WorldWideScience

Sample records for munsell color science

  1. The Munsell Color System: a scientific compromise from the world of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Sally

    2014-09-01

    Color systems make accurate color specification and matching possible in science, art, and industry by defining a coordinate system for all possible color perceptions. The Munsell Color System, developed by the artist Albert Henry Munsell in the early twentieth century, has influenced color science to this day. I trace the development of the Munsell Color System from its origins in the art world to its acceptance in the scientific community. Munsell's system was the first to accurately and quantitatively describe the psychological experience of color. By considering the problems that color posed for Munsell's art community and examining his diaries and published material, I conclude that Munsell arrived at his results by remaining agnostic as to the scientific definition of color, while retaining faith that color perceptions could be objectively quantified. I argue that Munsell was able to interest the scientific community in his work because color had become a controversial topic between physicists and psychologists. Parts of Munsell's system appealed to each field, making it a workable compromise. For contrast, I suggest that three contemporary scientists with whom Munsell had contact--Wilhelm Ostwald, Ogden Rood, and Edward Titchener--did not reach the same conclusions in their color systems because they started from scientific assumptions about the nature of color.

  2. Tulip, a Modified Munsell Color Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Uri

    1990-03-01

    The "Tulip" is a modified Munsell Color Space in which equal hue spacing is converted to variable hue spacing, reflecting the differential sensitivity to hue as a function of value, for a fixed chroma. Number of discernible hues, when plotted on a hue-value plane, results in the proposed tulip shape, with curved lines delineating the boundaries between hues. By means of a signal detection experiment, the tulip for yellow-green and for blue is determined. It is shown that more distinct hues of yellow-green are discernible at a high value than at low value. Conversely, for blue, more distinct hues are discernible at low value than at high value.

  3. Evaluating the accuracy of tooth color measurement by combining the Munsell color system and dental colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jiun-Yao; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Ta-Ko; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Fu, Po-Sung; Chen, Jeng-Huey; Hung, Chun-Cheng

    2012-09-01

    As we pay increasing attention to dental aesthetics, tooth color matching has become an important part of daily dental practice. This aim of this study was to develop a method to enhance the accuracy of a tooth color matching machine. The Munsell color tabs in the range of natural human teeth were measured using a tooth color measuring machine (ShadeEye NCC). The machine's accuracy was analyzed using an analysis of variance test and a Tukey post-hoc test. When matching the Munsell color tabs with the ShadeEye NCC colorimeter, settings of Chroma greater than 6 and Value less than 4 showed unacceptable clinical results. When the CIELAB mode was used, the a* value (which represents the red-green axis in the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage color space) made no significant difference (p=0.84), the L* value (which represents the lightness) resulted in a negative correlation, and the b* value (which represents the yellow-blue axis) resulted in a positive correlation with ΔE. When the Munsell color tabs and the Vitapan were measured in the same mode and compared, the inaccuracies showed that the Vitapan was not a proper tool for evaluating the stability and accuracy of ShadeEye NCC. By knowing the limitations of the machine, we evaluated the data using the Munsell color tabs; shade beyond the acceptable range should be reevaluated using a visual shade matching method, or if measured by another machine, this shade range should be covered to obtain more accurate results. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Munsell color analysis of Landsat color-ratio-composite images of limonitic areas in southwest New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    The causes of color variations in the green areas on Landsat 4/5-4/6-6/7 (red-blue-green) color-ratio-composite (CRC) images, defined as limonitic areas, were investigated by analyzing the CRC images of the Lordsburg, New Mexico area. The red-blue-green additive color system was mathematically transformed into the cylindrical Munsell color coordinates (hue, saturation, and value), and selected areas were digitally analyzed for color variation. The obtained precise color characteristics were then correlated with properties of surface material. The amount of limonite (L) visible to the sensor was found to be the primary cause of the observed color differences. The visible L is, is turn, affected by the amount of L on the material's surface and by within-pixel mixing of limonitic and nonlimonitic materials. The secondary cause of variation was vegetation density, which shifted CRC hues towards yellow-green, decreased saturation, and increased value.

  5. [Evaluation of color perception in individuals addicted to narcotic substances in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolska, Krystyna; Goś, Roman

    2016-12-22

    The aim of the study was to assess color perception in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test in individuals addicted to narcotic substances, and to analyze the acquired color vision disorders, depending on the duration of addiction and abstinence. Ninety-five persons were qualified for the study. All the subjects were divided into 3 groups. Group I (drug addicts) comprised 45 individuals addicted to narcotic substances and nicotine. Group II (smokers) consisted of 30 individuals addicted only to nicotine, and group III (abstinents) included 20 individuals free of addictions. In all the study groups anamnesis, survey, standard ophthalmological examination and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test were performed. In the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test the mean values of total error score (TES) for the purposes of the analysis, expressed in the values of square root (√TES), proved to be significantly higher in group I than in the two other groups (p colors. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test proved useful in the detection and assessment of acquired dyschromatopsy induced by narcotic substances. The observed disorders appeared to be dependent on the duration of addiction and abstinence. Med Pr 2016;67(6):777-785. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. Use of digital Munsell color space to assist interretation of imaging spectrometer data: Geologic examples from the northern Grapevine Mountains, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, F. A.; Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Clark, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques using Munsell color transformations were developed for reducing 128 channels (or less) of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data to a single color-composite-image suitable for both visual interpretation and digital analysis. Using AIS data acquired in 1984 and 1985, limestone and dolomite roof pendants and sericite-illite and other clay minerals related to alteration were mapped in a quartz monzonite stock in the northern Grapevine Mountains of California and Nevada. Field studies and laboratory spectral measurements verify the mineralogical distributions mapped from the AIS data.

  7. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  8. 7 CFR 51.3418 - Optional test for fry color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional test for fry color. 51.3418 Section 51.3418... color. Fry color may be determined in accordance with contract specifications by using the Munsell Color...°F or 21/2 minutes at 375°F. 5 Munsell Color Standards for Frozen French Fried Potatoes, Third...

  9. Contributions of early Arab scholars to color science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2017-09-01

    The Islamic world made important discoveries in the field of color science during the medieval era. These included many fundamental ideas on the nature of color. Some of the first hue scales, though partial were developed by these scholars. They also showed that color was a percept and light and color were ontologically distinct. Other contributions by these scholars include descriptions of the color mixtures, color tops, color theory, etc. A few of these contributions will be discussed in this paper with particular attention to the work of Ibn al-Haytham on color.

  10. Effects of color in the learning of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Juárez, A.; Granda, César W.; Castillo, D.; Jaramillo, Johanna E.; Melgar, Guissella K.

    2017-09-01

    The teaching of science is a global problem, general studies have been carried out which take into account the effects of color in the educational environment and have had revealing results, however a study has not been made to measure the effects of color in the learning of the sciences, in this specific case of Physics and mathematics. A study of the effects of color on science teaching was conducted, controlling color of various materials such as slides used in class, markers on blackboard, pens, paper sheets, laboratory materials and teacher's clothing color. In this paper we present results of student academic performance, opinion about the subject, development of logical abilities and a comparison with the teaching of science in a free way, that is to say, without control of color. There is also a study of color effects in science education distinguishing between genders and finally comparing the general results in the educational field with those obtained in this work.

  11. Ocean Color and Earth Science Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritorena, S.

    2014-12-01

    The development of consistent, high quality time series of biogeochemical products from a single ocean color sensor is a difficult task that involves many aspects related to pre- and post-launch instrument calibration and characterization, stability monitoring and the removal of the contribution of the atmosphere which represents most of the signal measured at the sensor. It is even more challenging to build Climate Data Records (CDRs) or Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs) from multiple sensors as design, technology and methodologies (bands, spectral/spatial resolution, Cal/Val, algorithms) differ from sensor to sensor. NASA MEaSUREs, ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) and IOCCG Virtual Constellation are some of the underway efforts that investigate or produce ocean color CDRs or ESDRs from the recent and current global missions (SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS). These studies look at key aspects of the development of unified data records from multiple sensors, e.g. the concatenation of the "best" individual records vs. the merging of multiple records or band homogenization vs. spectral diversity. The pros and cons of the different approaches are closely dependent upon the overall science purpose of the data record and its temporal resolution. While monthly data are generally adequate for biogeochemical modeling or to assess decadal trends, higher temporal resolution data records are required to look into changes in phenology or the dynamics of phytoplankton blooms. Similarly, short temporal resolution (daily to weekly) time series may benefit more from being built through the merging of data from multiple sensors while a simple concatenation of data from individual sensors might be better suited for longer temporal resolution (e.g. monthly time series). Several Ocean Color ESDRs were developed as part of the NASA MEaSUREs project. Some of these time series are built by merging the reflectance data from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua and Envisat-MERIS in a semi-analytical ocean color

  12. Empowering Girls of Color through Authentic Science Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.; Levy, Ian P.; Emdin, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The underrepresentation of girls and students of color in STEM fields, particularly in science, is an ongoing issue that is very well documented. There is a limited amount of research that provides insight on experiences of girls, especially girls of color, who have been exposed to authentic science experiences. This article interrogates the…

