Population Doubling (CPD) curves that describe the overall sensitivity of the population and the characteristic of the regrowth: the relative end point CPD (RendCPD); the relative Area Under Curve (rAUC); the Relative Time to Cross a Threshold (RTCT); and the Relative Proliferation Rate (RPR). Surprisingly, the kinetics of regrowth were not predicted by the mechanisms activated after treatment nor by the acute or overall sensitivity. With this study we added new parameters that describe key responses of glioblastoma cell populations to temozolomide treatment. These parameters can also be applied to other cell types and treatments and will help to understand the behavior of the surviving cancer cells after treatment and shed light on studies of cancer resistance and recurrence. - Highlights: • Little is known about the behavior of the glioma cells surviving to TMZ. • The short- and long-term response of six glioma cells lines to TMZ varies considerably. • These glioma cells lines recovered proliferation after therapeutic levels of TMZ. • The growth velocity of the surviving cells was different from the

  2. In vitro assessment of curcumin against murine neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanisree, Arambakkam Janardhanam; Ramanan, Ramya

    2007-04-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a well-known malignant disease in infants, which comprises 10% of childhood malignancies. Despite recent advances in understanding the neuro-oncology, NB still accounts for more death in childhood than any other cancer. Research in childhood tumors should not only be focused on the malignant signatures of cancer cells but also novel drug prototypes using phytochemicals. The present study was aimed to determine the role of curcumin against murine neuroblastoma cell line (N2a). The in vitro assessment of curcumin against was made in N2a cell line in a dose-dependent manner (group I (control) and group II - IX (10 microM-80 microM). The efficacy of the drug was evaluated by estimating the levels of protein bound carbohydrates, glycoprotein, genomic DNA, total RNA levels, and inhibition of MMP-9 were studied. The gap junctional communication in the cells was also assessed. The levels of protein bound carbohydrates, DNA, RNA levels, glycoprotein were found to be altered on drug supplementation in NB cells. Inhibition of MMP-9 in curcumin-supplemented N2a cells was revealed by zymographic analysis. Assessment of Lucifer yellow dye uptake in curcumin-supplemented N2a cells showed the up-regulation of GJIC. These observations suggest that the curcumin, the active principle of curcuma longa, could be developed into an effective chemo preventive and chemotherapeutic agent. This selected concentration range needs further studies at molecular level, for conforming its role and its action against uncontrolled proliferation of NB.

  3. Implications of the Endothelial Cell Response in Glioblastoma to Stimulation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tansy Y.

    Heightened angiogenesis is both the pathophysiologic hallmark and the potential cause of therapy resistance for glioblastoma (GBM), a deadly brain tumor. It is thought that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play important roles in neovascularization and tumor progression. We postulated that MSCs protect ECs against radiotherapy, which subsequently enhances tumor angiogenesis, and promotes GBM tumor recurrence following therapy. We therefore sought to establish the in-vitro endothelial cell response to stimulation by MSC condition media and ionizing radiation (IR) treatment. We established the gene expression profiles of endothelial cells in response to IR, MSCs and the combination of both. Within the same gene profiles, we identified a unique gene signature that was highly predictive of response to Bevacizumab for GBM patients. We also demonstrated that MSC increased the viability of ECs in response to IR. Protein analysis in ECs suggested MSC-mediated cell cycle arrest as a mechanism for radio-resistance in ECs.

  4. Imaging of human glioblastoma cells and their interactions with mesenchymal stem cells in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittori, Milos; Breznik, Barbara; Gredar, Tajda; Hrovat, Katja; Bizjak Mali, Lilijana; Lah, Tamara T

    2016-01-01

    An attractive approach in the study of human cancers is the use of transparent zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, which enable the visualization of cancer progression in a living animal. We implanted mixtures of fluorescently labeled glioblastoma (GBM) cells and bonemarrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into zebrafish embryos to study the cellular pathways of their invasion and the interactions between these cells in vivo. By developing and applying a carbocyanine-dye-compatible clearing protocol for observation of cells in deep tissues, we showed that U87 and U373 GBM cells rapidly aggregated into tumor masses in the ventricles and midbrain hemispheres of the zebrafish embryo brain, and invaded the central nervous system, often using the ventricular system and the central canal of the spinal cord. However, the GBM cells did not leave the central nervous system. With co-injection of differentially labeled cultured GBM cells and MSCs, the implanted cells formed mixed tumor masses in the brain. We observed tight associations between GBM cells and MSCs, and possible cell-fusion events. GBM cells and MSCs used similar invasion routes in the central nervous system. This simple model can be used to study the molecular pathways of cellular processes in GBM cell invasion, and their interactions with various types of stromal cells in double or triple cell co-cultures, to design anti-GBM cell therapies that use MSCs as vectors

  5. DNA repair in murine embryonic stem cells and differentiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichy, Elisia D.; Stambrook, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are rapidly proliferating, self-renewing cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all three germ layers to form the embryo proper. Since these cells are critical for embryo formation, they must have robust prophylactic mechanisms to ensure that their genomic integrity is preserved. Indeed, several studies have suggested that ES cells are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents and readily undergo apoptosis to eliminate damaged cells from the population. Other evidence suggests that DNA damage can cause premature differentiation in these cells. Several laboratories have also begun to investigate the role of DNA repair in the maintenance of ES cell genomic integrity. It does appear that ES cells differ in their capacity to repair damaged DNA compared to differentiated cells. This minireview focuses on repair mechanisms ES cells may use to help preserve genomic integrity and compares available data regarding these mechanisms with those utilized by differentiated cells

  6. REST controls self-renewal and tumorigenic competence of human glioblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Conti

    Full Text Available The Repressor Element 1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST/NRSF is a master repressor of neuronal programs in non-neuronal lineages shown to function as a central regulator of developmental programs and stem cell physiology. Aberrant REST function has been associated with a number of pathological conditions. In cancer biology, REST has been shown to play a tumor suppressor activity in epithelial cancers but an oncogenic role in brain childhood malignancies such as neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma. Here we examined REST expression in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM specimens and its role in GBM cells carrying self-renewal and tumorigenic competence. We found REST to be expressed in GBM specimens, its presence being particularly enriched in tumor cells in the perivascular compartment. Significantly, REST is highly expressed in self-renewing tumorigenic-competent GBM cells and its knock down strongly reduces their self-renewal in vitro and tumor-initiating capacity in vivo and affects levels of miR-124 and its downstream targets. These results indicate that REST contributes to GBM maintenance by affecting its self-renewing and tumorigenic cellular component and that, hence, a better understanding of these circuitries in these cells might lead to new exploitable therapeutic targets.

  7. CAR T Cells Targeting Podoplanin Reduce Orthotopic Glioblastomas in Mouse Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Satoshi; Ohno, Masasuke; Ohka, Fumiharu; Kuramitsu, Shunichiro; Yamamichi, Akane; Kato, Akira; Motomura, Kazuya; Tanahashi, Kuniaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Watanabe, Reiko; Ito, Ichiro; Senga, Takeshi; Hamaguchi, Michinari; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Mika K; Kato, Yukinari; Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Bigner, Darell D; Natsume, Atsushi

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary malignant brain tumor in adults with a 5-year overall survival rate of less than 10%. Podoplanin (PDPN) is a type I transmembrane mucin-like glycoprotein, expressed in the lymphatic endothelium. Several solid tumors overexpress PDPN, including the mesenchymal type of GBM, which has been reported to present the worst prognosis among GBM subtypes. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-transduced T cells can recognize predefined tumor surface antigens independent of MHC restriction, which is often downregulated in gliomas. We constructed a lentiviral vector expressing a third-generation CAR comprising a PDPN-specific antibody (NZ-1-based single-chain variable fragment) with CD28, 4-1BB, and CD3ζ intracellular domains. CAR-transduced peripheral blood monocytes were immunologically evaluated by calcein-mediated cytotoxic assay, ELISA, tumor size, and overall survival. The generated CAR T cells were specific and effective against PDPN-positive GBM cells in vitro. Systemic injection of the CAR T cells into an immunodeficient mouse model inhibited the growth of intracranial glioma xenografts in vivo. CAR T-cell therapy that targets PDPN would be a promising adoptive immunotherapy to treat mesenchymal GBM. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Genome-wide RNAi screening identifies genes inhibiting the migration of glioblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM cells are highly invasive, infiltrating into the surrounding normal brain tissue, making it impossible to completely eradicate GBM tumors by surgery or radiation. Increasing evidence also shows that these migratory cells are highly resistant to cytotoxic reagents, but decreasing their migratory capability can re-sensitize them to chemotherapy. These evidences suggest that the migratory cell population may serve as a better therapeutic target for more effective treatment of GBM. In order to understand the regulatory mechanism underlying the motile phenotype, we carried out a genome-wide RNAi screen for genes inhibiting the migration of GBM cells. The screening identified a total of twenty-five primary hits; seven of them were confirmed by secondary screening. Further study showed that three of the genes, FLNA, KHSRP and HCFC1, also functioned in vivo, and knocking them down caused multifocal tumor in a mouse model. Interestingly, two genes, KHSRP and HCFC1, were also found to be correlated with the clinical outcome of GBM patients. These two genes have not been previously associated with cell migration.

  9. Impact of CD133 positive stem cell proportion on survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, Marju; Minajeva, Ave; Niinepuu, Kristi; Kase, Sandra; Vardja, Markus; Asser, Toomas; Jaal, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of CD133-positive (CD133+) cancer stem cell proportions on treatment results of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. Patients with GBM (n = 42) received postoperative radiotherapy (± chemotherapy). Surgically excised GBM tissue sections were immunohistochemically examined for CD133 expression. The proportions of CD133+ GBM cells were determined (%). The proportion of CD133+ GBM stem cells was established by 2 independent researchers whose results were in good accordance (R = 0.8, p < 0.01). Additionally, CD133 expression levels were correlated with patients overall survival. The proportion of CD133+ cells varied between patients, being from 0.5% to 82%. Mean and median proportions of CD133+ cells of the entire study group were 33% ± 24% (mean ± SD) and 28%, respectively. Clinical data do not support the association between higher proportion of stem cells and the aggressiveness of GBM. Median survival time of the study group was 10.0 months (95% CI 9.0–11.0). The survival time clearly depended on the proportion of CD133+ cells (log rank test, p = 0.02). Median survival times for patients with low (< median) and high (≥ median) proportion of CD133+ cells were 9.0 months (95% CI 7.6–10.5) and 12.0 months (95% CI 9.3–14.7), respectively. In multivariate analysis, the proportion of CD133+ cells emerged as a significant independent predictor for longer overall survival (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0–3.8, p = 0.04). In patients with higher stem cell proportion, significantly longer survival times after postoperative radiotherapy were achieved. Underlying reasons and possible higher sensitivity of GBM stem cells to fractionated radio-therapy should be clarified in further studies

  10. Differential Radiosensitizing Potential of Temozolomide in MGMT Promoter Methylated Glioblastoma Multiforme Cell Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifterik, Krista A. van; Berg, Jaap van den; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Lafleur, M. Vincent M.; Leenstra, Sieger; Slotman, Ben J.; Hulsebos, Theo J.M.; Sminia, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the radiosensitizing potential of temozolomide (TMZ) for human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines using single-dose and fractionated γ-irradiation. Methods and Materials: Three genetically characterized human GBM cell lines (AMC-3046, VU-109, and VU-122) were exposed to various single (0-6 Gy) and daily fractionated doses (2 Gy per fraction) of γ-irradiation. Repeated TMZ doses were given before and concurrent with irradiation treatment. Immediately plated clonogenic cell-survival curves were determined for both the single-dose and the fractionated irradiation experiments. To establish the net effect of clonogenic cell survival and cell proliferation, growth curves were determined, expressed as the number of surviving cells. Results: All three cell lines showed MGMT promoter methylation, lacked MGMT protein expression, and were sensitive to TMZ. The isotoxic TMZ concentrations used were in a clinically feasible range of 10 μmol/L (AMC-3046), 3 μmol/L (VU-109), and 2.5 μmol/L (VU-122). Temozolomide was able to radiosensitize two cell lines (AMC 3046 and VU-122) using single-dose irradiation. A reduction in the number of surviving cells after treatment with the combination of TMZ and fractionated irradiation was seen in all three cell lines, but only AMC 3046 showed a radiosensitizing effect. Conclusions: This study on TMZ-sensitive GBM cell lines shows that TMZ can act as a radiosensitizer and is at least additive to γ-irradiation. Enhancement of the radiation response by TMZ seems to be independent of the epigenetically silenced MGMT gene

  11. Murine macrophage heparanase: inhibition and comparison with metastatic tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savion, N.; Disatnik, M.H.; Nevo, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Circulating macrophages and metastatic tumor cells can penetrate the vascular endothelium and migrate from the circulatory system to extravascular compartments. Both activated murine macrophages and different metastatic tumor cells attach, invade, and penetrate confluent vascular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro, by degrading heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the subendothelial extracellular matrix. The sensitivity of the enzymes from the various sources degrading the heparan sulfate proteoglycan was challenged and compared by a series of inhibitors. Activated macrophages demonstrate a heparanase with an endoglycosidase activity that cleaves from the [ 35 S]O 4 - -labeled heparan sulfate proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix 10 kDa glycosaminoglycan fragments. The degradation of [ 35 S]O 4 - -labeled extracellular matrix proteoglycans by the macrophages' heparanase is significantly inhibited in the presence of heparan sulfate (10μg/ml), arteparon (10μg/ml), and heparin at a concentration of 3 μg/ml. Degradation of this heparan sulfate proteoglycan is a two-step sequential process involving protease activity followed by heparanase activity. B16-BL6 metastatic melanoma cell heparanase, which is also a cell-associated enzyme, was inhibited by heparin to the same extent as the macrophage haparanase. On the other hand, heparanase of the highly metastatic variant (ESb) of a methylcholanthrene-induced T lymphoma, which is an extracellular enzyme released by the cells to the incubation medium, was more sensitive to heparin and arteparon than the macrophages' heparanase. These results may indicate the potential use of heparin or other glycosaminoglycans as specific and differential inhibitors for the formation in certain cases of blood-borne tumor metastasis

  12. Adult, embryonic and fetal hemoglobin are expressed in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Marwan; Turner, A Robert; Allalunis-Turner, Joan

    2014-02-01

    Hemoglobin is a hemoprotein, produced mainly in erythrocytes circulating in the blood. However, non-erythroid hemoglobins have been previously reported in other cell types including human and rodent neurons of embryonic and adult brain, but not astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive tumor among gliomas. However, despite extensive basic and clinical research studies on GBM cells, little is known about glial defence mechanisms that allow these cells to survive and resist various types of treatment. We have shown previously that the newest members of vertebrate globin family, neuroglobin (Ngb) and cytoglobin (Cygb), are expressed in human GBM cells. In this study, we sought to determine whether hemoglobin is also expressed in GBM cells. Conventional RT-PCR, DNA sequencing, western blot analysis, mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to investigate globin expression in GBM cell lines (M006x, M059J, M059K, M010b, U87R and U87T) that have unique characteristics in terms of tumor invasion and response to radiotherapy and hypoxia. The data showed that α, β, γ, δ, ζ and ε globins are expressed in all tested GBM cell lines. To our knowledge, we are the first to report expression of fetal, embryonic and adult hemoglobin in GBM cells under normal physiological conditions that may suggest an undefined function of those expressed hemoglobins. Together with our previous reports on globins (Ngb and Cygb) expression in GBM cells, the expression of different hemoglobins may constitute a part of series of active defence mechanisms supporting these cells to resist various types of treatments including chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  13. Xenograft transplantation of human malignant astrocytoma cells into immunodeficient rats: an experimental model of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Flávio Key; Alves, Maria Jose Ferreira; Rocha, Mussya Cisotto; da Silva, Roseli; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli Mieko; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

    2010-03-01

    Astrocytic gliomas are the most common intracranial central nervous system neoplasias, accounting for about 60% of all primary central nervous system tumors. Despite advances in the treatment of gliomas, no effective therapeutic approach is yet available; hence, the search for a more realistic model to generate more effective therapies is essential. To develop an experimental malignant astrocytoma model with the characteristics of the human tumor. Primary cells from subcutaneous xenograft tumors produced with malignant astrocytoma U87MG cells were inoculated intracerebrally by stereotaxis into immunosuppressed (athymic) Rowett rats. All four injected animals developed non-infiltrative tumors, although other glioblastoma characteristics, such as necrosis, pseudopalisading cells and intense mitotic activity, were observed. A malignant astrocytoma intracerebral xenograft model with poorly invasive behavior was achieved in athymic Rowett rats. Tumor invasiveness in an experimental animal model may depend on a combination of several factors, including the cell line used to induce tumor formation, the rat strains and the status of the animal's immune system.

  14. Comparison of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 effects on growth of rat glioma and human glioblastoma multiforme cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztopçu, Pinar; Kabadere, Selda; Mercangoz, Ayşe; Uyar, Ruhi

    2004-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is characterized as highly invasive and rapidly growing astrocytomas, and scientists have sought for efficient treatment against malignant gliomas for a long time. Therefore, we compared the respond of rat glioma (C6) and glioblastoma multiforme cells derived from two patients to vitamins K1, K2 and K3. The cells were exposed to 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 microM of vitamins K1 and K2, and 1, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 microM of vitamin K3 for 24 hours in an incubator atmosphere of 5% CO2, 37 degrees C and 100% humidity. Cell viability was estimated by MTT assay. Vitamin K1 showed no growth effect on all the glioma cells examined. Vitamin K2 did not cause any change in number of C6, however induced growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner on glioblastoma multiforme. The IC50 values of vitamin K2 were 960 microM and 970 microM for glioblastoma multiforme, respectively. Vitamin K3 had also growth inhibitory effect in a dose-dependent manner on both C6 and glioblastoma multiforme. The IC50 values were 41 microM, 24 microM and 23 microM for vitamin K3, respectively. We concluded that vitamin K3 is more effective than vitamin K2 for inhibition of cancer cell growth, and might have an alternative value as an anticancer drug against glioblastoma multiforme.

  15. The critical role of ERK in death resistance and invasiveness of hypoxia-selected glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jee-Youn; Kim, Yong-Jun; Lee, Sun; Park, Jae-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    The rapid growth of tumor parenchyma leads to chronic hypoxia that can result in the selection of cancer cells with a more aggressive behavior and death-resistant potential to survive and proliferate. Thus, identifying the key molecules and molecular mechanisms responsible for the phenotypic changes associated with chronic hypoxia has valuable implications for the development of a therapeutic modality. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular basis of the phenotypic changes triggered by chronic repeated hypoxia. Hypoxia-resistant T98G (HRT98G) cells were selected by repeated exposure to hypoxia and reoxygenation. Cell death rate was determined by the trypan blue exclusion method and protein expression levels were examined by western blot analysis. The invasive phenotype of the tumor cells was determined by the Matrigel invasion assay. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze the expression of proteins in the brain tumor samples. The Student T-test and Pearson Chi-Square test was used for statistical analyses. We demonstrate that chronic repeated hypoxic exposures cause T98G cells to survive low oxygen tension. As compared with parent cells, hypoxia-selected T98G cells not only express higher levels of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, Bcl-X L , and phosphorylated ERK, but they also have a more invasive potential in Matrigel invasion chambers. Activation or suppression of ERK pathways with a specific activator or inhibitor, respectively, indicates that ERK is a key molecule responsible for death resistance under hypoxic conditions and a more invasive phenotype. Finally, we show that the activation of ERK is more prominent in malignant glioblastomas exposed to hypoxia than in low grade astrocytic glial tumors. Our study suggests that activation of ERK plays a pivotal role in death resistance under chronic hypoxia and phenotypic changes related to the invasive phenotype of HRT98G cells compared to parent cells

  16. Snake venoms components with antitumor activity in murine melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Rodrigo Guimaraes

    2012-01-01

    Despite the constant advances in the treatment of cancer, this disease remains one of the main causes of mortality worldwide. So, the development of new treatment modalities is imperative. Snake venom causes a variety of biological effects because they constitute a complex mixture of substances as disintegrins, proteases (serine and metalo), phospholipases A2, L-amino acid oxidases and others. The goal of the present work is to evaluate a anti-tumor activity of some snake venoms fractions. There are several studies of components derived from snake venoms with this kind of activity. After fractionation of snake venoms of the families Viperidae and Elapidae, the fractions were assayed towards murine melanoma cell line B16-F10 and fibroblasts L929. The results showed that the fractions of venom of the snake Notechis ater niger had higher specificity and potential antitumor activity on B16-F10 cell line than the other studied venoms. Since the components of this venom are not explored yet coupled with the potential activity showed in this work, we decided to choose this venom to develop further studies. The cytotoxic fractions were evaluated to identify and characterize the components that showed antitumoral activity. Western blot assays and zymography suggests that these proteins do not belong to the class of metallo and serine proteinases. (author)

  17. Cytotoxic and Apoptogenic Effects of Cyanidin-3-Glucoside on the Glioblastoma Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Masoumeh Mansoubi; Karimi, Aliasghar; Behroozaghdam, Mitra; Javidi, Mohammad Amin; Ghiasvand, Saeedeh; Bereimipour, Ahmad; Aryan, Hoda; Nassiri, Farbod; Jangholi, Ehsan

    2017-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most prevalent and aggressive primary cerebral tumor. The median survival time is 15 months despite maximum treatment because the tumor is resistant to most therapeutic modalities. Several studies have indicated chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) as an anthocyanin component. We aimed to illustrate the cytotoxic and apoptogenic effects of C3G in the U87 cell line (human GBM cell line). Cytotoxic activity was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tetrazolium assay after treatment with C3G at different concentrations in the U87 cell line. Cisplatin was used as a positive control for 24 and 48 hours. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined using an Annexin V/propidium iodide assay, and the expression of bax, bcl2, and p53 genes was assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Treatment of U87 cells with 40 μg/mL of C3G resulted in 32% apoptotic cells after 24 hours. To further confirm that C3G treatment induced apoptosis in U87 cells, RNA expression of bax, bcl2, and p53 genes was investigated after treatment. Real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that the expression of bax and p53 increased, whereas the expression of bcl2 decreased. C3G had an apoptogenic effect in the GBM cell line. New information regarding the therapeutic effects of C3G in GBM could ultimately lead to the production of new drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelling glioblastoma tumour-host cell interactions using adult brain organotypic slice co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Marques-Torrejon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is an aggressive incurable brain cancer. The cells that fuel the growth of tumours resemble neural stem cells found in the developing and adult mammalian forebrain. These are referred to as glioma stem cells (GSCs. Similar to neural stem cells, GSCs exhibit a variety of phenotypic states: dormant, quiescent, proliferative and differentiating. How environmental cues within the brain influence these distinct states is not well understood. Laboratory models of GBM can be generated using either genetically engineered mouse models, or via intracranial transplantation of cultured tumour initiating cells (mouse or human. Unfortunately, these approaches are expensive, time-consuming, low-throughput and ill-suited for monitoring live cell behaviours. Here, we explored whole adult brain coronal organotypic slices as an alternative model. Mouse adult brain slices remain viable in a serum-free basal medium for several weeks. GSCs can be easily microinjected into specific anatomical sites ex vivo, and we demonstrate distinct responses of engrafted GSCs to diverse microenvironments in the brain tissue. Within the subependymal zone – one of the adult neural stem cell niches – injected tumour cells could effectively engraft and respond to endothelial niche signals. Tumour-transplanted slices were treated with the antimitotic drug temozolomide as proof of principle of the utility in modelling responses to existing treatments. Engraftment of mouse or human GSCs onto whole brain coronal organotypic brain slices therefore provides a simplified, yet flexible, experimental model. This will help to increase the precision and throughput of modelling GSC-host brain interactions and complements ongoing in vivo studies. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

  19. Involvement of miRNAs in the differentiation of human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Aldaz

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM-initiating cells (GICs represent a tumor subpopulation with neural stem cell-like properties that is responsible for the development, progression and therapeutic resistance of human GBM. We have recently shown that blockade of NFκB pathway promotes terminal differentiation and senescence of GICs both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that induction of differentiation may be a potential therapeutic strategy for GBM. MicroRNAs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of GBM, but a high-throughput analysis of their role in GIC differentiation has not been reported. We have established human GIC cell lines that can be efficiently differentiated into cells expressing astrocytic and neuronal lineage markers. Using this in vitro system, a microarray-based high-throughput analysis to determine global expression changes of microRNAs during differentiation of GICs was performed. A number of changes in the levels of microRNAs were detected in differentiating GICs, including over-expression of hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-29a, hsa-miR-29b, hsa-miR-221 and hsa-miR-222, and down-regulation of hsa-miR-93 and hsa-miR-106a. Functional studies showed that miR-21 over-expression in GICs induced comparable cell differentiation features and targeted SPRY1 mRNA, which encodes for a negative regulator of neural stem-cell differentiation. In addition, miR-221 and miR-222 inhibition in differentiated cells restored the expression of stem cell markers while reducing differentiation markers. Finally, miR-29a and miR-29b targeted MCL1 mRNA in GICs and increased apoptosis. Our study uncovers the microRNA dynamic expression changes occurring during differentiation of GICs, and identifies miR-21 and miR-221/222 as key regulators of this process.

  20. PACAP and VIP inhibit the invasiveness of glioblastoma cells exposed to hypoxia through the regulation of HIFs and EGFR expression

    OpenAIRE

    Grazia eMaugeri; Agata Grazia eD'Amico; Agata Grazia eD'Amico; Rita eReitano; Gaetano eMagro; Sebastiano eCavallaro; Salvatore eSalomone; Velia eD'Agata

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) through the binding of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors (VIPRs), perform a wide variety of effects in human cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This tumor is characterized by extensive areas of hypoxia, which triggers the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs not only mediate angiogenesis but also tumor cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, HIFs activation...

  1. Repurposing phenformin for the targeting of glioma stem cells and the treatment of glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Finniss, Susan; Cazacu, Simona; Xiang, Cunli; Brodie, Ziv; Mikkelsen, Tom; Poisson, Laila; Shackelford, David B.; Brodie, Chaya

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. Here, we studied the effects of phenformin, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor and more potent chemical analog of the diabetes drug metformin on the inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis of glioma stem cells (GSCs) using both in vitro and in vivo models. Phenformin inhibited the self-renewal of GSCs, decreased the expression of stemness and mesenchymal markers and increased the expression of miR-124, 137 and let-7. Silencing of let-7 abrogated phenformin effects on the self-renewal of GSCs via a pathway associated with inhibition of H19 and HMGA2 expression. Moreover, we demonstrate that phenformin inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the overall survival of mice orthotopically transplanted with GSCs. Combined treatments of phenformin and temozolomide exerted an increased antitumor effect on GSCs in vitro and in vivo. In addition, dichloroacetate, an inhibitor of the glycolysis enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, that decreases lactic acidosis induced by biguanides, enhanced phenformin effects on the induction of cell death in GSCs and prolonged the survival of xenograft-bearing mice. Our results demonstrate for the first time that phenformin targets GSCs and can be efficiently combined with current therapies for GBM treatment and GSC eradication. PMID:27486821

  2. Carbon ion beam is more effective to induce cell death in sphere-type A172 human glioblastoma cells compared with X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Momoko; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Yajima, Hirohiko; Izumi-Nakajima, Nakako; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Fujimori, Akira

    2014-12-01

    To obtain human glioblastoma cells A172 expressing stem cell-related protein and comparison of radiosensitivity in these cells with X-rays and carbon beam. Human monolayer-type A172 glioblastoma cells were maintained in normal medium with 10% bovine serum. In order to obtain sphere-type A172 cells the medium was replaced with serum-free medium supplemented with growth factors. Both types of A172 cells were irradiated with either X-rays or carbon ion beams and their radiosensitivity was evaluated. Serum-free medium induced expression of stem cell-related proteins in A172 cells along with the neurosphere-like appearance. These sphere-type cells were found resistant to both X-rays and carbon ion beams. Phosphorylation of histone H2A family member X persisted for a longer period in the cells exposed to carbon ion beams than in those exposed to X-rays and it disappeared quicker in the sphere type than in the monolayer type. Relative radioresistance of the sphere type cells was smaller for carbon ion beams than for X-rays. We demonstrated that glioblastoma A172 cells with induced stem cell-related proteins turned resistant to irradiation. Accelerated heavy ion particles may have advantage over X-rays in overcoming the tumor resistance due to cell stemness.

  3. Tectal glioblastoma Glioblastoma tetal

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    Feres Chaddad Neto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain stem gliomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising mostly in paediatric patients. Tectal plate gliomas represent a particular type of brain stem tumours usually with a benign, indolent clinical course, presenting with signs of raised intracranial hipertension due to supra-tentorialhydrocephalous caused by aqueductal stenosis. Seldom high-grade lesions arise in this location with tremendous therapeutic implications. When a malignant tumour is clinically and radiographically suspected a biopsy should be performed to obtain histhological confirmation. Treatment is then planned in a case-by-case basis. We present the case of a glioblastoma of the tectal plate in a 22 years-old woman operated upon by a supracerebellar-infratentorial approach.Os gliomas do tronco cerebral são um grupo heterogêneo de neoplasias que acometem habitualmente crianças. Os gliomas da placa quadrigeminal representam um tipo particular de tumores do tronco cerebral, habitualmente com um curso benigno e indolente, surgindo com sinais de hipertensão intracraniana devido a hidrocefalia supra-tentorial provocada por compressão do aqueduto cerebral. Raramente surgem lesões de alto grau nesta região, mas as implicações terapêuticas são tremendas. Quando existe suspeita clínica e imagiológica de que se trata de lesão maligna, esta deve ser biopsada para se obter confirmação histológica. O tratamento deve então ser planejado caso a caso. Apresentamos o caso de glioblastoma da placa quadrigeminal em uma paciente de 22 anos intervencionado por via supracerebelar-infratentorial.

  4. An anti-VEGF ribozyme embedded within the adenoviral VAI sequence inhibits glioblastoma cell angiogenic potential in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Niola, Francesco; Wannenes, Francesca; Farace, Maria Giulia

    2004-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis, where it functions as one of the major angiogenic factors sustaining growth and draining catabolites. In this study, we developed an anti-VEGF ribozyme targeted to the 5' part of human VEGF mRNA. We endowed this ribozyme with an additional feature expected to improve its activity in vivo, by cloning it into a VAI transcriptional cassette. VAI is originally part of the adenovirus genome, and is characterized by high transcription rates, good stability due to its strong secondary structure and cytoplasmic localization. Transfection of U87 human glioblastoma cells with plasmid vectors encoding for this ribozyme resulted in a strong (-56%) reduction of VEGF secreted in the extracellular medium, indicating a good biological activity of the ribozyme. Moreover, this reduction in VEGF secretion had the important functional consequence of drastically diminishing the formation of tube-like structures of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells in a Matrigel in vitro angiogenesis assay. In conclusion, our VAI-embedded anti-VEGF ribozyme is a good inhibitor of angiogenesis in vitro, in a glioblastoma cell context. Thus, it may represent a useful tool for future applications in vivo, for antiangiogenic gene therapy of glioblastoma and of highly vascularized tumors. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Level of Notch activation determines the effect on growth and stem cell-like features in glioblastoma multiforme neurosphere cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Karina; Villingshøj, Mette; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2013-01-01

    Brain cancer stem-like cells (bCSC) are cancer cells with neural stem cell (NSC)-like properties found in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and they are assigned a central role in tumor initiation, progression and relapse. The Notch pathway is important for maintenance and cell fate decisions...... in the normal NSC population. Notch signaling is often deregulated in GBM and recent results suggest that this pathway plays a significant role in bCSC as well. We therefore wished to further elucidate the role of Notch activation in GBM-derived bCSC....

  6. Pim1 kinase is upregulated in glioblastoma multiforme and mediates tumor cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Susann; Fink, Matthias Alexander; Weitmann, Kerstin; Friedel, Claudius; Hadlich, Stefan; Langner, Sönke; Kindermann, Katharina; Holm, Tobias; Böhm, Andreas; Eskilsson, Eskil; Miletic, Hrvoje; Hildner, Markus; Fritsch, Michael; Vogelgesang, Silke; Havemann, Christoph; Ritter, Christoph Alexander; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Henriette Elisabeth; Rauch, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Kroemer, Heyo Klaus; Schroeder, Henry; Bien-Möller, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background The current therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive and common primary brain tumor of adults, involves surgery and a combined radiochemotherapy that controls tumor progression only for a limited time window. Therefore, the identification of new molecular targets is highly necessary. Inhibition of kinases has become a standard of clinical oncology, and thus the oncogenic kinase Pim1 might represent a promising target for improvement of GBM therapy. Methods Expression of Pim1 and associated signaling molecules was analyzed in human GBM samples, and the potential role of this kinase in patients' prognosis was evaluated. Furthermore, we analyzed the in vivo role of Pim1 in GBM cell growth in an orthotopic mouse model and examined the consequences of Pim1 inhibition in vitro to clarify underlying pathways. Results In comparison with normal brain, a strong upregulation of Pim1 was demonstrated in human GBM samples. Notably, patients with short overall survival showed a significantly higher Pim1 expression compared with GBM patients who lived longer than the median. In vitro experiments with GBM cells and analysis of patients' GBM samples suggest that Pim1 regulation is dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor. Furthermore, inhibition of Pim1 resulted in reduced cell viability accompanied by decreased cell numbers and increased apoptotic cells, as seen by elevated subG1 cell contents and caspase-3 and -9 activation, as well as modulation of several cell cycle or apoptosis regulatory proteins. Conclusions Altogether, Pim1 could be a novel therapeutic target, which should be further analyzed to improve the outcome of patients with aggressive GBM. PMID:25155357

  7. U-251 revisited: genetic drift and phenotypic consequences of long-term cultures of glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torsvik, Anja; Stieber, Daniel; Enger, Per Øyvind; Golebiewska, Anna; Molven, Anders; Svendsen, Agnete; Westermark, Bengt; Niclou, Simone P; Olsen, Thale Kristin; Chekenya Enger, Martha; Bjerkvig, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in vitro subculture represents a selection pressure on cell lines, and over time this may result in a genetic drift in the cancer cells. In addition, long-term cultures harbor the risk of cross-contamination with other cell lines. The consequences may have major impact on experimental results obtained in various laboratories, where the cell lines no longer reflect the original tumors that they are supposed to represent. Much neglected in the scientific community is a close monitoring of cell cultures by regular phenotypic and genetic characterization. In this report, we present a thorough characterization of the commonly used glioblastoma (GBM) model U-251, which in numerous publications has been wrongly identified as U-373, due to an earlier cross-contamination. In this work, the original U-251 and three subclones of U-251, commonly referred to as U-251 or U-373, were analyzed with regard to their DNA profile, morphology, phenotypic expression, and growth pattern. By array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we show that only the original low-passaged U-251 cells, established in the 1960s, maintain a DNA copy number resembling a typical GBM profile, whereas all long-term subclones lost the typical GBM profile. Also the long-term passaged subclones displayed variations in phenotypic marker expression and showed an increased growth rate in vitro and a more aggressive growth in vivo. Taken together, the variations in genotype and phenotype as well as differences in growth characteristics may explain different results reported in various laboratories related to the U-251 cell line

  8. The small molecule, LLL12, inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and induces apoptosis in medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ball

    Full Text Available Tumors of the central nervous system represent a major source of cancer-related deaths, with medulloblastoma and glioblastoma being the most common malignant brain tumors in children and adults respectively. While significant advances in treatment have been made, with the 5-year survival rate for medulloblastoma at 70-80%, treating patients under 3 years of age still poses a problem due to the deleterious effects of radiation on the developing brain, and the median survival for patients with glioblastoma is only 15 months. The transcription factor, STAT3, has been found constitutively activated in a wide variety of cancers and in recent years it has become an attractive therapeutic target. We designed a non-peptide small molecule STAT3 inhibitor, LLL12, using structure-based design. LLL12 was able to inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation, decrease cell viability and induce apoptosis in medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines with elevated levels of p-STAT3 (Y705. IC(50 values for LLL12 were found to be between 1.07 µM and 5.98 µM in the five cell lines expressing phosphorylated STAT3. STAT3 target genes were found to be downregulated and a decrease in STAT3 DNA binding was observed following LLL12 treatment, indicating that LLL12 is an effective STAT3 inhibitor. LLL12 was also able to inhibit colony formation, wound healing and decreased IL-6 and LIF secretion. Our results suggest that LLL12 is a potent STAT3 inhibitor and that it may be a potential therapeutic treatment for medulloblastoma and glioblastoma.