  13. Harmonious colors: from alchemy to science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a very long tradition in designing color palettes for various applications, going back to at least the Upanishad. Although color palettes have been influenced by the available colorants, starting with the advent of aniline dyes in the late 1850s there have been few physical limits on the choice of individual colors. This abundance of choices exacerbates the problem of limiting the number of colors in a palette, i.e., in keeping them into a manageable quantity. For example, it is not practical for a car company to offer each model in hundreds of colors. Instead, for each model year a small number of color palettes is offered, each containing the colors for the body, trim, interior, etc. Another example is the fashion industry, where in addition to solid colors there are also patterns, leading to a huge variety of combinations that would be impossible to stock. The traditional solution is that of "color forecasting." Color consultants assess the sentiment or affective state of a target customer class and compare it with new colorants offered by the industry. They assemble a limited color palette, name the colors according to the sentiment, and publish their result. Textile manufacturers will produce fabrics in these colors and fashion designers will design clothes, accessories, and furniture based on these fabrics. Eventually, the media will communicate these forecasts to the consumers, who will be admired by their cohorts when they choose colors from the forecast palette, which by then is widely diffused. The color forecasting business is very labor intensive and difficult, thus for years computer engineers have tried to come up with algorithms to design harmonious color palettes, alas with little commercial success. For example, Johannes Itten's color theory has been implemented many times, but despite Itten's success in the Bauhaus artifacts, the computer tools have been of little utility. Indeed, contrary to the auditory sense, there is no known

  14. The Science Standards and Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Samantha L.

    2017-01-01

    In a 2014 report, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) projected that by the year 2022, minority students will outnumber non-Hispanic white students enrolled in public schools. As the diversity of the student population in the United States increases, concerns arise about student performance in science classes, especially among…

  15. Evaluation of the accuracy and limitations of three tooth-color measuring machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Yao Chang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: By knowing the limits of each machine after being analyzed with the Munsell Book of Color, we can use the color measuring instrument in the specific color space range that the devices measuring accuracy performs the best in to achieve objective and accurate tooth-color measuring results in routine dental practice.

  16. Women, race, and science: The academic experiences of twenty women of color with a passion for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Angela C.

    Women of color drop out of science at higher rates than other students. This study is an ethnographic examination of why this occurs and how women of color can be supported in studying science. Through participant observation in science classes, labs, and a program supporting high-achieving students of color, as well as interviews with minority women science students, the student identities celebrated by science departments, as well as those embraced by my informants, were uncovered. Cultural norms of science classes often differed from those of the women in the study. Only one identity---apprentice research scientist---was celebrated in science settings, although others were tolerated. The women tended to either embrace the apprentice research scientist identity, form an alternative science-oriented identity, or never form a satisfying science student identity. Women who were more racially marked were more likely to fall into the second and third groups. This study uncovered difficulties which women students of color faced more than other science students. In addition, it uncovered several seemingly neutral institutional features of science lectures and labs which actually served to discourage or marginalize women students of color. It revealed values held in common by the women in the study and how those characteristics (especially altruism and pride and pleasure in academic challenge) led them to study science. It also revealed strategies used by the most successful women science students, as well as by professors and programs most successful at supporting women of color in the study of science. Based on this study, increasing the participation of women of color in science holds the possibility of altering the basic values of science; however, institutional features and personal interactions within science departments tend to resist those changes, primarily by encouraging women of color to abandon their study of science.

  17. Perspectives of women of color in science-based education and careers. Summary of the conference on diversity in science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Research on inequality or stratification in science and engineering tends to concentrate on black/white or male/female difference; very few studies have discussions of both race and gender. Consequently, very little is known about the exact course that women of color take in science-based education and employment or about the course that steers them out of science-based careers. Questions abound: What are the environmental factors that affect the choices in education and science-based careers of women of color? What has influenced women of color who currently are in science-based careers? Is critical mass important and, if so, what are the keys to increasing it? What recommendations can be made to colleges and universities, faculty members, employers, the federal government, women of color themselves, and to improve the conditions and numbers of women of color in science-based careers? These questions prompted the National Research Council`s Committee on Women in Science and Engineering (CWSE) to convene a conference on Diversity in Science: Perspectives on the Retention of Minority Women in Science, Engineering, and Health-Care Professions, held on October 21--23, 1995. Confronting the problem of the lack of knowledge about the journey of women of color in science-based education and career, the conference offered opportunities for these women to describe the paths that they have taken and to identify strategies for success. Their perspectives ground this report. For purposes of this document, women of color include women in the following racial or ethnic groups: Hispanics, African-Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indians and Alaskan Natives. Science-based careers include those in the physical sciences and mathematics, life sciences, social sciences, and engineering.

  18. Color memory matching: time effect and other factors

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Carpinell, Jaime; Baldoví, Rosa; Fez Saiz, Dolores de; Castro, José

    1998-01-01

    The methods of simultaneous and successive, or memory, color matching have been compared for 10 color reference samples distributed in two groups each performed by 50 observers (25 men and 25 women). Our results, obtained with a total of 200 Munsell color chips arrayed on 10 gray cardboard panels, indicated that: a)while by simultaneous matching the mean color differences obtained are, in most cases, lower than 1 Cielab unit, those obtained by memory are generally higer; b) the worst remember...

  19. The effect of illumination on gray color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Sperandio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the perceptual process of integration of luminance information in the production of the gray color of an object placed in an environment viewed from a window. The mean luminance of the object was varied for each mean luminance of the environment. Participants matched the gray color of the object with that of Munsell chips in a viewing box. The results show that the Munsell values so obtained are linear measures of gray color. The results support the possibility that the gray color of the object derives from an additive integration of the information about mean luminance of the object and about mean luminance of the environment, with the weights of this information varying with the mean luminances.

  20. Temporary effects of alcohol on color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniusz, Maciej K.; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Marta; Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The color vision has been described as one to be very sensitive to the intake of several chemicals. The present research reviews the published literature that is concerned with color vision impairment due to alcohol. Most of this research considers people under long-term effects of alcohol. However, there is little information about temporary effects of alcohol on color vision. A group of ten volunteers aged 18-40 was studied. During the study levels of alcohol in the body were tested with a standard breathalyzer while color vision were studied using Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision Tests. Keywords: Col

  1. The Impact of Color-Coding Freshmen Integrated-Science Assignments on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdivant Allen, Anita Kay

    Students in Grade 9 exhibit high rates of grade retention and absenteeism. Educators have used different strategies that will increase the achievement of those students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship existed between student achievement and the strategy to use colored paper for Grade 9 science assignments and tests. Itten's color theory provided the theoretical framework. Itten was one of the first researchers to explore the notion that the human eye can detect wavelengths as colors and that those colors can engage and create order in the human brain. A sample of students assigned to 4 classroom teachers at one high school who volunteered to take part in the study for 18 weeks were used in this quantitative study. Teachers administered student assessments on blue, green, yellow, and white paper. Each class was assigned 1 of the 4 colors for 4.5 weeks. The classes were then assigned a different color for the same length of time until each class had exposure to all 4 colors. Physical science exams given to students in the same grade or subject were used as the dependent variable. An ANOVA indicated that the groups using blue paper scored the highest on the physical science exams; students who used white paper earned the lowest scores. When comparing all 3 groups using colored paper (all three colored paper groups combined into one group) to the white paper groups, t-test results indicated that students using any colored paper scored higher than students using white paper. Further research on the impact of colored paper on student academic performance is necessary. Implications for positive social change indicate that new knowledge about instructional tools that impact student achievement deserves more attention.

  2. Career-Life Balance for Women of Color: Experiences in Science and Engineering Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachchaf, Rachel; Ko, Lily; Hodari, Apriel; Ong, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The National Science Foundation recently recognized that career-life balance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) may present some unique challenges for women of color compared with their White and/or male counterparts, thus negatively impacting retention and advancement for a minority demographic that has long been…

  3. A critical exploration of science doctoral programs: Counterstories from underrepresented women of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Senetta F.