  9. Helicobacter pylori impairs murine dendritic cell responses to infection.

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    Ya-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori, a human pathogen associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric malignancies, is generally viewed as an extracellular microorganism. Here, we show that H. pylori replicates in murine bone marrow derived-dendritic cells (BMDCs within autophagosomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 10-fold increase of CFU is found between 2 h and 6 h p.i. in H. pylori-infected BMDCs. Autophagy is induced around the bacterium and participates at late time points of infection for the clearance of intracellular H. pylori. As a consequence of infection, LC3, LAMP1 and MHC class II molecules are retained within the H. pylori-containing vacuoles and export of MHC class II molecules to cell surface is blocked. However, formalin-fixed H. pylori still maintain this inhibitory activity in BMDC derived from wild type mice, but not in from either TLR4 or TLR2-deficient mice, suggesting the involvement of H. pylori-LPS in this process. TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 expression was also modulated upon infection showing a TLR2-specific dependent IL-10 secretion. No IL-12 was detected favoring the hypothesis of a down modulation of DC functions during H. pylori infection. Furthermore, antigen-specific T cells proliferation was also impaired upon infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: H. pylori can infect and replicate in BMDCs and thereby affects DC-mediated immune responses. The implication of this new finding is discussed for the biological life cycle of H. pylori in the host.

  10. Identification of RIP1 as a critical mediator of Smac mimetic-mediated sensitization of glioblastoma cells for Drozitumab-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofanon, S; Abhari, B A; Krueger, M; Tchoghandjian, A; Momma, S; Calaminus, C; Vucic, D; Pichler, B J; Fulda, S

    2015-04-16

    This study aims at evaluating the combination of the tumor-necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2)-specific antibody Drozitumab and the Smac mimetic BV6 in preclinical glioblastoma models. To this end, the effect of BV6 and/or Drozitumab on apoptosis induction and signaling pathways was analyzed in glioblastoma cell lines, primary glioblastoma cultures and glioblastoma stem-like cells. Here, we report that BV6 and Drozitumab synergistically induce apoptosis and reduce colony formation in several glioblastoma cell lines (combination indextrigger the formation of a cytosolic receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1/Fas-associated via death domain (FADD)/caspase-8-containing complex and subsequent activation of caspase-8 and -3. BV6- and Drozitumab-induced apoptosis is blocked by the caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk, pointing to caspase-dependent apoptosis. RNA interference-mediated silencing of RIP1 almost completely abolishes the BV6-conferred sensitization to Drozitumab-induced apoptosis, indicating that the synergism critically depends on RIP1 expression. In contrast, both necrostatin-1, a RIP1 kinase inhibitor, and Enbrel, a TNFα-blocking antibody, do not interfere with BV6/Drozitumab-induced apoptosis, demonstrating that apoptosis occurs independently of RIP1 kinase activity or an autocrine TNFα loop. In conclusion, the rational combination of BV6 and Drozitumab presents a promising approach to trigger apoptosis in glioblastoma, which warrants further investigation.

  11. The suppression of manganese superoxide dismutase decreased the survival of human glioblastoma multiforme T98G cells

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    Novi S. Hardiany

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a primary malignant brain tumor which has poor prognosis. High incidence of oxidative stress-based therapy resistance could be related to the high antioxidant status of GBM cells. Our previous study has reported that manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD antioxidant expression was significantly higher in high grade glioma than in low grade. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of MnSOD suppression toward GBM cell survival.Methods: This study is an experimental study using human glioblastoma multiforme T98G cell line. Suppression of MnSOD expression was performed using in vitro transfection MnSOD-siRNA. The MnSOD expression was analyzed by measuring the mRNA using real time RT-PCR, protein using ELISA technique, and specific activity of enzyme using inhibition of xantine oxidase. Concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS intracellular was determined by measuring superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide. Cell survival was analyzed by measuring viability, proliferation, and cell apoptosis.Results: In vitro transfection of MnSOD-siRNA suppressed the mRNA, protein, and specific activity of MnSOD. This treatment significantly increased the concentration of superoxide radical; however, it did not influence the concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, viability MnSOD-suppressing cell significantly decreased, accompanied by increase of cell apoptosis without affecting cell proliferation.Conclusion: The suppression of MnSOD expression leads to decrease glioblastoma multiforme cell survival, which was associated to the increase of cell apoptotic.

  12. Association of Glioblastoma Multiforme Stem Cell Characteristics, Differentiation, and Microglia Marker Genes with Patient Survival

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    Sandra Bien-Möller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM are at high risk to develop a relapse despite multimodal therapy. Assumedly, glioma stem cells (GSCs are responsible for treatment resistance of GBM. Identification of specific GSC markers may help to develop targeted therapies. Here, we performed expression analyses of stem cell (ABCG2, CD44, CD95, CD133, ELF4, Nanog, and Nestin as well as differentiation and microglia markers (GFAP, Iba1, and Sparc in GBM compared to nonmalignant brain. Furthermore, the role of these proteins for patient survival and their expression in LN18 stem-like neurospheres was analyzed. At mRNA level, ABCG2 and CD95 were reduced, GFAP was unchanged; all other investigated markers were increased in GBM. At protein level, CD44, ELF4, Nanog, Nestin, and Sparc were elevated in GBM, but only CD133 and Nestin were strongly associated with survival time. In addition, ABCG2 and GFAP expression was decreased in LN18 neurospheres whereas CD44, CD95, CD133, ELF4, Nanog, Nestin, and Sparc were upregulated. Altogether only CD133 and Nestin were associated with survival rates. This raises concerns regarding the suitability of the other target structures as prognostic markers, but makes both CD133 and Nestin candidates for GBM therapy. Nevertheless, a search for more specific marker proteins is urgently needed.

  13. Tumor Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cell as a Prognostic Marker in Primary Glioblastoma

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    Seon-Jin Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation from brain tumors of tumor mesenchymal stem-like cells (tMSLCs suggests that these cells play a role in creating a microenvironment for tumor initiation and progression. The clinical characteristics of patients with primary glioblastoma (pGBM positive for tMSLCs have not been determined. This study analyzed samples from 82 patients with pGBM who had undergone tumor removal, pathological diagnosis, and isolation of tMSLC from April 2009 to October 2014. Survival, extent of resection, molecular markers, and tMSLC culture results were statistically evaluated. Median overall survival was 18.6 months, 15.0 months in tMSLC-positive patients and 29.5 months in tMSLC-negative patients (P=0.014. Multivariate cox regression model showed isolation of tMSLC (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1~5.6, P=0.021 showed poor outcome while larger extent of resection (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.2~0.8, P=0.011 has association with better outcome. The presence of tMSLCs isolated from the specimen of pGBM is associated with the survival of patient.

  14. Association of Glioblastoma Multiforme Stem Cell Characteristics, Differentiation, and Microglia Marker Genes with Patient Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Ellen; Herzog, Susann; Plantera, Laura; Vogelgesang, Silke; Seifert, Carolin; Bialke, Angela; Venugopal, Chitra; Singh, Sheila K.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Henry W. S.

    2018-01-01

    Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are at high risk to develop a relapse despite multimodal therapy. Assumedly, glioma stem cells (GSCs) are responsible for treatment resistance of GBM. Identification of specific GSC markers may help to develop targeted therapies. Here, we performed expression analyses of stem cell (ABCG2, CD44, CD95, CD133, ELF4, Nanog, and Nestin) as well as differentiation and microglia markers (GFAP, Iba1, and Sparc) in GBM compared to nonmalignant brain. Furthermore, the role of these proteins for patient survival and their expression in LN18 stem-like neurospheres was analyzed. At mRNA level, ABCG2 and CD95 were reduced, GFAP was unchanged; all other investigated markers were increased in GBM. At protein level, CD44, ELF4, Nanog, Nestin, and Sparc were elevated in GBM, but only CD133 and Nestin were strongly associated with survival time. In addition, ABCG2 and GFAP expression was decreased in LN18 neurospheres whereas CD44, CD95, CD133, ELF4, Nanog, Nestin, and Sparc were upregulated. Altogether only CD133 and Nestin were associated with survival rates. This raises concerns regarding the suitability of the other target structures as prognostic markers, but makes both CD133 and Nestin candidates for GBM therapy. Nevertheless, a search for more specific marker proteins is urgently needed. PMID:29535786

  15. A murine ESC-like state facilitates transgenesis and homologous recombination in human pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Buecker (Christa); H.H. Chen; J.M. Polo (Jose); L. Daheron (Laurence); L. Bu (Lei); T.S. Barakat (Tahsin Stefan); P. Okwieka (Patricia); A. Porter (Andrew); J.H. Gribnau (Joost); K. Hochedlinger (Konrad); N. Geijsen (Niels)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMurine pluripotent stem cells can exist in two functionally distinct states, LIF-dependent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and bFGF-dependent epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). However, human pluripotent cells so far seemed to assume only an epiblast-like state. Here we demonstrate that human

  16. Wnt/β-catenin pathway involvement in ionizing radiation-induced invasion of U87 glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Zhen; Zhou, Lin; Han, Na; Zhang, Mengxian; Lyu, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy has been reported to promote the invasion of glioblastoma cells; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in radiation-induced invasion of glioblastoma cells. U87 cells were irradiated with 3 Gy or sham irradiated in the presence or absence of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV 939. Cell invasion was determined by an xCELLigence real-time cell analyser and matrigel invasion assays. The intracellular distribution of β-catenin in U87 cells with or without irradiation was examined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting of nuclear fractions. We next investigated the effect of irradiation on Wnt/β-catenin pathway activity using TOP/FOP flash luciferase assays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of β-catenin target genes. The expression levels and activities of two target genes, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, were examined further by Western blotting and zymography. U87 cell invasiveness was increased significantly by ionizing radiation. Interestingly, ionizing radiation induced nuclear translocation and accumulation of β-catenin. Moreover, we found increased β-catenin/TCF transcriptional activities, followed by up-regulation of downstream genes in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in irradiated U87 cells. Importantly, inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by XAV 939, which promotes degradation of β-catenin, significantly abrogated the pro-invasion effects of irradiation. Mechanistically, XAV 939 suppressed ionizing radiation-triggered up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and inhibited the activities of these gelatinases. Our data demonstrate a pivotal role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in ionizing radiation-induced invasion of glioblastoma cells, and suggest that targeting β-catenin is a promising therapeutic approach to overcoming glioma radioresistance. (orig.) [de

  17. Glioblastoma Stem Cells Respond to Differentiation Cues but Fail to Undergo Commitment and Terminal Cell-Cycle Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Carén

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is an aggressive brain tumor whose growth is driven by stem cell-like cells. BMP signaling triggers cell-cycle exit and differentiation of GBM stem cells (GSCs and, therefore, might have therapeutic value. However, the epigenetic mechanisms that accompany differentiation remain poorly defined. It is also unclear whether cell-cycle arrest is terminal. Here we find only a subset of GSC cultures exhibit astrocyte differentiation in response to BMP. Although overtly differentiated non-cycling astrocytes are generated, they remain vulnerable to cell-cycle re-entry and fail to appropriately reconfigure DNA methylation patterns. Chromatin accessibility mapping identified loci that failed to alter in response to BMP and these were enriched in SOX transcription factor-binding motifs. SOX transcription factors, therefore, may limit differentiation commitment. A similar propensity for cell-cycle re-entry and de-differentiation was observed in GSC-derived oligodendrocyte-like cells. These findings highlight significant obstacles to BMP-induced differentiation as therapy for GBM.

  18. Heterogeneity of functional properties of Clone 66 murine breast cancer cells expressing various stem cell phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Farrell, Tracy; Sharma, Gayatri; McGuire, Timothy R; O'Kane, Barbara; Sharp, J Graham

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer grows, metastasizes and relapses from rare, therapy resistant cells with a stem cell phenotype (cancer stem cells/CSCs). However, there is a lack of studies comparing the functions of CSCs isolated using different phenotypes in order to determine if CSCs are homogeneous or heterogeneous. Cells with various stem cell phenotypes were isolated by sorting from Clone 66 murine breast cancer cells that grow orthotopically in immune intact syngeneic mice. These populations were compared by in vitro functional assays for proliferation, growth, sphere and colony formation; and in vivo limiting dilution analysis of tumorigenesis. The proportion of cells expressing CD44(high)CD24(low/neg), side population (SP) cells, ALDH1(+), CD49f(high), CD133(high), and CD34(high) differed, suggesting heterogeneity. Differences in frequency and size of tumor spheres from these populations were observed. Higher rates of proliferation of non-SP, ALDH1(+), CD34(low), and CD49f(high) suggested properties of transit amplifying cells. Colony formation was higher from ALDH1(-) and non-SP cells than ALDH1(+) and SP cells suggesting a progenitor phenotype. The frequency of clonal colonies that grew in agar varied and was differentially altered by the presence of Matrigel™. In vivo, fewer cells with a stem cell phenotype were needed for tumor formation than "non-stem" cells. Fewer SP cells were needed to form tumors than ALDH1(+) cells suggesting further heterogeneities of cells with stem phenotypes. Different levels of cytokines/chemokines were produced by Clone 66 with RANTES being the highest. Whether the heterogeneity reflects soluble factor production remains to be determined. These data demonstrate that Clone 66 murine breast cancer cells that express stem cell phenotypes are heterogeneous and exhibit different functional properties, and this may also be the case for human breast cancer stem cells.

  19. Saponin B, a novel cytostatic compound purified from Anemone taipaiensis, induces apoptosis in a human glioblastoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuangang; Tang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yun; Li, Juan; Li, Bo; Gao, Zhenhui; Wang, Xiaoyang; Cheng, Guang; Fei, Zhou

    2013-11-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most common malignant brain tumors. Saponin B, a novel compound isolated from the medicinal plant, Anemone taipaiensis, has been found to have a strong time- and dose-dependent cytostatic effect on human glioma cells and to suppress the growth of U87MG GBM cells. In this study, we investigated whether saponin B induces the apoptosis of glioblastoma cells and examined the underlying mechanism(s) of action of saponin B. Saponin B significantly suppressed U87MG cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA in the U87MG cells confirmed that saponin B blocked the cell cycle at the S phase. Furthermore, treatment of the U87MG cells with saponin B induced chromatin condensation and led to the formation of apoptotic bodies, as observed under a fluorescence microscope, and Annexin V/PI assay further suggested that phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization was apparent at higher drug concentrations. Treatment with saponin B activated the receptor-mediated pathway of apoptosis, as western blot analysis revealed the activation of Fas-l. Saponin B increased the Bax and caspase-3 ratio and decreased the protein expression of Bcl-2. The results from the present study demonstrate that the novel compound, saponin B, effectively induces the apoptosis of GBM cells and inhibits glioma cell growth and survival. Therefore, saponin B may be a potential candidate for the development of novel cancer therapeutics with antitumor activity against gliomas.

  20. The Role of RhoA, RhoB and RhoC GTPases in Cell Morphology, Proliferation and Migration in Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV Infected Glioblastoma Cells

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    Melpomeni Tseliou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Rho GTPases are crucial regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking and cell signaling and their importance in cell migration and invasion is well- established. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a widespread pathogen responsible for generally asymptomatic and persistent infections in healthy people. Recent evidence indicates that HCMV gene products are expressed in over 90% of malignant type glioblastomas (GBM. In addition, the HCMV Immediate Early-1 protein (IE1 is expressed in >90% of tumors analyzed. Methods: RhoA, RhoB and RhoC were individually depleted in U373MG glioblastoma cells as well as U373MG cells stably expressing the HCMV IE1 protein (named U373MG-IE1 cells shRNA lentivirus vectors. Cell proliferation assays, migration as well as wound-healing assays were performed in uninfected and HCMV-infected cells. Results: The depletion of RhoA, RhoB and RhoC protein resulted in significant alterations in the morphology of the uninfected cells, which were further enhanced by the cytopathic effect caused by HCMV. Furthermore, in the absence or presence of HCMV, the knockdown of RhoB and RhoC proteins decreased the proliferation rate of the parental and the IE1-expressing glioblastoma cells, whereas the knockdown of RhoA protein in the HCMV infected cell lines restored their proliferation rate. In addition, wound healing assays in U373MG cells revealed that depletion of RhoA, RhoB and RhoC differentially reduced their migration rate, even in the presence or the absence of HCMV. Conclusion: Collectively, these data show for the first time a differential implication of Rho GTPases in morphology, proliferation rate and motility of human glioblastoma cells during HCMV infection, further supporting an oncomodulatory role of HCMV depending on the Rho isoforms' state.

  1. Dual-targeting immunoliposomes using angiopep-2 and CD133 antibody for glioblastoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Seok; Shin, Dae Hwan; Kim, Jin-Seok

    2018-01-10

    Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), which are identified as subpopulation of CD133 + /ALDH1 + , are known to show resistance to the most of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, leading to the recurrence of tumor in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. Also, delivery of temozolomide (TMZ), a mainline treatment of GBM, to the GBM site is hampered by various barriers including the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A dual-targeting immunoliposome encapsulating TMZ (Dual-LP-TMZ) was developed by using angiopep-2 (An2) and anti-CD133 monoclonal antibody (CD133 mAb) for BBB transcytosis and specific delivery to GSCs, respectively. The size, zeta potential and drug encapsulation efficiency of Dual-LP-TMZ were 203.4nm in diameter, -1.6mV and 99.2%, respectively. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Dual-LP-TMZ against U87MG GSCs was increased by 425- and 181-folds when compared with that of free TMZ and non-targeted TMZ liposome (LP-TMZ) (10.3μM vs. 4380μM and 1869μM in IC 50 , respectively). Apoptosis and anti-migration ability of Dual-LP-TMZ in U87MG GSCs were also significantly enhanced comparing with those of free TMZ or LP-TMZ. In vivo study clearly showed a significant reduction in tumor size after intravenous administrations of Dual-LP-TMZ to the orthotopically-implanted brain tumor mice when compared with free TMZ or LP-TMZ. Increased life span (ILS) and median survival time (MST) of tumor-bearing mice were also increased when treated with Dual-LP-TMZ (211.2% in ILS and 49.2days in MST) than with free TMZ (0% in ILS and 23.3day in MST). These data indicate that conjugation of both An2 peptide and CD133 mAb to TMZ-encapsulating liposome is very effective in delivering the TMZ to GSCs via BBB, suggesting a potential use of Dual-LP-TMZ as a therapeutic modality for GBM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds increase the efficacy of stem cell-mediated therapy of surgically resected glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagó, Juli R.; Pegna, Guillaume J.; Okolie, Onyi; Mohiti-Asli, Mahsa; Loboa, Elizabeth G.; Hingtgen, Shawn D.

    2017-01-01

    Engineered stem cell (SC)-based therapy holds enormous promise for treating the incurable brain cancer glioblastoma (GBM). Retaining the cytotoxic SCs in the surgical cavity after GBM resection is one of the greatest challenges to this approach. Here, we describe a biocompatible electrospun nanofibrous scaffold (bENS) implant capable of delivering and retaining tumor-homing cytotoxic stem cells that suppress recurrence of post-surgical GBM. As a new approach to GBM therapy, we created poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA) bENS bearing drug-releasing human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We discovered that bENS-based implant increased hMSC retention in the surgical cavity 5-fold and prolonged persistence 3-fold compared to standard direct injection using our mouse model of GBM surgical resection/recurrence. Time-lapse imaging showed cytotoxic hMSC/bENS treatment killed co-cultured human GBM cells, and allowed hMSCs to rapidly migrate off the scaffolds as they homed to GBMs. In vivo, bENS loaded with hMSCs releasing the anti-tumor protein TRAIL (bENSsTR) reduced the volume of established GBM xenografts 3-fold. Mimicking clinical GBM patient therapy, lining the post-operative GBM surgical cavity with bENSsTR implants inhibited the re-growth of residual GBM foci 2.3-fold and prolonged post-surgical median survival from 13.5 to 31 days in mice. These results suggest that nanofibrous-based SC therapies could be an innovative new approach to improve the outcomes of patients suffering from terminal brain cancer. PMID:27016620

  3. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals effects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on invasion-promoting proteins secreted by glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangar, Vineet; Funk, Cory C; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Campbell, David S; Moritz, Robert L; Price, Nathan D

    2014-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly invasive and aggressive brain tumor with an invariably poor prognosis. The overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a primary influencer of invasion and proliferation in tumor cells and the constitutively active EGFRvIII mutant, found in 30-65% of Glioblastoma multiforme, confers more aggressive invasion. To better understand how EGFR contributes to tumor aggressiveness, we investigated the effect of EGFR on the secreted levels of 65 rationally selected proteins involved in invasion. We employed selected reaction monitoring targeted mass spectrometry using stable isotope labeled internal peptide standards to quantity proteins in the secretome from five GBM (U87) isogenic cell lines in which EGFR, EGFRvIII, and/or PTEN were expressed. Our results show that cell lines with EGFR overexpression and constitutive EGFRvIII expression differ remarkably in the expression profiles for both secreted and intracellular signaling proteins, and alterations in EGFR signaling result in reproducible changes in concentrations of secreted proteins. Furthermore, the EGFRvIII-expressing mutant cell line secretes the majority of the selected invasion-promoting proteins at higher levels than other cell lines tested. Additionally, the intracellular and extracellular protein measurements indicate elevated oxidative stress in the EGFRvIII-expressing cell line. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that EGFR signaling has a significant effect on the levels of secreted invasion-promoting proteins, likely contributing to the aggressiveness of Glioblastoma multiforme. Further characterization of these proteins may provide candidates for new therapeutic strategies and targets as well as biomarkers for this aggressive disease. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Enhanced detection and study of murine norovirus-1 using a more efficient microglial cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yuanan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Noroviruses are the predominant cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. To facilitate prevention and control, a norovirus isolated from mice can provide a model to understand human noroviruses. To establish optimal viral infectivity conditions for murine noroviruses, several cell lines of hematopoietic lineage, including murine BV-2, RAW 264.7, and TIB, as well as human CHME-5, were tested comparatively for their sensitivity to murine norovirus-1. Results Except for CHME-5, all three murine-derived cell lines were susceptible to MNV infection. Viral infection of these cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. Using both viral plaque and replication assays, BV-2 and RAW 264.7 cells were determined to have comparable sensitivities to MNV-1 infection. Comparisons of cell growth characteristics, general laboratory handling and potential in-field applications suggest the use of BV-2 to be more advantageous. Conclusion Results obtained from these studies demonstrate that an immortalized microglial cell line can support MNV-1 replication and provides a more efficient method to detect and study murine noroviruses, facilitating future investigations using MNV-1 as a model to study, detect, and control Human Norovirus.

  5. Anti-EGFRvIII Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified T Cells for Adoptive Cell Therapy of Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Pei-pei; Li, Ming; Li, Tian-fang; Han, Shuang-yin

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most devastating brain tumors with poor prognosis and high mortality. Although radical surgical treatment with subsequent radiation and chemotherapy can improve the survival, the efficacy of such regimens is insufficient because the GBM cells can spread and destroy normal brain structures. Moreover, these non-specific treatments may damage adjacent healthy brain tissue. It is thus imperative to develop novel therapies to precisely target invasive tumor cells without damaging normal tissues. Immunotherapy is a promising approach due to its capability to suppress the growth of various tumors in preclinical model and clinical trials. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting an ideal molecular marker in GBM, e.g. epidermal growth factor receptor type III (EGFRvIII) has demonstrated a satisfactory efficacy in treating malignant brain tumors. Here we summarize the recent progresses in immunotherapeutic strategy using CAR-modified T cells oriented to EGFRvIII against GBM. PMID:28302023

  6. miR-370 mimic inhibits replication of Japanese encephalitis virus in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjuan; Cheng, Peng; Nie, Shangdan; Cui, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most severe viral infections of the central nervous system. No effective treatment for JE currently exists, because its pathogenesis remains largely unknown. The present study was designed to screen the potential microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in JE. Glioblastoma cells were collected, after being infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Total miRNAs were extracted and analyzed using an miRNA chip. One of the most severely affected miRNAs was selected, and the role of miR-370 in JEV infection was investigated. Cell viability and apoptosis of the host cells were evaluated. JEV replication was detected via analysis of gene E expression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the levels of endogenous miR-370 and expression of innate immunity-related genes. Following JEV infection, 114 miRNAs were affected, as evidenced by the miRNA chip. Among them, 30 miRNAs were upregulated and 84 were downregulated. The changes observed in five miRNAs were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. One of the significantly downregulated miRNAs was miR-370. Therefore, miR-370 mimic was transfected into the cells, following which the levels of endogenous miR-370 were significantly elevated. Concurrently, JEV replication was significantly reduced 24 hours after transfection of miR-370 mimic. Functionally, miR-370 mimic mitigated both JEV-induced apoptosis and the inhibition of host cell proliferation. Following JEV infection, interferon-β and nuclear factor-kappa B were upregulated, whereas miR-370 mimic prevented the upregulation of the genes induced by JEV infection. The present study demonstrated that miR-370 expression in host cells is downregulated following JEV infection, which further mediates innate immunity-related gene expression. Taken together, miR-370 mimic might be useful to prevent viral replication and infection-induced host cell injury.

  7. Prognostic Value of CD109+ Circulating Endothelial Cells in Recurrent Glioblastomas Treated with Bevacizumab and Irinotecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppini, Lucia; Calleri, Angelica; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Prodi, Elena; Anghileri, Elena; Pellegatta, Serena; Mancuso, Patrizia; Porrati, Paola; Di Stefano, Anna Luisa; Ceroni, Mauro; Bertolini, Francesco; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Eoli, Marica

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent data suggest that circulating endothelial and progenitor cells (CECs and CEPs, respectively) may have predictive potential in cancer patients treated with bevacizumab, the antibody recognizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Here we report on CECs and CEPs investigated in 68 patients affected by recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) treated with bevacizumab and irinotecan and two Independent Datasets of rGBM patients respectively treated with bevacizumab alone (n=32, independent dataset A: IDA) and classical antiblastic chemotherapy (n=14, independent dataset B: IDB). Methods rGBM patients with KPS ≥50 were treated until progression, as defined by MRI with RANO criteria. CECs expressing CD109, a marker of tumor endothelial cells, as well as other CEC and CEP subtypes, were investigated by six-color flow cytometry. Results A baseline count of CD109+ CEC higher than 41.1/ml (1st quartile) was associated with increased progression free survival (PFS; 20 versus 9 weeks, P=0.008) and overall survival (OS; 32 versus 23 weeks, P=0.03). Longer PFS (25 versus 8 weeks, P=0.02) and OS (27 versus 17 weeks, P=0.03) were also confirmed in IDA with CD109+ CECs higher than 41.1/ml but not in IDB. Patients treated with bevacizumab with or without irinotecan that were free from MRI progression after two months of treatment had significant decrease of CD109+ CECs: median PFS was 19 weeks; median OS 29 weeks. The presence of two non-contiguous lesions (distant disease) at baseline was an independent predictor of shorter PFS and OS (P<0.001). Conclusions Data encourage further studies on the predictive potential of CD109+ CECs in GBM patients treated with bevacizumab. PMID:24069296

  8. Acquired resistance to 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, tanespimycin) in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Nathalie; Sharp, Swee Y; Pacey, Simon; Jones, Chris; Walton, Michael; Vassal, Gilles; Eccles, Suzanne; Pearson, Andrew; Workman, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors, such as 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, tanespimycin), which is currently in phase II/phase III clinical trials, are promising new anticancer agents. Here, we explored acquired resistance to HSP90 inhibitors in glioblastoma (GB), a primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. GB cells were exposed continuously to increased 17-AAG concentrations. Four 17-AAG-resistant GB cell lines were generated. High-resistance levels with resistance indices (RI = resistant line IC(50)/parental line IC(50)) of 20 to 137 were obtained rapidly (2-8 weeks). After cessation of 17-AAG exposure, RI decreased and then stabilized. Cross-resistance was found with other ansamycin benzoquinones but not with the structurally unrelated HSP90 inhibitors, radicicol, the purine BIIB021, and the resorcinylic pyrazole/isoxazole amide compounds VER-49009, VER-50589, and NVP-AUY922. An inverse correlation between NAD(P)H/quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) expression/activity and 17-AAG IC(50) was observed in the resistant lines. The NQO1 inhibitor ES936 abrogated the differential effects of 17-AAG sensitivity between the parental and resistant lines. NQO1 mRNA levels and NQO1 DNA polymorphism analysis indicated different underlying mechanisms: reduced expression and selection of the inactive NQO1*2 polymorphism. Decreased NQO1 expression was also observed in a melanoma line with acquired resistance to 17-AAG. No resistance was generated with VER-50589 and NVP-AUY922. In conclusion, low NQO1 activity is a likely mechanism of acquired resistance to 17-AAG in GB, melanoma, and, possibly, other tumor types. Such resistance can be overcome with novel HSP90 inhibitors.

  9. Key concepts in glioblastoma therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartek, Jiri; Ng, Kimberly; Bartek, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    principles that drive the formulation of therapeutic strategies in glioblastoma. Specifically, the concepts of tumour heterogeneity, oncogene addiction, non-oncogene addiction, tumour initiating cells, tumour microenvironment, non-coding sequences and DNA damage response will be reviewed....

  10. Turnover of T cells in murine gammaherpesvirus 68-infected mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton-Easton, A M; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Doherty, P C

    1999-01-01

    Respiratory challenge of C57BL/6 mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 induces proliferation of T lymphocytes early after infection, as evidenced by incorporation of the DNA precursor bromodeoxyuridine. Using pulse-chase analysis, splenic and peripheral blood activated T lymphocytes were found...

  11. Type I collagen gel protects murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells from TNFα-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong-Ju; He, Wen-Qi; Chen, Ling; Liu, Wei-Wei; Xu, Qian; Xia, Ming-Yu; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Hattori, Shunji; Tashiro, Shin-ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells have been used to test efficacy of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. In the present study, we reported on protective effect of type I collagen gel used as L929 cell culture. L929 cell grew and proliferated well on collagen gel. However, the L929 cells exhibited cobblestone-like morphology which was much different from the spread fusiform shape when cultured on conventional cell dishes as well as the cells tended to aggregate. On conventional cell culture dishes, the cells treated with TNFα became round in shape and eventually died in a necroptotic manner. The cells cultured on collagen gel, however, were completely unaffected. TNFα treatment was reported to induce autophagy in L929 cells on the plastic dish, and therefore we investigated the effect of collagen gel on induction of autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy induced by TNFα treatment was much reduced when the cells were cultured on collagen gel. In conclusion, type I collagen gel protected L929 cell from TNFα-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Collagen gel culture changed the morphology of L929 cells. • L929 cell cultured on collagen gel were resistant to TNFα-induced cell death. • Collagen gel culture inhibited TNFα-induced autophagy in L929 cells

  12. Type I collagen gel protects murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells from TNFα-induced cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-Ju; He, Wen-Qi; Chen, Ling; Liu, Wei-Wei; Xu, Qian; Xia, Ming-Yu; Hayashi, Toshihiko [China-Japan Research Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016 (China); Fujisaki, Hitomi; Hattori, Shunji [Nippi Research Institute of Biomatrix, Toride, Ibaraki 302-0017 (Japan); Tashiro, Shin-ichi [Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, Kyoto 603-8072 (Japan); Onodera, Satoshi [Department of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo 194-8543 (Japan); Ikejima, Takashi, E-mail: ikejimat@vip.sina.com [China-Japan Research Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-02-20

    Murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells have been used to test efficacy of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. In the present study, we reported on protective effect of type I collagen gel used as L929 cell culture. L929 cell grew and proliferated well on collagen gel. However, the L929 cells exhibited cobblestone-like morphology which was much different from the spread fusiform shape when cultured on conventional cell dishes as well as the cells tended to aggregate. On conventional cell culture dishes, the cells treated with TNFα became round in shape and eventually died in a necroptotic manner. The cells cultured on collagen gel, however, were completely unaffected. TNFα treatment was reported to induce autophagy in L929 cells on the plastic dish, and therefore we investigated the effect of collagen gel on induction of autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy induced by TNFα treatment was much reduced when the cells were cultured on collagen gel. In conclusion, type I collagen gel protected L929 cell from TNFα-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Collagen gel culture changed the morphology of L929 cells. • L929 cell cultured on collagen gel were resistant to TNFα-induced cell death. • Collagen gel culture inhibited TNFα-induced autophagy in L929 cells.

  13. Molecular heterogeneity in a patient-derived glioblastoma xenoline is regulated by different cancer stem cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Meagan Garner

    Full Text Available Malignant glioblastoma (GBM is a highly aggressive brain tumor with a dismal prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Genomic profiling of GBM samples has identified four molecular subtypes (Proneural, Neural, Classical and Mesenchymal, which may arise from different glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSC populations. We previously showed that adherent cultures of GSCs grown on laminin-coated plates (Ad-GSCs and spheroid cultures of GSCs (Sp-GSCs had high expression of stem cell markers (CD133, Sox2 and Nestin, but low expression of differentiation markers (βIII-tubulin and glial fibrillary acid protein. In the present study, we characterized GBM tumors produced by subcutaneous and intracranial injection of Ad-GSCs and Sp-GSCs isolated from a patient-derived xenoline. Although they formed tumors with identical histological features, gene expression analysis revealed that xenografts of Sp-GSCs had a Classical molecular subtype similar to that of bulk tumor cells. In contrast xenografts of Ad-GSCs expressed a Mesenchymal gene signature. Adherent GSC-derived xenografts had high STAT3 and ANGPTL4 expression, and enrichment for stem cell markers, transcriptional networks and pro-angiogenic markers characteristic of the Mesenchymal subtype. Examination of clinical samples from GBM patients showed that STAT3 expression was directly correlated with ANGPTL4 expression, and that increased expression of these genes correlated with poor patient survival and performance. A pharmacological STAT3 inhibitor abrogated STAT3 binding to the ANGPTL4 promoter and exhibited anticancer activity in vivo. Therefore, Ad-GSCs and Sp-GSCs produced histologically identical tumors with different gene expression patterns, and a STAT3/ANGPTL4 pathway is identified in glioblastoma that may serve as a target for therapeutic intervention.

  14. Elevated chemokine CC-motif receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) promotes cell migration and invasion in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fengqiong; Xu, Zhenhua; Wang, Zifeng; Yao, Hong; Shen, Zan; Yu, Fang; Tang, Yiping; Fu, Dengli; Lin, Sheng; Lu, Gang; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Poon, Wai Sang; Huang, Yunchao; Lin, Marie Chia-Mi

    2012-12-14

    Chemokine CC-motif receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) is a 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor which plays a key role in lung dendritic cell trafficking to peripheral lymph nodes. The function and expression of CCRL2 in cancer is not understood at present. Here we report that CCRL2 expression level is elevated in human glioma patient samples and cell lines. The magnitude of increase is positively associated with increasing tumor grade, with the highest level observed in grade IV glioblastoma. By gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, we further showed that CCRL2 did not regulate the growth of human glioblatoma U87 and U373 cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that over-expression of CCRL2 significantly enhanced the migration rate and invasiveness of the glioblastoma cells. Taken together, these results suggest for the first time that elevated CCRL2 in glioma promotes cell migration and invasion. The potential roles of CCRL2 as a novel therapeutic target and biomarker warrant further investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of X-irradiation alone and in combination with ACNU on human glioblastoma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashiyama, Shoji; Katakura, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Kou; Kitahara, Masakazu; Suzuki, Jiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Sasaki, Takehito

    1990-05-01

    The combined effects of x-irradiation and 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl) methyl-3-(2-chloro-ethyl)-3-nitrosourea (ACNU) on multicellular glioblastoma A-7 spheroids were analyzed by means of cell survival and dose-response curves. The actual dose-response curve for small spheroids was almost identical to that estimated from the cell survival curve. It was strongly suggested that a small number of radiation-resistant cells, which were not detected in the cell survival curve, were present in large spheroids with central necrosis. The enhancing effect of ACNU was greater with large spheroids than with monolayer cells or small spheroids. A possible explanation for this is that ACNU is higher effective against the few radiation-resistant cells that may be present in larger spheroids. (author).

  16. Effects of X-irradiation alone and in combination with ACNU on human glioblastoma cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiyama, Shoji; Katakura, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Kou; Kitahara, Masakazu; Suzuki, Jiro; Sasaki, Takehito.