    Most studies exploring the experiences of underrepresented doctoral students of color in science fields focus on their socialization into predominantly white institutions. While the socialization process is fundamental to doctoral success and consequently deserves attention, it is critical to inquire into how the widespread and lasting perception of people of color as socioculturally deficient shapes underrepresented students` socialization into science doctoral programs. Further, the existing research literature and educational policies addressing the persistent underrepresentation of students of color in science doctorates remain fixated on increasing racial diversity for U.S. economic security rather than racial equity. In view of the limitation of existing research literature, in this study, drawing from critical race theories, fictive-kinship, and forms of capital, I use counterstorytelling to recast racial inequities in the education of science doctorates as a problem of social justice, not as an issue of the students' sociocultural deficits or as a matter of economic security. Through interviews I examined the experiences, from elementary school to current careers, of three women of color who were science doctoral students. Participants' counterstories revealed institutionalized racism embedded in doctoral programs exploited their identities and dismissed their lived experiences, thereby, relegating them to outsiders-within academe. This marginalization precluded the inclusive socialization of participants into their doctoral programs and ultimately set up barriers to their pursuit of scientific careers. This study divulges the academic and career consequences of the sustained privilege disparities between underrepresented students of color's experience and the experiences of their white and Asian counterparts. In light of the participants' experiences, I recommend that, in order to change the existing policy of socially integrating students into oppressive

  4. Color measurement of methylene blue dye/clay mixtures and its application using economical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Maja; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Logar, Mihovil

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the clay mineral components of clay materials by staining tests is rapid and simple, but their applicability is restricted because of the mutual interference of the common components of clay materials and difficulties in color determination. The change of color with concentration of the dye is related to the use of colorants as a field test for identifying clay minerals and has been improved over the years to assure the accuracy of the tests (Faust G. T., 1940). The problem of measurement and standardization of color may be solved by combination of colors observed in staining tests with prepared charts of color chips available in the Munsell Book of Color, published by Munsell Color Co. Under a particular set of illumination conditions, a human eye can achieve an approximate match between the color of the dyed clay sample and that of a standard color chip, even though they do have different spectral reflectance characteristics. Experiments were carried out with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy on selected clay samples (three montmorillonite, three kaolinite and one mix-layer clay samples) saturated with different concentration of methylene blue dye solution. Dominant wavelength and purity of the color was obtained on oriented dry samples and calculated by use of the I. C. I. (x, y) - diagram in the region of 400-700 nm (reflectance spectra) without MB and after saturation with different concentrations of MB solutions. Samples were carefully photographed in the natural light environment and processed with user friendly and easily accessible applications (Adobe color CC and ColorHexa encyclopedia) available for android phones or tablets. Obtained colors were compared with Munsell standard color chips, RGB and Hexa color standards. Changes in the color of clay samples in their interaction with different concentration of the applied dye together with application of economical methods can still be used as a rapid fieldwork test. Different types of clay

  5. Polychromatic solid-state lamps versus tungsten radiator: hue changes of Munsell samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanikunas, R; Vaitkevicius, H; Svegzda, A; Viliunas, V; Bliznikas, Z; Breive, K; Vaicekauskas, R; Novickovas, A; Kurilcik, G; Zukauskas, A; Gaska, R; Shur, M S

    2005-01-01

    Colour-perception differences under illumination by two quadrichromatic solid-state sources of light have been studied with respect to a tungsten radiator with the same correlated colour temperature (2600 K). A virtual RYgCB source (illuminant), which contains red, yellow-green, cyan and blue components with the line width typical of AlGaInP and AlInGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), was fully optimized for the highest value of the general colour-rendering index (CRI) (R a = 98.3). An implemented RAGB source (lamp) contained commercially available red, amber, green and blue LEDs (R a 79.4). Colorimetric calculations in the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage 1976 (u',v') colour plane for 40 Munsell colour samples (value 6, chroma/6, hue increment 2.5) revealed the differences in hue discrimination and distortion for both sources in the yellow-green and blue-cyan ranges. These differences were not revealed by the standard analysis of the special CRIs and were lower for the RYgCB illuminant, which contained primary LEDs in the sensitive ranges. A psychophysical experiment on seven subjects was performed using the RAGB lamp stabilized against thermal and ageing drifts. Despite different colour-perception abilities of the subjects under investigation, the experiment confirmed the calculation results. Methods of obtaining composite white light with high subjective ratings are discussed, based on the obtained data

  6. Women of Color in Mathematics, Science & Engineering: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewell, Beatriz Chu; Anderson, Bernice

    This review of the literature on women of color in mathematics, science, and engineering helps define the need for a national agenda for equity in these fields sponsored by the Educational Equity Policy Studies Program of the Center for Women Policy Studies, and for a comprehensive research program that examines barriers to the participation of…

  7. Soil color - a window for public and educators to understands soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libohova, Zamir; Beaudette, Dylan; Wills, Skye; Monger, Curtis; Lindbo, David

    2017-04-01

    Soil color is one of the most visually striking properties recorded by soil scientists around the world. Soil color is an important characteristic related to soil properties such organic matter, parent materials, drainage. It is a simplified way for the public and educators alike to understand soils and their functions. Soil color is a quick measurement that can be recorded by people using color charts or digital cameras, offering an opportunity for the citizen science projects to contribute to soil science. The US Soil Survey has recorded soil colors using Munsell color system for over 20,000 soil types representing a wide range of conditions throughout the Unites States. The objective of this research was to generate a US soil color map based on color descriptions from the Official Series Descriptions (OSDs). A color calculator developed in R and ArcMap were used to spatially display the soil colors. Soil colors showed vertical trends related to soil depth and horizontal trends related to parent material and climate. Soil colors represent development processes depending upon environment and time that have influenced their appearance and geographic distribution. Dark colors represent soils that are rich in organic matter, such as the soils of the Midwest USA, which are some of the most fertile soils in the world. These soils are relatively "young" in that they developed over the last 20,000 years in materials left behind after continental Glaciers retreated and reflect long- term prairie vegetation that dominated this area prior to European settlements. Dark soils of the Pacific Northwest reflect the influence of forests (and volcanic activity) but are shallower and less fertile than the deep dark Midwest soils. Soils of the eastern and southern Coastal Plains are older and are enriched with iron oxides ('rust') which gives them their red coloring. Soils of flood plains, like the broad Mississippi Valley, have multi-colored soils that reflect the process of

  8. Digital color analysis of color-ratio composite LANDSAT scenes. [Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented that can be used to calculate approximate Munsell coordinates of the colors produced by making a color composite from three registered images. Applied to the LANDSAT MSS data of the Goldfield, Nevada, area, this method permits precise and quantitative definition of the limonitic areas originally observed in a LANDSAT color ratio composite. In addition, areas of transported limonite can be discriminated from the limonite in the hydrothermally altered areas of the Goldfield mining district. From the analysis, the numerical distinction between limonitic and nonlimonitic ground is generally less than 3% using the LANDSAT bands and as much as 8% in ratios of LANDSAT MSS bands.

  9. A Critical Dialogue: Faculty of Color in Library and Information Science

    OpenAIRE

    Ceja Alcalá, Janet; Colón-Aguirre, Mónica; Cooke, Nicole A.; Stewart, Brenton

    2017-01-01

    Using a social justice framework, we discuss our experiences as faculty members of color working in Library and Information Science (LIS).  We present our educational trajectories as well as our professional engagement with teaching, research, and service.  This piece contributes to the growing literature on diversity in LIS by articulating African American and Latina perspectives of academia, which are underrepresented demographics in LIS and more generally in higher education in the United ...

  10. Engaging youth of color in applied science education and public health promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague Martinez, Linda; Bowers, Edmond; Reich, Amanda J.; Ndulue, Uchenna J.; Le, Albert An; Peréa, Flavia C.

    2016-03-01

    Participation in inquiry-based science education, which focuses on student-constructed learning, has been linked to academic success. Whereas the benefits of this type of science education are evident, access to such high-quality science curriculum and programming is not equitable. Black and Latino students in particular have less access to supplementary science programming, and fewer opportunities to engage in inquiry-based education. This paper describes outcomes associated with an inquiry-based out-of-school time science education program, Nuestro Futuro: Applied Science Education to Engage Black and Latino Youth (NFASE), which sought to build the capacity of middle school students of color to 'think' like health scientists from diverse disciplinary perspectives. The program was designed with the intent of (1) improving student attitudes toward and motivation for science and (2) increasing active and engaged citizenship (AEC). NFASE students explored health inequity and the social determinants of health locally and engaged in developing health promotion, outreach and education efforts targeted to their peers, parents/families, and community. Interest in the program was high overall, but implementation was not without challenges. Although evaluation outcomes indicate that there were no statistically significant changes in science-related attitudes or motivation, students reported significant increases in neighborhood social connection, as well as overall AEC.

  11. Goethe’s theory of colors between the ancient philosophy, middle ages occultism and modern science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Barsan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Goethe’s rejection of Newton’s theory of colors is an interesting example of the vulnerability of the human mind—however brilliant it might be—to fanaticism. After an analysis of Goethe’s persistent fascination with magic and occultism, of his education, existential experiences, influences, and idiosyncrasies, the authors propose an original interpretation of his anti-Newtonian position. The relevance of Goethe’s Farbenlehre to physics and physiology, from the perspective of modern science, is discussed in detail.

  12. Transfer adjustment experiences of underrepresented students of color in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, June C.