    1990-01-01

    The combined effects of x-irradiation and 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl) methyl-3-(2-chloro-ethyl)-3-nitrosourea (ACNU) on multicellular glioblastoma A-7 spheroids were analyzed by means of cell survival and dose-response curves. The actual dose-response curve for small spheroids was almost identical to that estimated from the cell survival curve. It was strongly suggested that a small number of radiation-resistant cells, which were not detected in the cell survival curve, were present in large spheroids with central necrosis. The enhancing effect of ACNU was greater with large spheroids than with monolayer cells or small spheroids. A possible explanation for this is that ACNU is higher effective against the few radiation-resistant cells that may be present in larger spheroids. (author)

  17. Effect of fucoidan on B16 murine melanoma cell melanin formation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Fucoidan is a complex sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed and has a wide variety of biological activities. It not only inhibits cancer cell growth but also inhibits tyrosinase in vitro. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the effect of fucoidan on B16 murine melanoma cells as the findings may ...

  18. Up-regulation of cholesterol associated genes as novel resistance mechanism in glioblastoma cells in response to archazolid B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Rebecca; Zeino, Maen [Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Frewert, Simon [Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research and Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Saarland University, Saarbrücken (Germany); Efferth, Thomas, E-mail: efferth@uni-mainz.de [Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive lethal brain tumor, represents a great challenge. Despite decades of research, the survival prognosis of GBM patients is unfavorable and more effective therapeutics are sorely required. Archazolid B, a potent vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor influencing cellular pH values, is a promising new compound exerting cytotoxicity in the nanomolar range on wild-type U87MG glioblastoma cells and U87MG.∆EGFR cells transfected with a mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Gene expression profiling using microarray technology showed that archazolid B caused drastic disturbances in cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol, a main component of cellular membranes, is known to be essential for GBM growth and cells bearing EGFRvIII mutation are highly dependent on exogenous cholesterol. Archazolid B caused excessive accumulation of free cholesterol within intracellular compartments thus depleting cellular cholesterol and leading to up-regulation of SREBP targeted genes, including LDLR and HMGCR, the key enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. This cholesterol response is considered to be a novel resistance mechanism induced by archazolid B. We surmise that re-elevation of cholesterol levels in archazolid B treated cells may be mediated by newly synthesized cholesterol, since the drug leads to endosomal/lysosomal malfunction and cholesterol accumulation.

  19. PACAP and VIP inhibit the invasiveness of glioblastoma cells exposed to hypoxia through the regulation of HIFs and EGFR expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia eMaugeri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP through the binding of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors (VIPRs, perform a wide variety of effects in human cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. This tumor is characterized by extensive areas of hypoxia, which triggers the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs. HIFs not only mediate angiogenesis but also tumor cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, HIFs activation is linked to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR overexpression. Previous studies have shown that VIP interferes with the invasive nature of gliomas by regulating cell migration. However, the role of VIP family members in GBM infiltration under low oxygen tension has not been clarified yet. Therefore, in the present study we have investigated, for the first time, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-invasive effect of PACAP or VIP in U87MG glioblastoma cells exposed to hypoxia induced by treatment with desferrioxamine (DFX. The results suggest that either PACAP or VIP exert an anti-infiltrative effect under low oxygen tension by modulating HIFs and EGFR expression, key elements involved in cell migration and angiogenesis. These peptides act through the inhibition of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, which are known to have a crucial role in HIFs regulation. In conclusion, the modulation of hypoxic event and the anti-invasive effect exerted by some VIP family members might open new insights in the therapeutic approach to GBM.

  20. Up-regulation of cholesterol associated genes as novel resistance mechanism in glioblastoma cells in response to archazolid B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Rebecca; Zeino, Maen; Frewert, Simon; Efferth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive lethal brain tumor, represents a great challenge. Despite decades of research, the survival prognosis of GBM patients is unfavorable and more effective therapeutics are sorely required. Archazolid B, a potent vacuolar H + -ATPase inhibitor influencing cellular pH values, is a promising new compound exerting cytotoxicity in the nanomolar range on wild-type U87MG glioblastoma cells and U87MG.∆EGFR cells transfected with a mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Gene expression profiling using microarray technology showed that archazolid B caused drastic disturbances in cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol, a main component of cellular membranes, is known to be essential for GBM growth and cells bearing EGFRvIII mutation are highly dependent on exogenous cholesterol. Archazolid B caused excessive accumulation of free cholesterol within intracellular compartments thus depleting cellular cholesterol and leading to up-regulation of SREBP targeted genes, including LDLR and HMGCR, the key enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. This cholesterol response is considered to be a novel resistance mechanism induced by archazolid B. We surmise that re-elevation of cholesterol levels in archazolid B treated cells may be mediated by newly synthesized cholesterol, since the drug leads to endosomal/lysosomal malfunction and cholesterol accumulation

  1. Immunological Evasion in Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Magaña-Maldonado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is the most aggressive tumor in Central Nervous System in adults. Among its features, modulation of immune system stands out. Although immune system is capable of detecting and eliminating tumor cells mainly by cytotoxic T and NK cells, tumor microenvironment suppresses an effective response through recruitment of modulator cells such as regulatory T cells, monocyte-derived suppressor cells, M2 macrophages, and microglia as well as secretion of immunomodulators including IL-6, IL-10, CSF-1, TGF-β, and CCL2. Other mechanisms that induce immunosuppression include enzymes as indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase. For this reason it is important to develop new therapies that avoid this immune evasion to promote an effective response against glioblastoma.

  2. Overexpression of TIMP-1 and Sensitivity to Topoisomerase Inhibitors in Glioblastoma Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Fogh, Louise; Sørensen, Mia Dahl

    2018-01-01

    The multifunctional protein - tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) - has been associated with a poor prognosis in several types of cancers including glioblastomas. In addition, TIMP-1 has been associated with decreased response to chemotherapy, and especially the efficacy of the family...

  3. BRCA1-regulated RRM2 expression protects glioblastoma cells from endogenous replication stress and promotes tumorigenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rikke D.; Gajjar, Madhavsai K.; Tuckova, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Oncogene-evoked replication stress (RS) fuels genomic instability in diverse cancer types. Here we report that BRCA1, traditionally regarded a tumour suppressor, plays an unexpected tumour-promoting role in glioblastoma (GBM), safeguarding a protective response to supraphysiological RS levels. Hi...

  4. Murine Th9 cells promote the survival of myeloid dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsun; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Mingjun; Lu, Yong; Hong, Bangxing; Zheng, Yuhuan; He, Jin; Yang, Jing; Qian, Jianfei; Yi, Qing

    2014-08-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells to initiate immune responses, and DC survival time is important for affecting the strength of T-cell responses. Interleukin (IL)-9-producing T-helper (Th)-9 cells play an important role in anti-tumor immunity. However, it is unclear how Th9 cells communicate with DCs. In this study, we investigated whether murine Th9 cells affected the survival of myeloid DCs. DCs derived from bone marrow of C57BL/6 mice were cocultured with Th9 cells from OT-II mice using transwell, and the survival of DCs was examined. DCs cocultured with Th9 cells had longer survival and fewer apoptotic cells than DCs cultured alone in vitro. In melanoma B16-OVA tumor-bearing mice, DCs conditioned by Th9 cells lived longer and induced stronger anti-tumor response than control DCs did in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that IL-3 but not IL-9 secreted by Th9 cells was responsible for the prolonged survival of DCs. IL-3 upregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL and activated p38, ERK and STAT5 signaling pathways in DCs. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that Th9 cells can promote the survival of DCs through IL-3, and will be helpful for designing Th9 cell immunotherapy and more effective DC vaccine for human cancers.

  5. Effects of hypoxia on expression of a panel of stem cell and chemosensitivity markers in glioblastoma cell line-derived spheroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolenda, Jesper; Jensen, Stine Skov; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte

    Glioblastomas are the most frequent and malignant primary brain tumor. Tumor stem cells in these tumors have recently been suggested to possess innate resistance mechanisms against radiation and chemotherapy possibly explaining their high level of therapeutic resistance. Moreover tumor hypoxia...... for podoplanin, nestin and TIMP-1 as well as for Ki-67. Hif-2α, Sox-2, MGMT and MDR-1 were not detectable in normoxic and hypoxic U87 spheroids. In conclusion, the expression of tumor stem cell and chemosensitivity markers seems to depend on the oxygen tension suggesting that future development of therapeutic...... with oxygen tensions below 1-5% O2 has been attributed to play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and therapeutic resistance in glioblastoma. This is in contrast to most in vitro experiments in this field being performed in atmospheric air with 21% O2. In this study the influence of hypoxia on the expression...

  6. Subcellular SIMS imaging of gadolinium isotopes in human glioblastoma cells treated with a gadolinium containing MRI agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Duane R.; Lorey, Daniel R.; Chandra, Subhash

    2004-06-01

    Neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary radiotherapeutic modality for the treatment of brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme. Recently, neutron capture therapy with gadolinium-157 has gained attention, and techniques for studying the subcellular distribution of gadolinium-157 are needed. In this preliminary study, we have been able to image the subcellular distribution of gadolinium-157, as well as the other six naturally abundant isotopes of gadolinium, with SIMS ion microscopy. T98G human glioblastoma cells were treated for 24 h with 25 mg/ml of the metal ion complex diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid Gd(III) dihydrogen salt hydrate (Gd-DTPA). Gd-DTPA is a contrast enhancing agent used for MRI of brain tumors, blood-brain barrier impairment, diseases of the central nervous system, etc. A highly heterogeneous subcellular distribution was observed for gadolinium-157. The nuclei in each cell were distinctly lower in gadolinium-157 than in the cytoplasm. Even within the cytoplasm the gadolinium-157 was heterogeneously distributed. The other six naturally abundant isotopes of gadolinium were imaged from the same cells and exhibited a subcellular distribution consistent with that observed for gadolinium-157. These observations indicate that SIMS ion microscopy may be a viable approach for subcellular studies of gadolinium containing neutron capture therapy drugs and may even play a major role in the development and validation of new gadolinium contrast enhancing agents for diagnostic MRI applications.

  7. Murine epidermal Langerhans cells and langerin-expressing dermal dendritic cells are unrelated and exhibit distinct functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagao, Keisuke; Ginhoux, Florent; Leitner, Wolfgang W.; Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Bennett, Clare L.; Clausen, Björn E.; Merad, Miriam; Udey, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    A new langerin(+) DC subset has recently been identified in murine dermis (langerin(+) dDC), but the lineage and functional relationships between these cells and langerin(+) epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) are incompletely characterized. Selective expression of the cell adhesion molecule EpCAM by LC

  8. Activation of Aurora A kinase through the FGF1/FGFR signaling axis sustains the stem cell characteristics of glioblastoma cells

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    Hsu, Yi-Chao [Division of Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Kao, Chien-Yu [Division of Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Graduate Program of Biotechnology in Medicine, Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chung, Yu-Fen; Lee, Don-Ching [Division of Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Liu, Jen-Wei [Division of Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Ing-Ming, E-mail: ingming@nhri.org.tw [Division of Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Graduate Program of Biotechnology in Medicine, Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-10

    Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) binds and activates FGF receptors, thereby regulating cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Human FGF1 gene 1B promoter (−540 to +31)-driven SV40 T antigen has been shown to result in tumorigenesis in the brains of transgenic mice. FGF1B promoter (−540 to +31)-driven green fluorescent protein (F1BGFP) has also been used in isolating neural stem cells (NSCs) with self-renewal and multipotency from developing and adult mouse brains. In this study, we provide six lines of evidence to demonstrate that FGF1/FGFR signaling is implicated in the expression of Aurora A (AurA) and the activation of its kinase domain (Thr288 phosphorylation) in the maintenance of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and NSCs. First, treatment of FGF1 increases AurA expression in human GBM cell lines. Second, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we observed that F1BGFP reporter facilitates the isolation of F1BGFP(+) GBM cells with higher expression levels of FGFR and AurA. Third, both FGFR inhibitor (SU5402) and AurA inhibitor (VX680) could down-regulate F1BGFP-dependent AurA activity. Fourth, inhibition of AurA activity by two different AurA inhibitors (VX680 and valproic acid) not only reduced neurosphere formation but also induced neuronal differentiation of F1BGFP(+) GBM cells. Fifth, flow cytometric analyses demonstrated that F1BGFP(+) GBM cells possessed different NSC cell surface markers. Finally, inhibition of AurA by VX680 reduced the neurosphere formation of different types of NSCs. Our results show that activation of AurA kinase through FGF1/FGFR signaling axis sustains the stem cell characteristics of GBM cells. Implications: This study identified a novel mechanism for the malignancy of GBM, which could be a potential therapeutic target for GBM. - Highlights: • We report that FGF1 treatment can stimulate AurA kinase expression in human GBM cells. • FGF1/FGFR signaling is involved in the activation of AurA kinase. • FGF1 sustains the self

  9. Activation of Aurora A kinase through the FGF1/FGFR signaling axis sustains the stem cell characteristics of glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Yi-Chao; Kao, Chien-Yu; Chung, Yu-Fen; Lee, Don-Ching; Liu, Jen-Wei; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) binds and activates FGF receptors, thereby regulating cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Human FGF1 gene 1B promoter (−540 to +31)-driven SV40 T antigen has been shown to result in tumorigenesis in the brains of transgenic mice. FGF1B promoter (−540 to +31)-driven green fluorescent protein (F1BGFP) has also been used in isolating neural stem cells (NSCs) with self-renewal and multipotency from developing and adult mouse brains. In this study, we provide six lines of evidence to demonstrate that FGF1/FGFR signaling is implicated in the expression of Aurora A (AurA) and the activation of its kinase domain (Thr288 phosphorylation) in the maintenance of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and NSCs. First, treatment of FGF1 increases AurA expression in human GBM cell lines. Second, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we observed that F1BGFP reporter facilitates the isolation of F1BGFP(+) GBM cells with higher expression levels of FGFR and AurA. Third, both FGFR inhibitor (SU5402) and AurA inhibitor (VX680) could down-regulate F1BGFP-dependent AurA activity. Fourth, inhibition of AurA activity by two different AurA inhibitors (VX680 and valproic acid) not only reduced neurosphere formation but also induced neuronal differentiation of F1BGFP(+) GBM cells. Fifth, flow cytometric analyses demonstrated that F1BGFP(+) GBM cells possessed different NSC cell surface markers. Finally, inhibition of AurA by VX680 reduced the neurosphere formation of different types of NSCs. Our results show that activation of AurA kinase through FGF1/FGFR signaling axis sustains the stem cell characteristics of GBM cells. Implications: This study identified a novel mechanism for the malignancy of GBM, which could be a potential therapeutic target for GBM. - Highlights: • We report that FGF1 treatment can stimulate AurA kinase expression in human GBM cells. • FGF1/FGFR signaling is involved in the activation of AurA kinase. • FGF1 sustains the self

  10. In vivo preclinical low field MRI monitoring of tumor growth following a suicide gene therapy in an ortho-topic mice model of human glioblastoma;Controle par IRM bas champ in vivo de l'efficacite d'une therapie genique par gene suicide dans un modele murin de glioblastome orthotopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, E.; Goetz, Ch.; Aubertin, G.; Constantinesco, A.; Choquet, Ph. [Service de biophysique et medecine nucleaire, hopital de Hautepierre, CHRU de Strasbourg, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Institut de mecanique des fluides et des solides, CNRS, universite de Strasbourg, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Kintz, J.; Accart, N.; Grellier, B.; Erbs, Ph.; Rooke, R. [Transgene SA, parc d' innovation, 67 - Illkirch Graffenstaden (France)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose The aim of this study was to monitor in vivo with low field MRI growth of a murine ortho-topic glioma model following a suicide gene therapy. Methods The gene therapy consisted in the stereotactic injection in the mice brain of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (M.V.A.) vector encoding for a suicide gene (FCU1) that transforms a non toxic pro-drug 5-fluoro-cytosine (5-F.C.) to its highly cytotoxic derivatives 5-fluorouracil (5-F.U.) and 5-fluoro-uridine-5 monophosphate (5-F.U.M.P.). Using a warmed-up imaging cell, sequential 3D T1 and T2 0.1T MRI brain examinations were performed on 16 Swiss female nu/nu mice bearing ortho-topic human glioblastoma (U 87-MG cells). The 6-week in vivo MRI follow-up consisted in a weekly measurement of the intracerebral tumor volume leading to a total of 65 examinations. Mice were divided in four groups: sham group (n = 4), sham group treated with 5-F.C. only (n = 4), sham group with injection of M.V.A.-FCU1 vector only (n = 4), therapy group administered with M.V.A.-FCU1 vector and 5-F.C. (n = 4). Measurements of tumor volumes were obtained after manual segmentation of T1- and T2-weighted images. Results Intra-observer and inter-observer tumor volume measurements show no significant differences. No differences were found between T1 and T2 volume tumor doubling times between the three sham groups. A significant statistical difference (p < 0.05) in T1 and T2 volume tumor doubling times between the three sham groups and the animals treated with the intratumoral injection of M.V.A.-FCU1 vector in combination with 2 weeks per os 5-F.C. administration was demonstrated. Conclusion Preclinical low field MRI was able to monitor efficacy of suicide gene therapy in delaying the tumor growth in an in vivo mouse model of ortho-topic glioblastoma. (authors)

  11. Opposing effects of PI3K/Akt and Smad-dependent signaling pathways in NAG-1-induced glioblastoma cell apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhang

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID activated gene-1 (NAG-1 is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β superfamily. NAG-1 plays remarkable multifunctional roles in controlling diverse physiological and pathological processes including cancer. Like other TGF-β family members, NAG-1 can play dual roles during cancer development and progression by negatively or positively modulating cancer cell behaviors. In glioblastoma brain tumors, NAG-1 appears to act as a tumor suppressor gene; however, the precise underlying mechanisms have not been well elucidated. In the present study, we discovered that overexpression of NAG-1 induced apoptosis in U87 MG, U118 MG, U251 MG, and T98G cell lines via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, but not in A172 and LN-229 cell lines. NAG-1 could induce the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and Smad2/3 in all six tested glioblastoma cell lines, except Smad3 phosphorylation in A172 and LN-229 cell lines. In fact, Smad3 expression and its phosphorylation were almost undetectable in A172 and LN-229 cells. The PI3K inhibitors promoted NAG-1-induced glioblastoma cell apoptosis, while siRNAs to Smad2 and Smad3 decreased the apoptosis rate. NAG-1 also stimulated the direct interaction between Akt and Smad3 in glioblastoma cells. Elevating the level of Smad3 restored the sensitivity to NAG-1-induced apoptosis in A172 and LN-229 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that PI3K/Akt and Smad-dependent signaling pathways display opposing effects in NAG-1-induced glioblastoma cell apoptosis.

  12. Small tyrosine kinase inhibitors interrupt EGFR signaling by interacting with erbB3 and erbB4 in glioblastoma cell lines

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    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Saceda, Miguel [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Grasso, Silvina; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Conde, Mariano; Gomez-Martinez, Angeles [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Garcia-Morales, Pilar [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad de Investigacion, Hospital General Universitario de Elche, 03203 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Ferragut, Jose A. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Martinez-Lacaci, Isabel, E-mail: imlacaci@umh.es [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Alicante) (Spain); Unidad AECC de Investigacion Traslacional en Cancer, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 Murcia (Spain)

    2011-06-10

    Signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is relevant in glioblastoma. We have determined the effects of the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 in glioblastoma cell lines and found that U87 and LN-229 cells were very sensitive to this drug, since their proliferation diminished and underwent a marked G{sub 1} arrest. T98 cells were a little more refractory to growth inhibition and A172 cells did not undergo a G{sub 1} arrest. This G{sub 1} arrest was associated with up-regulation of p27{sup kip1}, whose protein turnover was stabilized. EGFR autophosphorylation was blocked with AG1478 to the same extent in all the cell lines. Other small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors employed in the clinic, such as gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib, were able to abrogate proliferation of glioblastoma cell lines, which underwent a G{sub 1} arrest. However, the EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab had no effect on cell proliferation and consistently, had no effect on cell cycle either. Similarly, cetuximab did not inhibit proliferation of U87 {Delta}EGFR cells or primary glioblastoma cell cultures, whereas small-molecule EGFR inhibitors did. Activity of downstream signaling molecules of EGFR such as Akt and especially ERK1/2 was interrupted with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, whereas cetuximab treatment could not sustain this blockade over time. Small-molecule EGFR inhibitors were able to prevent phosphorylation of erbB3 and erbB4, whereas cetuximab only hindered EGFR phosphorylation, suggesting that EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors may mediate their anti-proliferative effects through other erbB family members. We can conclude that small-molecule EGFR inhibitors may be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of glioblastoma patients.

  13. Estimation of transition doses for human glioblastoma, neuroblastoma and prostate cell lines using the linear-quadratic formalism

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    John Akudugu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The introduction of stereotactic radiotherapy has raised concerns regarding the use of the linear-quadratic (LQ model for predicting radiation response for large fractional doses. To partly address this issue, a transition dose D* below which the LQ model retains its predictive strength has been proposed. Estimates of D* which depends on the a, β, and D0 parameters are much lower than fractional doses typically encountered in stereotactic radiotherapy. D0, often referred to as the final slope of the cell survival curve, is thought to be constant. In vitro cell survival curves generally extend over the first few logs of cell killing, where D0-values derived from the multi-target formalism may be overestimated and can lead to low transition doses. Methods:  D0-values were calculated from first principles for each decade of cell killing, using experimentally-determined a and β parameters for 17 human glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, and prostate cell lines, and corresponding transition doses were derived.Results: D0 was found to decrease exponentially with cell killing. Using D0-values at cell surviving fractions of the order of 10-10 yielded transition doses ~3-fold higher than those obtained from D0-values obtained from conventional approaches. D* was found to increase from 7.84 ± 0.56, 8.91 ± 1.20, and 6.55 ± 0.91 Gy to 26.84 ± 2.83, 23.95 ± 2.03, and 22.49 ± 2.31 Gy for the glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, and prostate cell lines, respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the linear-quadratic formalism might be valid for estimating the effect of stereotactic radiotherapy with fractional doses in excess of 20 Gy.

  14. Cell surface area and membrane folding in glioblastoma cell lines differing in PTEN and p53 status.

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    Simon Memmel

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is characterized by rapid growth, invasion and resistance to chemo-/radiotherapy. The complex cell surface morphology with abundant membrane folds, microvilli, filopodia and other membrane extensions is believed to contribute to the highly invasive behavior and therapy resistance of GBM cells. The present study addresses the mechanisms leading to the excessive cell membrane area in five GBM lines differing in mutational status for PTEN and p53. In addition to scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the membrane area and folding were quantified by dielectric measurements of membrane capacitance using the single-cell electrorotation (ROT technique. The osmotic stability and volume regulation of GBM cells were analyzed by video microscopy. The expression of PTEN, p53, mTOR and several other marker proteins involved in cell growth and membrane synthesis were examined by Western blotting. The combined SEM, ROT and osmotic data provided independent lines of evidence for a large variability in membrane area and folding among tested GBM lines. Thus, DK-MG cells (wild type p53 and wild type PTEN exhibited the lowest degree of membrane folding, probed by the area-specific capacitance C m = 1.9 µF/cm(2. In contrast, cell lines carrying mutations in both p53 and PTEN (U373-MG and SNB19 showed the highest C m values of 3.7-4.0 µF/cm(2, which corroborate well with their heavily villated cell surface revealed by SEM. Since PTEN and p53 are well-known inhibitors of mTOR, the increased membrane area/folding in mutant GBM lines may be related to the enhanced protein and lipid synthesis due to a deregulation of the mTOR-dependent downstream signaling pathway. Given that membrane folds and extensions are implicated in tumor cell motility and metastasis, the dielectric approach presented here provides a rapid and simple tool for screening the biophysical cell properties in studies on targeting chemo- or radiotherapeutically the

  15. A miR-21 inhibitor enhances apoptosis and reduces G2-M accumulation induced by ionizing radiation in human glioblastoma U251 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Li, Qiang; Asai, Akio; Kawamoto, Keiji; Zhao Shiguang; Zhen Yunbo; Teng Lei

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that take part in diverse biological processes by suppressing target gene expression. Elevated expression of miR-21 has been reported in many types of human cancers. Radiotherapy is a standard adjuvant treatment for patients with glioblastoma. However, the resistance of glioblastoma cells to radiation limits the success of this treatment. In this study, we found that miR-21 expression was upregulated in response to ionizing radiation (IR) in U251 cells, which suggested that miR-21 could be involved in the response of U251 cells to radiation. We showed that a miR-21 inhibitor enhanced IR-induced glioblastoma cell growth arrest and increased the level of apoptosis, which was probably caused by abrogation of the G 2 -M arrest induced by IR. Further research demonstrated that the miR-21 inhibitor induced the upregulation of Cdc25A. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-21 inhibitor can increase IR-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in U251 glioblastoma cells, at least in part by abrogating G 2 -M arrest, and that Cdc25A is a potential target of miR-21. (author)

  16. Mast cell accumulation in glioblastoma with a potential role for stem cell factor and chemokine CXCL12.

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    Jelena Põlajeva

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common and malignant form of glioma with high mortality and no cure. Many human cancers maintain a complex inflammatory program triggering rapid recruitment of inflammatory cells, including mast cells (MCs, to the tumor site. However, the potential contribution of MCs in glioma has not been addressed previously. Here we report for the first time that MCs infiltrate KRas+Akt-induced gliomas, using the RCAS/TV-a system, where KRas and Akt are transduced by RCAS into the brains of neonatal Gtv-a- or Ntv-a transgenic mice lacking Ink4a or Arf. The most abundant MC infiltration was observed in high-grade gliomas of Arf-/- mice. MC accumulation could be localized to the vicinity of glioma-associated vessels but also within the tumor mass. Importantly, proliferating MCs were detected, suggesting that the MC accumulation was caused by local expansion of the MC population. In line with these findings, strong expression of stem cell factor (SCF, i.e. the main MC growth factor, was detected, in particular around tumor blood vessels. Further, glioma cells expressed the MC chemotaxin CXCL12 and MCs expressed the corresponding receptor, i.e. CXCR4, suggesting that MCs could be attracted to the tumor through the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis. Supporting a role for MCs in glioma, strong MC infiltration was detected in human glioma, where GBMs contained significantly higher MC numbers than grade II tumors did. Moreover, human GBMs were positive for CXCL12 and the infiltrating MCs were positive for CXCR4. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence for a role for MCs in glioma.

  17. GPBAR1/TGR5 mediates bile acid-induced cytokine expression in murine Kupffer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiyu Lou

    Full Text Available GPBAR1/TGR5 is a novel plasma membrane-bound G protein-coupled bile acid (BA receptor. BAs are known to induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver with unknown mechanism. Here we show that without other external stimuli, TGR5 activation alone induced the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 or murine Kupffer cells. The TGR5-mediated increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was suppressed by JNK inhibition. Moreover, the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in mouse liver by 1% cholic acid (CA diet was blunted in JNK-/- mice. TGR5 activation by its ligands enhanced the phosphorylation levels, DNA-binding and trans-activities of c-Jun and ATF2 transcription factors. Finally, the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in Kupffer cells by TGR5 activation correlated with the suppression of Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1 expression in murine hepatocytes. These results suggest that TGR5 mediates the BA-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in murine Kupffer cells through JNK-dependent pathway. This novel role of TGR5 may correlate to the suppression of Cyp7a1 expression in hepatocytes and contribute to the delicate BA feedback regulation.

  18. In vitro activation of murine DRG neurons by CGRP-mediated mucosal mast cell degranulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, F; De Laet, A; Van Nassauw, L; Miller, HRP; van Bogaert, PP; Timmermans, JP; Kroese, ABA

    Upregulation of CGRP-immunoreactive (IR) primary afferent nerve fibers accompanied by mastocytosis is characteristic for the Schistosoma mansoni-infected murine ileum. These mucosal mast cells (MMC) and CGRP-IR fibers, which originate from dorsal root (DRG) and nodose ganglia, are found in close

  19. Reconstitution of mammary epithelial morphogenesis by murine embryonic stem cells undergoing hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Jiang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammary stem cells are maintained within specific microenvironments and recruited throughout lifetime to reconstitute de novo the mammary gland. Mammary stem cells have been isolated through the identification of specific cell surface markers and in vivo transplantation into cleared mammary fat pads. Accumulating evidence showed that during the reformation of mammary stem cell niches by dispersed epithelial cells in the context of the intact epithelium-free mammary stroma, non-mammary epithelial cells may be sequestered and reprogrammed to perform mammary epithelial cell functions and to adopt mammary epithelial characteristics during reconstruction of mammary epithelium in regenerating mammary tissue in vivo.To examine whether other types of progenitor cells are able to contribute to mammary branching morphogenesis, we examined the potential of murine embryonic stem (mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to support mammary reconstitution in vivo. We observed that cells from day 14 embryoid bodies (EBs under hematopoietic differentiation condition, but not supernatants derived from these cells, when transplanted into denuded mammary fat pads, were able to contribute to both the luminal and myoepithelial lineages in branching ductal structures resembling the ductal-alveolar architecture of the mammary tree. No teratomas were observed when these cells were transplanted in vivo.Our data provide evidence for the dominance of the tissue-specific mammary stem cell niche and its role in directing mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to reprogram into mammary epithelial cells and to promote mammary epithelial morphogenesis. These studies should also provide insights into regeneration of damaged mammary gland and the role of the mammary microenvironment in reprogramming cell fate.

  20. X-ray radiation induced bystander effects of human glioblastoma T98G cells under hypoxia condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianghong; Jin Yizun; Shao Chunlin; Prise, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    Non-irradiated bystander human glioblastoma T98G cells were co-cultured (CC) with irradiated cells or treated with conditioned medium (CM) from irradiated cells under hypoxic condition, then micronucleus (MN) of both irradiated cells and bystander cells were measured for the investigation of radiation induced bystander effect and its mechanism. It has been found that the MN yield (Y MN ) of non-irradiated bystander T98G cells is obviously enhanced after the cell co-culture, or CM treatment, but this increment is diminished by free radical scavenger, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). When hypoxic or normoxic T98G cells are treated with CM obtained from irradiated cells under either hypoxic or normoxic condition, the biggest bystander response has been observed in the group of hypoxic by- stander cells treated with CM from irradiated normoxic cells. However, all of these increments of bystander Y MN could be eliminated by aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor. Therefore, under hypoxic condition, free radicals, especially reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, are involved in the bystander response induced by irradiated T98G cells. (authors)

  1. Herpes simplex virus type 2 induces rapid cell death and functional impairment of murine dendritic cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, CA; Fernandez, M; Herc, K; Bosnjak, L; Miranda-Saksena, M; Boadle, RA; Cunningham, A

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critical for stimulation of naive T cells. Little is known about the effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection on DC structure or function or if the observed effects of HSV-1 on human DC are reproduced in murine DC. Here, we demonstrate that by 12 h

  2. PDE7B is a novel, prognostically significant mediator of glioblastoma growth whose expression is regulated by endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Brooks

    Full Text Available Cell-cell interactions between tumor cells and constituents of their microenvironment are critical determinants of tumor tissue biology and therapeutic responses. Interactions between glioblastoma (GBM cells and endothelial cells (ECs establish a purported cancer stem cell niche. We hypothesized that genes regulated by these interactions would be important, particularly as therapeutic targets. Using a computational approach, we deconvoluted expression data from a mixed physical co-culture of GBM cells and ECs and identified a previously undescribed upregulation of the cAMP specific phosphodiesterase PDE7B in GBM cells in response to direct contact with ECs. We further found that elevated PDE7B expression occurs in most GBM cases and has a negative effect on survival. PDE7B overexpression resulted in the expansion of a stem-like cell subpopulation in vitro and increased tumor growth and aggressiveness in an in vivo intracranial GBM model. Collectively these studies illustrate a novel approach for studying cell-cell interactions and identifying new therapeutic targets like PDE7B in GBM.

  3. Coculture with astrocytes reduces the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma stem-like cells and identifies additional targets for radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, Barbara H; Wahba, Amy; Camphausen, Kevin; Tofilon, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Toward developing a model system for investigating the role of the microenvironment in the radioresistance of glioblastoma (GBM), human glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) were grown in coculture with human astrocytes. Using a trans-well assay, survival analyses showed that astrocytes significantly decreased the radiosensitivity of GSCs compared to standard culture conditions. In addition, when irradiated in coculture, the initial level of radiation-induced γH2AX foci in GSCs was reduced and foci dispersal was enhanced suggesting that the presence of astrocytes influenced the induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks. These data indicate that astrocytes can decrease the radiosensitivity of GSCs in vitro via a paracrine-based mechanism and further support a role for the microenvironment as a determinant of GBM radioresponse. Chemokine profiling of coculture media identified a number of bioactive molecules not present under standard culture conditions. The gene expression profiles of GSCs grown in coculture were significantly different as compared to GSCs grown alone. These analyses were consistent with an astrocyte-mediated modification in GSC phenotype and, moreover, suggested a number of potential targets for GSC radiosensitization that were unique to coculture conditions. Along these lines, STAT3 was activated in GSCs grown with astrocytes; the JAK/STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 enhanced the radiosensitivity of GSCs under coculture conditions and when grown as orthotopic xenografts. Further, this coculture system may also provide an approach for identifying additional targets for GBM radiosensitization

  4. Regulation of the oxidative balance with coenzyme Q10 sensitizes human glioblastoma cells to radiation and temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontiñán-Rubio, Javier; Santiago-Mora, Raquel María; Nieva-Velasco, Consuelo María; Ferrín, Gustavo; Martínez-González, Alicia; Gómez, María Victoria; Moreno, María; Ariza, Julia; Lozano, Eva; Arjona-Gutiérrez, Jacinto; Gil-Agudo, Antonio; De la Mata, Manuel; Pesic, Milica; Peinado, Juan Ramón; Villalba, José M; Pérez-Romasanta, Luis; Pérez-García, Víctor M; Alcaín, Francisco J; Durán-Prado, Mario

    2018-05-18

    To investigate how the modulation of the oxidative balance affects cytotoxic therapies in glioblastoma, in vitro. Human glioblastoma U251 and T98 cells and normal astrocytes C8D1A were loaded with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ). Mitochondrial superoxide ion (O 2 - ) and H 2 O 2 were measured by fluorescence microscopy. OXPHOS performance was assessed in U251 cells with an oxytherm Clark-type electrode. Radio- and chemotherapy cytotoxicity was assessed by immunostaining of γH2AX (24 h), annexin V and nuclei morphology, at short (72 h) and long (15 d) time. Hif-1α, SOD1, SOD2 and NQO1 were determined by immunolabeling. Catalase activity was measured by classic enzymatic assay. Glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity were quantified using commercial kits. CoQ did not affect oxygen consumption but reduced the level of O 2 - and H 2 O 2 while shifted to a pro-oxidant cell status mainly due to a decrease in catalase activity and SOD2 level. Hif-1α was dampened, echoed by a decrease lactate and several key metabolites involved in glutathione synthesis. CoQ-treated cells were twofold more sensitive than control to radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in short and long-term clonogenic assays, potentiating TMZ-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting non-transformed astrocytes. CoQ acts as sensitizer for cytotoxic therapies, disarming GBM cells, but not normal astrocytes, against further pro-oxidant injuries, being potentially useful in clinical practice for this fatal pathology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. NKCC1 Regulates Migration Ability of Glioblastoma Cells by Modulation of Actin Dynamics and Interacting with Cofilin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Schiapparelli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. The mechanisms that confer GBM cells their invasive behavior are poorly understood. The electroneutral Na+-K+-2Cl− co-transporter 1 (NKCC1 is an important cell volume regulator that participates in cell migration. We have shown that inhibition of NKCC1 in GBM cells leads to decreased cell migration, in vitro and in vivo. We now report on the role of NKCC1 on cytoskeletal dynamics. We show that GBM cells display a significant decrease in F-actin content upon NKCC1 knockdown (NKCC1-KD. To determine the potential actin-regulatory mechanisms affected by NKCC1 inhibition, we studied NKCC1 protein interactions. We found that NKCC1 interacts with the actin-regulating protein Cofilin-1 and can regulate its membrane localization. Finally, we analyzed whether NKCC1 could regulate the activity of the small Rho-GTPases RhoA and Rac1. We observed that the active forms of RhoA and Rac1 were decreased in NKCC1-KD cells. In summary, we report that NKCC1 regulates GBM cell migration by modulating the cytoskeleton through multiple targets including F-actin regulation through Cofilin-1 and RhoGTPase activity. Due to its essential role in cell migration NKCC1 may serve as a specific therapeutic target to decrease cell invasion in patients with primary brain cancer.