    Two-year colleges have long served as the starting point for many students in higher education and particularly those of underrepresented backgrounds. In recent years, these institutions have been called upon to help address the high attrition rates facing the science and mathematics disciplines by promoting interest development and transfer of underrepresented students in these fields. This study examined the adjustment experiences of underrepresented students of color after transferring from community colleges to a four-year university in the sciences. By employing qualitative interviews with students of African, Latino, Pacific Island, and Southeast Asian descent, students' perceptions of the sciences at the two- and four-year campus, adjustment process, and benefits and detriments of taking the transfer route were the focus of this research. The findings show that transfer students experience a very different science culture at each institutional type in terms of pedagogy and curriculum and interactions with classmates and faculty. While students witnessed a collaborative science culture at the community college, they faced a highly competitive and individualistic environment at the university. The greater the difference encountered, the more difficult were students' adjustment. Adjustment was aided in two primary ways: socialization experiences before transferring and the development of common identity groups with other students who shared similar backgrounds, goals, and struggles. These groups formed organically at the two-year college but were more difficult to forge at the university. When present, however, they served as niches, sites of validation, and counter spaces within the larger university setting. It appears that starting at the community college benefited most participants by providing a nurturing environment that fostered their commitment to science. Some students felt that they would have been dissuaded from pursuing their majors had they only

  13. Authoring Identity amidst the Treacherous Terrain of Science: A Multiracial Feminist Examination of the Journeys of Three Women of Color in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Angela; Brown, Jaweer; Carlone, Heidi; Cuevas, Azita K.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the identity processes of women of color in science-based fields helps us (a) find ways to support similar women, and (b) study the dynamics of inequity, within and beyond science. Participants in this study (a Black woman, a Latina, and an American Indian woman) survived inadequate high schools and discouraging college science…

  14. Gender and engineering aptitude: Is the color of science, technology, engineering, and math materials related to children's performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Miller, Bridget; Rizzardi, Victoria

    2017-08-01

    To investigate gender stereotypes, demonstrated engineering aptitude, and attitudes, children (N=105) solved an engineering problem using either pastel-colored or primary-colored materials. Participants also evaluated the acceptability of denial of access to engineering materials based on gender and counter-stereotypic preferences (i.e., a boy who prefers pastel-colored materials). Whereas material color was not related to differences in female participants' performance, younger boys assigned to pastel materials demonstrated lower engineering aptitude than did other participants. In addition, results documented age- and gender-related differences; younger participants, and sometimes boys, exhibited less flexibility regarding gender stereotypes than did older and female participants. The findings suggest that attempts to enhance STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) engagement or performance through the color of STEM materials may have unintended consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Topics in Current Science Research: Closing the Achievement Gap for Under Resourced Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya Villalpando, Alvaro; Daal, Miguel; Phipps, Arran; Speller, Danielle; Sadoulet, Bernard; Winheld, Rachel; Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Topics in Current Science Research (TCSR) is a five-week summer course offered at the University of California, Berkeley through a collaboration between the Level Playing Field Institute's Summer Math and Science Honors Academy (SMASH) Program and the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) group at UC Berkeley. SMASH is an academic enrichment program geared towards under-resourced, high school students of color. The goals of the course are to expand the students' conception of STEM, to teach the students that science is a method of inquiry and not just a collection of facts that are taught in school, and to expose the scholars to critical thinking within a scientific setting. The course's curriculum engages the scholars in hands-on scientific research, project proposal writing, and presentation of their scientific work to their peers as well as to a panel of UC Berkeley scientists. In this talk, we describe the course and the impact it has had on previous scholars, we discuss how the course's pedagogy has evolved over the past 10 years to enhance students' perception and understanding of science, and we present previous participants' reflections and feedback about the course and its success in providing high school students a genuine research experience at the university level.

  16. Double jeopardy in astronomy and planetary science: Women of color face greater risks of gendered and racial harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Lee, Katharine M. N.; Rodgers, Erica M.; Richey, Christina

    2017-07-01

    Women generally, and women of color specifically, have reported hostile workplace experiences in astronomy and related fields for some time. However, little is known of the extent to which individuals in these disciplines experience inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault. We hypothesized that the multiple marginality of women of color would mean that they would experience a higher frequency of inappropriate remarks, harassment, and assault in the astronomical and planetary science workplace. We conducted an internet-based survey of the workplace experiences of 474 astronomers and planetary scientists between 2011 and 2015 and found support for this hypothesis. In this sample, in nearly every significant finding, women of color experienced the highest rates of negative workplace experiences, including harassment and assault. Further, 40% of women of color reported feeling unsafe in the workplace as a result of their gender or sex, and 28% of women of color reported feeling unsafe as a result of their race. Finally, 18% of women of color, and 12% of white women, skipped professional events because they did not feel safe attending, identifying a significant loss of career opportunities due to a hostile climate. Our results suggest that the astronomy and planetary science community needs to address the experiences of women of color and white women as they move forward in their efforts to create an inclusive workplace for all scientists.

  17. SkyProbeBV: dual-color absolute sky transparency monitor to optimize science operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Magnier, Eugene; Sabin, Dan; Mahoney, Billy

    2008-07-01

    Mauna Kea (4200 m elevation, Hawaii) is known for its pristine seeing conditions, but sky transparency can be an issue for science operations: 25% of the nights are not photometric, a cloud coverage mostly due to high-altitude thin cirrus. The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) is upgrading its real-time sky transparency monitor in the optical domain (V-band) into a dual-color system by adding a B-band channel and redesigning the entire optical and mechanical assembly. Since 2000, the original single-channel SkyProbe has gathered one exposure every minute during each observing night using a small CCD camera with a very wide field of view (35 sq. deg.) encompassing the region pointed by the telescope for science operations, and exposures long enough (30 seconds) to capture at least 100 stars of Hipparcos' Tychos catalog at high galactic latitudes (and up to 600 stars at low galactic latitudes). A key advantage of SkyProbe over direct thermal infrared imaging detection of clouds, is that it allows an accurate absolute measurement, within 5%, of the true atmospheric absorption by clouds affecting the data being gathered by the telescope's main science instrument. This system has proven crucial for decision making in the CFHT queued service observing (QSO), representing today 95% of the telescope time: science exposures taken in non-photometric conditions are automatically registered for being re-observed later on (at 1/10th of the original exposure time per pointing in the observed filters) to ensure a proper final absolute photometric calibration. If the absorption is too high, exposures can be repeated, or the observing can be done for a lower ranked science program. The new dual color system (simultaneous B & V bands) will allow a better characterization of the sky properties above Mauna Kea and should enable a better detection of the thinner cirrus (absorption down to 0.02 mag., i.e. 2%). SkyProbe is operated within the Elixir pipeline, a collection of tools

  18. Color of Minerals. Earth Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, George, Jr.

    The causes for many of the colors exhibited by minerals are presented to students. Several theories of modern physics are introduced. The nature of light, the manner in which light interacts with matter, atomic theory, and crystal structure are all discussed in relation to the origin of color in minerals. Included are color pictures of many…

  19. Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2003-03-01

    It has been postulated that humans can differentiate between millions of gradations in color. Not surprisingly, no completely adequate, detailed catalog of colors has yet been devised, however the quest to understand, record, and depict color is as old as the quest to understand the fundamentals of the physical world and the nature of human consciousness. Rolf Kuehni's Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present represents an ambitious and unprecedented history of man's inquiry into color order, focusing on the practical applications of the most contemporary developments in the field. Kuehni devotes much of his study to geometric, three-dimensional arrangements of color experiences, a type of system developed only in the mid-nineteenth century. Color spaces are of particular interest for color quality-control purposes in the manufacturing and graphics industries. The author analyzes three major color order systems in detail: Munsell, OSA-UCS, and NCS. He presents historical and current information on color space developments in color vision, psychology, psychophysics, and color technology. Chapter topics include: A historical account of color order systems Fundamentals of psychophysics and the relationship between stimuli and experience Results of perceptual scaling of colors according to attributes History of the development of mathematical color space and difference formulas Analysis of the agreements and discrepancies in psychophysical data describing color differences An experimental plan for the reliable, replicated perceptual data necessary to make progress in the field Experts in academia and industry, neuroscientists, designers, art historians, and anyone interested in the nature of color will find Color Space and Its Divisions to be the authoritative reference in its field.

  20. Colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  1. Avaliação da coloração de basidiocarpos desidratados de Agaricus blazei segundo escala de Munsell Evaluation of the dehydrated fruiting bodies of the mushroom Agaricus blazei according to Munsell colour scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida da Fonseca Delú

    2006-02-01

    also tested in the same concentrations of citric acid for 0, 10 and 15 minutes. All the treatments were done in 3 replicates. According to the Munsell colour scale it was not observed difference in the colour of the basidiocarps among the treatments used in this work.

  2. Deducto and Color Deducto: Enhance Logical Reasoning through Educational Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the various features of the educational games, Deducto and Color Deducto. With a firm belief that technology can bring about a revolution in education, these activities have been designed to help enhance the logical reasoning and analytical thinking of children. They have been developed in python with a focus on Sugar environment, OLPC XO’s software paradigm. They conform to Sugar's cardinal objective of learning through reasoning, critique and experimentation. Deducto focuses on helping children learn the art of deducing logic through pattern recognition. Color Deducto, a variant of Deducto, combines pattern recognition and concepts of Munsell Color System helping children get familiar with color system concepts in a playful manner. Besides the pre-defined levels of the games, the activities empower children to design their own levels and develop games on their own.

  3. Color Parameters of the Chromascop Shade Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. O'Brien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are: (1 determine the color of the twenty shades in the Ivoclar’s Chromascop shade guide, (2 determine the color representation of the shade guide described as coverage error (CE, and (3 compare this shade guide with the Vita Classical and Bioform shade guides. The spectral data was collected using Beckman model DU reflectance spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Commission International de l’Eclairage (CIE chromaticity coordinates were calculated using CIE illuminant C and 1931 observer data, then converted to CIE L*a*b* and Munsell notation. Each shade was spectrophotometrically compared to the published colors of 335 human teeth. The minimum CIE L*a*b* color difference was calculated for each tooth and the average of these color differences was defined as the CE. The measured colors of the Chromascop guide had a CIE L* range of 79.67 to 65.61, an a* range of -0.71 to 3.85, and a b* range of 14.58 to 27.69. The average CE of the Chromascop shade guide was 3.38. The Chromascop shade guide has similar colors and a CE compared with the Bioform and Vita Classical shade guides, but with some shades of higher red and yellow components.

  4. Color Visions from the Past in Science Teaching within a Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokouri, Eleni; Plakitsi, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This study uses history of science in teaching natural sciences from the early grades. The theoretical framework used is Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), which is a theory with expanding applications in different fields of science. The didactical scenario, in which history of science is used in a CHAT context, refers to Newton's…

  5. Colored Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  6. Examining how youth of color engage youth participatory action research to interrogate racism in their science experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takumi C.

    While many researchers have worked to address the unequal educational outcomes between White and non-White students, there are few signs of progress for people of color seeking entry into a STEM career trajectory. Starting from high school, the number of students who persist to complete a STEM bachelor's degree and obtaining a job in science or engineering continues to indicate that people of color are underrepresented. I suggest that research must consider the role of race and racism in the education of youth of color. Especially in science education, there is very little work addressing how racism may present barriers that impede progress for students along the STEM trajectory. This study is informed by critical race theory (CRT) that posits racism is endemic in society. White privilege enables the dominant group to maintain inequitable advantages that marginalizes populations of color. CRT also puts forth that counter narratives of the marginalized groups is essential to challenge the institutionalized forms of oppression. Using CRT and youth participatory action research (YPAR), this investigation re-imagines youth as capable of transforming their own social and political condition through research and action. This project asked youth of color to interrogate their own experiences as science learners, engage in research on structural inequities of STEM trajectories, plan strategic moves to challenge power structures, and take action for social justice. The youth started by exploring the concept of race and instances where racism was found in public spaces and in their personal experiences. They examined their experiences in science as a student more generally and then for racism. Then, the focus turned to conducting research with peers, observing science classrooms in another school, and using online information to compare schools. The youth planned strategic action against the racism they found in the analysis of the data that included conference presentations

  7. Optics: Light, Color, and Their Uses. An Educator's Guide With Activities In Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This document includes information on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, the Next Generation Space Telescope, Soft X-Ray Imager, and the Lightning Imaging System. Classroom activities from grades K-12 are included, focusing on light and color, using mirrors, lenses, prisms, and filters.

  8. Religion as a Support Factor for Women of Color Pursuing Science Degrees: Implications for Science Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglie, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the influence of religion as a support factor for a group of Latina and African-American women majoring in science. The current project is a part of a larger study that investigated persistence factors of underrepresented woman who were enrolled as science majors at United States colleges and universities. This paper focuses on…

  9. Religion as a Support Factor for Women of Color Pursuing Science Degrees: Implications for Science Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglie, Robert

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the influence of religion as a support factor for a group of Latina and African-American women majoring in science. The current project is a part of a larger study that investigated persistence factors of underrepresented woman who were enrolled as science majors at United States colleges and universities. This paper focuses on one theme that emerged among six participants who disclosed how religion was a significant influence on their persistence in science fields. The strength and support offered by religious values is certainly not specific to science content; however, the support received from their beliefs highlights a potential area for further exploration. Given the importance of increasing participation by students from diverse backgrounds into science fields, it is critical to recognize how some of these differences may be the key factors influencing the way these students look at the world. This study offers evidence that science educators need to consider what role religious beliefs have for students who may be considering science or science education as a future career, particularly for those students from underrepresented groups.

  10. The Aesthetics of Astrophysics: How to Make Appealing Color-composite Images that Convey the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Travis A.; Levay, Zoltan G.; Frattare, Lisa M.; Arcand, Kimberly K.; Watzke, Megan

    2017-05-01

    Astronomy has a rich tradition of using color photography and imaging, for visualization in research as well as for sharing scientific discoveries in formal and informal education settings (i.e., for “public outreach”). In the modern era, astronomical research has benefitted tremendously from electronic cameras that allow data and images to be generated and analyzed in a purely digital form with a level of precision that previously was not possible. Advances in image-processing software have also enabled color-composite images to be made in ways that are much more complex than with darkroom techniques, not only at optical wavelengths but across the electromagnetic spectrum. The Internet has made it possible to rapidly disseminate these images to eager audiences. Alongside these technological advances, there have been gains in understanding how to make images that are scientifically illustrative as well as aesthetically pleasing. Studies have also given insights on how the public interprets astronomical images and how that can be different than professional astronomers. An understanding of these differences will help in the creation of images that are meaningful to both groups. In this invited review, we discuss the techniques behind making color-composite images as well as examine the factors one should consider when doing so, whether for data visualization or public consumption. We also provide a brief history of astronomical imaging with a focus on the origins of the "modern era" during which distribution of high-quality astronomical images to the public is a part of nearly every professional observatory's public outreach. We review relevant research into the expectations and misconceptions that often affect the public's interpretation of these images.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF WALL COLOR AND LAMP COLOR TEMPERATURE TO STUDENT’S CONCENTRATION AND COGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRISTANTO Luciana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentration has an important role in our life, especially in order to get a quality and productivity in working. With concentration we can achieve the maximum and faster result in our work. Some ways to improve concentration that being researched here is by arranging the wall color and the lamp color temperature of the room. The color used as wall color in this research was the blue 9.8B, 7.4/5.6; and the orange 8.1YR, 8.7/3.7 of the Munsell color palette. Whereas the room lighting was the fluorescent lamp in 6500K (cool daylight and 2700K (warm white color temperature. Respondents of this research were 117 undergraduate students, the average GPA was 3.28; and 20,26 years as the mean age. The concentration and cognition tests are the Army Alfa test and IST subtest 9 that conducted in the room with different condition. Found in this research that the blue with cool daylight lamp has significant impact to concentration in 2,526 Lickert scale; and that orange with cool daylight lamp has correlation 0.781 to cognition result; but the other conditions have no significancy toward concentration and cognition

  12. Glossiness of Colored Papers based on Computer Graphics Model and Its Measuring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Teizo

    In the case of colored papers, the color of surface effects strongly upon the gloss of its paper. The new glossiness for such a colored paper is suggested in this paper. First, using the Achromatic and Chromatic Munsell colored chips, the author obtained experimental equation which represents the relation between lightness V ( or V and saturation C ) and psychological glossiness Gph of these chips. Then, the author defined a new glossiness G for the colored papers, based on the above mentioned experimental equations Gph and Cook-Torrance's reflection model which are widely used in the filed of Computer Graphics. This new glossiness is shown to be nearly proportional to the psychological glossiness Gph. The measuring system for the new glossiness G is furthermore descrived. The measuring time for one specimen is within 1 minute.

  13. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente L. Orbán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores two hypotheses: a women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  14. Shifts in color discrimination during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Levente L; Dastur, Farhad N

    2012-05-25

    The present study explores two hypotheses: a) women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b) women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting) that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  15. An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    1996-01-01

    Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

  16. Colorism/Neo-Colorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous aspects to being non-Caucasian that may not be known by Whites. Persons of color suggest folks who are African, South Americans, Native Americans, Biracial, Asians and others. The question is what do these individuals feel relative to their color and facial characteristics. Eugene Robinson suggest that the future favorable color…

  17. The performance of photons rainbow-colored energy experimental lecture schools in the kids' science museum of photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshiya, Taiji; Sasaki, Kazuya; Nishikawa, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    The Kansai Photon Science Institute (KPSI) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been promoting various activities of public understanding of science and technology, to be focused on the photon science, which is characterized by activities on science lectures and science events based on science and experiment classrooms, by utilizing the science museum of the JAEA (The Kids' Science Museum of Photons). In this phase, the KPSI extends systematically trial activities of the science museum to be as an experimental apparatus for studying on science and technology, including the program for promoting activities on public understanding of science and technology at the region. (author)