  6. EGFR and EGFRvIII Promote Angiogenesis and Cell Invasion in Glioblastoma: Combination Therapies for an Effective Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Keller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and the mutant EGFRvIII are major focal points in current concepts of targeted cancer therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most malignant primary brain tumor. The receptors participate in the key processes of tumor cell invasion and tumor-related angiogenesis and their upregulation correlates with the poor prognosis of glioma patients. Glioma cell invasion and increased angiogenesis share mechanisms of the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM through upregulation of ECM-degrading proteases as well as the activation of aberrant signaling pathways. This review describes the role of EGFR and EGFRvIII in those mechanisms which might offer new combined therapeutic approaches targeting EGFR or EGFRvIII together with drug treatments against proteases of the ECM or downstream signaling to increase the inhibitory effects of mono-therapies.

  7. Nanotechnology Applications for Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduom, Edjah; Bouras, Alexandros; Kaluzova, Milota; Hadjipanayis, Costas G.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Glioblastoma remains one of the most difficult cancers to treat and represents the most common primary malignancy of the brain. While conventional treatments have found modest success in reducing the initial tumor burden, infiltrating cancer cells beyond the main mass are responsible for tumor recurrence and ultimate patient demise. Targeting the residual infiltrating cancer cells requires the development of new treatment strategies. The emerging field of cancer nanotechnology holds much promise in the use of multifunctional nanoparticles for the imaging and targeted therapy of GBM.. Nanoparticles have emerged as potential “theranostic” agents that can permit the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of GBM tumors. A recent human clinical trial with magnetic nanoparticles has provided feasibility and efficacy data for potential treatment of GBM patients with thermotherapy. Here we examine the current state of nanotechnology in the treatment of glioblastoma and interesting directions of further study. PMID:22748656

  8. Proliferation and Differentiation of Murine Myeloid Precursor 32D/G-CSF-R Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zjablovskaja, Polina; Daněk, Petr; Kardošová, Miroslava; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell

    č. 132 (2018), č. článku e57033. ISSN 1940-087X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03796S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : 32D/G-CSF-R cells * murine myeloid precursor cells * liquid culture * differentiation * neutrophils * proliferation * cytokines * IL-3 * G-CSF Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.232, year: 2016

  9. Analysis of Chemopredictive Assay for Targeting Cancer Stem Cells in Glioblastoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace M. Howard

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM treated with standard-of-care maximal surgical resection and concurrent adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ/radiotherapy remains very poor (less than 15 months. GBMs have been found to contain a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs that contribute to tumor propagation, maintenance, and treatment resistance. The highly invasive nature of high-grade gliomas and their inherent resistance to therapy lead to very high rates of recurrence. For these reasons, not all patients with similar diagnoses respond to the same chemotherapy, schedule, or dose. Administration of ineffective anticancer therapy is not only costly but more importantly burdens the patient with unnecessary toxicity and selects for the development of resistant cancer cell clones. We have developed a drug response assay (ChemoID that identifies the most effective chemotherapy against CSCs and bulk of tumor cells from of a panel of potential treatments, offering great promise for individualized cancer management. Providing the treating physician with drug response information on a panel of approved drugs will aid in personalized therapy selections of the most effective chemotherapy for individual patients, thereby improving outcomes. A prospective study was conducted evaluating the use of the ChemoID drug response assay in GBM patients treated with standard of care. Methods: Forty-one GBM patients (mean age 54 years, 59% male, all eligible for a surgical biopsy, were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board–approved protocol, and fresh tissue samples were collected for drug sensitivity testing. Patients were all treated with standard-of-care TMZ plus radiation with or without maximal surgery, depending on the status of the disease. Patients were prospectively monitored for tumor response, time to recurrence, progression-free survival (PFS, and overall survival (OS. Odds ratio (OR associations of 12-month recurrence, PFS, and OS outcomes

  10. Nitric oxide released from JS-K induces cell death by mitotic catastrophe as part of necrosis in glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günzle, Jessica; Osterberg, Nadja; Saavedra, Joseph E; Weyerbrock, Astrid

    2016-09-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) donor JS-K is specifically activated by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in GST-overexpressing cells. We have shown the induction of cell death in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells at high JS-K doses but the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether NO-induced cell death is triggered by induction of apoptotic or necrotic pathways. For the first time, we demonstrate that NO induces cell death via mitotic catastrophe (MC) with non-apoptotic mechanisms in GBM cells. Moreover, the level of morphological changes indicating MC correlates with increased necrosis. Therefore, we conclude that MC is the main mechanism by which GBM cells undergo cell death after treatment with JS-K associated with necrosis rather than apoptosis. In addition, we show that PARP1 is not an exclusive marker for late apoptosis but is also involved in MC. Activating an alternative way of cell death can be useful for the multimodal cancer therapy of GBM known for its strong anti-apoptotic mechanisms and drug resistance.

  11. Selective host range restriction of goat cells for recombinant murine leukemia virus and feline leukemia virus type A.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischinger, P J; Thiel, H J; Blevins, C S; Dunlop, N M

    1981-01-01

    We isolated a strain of normal goat fibroblasts which was uniquely selective in that it allowed the replication of xenotropic murine leukemia virus but not polytropic recombinant murine leukemia virus. In addition, feline leukemia virus type A replication was severely diminished in these goat cells, whereas feline leukemia virus type B and feline endogenous RD114-CCC viruses replicated efficiently. No other known cells exhibit this pattern of virus growth restriction. These goat cells allow t...

  12. Upregulation of miR-181a suppresses the formation of glioblastoma stem cells by targeting the Notch2 oncogene and correlates with good prognosis in patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shi-Xiong; Zhao, Zhong-Yan; Weng, Guo-Hu; He, Xiang-Ying; Wu, Chan-Ji; Fu, Chuan-Yi; Sui, Zhi-Yan; Ma, Yu-Shui; Liu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) are responsible for the initiation and progression of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in this disease. However, the mechanisms underlying the role of miRNAs in the stemness of GSCs have not been completely elucidated. We previously showed that miR-181a is downregulated in GBM and may predict prognosis in patients with this disease. Here, we demonstrate that the upregulation of miR-181a suppressed GSC formation and inhibited GBM tumorigenesis by targeting the Notch2 oncogene. We found that miR-181a was downregulated in GSCs derived from human glioblastoma U87MG and U373MG cells. The high expression of miR-181a inhibited the levels of stemness-related markers CD133 and BMI1, attenuated sphere proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, and reduced the tumorigenicity of GSCs. MiR-181a decreased the expression of Notch2 by targeting the 3’-untranslated region of its mRNA. Notch2 overexpression inhibited the effects of miR-181a downregulation on GSCs, and was negatively correlated with miR-181a expression. Moreover, high Notch2 expression together with low miR-181a expression was correlated with a shorter median overall survival for GBM patients. Together, these data show that miR-181a may play an essential role in GSC formation and GBM progression by targeting Notch2, suggesting that Notch2 and miR-181a have potential prognostic value as tumor biomarkers in GBM patients. - Highlights: • MiR-181a suppressed GSC formation and GBM tumorigenesis by targeting Notch2. • Notch2 and miR-181a expression were correlated with OS for GBM patients. • Notch2 and miR-181a have potential prognostic value in GBM patients.

  13. BAG3 Expression in Glioblastoma Cells Promotes Accumulation of Ubiquitinated Clients in an Hsp70-dependent Manner*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilella, Antonio; Khalili, Kamel

    2011-01-01

    Disposal of damaged proteins and protein aggregates is a prerequisite for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and impairment of this disposal can lead to a broad range of pathological conditions, most notably in brain-associated disorders including Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, and cancer. In this respect, the Protein Quality Control (PQC) pathway plays a central role in the clearance of damaged proteins. The Hsc/Hsp70-co-chaperone BAG3 has been described as a new and critical component of the PQC in several cellular contexts. For example, the expression of BAG3 in the rodent brain correlates with the engagement of protein degradation machineries in response to proteotoxic stress. Nevertheless, little is known about the molecular events assisted by BAG3. Here we show that ectopic expression of BAG3 in glioblastoma cells leads to the activation of an HSF1-driven stress response, as attested by transcriptional activation of BAG3 and Hsp70. BAG3 overexpression determines an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and this event requires the N-terminal region, WW domain of BAG3 and the association of BAG3 with Hsp70. The ubiquitination mainly occurs on BAG3-client proteins and the inhibition of proteasomal activity results in a further accumulation of ubiquitinated clients. At the cellular level, overexpression of BAG3 in glioblastoma cell lines, but not in non-glial cells, results in a remarkable decrease in colony formation capacity and this effect is reverted when the binding of BAG3 to Hsp70 is impaired. These observations provide the first evidence for an involvement of BAG3 in the ubiquitination and turnover of its partners. PMID:21233200

  14. Kinome-wide shRNA Screen Identifies the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL as a Key Regulator for Mesenchymal Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly lethal cancer for which novel therapeutics are urgently needed. Two distinct subtypes of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs were recently identified: mesenchymal (MES and proneural (PN. To identify mechanisms to target the more aggressive MES GSCs, we combined transcriptomic expression analysis and kinome-wide short hairpin RNA screening of MES and PN GSCs. In comparison to PN GSCs, we found significant upregulation and phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL in MES GSCs. Knockdown of AXL significantly decreased MES GSC self-renewal capacity in vitro and inhibited the growth of glioblastoma patient-derived xenografts. Moreover, inhibition of AXL with shRNA or pharmacologic inhibitors also increased cell death significantly more in MES GSCs. Clinically, AXL expression was elevated in the MES GBM subtype and significantly correlated with poor prognosis in multiple cancers. In conclusion, we identified AXL as a potential molecular target for novel approaches to treat glioblastoma and other solid cancers.

  15. Differential gene expression in the murine gastric fundus lacking interstitial cells of Cajal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Sean M

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The muscle layers of murine gastric fundus have no interstitial cells of Cajal at the level of the myenteric plexus and only possess intramuscular interstitial cells and this tissue does not generate electric slow waves. The absence of intramuscular interstitial cells in W/WV mutants provides a unique opportunity to study the molecular changes that are associated with the loss of these intercalating cells. Method The gene expression profile of the gastric fundus of wild type and W/WV mice was assayed by murine microarray analysis displaying a total of 8734 elements. Queried genes from the microarray analysis were confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results Twenty-one genes were differentially expressed in wild type and W/WV mice. Eleven transcripts had 2.0–2.5 fold higher mRNA expression in W/WV gastric fundus when compared to wild type tissues. Ten transcripts had 2.1–3.9 fold lower expression in W/WV mutants in comparison with wild type animals. None of these genes have ever been implicated in any bowel motility function. Conclusions These data provides evidence that several important genes have significantly changed in the murine fundus of W/WV mutants that lack intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal and have reduced enteric motor neurotransmission.

  16. ArtinM Mediates Murine T Cell Activation and Induces Cell Death in Jurkat Human Leukemic T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Brito, Patrícia Kellen Martins; Gonçalves, Thiago Eleutério; Vendruscolo, Patrícia Edivânia; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The recognition of cell surface glycans by lectins may be critical for the innate and adaptive immune responses. ArtinM, a d-mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus heterophyllus, activates antigen-presenting cells by recognizing TLR2 N-glycans and induces Th1 immunity. We recently demonstrated that ArtinM stimulated CD4+ T cells to produce proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we further studied the effects of ArtinM on adaptive immune cells. We showed that ArtinM activates murine CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, augmenting their positivity for CD25, CD69, and CD95 and showed higher interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ production. The CD4+ T cells exhibited increased T-bet expression in response to ArtinM, and IL-2 production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells depended on the recognition of CD3εγ-chain glycans by ArtinM. The ArtinM effect on aberrantly-glycosylated neoplastic lymphocytes was studied in Jurkat T cells, in which ArtinM induced IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-1β production, but decreased cell viability and growth. A higher frequency of AnnexinV- and propidium iodide-stained cells demonstrated the induction of Jurkat T cells apoptosis by ArtinM, and this apoptotic response was reduced by caspases and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ArtinM effects on murine T cells corroborated with the immunomodulatory property of lectin, whereas the promotion of Jurkat T cells apoptosis may reflect a potential applicability of ArtinM in novel strategies for treating lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:28665310

  17. Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibition delays recurrence of glioblastoma after radiation by altering myeloid cell recruitment and polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Jason H.; Hirai, Takahisa; Deng, Lei; Chernikova, Sophia B.; Urata, Kimiko; West, Brian L.; Brown, J. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma (GBM) may initially respond to treatment with ionizing radiation (IR), but the prognosis remains extremely poor because the tumors invariably recur. Using animal models, we previously showed that inhibiting stromal cell–derived factor 1 signaling can prevent or delay GBM recurrence by blocking IR-induced recruitment of myeloid cells, specifically monocytes that give rise to tumor-associated macrophages. The present study was aimed at determining if inhibiting colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) signaling could be used as an alternative strategy to target pro-tumorigenic myeloid cells recruited to irradiated GBM. Methods To inhibit CSF-1 signaling in myeloid cells, we used PLX3397, a small molecule that potently inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R). Combined IR and PLX3397 therapy was compared with IR alone using 2 different human GBM intracranial xenograft models. Results GBM xenografts treated with IR upregulated CSF-1R ligand expression and increased the number of CD11b+ myeloid-derived cells in the tumors. Treatment with PLX3397 both depleted CD11b+ cells and potentiated the response of the intracranial tumors to IR. Median survival was significantly longer for mice receiving combined therapy versus IR alone. Analysis of myeloid cell differentiation markers indicated that CSF-1R inhibition prevented IR-recruited monocyte cells from differentiating into immunosuppressive, pro-angiogenic tumor-associated macrophages. Conclusion CSF-1R inhibition may be a promising strategy to improve GBM response to radiotherapy. PMID:26538619

  18. Establishment and Biological Characterization of a Panel of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) and GBM Variant Oncosphere Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Zev A; Wilson, Kelli M; Salmasi, Vafi; Orr, Brent A; Eberhart, Charles G; Siu, I-Mei; Lim, Michael; Weingart, Jon D; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Bettegowda, Chetan; Kassam, Amin B; Olivi, Alessandro; Brem, Henry; Riggins, Gregory J; Gallia, Gary L

    2016-01-01

    Human tumor cell lines form the basis of the majority of present day laboratory cancer research. These models are vital to studying the molecular biology of tumors and preclinical testing of new therapies. When compared to traditional adherent cell lines, suspension cell lines recapitulate the genetic profiles and histologic features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with higher fidelity. Using a modified neural stem cell culture technique, here we report the characterization of GBM cell lines including GBM variants. Tumor tissue samples were obtained intra-operatively and cultured in neural stem cell conditions containing growth factors. Tumor lines were characterized in vitro using differentiation assays followed by immunostaining for lineage-specific markers. In vivo tumor formation was assayed by orthotopic injection in nude mice. Genetic uniqueness was confirmed via short tandem repeat (STR) DNA profiling. Thirteen oncosphere lines derived from GBM and GBM variants, including a GBM with PNET features and a GBM with oligodendroglioma component, were established. All unique lines showed distinct genetic profiles by STR profiling. The lines assayed demonstrated a range of in vitro growth rates. Multipotency was confirmed using in vitro differentiation. Tumor formation demonstrated histologic features consistent with high grade gliomas, including invasion, necrosis, abnormal vascularization, and high mitotic rate. Xenografts derived from the GBM variants maintained histopathological features of the primary tumors. We have generated and characterized GBM suspension lines derived from patients with GBMs and GBM variants. These oncosphere cell lines will expand the resources available for preclinical study.

  19. The effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on proliferation and apoptosis of in ovo cultured glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbańska, Kaja; Pająk, Beata; Orzechowski, Arkadiusz; Sokołowska, Justyna; Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Szmidt, Maciej; Sysa, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) provide a unique approach to the treatment of tumors, especially those of neuroepithelial origin. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of AgNPs on proliferation and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells cultured in an in ovo model. Human GBM cells, line U-87, were placed on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane. After 8 days, the tumors were divided into three groups: control (non-treated), treated with colloidal AgNPs (40 μg/ml), and placebo (tumors supplemented with vehicle only). At the end of the experiment, all tumors were isolated. Assessment of cell proliferation and cell apoptosis was estimated by histological, immunohistochemical, and Western blot analyses. The results show that AgNPs can influence GBM growth. AgNPs inhibit proliferation of GBM cells and seem to have proapoptotic properties. Although there were statistically significant differences between control and AgNP groups in the AI and the levels of active caspase 9 and active caspase 3, the level of these proteins in GBM cells treated with AgNPs seems to be on the border between the spontaneous apoptosis and the induced. Our results indicate that the antiproliferative properties of silver nanoparticles overwhelm proapoptotic ones. Further research focused on the cytotoxic effect of AgNPs on tumor and normal cells should be conducted.

  20. 18F-FET and 18F-FCH uptake in human glioblastoma T98G cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persico, Marco Giovanni; Buroni, Federica Eleonora; Pasi, Francesca; Lodola, Lorenzo; Aprile, Carlo; Nano, Rosanna; Hodolic, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Despite complex treatment of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, high grade gliomas often recur. Differentiation between post-treatment changes and recurrence is difficult. 18 F-methyl-choline ( 18 F-FCH) is frequently used in staging and detection of recurrent prostate cancer disease as well as some brain tumours; however accumulation in inflammatory tissue limits its specificity. The 18 F-ethyl-tyrosine ( 18 F-FET) shows a specific uptake in malignant cells, resulting from increased expression of amino acid transporters or diffusing through the disrupted blood-brain barrier. 18 F-FET exhibits lower uptake in machrophages and other inflammatory cells. Aim of this study was to evaluate 18 F-FCH and 18 F-FET uptake by human glioblastoma T98G cells. Human glioblastoma T98G or human dermal fibroblasts cells, seeded at a density to obtain 2 × 10 5 cells per flask when radioactive tracers were administered, grew adherent to the plastic surface at 37°C in 5% CO 2 in complete medium. Equimolar amounts of radiopharmaceuticals were added to cells for different incubation times (20 to 120 minutes) for 18 F-FCH and 18 F-FET respectively. The cellular radiotracer uptake was determined with a gamma counter. All experiments were carried out in duplicate and repeated three times. The uptake measurements are expressed as the percentage of the administered dose of tracer per 2 × 10 5 cells. Data (expressed as mean values of % uptake of radiopharmaceuticals) were compared using parametric or non-parametric tests as appropriate. Differences were regarded as statistically significant when p<0.05. A significant uptake of 18 F-FCH was seen in T98G cells at 60, 90 and 120 minutes. The percentage uptake of 18 F-FET in comparison to 18 F-FCH was lower by a factor of more than 3, with different kinetic curves. 18 F-FET showed a more rapid initial uptake up to 40 minutes and 18 F-FCH showed a progressive rise reaching a maximum after 90 minutes. 18 F-FCH and 18 F-FET are candidates

  1. Targeting Homologous Recombination by Pharmacological Inhibitors Enhances the Killing Response of Glioblastoma Cells Treated with Alkylating Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Nancy; Piée-Staffa, Andrea; Piecha, Nadine; Wang, Mengwan; Borgmann, Kerstin; Kaina, Bernd; Nikolova, Teodora

    2016-11-01

    Malignant gliomas exhibit a high level of intrinsic and acquired drug resistance and have a dismal prognosis. First- and second-line therapeutics for glioblastomas are alkylating agents, including the chloroethylating nitrosoureas (CNU) lomustine, nimustine, fotemustine, and carmustine. These agents target the tumor DNA, forming O 6 -chloroethylguanine adducts and secondary DNA interstrand cross-links (ICL). These cross-links are supposed to be converted into DNA double-strand breaks, which trigger cell death pathways. Here, we show that lomustine (CCNU) with moderately toxic doses induces ICLs in glioblastoma cells, inhibits DNA replication fork movement, and provokes the formation of DSBs and chromosomal aberrations. Since homologous recombination (HR) is involved in the repair of DSBs formed in response to CNUs, we elucidated whether pharmacologic inhibitors of HR might have impact on these endpoints and enhance the killing effect. We show that the Rad51 inhibitors RI-1 and B02 greatly ameliorate DSBs, chromosomal changes, and the level of apoptosis and necrosis. We also show that an inhibitor of MRE11, mirin, which blocks the formation of the MRN complex and thus the recognition of DSBs, has a sensitizing effect on these endpoints as well. In a glioma xenograft model, the Rad51 inhibitor RI-1 clearly enhanced the effect of CCNU on tumor growth. The data suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of HR, for example by RI-1, is a reasonable strategy for enhancing the anticancer effect of CNUs. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(11); 2665-78. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Quantitative analysis of thymus lymphoid cells during murine radioleukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniver, J.; Simar, L.J.; Courtoy, R.; Betz, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Fractionated irradiation by four doses of 150 R leads to the development of lymphoma in the thymus of C57BL mice, after a long latent period (4 to 12 months) during which thymic subcapsular blast cells undergo neoplastic transformation. Electron microscope studies on this blast cell population have revealed several types that are distinguishable on the basis of nuclear ultrastructure and activity in the cell cycle. These blast cells are lymphoblasts, ring-shaped nucleolus cells, and x-cells. A stereological analysis demonstrates that the result of the irradiations is not an increase of the thymic blast cell number during the preleukemic period, as generally thought before, but important modifications in the relative proportion of the three cell types forming the blastic population. X-cells, which essentially appear in S phase, are more numerous after the third and fourth doses of radiation. They might be more ''sensitive'' to the action of the leukemogenic virus and facilitate the leukemogenic process. In contrast, in the preleukemic atrophic thymus just before the appearance of the lymphoma, x-cells are scarce, and ring-shaped nucleolus cells are more frequent than in the controls, suggesting important changes in thymus cell kinetics. The only modification detected in the blast cells at any time after irradiation concerns the surface of Golgi membranes, which decreases in x-cells and ring-shaped nucleolus cells of the atrophic thymus. Because the same change is observed later on in the lymphomatous cells, it is suggested that the change might be related to the transformation of the thymic blast cells into cancerous cells

  3. Sulforaphane inhibits invasion via activating ERK1/2 signaling in human glioblastoma U87MG and U373MG cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunliu Li

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma has highly invasive potential, which might result in poor prognosis and therapeutic failure. Hence, the key we study is to find effective therapies to repress migration and invasion. Sulforaphane (SFN was demonstrated to inhibit cell growth in a variety of tumors. Here, we will further investigate whether SFN inhibits migration and invasion and find the possible mechanisms in human glioblastoma U87MG and U373MG cells.First, the optimal time and dose of SFN for migration and invasion study were determined via cell viability and cell morphological assay. Further, scratch assay and transwell invasion assay were employed to investigate the effect of SFN on migration and invasion. Meanwhile, Western blots were used to detect the molecular linkage among invasion related proteins phosphorylated ERK1/2, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and CD44v6. Furthermore, Gelatin zymography was performed to detect the inhibition of MMP-2 activation. In addition, ERK1/2 blocker PD98059 (25 µM was integrated to find the link between activated ERK1/2 and invasion, MMP-2 and CD44v6.The results showed that SFN (20 µM remarkably reduced the formation of cell pseudopodia, indicating that SFN might inhibit cell motility. As expected, scratch assay and transwell invasion assay showed that SFN inhibited glioblastoma cell migration and invasion. Western blot and Gelatin zymography showed that SFN phosphorylated ERK1/2 in a sustained way, which contributed to the downregulated MMP-2 expression and activity, and the upregulated CD44v6 expression. These molecular interactions resulted in the inhibition of cell invasion.SFN inhibited migration and invasion processes. Furthermore, SFN inhibited invasion via activating ERK1/2 in a sustained way. The accumulated ERK1/2 activation downregulated MMP-2 expression and decreased its activity and upregulated CD44v6. SFN might be a potential therapeutic agent by activating ERK1/2 signaling against human glioblastoma.

  4. Quantitative Analyses of Synergistic Responses between Cannabidiol and DNA-Damaging Agents on the Proliferation and Viability of Glioblastoma and Neural Progenitor Cells in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Liting; Ng, Lindsay; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Stella, Nephi

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the nonpsychotropic cannabis-derived compound, cannabidiol (CBD), has antineoplastic activity in multiple types of cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). DNA-damaging agents remain the main standard of care treatment available for patients diagnosed with GBM. Here we studied the antiproliferative and cell-killing activity of CBD alone and in combination with DNA-damaging agents (temozolomide, carmustine, or cisplatin) in several human GBM cell lines and in mo...

  5. Large Intergenic Non-coding RNA-RoR Inhibits Aerobic Glycolysis of Glioblastoma Cells via Akt Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; He, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Kai; Shi, Yu; Yao, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Xia; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Ping, Yi-Fang; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2018-01-01

    Reprogramming energy metabolism is a hallmark of malignant tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM). Aerobic glycolysis is often utilized by tumor cells to maintain survival and proliferation. However, the underlying mechanisms of aerobic glycolysis in GBM remain elusive. Herein, we demonstrated that large intergenic non-coding RNA-RoR (LincRNA-RoR) functioned as a critical suppressor to inhibit the aerobic glycolysis and viability of GBM cells. We found that LincRNA-RoR was markedly reduced in GBM tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues from 10 cases of GBM patients. Consistently, LincRNA-RoR expression in GBM cells was significantly lower than that in normal glial cells. The aerobic glycolysis of GBM cells, as determined by the measurement of glucose uptake and lactate production, was impaired by LincRNA-RoR overexpression. Mechanistically, LincRNA-RoR inhibited the expression of Rictor, the key component of mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2), to suppress the activity of Akt pathway and impair the expression of glycolytic effectors, including Glut1, HK2, PKM2 and LDHA. Finally, enforced expression of LincRNA-RoR reduced the proliferation of GBM cells in vitro, restrained tumor growth in vivo, and repressed the expression of glycolytic molecules in GBM xenografts. Collectively, our results underscore LincRNA-RoR as a new suppressor of GBM aerobic glycolysis with therapeutic potential. PMID:29581766

  6. Proliferation and enrichment of CD133(+) glioblastoma cancer stem cells on 3D chitosan-alginate scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Forrest M; Florczyk, Stephen J; Leung, Matthew C; Wang, Kui; Wu, Jennifer D; Silber, John R; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Lee, Jerry S H; Zhang, Miqin

    2014-11-01

    Emerging evidence implicates cancer stem cells (CSCs) as primary determinants of the clinical behavior of human cancers, representing an ideal target for next-generation anti-cancer therapies. However CSCs are difficult to propagate in vitro, severely limiting the study of CSC biology and drug development. Here we report that growing cells from glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines on three dimensional (3D) porous chitosan-alginate (CA) scaffolds dramatically promotes the proliferation and enrichment of cells possessing the hallmarks of CSCs. CA scaffold-grown cells were found more tumorigenic in nude mouse xenografts than cells grown from monolayers. Growing in CA scaffolds rapidly promoted expression of genes involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that has been implicated in the genesis of CSCs. Our results indicate that CA scaffolds have utility as a simple and inexpensive means to cultivate CSCs in vitro in support of studies to understand CSC biology and develop more effective anti-cancer therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. B cell lymphoma and myeloma in murine Gaucher's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlova, E. V.; Wang, S. Z.; Archer, J.; Dekker, N. [=Nick; Aerts, J. M. F. G.; Karlsson, S.; Cox, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma and B cell lymphoma are leading causes of death in Gaucher's disease but the nature of the stimulus driving the often noted clonal expansion of immunoglobulin-secreting B cells and cognate lymphoid malignancy is unknown. We investigated the long-term development of B cell

  8. Role of P2X7 on steroid synthesis in murine luteal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP regulates different cellular functions through activating purinergic receptors as a signalling molecule or neurotransmitter. P2X7 is highly expressed in murine small luteal cells. In this study, murine luteal cells were cultured in vitro and treated with P2X7 agonists – ATP and 2′(3′-O-(4-benzoyl-benzoyl-adenosine 50-triphosphate (BzATP and with P2X7 antagonist – brilliant blue G (BBG. We found that ATP and BzATP increased the production of progesterone and had no influence on the production of estradiol. BBG reversed the effect of BzATP and ATP. Further studies demonstrated that ATP and BzATP promoted the expression of CYP11A. These results revealed that P2X7 receptor activation is involved in the steroid synthesis in corpus luteum.

  9. Targeting the cytosolic innate immune receptors RIG-I and MDA5 effectively counteracts cancer cell heterogeneity in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, Martin; Coch, Christoph; Trageser, Daniel; Dassler, Juliane; Simon, Matthias; Koch, Philipp; Mertens, Jerome; Quandel, Tamara; Gorris, Raphaela; Reinartz, Roman; Wieland, Anja; Von Lehe, Marec; Pusch, Annette; Roy, Kristin; Schlee, Martin; Neumann, Harald; Fimmers, Rolf; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Brüstle, Oliver; Hartmann, Gunther; Besch, Robert; Scheffler, Björn

    2013-06-01

    Cellular heterogeneity, for example, the intratumoral coexistence of cancer cells with and without stem cell characteristics, represents a potential root of therapeutic resistance and a significant challenge for modern drug development in glioblastoma (GBM). We propose here that activation of the innate immune system by stimulation of innate immune receptors involved in antiviral and antitumor responses can similarly target different malignant populations of glioma cells. We used short-term expanded patient-specific primary human GBM cells to study the stimulation of the cytosolic nucleic acid receptors melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). Specifically, we analyzed cells from the tumor core versus "residual GBM cells" derived from the tumor resection margin as well as stem cell-enriched primary cultures versus specimens without stem cell properties. A portfolio of human, nontumor neural cells was used as a control for these studies. The expression of RIG-I and MDA5 could be induced in all of these cells. Receptor stimulation with their respective ligands, p(I:C) and 3pRNA, led to in vitro evidence for an effective activation of the innate immune system. Most intriguingly, all investigated cancer cell populations additionally responded with a pronounced induction of apoptotic signaling cascades revealing a second, direct mechanism of antitumor activity. By contrast, p(I:C) and 3pRNA induced only little toxicity in human nonmalignant neural cells. Granted that the challenge of effective central nervous system (CNS) delivery can be overcome, targeting of RIG-I and MDA5 could thus become a quintessential strategy to encounter heterogeneous cancers in the sophisticated environments of the brain. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  10. Wnt/β-catenin pathway involvement in ionizing radiation-induced invasion of U87 glioblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Zhen [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Neurosurgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China); Zhou, Lin [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Histoembryology, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China); Han, Na; Zhang, Mengxian [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China); Lyu, Xiaojuan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Oncology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Radiotherapy has been reported to promote the invasion of glioblastoma cells; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in radiation-induced invasion of glioblastoma cells. U87 cells were irradiated with 3 Gy or sham irradiated in the presence or absence of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV 939. Cell invasion was determined by an xCELLigence real-time cell analyser and matrigel invasion assays. The intracellular distribution of β-catenin in U87 cells with or without irradiation was examined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting of nuclear fractions. We next investigated the effect of irradiation on Wnt/β-catenin pathway activity using TOP/FOP flash luciferase assays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of β-catenin target genes. The expression levels and activities of two target genes, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, were examined further by Western blotting and zymography. U87 cell invasiveness was increased significantly by ionizing radiation. Interestingly, ionizing radiation induced nuclear translocation and accumulation of β-catenin. Moreover, we found increased β-catenin/TCF transcriptional activities, followed by up-regulation of downstream genes in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in irradiated U87 cells. Importantly, inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by XAV 939, which promotes degradation of β-catenin, significantly abrogated the pro-invasion effects of irradiation. Mechanistically, XAV 939 suppressed ionizing radiation-triggered up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and inhibited the activities of these gelatinases. Our data demonstrate a pivotal role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in ionizing radiation-induced invasion of glioblastoma cells, and suggest that targeting β-catenin is a promising therapeutic approach to overcoming glioma radioresistance. (orig.) [German] Studien haben gezeigt, dass eine Strahlentherapie die Invasivitaet von

  11. Diamond, graphite, and graphene oxide nanoparticles decrease migration and invasiveness in glioblastoma cell lines by impairing extracellular adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Jaworski, Slawomir; Kutwin, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The highly invasive nature of glioblastoma is one of the most significant problems regarding the treatment of this tumor. Diamond nanoparticles (ND), graphite nanoparticles (NG), and graphene oxide nanoplatelets (nGO) have been explored for their biomedical applications, especially for drug...... that nanoparticles could be used in biomedical applications as a low toxicity active compound for glioblastoma treatment....

  12. Nature of leukemic stem cells in murine myelogenous leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Nemoto, K.; Nishimura, M.; Hayata, I.; Inoue, T.; Seki, M.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the nature of myelogenous leukemic stem cells in mice. L-8057, a megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line used in this study, produces in vivo and in vitro colonies. By means of typical chromosomal aberrations in L-8057, one can conveniently detect the origin of the cells in each colony derived from a leukemic stem cell. Direct evidence of whether cells from each colony had leukemogenicity in recipient mice was successfully obtained by the colony transplantation assay. Both leukemic colony-forming unit-spleen (L-CFU-s) and leukemic colony-forming unit-culture (L-CFU-c) in L-8057 may have belonged to the same differentiating stage in the stem cells because of their similar radiosensitivity, although some parts of the L-CFU of L-8057 seemed to have lost their capability to regenerate L-CFU-s when the cells were plated in dishes. This leukemic stem cell preserves high self-renewal ability in vitro after 10 passages. In addition, in vitro colony formation by this leukemic cell during the above course of serial passages did not require any additional exogenous stimulators. The same sort of trials have been made on other types of leukemias. Leukemic stem cells showed remarkable variety in their response to stimulating factors and in their self-renewal activity, which suggests that they may have consisted of heterogeneous populations

  13. Minimizing the non-specific binding of nanoparticles to the brain enables active targeting of Fn14-positive glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Craig S; Perez, Jimena G; Cheng, Emily; Zhang, Clark; Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Hanes, Justin; Winkles, Jeffrey A; Woodworth, Graeme F; Kim, Anthony J

    2015-02-01

    A major limitation in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and deadly primary brain cancer, is delivery of therapeutics to invading tumor cells outside of the area that is safe for surgical removal. A promising way to target invading GBM cells is via drug-loaded nanoparticles that bind to fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), thereby potentially improving efficacy and reducing toxicity. However, achieving broad particle distribution and nanoparticle targeting within the brain remains a significant challenge due to the adhesive extracellular matrix (ECM) and clearance mechanisms in the brain. In this work, we developed Fn14 monoclonal antibody-decorated nanoparticles that can efficiently penetrate brain tissue. We show these Fn14-targeted brain tissue penetrating nanoparticles are able to (i) selectively bind to recombinant Fn14 but not brain ECM proteins, (ii) associate with and be internalized by Fn14-positive GBM cells, and (iii) diffuse within brain tissue in a manner similar to non-targeted brain penetrating nanoparticles. In addition, when administered intracranially, Fn14-targeted nanoparticles showed improved tumor cell co-localization in mice bearing human GBM xenografts compared to non-targeted nanoparticles. Minimizing non-specific binding of targeted nanoparticles in the brain may greatly improve the access of particulate delivery systems to remote brain tumor cells and other brain targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential modulation of a radiation-induced bystander effect in glioblastoma cells by pifithrin-alpha and wortmannin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.c [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang Jianghong [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7AB (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    The implication of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) for both radiation protection and radiotherapy has attracted significant attention, but a key question is how to modulate the RIBE. The present study found that, when a fraction of glioblastoma cells in T98G population were individually targeted with precise helium particles through their nucleus, micronucleus (MN) were induced and its yield increased non-linearly with radiation dose. After co-culturing with irradiated cells, additional MN could be induced in the non-irradiated bystander cells and its yield was independent of irradiation dose, giving direct evidence of a RIBE. Further results showed that the RIBE could be eliminated by pifithrin-alpha (p53 inhibitor) but enhanced by wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor). Moreover, it was found that nitric oxide (NO) contributed to this RIBE, and the levels of NO of both irradiated cells and bystander cells could be extensively diminished by pifithrin-alpha but insignificantly reduced by wortmannin. Our results indicate that RIBE can be modulated by p53 and PI3K through a NO-dependent and NO-independent pathway, respectively.