  18. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  19. Development of colored alumilite dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Yagi, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yokoo, Noriko [Radiation Application Development Association, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor, which are installed in the vacuum vessel of the ITER, are maintained by remote handling equipment (RH equipment). The RH equipment for maintenance is operated under sever environmental conditions, such as high temperature (50{approx}100 degC), high gamma-ray radiation ({approx}1 kGy/h) in an atmosphere of inert gas or vacuum; therefore many components of the RH equipment must have a suitable radiation resistance efficiency for long time operation (10{approx}100 MGy). Typical components of the RH equipment have been extensively tested under an intensive gamma-ray radiation. Monitoring of the radiation dose of the components of the RH equipment is essential to control the operation period of the RH equipment considering radiation resistance. However, the maximum measurable radiation dose of the conventional dosimeters, such as ionization chamber, liquid, glass and plastic dosimeters are limited to be approximately 1MGy which is too low to monitor the RH equipment for the ITER. In addition, these conventional dosimeters do not involve sufficient radiation resistance against the high gamma-ray radiation as well as are not easy handling and low cost. Based on the above backgrounds, a new dosimeter with bleaching of an azo group dye to be applied to a radiation monitor has been developed for high gamma-ray radiation use. The colored alumilite dosimeter is composed of the azo group dye (-N=N-) in an anodic oxidation layer of aluminum alloy (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). It can monitor the radiation dose by measuring the change of the bleaching of azo dye in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer due to gamma-ray irradiation. The degree of bleaching is measured as the change of hue (color) and brightness based on the Munsell's colors with a three dimensional universe using spectrophotometer. In the tests, the dependencies such as colors, anodized layer thickness, type of azo

  20. Color vision loss in patients treated with chloroquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventura Dora F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients that make use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, drugs which are frequently administered for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erithromatosus or malaria, may suffer alterations in color vision and in contrast sensitivity. The present work evaluates the visual function of these patients in a joint study of the University of São Paulo (USP, in São Paulo, and of the Federal University of Pará (UFPA, in Belém. Thirty two chloroquine user patients without alterations in the eye fundus exam were evaluated in São Paulo (n=10; aged 38 to 71 years; mean=55,8 years and in Belém (n=22; aged 20 to 67; mean=40 years. The prescribed accumulated chloroquine dose was 45 to 430 g (mean=213 g; sd = 152 g for the São Paulo group, and 36 to 540 g (mean=174 g; sd=183 g for the Belém group. Tests were performed monocularly with corrected eye refractive state. Color discrimination was evaluated using the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT: the color discrimination threshold was measured first in the protan, deutan and tritan axes and, in succession, three MacAdam's ellipses were determined. The patient's color vision was also evaluated with color arrangement tests: the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue (FM100, the Farnsworth-Munsell D15, and the Lanthony Desaturated (D15d tests. We also measured the contrast sensitivity for black-and-white sine wave grating of twenty two patients. The results were compared with controls without ophthalmologic or neuro-ophthalmologic pathologies. Twenty four patients presented acquired dyschromatopsia. There were cases of selective loss (11 patients and of diffuse loss (13 patients. Although losses were present in the FM100 there was no correlation between the FM100 error score and the ellipse area measured by the CCT. Moreover, three patients that scored normal in the FM100, failed to reach normal threshold in the CCT. The Lanthony test was less sensitive than the other two tests, since it failed to indicate loss in about

  1. VIIRS Ocean Color Reprocessed Science Quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) Level 2 products from 2012-01 to the present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains VIIRS Ocean Color Reprocessed Environmental Data Record (EDR) Level 2 products produced by the NESDIS Center for Satellite Applications and...

  2. VIIRS Ocean Color Reprocessed Science Quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) Level 3 products from 2012-01 to the present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains VIIRS Ocean Color Reprocessed Environmental Data Record (EDR) Level 3 products produced by the NESDIS Center for Satellite Applications and...

  3. Color Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Monica; Raclariu, Ana-Maria; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A transient color flux across null infinity in classical Yang-Mills theory is considered. It is shown that a pair of test `quarks' initially in a color singlet generically acquire net color as a result of the flux. A nonlinear formula is derived for the relative color rotation of the quarks. For weak color flux the formula linearizes to the Fourier transform of the soft gluon theorem. This color memory effect is the Yang-Mills analog of the gravitational memory effect.

  4. Patterning between urban soil color and carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifman, L. A.; Herrmann, D.; Shuster, W.

    2017-12-01

    Urban soils are extensively modified compared to their non-urban counterparts. These modifications are expected to affect the vertical distribution of total soil carbon as well as its constituent pools - soil organic carbon, black carbon, and inorganic carbon. Assigning color to soil horizons using the Munsell color system is a standard field method employed by soil scientists that can also reveal generalizable information about various environmental metrics. A new dataset on urban soils and their reference counterparts that cover 11 regions in the United States and advances in quantitative pedology allowed us to construct a log-linear model that relates Value, the lightness of a color hue, to the concentration of total carbon throughout a soil column of up to 450 cm depth. Overall, the relationship between 671 points resulted in an r2 of 0.23 with a p<0.001. As expected, organic carbon, shifted values to the lower end of the scale (darker), whereas inorganic carbon increased soil color values (lighter). These findings allow for a simplified understanding of shifts in carbon pools throughout a soil profile.

  5. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. The difficulty addressed here is the fact that, because of metamerism, we cannot know with certainty the spectrum that produced a particular color solely on the basis of sensory data. Knowledge of the spectrum is not required to compute additive mixture of colors, but is critical for subtractive (multiplicative) mixture. Therefore, we cannot predict with certainty the multiplicative interactions between colors based solely on sensory data. There are two potential applications of a color algebra: first, to aid modeling phenomena of human visual perception, such as color constancy and transparency; and, second, to provide better models of the interactions of lights and surfaces for computer graphics rendering.

  6. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  7. Color naming

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Ebru

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1998. Thesis (Ph.D) -- Bilkent University, 1998 Includes bibliographical refences. In this study, visual aspects of color and neurophysiological processes involved in the phenomenon, language of color and color models were explained in addition to the discussion of different ideas, orientations and previous works behind the subject of matter. Available color ...

  8. Color Discrimination in Patients with Gaucher Disease and Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Tov, Shlomi; Dinur, Tama; Giladi, Nir; Bar-Shira, Anat; Zelis, Mayaan; Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Poor color discrimination among patients with Parkinson disease (PD) has long been recognized. It has been shown that carrying one or two mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) for the autosomal disease Gaucher disease (GD), as based initially on clinical evidence, is a genetic risk factor for early-onset PD. The purpose of this study was to assess color discrimination in patients with one or two GBA mutations relative to healthy controls to ascertain whether this function is affected when persons with GD or even one GBA mutation develop PD. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FMHT) was evaluated among patients with GD+PD compared to patients with GD only, obligate GBA carriers with and without PD, patients with PD only, and healthy controls. FMHT outcome include computer-generated TES (Total Error Score) and values recommended by Vingrys & King-Smith. Six groups of 10 persons were tested. Significant differences were seen for male GD+PD and for age in PD. The highest mean TES was in the PD only group, the lowest in the GD only group. There was a significant difference because of PD in groups with GD and GBA carriers. GD+PD means were between GD only and PD only mean scores. These findings confirm that PD impacts color discrimination, more in males with GD+PD but nonetheless, GD+PD patients (but not GBA carriers) had better scores than PD only patients.

  9. Assessing color vision loss among solvent-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, D; Blain, L

    1987-01-01

    Acquired color vision loss has been associated with exposure to organic solvents in the workplace. However, not all tests of chromatic discrimination loss are designed to detect acquired, as opposed to congenital, loss. The Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel (D-15-d), a simple 15 cap color arrangement test, designed to identify mild acquired dyschromatopsia, can be administered rapidly in the field, under standard conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the D-15-d among 23 solvent-exposed workers of a paint manufacturing plant, by comparing the results obtained with the D-15-d to those obtained with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue (FM-100), a highly sensitive measure of color vision loss. The D-15-d revealed a significantly higher prevalence of dyschromatopsia among the ten highly exposed workers (80%) as compared to the 13 moderately exposed workers (30.8%); FM-100 results revealed one false positive. All dyschromatopic workers presented blue-yellow loss; the FM-100 detected eight complex patterns, while the D-15-d identified 5. Comparison of D-15-d and FM-100 scores were highly correlated (corr. coeff. 0.87; p less than 0.001). Multiple regression analyses showed both scores to be significantly related to age and exposure level. The findings of this study indicate that the D-15-d is an adequate instrument for field study batteries. However, the FM-100 should be used for more detailed assessment.