  15. The influence of bromodeoxyuridine on the induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks in glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusser, N.N.; Bartkowiak, D.; Roettinger, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To examine the dose response of DNA damage and its modification by the radiosensitizer, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). The sensitizing mechanism is analyzed with regard to its influence on the induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Material and Methods: Cells from three different human glioblastoma lines, A7, LH and U87MG, were X-irradiated with and without exposure to BrdU. DNA fragments were separated by field-inversion gel electrophoresis (FIGE) and quantified by fluorometry immediately and 24 h after irradiation. Results: In all cell lines, the dose response followed a linear-quadratic rather than a purely linear function. BrdU-treated cells exhibited a significantly higher amount of mobile DNA. In repair experiments with and without BrdU, the amount of mobile DNA fell close to control values within 24 h. Conclusions: The linear-quadratic model appropriately describes the X-ray induced fragmentation of DNA. BrdU sensitizing acts predominantly by increasing DNA fragility, and not by impairing damage repair. The amount of DSBs persistent after 24 h of repair is minimal, even after highly cytotoxic doses. However, it appears to depend on the extent of initial damage, causing sensitized cells to retain more DSBs than unsensitized cells. (orig.)

  16. The role of adrenergic activation on murine luteal cell viability and progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Tang, Min; Jiang, Huaide; Wu, Bing; Cai, Wei; Hu, Chuan; Bao, Riqiang; Dong, Qiming; Xiao, Li; Li, Gang; Zhang, Chunping

    2016-09-15

    Sympathetic innervations exist in mammalian CL. The action of catecholaminergic system on luteal cells has been the focus of a variety of studies. Norepinephrine (NE) increased progesterone secretion of cattle luteal cells by activating β-adrenoceptors. In this study, murine luteal cells were treated with NE and isoprenaline (ISO). We found that NE increased the viability of murine luteal cells and ISO decreased the viability of luteal cells. Both NE and ISO promoted the progesterone production. Nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol reversed the effect of ISO on cell viability but did not reverse the effect of NE on cell viability. Propranolol blocked the influence of NE and ISO on progesterone production. These results reveal that the increase of luteal cell viability induced by NE is not dependent on β-adrenergic activation. α-Adrenergic activation possibly contributes to it. Both NE and ISO increased progesterone production through activating β-adrenergic receptor. Further study showed that CyclinD2 is involved in the increase of luteal cell induced by NE. 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, LHR, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and PGF2α contribute to the progesterone production induced by NE and ISO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and resistance to radiation lethality in murine tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy, C.A.; Tesfay, Z.; Jones, J.; Rosenberg, R.C.; McCarthy, C.; Rosenberg, S.O.

    1986-01-01

    Reduced species of molecular oxygen are produced by the interaction of ionizing radiation with aqueous solutions containing molecular oxygen. The enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are thought to function in vivo as scavengers of metabolically produced peroxide and superoxide respectively. SOD has been shown to protect against the lethal effects of ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. The authors have investigated the relationship between the cytosolic SOD catalase content and the sensitivity to radiation lethality of a number of murine cell lines (402AX, EL-4, MB-2T3, MB-4, MEL, P-815, SAI, SP-2, and SV-3T3). K/sub i/(CN - ) for murine Cu-Zn-SOD was determined to be 6.8 x 10 -6 M. No cytosolic Mn-SOD activity was found in any of the cell lines studied. No correlation was found between the cytosolic Cu-Zn-SOD or cytosolic catalase activity and the resistance to radiation lethality or the murine cell lines studied

  18. Selection of viable cell subpopulations from murine tumours using FACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, D.J.; Durand, R.E.; Olive, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors developed a technique which enables isolation of viable tumour cells subpopulation as a function of their distance from the blood supply. The basis for this separation procedure is that the fluorochrome, Hoechst 33342, as a result of its high avidity for cellular DNA, exhibits a marked diffusion/consumption gradient when it has to pass through several cell layers. As a result intravenous injection of Hoechst 33342 into tumour bearing animals, results in a heterogeneous straining pattern within the tumour with cells close to blood vessels being brightly fluorescent while those more distant are less intensely stained. Since these differences in staining intensity persist after tumour disaggregation, cells can be sorted into subpopulations on the basis of their fluorescence intensity using a fluorescence activated cell sorter. This technique offers the unique possibility of identifying the location of those cell subpopulations resistant to treatment with either radiation or chemotherapeutic drugs

  19. Ontogeny and function of murine epidermal Langerhans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel H

    2017-09-19

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are epidermis-resident antigen-presenting cells that share a common ontogeny with macrophages but function as dendritic cells (DCs). Their development, recruitment and retention in the epidermis is orchestrated by interactions with keratinocytes through multiple mechanisms. LC and dermal DC subsets often show functional redundancy, but LCs are required for specific types of adaptive immune responses when antigen is concentrated in the epidermis. This Review will focus on those developmental and functional properties that are unique to LCs.

  20. Cytotoxic activity of methanol extracts from Basidiomycete mushrooms on murine cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, S; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, F; Sauleau, P; Bézivin, C; Boustie, J

    2004-04-01

    Crude methanol extracts of 58 mushroom species were screened for their cytotoxic activities against two murine cancer cell lines, L1210 and 3LL, using the tetrazolium assay. A majority of extracts (74%) exhibited IC50 > 100 microg/ml against both cell lines. A most marked activity against one of the cell lines was noted for nine species (14% of the tested species). While Amanitales and Russulales tested were not found active, Polyporales and Boletales gave better results. Four species exhibited a significant cytotoxic activity (IC50 Suillus granulatus, S. luteus). The last one had never been investigated for its cytotoxic compounds before.

  1. Molecular and cellular heterogeneity: the hallmark of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aum, Diane J; Kim, David H; Beaumont, Thomas L; Leuthardt, Eric C; Dunn, Gavin P; Kim, Albert H

    2014-12-01

    There has been increasing awareness that glioblastoma, which may seem histopathologically similar across many tumors, actually represents a group of molecularly distinct tumors. Emerging evidence suggests that cells even within the same tumor exhibit wide-ranging molecular diversity. Parallel to the discoveries of molecular heterogeneity among tumors and their individual cells, intense investigation of the cellular biology of glioblastoma has revealed that not all cancer cells within a given tumor behave the same. The identification of a subpopulation of brain tumor cells termed "glioblastoma cancer stem cells" or "tumor-initiating cells" has implications for the management of glioblastoma. This focused review will therefore summarize emerging concepts on the molecular and cellular heterogeneity of glioblastoma and emphasize that we should begin to consider each individual glioblastoma to be an ensemble of molecularly distinct subclones that reflect a spectrum of dynamic cell states.

  2. Heat Shock Factor 1 Depletion Sensitizes A172 Glioblastoma Cells to Temozolomide via Suppression of Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Nim Im

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, a transcription factor activated by various stressors, regulates proliferation and apoptosis by inducing expression of target genes, such as heat shock proteins and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting cell death suppressor (BIS. HSF1 also directly interacts with BIS, although it is still unclear whether this interaction is critical in the regulation of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs. In this study, we examined whether small interfering RNA-mediated BIS knockdown decreased protein levels of HSF1 and subsequent nuclear localization under GSC-like sphere (SP-forming conditions. Consistent with BIS depletion, HSF1 knockdown also reduced sex determining region Y (SRY-box 2 (SOX2 expression, a marker of stemness, accompanying the decrease in SP-forming ability and matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2 activity. When HSF1 or BIS knockdown was combined with temozolomide (TMZ treatment, a standard drug used in glioblastoma therapy, apoptosis increased, as measured by an increase in poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage, whereas cancer stem-like properties, such as colony-forming activity and SOX2 protein expression, decreased. Taken together, our findings suggest that targeting BIS or HSF1 could be a viable therapeutic strategy for GSCs resistant to conventional TMZ treatment.

  3. Characterization of the binding of radioiodinated hybrid recombinant IFN-alpha A/D to murine and human lymphoid cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltynek, C.R.; Princler, G.L.; Schwabe, M.; Shata, M.T.; Lewis, G.K.; Kamin-Lewis, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    The hybrid recombinant human interferon (IFN) rIFN-alpha A/D was radioiodinated. Specific binding of [125I]rIFN-alpha A/D was observed with both human and murine cell lines. The binding of [125I]rIFN-alpha A/D to human Daudi cells had similar characteristics to the previously described binding of [125I]rIFN-alpha A or -alpha 2. The following lines of evidence demonstrated that [125I]rIFN-alpha A/D bound with high affinity to the same receptor on murine cells as murine IFN-alpha and -beta: (i) the binding of [125I]rIFN-alpha A/D to murine LBRM cells was inhibited to a similar extent by natural murine IFN-alpha, natural murine IFN-beta, and rIFN-A/D; (ii) the Kd (approximately 2 X 10(-10) M) obtained from both competition experiments and saturation binding experiments with [125I]rIFN-alpha A/D was comparable to the previously reported Kd for the binding of natural murine IFN-alpha and -beta to other murine cell lines; (iii) the size of the cross-linked [125I]rIFN-alpha A/D receptor complex formed on murine LBRM cells was similar to the previously reported cross-linked complex formed after binding radioiodinated natural murine IFN-beta to other murine cell lines. Due to the current lack of readily available recombinant murine IFN-alpha or -beta for radiolabeling and the previously demonstrated biological activity of rIFN-alpha A/D on murine cells, [125I]rIFN-alpha A/D should prove to be a useful reagent for further studies of murine IFN receptors

  4. Enhancement of the effect of X-irradiation against cultured human glioblastoma cells by pretreatment with ACNU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashiyama, Shoji; Katakura, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Kou; Kitahara, Masakazu; Suzuki, Jiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Brain Diseases; Sasaki, Takehito

    1989-12-01

    Human glioblastoma A-7 (GB A-7) cells can apparently recover from potentially lethal X-irradiation. The authors, using a colony-forming assay, studied the influence of pretreatment with 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3- (2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) on the effectiveness of X-irradiation against GB A-7 cells grown in monolayers and as multicellular spheroids. Pre-exposure to ACNU inhibited the recovery of irradiated GB A-7 cells. In monolayer cells, the combination treatment was most effective when ACNU was applied 2 to 8 hours prior to irradiation, and the larger the X-ray dose, the more potent the effect. ACNU pretreatment was more effective against large spheroids (enhancement ratio 1.86) than against small ones (1.34). Large spheroids showed necrosis, whereas small ones did not. Isobolographic analysis disclosed that the effect of combining X-irradiation and ACNU is within an additive envelope at the surviving fraction of 10{sup -2}, while supra-additive at the surviving fraction of 10{sup -3}. These results suggest that the potency of X-irradiation is augmented by ACNU pretreatment through an interactive mechanism. Further, suppression of recovery from X-ray induced potentially lethal damage was influenced by the presence of necrosis. (author).

  5. Enhancement of the effect of X-irradiation against cultured human glioblastoma cells by pretreatment with ACNU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiyama, Shoji; Katakura, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Kou; Kitahara, Masakazu; Suzuki, Jiro; Sasaki, Takehito.

    1989-01-01

    Human glioblastoma A-7 (GB A-7) cells can apparently recover from potentially lethal X-irradiation. The authors, using a colony-forming assay, studied the influence of pretreatment with 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3- (2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) on the effectiveness of X-irradiation against GB A-7 cells grown in monolayers and as multicellular spheroids. Pre-exposure to ACNU inhibited the recovery of irradiated GB A-7 cells. In monolayer cells, the combination treatment was most effective when ACNU was applied 2 to 8 hours prior to irradiation, and the larger the X-ray dose, the more potent the effect. ACNU pretreatment was more effective against large spheroids (enhancement ratio 1.86) than against small ones (1.34). Large spheroids showed necrosis, whereas small ones did not. Isobolographic analysis disclosed that the effect of combining X-irradiation and ACNU is within an additive envelope at the surviving fraction of 10 -2 , while supra-additive at the surviving fraction of 10 -3 . These results suggest that the potency of X-irradiation is augmented by ACNU pretreatment through an interactive mechanism. Further, suppression of recovery from X-ray induced potentially lethal damage was influenced by the presence of necrosis. (author)

  6. 211At-α-dose dependence of poly-ADP-ribosylation of human glioblastoma cells in vitro. Suitability in cancer therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeweiss, F.H.A.

    1999-01-01

    Aim: It was intended to test the biological response (poly-ADP-ribosylation of cellular proteins) of α-particles from extracellular 211 At for enhanced damage to human glioblastoma cells in vitro and to discuss its suitability for potential application in therapy of high-grade gliomas. Materials and Methods: Confluent cultures of human glioblastoma cells were exposed to different doses of α-radiations from homogeneously distributed extracellular 211 At. Cellular poly-ADP-ribosylation of all proteins including histones was monitored since it is an indirect but sensitive indicator of chromatin damage and putative repair in both normal and malignant mammalian cells. Results: A significant diminution (average 85.6%) in poly-ADP-ribosylation of total cellular proteins relative to that for non-irradiated glioblastoma cells was observed following 0.025 to 1.0 Gy α-radiations. In the dose range of 0.0025 to 0.01 Gy there was an increase with a maximum value of approximately 119.0% at 0.0025 Gy. Below 0.0025 Gy no change in poly-ADP-ribosylation was observed. Conclusions: Level of cellular poly-ADP-ribosylation of proteins at 0.025 to 1.0 Gy of α-radiation dose from 211 At appears to cause enhanced damage by creating molecular conditions which are not conductive to repair of DNA damages in human glioblastoma cells in vitro. Therefore, it is assumed that clinical application of 211 At at least in this dose range might enhance clinical efficacy in radiotherapy of cancer. (orig.) [de

  7. H4 histamine receptors mediate cell cycle arrest in growth factor-induced murine and human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-France Petit-Bertron

    Full Text Available The most recently characterized H4 histamine receptor (H4R is expressed preferentially in the bone marrow, raising the question of its role during hematopoiesis. Here we show that both murine and human progenitor cell populations express this receptor subtype on transcriptional and protein levels and respond to its agonists by reduced growth factor-induced cell cycle progression that leads to decreased myeloid, erythroid and lymphoid colony formation. H4R activation prevents the induction of cell cycle genes through a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway that is not associated with apoptosis. It is mediated specifically through H4R signaling since gene silencing or treatment with selective antagonists restores normal cell cycle progression. The arrest of growth factor-induced G1/S transition protects murine and human progenitor cells from the toxicity of the cell cycle-dependent anticancer drug Ara-C in vitro and reduces aplasia in a murine model of chemotherapy. This first evidence for functional H4R expression in hematopoietic progenitors opens new therapeutic perspectives for alleviating hematotoxic side effects of antineoplastic drugs.

  8. Potent and reversible lentiviral vector restriction in murine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Franziska K; Galla, Melanie; Hoffmann, Dirk; Kuehle, Johannes; Zychlinski, Daniela; Maetzig, Tobias; Schott, Juliane W; Schwarzer, Adrian; Goffinet, Christine; Goff, Stephen P; Schambach, Axel

    2017-05-31

    Retroviral vectors are derived from wild-type retroviruses, can be used to study retrovirus-host interactions and are effective tools in gene and cell therapy. However, numerous cell types are resistant or less permissive to retrovirus infection due to the presence of active defense mechanisms, or the absence of important cellular host co-factors. In contrast to multipotent stem cells, pluripotent stem cells (PSC) have potential to differentiate into all three germ layers. Much remains to be elucidated in the field of anti-viral immunity in stem cells, especially in PSC. In this study, we report that transduction with HIV-1-based, lentiviral vectors (LV) is impaired in murine PSC. Analyses of early retroviral events in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) revealed that the restriction is independent of envelope choice and does not affect reverse transcription, but perturbs nuclear entry and proviral integration. Proteasomal inhibition by MG132 could not circumvent the restriction. However, prevention of cyclophilin A (CypA) binding to the HIV-1 capsid via use of either a CypA inhibitor (cyclosporine A) or CypA-independent capsid mutants improved transduction. In addition, application of higher vector doses also increased transduction. Our data revealed a CypA mediated restriction in iPSC, which was acquired during reprogramming, associated with pluripotency and relieved upon subsequent differentiation. We showed that murine PSC and iPSC are less susceptible to LV. The block observed in iPSC was CypA-dependent and resulted in reduced nuclear entry of viral DNA and proviral integration. Our study helps to improve transduction of murine pluripotent cells with HIV-1-based vectors and contributes to our understanding of retrovirus-host interactions in PSC.

  9. Potent antiproliferative cembrenoids accumulate in tobacco upon infection with Rhodococcus fascians and trigger unusual microtubule dynamics in human glioblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminata P Nacoulma

    Full Text Available AIMS: Though plant metabolic changes are known to occur during interactions with bacteria, these were rarely challenged for pharmacologically active compounds suitable for further drug development. Here, the occurrence of specific chemicals with antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines was evidenced in hyperplasia (leafy galls induced when plants interact with particular phytopathogens, such as the Actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians. METHODS: We examined leafy galls fraction F3.1.1 on cell proliferation, cell division and cytoskeletal disorganization of human cancer cell lines using time-lapse videomicroscopy imaging, combined with flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis. We determined the F3.1.1-fraction composition by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The leafy galls induced on tobacco by R. fascians yielded fraction F3.1.1 which inhibited proliferation of glioblastoma U373 cells with an IC50 of 4.5 µg/mL, F.3.1.1 was shown to increase cell division duration, cause nuclear morphological deformations and cell enlargement, and, at higher concentrations, karyokinesis defects leading to polyploidization and apoptosis. F3.1.1 consisted of a mixture of isomers belonging to the cembrenoids. The cellular defects induced by F3.1.1 were caused by a peculiar cytoskeletal disorganization, with the occurrence of fragmented tubulin and strongly organized microtubule aggregates within the same cell. Colchicine, paclitaxel, and cembrene also affected U373 cell proliferation and karyokinesis, but the induced microtubule rearrangement was very different from that provoked by F3.1.1. Altogether our data indicate that the cembrenoid isomers in F3.1.1 have a unique mode of action and are able to simultaneously modulate microtubule polymerization and stability.

  10. The acquisition of cytokine responsiveness by murine B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poudrier, J; Owens, T

    1994-01-01

    chains and mRNA to levels comparable to those seen in activated T cells. Anti-mu-stimulated B cells responded to IL-2 by incorporation of [3H]thymidine and high rate immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion. Both IL-5 (at optimal concentration) and suboptimal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 20 ng/ml) induced surface...... expression of IL-2R alpha. The level of expression induced by IL-5 was equivalent to that on anti-Ig-activated B cells. Neither stimulus induced detectable expression of IL-2R beta, and neither induced B cells to respond to IL-2. IL-2R alpha expression was strongly enhanced, and low levels of IL-2R beta...

  11. Collateral methotrexate resistance in cisplatin-selected murine leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to anticancer drugs is a major cause of failure of many therapeutic protocols. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The exact mechanism depends upon the drug of interest as well as the tumor type treated. While studying a cell line selected for its resistance to cisplatin we noted that the cells expressed a >25,000-fold collateral resistance to methotrexate. Given the magnitude of this resistance we elected to investigate this intriguing collateral resistance. From a series of investigations we have identified an alteration in a membrane protein of the resistant cell as compared to the sensitive cells that could be the primary mechanism of resistance. Our studies reviewed here indicate decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of a protein (molecular mass = 66 in the resistant cells, which results in little or no transfer of methotrexate from the medium into the cell. Since this is a relatively novel function for tyrosine phosphorylation, this information may provide insight into possible pharmacological approaches to modify therapeutic regimens by analyzing the status of this protein in tumor samples for a better survival of the cancer patients.

  12. Puerarin Facilitates T-Tubule Development of Murine Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ES-CM is one of the promising cell sources for repopulation of damaged myocardium. However, ES-CMs present immature structure, which impairs their integration with host tissue and functional regeneration. This study used murine ES-CMs as an in vitro model of cardiomyogenesis to elucidate the effect of puerarin, the main compound found in the traditional Chinese medicine the herb Radix puerariae, on t-tubule development of murine ES-CMs. Methods: Electron microscope was employed to examine the ultrastructure. The investigation of transverse-tubules (t-tubules was performed by Di-8-ANEPPS staining. Quantitative real-time PCR was utilized to study the transcript level of genes related to t-tubule development. Results: We found that long-term application of puerarin throughout cardiac differentiation improved myofibril array and sarcomeres formation, and significantly facilitated t-tubules development of ES-CMs. The transcript levels of caveolin-3, amphiphysin-2 and junctophinlin-2, which are crucial for the formation and development of t-tubules, were significantly upregulated by puerarin treatment. Furthermore, puerarin repressed the expression of miR-22, which targets to caveolin-3. Conclusion: Our data showed that puerarin facilitates t-tubule development of murine ES-CMs. This might be related to the repression of miR-22 by puerarin and upregulation of Cav3, Bin1 and JP2 transcripts.

  13. Trp53 activity is repressed in radio-adapted cultured murine limb bud cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vares, Guillaume; Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Shang, Yi; Fujita, Kazuko; Hayata, Isamu; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) at low dose in fetal models is of great importance, because the fetus is considered to be at the most radiosensitive stage of the development and prenatal radiation might influence subsequent development. We previously demonstrated the existence of an adaptive response (AR) in murine fetuses after pre-exposure to low doses of X-rays. Trp53-dependent apoptosis was suggested to be responsible for the teratogenic effects of IR; decreased apoptosis was observed in adapted animals. In this study, in order to investigate the role of Trp53 in AR, we developed a new model of irradiated micromass culture of fetal limb bud cells, which replicated proliferation, differentiation and response to IR in murine embryos. Murine fetuses were exposed to whole-body priming irradiation of 0.3 Gy or 0.5 Gy at embryonic day 11 (E11). Limb bud cells (collected from digital ray areas exhibiting radiation-induced apoptosis) were cultured and exposed to a challenging dose of 4 Gy at E12 equivalent. The levels of Trp53 protein and its phosphorylated form at Ser18 were investigated. Our results suggested that the induction of AR in mouse embryos was correlated with a repression of Trp53 activity. (author)

  14. Proliferation differentiation and therapeutic effect of short-term cultured murine bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zekun; Cong Jianbo

    1986-01-01

    Murine bone marrow cells were cultured in conditioned medium of muscle. After 24 hours of culture, both adherent and suspended cells appeared in the culture. The adherent cells mainly consisted of macrophages and the suspended cells were predominantly granulocytes. After 6 days, the total number of nucleated cells and CFU-C in the culture increased about 400% and 600% respectively, but CFU-S reduced to 21% approximately. Lymphocytes persisted only for 4 days. The stem cells (CFU-S) from 6-day culture were injected into the lethally irradiated syngenic mice. The 30 day survival rate of the treated mice was 89% whereas that of the controls was only 7%. The bone marrow cells in 2/8 of recipients sacrificed at 30 or 60 days were of donor type and 6/8 of the recipients were chimeras

  15. Dendrosomal curcumin nanoformulation downregulates pluripotency genes via miR-145 activation in U87MG glioblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmasebi Mirgani M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Tahmasebi Mirgani,1 Benedetta Isacchi,2 Majid Sadeghizadeh,1,* Fabio Marra,3 Anna Rita Bilia,2,* Seyed Javad Mowla,1 Farhood Najafi,4 Esmael Babaei51Department of Genetics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; 3Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Italy; 4Department of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Biology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Glioblastoma is an invasive tumor of the central nervous system. Tumor recurrence resulting from ineffective current treatments, mainly due to the blood–brain barrier, highlights the need for innovative therapeutic alternatives. The recent availability of nanotechnology represents a novel targeted strategy in cancer therapy. Natural products have received considerable attention for cancer therapy because of general lower side effects. Curcumin is a new candidate for anticancer treatment, but its low bioavailability and water solubility represent the main disadvantages of its use. Here, curcumin was efficiently encapsulated in a nontoxic nanocarrier, termed dendrosome, to overcome these problems. Dendrosomal curcumin was prepared as 142 nm spherical structures with constant physical and chemical stability. The inhibitory role of dendrosomal curcumin on the proliferation of U87MG cells, a cellular model of glioblastoma, was evaluated by considering master genes of pluripotency and regulatory miRNA (microribonucleic acid. Methylthiazol tetrazolium assay and flow cytometry were used to detect the antiproliferative effects of dendrosomal curcumin. Annexin-V-FLUOS and caspase assay were used to quantify apoptosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the expression of OCT4 (octamer binding protein 4 gene variants (OCT4A, OCT4B, and OCT4B1, SOX-2 (SRY

  16. The regulation of CD5 expression in murine T cells

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    Herzenberg Leonard A

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD5 is a pan-T cell surface marker that is also present on a subset of B cells, B-1a cells.Functional and developmental subsets of T cells express characteristic CD5 levels that vary over roughly a 30-fold range. Previous investigators have cloned a 1.7 Kb fragment containing the CD5 promoter and showed that it can confer similar lymphocyte-specific expression pattern as observed for endogenous CD5 expression. Results We further characterize the CD5 promoter and identify minimal and regulatory regions on the CD5 promoter. Using a luciferase reporter system, we show that a 43 bp region on the CD5 promoter regulates CD5 expression in resting mouse thymoma EL4 T cells and that an Ets binding site within the 43 bp region mediates the CD5 expression. In addition, we show that Ets-1, a member of the Ets family of transcription factors, recognizes the Ets binding site in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. This Ets binding site is directly responsible for the increase in reporter activity when co-transfected with increasing amounts of Ets-1 expression plasmid. We also identify two additional evolutionarily-conserved regions in the CD5 promoter (CD5X and CD5Y and demonstrate the respective roles of the each region in the regulation of CD5 transcription. Conclusion Our studies define a minimal and regulatory promoter for CD5 and show that the CD5 expression level in T cells is at least partially dependent on the level of Ets-1 protein. Based on the findings in this report, we propose a model of CD5 transcriptional regulation in T cells.

  17. Vacquinol-1 inducible cell death in glioblastoma multiforme is counter regulated by TRPM7 activity induced by exogenous ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Philip; Mostafa, Haouraa; Soboh, Ayman; Schneider, Julian M; Pala, Andrej; Baron, Ann-Kathrin; Moepps, Barbara; Wirtz, C Rainer; Georgieff, Michael; Schneider, Marion

    2017-05-23

    Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most malignant brain tumors in humans and have a very poor prognosis. New therapeutic options are urgently needed. A novel drug, Vacquinol-1 (Vac), a quinolone derivative, displays promising properties by inducing rapid cell death in GBM but not in non-transformed tissues. Features of this type of cell death are compatible with a process termed methuosis. Here we tested Vac on a highly malignant glioma cell line observed by long-term video microscopy. Human dental-pulp stem cells (DPSCs) served as controls. A major finding was that an exogenous ATP concentration of as little as 1 μM counter regulated the Vac-induced cell death. Studies using carvacrol, an inhibitor of transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7), demonstrated that the ATP-inducible inhibitory effect is likely to be via TRPM7. Exogenous ATP is of relevance in GBM with large necrotic areas. Our results support the use of GBM cultures with different grades of malignancy to address their sensitivity to methuosis. The video-microscopy approach presented here allows decoding of signaling pathways as well as mechanisms of chemotherapeutic resistance by long-term observation. Before implementing Vac as a novel therapeutic drug in GBM, cells from each individual patient need to be assessed for their ATP sensitivity. In summary, the current investigation supports the concept of methuosis, described as non-apoptotic cell death and a promising approach for GBM treatment. Tissue-resident ATP/necrosis may interfere with this cell-death pathway but can be overcome by a natural compound, carvacrol that even penetrates the blood-brain barrier.

  18. Physiologic oxygen concentration enhances the stem-like properties of CD133+ human glioblastoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Amy M; Jamal, Muhammad; Shankavaram, Uma T; Shankavarum, Uma T; Lang, Frederick F; Camphausen, Kevin; Tofilon, Philip J

    2009-04-01

    In vitro investigations of tumor stem-like cells (TSC) isolated from human glioblastoma (GB) surgical specimens have been done primarily at an atmospheric oxygen level of 20%. To determine whether an oxygen level more consistent with in situ conditions affects their stem cell-like characteristics, we compared GB TSCs grown under conditions of 20% and 7% oxygen. Growing CD133(+) cells sorted from three GB neurosphere cultures at 7% O(2) reduced their doubling time and increased the self-renewal potential as reflected by clonogenicity. Furthermore, at 7% oxygen, the cultures exhibited an enhanced capacity to differentiate along both the glial and neuronal pathways. As compared with 20%, growth at 7% oxygen resulted in an increase in the expression levels of the neural stem cell markers CD133 and nestin as well as the stem cell markers Oct4 and Sox2. In addition, whereas hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha was not affected in CD133(+) TSCs grown at 7% O(2), hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha was expressed at higher levels as compared with 20% oxygen. Gene expression profiles generated by microarray analysis revealed that reducing oxygen level to 7% resulted in the up-regulation and down-regulation of a significant number of genes, with more than 140 being commonly affected among the three CD133(+) cultures. Furthermore, Gene Ontology categories up-regulated at 7% oxygen included those associated with stem cells or GB TSCs. Thus, the data presented indicate that growth at the more physiologically relevant oxygen level of 7% enhances the stem cell-like phenotype of CD133(+) GB cells.

  19. Andrographolide suppresses the migratory ability of human glioblastoma multiforme cells by targeting ERK1/2-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shih-Liang; Kuo, Fu-Hsuan; Chen, Pei-Ni; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Yu, Nuo-Yi; Yang, Wei-En; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can be a fatal tumor because of difficulties in treating the related metastasis. Andrographolide is the bioactive component of the Andrographis paniculata. Andrographolide possesses the anti-inflammatory activity and inhibits the growth of various cancers; however, its effect on GBM cancer motility remains largely unknown. In this study, we examined the antimetastatic properties of andrographolide in human GBM cells. Our results revealed that andrographolide inhi...

  20. An Optimized Method for Manufacturing a Clinical Scale Dendritic Cell-Based Vaccine for the Treatment of Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Simona; Pellegatta, Serena; Antozzi, Carlo; Baggi, Fulvio; Gellera, Cinzia; Pollo, Bianca; Parati, Eugenio A.; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Frigerio, Simona

    2012-01-01

    Immune-based treatments represent a promising new class of therapy designed to boost the immune system to specifically eradicate malignant cells. Immunotherapy may generate specific anti-tumor immune responses, and dendritic cells (DC), professional antigen-presenting cells, are widely used in experimental cancer immunotherapy. Several reports describe methods for the generation of mature, antigen-pulsed DC for clinical use. Improved quality and standardization are desirable to obtain GMP-compliant protocols. In this study we describe the generation of DC from 31 Glioblastoma (GB) patients starting from their monocytes isolated by immunomagnetic CD14 selection using the CliniMACS® device. Upon differentiation of CD14+ with IL-4 and GM-CSF, DC were induced to maturation with TNF-α, PGE2, IL-1β, and IL-6. Whole tumor lysate was obtained, for the first time, in a closed system using the semi-automated dissociator GentleMACS®. The yield of proteins improved by 130% compared to the manual dissociation method. Interestingly the Mean Fluorescence Intensity for CD83 increased significantly in DC pulsed with “new method” lysate compared to DC pulsed with “classical method” lysate. Our results indicate that immunomagnetic isolation of CD14+ monocytes using the CliniMACS® device and their pulsing with whole tumor lysate proteins is a suitable method for clinical-scale generation of high quality, functional DC under GMP-grade conditions. PMID:23284979

  1. Chimeric Mouse model to track the migration of bone marrow derived cells in glioblastoma following anti-angiogenic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achyut, B R; Shankar, Adarsh; Iskander, A S M; Ara, Roxan; Knight, Robert A; Scicli, Alfonso G; Arbab, Ali S

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) have been shown to contribute in the tumor development. In vivo animal models to investigate the role of BMDCs in tumor development are poorly explored. We established a novel chimeric mouse model using as low as 5 × 10(6) GFP+ BM cells in athymic nude mice, which resulted in >70% engraftment within 14 d. In addition, chimera was established in NOD-SCID mice, which displayed >70% with in 28 d. Since anti-angiogenic therapies (AAT) were used as an adjuvant against VEGF-VEGFR pathway to normalize blood vessels in glioblastoma (GBM), which resulted into marked hypoxia and recruited BMDCs to the tumor microenvironment (TME). We exploited chimeric mice in athymic nude background to develop orthotopic U251 tumor and tested receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and CXCR4 antagonist against GBM. We were able to track GFP+ BMDCs in the tumor brain using highly sensitive multispectral optical imaging instrument. Increased tumor growth associated with the infiltration of GFP+ BMDCs acquiring suppressive myeloid and endothelial phenotypes was seen in TME following treatments. Immunofluorescence study showed GFP+ cells accumulated at the site of VEGF, SDF1 and PDGF expression, and at the periphery of the tumors following treatments. In conclusion, we developed a preclinical chimeric model of GBM and phenotypes of tumor infiltrated BMDCs were investigated in context of AATs. Chimeric mouse model could be used to study detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms of interaction of BMDCs and TME in cancer.

  2. Identification of a novel antagonist of the ErbB1 receptor capable of inhibiting migration of human glioblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staberg, Mikkel; Riemer, Christian; Xu, Ruodan

    2013-01-01

    B1 targeting peptide, termed Herfin-1, was designed based on a model of the tertiary structure of the EGF-EGFR ternary complex. The binding kinetics of this peptide were determined employing surface plasmon resonance analyses. ErbB1-4 expression and phosphorylation in human glioblastoma cell lines U...... processing. RESULTS: The present study shows that Herfin-1 functions as an ErbB1 antagonist. It binds to the extracellular domain of ErbB1 with a KD value of 361 nM. In U87 and U118 cells, both expressing high levels of ErbB1, Herfin-1 inhibits EGF-induced ErbB1 phosphorylation and cell migration....... Additionally, Herfin-1 was found to increase neurite outgrowth in cerebellar granule neurons, likely through the inhibition of a sustained weak ErbB1 activation. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting the ErbB1 receptor dimerization interface is a promising strategy to inhibit receptor activation in ErbB1-expressing glioma...

  3. Activity of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 4 Suppresses Proliferation and Promotes Apoptosis With Inhibition of Gli-1 in Human Glioblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most lethal glioma variant in the adult brain and among the deadliest of human cancers. Increasing evidence has shown that metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGluR4 expression may play roles in regulating the growth of neural stem cells as well as several cancer cell lines. Here, we investigated the effects of mGluR4 on the growth and apoptosis of the LN229 GBM cell line. Involvement of Gli-1, one of the key transcription factors in the sonic Hedgehog (SHH signaling pathway, was further explored. In this study, mGluR4 was activated using selective agonist VU0155041; and gene-targeted siRNAs were used to generate loss of function of mGluR4 and Gli-1 in LN229 cells. The results demonstrated that LN229 cells expressed mGluR4 and the agonist VU0155041 decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Activation of mGluR4 inhibited cyclin D1 expression, activated pro-caspase-8/9/3, and disrupted the balance of Bcl-2/Bax expression, which indicated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of LN229 cells, respectively. Furthermore, Gli-1 expression was reduced by mGluR4 activation in LN229 cells, and downregulation of Gli-1 expression by gene-targeted siRNA resulted in both inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of apoptosis. Moreover, VU0155041 treatment substantially blocked SHH-induced cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation, while increasing TUNEL-positive cells and the activation of apoptosis-related proteins. We concluded that activation of mGluR4 expressed in LN229 cells could inhibit GBM cell growth by decreasing cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. Further suppression of intracellular Gli-1 expression might be involved in the action of mGluR4 on cancer cells. Our study suggested a novel role of mGluR4, which might serve as a potential drug target for control of GBM cell growth.

  4. A method for high efficiency YAC lipofection into murine embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J T; Jaenisch, R

    1996-01-01

    We describe a modified protocol for introducing yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) into murine embryonic stem (ES) cells by lipofection. With a decreased DNA:cell ratio, increased concentration of condensing agents and altered culture conditions, this protocol reduces the requirement for YAC DNA to a few micrograms, improves the recovery of neomycin-resistant ES colonies and increases the yield of clones containing both flanking vector markers and insert. These modifications enable generation of sufficient 'intact' transgenic clones for biological analysis with a single experiment. PMID:9016681

  5. Disruption of canonical TGFβ-signaling in murine coronary progenitor cells by low level arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Patrick; Huang, Tianfang; Broka, Derrick; Parker, Patti [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology College of Pharmacy, Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Steele Children' s Research Center and Bio5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barnett, Joey V. [Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt Medical University, Nashville, TN (United States); Camenisch, Todd D., E-mail: camenisch@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology College of Pharmacy, Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Steele Children' s Research Center and Bio5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to arsenic results in several types of cancers as well as heart disease. A major contributor to ischemic heart pathologies is coronary artery disease, however the influences by environmental arsenic in this disease process are not known. Similarly, the impact of toxicants on blood vessel formation and function during development has not been studied. During embryogenesis, the epicardium undergoes proliferation, migration, and differentiation into several cardiac cell types including smooth muscle cells which contribute to the coronary vessels. The TGFβ family of ligands and receptors is essential for developmental cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and differentiation into coronary smooth muscle cells. In this in vitro study, 18 hour exposure to 1.34 μM arsenite disrupted developmental EMT programming in murine epicardial cells causing a deficit in cardiac mesenchyme. The expression of EMT genes including TGFβ2, TGFβ receptor-3, Snail, and Has-2 are decreased in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to arsenite. TGFβ2 cell signaling is abrogated as detected by decreases in phosphorylated Smad2/3 when cells are exposed to 1.34 μM arsenite. There is also loss of nuclear accumulation pSmad due to arsenite exposure. These observations coincide with a decrease in vimentin positive mesenchymal cells invading three-dimensional collagen gels. However, arsenite does not block TGFβ2 mediated smooth muscle cell differentiation by epicardial cells. Overall these results show that arsenic exposure blocks developmental EMT gene programming in murine coronary progenitor cells by disrupting TGFβ2 signals and Smad activation, and that smooth muscle cell differentiation is refractory to this arsenic toxicity. - Highlights: • Arsenic blocks TGFβ2 induced expression of EMT genes. • Arsenic blocks TGFβ2 triggered Smad2/3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. • Arsenic blocks epicardial cell differentiation into cardiac mesenchyme.

  6. Adaptive changes in NAD+ metabolism in ultraviolet light-irradiated murine lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleczkowska, H.E.; Szumiel, I.; Althaus, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have determined the ability of UV254nm-irradiated murine lymphoma cells to adapt their NAD+ metabolism to the increased NAD+ consumption for the poly ADP-ribosylation of chromatin proteins. Two murine lymphoma sublines with differential UV-sensitivity and poly(ADP-ribose) turnover were used as a model system. The first subline, designated LY-R is UV254nm-sensitive and tumorigenic in DBA/2 mice. The second subline, LY-S is UV254nm-resistant and nontumorigenic. Following treatment of these cells with 2 mM benzamide, an inhibitor of the NAD(+)-utilizing enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, NAD+ levels slowly increased up to about 160% of control levels after 3 hours. When benzamide was added to these cultures 20 min after UV254nm irradiation, a dramatic transient increase of NAD+ levels was observed within 4 min in LY-R cells and more moderately in LY-S cells. At later times after UV254nm irradiation, the NAD+ levels increased in both sublines reaching up to 200% of the concentrations prior to benzamide treatment. These results demonstrate an adaptative response of NAD+ metabolism to UV254nm irradiation. In parallel, we observed a differential repartitioning of ADP-ribosyl residues between the NAD+ and poly(ADP-ribose) pools of LY-R and LY-S cells that correlates with the differential UV sensitivity of these cells

  7. Single-dose-response curves of murine gastrointestinal crypt stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, K.; Withers, H.R.; Mason, K.A.; Chen, K.Y.

    1977-01-01

    Dose-response curves for the reproductive capacity of crypt stem cells of murine colonic, jejunal, and gastric mucosae exposed in situ to multifractionated gamma ray exposures were analyzed and single-dose-survival curves of these cells were constructed. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) The single-dose-response curves bend downward over a dose range of approximately 200 to 1500 rad; (2) cell death seems to be due to nonrepairable damage at doses less than 250 rad for colon, and 220 rad for jejunum; (3) there are 21, 110, and 140 stem cells per crypt of gastric, colonic, and jejunal mucosa, respectively; and (4) jejunal stem cells are the most radiosensitive and gastric mucosal stem cells are the most resistant

  8. Down-regulation of Connexin43 expression reveals the involvement of caveolin-1 containing lipid rafts in human U251 glioblastoma cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strale, Pierre-Olivier; Clarhaut, Jonathan; Lamiche, Coralie; Cronier, Laurent; Mesnil, Marc; Defamie, Norah

    2012-11-01

    Glioblastoma cells are characterized by high proliferation and invasive capacities. Tumor development has been associated with a decrease of gap-junctional intercellular communication, but the concrete involvement of gap junction proteins, connexins, remains elusive since they are also suspected to promote cell invasion. In order to better understand how connexins control the glioma cell phenotype, we studied the consequences of inhibiting the intrinsic expression of the major astrocytic connexin, Connexin43, in human U251 glioblastoma cells by the shRNA strategy. The induced down-regulation of Cx43 expression has various effects on the U251 cells such as increased clonogenicity, angiogenesis and decreased adhesion on specific extracellular matrix proteins. We demonstrate that the invasion capacity measured in vitro and ex vivo correlates with Cx43 expression level. For the first time in a cancer cell context, our work demonstrates that Cx43 cofractionates, colocalizes and coimmunoprecipitates with a lipid raft marker, caveolin-1 and that this interaction is inversely correlated to the level of Cx43. This localization of Cx43 in these lipid raft microdomains regulates both homo- and heterocellular gap junctional communications (respectively between U251 cells, or between U251 cells and astrocytes). Moreover, the adhesive and invasive capacities are not dependent, in our model, on Cav-1 expression level. Our results tend to show that heterocellular gap junctional communication between cancer and stroma cells may affect the behavior of the tumor cells. Altogether, our data demonstrate that Cx43 controls the tumor phenotype of glioblastoma U251 cells and in particular, invasion capacity, through its localization in lipid rafts containing Cav-1. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. RhoE interferes with Rb inactivation and regulates the proliferation and survival of the U87 human glioblastoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poch, Enric; Minambres, Rebeca; Mocholi, Enric; Ivorra, Carmen; Perez-Arago, Amparo; Guerri, Consuelo; Perez-Roger, Ignacio; Guasch, Rosa M.

    2007-01-01

    Rho GTPases are important regulators of actin cytoskeleton, but they are also involved in cell proliferation, transformation and oncogenesis. One of this proteins, RhoE, inhibits cell proliferation, however the mechanism that regulates this effect remains poorly understood. Therefore, we undertook the present study to determine the role of RhoE in the regulation of cell proliferation. For this purpose we generated an adenovirus system to overexpress RhoE in U87 glioblastoma cells. Our results show that RhoE disrupts actin cytoskeleton organization and inhibits U87 glioblastoma cell proliferation. Importantly, RhoE expressing cells show a reduction in Rb phosphorylation and in cyclin D1 expression. Furthermore, RhoE inhibits ERK activation following serum stimulation of quiescent cells. Based in these findings, we propose that RhoE inhibits ERK activation, thereby decreasing cyclin D1 expression and leading to a reduction in Rb inactivation, and that this mechanism is involved in the RhoE-induced cell growth inhibition. Moreover, we also demonstrate that RhoE induces apoptosis in U87 cells and also in colon carcinoma and melanoma cells. These results indicate that RhoE plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival, and suggest that this protein may be considered as an oncosupressor since it is capable to induce apoptosis in several tumor cell lines

  10. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of CMCht/PAMAM dendrimer nanoparticles by glioblastoma cell models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pojo, M., E-mail: martapojo@ecsaude.uminho.pt; Cerqueira, S. R.; Mota, T.; Xavier-Magalhaes, A.; Ribeiro-Samy, S. [University of Minho, Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences (Portugal); Mano, J. F.; Oliveira, J. M., E-mail: miguel.oliveira@dep.uminho.pt; Reis, R. L. [ICVS/3Bs, PT Government Associated Laboratory (Portugal); Sousa, N.; Costa, B. M.; Salgado, A. J. [University of Minho, Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences (Portugal)

    2013-05-15

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is simultaneously the most common and most malignant subtype tumor of the central nervous system. These are particularly dramatic diseases ranking first among all human tumor types for tumor-related average years of life lost and for which curative therapies are not available. Recently, the use of nanoparticles as drug delivery systems (DDS) for tumor treatment has gained particular interest. In an attempt to evaluate the potential of carboxymethylchitosan/poly(amidoamine) (CMCht/PAMAM) dendrimer nanoparticles as a DDS, we aimed to evaluate its cytotoxicity and internalization efficiency in GBM cell models. CMCht/PAMAM-mediated cytotoxicity was evaluated in a GBM cell line (U87MG) and in human immortalized astrocytes (hTERT/E6/E7) by MTS and double-stranded DNA quantification. CMCht/PAMAM internalization was assessed by double fluorescence staining. Both cells lines present similar internalization kinetics when exposed to a high dose (400 {mu}g/mL) of these nanoparticles. However, the internalization rate was higher in tumor GBM cells as compared to immortalized astrocytes when cells were exposed to lower doses (200 {mu}g/mL) of CMCht/PAMAM for short periods (<24 h). After 48 h of exposure, both cell lines present {approx}100% of internalization efficiency for the tested concentrations. Importantly, short-term exposures (1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h) did not show cytotoxicity, and long-term exposures (7 days) to CMCht/PAMAM induced only low levels of cytotoxicity in both cell lines ({approx}20% of decrease in metabolic activity). The high efficiency and rate of internalization of CMCht/PAMAM we show here suggest that these nanoparticles may be an attractive DDS for brain tumor treatment in the future.

  11. Murine scid cells complement ataxia-telangiectasia cells and show a normal port-irradiation response of DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, K.; Yoshida, M.; Okumura, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The murine severe combined immunodeficient mutation (scid) is characterized by a lack of both B and T cells, due to a deficit in lymphoid variable-(diversity)-joining (V(D)J) rearrangement. Scid cells are highly sensitive to both radiation-induced killing and chromosomal aberrations. Significantly reduced D 0 and n values were demonstrated in scid cells and were similar to ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) cells (a unique human disease conferring whole body radiosensitivity). However, the kinetics of DNA synthesis after irradiation were different between the two cell types. In contrast with the radioresistant DNA synthesis of AT cells, DNA synthesis of scid cells was markedly inhibited after irradiation. The existence of different mutations was also supported by evidence of complementation in somatic cell hybrids between scid cells and AT cells. Results indicate that the radiobiological character of scid is similar to AT but is presumably caused by different mechanisms. (author)

  12. Slow and steady cell shrinkage reduces osmotic stress in bovine and murine oocyte and zygote vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, D; Ding, J; Smith, G W; Smith, G D; Takayama, S

    2015-01-01

    Does the use of a new cryoprotectant agent (CPA) exchange protocol designed to minimize osmotic stress improve oocyte or zygote vitrification by reducing sublethal cryodamage? The use of a new CPA exchange protocol made possible by automated microfluidics improved oocyte and zygote vitrification with superior morphology as indicated by a smoother cell surface, higher sphericity, higher cytoplasmic lipid retention, less cytoplasmic leakage and higher developmental competence compared with conventional methods. The use of more 'steps' of CPA exposure during the vitrification protocol increases cryosurvival and development in the bovine model. However, such an attempt to eliminate osmotic stress is limited by the practicality of performing numerous precise pipetting steps in a short amount of time. Murine meiotically competent germinal vesicle intact oocytes and zygotes were harvested from the antral follicles in ovaries and ampulla, respectively. Bovine ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir at random stages of the estrous cycle. A total of 110 murine oocytes, 802 murine zygotes and 52 bovine oocytes were used in this study. Microfluidic devices were fabricated using conventional photo- and soft-lithography. CPAs used were 7.5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 7.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for equilibration solution and 15% EG, 15% DMSO and 0.5 M sucrose for vitrification solution. End-point analyses include mathematical modeling using Kedem-Katchalsky equations, morphometrics assessed by conventional and confocal microscopy, cytoplasmic lipid quantification by nile red staining, cytoplasmic leakage quantification by fluorescent dextran intercalation and developmental competence analysis by 96 h embryo culture and blastomere quantification. The automated microfluidics protocol decreased the shrinkage rate of the oocyte and zygote by 13.8 times over its manual pipetting alternative. Oocytes and zygotes with a lower shrinkage rate during CPA exposure experienced less

  13. Induction of differentiation of murine embryonal carcinoma cells by ouabain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.T.

    1986-01-01

    Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells can be induced to differentiate by ouabain at concentrations which inhibit Na + , K + -ATPase activity as measured by inhibition of 86 Rb + uptake. Since the pharmacologic action of ouabain is thought to be specific, the authors investigated the role of Na + , K + -ATPase inhibition and specific metabolic consequences of this inhibition in the induction of EC differentiation, and explored whether this might be a common mode of action for a variety of structurally diverse inducers. The Na + , K + -ATPase maintains ionic gradients in cells. However, results of studies utilizing specific ionophores, channel blockers, and media deficient in specific components failed to demonstrate a consistent role for ion flux or concentration in the differentiation process. The Na + , K + -ATPase is a major consumer of ATP. They therefore examined the effect of Na + , K + -ATPase inhibition on the adenylate energy charge as measured by high performance liquid chromatography of adenylate nucleotides. Ouabain was found to significantly decrease the energy charge in sensitive cells suggesting a role for suppression of ATP turnover is triggering differentiation. However, direct inhibition of glycolysis also induced differentiation without decreasing the energy charge, suggesting that reduction of the energy charge is not a common mechanism for induction of differentiation of EC

  14. Highly efficient gene transfer using a retroviral vector into murine T cells for preclinical chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cell therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusabuka, Hotaka; Fujiwara, Kento; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Hirobe, Sachiko; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Okada, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T (CAR-T) cells has attracted attention as an efficacious strategy for cancer treatment. To prove the efficacy and safety of CAR-T cell therapy, the elucidation of immunological mechanisms underlying it in mice is required. Although a retroviral vector (Rv) is mainly used for the introduction of CAR to murine T cells, gene transduction efficiency is generally less than 50%. The low transduction efficiency causes poor precision in the functional analysis of CAR-T cells. We attempted to improve the Rv gene transduction protocol to more efficiently generate functional CAR-T cells by optimizing the period of pre-cultivation and antibody stimulation. In the improved protocol, gene transduction efficiency to murine T cells was more than 90%. In addition, almost all of the prepared murine T cells expressed CAR after puromycin selection. These CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity and secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. We believe that our optimized gene transduction protocol for murine T cells contributes to the advancement of T cell biology and development of immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells. - Highlights: • We established highly efficient gene transduction protocols for murine T cells. • CD8"+ CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity. • CD4"+ CAR-T cells secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. • This finding can contribute to the development of T-cell biology and immunotherapy.

  15. Highly efficient gene transfer using a retroviral vector into murine T cells for preclinical chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cell therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusabuka, Hotaka; Fujiwara, Kento; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Hirobe, Sachiko; Nakagawa, Shinsaku, E-mail: nakagawa@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp; Okada, Naoki, E-mail: okada@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2016-04-22

    Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T (CAR-T) cells has attracted attention as an efficacious strategy for cancer treatment. To prove the efficacy and safety of CAR-T cell therapy, the elucidation of immunological mechanisms underlying it in mice is required. Although a retroviral vector (Rv) is mainly used for the introduction of CAR to murine T cells, gene transduction efficiency is generally less than 50%. The low transduction efficiency causes poor precision in the functional analysis of CAR-T cells. We attempted to improve the Rv gene transduction protocol to more efficiently generate functional CAR-T cells by optimizing the period of pre-cultivation and antibody stimulation. In the improved protocol, gene transduction efficiency to murine T cells was more than 90%. In addition, almost all of the prepared murine T cells expressed CAR after puromycin selection. These CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity and secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. We believe that our optimized gene transduction protocol for murine T cells contributes to the advancement of T cell biology and development of immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells. - Highlights: • We established highly efficient gene transduction protocols for murine T cells. • CD8{sup +} CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity. • CD4{sup +} CAR-T cells secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. • This finding can contribute to the development of T-cell biology and immunotherapy.

  16. [Combined effect of cisplatin and caffeine on murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, H; Tsuchiya, H; Sugihara, M; Tomita, K; Ueda, Y; Tanaka, M; Sasaki, T

    1989-05-01

    Combined effect of cisplatin and caffeine on murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells was studied. Synergistic inhibition of the cell growth was observed when caffeine (2 mM) was added continuously after one hour exposure of cisplatin. On the other hand, when caffeine was added before one hour exposure of cisplatin or one hour simultaneous exposure with cisplatin, synergistic effect was not shown. In the analysis of DNA histogram obtained from flow cytometry, S and G2/M accumulation was observed by the treatment of cisplatin and that accumulation was reduced by the combination of cisplatin and caffeine. From this findings, it was suggested that caffeine would inhibit DNA repair process. Furthermore, according to morphological studies with hematoxylin-eosin stain and Fontana-Masson stain, the addition of caffeine alone resulted in mild swelling of melanoma cells and the decrease of nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. The combination of cisplatin and caffeine caused marked swelling of melanoma cells and remarkable increase of dendrite-like processes. Melanogenesis was also enhanced by the addition of these two drugs. Many matured melanosomes, increases of mitochondria, Golgi's apparatus and endoplasmic reticula were observed by the use of electron microscope. These findings implied that the combination of cisplatin and caffeine induced a differentiation of murine melanoma cells.

  17. Microenvironmental Modulation of Decorin and Lumican in Temozolomide-Resistant Glioblastoma and Neuroblastoma Cancer Stem-Like Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Farace

    Full Text Available The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs or tumor-initiating cells can lead to cancer recurrence in a permissive cell-microenvironment interplay, promoting invasion in glioblastoma (GBM and neuroblastoma (NB. Extracellular matrix (ECM small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs play multiple roles in tissue homeostasis by remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM components and modulating intracellular signaling pathways. Due to their pan-inhibitory properties against receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, SLRPs are reported to exert anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo. However, their roles seem to be tissue-specific and they are also involved in cancer cell migration and drug resistance, paving the way to complex different scenarios. The aim of this study was to determine whether the SLRPs decorin (DCN and lumican (LUM are recruited in cell plasticity and microenvironmental adaptation of differentiated cancer cells induced towards stem-like phenotype. Floating neurospheres were generated by applying CSC enrichment medium (neural stem cell serum-free medium, NSC SFM to the established SF-268 and SK-N-SH cancer cell lines, cellular models of GBM and NB, respectively. In both models, the time-dependent synergistic activation of DCN and LUM was observed. The highest DCN and LUM mRNA/protein expression was detected after cell exposure to NSC SFM for 8/12 days, considering these cells as SLRP-expressing (SLRP+ CSC-like. Ultrastructural imaging showed the cellular heterogeneity of both the GBM and NB neurospheres and identified the inner living cells. Parental cell lines of both GBM and NB grew only in soft agar + NSC SFM, whereas the secondary neurospheres (originated from SLRP+ t8 CSC-like showed lower proliferation rates than primary neurospheres. Interestingly, the SLRP+ CSC-like from the GBM and NB neurospheres were resistant to temozolomide (TMZ at concentrations >750 μM. Our results suggest that GBM and NB CSC-like promote the activation of huge

  18. Microenvironmental Modulation of Decorin and Lumican in Temozolomide-Resistant Glioblastoma and Neuroblastoma Cancer Stem-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Cristiano; Oliver, Jaime Antonio; Melguizo, Consolacion; Alvarez, Pablo; Bandiera, Pasquale; Rama, Ana Rosa; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Ortiz, Raul; Madeddu, Roberto; Prados, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells can lead to cancer recurrence in a permissive cell-microenvironment interplay, promoting invasion in glioblastoma (GBM) and neuroblastoma (NB). Extracellular matrix (ECM) small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) play multiple roles in tissue homeostasis by remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM) components and modulating intracellular signaling pathways. Due to their pan-inhibitory properties against receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), SLRPs are reported to exert anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo. However, their roles seem to be tissue-specific and they are also involved in cancer cell migration and drug resistance, paving the way to complex different scenarios. The aim of this study was to determine whether the SLRPs decorin (DCN) and lumican (LUM) are recruited in cell plasticity and microenvironmental adaptation of differentiated cancer cells induced towards stem-like phenotype. Floating neurospheres were generated by applying CSC enrichment medium (neural stem cell serum-free medium, NSC SFM) to the established SF-268 and SK-N-SH cancer cell lines, cellular models of GBM and NB, respectively. In both models, the time-dependent synergistic activation of DCN and LUM was observed. The highest DCN and LUM mRNA/protein expression was detected after cell exposure to NSC SFM for 8/12 days, considering these cells as SLRP-expressing (SLRP+) CSC-like. Ultrastructural imaging showed the cellular heterogeneity of both the GBM and NB neurospheres and identified the inner living cells. Parental cell lines of both GBM and NB grew only in soft agar + NSC SFM, whereas the secondary neurospheres (originated from SLRP+ t8 CSC-like) showed lower proliferation rates than primary neurospheres. Interestingly, the SLRP+ CSC-like from the GBM and NB neurospheres were resistant to temozolomide (TMZ) at concentrations >750 μM. Our results suggest that GBM and NB CSC-like promote the activation of huge quantities

  19. ZFHX4 interacts with the NuRD core member CHD4 and regulates the glioblastoma tumor initiating cell state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Yakov; Kim, Dohoon; Zheng, Siyuan; Whyte, Warren A.; Bansal, Mukesh; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Gopal, Shuba; Theisen, Matthew A.; Bilodeau, Steve; Thiru, Prathapan; Muffat, Julien; Yilmaz, Omer H.; Mitalipova, Maya; Woolard, Kevin; Lee, Jeongwu; Nishimura, Riko; Sakata, Nobuo; Fine, Howard A.; Carpenter, Anne E.; Silver, Serena J.; Verhaak, Roel G. W.; Califano, Andrea; Young, Richard A.; Ligon, Keith L.; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.; Root, David E.; Sabatini, David M.; Hahn, William C.; Chheda, Milan G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Glioblastomas (GBM) harbor subpopulations of therapy-resistant tumor initiating cells (TICs) that are self-renewing and multipotent. To understand the regulation of the TIC state, we performed an image-based screen for genes regulating GBM TIC maintenance and identified ZFHX4, a 397-kDa transcription factor. ZFHX4 is required to maintain TIC-associated and normal human neural precursor cell phenotypes in vitro, suggesting that ZFHX4 regulates differentiation, and its suppression increases glioma-free survival in intracranial xenografts. ZFHX4 interacts with CHD4, a core member of the NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase) complex. ZFHX4 and CHD4 bind to overlapping sets of genomic loci and control similar gene expression programs. Using expression data derived from GBM patients, we found that ZFHX4 significantly affects CHD4-mediated gene expression perturbations, which defines ZFHX4 as a master regulator of CHD4. These observations define ZFHX4 as a regulatory factor that links the chromatin remodeling NuRD complex and the GBM TIC state. PMID:24440720

  20. Rapid emergence and mechanisms of resistance by U87 glioblastoma cells to doxorubicin in an in vitro tumor microfluidic ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Robert; Lee, Sanghyuk; Park, Sungsu

    We have developed a microfluidic device consisting of approximately 500 hexagonal micro-compartments which provides a complex ecology with wide ranges of drug and nutrient gradients and local populations. This ecology of a fragmented metapopulation induced the drug resistance in stage IV U87 glioblastoma cells to doxorubicin in seven days. Exome and transcriptome sequencing of the resistant cells identified mutations and differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology and pathway analyses of the genes identified showed that they were functionally relevant with the established mechanisms of doxorubicin action. Functional experiments support the in silico analyses and together demonstrate the effects of these genetic changes. Our findings suggest that given the rapid evolution of resistance and the focused response, this technology could act as a rapid screening modality for genetic aberrations leading to resistance to chemotherapy as well as counter-selection of drugs unlikely to be successful ultimately. Technology Innovation Program of the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea (10050154 to S.L. and S.P.), the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2014M3C9A3065221 to S.L., NRF-2015K1A4A3047851 to J.K. and S.L.) funded by the Minis.

  1. Lebbeckoside C, a new triterpenoid saponin from the stem barks of Albizia lebbeck inhibits the growth of human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noté, Olivier Placide; Ngo Mbing, Joséphine; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Lobstein, Annelise

    2018-02-19

    One new acacic acid-type saponin, named lebbeckoside C (1), was isolated from the stem barks of Albizia lebbeck. Its structure was established on the basis of extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR ( 1 H, 13 C NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC) experiments, HRESIMS studies, and by chemical evidence as 3-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(l→2)-β-d-fucopyranosyl-(1→6)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-21-O-{(2E,6S)-6-O-{4-O-[(2E,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(β-d-quinovopyranosyl)octa-2,7-dienoyl]-4-O-[(2E,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(β-d-quinovopyranosyl)octa-2,7-dienoyl]-β-d-quinovopyranosyl}-2,6-dimethylocta-2,7-dienoyl}acacic acid 28 O-[β-d-quinovopyranosyl-(l→3)-[α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(l→4)]-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(l→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl] ester. The isolated saponin (1) displayed significant cytotoxic activity against the human glioblastoma cell line U-87 MG and TG1 stem-like glioma cells isolated from a patient tumor with IC 50 values of 1.69 and 1.44 μM, respectively.

  2. Oral administration of kefiran induces changes in the balance of immune cells in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Micaela; Racedo, Silvia M; Rolny, Ivanna S; Abraham, Analía G; Pérez, Pablo F

    2011-05-25

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the oral administration of kefiran on the balance of immune cells in a murine model. Six week old BALB/c mice were treated with kefiran (300 mg/L) for 0, 2 and 7 days. Kefiran treatment increased the number of IgA+ cells in lamina propria after 2 and 7 days. Percentage of B220+/MHCII(high) cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (2 days) and Peyer's patches (7 days) was higher compared to untreated control mice. An increase of macrophages (F4/80+ cells) was observed in lamina propria and peritoneal cavity (2 and 7 days). In contrast, at day 7, macrophage population decreased in Peyer's patches. These results show the ability of kefiran to modify the balance of immune cells in intestinal mucosa. This property could be highly relevant for the comprehension of the probiotic effect attributed to kefir.

  3. Hyphal growth of phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum causes cell lysis and death of murine macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Schäfer

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host.

  4. Hyphal growth of phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum causes cell lysis and death of murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Katja; Bain, Judith M; Di Pietro, Antonio; Gow, Neil A R; Erwig, Lars P

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host.

  5. Mechanism of the melanogenesis stimulation activity of (-)-cubebin in murine B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Noriko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Ohguchi, Kenji; Akao, Yukihiro; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2007-07-15

    (-)-Cubebin showed a melanogenesis stimulation activity in a concentration-dependent manner in murine B16 melanoma cells without any significant effects on cell proliferation. Tyrosinase activity was increased at 24-72 h after addition of cubebin to B16 cells, and then intracellular melanin amount was increased at 48-96 h after the treatment. The expression levels of tyrosinase were time-dependently enhanced after the treatment with cubebin. At the same time, the expression levels of tyrosinase mRNA were also increased after addition of cubebin. Furthermore Western blot analysis revealed that cubebin elevated the level of phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). SB203580, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, completely blocked cubebin-induced expression of tyrosinase mRNA in B16 cells. These results suggested that cubebin increased melanogenesis in B16 cells through the enhancement of tyrosinase expression mediated by activation of p38 MAPK.

  6. Ruta graveolens L. induces death of glioblastoma cells and neural progenitors, but not of neurons, via ERK 1/2 and AKT activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Gentile

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor whose prognosis is very poor. Due to early invasion of brain parenchyma, its complete surgical removal is nearly impossible, and even after aggressive combined treatment (association of surgery and chemo- and radio-therapy five-year survival is only about 10%. Natural products are sources of novel compounds endowed with therapeutic properties in many human diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that the water extract of Ruta graveolens L., commonly known as rue, induces death in different glioblastoma cell lines (U87MG, C6 and U138 widely used to test novel drugs in preclinical studies. Ruta graveolens' effect was mediated by ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and the inhibition of these pathways, via PD98058 and wortmannin, reverted its antiproliferative activity. Rue extract also affects survival of neural precursor cells (A1 obtained from embryonic mouse CNS. As in the case of glioma cells, rue stimulates the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in A1 cells, whereas their blockade by pharmacological inhibitors prevents cell death. Interestingly, upon induction of differentiation and cell cycle exit, A1 cells become resistant to rue's noxious effects but not to those of temozolomide and cisplatin, two alkylating agents widely used in glioblastoma therapy. Finally, rutin, a major component of the Ruta graveolens water extract, failed to cause cell death, suggesting that rutin by itself is not responsible for the observed effects. In conclusion, we report that rue extracts induce glioma cell death, discriminating between proliferating/undifferentiated and non-proliferating/differentiated neurons. Thus, it can be a promising tool to isolate novel drugs and also to discover targets for therapeutic intervention.

  7. PI3K and Bcl-2 inhibition primes glioblastoma cells to apoptosis through downregulation of Mcl-1 and Phospho-BAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Fresia; Macleod, David; Shu, Chang; Crary, John F; Canoll, Peter D; Ross, Alonzo H; Siegelin, Markus D

    2014-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant human brain neoplasm with limited therapeutic options. GBMs display a deregulated apoptotic pathway with high levels of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins and overt activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. Therefore, combined interference of the PI3K pathway and the Bcl-2 family of proteins is a reasonable therapeutic strategy. ABT-263 (Navitoclax), an orally available small-molecule Bcl-2 inhibitor, and GDC-0941, a PI3K inhibitor, were used to treat established glioblastoma and glioblastoma neurosphere cells, alone or in combination. Although GDC-0941 alone had a modest effect on cell viability, treatment with ABT-263 displayed a marked reduction of cell viability and induction of apoptotic cell death. Moreover, combinatorial therapy using ABT-263 and GDC-0941 showed an enhanced effect, with a further decrease in cellular viability. Furthermore, combination treatment abrogated the ability of stem cell-like glioma cells to form neurospheres. ABT-263 and GDC-0941, in combination, resulted in a consistent and significant increase of Annexin V positive cells and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential compared with either monotherapy. The combination treatment led to enhanced cleavage of both initiator and effector caspases. Mechanistically, GDC-0941 depleted pAKT (Serine 473) levels and suppressed Mcl-1 protein levels, lowering the threshold for the cytotoxic actions of ABT-263. GDC-0941 decreased Mcl-1 in a posttranslational manner and significantly decreased the half-life of Mcl-1 protein. Ectopic expression of human Mcl-1 mitigated apoptotic cell death induced by the drug combination. Furthermore, GDC-0941 modulated the phosphorylation status of BAD, thereby further enhancing ABT-263-mediated cell death. Combination therapy with ABT-263 and GDC-0941 has novel therapeutic potential by specifically targeting aberrantly active, deregulated pathways in GBM, overcoming

  8. Folate Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanotubes and their Selective Uptake by Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells: Implications for their Use as Boron Carriers in Clinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofani, Gianni; Raffa, Vittoria; Menciassi, Arianna; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2008-11-25

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is increasingly being used in the treatment of several aggressive cancers, including cerebral glioblastoma multiforme. The main requirement for this therapy is selective targeting of tumor cells by sufficient quantities of (10)B atoms required for their capture/irradiation with low-energy thermal neutrons. The low content of boron targeting species in glioblastoma multiforme accounts for the difficulty in selective targeting of this very malignant cerebral tumor by this radiation modality. In the present study, we have used for the first time boron nitride nanotubes as carriers of boron atoms to overcome this problem and enhance the selective targeting and ablative efficacy of BNCT for these tumors. Following their dispersion in aqueous solution by noncovalent coating with biocompatible poly-l-lysine solutions, boron nitride nanotubes were functionalized with a fluorescent probe (quantum dots) to enable their tracking and with folic acid as selective tumor targeting ligand. Initial in vitro studies have confirmed substantive and selective uptake of these nanovectors by glioblastoma multiforme cells, an observation which confirms their potential clinical application for BNCT therapy for these malignant cerebral tumors.

  9. Folate Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanotubes and their Selective Uptake by Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells: Implications for their Use as Boron Carriers in Clinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciofani Gianni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is increasingly being used in the treatment of several aggressive cancers, including cerebral glioblastoma multiforme. The main requirement for this therapy is selective targeting of tumor cells by sufficient quantities of10B atoms required for their capture/irradiation with low-energy thermal neutrons. The low content of boron targeting species in glioblastoma multiforme accounts for the difficulty in selective targeting of this very malignant cerebral tumor by this radiation modality. In the present study, we have used for the first time boron nitride nanotubes as carriers of boron atoms to overcome this problem and enhance the selective targeting and ablative efficacy of BNCT for these tumors. Following their dispersion in aqueous solution by noncovalent coating with biocompatible poly-l-lysine solutions, boron nitride nanotubes were functionalized with a fluorescent probe (quantum dots to enable their tracking and with folic acid as selective tumor targeting ligand. Initial in vitro studies have confirmed substantive and selective uptake of these nanovectors by glioblastoma multiforme cells, an observation which confirms their potential clinical application for BNCT therapy for these malignant cerebral tumors.

  10. Study of homing patterns of x-irradiated murine lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    Effects of in vitro x-ray exposure of murine lymphoid cells on their subsequent in vivo homing patterns were studied. The homing of lymphoid cells to various tissues and organs was followed by using radio-labeled cell preparations or by following the distribution of cells with a specific immunological memory. X irradiation of 51 Cr-labeled spleen, lymph node, bone marrow, or thymus cells was found to significantly alter their subsequent in vivo distribution. Irradiated cells demonstrated an increased distribution to the liver and a significantly lower retention in the lungs. Cells going to the lymph nodes of Peyer's patches showed a significant exposure dependent decrease in homing following irradiation. Irradiated lymph node cells homed in greater numbers to the spleen and bone marrow, while irradiated cells from other sources showed a decrease or no change indistribution to the same tissues. Lymph node cell suspensions from dinitrophenyl-bovine gamma globulin (DNP-BGG) immune LBN rats were prepared, irradiated (0 and 200 R) and injected into intermediate (LBN) hosts and controls. Irradiated memory cells provided a secondary antibody response, which was delayed but not suppressed when compared to unirradiated cells. Alteration in homing of lymphocytes caused by various physical and chemical agents was a result of effects on cell membrane characteristics which controlled some aspects of the phenomenon. Radiation (100 to 200 R) may have had a similar effect or it may have resulted in the selective elimination of a population of cells. (U.S.)

  11. EG-05COMBINATION OF GENE COPY GAIN AND EPIGENETIC DEREGULATION ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THE ABERRANT EXPRESSION OF A STEM CELL RELATED HOX-SIGNATURE IN GLIOBLASTOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurscheid, Sebastian; Bady, Pierre; Sciuscio, Davide; Samarzija, Ivana; Shay, Tal; Vassallo, Irene; Van Criekinge, Wim; Domany, Eytan; Stupp, Roger; Delorenzi, Mauro; Hegi, Monika

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported a stem cell related HOX gene signature associated with resistance to chemo-radiotherapy (TMZ/RT- > TMZ) in glioblastoma. However, underlying mechanisms triggering overexpression remain mostly elusive. Interestingly, HOX genes are neither involved in the developing brain, nor expressed in normal brain, suggestive of an acquired gene expression signature during gliomagenesis. HOXA genes are located on CHR 7 that displays trisomy in most glioblastoma which strongly impacts gene expression on this chromosome, modulated by local regulatory elements. Furthermore we observed more pronounced DNA methylation across the HOXA locus as compared to non-tumoral brain (Human methylation 450K BeadChip Illumina; 59 glioblastoma, 5 non-tumoral brain sampes). CpG probes annotated for HOX-signature genes, contributing most to the variability, served as input into the analysis of DNA methylation and expression to identify key regulatory regions. The structural similarity of the observed correlation matrices between DNA methylation and gene expression in our cohort and an independent data-set from TCGA (106 glioblastoma) was remarkable (RV-coefficient, 0.84; p-value < 0.0001). We identified a CpG located in the promoter region of the HOXA10 locus exerting the strongest mean negative correlation between methylation and expression of the whole HOX-signature. Applying this analysis the same CpG emerged in the external set. We then determined the contribution of both, gene copy aberration (CNA) and methylation at the selected probe to explain expression of the HOX-signature using a linear model. Statistically significant results suggested an additive effect between gene dosage and methylation at the key CpG identified. Similarly, such an additive effect was also observed in the external data-set. Taken together, we hypothesize that overexpression of the stem-cell related HOX signature is triggered by gain of trisomy 7 and escape from compensatory DNA methylation at

  12. Electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone)/Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite nanohybrids: Microstructure, mechanical properties and cell response by murine embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, Alessandra; Di Federico, Erica; Moscatelli, Ilana; Camaioni, Antonella; Armentano, Ilaria; Campagnolo, Luisa; Dottori, Mariaserena; Kenny, Jose Maria; Siracusa, Gregorio; Gusmano, Gualtiero

    2009-01-01

    Nanohybrid scaffolds mimicking extracellular matrix are promising experimental models to study stem cell behaviour, in terms of adhesion and proliferation. In the present study, the structural characterization of a novel electrospun nanohybrid and the analysis of cell response by a highly sensitive cell type, embryonic stem (ES) cells, are investigated. Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (d-HAp) were synthesized by precipitation. Fibrous PCL/d-HAp nanohybrids were obtained by electrospinning, d-HAp content ranging between 2 and 55 wt.%. Electrospun mats showed a non-woven architecture, average fiber size was 1.5 ±0.5 μm, porosity 80-90%, and specific surface area 16 m 2 g -1 . Up to 6.4 wt.% d-HAp content, the nanohybrids displayed comparable microstructural, mechanical and dynamo-mechanical properties. Murine ES cell response to neat PCL and to nanohybrid PCL/d-HAp (6.4 wt.%) mats was evaluated by analyzing morphological, metabolic and functional markers. Cells growing on either scaffold proliferated and maintained pluripotency markers at essentially the same rate as cells growing on standard tissue culture plates with no detectable signs of cytotoxicity, despite a lower cell adhesion at the beginning of culture. These results indicate that electrospun PCL scaffolds may provide adequate supports for murine ES cell proliferation in a pluripotent state, and that the presence of d-HAp within the mat does not interfere with their growth.