  10. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  11. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  12. "APOPTOSIS COLOR." SCREENING STRATEGY FOR DIAGNOSIS EARLY STAGES OF PRIMARY OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kovalevskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop a screening strategy for the early diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma.Patients and Methods: 1 group — 250 patients with suspected glaucoma (42–75 years, 2 — 250 with the 1st stage primary open-angle glaucoma (42–61, 3 — 3,000 healthy persons (35 to 50. Surveys: visometry, tonometry iCare, biomicroscopy, gonioscopy, pachymeria, ophthalmoscopy with a high dioptric lens of 60 D, standard automated perimetry of the SITA-Standard and SITA-SWAP program, assessing the color sensitivity according to the Famsworth-Munsell 100 HueTes method.Results: 1 group — SITA-SWAP: MD -2,55±0,7 dB, PSD 2,46±1,15 dB. Mansell test: TES = 58.6±18.7 (p<0.05, average level of color recognition; mild deficiency of color vision — 41–100 TES; by the RGB system: colors of the first order; tone in RGB (0–239: blue — 160; HCV: blue — 240; range of wavelengths: blue — 440–485 nm; frequency: blue — 620–680 THz. 2 group — on SITA-SWAP: MD — 5,13±1,3 dB, PSD 2,58±0,9 dB. Mansell test: TES = 86,9±21,8; average level of color recognition; mild deficiency of color vision; single deviations in the system of blue (azure, blue, blue; color I order (blue, III order (blue, azure; tone in RGB — (0–239: blue (azure, blue — 140, blue — 160; HCV — blue (azure, blue — 210, blue — 240; range of wavelengths: 450–500 nm (blue — 485–500, blue — 440–485; frequencies: 600–680 THz (blue — 600–620, blue — 620–680. Control group — SITA-SWAP within the norm, Mansell test: TES = 40,1±17,3 (p<0.05, medium level of color recognition, lack of color vision absent / mild, single deviations.Conclusion: in patients with glaucoma suspicion, the score of errors was higher than in the control group with Munsell test. In patients with glaucoma, the number of errors is greater than in patients with suspected glaucoma, and 2.2 times higher than in the control group.

  13. Schopenhauer on vision and the colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, R A

    1997-01-01

    Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) published his book, On Vision and the Colors in 1816. He started from Aristotle's linear color system and Goethe's three pairs of contrast colors. His work preceded Hering's theory of opponent colors but his path to insight was blocked by his anti-Newtonianism and his neo-Hellenistic attitude toward science. Because of his theory of the subjectivity of colors he was a forerunner of the psycho-physiological variant of neo-Kantianism.

  14. Modular Applications with Smartphones and Smartpads in Shape, Color and Spectral Measurements for Industry, Biology and Medicine plus Science, Education and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Prof Dr Dietrich; Gärtner, Dr Claudia; Dittrich, B Eng Paul-Gerald; Düntsch, B Eng Eric; Kraus, Daniel; Klemm, Dipl-Ing Richard

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the paper is the demonstration of a paradigm shift in shape, color and spectral measurements in industry, biology and medicine as well as in measurement science, education and training. Laboratory applications will be supplemented and replaced by innovative in-field and point-of-care applications. Innovative functional modules are smartphones and/or smartpads supplemented by additional hardware apps and software apps. Specific examples are given for numerous practical applications concerning optodigital methods. The methodological classification distinguishes between different levels for combinations of hardware apps (hwapps) and software apps (swapps) with smartphones and/or smartpads. These methods are fundamental enablers for the transformation from conventional stationary working places in industry, biology, medicine plus science, education and training towards innovative mobile working places with in-field and point-of-care characteristics as well as mobile open online courses MOOCs. The innovative approach opens so far untapped enormous markets for measurement science and engineering. These working conditions will be very common due to their convenience, reliability and affordability. The fundamental enablers are smartphones and/or smartpads. A highly visible advantage of smartphones and/or smartpads is the huge number of their distribution, their worldwide connectivity via Internet and cloud services and the experienced capabilities of their users for practical operations. Young people are becoming the pioneers

  15. Color Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  16. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  17. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  18. Soil color indicates carbon and wetlands: developing a color-proxy for soil organic carbon and wetland boundaries on sandy coastal plains in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, M L; Van Huyssteen, C W; Brown, L R

    2017-10-13

    A relationship between soil organic carbon and soil color is acknowledged-albeit not a direct one. Since heightened carbon contents can be an indicator of wetlands, a quantifiable relationship between color and carbon might assist in determining wetland boundaries by rapid, field-based appraisal. The overarching aim of this initial study was to determine the potential of top soil color to indicate soil organic carbon, and by extension wetland boundaries, on a sandy coastal plain in South Africa. Data were collected from four wetland types in northern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Soil samples were taken to a depth of 300 mm in three transects in each wetland type and analyzed for soil organic carbon. The matrix color was described using a Munsell soil color chart. Various color indices were correlated with soil organic carbon. The relationship between color and carbon were further elucidated using segmented quantile regression. This showed that potentially maximal carbon contents will occur at values of low color indices, and predictably minimal carbon contents will occur at values of low or high color indices. Threshold values can thus be used to make deductions such as "when the sum of dry and wet Value and Chroma values is 9 or more, carbon content will be 4.79% and less." These threshold values can then be used to differentiate between wetland and non-wetland sites with a 70 to 100% certainty. This study successfully developed a quantifiable correlation between color and carbon and showed that wetland boundaries can be determined based thereon.

  19. Color metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, Raymond.

    1976-06-01

    After a short introduction explaining the reasons why color metallography was adopted, the various operations involved in this technique are described in turn and illustrated by colored photomicrographs. The sample preparation (cutting, covering) and surface preparation (trimming, polishing, finishing) are described briefly. The operations specific to color metallography are then detailed: revelation of the structure of polished surfaces, dye impregnation techniques, optical systems used in macrography, in micrography, different light sources used in microscopy, photographic methods [fr

  20. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    OpenAIRE

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experiments conducted prove the difference between color categorization by the cognitive processes color discrimination and color memory. In addition, they yield a Color Look-Up Table, which can improve c...

  1. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  2. Colored leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, H.

    1985-01-01

    If leptons are composite and if they contain colored preons, one expects the existence of heavy color-octet fermions with quantum numbers similar to those of ordinary leptons. Such a ''colored lepton'' should decay into a gluon and a lepton, yielding a unique experimental signature. Charged ''colored leptons'' probably have masses of the order of the compositeness scale Λ > or approx. 1 TeV. They may be copiously produced at future multi-TeV e + e - , ep and hadron colliders. ''Colored neutrinos'' may have both Dirac and Majorana masses. They could be much lighter than Λ, possibly as light as 100 GeV or less. In such a case they should be readily produced at the CERN anti pp collider, yielding spectacular monojet and dijet events. They may also be produced at LEP and HERA. (orig.)

  3. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Color Blindness? Who Is at Risk for Color Blindness? Color Blindness Causes Color Blindness Diagnosis and Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? Written ...

  4. Minuutit (Colors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    This first grade workbook is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kiana, Kobuk, Noorvik, Selawik, and Shungnak. Each page has a captioned black-and-white drawing to be colored. (CFM)

  5. Color tejido

    OpenAIRE

    Rius Tormo, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Póster presentado en el IX Congreso Nacional del Color, Alicante, 29-30 junio, 1-2 julio 2010. La exposición que se propone tiene como núcleo principal el color y muestra las posibilidades expresivas que aporta a los diferentes materiales. Las 7 obras presentadas buscan la armonía estética y la fuerza simbólica.

  6. Digital color acquisition, perception, coding and rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    In this book the authors identify the basic concepts and recent advances in the acquisition, perception, coding and rendering of color. The fundamental aspects related to the science of colorimetry in relation to physiology (the human visual system) are addressed, as are constancy and color appearance. It also addresses the more technical aspects related to sensors and the color management screen. Particular attention is paid to the notion of color rendering in computer graphics. Beyond color, the authors also look at coding, compression, protection and quality of color images and videos.

  7. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  8. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  9. Prevalence of congenital color vision defects in Saudi females of Arab origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdelmoneam, Mussaed

    2011-09-01

    Inherited color vision deficiencies (CVD) vary in prevalence by population and by sex. The most common CVD is X chromosome-linked anomalous trichromacy. Prevalence varies significantly by sex and race. The frequency of color vision defects in Saudi females has not been studied previously. This study surveyed the prevalence of congenital color vision defects in Saudi females of Arab origin. Seven thousand four hundred sixty-seven female subjects (N = 7,467) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were screened using both Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates and the Farnsworth Dichotomous test (D-15). CVD subjects were tested further with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test. Of 7,467 female subjects tested, 26 subjects were found to have defective color vision, for a prevalence of 0.35%. Sixteen subjects had a deutan defect, and 10 had a protan defect. Arab females have significantly lower prevalence of CVD when compared with published data from females of other races. Analysis of the 5 regions of Saudi Arabia showed no significant difference between the regions. Prevalence of CVD among Saudi females of Arab origin is 0.35% and is among the lowest of all published data. Copyright © 2011 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-01-01

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken

  11. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  12. Color Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  13. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  14. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  15. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  16. Color in Computer Vision Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gevers, Theo; van de Weijer, Joost; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2012-01-01

    While the field of computer vision drives many of today’s digital technologies and communication networks, the topic of color has emerged only recently in most computer vision applications. One of the most extensive works to date on color in computer vision, this book provides a complete set of tools for working with color in the field of image understanding. Based on the authors’ intense collaboration for more than a decade and drawing on the latest thinking in the field of computer science, the book integrates topics from color science and computer vision, clearly linking theor

  17. Visual function and color vision in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Chen, Samantha; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Color vision and self-reported visual function in everyday life in young adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were investigated. Participants were 30 young adults with ADHD and 30 controls matched for age and gender. They were tested individually and completed the Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ), Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FMT) and A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT). The ADHD group reported significantly more problems in 4 of 8 areas on the VAQ: depth perception, peripheral vision, visual search and visual processing speed. Further analyses of VAQ items revealed that the ADHD group endorsed more visual problems associated with driving than controls. Color perception difficulties on the FMT were restricted to the blue spectrum in the ADHD group. FMT and AQT results revealed slower processing of visual stimuli in the ADHD group. A comprehensive investigation of mechanisms underlying visual function and color vision in adults with ADHD is warranted, along with the potential impact of these visual problems on driving performance. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  19. Perception and psychology of colors and their application in design

    OpenAIRE

    Despot, Katerina; Sandeva, Vaska; Donev, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Color science is the science that studies the properties of color and their application in different areas of life. More complex emotional states produce colors in works of art. Their impact far beyond the immediate sensations associated in stable and strong feelings. The same meaning is embedded in the words of the great Soviet artist Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin "There are colors and soothing irritation, screaming, arguing with each other and living together gently. In their fight or consent is born...