  13. Effects of Wnt-10b on proliferation and differentiation of murine melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misu, Masayasu; Ouji, Yukiteru; Kawai, Norikazu; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yoshikawa, Masahide

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the strong expression of Wnt-10b in melanomas, its role in melanoma cells has not been elucidated. In the present study, the biological effects of Wnt-10b on murine B16F10 (B16) melanoma cells were investigated using conditioned medium from Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-CM). After 2 days of culture in the presence of Wnt-CM, proliferation of B16 melanoma cells was inhibited, whereas tyrosinase activity was increased. An in vitro wound healing assay demonstrated that migration of melanoma cells to the wound area was inhibited with the addition of Wnt-CM. Furthermore, evaluation of cellular senescence revealed prominent induction of SA-β-gal-positive senescent cells in cultures with Wnt-CM. Finally, the growth of B16 melanoma cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures was markedly suppressed in the presence of Wnt-CM. These results suggest that Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, such as proliferation and migration of B16 melanoma cells, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage. - Highlights: • Wnt-10b inhibited proliferation and migration of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b induced tyrosinase activity and senescence of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b suppressed growth of cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures. • Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage

  14. Effects of Wnt-10b on proliferation and differentiation of murine melanoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misu, Masayasu [Department of Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ouji, Yukiteru, E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Kawai, Norikazu [Department of Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Nishimura, Fumihiko [Department of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi [Department of Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Masahide, E-mail: myoshika@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    In spite of the strong expression of Wnt-10b in melanomas, its role in melanoma cells has not been elucidated. In the present study, the biological effects of Wnt-10b on murine B16F10 (B16) melanoma cells were investigated using conditioned medium from Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-CM). After 2 days of culture in the presence of Wnt-CM, proliferation of B16 melanoma cells was inhibited, whereas tyrosinase activity was increased. An in vitro wound healing assay demonstrated that migration of melanoma cells to the wound area was inhibited with the addition of Wnt-CM. Furthermore, evaluation of cellular senescence revealed prominent induction of SA-β-gal-positive senescent cells in cultures with Wnt-CM. Finally, the growth of B16 melanoma cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures was markedly suppressed in the presence of Wnt-CM. These results suggest that Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, such as proliferation and migration of B16 melanoma cells, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage. - Highlights: • Wnt-10b inhibited proliferation and migration of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b induced tyrosinase activity and senescence of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b suppressed growth of cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures. • Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage.

  15. Reemergence of apoptotic cells between fractionated doses in irradiated murine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyn, R.E.; Hunter, N.R.; Milas, L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to follow up our previous studies on the development of apoptosis in irradiated murine tumors by testing whether an apoptotic subpopulation of cells reemerges between fractionated exposures. Mice bearing a murine ovarian carcinoma, OCa-I, were treated in vivo with two fractionation protocols: two doses of 12.5 Gy separated by various times out to 5 days and multiple daily fractions of 2.5 Gy. Animals were killed 4 h after the last dose in each protocol, and the percent apoptosis was scored from stained histological sections made from the irradiated tumors according to the specific features characteristic of this mode of cell death. The 12.5+12.5 Gy protocol yielded a net total percent apoptosis of about 45% when the two doses were separated by 5 days (total dose = 25 Gy), whereas the 2.5 Gy per day protocol yielded about 50% net apoptotic cells when given for 5 days (total dose = 12.5 Gy). These values are to be compared to the value of 36% apoptotic cells that is yielded by large single doses (> 25 Gy). Thus, these results indicate that an apoptotic subpopulation of cells reemerged between the fractions in both protocols, but the kinetics appeared to be delayed in the 12.5+12.5 Gy vs. the multiple 2.5 Gy protocol. This reemergence of cells with the propensity for radiation-induced apoptosis between fractionated exposures is consistent with a role for this mode of cell death in the response of tumors to radiotherapy and may represent the priming of a new subpopulation of tumor cells for apoptosis as part of normal tumor homeostasis to counterbalance cell division. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Murine but not human basophil undergoes cell-specific proteolysis of a major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Liu

    Full Text Available Basophil has been implicated in anti-parasite defense, allergy and in polarizing T(H2 response. Mouse model has been commonly used to study basophil function although the difference between human and mouse basophils is underappreciated. As an essential chaperone for multiple Toll-like receptors and integrins in the endoplasmic reticulum, gp96 also participates in general protein homeostasis and in the ER unfolded protein response to ensure cell survival during stress. The roles of gp96 in basophil development are unknown.We genetically delete gp96 in mice and examined the expression of gp96 in basophils by Western blot and flow cytometry. We compared the expression pattern of gp96 between human and mouse basophils.We found that gp96 was dispensable for murine basophil development. Moreover, gp96 was cleaved by serine protease(s in murine but not human basophils leading to accumulation of a nun-functional N-terminal ∼50 kDa fragment and striking induction of the unfolded protein response. The alteration of gp96 was unique to basophils and was not observed in any other cell types including mast cells. We also demonstrated that the ectopic expression of a mouse-specific tryptase mMCP11 does not lead to gp96 cleavage in human basophils.Our study revealed a remarkable biochemical event of gp96 silencing in murine but not human basophils, highlighting the need for caution in using mouse models to infer the function of basophils in human immune response. Our study also reveals a novel mechanism of shutting down gp96 post-translationally in regulating its function.

  17. Murine but not human basophil undergoes cell-specific proteolysis of a major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bei; Staron, Matthew; Li, Zihai

    2012-01-01

    Basophil has been implicated in anti-parasite defense, allergy and in polarizing T(H)2 response. Mouse model has been commonly used to study basophil function although the difference between human and mouse basophils is underappreciated. As an essential chaperone for multiple Toll-like receptors and integrins in the endoplasmic reticulum, gp96 also participates in general protein homeostasis and in the ER unfolded protein response to ensure cell survival during stress. The roles of gp96 in basophil development are unknown. We genetically delete gp96 in mice and examined the expression of gp96 in basophils by Western blot and flow cytometry. We compared the expression pattern of gp96 between human and mouse basophils. We found that gp96 was dispensable for murine basophil development. Moreover, gp96 was cleaved by serine protease(s) in murine but not human basophils leading to accumulation of a nun-functional N-terminal ∼50 kDa fragment and striking induction of the unfolded protein response. The alteration of gp96 was unique to basophils and was not observed in any other cell types including mast cells. We also demonstrated that the ectopic expression of a mouse-specific tryptase mMCP11 does not lead to gp96 cleavage in human basophils. Our study revealed a remarkable biochemical event of gp96 silencing in murine but not human basophils, highlighting the need for caution in using mouse models to infer the function of basophils in human immune response. Our study also reveals a novel mechanism of shutting down gp96 post-translationally in regulating its function.

  18. Role of SIRT1-mediated mitochondrial and Akt pathways in glioblastoma cell death induced by Cotinus coggygria flavonoid nanoliposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gang Wang,1,2,* Jun Jie Wang,1,2,* Tony SS To,3 Hua Fu Zhao,3 Jing Wang3 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Pharmacy, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Flavonoids, the major polyphenol components in Cotinus coggygria (CC, have been found to show an anticancer effect in our previous study; however, the exact mechanisms of inducing human glioblastoma (GBM cell death remain to be resolved. In this study, a novel polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30/sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyethyleneglycol-coated liposome loaded with CC flavonoids (CCFs was developed to enhance solubility and the antibrain tumor effect, and the molecular mechanism regarding how CCF nanoliposomes (CCF-NLs induce apoptotic cell death in vitro was investigated. DBTRG-05MG GBM cell lines treated with CCF-NLs showed potential antiproliferative effects. Regarding the underlying mechanisms of inducing apoptosis in DBTRG-05MG GBM cells, CCF-NLs were shown to downregulate the expression of antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (Bcl-2, an apoptosis-related protein family member, but the expression of proapoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein was enhanced compared with that in controls. CCF-NLs also inhibited the activity of caspase-3 and -9, which is the initiator caspase of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Blockade of caspase activation consistently induced apoptosis and inhibited growth in CCF-NL-treated DBTRG-05MG cells. This study further investigated the role of the Akt pathway in the apoptotic cell death by CCF-NLs, showing that CCF-NLs deactivated Akt. Specifically, CCF-NLs downregulated the expression of p-Akt and SIRT1 as well as the level of

  19. MicroRNA involvement in glioblastoma pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, Jana; Slaby, Ondrej; Vyzula, Rostislav; Michalek, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenously expressed regulatory noncoding RNAs. Altered expression levels of several microRNAs have been observed in glioblastomas. Functions and direct mRNA targets for these microRNAs have been relatively well studied over the last years. According to these data, it is now evident, that impairment of microRNA regulatory network is one of the key mechanisms in glioblastoma pathogenesis. MicroRNA deregulation is involved in processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, invasion, glioma stem cell behavior, and angiogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of miRNA functions in glioblastoma with an emphasis on its significance in glioblastoma oncogenic signaling and its potential to serve as a disease biomarker and a novel therapeutic target in oncology.

  20. Angiogenesis gene expression in murine endothelial cells during post-pneumonectomy lung growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konerding Moritz A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although blood vessel growth occurs readily in the systemic bronchial circulation, angiogenesis in the pulmonary circulation is rare. Compensatory lung growth after pneumonectomy is an experimental model with presumed alveolar capillary angiogenesis. To investigate the genes participating in murine neoalveolarization, we studied the expression of angiogenesis genes in lung endothelial cells. After left pneumonectomy, the remaining right lung was examined on days 3, 6, 14 and 21days after surgery and compared to both no surgery and sham thoracotomy controls. The lungs were enzymatically digested and CD31+ endothelial cells were isolated using flow cytometry cell sorting. The transcriptional profile of the CD31+ endothelial cells was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR arrays. Focusing on 84 angiogenesis-associated genes, we identified 22 genes with greater than 4-fold regulation and significantly enhanced transcription (p

  1. Proteomic analysis of erythroid differentiation induced by hexamethylene bisacetamide in murine erythroleukemia cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrák, J.; Myslivcová, D.; Man, Petr; Čmejlová, J.; Čmejla, R.; Vyoral, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 35, - (2007), s. 193-202 ISSN 0301-472X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545 Grant - others:CZ(CZ) 023736; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/04/0003; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : murine erythroleukemia cells * erythroid differentiation * hexamethylene bisacetamide Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.147, year: 2007

  2. Bifidobacterium bifidum Actively Changes the Gene Expression Profile Induced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in Murine Dendritic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Gudrun Margarethe; Rasmussen, Simon; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal regulatory role in activation of both the innate as well as the adaptive immune system by responding to environmental microorganisms. We have previously shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus induces a strong production of the pro-inflammatory and Th1 polarizing...... cytokine IL-12 in DC, whereas bifidobacteria do not induce IL-12 but inhibit the IL-12 production induced by lactobacilli. In the present study, genome-wide microarrays were used to investigate the gene expression pattern of murine DC stimulated with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium...

  3. Contemplating the murine test tube: lessons from natural killer cells and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Kaleb J; Jones, Gareth J; Mody, Christopher H

    2006-06-01

    Murine experimentation has provided many useful tools, including the ability to knockout or over-express genes and to perform experiments that are limited by ethical considerations. Over the past century, mice have imparted valuable insights into the biology of many systems, including human immunity. However, although there are many similarities between the immune response of humans and mice, there are also many differences; none is more prominent than when examining natural killer cell biology. These differences include tissue distribution, effector molecules, receptor repertoire, and cytokine responses, all of which have important implications when extrapolating the studies to the human immune responses to Cryptococcus neoformans.

  4. Divergent evolution of temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma stem cells is reflected in extracellular vesicles and coupled with radiosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Delphine; Meehan, Brian; Kislinger, Thomas; Daniel, Paul; Sinha, Ankit; Abdulkarim, Bassam; Nakano, Ichiro; Rak, Janusz

    2018-01-22

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is almost invariably fatal due to failure of standard therapy. The relapse of GBM following surgery, radiation, and systemic temozolomide (TMZ) is attributed to the ability of glioma stem cells (GSCs) to survive, evolve, and repopulate the tumor mass, events on which therapy exerts a poorly understood influence. Here we explore the molecular and cellular evolution of TMZ resistance as it emerges in vivo (xenograft models) in a series of human GSCs with either proneural (PN) or mesenchymal (MES) molecular characteristics. We observed that the initial response of GSC-initiated intracranial xenografts to TMZ is eventually replaced by refractory growth pattern. Individual tumors derived from the same isogenic GSC line expressed divergent and complex profiles of TMZ resistance markers, with a minor representation of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) upregulation. In several independent TMZ-resistant tumors originating from MES GSCs we observed a consistent diminution of mesenchymal features, which persisted in cell culture and correlated with increased expression of Nestin, decline in transglutaminase 2 and sensitivity to radiation. The corresponding mRNA expression profiles reflective of TMZ resistance and stem cell phenotype were recapitulated in the transcriptome of exosome-like extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by GSCs into the culture medium. Intrinsic changes in the tumor-initiating cell compartment may include loss of subtype characteristics and reciprocal alterations in sensitivity to chemo- and radiation therapy. These observations suggest that exploiting therapy-induced changes in the GSC phenotype and alternating cycles of therapy may be explored to improve GBM outcomes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. γ-ray dose rate effect in DNA double-strand break repair deficient murine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liya; Li Peiwen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the dose rate effect and potentially lethal damage repair in DNA double-strand break repair deficient murine cells (SCID) irradiated by γ-ray. Methods: The wild type (CB.17+/+) and SCID cells were exposed to γ-ray at high and low dose rates. The high dose rate exposure was fractionated into two equal doses at 24 h intervals. The survival rates of irradiated cells were calculated by clone-forming analysis. Results: When γ-ray was given to wild type (CB.17+/+) cells in two fractions at 24 h intervals, the survival rate was significantly higher than that when the same total dose was given singly. In contrast, there was no difference in the survival rates between the single and fractionated exposure in SCID cells. SCID cells were more sensitive than CB.17+/+ cells to both low and high dose rates γ-ray exposure for cell killing. The survival rate by low dose rate exposure was significantly higher than that by high dose rate exposure, not only in CB.17+/+ cells but also in SCID cells. Conclusions: SCID cells are deficient in repairing γ-ray induced double-strand breaks. There is dose rate effect in both SCID and CB.17+/+ cells

  6. Tracing the fate of limbal epithelial progenitor cells in the murine cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, N; Bobba, S; Raviraj, V; Delic, N C; Slapetova, I; Nicovich, P R; Halliday, G M; Wakefield, D; Whan, R; Lyons, J G

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell (SC) division, deployment, and differentiation are processes that contribute to corneal epithelial renewal. Until now studying the destiny of these cells in a living mammal has not been possible. However, the advent of inducible multicolor genetic tagging and powerful imaging technologies has rendered this achievable in the translucent and readily accessible murine cornea. K14CreER(T2)-Confetti mice that harbor two copies of the Brainbow 2.1 cassette, yielding up to 10 colors from the stochastic recombination of fluorescent proteins, were used to monitor K-14(+) progenitor cell dynamics within the corneal epithelium in live animals. Multicolored columns of cells emerged from the basal limbal epithelium as they expanded and migrated linearly at a rate of 10.8 µm/day toward the central cornea. Moreover, the permanent expression of fluorophores, passed on from progenitor to progeny, assisted in discriminating individual clones as spectrally distinct streaks containing more than 1,000 cells within the illuminated area. The centripetal clonal expansion is suggestive that a single progenitor cell is responsible for maintaining a narrow corridor of corneal epithelial cells. Our data are in agreement with the limbus as the repository for SC as opposed to SC being distributed throughout the central cornea. This is the first report describing stem/progenitor cell fate determination in the murine cornea using multicolor genetic tracing. This model represents a powerful new resource to monitor SC kinetics and fate choice under homeostatic conditions, and may assist in assessing clonal evolution during corneal development, aging, wound-healing, disease, and following transplantation. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  7. MicroRNA-139-5p acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting ELTD1 and regulating cell cycle in glioblastoma multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shouping [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi, Shandong 276000 (China); Wang, Xianjun [Department of Neurology, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi, Shandong 276000 (China); Li, Xiao [Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Cao, Yuandong, E-mail: yuandongcao@sina.com [Department of Radiotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-11-13

    MicroRNA-139-5p was identified to be significantly down-regulated in glioblastoma multiform (GBM) by miRNA array. In this report we aimed to clarify its biological function, molecular mechanisms and direct target gene in GBM. Twelve patients with GBM were analyzed for the expression of miR-139-5p by quantitative RT-PCR. miR-139-5p overexpression was established by transfecting miR-139-5p-mimic into U87MG and T98G cells, and its effects on cell proliferation were studied using MTT assay and colony formation assays. We concluded that ectopic expression of miR-139-5p in GBM cell lines significantly suppressed cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Bioinformatics coupled with luciferase and western blot assays also revealed that miR-139-5p suppresses glioma cell proliferation by targeting ELTD1 and regulating cell cycle. - Highlights: • miR-139-5p is downregulated in GBM. • miR-139-5p regulates cell proliferation through inducing apoptosis. • miR-139-5p regulates glioblastoma tumorigenesis by targeting 3′UTR of ELTD1. • miR-139-5p is involved in cell cycle regulation.

  8. Differentiation of murine embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells to renal lineage in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morizane, Ryuji [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Monkawa, Toshiaki, E-mail: monkawa@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Hiroshi [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-25

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells which have the unlimited proliferative capacity and extensive differentiation potency can be an attractive source for kidney regeneration therapies. Recent breakthroughs in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have provided with another potential source for the artificially-generated kidney. The purpose of this study is to know how to differentiate mouse ES and iPS cells into renal lineage. We used iPS cells from mouse fibroblasts by transfection of four transcription factors, namely Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. Real-time PCR showed that renal lineage markers were expressed in both ES and iPS cells after the induction of differentiation. It also showed that a tubular specific marker, KSP progressively increased to day 18, although the differentiation of iPS cells was slower than ES cells. The results indicated that renal lineage cells can be differentiated from both murine ES and iPS cells. Several inducing factors were tested whether they influenced on cell differentiation. In ES cells, both of GDNF and BMP7 enhanced the differentiation to metanephric mesenchyme, and Activin enhanced the differentiation of ES cells to tubular cells. Activin also enhanced the differentiation of iPS cells to tubular cells, although the enhancement was lower than in ES cells. ES and iPS cells have a potential to differentiate to renal lineage cells, and they will be an attractive resource of kidney regeneration therapy. This differentiation is enhanced by Activin in both ES and iPS cells.

  9. Identification and enrichment of colony-forming cells from the adult murine pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepore, D.A.; Roeszler, K.; Wagner, J.; Ross, S.A.; Bauer, K.; Thomas, P.Q.

    2005-01-01

    Stem and progenitor cells have been identified in many adult tissues including bone marrow, the central nervous system, and skin. While there is direct evidence to indicate the activity of a progenitor cell population in the pituitary gland, this putative subpopulation has not yet been identified. Herein we describe the isolation and characterization of a novel clonogenic cell type in the adult murine pituitary, which we have termed Pituitary Colony-Forming Cells (PCFCs). PCFCs constitute 0.2% of pituitary cells, and generate heterogeneous colonies from single cells. PCFCs exhibit variable proliferative potential, and may exceed 11 population doublings in 14 days. Enrichment of PCFCs to 61.5-fold with 100% recovery can be obtained through the active uptake of the fluorescent dipeptide, β-Ala-Lys-Nε-AMCA. PCFCs are mostly contained within the large, agranular subpopulation of AMCA + cells, and constitute 28% of this fraction, corresponding to 140.5-fold enrichment. Interestingly, the AMCA + population contains rare cells that are GH + or PRL + . GH + cells were also identified in PCFC single cell colonies, suggesting that PCFCs have the potential to differentiate into GH + cells. Together, these data show that the pituitary contains a rare clonogenic population which may correspond to the somatotrope/lactotrope progenitors suggested by previous experiments

  10. Phenotypic correction of Fanconi anemia cells in the murine bone marrow after carrier cell mediated delivery of lentiviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakkaramakkil Verghese, Santhosh; Goloviznina, Natalya A; Kurre, Peter

    2016-11-19

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal-recessive disorder associated with hematopoietic failure and it is a candidate for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-directed gene therapy. However, the characteristically reduced HSC numbers found in FA patients, their ineffective mobilization from the marrow, and re-oxygenation damage during ex vivo manipulation have precluded clinical success using conventional in vitro approaches. We previously demonstrated that lentiviral vector (LV) particles reversibly attach to the cell surface where they gain protection from serum complement neutralization. We reasoned that cellular delivery of LV to the bone marrow niche could avoid detrimental losses during FA HSC mobilization and in vitro modification. Here, we demonstrate that a VSV-G pseudotyped lentivector, carrying the FANCC transgene, can be transmitted from carrier to bystander cells. In cell culture and transplantation models of FA, we further demonstrate that LV carrier cells migrate along SDF-1α gradients and transfer vector particles that stably integrate and phenotypically correct the characteristic DNA alkylator sensitivity in murine and human FA-deficient target bystander cells. Altogether, we demonstrate that cellular homing mechanisms can be harnessed for the functional phenotype correction in murine FA hematopoietic cells.

  11. Phenotypic correction of Fanconi anemia cells in the murine bone marrow after carrier cell mediated delivery of lentiviral vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Chakkaramakkil Verghese

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fanconi anemia (FA is an autosomal-recessive disorder associated with hematopoietic failure and it is a candidate for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC-directed gene therapy. However, the characteristically reduced HSC numbers found in FA patients, their ineffective mobilization from the marrow, and re-oxygenation damage during ex vivo manipulation have precluded clinical success using conventional in vitro approaches. We previously demonstrated that lentiviral vector (LV particles reversibly attach to the cell surface where they gain protection from serum complement neutralization. We reasoned that cellular delivery of LV to the bone marrow niche could avoid detrimental losses during FA HSC mobilization and in vitro modification. Here, we demonstrate that a VSV-G pseudotyped lentivector, carrying the FANCC transgene, can be transmitted from carrier to bystander cells. In cell culture and transplantation models of FA, we further demonstrate that LV carrier cells migrate along SDF-1α gradients and transfer vector particles that stably integrate and phenotypically correct the characteristic DNA alkylator sensitivity in murine and human FA-deficient target bystander cells. Altogether, we demonstrate that cellular homing mechanisms can be harnessed for the functional phenotype correction in murine FA hematopoietic cells.

  12. Culture on 3D Chitosan-Hyaluronic Acid Scaffolds Enhances Stem Cell Marker Expression and Drug Resistance in Human Glioblastoma Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Kievit, Forrest M; Erickson, Ariane E; Silber, John R; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Zhang, Miqin

    2016-12-01

    The lack of in vitro models that support the growth of glioblastoma (GBM) stem cells (GSCs) that underlie clinical aggressiveness hinders developing new, effective therapies for GBM. While orthotopic patient-derived xenograft models of GBM best reflect in vivo tumor behavior, establishing xenografts is a time consuming, costly, and frequently unsuccessful endeavor. To address these limitations, a 3D porous scaffold composed of chitosan and hyaluronic acid (CHA) is synthesized. Growth and expression of the cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype of the GSC GBM6 taken directly from fresh xenogratfs grown on scaffolds or as adherent monolayers is compared. While 2D adherent cultures grow as monolayers of flat epitheliod cells, GBM6 cells proliferate within pores of CHA scaffolds as clusters of self-adherent ovoid cells. Growth on scaffolds is accompanied by greater expression of genes that mediate epithelial-mesenchymal transition and maintain a primitive, undifferentiated phenotype, hallmarks of CSCs. Scaffold-grown cells also display higher expression of genes that promote resistance to hypoxia-induced oxidative stress. In accord, scaffold-grown cells show markedly greater resistance to clinically utilized alkylating agents compared to adherent cells. These findings suggest that our CHA scaffolds better mimic in vivo biological and clinical behavior and provide insights for developing novel individualized treatments. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. PDGFRα depletion attenuates glioblastoma stem cells features by modulation of STAT3, RB1 and multiple oncogenic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenciarelli, Carlo; Marei, Hany E; Felsani, Armando; Casalbore, Patrizia; Sica, Gigliola; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice; Cameron, Angus J M; Olivi, Alessandro; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2016-08-16

    Platelet derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) play an important role in tumor pathogenesis, and they are frequently overexpressed in glioblastoma (GBM). Earlier we have shown a higher protein expression of PDGFR isoforms (α and β) in peritumoral-tissue derived cancer stem cells (p-CSC) than in tumor core (c-CSC) of several GBM affected patients. In the current study, in order to assess the activity of PDGFRα/PDGF-AA signaling axis, we performed time course experiments to monitor the effects of exogenous PDGF-AA on the expression of downstream target genes in c-CSC vs p-CSC. Interestingly, in p-CSC we detected the upregulation of Y705-phosphorylated Stat3, concurrent with a decrement of Rb1 protein in its active state, within minutes of PDGF-AA addition. This finding prompted us to elucidate the role of PDGFRα in self-renewal, invasion and differentiation in p-CSC by using short hairpin RNA depletion of PDGFRα expression. Notably, in PDGFRα-depleted cells, protein analysis revealed attenuation of stemness-related and glial markers expression, alongside early activation of the neuronal marker MAP2a/b that correlated with the induction of tumor suppressor Rb1. The in vitro reduction of the invasive capacity of PDGFRα-depleted CSC as compared to parental cells correlated with the downmodulation of markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype and angiogenesis. Surprisingly, we observed the induction of anti-apoptotic proteins and compensatory oncogenic signals such as EDN1, EDNRB, PRKCB1, PDGF-C and PDGF-D. To conclude, we hypothesize that the newly discovered PDGFRα/Stat3/Rb1 regulatory axis might represent a potential therapeutic target for GBM treatment.

  14. Osthole Suppresses the Migratory Ability of Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells via Inhibition of Focal Adhesion Kinase-Mediated Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Tsai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common type of primary and malignant tumor occurring in the adult central nervous system. GBM often invades surrounding regions of the brain during its early stages, making successful treatment difficult. Osthole, an active constituent isolated from the dried C. monnieri fruit, has been shown to suppress tumor migration and invasion. However, the effects of osthole in human GBM are largely unknown. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK is important for the metastasis of cancer cells. Results from this study show that osthole can not only induce cell death but also inhibit phosphorylation of FAK in human GBM cells. Results from this study show that incubating GBM cells with osthole reduces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13 expression and cell motility, as assessed by cell transwell and wound healing assays. This study also provides evidence supporting the potential of osthole in reducing FAK activation, MMP-13 expression, and cell motility in human GBM cells.

  15. Molecular and ultra-structural insight into the enrichment of Glioblastoma and Neuroblastoma stem-like cells

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) and tumor micro-environments play a significant role in malignant cancer initiation and progression. Metastasis in vivo involves a stem-like, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Serum-free cultures of 3-D neurospheres represent the gold standard in CSC-like enrichment. The aim of the thesis was to explore the induction of stem-like phenotypes in Glioblastoma (GBM) and Neuroblastoma (NBL) cell lines, in order to assess common stem/oncogenic related marks. CSC chara...

  16. Identification of murine T-cell epitopes in Ebola virus nucleoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Graham; Lee, Anee; Rennekamp, Andrew J.; Fan Xin; Bates, Paul; Shen Hao

    2004-01-01

    CD8 T cells play an important role in controlling Ebola infection and in mediating vaccine-induced protective immunity, yet little is known about antigenic targets in Ebola that are recognized by CD8 T cells. Overlapping peptides were used to identify major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted epitopes in mice immunized with vectors encoding Ebola nucleoprotein (NP). CD8 T-cell responses were mapped to a H-2 d -restricted epitope (NP279-288) and two H-2 b -restricted epitopes (NP44-52 and NP288-296). The identification of these epitopes will facilitate studies of immune correlates of protection and the evaluation of vaccine strategies in murine models of Ebola infection

  17. Incorporating Cancer Stem Cells in Radiation Therapy Treatment Response Modeling and the Implication in Glioblastoma Multiforme Treatment Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Victoria Y.; Nguyen, Dan; Pajonk, Frank; Kupelian, Patrick; Kaprealian, Tania; Selch, Michael; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edu

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To perform a preliminary exploration with a simplistic mathematical cancer stem cell (CSC) interaction model to determine whether the tumor-intrinsic heterogeneity and dynamic equilibrium between CSCs and differentiated cancer cells (DCCs) can better explain radiation therapy treatment response with a dual-compartment linear-quadratic (DLQ) model. Methods and Materials: The radiosensitivity parameters of CSCs and DCCs for cancer cell lines including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), non–small cell lung cancer, melanoma, osteosarcoma, and prostate, cervical, and breast cancer were determined by performing robust least-square fitting using the DLQ model on published clonogenic survival data. Fitting performance was compared with the single-compartment LQ (SLQ) and universal survival curve models. The fitting results were then used in an ordinary differential equation describing the kinetics of DCCs and CSCs in response to 2- to 14.3-Gy fractionated treatments. The total dose to achieve tumor control and the fraction size that achieved the least normal biological equivalent dose were calculated. Results: Smaller cell survival fitting errors were observed using DLQ, with the exception of melanoma, which had a low α/β = 0.16 in SLQ. Ordinary differential equation simulation indicated lower normal tissue biological equivalent dose to achieve the same tumor control with a hypofractionated approach for 4 cell lines for the DLQ model, in contrast to SLQ, which favored 2 Gy per fraction for all cells except melanoma. The DLQ model indicated greater tumor radioresistance than SLQ, but the radioresistance was overcome by hypofractionation, other than the GBM cells, which responded poorly to all fractionations. Conclusion: The distinct radiosensitivity and dynamics between CSCs and DCCs in radiation therapy response could perhaps be one possible explanation for the heterogeneous intertumor response to hypofractionation and in some cases superior outcome from

  18. Incorporating Cancer Stem Cells in Radiation Therapy Treatment Response Modeling and the Implication in Glioblastoma Multiforme Treatment Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Victoria Y.; Nguyen, Dan; Pajonk, Frank; Kupelian, Patrick; Kaprealian, Tania; Selch, Michael; Low, Daniel A.; Sheng, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a preliminary exploration with a simplistic mathematical cancer stem cell (CSC) interaction model to determine whether the tumor-intrinsic heterogeneity and dynamic equilibrium between CSCs and differentiated cancer cells (DCCs) can better explain radiation therapy treatment response with a dual-compartment linear-quadratic (DLQ) model. Methods and Materials: The radiosensitivity parameters of CSCs and DCCs for cancer cell lines including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), non–small cell lung cancer, melanoma, osteosarcoma, and prostate, cervical, and breast cancer were determined by performing robust least-square fitting using the DLQ model on published clonogenic survival data. Fitting performance was compared with the single-compartment LQ (SLQ) and universal survival curve models. The fitting results were then used in an ordinary differential equation describing the kinetics of DCCs and CSCs in response to 2- to 14.3-Gy fractionated treatments. The total dose to achieve tumor control and the fraction size that achieved the least normal biological equivalent dose were calculated. Results: Smaller cell survival fitting errors were observed using DLQ, with the exception of melanoma, which had a low α/β = 0.16 in SLQ. Ordinary differential equation simulation indicated lower normal tissue biological equivalent dose to achieve the same tumor control with a hypofractionated approach for 4 cell lines for the DLQ model, in contrast to SLQ, which favored 2 Gy per fraction for all cells except melanoma. The DLQ model indicated greater tumor radioresistance than SLQ, but the radioresistance was overcome by hypofractionation, other than the GBM cells, which responded poorly to all fractionations. Conclusion: The distinct radiosensitivity and dynamics between CSCs and DCCs in radiation therapy response could perhaps be one possible explanation for the heterogeneous intertumor response to hypofractionation and in some cases superior outcome from

  19. Antigen-specific murine T cell clones produce soluble interleukin 2 receptor on stimulation with specific antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.K.; York-Jolley, J.; Malek, T.R.; Berzofsky, J.A.; Nelson, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, monoclonal antibodies were used to the murine IL 2 receptor (IL 2R) termed 3C7 and 7D4, which bind to different epitopes on the murine IL 2R, to develop an ELISA to measure soluble murine IL 2R. Surprisingly, stimulated murine spleen cells not only expressed cell-associated IL 2R, but also produced a considerable level of cellfree IL 2R in the culture supernatant fluid. To assess the fine specificity of this response, myoglobin-immune murine T cell clones were stimulated with appropriate or inappropriate antigen and syngeneic or allogeneic presenting cells. Proliferation, measured by [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation, and levels of soluble IL 2R were determined at day 4. The production of soluble IL2R displayed the same epitope fine specificity, genetic restriction, and antigen dose-response as the proliferative response. Indeed, in some cases there was sharper discrimination of epitope specificity and genetic restriction with the soluble IL 2R levels. There was also reproducible clone-to-clone variation in the amount of soluble receptor produced in response to antigen among 12 T cell clones and lines tested. In time course experiments, proliferation was greatest at day 3, whereas soluble IL 2R levels continued to rise in subsequent days. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first demonstration of release of secretion of soluble IL 2R by murine T cells, and the first demonstration of the fine specificity and genetic restriction of the induction of soluble IL 2R by specific antigen

  20. Different Effects of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Glioblastoma Stem Cells by Direct Cell Interaction or Via Released Soluble Factors

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    Adriana Bajetto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is an aggressive, fast-growing and highly vascularized tumor, characterized by extensive invasiveness and local recurrence. In GBM and other malignancies, cancer stem cells (CSCs are believed to drive invasive tumor growth and recurrence, being responsible for radio- and chemo-therapy resistance. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent progenitors that exhibit tropism for tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Initial studies proposed that MSCs might exert inhibitory effects on tumor development, although, to date, contrasting evidence has been provided. Different studies reported either MSC anti-tumor activity or their support to tumor growth. Here, we examined the effects of umbilical cord (UC-MSCs on in vitro GBM-derived CSC growth, by direct cell-to-cell interaction or indirect modulation, via the release of soluble factors. We demonstrate that UC-MSCs and CSCs exhibit reciprocal tropism when co-cultured as 3D spheroids and their direct cell interaction reduces the proliferation of both cell types. Contrasting effects were obtained by UC-MSC released factors: CSCs, cultured in the presence of conditioned medium (CM collected from UC-MSCs, increased proliferation rate through transient ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation/activation. Analysis of the profile of the cytokines released by UC-MSCs in the CM revealed a strong production of molecules involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, cell migration and proliferation, such as IL-8, GRO, ENA-78 and IL-6. Since CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2, a receptor shared by several of these ligands, is expressed in GBM CSCs, we evaluated its involvement in CSC proliferation induced by UC-MSC-CM. Using the CXCR2 antagonist SB225002, we observed a partial but statistically significant inhibition of CSC proliferation and migration induced by the UC-MSC-released cytokines. Conversely, CXCR2 blockade did not

  1. Different Effects of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Glioblastoma Stem Cells by Direct Cell Interaction or Via Released Soluble Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajetto, Adriana; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Corsaro, Alessandro; Barbieri, Federica; Daga, Antonio; Bosio, Alessia; Gatti, Monica; Pisaturo, Valerio; Sirito, Rodolfo; Florio, Tullio

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is an aggressive, fast-growing and highly vascularized tumor, characterized by extensive invasiveness and local recurrence. In GBM and other malignancies, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to drive invasive tumor growth and recurrence, being responsible for radio- and chemo-therapy resistance. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors that exhibit tropism for tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Initial studies proposed that MSCs might exert inhibitory effects on tumor development, although, to date, contrasting evidence has been provided. Different studies reported either MSC anti-tumor activity or their support to tumor growth. Here, we examined the effects of umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs on in vitro GBM-derived CSC growth, by direct cell-to-cell interaction or indirect modulation, via the release of soluble factors. We demonstrate that UC-MSCs and CSCs exhibit reciprocal tropism when co-cultured as 3D spheroids and their direct cell interaction reduces the proliferation of both cell types. Contrasting effects were obtained by UC-MSC released factors: CSCs, cultured in the presence of conditioned medium (CM) collected from UC-MSCs, increased proliferation rate through transient ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation/activation. Analysis of the profile of the cytokines released by UC-MSCs in the CM revealed a strong production of molecules involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, cell migration and proliferation, such as IL-8, GRO, ENA-78 and IL-6. Since CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), a receptor shared by several of these ligands, is expressed in GBM CSCs, we evaluated its involvement in CSC proliferation induced by UC-MSC-CM. Using the CXCR2 antagonist SB225002, we observed a partial but statistically significant inhibition of CSC proliferation and migration induced by the UC-MSC-released cytokines. Conversely, CXCR2 blockade did not reduce the

  2. Dual effect of LPS on murine myeloid leukemia cells: Pro-proliferation and anti-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lingling [Department of Pediatrics, Jingjiang People' s Hospital, Yangzhou University, Jingjiang 214500 (China); Noncoding RNA Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Zhao, Yingmin [Department of Pediatrics, Jingjiang People' s Hospital, Yangzhou University, Jingjiang 214500 (China); Gu, Xin; Wang, Jijun; Pang, Lei; Zhang, Yanqing; Li, Yaoyao; Jia, Xiaoqin; Wang, Xin [Noncoding RNA Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Gu, Jian [Department of Hematology, Yangzhou University School of Clinical Medicine, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Yu, Duonan, E-mail: duonan@yahoo.com [Department of Pediatrics, Jingjiang People' s Hospital, Yangzhou University, Jingjiang 214500 (China); Noncoding RNA Center, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Prevention and Treatment of Senile Disease, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Institute of Comparative Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001 (China); Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Disease and Zoonosis, Yangzhou 225001 (China)

    2016-06-10

    Modification of the bone marrow microenvironment is considered as a promising strategy to control leukemic cell proliferation, diseases progression and relapse after treatment. However, due to the diversity and complexity of the cellular and molecular compartments in the leukemic microenvironment, it is extremely difficult to dissect the role of each individual molecule or cell type in vivo. Here we established an in vitro system to dissect the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stromal cells and endothelial cells in the growth of mouse myeloid tumor cells and B-lymphoma cells. We found that either LPS or bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer in culture is required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. Surprisingly, the growth of myeloid leukemic cells on stromal cells is strongly inhibited when coupled with LPS in culture. This opposing effect of LPS, a complete switch from pro-proliferation to antitumor growth is due, at least in part, to the rapidly increased production of interleukin 12, Fas ligand and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 from stromal cells stimulated by LPS. These results demonstrate that LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor cell proliferation, thus changing the disease course of myeloid leukemias through its direct effect or modulation of the tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • LPS alone in culture is required for the proliferation of murine myeloid tumor cells. • Bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer is also required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. • However, the growth of myeloid tumor cells is inhibited when LPS and stromal cells are both available in culture. • Thus LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor growth through its direct effect or modulation of tumor microenvironment.

  3. Dual effect of LPS on murine myeloid leukemia cells: Pro-proliferation and anti-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lingling; Zhao, Yingmin; Gu, Xin; Wang, Jijun; Pang, Lei; Zhang, Yanqing; Li, Yaoyao; Jia, Xiaoqin; Wang, Xin; Gu, Jian; Yu, Duonan

    2016-01-01

    Modification of the bone marrow microenvironment is considered as a promising strategy to control leukemic cell proliferation, diseases progression and relapse after treatment. However, due to the diversity and complexity of the cellular and molecular compartments in the leukemic microenvironment, it is extremely difficult to dissect the role of each individual molecule or cell type in vivo. Here we established an in vitro system to dissect the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stromal cells and endothelial cells in the growth of mouse myeloid tumor cells and B-lymphoma cells. We found that either LPS or bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer in culture is required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. Surprisingly, the growth of myeloid leukemic cells on stromal cells is strongly inhibited when coupled with LPS in culture. This opposing effect of LPS, a complete switch from pro-proliferation to antitumor growth is due, at least in part, to the rapidly increased production of interleukin 12, Fas ligand and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 from stromal cells stimulated by LPS. These results demonstrate that LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor cell proliferation, thus changing the disease course of myeloid leukemias through its direct effect or modulation of the tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • LPS alone in culture is required for the proliferation of murine myeloid tumor cells. • Bone marrow stromal cells as a feeder layer is also required for the proliferation of myeloid tumor cells. • However, the growth of myeloid tumor cells is inhibited when LPS and stromal cells are both available in culture. • Thus LPS can either facilitate or attenuate tumor growth through its direct effect or modulation of tumor microenvironment.

  4. Functional Heterogeneity in the CD4+ T Cell Response to Murine γ-Herpesvirus 68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhuting; Blackman, Marcia A.; Kaye, Kenneth M.; Usherwood, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T cells are critical for the control of virus infections, T cell memory and immune surveillance. Here we studied the differentiation and function of murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68)-specific CD4+ T cells using gp150-specific TCR transgenic mice. This allowed a more detailed study of the characteristics of the CD4+ T cell response than previously available approaches for this virus. Most gp150-specific CD4+ T cells expressed T-bet and produced IFN-γ, indicating MHV-68 infection triggered differentiation of CD4+ T cells largely into the Th1 subset, whereas some became TFH and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. These CD4+ T cells were protective against MHV-68 infection, in the absence of CD8+ T cells and B cells, and protection depended on IFN-γ secretion. Marked heterogeneity was observed in the CD4+ T cells, based on Ly6C expression. Ly6C expression positively correlated with IFN-γ, TNF-α and granzyme B production, T-bet and KLRG1 expression, proliferation and CD4+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Ly6C expression inversely correlated with survival, CCR7 expression and secondary expansion potential. Ly6C+ and Ly6C− gp150-specific CD4+ T cells were able to interconvert in a bidirectional manner upon secondary antigen exposure in vivo. These results indicate that Ly6C expression is closely associated with antiviral activity in effector CD4+ T cells, but inversely correlated with memory potential. Interconversion between Ly6C+ and Ly6C− cells may maintain a balance between the two antigen-specific CD4+ T cell populations during MHV-68 infection. These findings have significant implications for Ly6C as a surface marker to distinguish functionally distinct CD4+ T cells during persistent virus infection. PMID:25662997

  5. Dendritic cell-based vaccination in cancer: therapeutic implications emerging from murine models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eMac Keon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play a pivotal role in the orchestration of immune responses, and are thus key targets in cancer vaccine design. Since the 2010 FDA approval of the first cancer DC-based vaccine (Sipuleucel T there has been a surge of interest in exploiting these cells as a therapeutic option for the treatment of tumors of diverse origin. In spite of the encouraging results obtained in the clinic, many elements of DC-based vaccination strategies need to be optimized. In this context, the use of experimental cancer models can help direct efforts towards an effective vaccine design. This paper reviews recent findings in murine models regarding the antitumoral mechanisms of DC-based vaccination, covering issues related to antigen sources, the use of adjuvants and maturing agents, and the role of DC subsets and their interaction in the initiation of antitumoral immune responses. The summary of such diverse aspects will highlight advantages and drawbacks in the use of murine models, and contribute to the design of successful DC-based translational approaches for cancer treatment.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate the histopathological changes in a murine model of chronic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firinci, Fatih; Karaman, Meral; Baran, Yusuf; Bagriyanik, Alper; Ayyildiz, Zeynep Arikan; Kiray, Muge; Kozanoglu, Ilknur; Yilmaz, Osman; Uzuner, Nevin; Karaman, Ozkan

    2011-08-01

    Asthma therapies are effective in reducing inflammation but airway remodeling is poorly responsive to these agents. New therapeutic options that have fewer side effects and reverse chronic changes in the lungs are essential. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising for the development of novel therapies in regenerative medicine. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of MSCs on lung histopathology in a murine model of chronic asthma. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: Group 1 (control group, n=6), Group 2 (ovalbumin induced asthma only, n=10), Group 3 (ovalbumin induced asthma + MSCs, n=10), and Group 4 (MSCs only, n=10). Histological findings (basement membrane, epithelium, subepithelial smooth muscle thickness, numbers of goblet and mast cells) of the airways and MSC migration were evaluated by light, electron, and confocal microscopes. In Group 3, all early histopathological changes except epithelial thickness and all of the chronic changes were significantly ameliorated when compared with Group 2. Evaluation with confocal microscopy showed that no noteworthy amount of MSCs were present in the lung tissues of Group 4 while significant amount of MSCs was detected in Group 3. Serum NO levels in Group 3, were significantly lower than Group 2. The results of this study revealed that MSCs migrated to lung tissue and ameliorated bronchial asthma in murine model. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of MSCs for the treatment of asthma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of murine and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on cuprizone induced demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Nessler

    Full Text Available For the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis there are no regenerative approaches to enhance remyelination. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been proposed to exert such regenerative functions. Intravenous administration of human MSC reduced the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model mimicking some aspects of multiple sclerosis. However, it is not clear if this effect was achieved by systemic immunomodulation or if there is an active neuroregeneration in the central nervous system (CNS. In order to investigate remyelination and regeneration in the CNS we analysed the effects of intravenously and intranasally applied murine and human bone marrow-derived MSC on cuprizone induced demyelination, a toxic animal model which allows analysis of remyelination without the influence of the peripheral immune system. In contrast to EAE no effects of MSC on de- and remyelination and glial cell reactions were found. In addition, neither murine nor human MSC entered the lesions in the CNS in this toxic model. In conclusion, MSC are not directed into CNS lesions in the cuprizone model where the blood-brain-barrier is intact and thus cannot provide support for regenerative processes.

  8. A Murine Herpesvirus Closely Related to Ubiquitous Human Herpesviruses Causes T-Cell Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Swapneel J; Zhao, Guoyan; Penna, Vinay R; Park, Eugene; Lauron, Elvin J; Harvey, Ian B; Beatty, Wandy L; Plougastel-Douglas, Beatrice; Poursine-Laurent, Jennifer; Fremont, Daved H; Wang, David; Yokoyama, Wayne M

    2017-05-01

    The human roseoloviruses human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), HHV-6B, and HHV-7 comprise the Roseolovirus genus of the human Betaherpesvirinae subfamily. Infections with these viruses have been implicated in many diseases; however, it has been challenging to establish infections with roseoloviruses as direct drivers of pathology, because they are nearly ubiquitous and display species-specific tropism. Furthermore, controlled study of infection has been hampered by the lack of experimental models, and until now, a mouse roseolovirus has not been identified. Herein we describe a virus that causes severe thymic necrosis in neonatal mice, characterized by a loss of CD4 + T cells. These phenotypes resemble those caused by the previously described mouse thymic virus (MTV), a putative herpesvirus that has not been molecularly characterized. By next-generation sequencing of infected tissue homogenates, we assembled a contiguous 174-kb genome sequence containing 128 unique predicted open reading frames (ORFs), many of which were most closely related to herpesvirus genes. Moreover, the structure of the virus genome and phylogenetic analysis of multiple genes strongly suggested that this virus is a betaherpesvirus more closely related to the roseoloviruses, HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7, than to another murine betaherpesvirus, mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). As such, we have named this virus murine roseolovirus (MRV) because these data strongly suggest that MRV is a mouse homolog of HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7. IMPORTANCE Herein we describe the complete genome sequence of a novel murine herpesvirus. By sequence and phylogenetic analyses, we show that it is a betaherpesvirus most closely related to the roseoloviruses, human herpesviruses 6A, 6B, and 7. These data combined with physiological similarities with human roseoloviruses collectively suggest that this virus is a murine roseolovirus (MRV), the first definitively described rodent roseolovirus, to our knowledge. Many biological and

  9. 4-IBP, a σ1 Receptor Agonist, Decreases the Migration of Human Cancer Cells, Including Glioblastoma Cells, In Vitro and Sensitizes Them In Vitro and In Vivo to Cytotoxic Insults of Proapoptotic and Proautophagic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Mégalizzi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the molecular function of cr receptors has not been fully defined and the natural ligand(s is still not known, there is increasing evidence that these receptors and their ligands might play a significant role in cancer biology. 4-(N-tibenzylpiperidin-4-yl-4iodobenzamide (4-IBP, a selective σ1, agonist, has been used to investigate whether this compound is able to modify: 1 in vitro the migration and proliferation of human cancer cells; 2 in vitro the sensitivity of human glioblastoma cells to cytotoxic drugs; and 3 in vivo in orthotopic glioblastoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC models the survival of mice coadministered cytotoxic agents. 4-IBP has revealed weak anti proliferative effects on human U373-MG glioblastoma and C32 melanoma cells but induced marked concentration-dependent decreases in the growth of human A549 NSCLC and PC3 prostate cancer cells. The compound was also significantly antimigratory in all four cancer cell lines. This may result, at least in U373-MG cells, from modifications to the actin cytoskeleton. 4-IBP modified the sensitivity of U373-MG cells in vitro to proapoptotic lomustin and proautophagic temozolomide, and markedly decreased the expression of two proteins involved in drug resistance: glucosylceramide synthase and Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor. In vivo, 4-IBP increased the antitumor effects of temozolomide and irinotecan in immunodeficient mice that were orthotopically grafted with invasive cancer cells.

  10. A gene delivery system with a human artificial chromosome vector based on migration of mesenchymal stem cells towards human glioblastoma HTB14 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yusuke; Kamitani, Hideki; Mamun, Mahabub Hasan; Wasita, Brian; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Hiratsuka, Masaharu; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been expected to become useful gene delivery vehicles against human malignant gliomas when coupled with an appropriate vector system, because they migrate towards the lesion. Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) are non-integrating vectors with several advantages for gene therapy, namely, no limitations on the size and number of genes that can be inserted. We investigated the migration of human immortalized MSCs bearing a HAC vector containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HAC-tk-hiMSCs) towards malignant gliomas in vivo. Red fluorescence protein-labeled human glioblastoma HTB14 cells were implanted into a subcortical region in nude mice. Four days later, green fluorescence protein-labeled HAC-tk-hiMSCs were injected into a contralateral subcortical region (the HTB14/HAC-tk-hiMSC injection model). Tropism to the glioma mass and the route of migration were visualized by fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. HAC-tk-hiMSCs began to migrate toward the HTB14 glioma area via the corpus callosum on day 4, and gathered around the HTB14 glioma mass on day 7. To test whether the delivered gene could effectively treat glioblastoma in vivo, HTB14/HAC-tk-hiMSC injected mice were treated with ganciclovir (GCV) or PBS. The HTB14 glioma mass was significantly reduced by GCV treatment in mice injected with HAC-tk-hiMSCs. It was confirmed that gene delivery by our HAC-hiMSC system was effective after migration of MSCs to the glioma mass in vivo. Therefore, MSCs containing HACs carrying an anticancer gene or genes may provide a new tool for the treatment of malignant gliomas and possibly of other tumor types.

  11. CD133(+) niches and single cells in glioblastoma have different phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karina; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther

    2011-01-01

    with CD133 and the candidate stem cell markers Sox2, Bmi-1, EGFR, podoplanin and nestin, the proliferation marker Ki67 and the endothelial cell markers CD31, CD34, and VWF. Cell counting showed that the CD133(+) cells in the niches had a significantly higher expression of Sox2, EGFR and nestin compared...

  12. Adult Murine Skeletal Muscle Contains Cells That Can Differentiate into Beating Cardiomyocytes In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winitsky Steve O

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has long been held as scientific fact that soon after birth, cardiomyocytes cease dividing, thus explaining the limited restoration of cardiac function after a heart attack. Recent demonstrations of cardiac myocyte differentiation observed in vitro or after in vivo transplantation of adult stem cells from blood, fat, skeletal muscle, or heart have challenged this view. Analysis of these studies has been complicated by the large disparity in the magnitude of effects seen by different groups and obscured by the recently appreciated process of in vivo stem-cell fusion. We now show a novel population of nonsatellite cells in adult murine skeletal muscle that progress under standard primary cell-culture conditions to autonomously beating cardiomyocytes. Their differentiation into beating cardiomyocytes is characterized here by video microscopy, confocal-detected calcium transients, electron microscopy, immunofluorescent cardiac-specific markers, and single-cell patch recordings of cardiac action potentials. Within 2 d after tail-vein injection of these marked cells into a mouse model of acute infarction, the marked cells are visible in the heart. By 6 d they begin to differentiate without fusing to recipient cardiac cells. Three months later, the tagged cells are visible as striated heart muscle restricted to the region of the cardiac infarct.

  13. Adult murine skeletal muscle contains cells that can differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve O Winitsky

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has long been held as scientific fact that soon after birth, cardiomyocytes cease dividing, thus explaining the limited restoration of cardiac function after a heart attack. Recent demonstrations of cardiac myocyte differentiation observed in vitro or after in vivo transplantation of adult stem cells from blood, fat, skeletal muscle, or heart have challenged this view. Analysis of these studies has been complicated by the large disparity in the magnitude of effects seen by different groups and obscured by the recently appreciated process of in vivo stem-cell fusion. We now show a novel population of nonsatellite cells in adult murine skeletal muscle that progress under standard primary cell-culture conditions to autonomously beating cardiomyocytes. Their differentiation into beating cardiomyocytes is characterized here by video microscopy, confocal-detected calcium transients, electron microscopy, immunofluorescent cardiac-specific markers, and single-cell patch recordings of cardiac action potentials. Within 2 d after tail-vein injection of these marked cells into a mouse model of acute infarction, the marked cells are visible in the heart. By 6 d they begin to differentiate without fusing to recipient cardiac cells. Three months later, the tagged cells are visible as striated heart muscle restricted to the region of the cardiac infarct.

  14. MiR-143 enhances the antitumor activity of shikonin by targeting BAG3 expression in human glioblastoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Qu, Cheng-Bin; Xue, Yi-Xue; Li, Zhen; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yun-hui

    Therapeutic applications of microRNAs (miRNAs) in chemotherapy were confirmed to be valuable, but there is rare to identify their specific roles and functions in shikonin treatment toward tumors. Here, for the first time, we reported that miR-143 played a critical role in the antitumor activity of shikonin in glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). The results showed that the expression of miR-143 was downregulated in shikonin treated GSCs within 24 h. MiR-143 overexpression significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of shikonin toward GSCs on cell viability. Besides, miR-143 overexpression caused a significant increase in the apoptotic fraction and made apoptosis occur earlier. Further investigation identified that BAG3, an apoptotic regulator, was a functional target of miR-143 in shikonin treated GSCs. The expression of BAG3 was upregulated in shikonin treated GSCs within 24 h. MiR-143 overexpression significantly reversed the high expression of BAG3 in shikonin treated GSCs. Moreover, it was confirmed that the enhanced cytotoxicity of shikonin by miR-143 overexpression was reversed by BAG3 overexpression both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the enhanced tumor suppressive effects by miR-143 overexpression was at least partly through the regulation of BAG3. Taken together, for the first time, our results demonstrate that miR-143 could enhance the antitumor activity of shikonin toward GSCs through reducing BAG3 expression, which may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for enhancing the treatment efficacy of shikonin toward GSCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 1.8 Å structure of murine GITR ligand dimer expressed in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Kausik [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Ramagopal, Udupi A. [Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Nathenson, Stanley G., E-mail: nathenso@aecom.yu.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Almo, Steven C., E-mail: nathenso@aecom.yu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States)

    2009-05-01

    1.8 Å X-ray crystal structure of mouse GITRL expressed in D. melanogaster S2 cells shows an identical ‘strand-exchanged’ dimeric assembly similar to that observed previously for the E. coli-expressed protein. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand (GITRL), a prominent member of the TNF superfamily, activates its receptor on both effector and regulatory T cells to generate critical costimulatory signals that have been implicated in a wide range of T-cell immune functions. The crystal structures of murine and human orthologs of GITRL recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli have previously been determined. In contrast to all classical TNF structures, including the human GITRL structure, murine GITRL demonstrated a unique ‘strand-exchanged’ dimeric organization. Such a novel assembly behavior indicated a dramatic impact on receptor activation as well as on the signaling mechanism associated with the murine GITRL costimulatory system. In this present work, the 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure of murine GITRL expressed in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells is reported. The eukaryotic protein-expression system allows transport of the recombinant protein into the extracellular culture medium, thus maximizing the possibility of obtaining correctly folded material devoid of any folding/assembly artifacts that are often suspected with E. coli-expressed proteins. The S2 cell-expressed murine GITRL adopts an identical ‘strand-exchanged’ dimeric structure to that observed for the E. coli-expressed protein, thus conclusively demonstrating the novel quaternary structure assembly behavior of murine GITRL.

  16. 1.8 Å structure of murine GITR ligand dimer expressed in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Kausik; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Almo, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    1.8 Å X-ray crystal structure of mouse GITRL expressed in D. melanogaster S2 cells shows an identical ‘strand-exchanged’ dimeric assembly similar to that observed previously for the E. coli-expressed protein. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand (GITRL), a prominent member of the TNF superfamily, activates its receptor on both effector and regulatory T cells to generate critical costimulatory signals that have been implicated in a wide range of T-cell immune functions. The crystal structures of murine and human orthologs of GITRL recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli have previously been determined. In contrast to all classical TNF structures, including the human GITRL structure, murine GITRL demonstrated a unique ‘strand-exchanged’ dimeric organization. Such a novel assembly behavior indicated a dramatic impact on receptor activation as well as on the signaling mechanism associated with the murine GITRL costimulatory system. In this present work, the 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure of murine GITRL expressed in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells is reported. The eukaryotic protein-expression system allows transport of the recombinant protein into the extracellular culture medium, thus maximizing the possibility of obtaining correctly folded material devoid of any folding/assembly artifacts that are often suspected with E. coli-expressed proteins. The S2 cell-expressed murine GITRL adopts an identical ‘strand-exchanged’ dimeric structure to that observed for the E. coli-expressed protein, thus conclusively demonstrating the novel quaternary structure assembly behavior of murine GITRL

  17. EGFR gene overexpression retained in an invasive xenograft model by solid orthotopic transplantation of human glioblastoma multiforme into nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Diao; Hua, Tian Xin; Lin, Huang Yan

    2011-03-01

    Orthotopic xenograft animal model from human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines often do not recapitulate an extremely important aspect of invasive growth and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene overexpression of human GBM. We developed an orthotopic xenograft model by solid transplantation of human GBM into the brain of nude mouse. The orthotopic xenografts sharing the same histopathological features with their original human GBMs were highly invasive and retained the overexpression of EGFR gene. The murine orthotopic GBM models constitute a valuable in vivo system for preclinical studies to test novel therapies for human GBM.

  18. ZFP521 regulates murine hematopoietic stem cell function and facilitates MLL-AF9 leukemogenesis in mouse and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Brian S; Rybak, Adrian P; Beerman, Isabel; Heesters, Balthasar; Mercier, Francois E; Scadden, David T; Bryder, David; Baron, Roland; Rossi, Derrick J

    2017-08-03

    The concept that tumor-initiating cells can co-opt the self-renewal program of endogenous stem cells as a means of enforcing their unlimited proliferative potential is widely accepted, yet identification of specific factors that regulate self-renewal of normal and cancer stem cells remains limited. Using a comparative transcriptomic approach, we identify ZNF521 / Zfp521 as a conserved hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-enriched transcription factor in human and murine hematopoiesis whose function in HSC biology remains elusive. Competitive serial transplantation assays using Zfp521 -deficient mice revealed that ZFP521 regulates HSC self-renewal and differentiation. In contrast, ectopic expression of ZFP521 in HSCs led to a robust maintenance of progenitor activity in vitro. Transcriptional analysis of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples revealed that ZNF521 is highly and specifically upregulated in AMLs with MLL translocations. Using an MLL-AF9 murine leukemia model and serial transplantation studies, we show that ZFP521 is not required for leukemogenesis, although its absence leads to a significant delay in leukemia onset. Furthermore, knockdown of ZNF521 reduced proliferation in human leukemia cell lines possessing MLL-AF9 translocations. Taken together, these results identify ZNF521/ZFP521 as a critical regulator of HSC function, which facilitates MLL-AF9-mediated leukemic disease in mice.

  19. Neuronal markers are expressed in human gliomas and NSE knockdown sensitizes glioblastoma cells to radiotherapy and temozolomide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Tao; Skaftnesmo, Kai Ove; Leiss, Lina; Sleire, Linda; Wang, Jian; Li, Xingang; Enger, Per Øyvind

    2011-01-01

    Expression of neuronal elements has been identified in various glial tumors, and glioblastomas (GBMs) with neuronal differentiation patterns have reportedly been associated with longer survival. However, the neuronal class III β-tubulin has been linked to increasing malignancy in astrocytomas. Thus, the significance of neuronal markers in gliomas is not established. The expressions of class III β-tubulin, neurofilament protein (NFP), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were investigated in five GBM cell lines and two GBM biopsies with immunocytochemistry and Western blot. Moreover, the expression levels were quantified by real-time qPCR under different culture conditions. Following NSE siRNA treatment we used Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) to monitor cell growth and migration and MTS assays to study viability after irradiation and temozolomide treatment. Finally, we quantitated NSE expression in a series of human glioma biopsies with immunohistochemistry using a morphometry software, and collected survival data for the corresponding patients. The biopsies were then grouped according to expression in two halves which were compared by survival analysis. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting showed that all markers except NFP were expressed both in GBM cell lines and biopsies. Notably, qPCR demonstrated that NSE was upregulated in cellular stress conditions, such as serum-starvation and hypoxia, while we found no uniform pattern for the other markers. NSE knockdown reduced the migration of glioma cells, sensitized them to hypoxia, radio- and chemotherapy. Furthermore, we found that GBM patients in the group with the highest NSE expression lived significantly shorter than patients in the low-expression group. Neuronal markers are aberrantly expressed in human GBMs, and NSE is consistently upregulated in different cellular stress conditions. Knockdown of NSE reduces the migration of GBM cells and sensitizes

  20. MicroRNA-142-3p is involved in regulation of MGMT expression in glioblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee YY

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Yen Lee,1,2,* Aliaksandr A Yarmishyn,3,4,* Mong-Lien Wang,3,4 Hsiao-Yun Chen,4,5 Shih-Hwa Chiou,3–5 Yi-Ping Yang,4,5 Chun-Fu Lin,1,2 Pin-I Huang,2,6 Yi-Wei Chen,2,6 Hsin-I Ma,7 Ming-Teh Chen1,2 1Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 3Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, 4Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 5Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang Ming University, 6Cancer Center, Radiation Oncology Division, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 7Department of Neurological Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most malignant brain tumor, and there is no effective treatment strategy. Patients with GBM have a median overall survival of only 14.6 months. Current treatment consists of safe and maximal surgical excision, followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy and maintenance chemotherapy. There are several obstacles that hinder the effectiveness of this aggressive treatment. Temozolomide (TMZ is an oral alkylating drug that acts through alkylating the O6 position of guanine in DNA that leads to cell death. However, the expression and enzymatic activity of the DNA repair protein MGMT limits the therapeutic benefit from treatment with TMZ. MGMT reduces the efficacy of alkylating drugs by removing the methyl or alkyl group from damaged O6-methylguanine. Expression levels of MGMT play an important role in the outcome of GBM patients. miRNAs are a group of small regulatory RNAs that control target gene expression by binding to mRNAs. miR-142-3p has been found to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of the oncogenic state. Results: In this study, we sought to investigate whether miR-142-3p can regulate MGMT gene expression in GBM cells

  1. Characterization of immortalized MARCO and SR-AI/II-deficient murine alveolar macrophage cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imrich Amy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar macrophages (AM avidly bind and ingest unopsonized inhaled particles and bacteria through class A scavenger receptors (SRAs MARCO and SR-AI/II. Studies to characterize the function of these SRAs have used AMs from MARCO or SR-AI/II null mice, but this approach is limited by the relatively low yield of AMs. Moreover, studies using both MARCO and SR-AI/II-deficient (MS-/- mice have not been reported yet. Hence, we sought to develop continuous cell lines from primary alveolar macrophages from MS-/- mice. Results We used in vitro infection of the primary AMs with the J2 retrovirus carrying the v-raf and v-myc oncogenes. Following initial isolation in media supplemented with murine macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, we subcloned three AM cell lines, designated ZK-1, ZK-2 and ZK-6. These cell lines grow well in RPMI-1640-10% FBS in the absence of M-CSF. These adherent but trypsin-sensitive cell lines have a doubling time of approximately 14 hours, exhibit typical macrophage morphology, and express macrophage-associated cell surface Mac-1 (CD11b and F4/80 antigens. The cell lines show robust Fc-receptor dependent phagocytosis of opsonized red blood cells. Similar to freshly isolated AMs from MS-/- mice, the cell lines exhibit decreased phagocytosis of unopsonized titanium dioxide (TiO2, fluorescent latex beads and bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus compared with the primary AMs from wild type (WT C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion Our results indicated that three contiguous murine alveolar macrophage cell lines with MS-/- (ZK1, ZK2 and ZK6 were established successfully. These cell lines demonstrated macrophage morphology and functional activity. Interestingly, similar to freshly isolated AMs from MS-/- mice, the cell lines have a reduced, but not absent, ability to bind and ingest particles, with an altered pattern of blockade by scavenger receptor inhibitors. These cell lines will facilitate in vitro studies to further define

  2. B-1 cells modulate the murine macrophage response to Leishmania major infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, Angelica F; Nunes, Marise P; Silva-Junior, Elias B; Leandro, Monique; da Rocha, Juliana Dutra Barbosa; Morrot, Alexandre; Decote-Ricardo, Debora; Freire-de-Lima, Celio Geraldo

    2017-05-26

    To investigate the modulatory effect of B-1 cells on murine peritoneal macrophages infected with Leishmania major ( L. major ) in vitro . Peritoneal macrophages obtained from BALB/c and BALB/c XID mice were infected with L. major and cultured in the presence or absence of B-1 cells obtained from wild-type BALB/c mice. Intracellular amastigotes were counted, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production was quantified in the cellular supernatants using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of the lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ) were determined using a PGE 2 enzyme immunoassay kit (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI), and the number of lipid bodies was quantified in the cytoplasm of infected macrophages in the presence and absence of B-1 cells. Culturing the cells with selective PGE 2 -neutralizing drugs inhibited PGE 2 production and confirmed the role of this lipid mediator in IL-10 production. In contrast, we demonstrated that B-1 cells derived from IL-10 KO mice did not favor the intracellular growth of L. major . We report that B-1 cells promote the growth of L. major amastigotes inside peritoneal murine macrophages. We demonstrated that the modulatory effect was independent of physical contact between the cells, suggesting that soluble factor(s) were released into the cultures. We demonstrated in our co-culture system that B-1 cells trigger IL-10 production by L. major -infected macrophages. Furthermore, the increased secretion of IL-10 was attributed to the presence of the lipid mediator PGE 2 in supernatants of L. major -infected macrophages. The presence of B-1 cells also favors the production of lipid bodies by infected macrophages. In contrast, we failed to obtain the same effect on parasite replication inside L. major -infected macrophages when the B-1 cells were isolated from IL-10 knockout mice. Our results show that elevated levels of PGE 2 and IL-10 produced by B-1 cells increase L. major growth, as indicated by the number of parasites in cell

  3. Mitochondrial biogenesis and energy production in differentiating murine stem cells: a functional metabolic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sungwon; Auger, Christopher; Thomas, Sean C; Beites, Crestina L; Appanna, Vasu D

    2014-02-01

    The significance of metabolic networks in guiding the fate of the stem cell differentiation is only beginning to emerge. Oxidative metabolism has been suggested to play a major role during this process. Therefore, it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of metabolic alterations occurring in stem cells to manipulate the ultimate outcome of these pluripotent cells. Here, using P19 murine embryonal carcinoma cells as a model system, the role of mitochondrial biogenesis and the modulation of metabolic networks during dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-induced differentiation are revealed. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) technology aided in profiling key enzymes, such as hexokinase (HK) [EC 2.7.1.1], glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) [EC 5.3.1.9], pyruvate kinase (PK) [EC 2.7.1.40], Complex I [EC 1.6.5.3], and Complex IV [EC 1.9.3.1], that are involved in the energy budget of the differentiated cells. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production was shown to be increased in DMSO-treated cells upon exposure to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle substrates, such as succinate and malate. The increased mitochondrial activity and biogenesis were further confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Collectively, the results indicate that oxidative energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis were sharply upregulated in DMSO-differentiated P19 cells. This functional metabolic and proteomic study provides further evidence that modulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism is a pivotal component of the cellular differentiation process and may dictate the final destiny of stem cells.

  4. Radioautographic analysis of changes in different phases of cell kinetics in murine oral mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Suck; You, Dong Soo

    1983-01-01

    The age related changes in the life cycle of the progenitor cell population of murine oral epithelia was studied. Using radioautographic methods which have been adopted in previous cell cycle studies, the age-related changes of different phases in renewing cells of the palatal, buccal and lingual mucosae were determined. The results confirm published findings on cell cycle changes of epithelia with aging and illustrated further that mitotic phases which has hither to been considered stationary, also changes with aging. The major parts revealed by this study are as follows: 1. The basal progenitor cells in different regions of oral mucosa have different generation times. 2. The basal cell cycle time increases as a function of aging and the region most affected by aging appears to be the epithelium of the cheek. 3. The phases of the cell cycle affected by the process of aging are in increasing order of magnitude: M-, S- and G1-phase. 4. The age related change in the number of DNA synthesizing basal progenitor cells occurs at two age periods. Between 1 and 12 months of life it decreases, while from 12 to 20 months it increases.

  5. Cultivation of murine bone marrow macrophages in sponges: a method that permits recovery of viable cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akporiaye, E T; Stewart, S; Stewart, C C

    1984-01-01

    Various investigators have cultured murine bone marrow or peritoneal cells in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces with the ultimate aim of retrieving adherent macrophages for morphologic and functional evaluation. The removal of these adherent macrophages by conventional techniques has been consistently accompanied by low yield and significant cell damage. The authors report here a simple technique for culturing murine bone marrow cells in gelatin sponges (Spongostan and Gelfoam) in growth medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum and 10% L-cell conditioned medium. Viable cells were retrieved from the sponges in 10 min by digestion with collagenase. The in situ growth kinetics were similar to those found for cells cultured on plastic dishes. The recovered cells were adherent, phagocytic, positive for Fc ..gamma.. receptors, and had esterase activity. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  6. The NFL-TBS.40-63 anti-glioblastoma peptide disrupts microtubule and mitochondrial networks in the T98G glioma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Rivalin

    Full Text Available Despite aggressive therapies, including combinations of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, glioblastoma remains a highly aggressive brain cancer with the worst prognosis of any central nervous system disease. We have previously identified a neurofilament-derived cell-penetrating peptide, NFL-TBS.40-63, that specifically enters by endocytosis in glioblastoma cells, where it induces microtubule destruction and inhibits cell proliferation. Here, we explore the impact of NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide on the mitochondrial network and its functions by using global cell respiration, quantitative PCR analysis of the main actors directing mitochondrial biogenesis, western blot analysis of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS subunits and confocal microscopy. We show that the internalized peptide disturbs mitochondrial and microtubule networks, interferes with mitochondrial dynamics and induces a rapid depletion of global cell respiration. This effect may be related to reduced expression of the NRF-1 transcription factor and of specific miRNAs, which may impact mitochondrial biogenesis, in regard to default mitochondrial mobility.

  7. Fibulin-2 is present in murine vascular lesions and is important for smooth muscle cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ström, A.; Olin, A. I.; Aspberg, A.

    2006-01-01

    /hyaluronan complexes, an ECM network that has been suggested to be important during tissue repair. In this study we have analysed the presence of fibulin-2 in two different models of