  20. Seasonal Variations in Color Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Nelson, Rolf; Parker, Laura; Heck, Isobel A; Palmer, Stephen E

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how color preferences vary according to season and whether those changes could be explained by the ecological valence theory (EVT). To do so, we assessed the same participants' preferences for the same colors during fall, winter, spring, and summer in the northeastern United States, where there are large seasonal changes in environmental colors. Seasonal differences were most pronounced between fall and the other three seasons. Participants liked fall-associated dark-warm colors-for example, dark-red, dark-orange (brown), dark-yellow (olive), and dark-chartreuse-more during fall than other seasons. The EVT could explain these changes with a modified version of Palmer and Schloss' (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure that added an activation term to the WAVE equation. The results indicate that color preferences change according to season, as color-associated objects become more/less activated in the observer. These seasonal changes in color preferences could not be characterized by overall shifts in weights along cone-contrast axes. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Semantics of color in chromatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Nikolai V.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to describe the semantics of color in chromatism (from the ancient Greek triune notion of >: (1) color as ideal (Id- plan), psychic; (2) tint as physical, verbal; material (M- plan), physiological, syntonic (S-plan), and (3) emotion as their informative-energetic correlation). Being a new field of science, chromatism links humanitarian and natural subjects by means of interdiscipline investigation of a real (f-m) man living in a real (color) surrounding environment. According to the definition for >, color may be considered to be the most universal notion, permitting to assume the unity of both a man and an environment. Due to this assumption, we may give models of human intellect.

  2. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  3. Automatic color preference correction for color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Masato; Funayama, Chisato; Tajima, Johji

    2000-12-01

    The reproduction of natural objects in color images has attracted a great deal of attention. Reproduction more pleasing colors of natural objects is one of the methods available to improve image quality. We developed an automatic color correction method to maintain preferred color reproduction for three significant categories: facial skin color, green grass and blue sky. In this method, a representative color in an object area to be corrected is automatically extracted from an input image, and a set of color correction parameters is selected depending on the representative color. The improvement in image quality for reproductions of natural image was more than 93 percent in subjective experiments. These results show the usefulness of our automatic color correction method for the reproduction of preferred colors.

  4. Color preferences change after experience with liked/disliked colored objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Eli D; Schloss, Karen B; Palmer, Stephen E

    2013-10-01

    How are color preferences formed, and can they be changed by affective experiences with correspondingly colored objects? We examined these questions by testing whether affectively polarized experiences with images of colored objects would cause changes in color preferences. Such changes are implied by the ecological valence theory (EVT), which posits that color preferences are determined by people's average affective responses to correspondingly colored objects (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 8877-8882, 2010). Seeing images of strongly liked (and disliked) red and green objects, therefore, should lead to increased (and decreased) preferences for correspondingly colored red and green color patches. Experiment 1 showed that this crossover interaction did occur, but only if participants were required to evaluate their preferences for the colored objects when they saw them. Experiment 2 showed that these overall changes decreased substantially over a 24-h delay, but the degree to which the effect lasted for individuals covaried with the magnitude of the effects immediately after object exposure. Experiment 3 demonstrated a similar, but weaker, effect of affectively biased changes in color preferences when participants did not see, but only imagined, the colored objects. The overall pattern of results indicated that color preferences are not fixed, but rather are shaped by affective experiences with colored objects. Possible explanations for the observed changes in color preferences were considered in terms of associative learning through evaluative conditioning and/or priming of prior knowledge in memory.

  5. Cognitive aspects of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  6. Segmentation and Classification of Burn Color Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    SEGMENTATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF BURN COLOR IMAGES Begoña Acha1, Carmen Serrano1, Laura Roa2 1Área de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones ...2000, Las Vegas (USA), pp. 411-415. [21] G. Wyszecki and W.S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (New

  7. The Disunity of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Matthen, Mohan

    1999-01-01

    What is color? What is color vision? Most philosophers answer by reference to humans: to human color qualia, or to the environmental properties or "quality spaces" perceived by humans. It is argued, with reference to empirical findings concerning comparative color vision and the evolution of color vision, that all such attempts are mistaken. An adequate definition of color vision must eschew reference to its outputs in the human cognition and refer only to inputs: color vision consists in...

  8. Hearing Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieryla, Allyson; Diaz Merced, Wanda; Davis, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    In astronomy, the relationship between color and temperature is an important concept. This concept can be demonstrated in a laboratory or seen at telescope when observing stars. A blind/visually-impaired (B/VI) person would not be able to engage in the same observational demonstrations that are typically done to explain this concept. We’ve developed a tool for B/VI students to participate in these types of observational activities. Using an arduino compatible micro controller with and RGB light sensor, we are able to convert filtered light into sound. The device will produce different timbres for different wavelengths of light, which can then be used to distinguish the temperature of an object. The device is handheld, easy to program and inexpensive to reproduce (< $50). It is also fitted to mount on a telescope for observing. The design schematic and code will be open source and available for download.

  9. Light Vision Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  10. Using color management in color document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehab, Smadar

    1995-04-01

    Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.

  11. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  12. Animal Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  13. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  14. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  15. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  16. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  18. The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Nick

    2006-06-01

    Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

  19. Multispectral Imaging of Meat Quality - Color and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup

    transformations to the CIELAB color space, the common color space within food science. The results show that meat color assessment with a multispectral imaging is a great alternative to the traditional colorimeter, i.e. the vision system meets some of the limitations that the colorimeter possesses. To mention one...

  20. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  1. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level is strong risk factor for acquired color vision impairment in young to middle-aged Japanese men: the Okubo Color Study Report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Takuhei; Sakurai, Yutaka; Sato, Hiroki; Chihara, Etsuo; Ishida, Masahiro; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2010-06-01

    To investigate associations between blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and the prevalence of acquired color vision impairment (ACVI) in middle-aged Japanese men. Participants in this cross-sectional study underwent color vision testing, ophthalmic examination, a standardized interview and examination of venous blood samples. Ishihara plates, a Lanthony 15-hue desaturated panel, and Standard pseudoisochromatic Plates part 2 were used to examine color vision ability. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test was performed to define ACVI. Smoking status and alcohol intake were recorded during the interview. We performed logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, LDL-C level, systemic hypertension, diabetes, cataract, glaucoma, overweight, smoking status, and alcohol intake. Adjusted odds ratios for four LDL-C levels were calculated. A total of 1042 men were enrolled, 872 participants were eligible for the study, and 31 subjects were diagnosed with ACVI. As compared to the lowest LDL-C category level (or=160 mg/dl). The multiple-adjusted ORs were 2.91 (95% CI, 0.87-9.70) for the 2nd highest category and 3.81 (95% CI, 1.03-14.05) for the highest level. Tests for trend were significant (Pmen with elevated LDL-C levels. These changes might be related to deteriorated neurologic function associated with lipid metabolite abnormalities. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Representing Color Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  3. Memory for color reactivates color processing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2009-11-25

    Memory is thought to be constructive in nature, where features processed in different cortical regions are synthesized during retrieval. In an effort to support this constructive memory framework, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study assessed whether memory for color reactivated color processing regions. During encoding, participants were presented with colored and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented in gray and participants responded 'old-colored', 'old-gray', or 'new'. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping analysis indicated this activity occurred within color processing region V8. The present feature specific evidence provides compelling support for a constructive view of memory.

  4. Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Tang, Peipei; Giusti, M Mónica

    2017-02-28

    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

  5. Exposing Color Blindness/Grounding Color Consciousness: Challenges for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullucci, Kerri; Battey, Dan

    2011-01-01

    As teacher educators we have been struck by the consistency, urgency, and frequency in which students employ color-blind perspectives. This orientation has negative consequences in K-12 settings. In this manuscript, we lay out the multiple meanings of color blindness, drawing from legal, educational, and social science traditions, and offer…

  6. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  7. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  8. Color: Physics and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Pupa

    Unless we are colorblind, as soon as we look at something, we know what color it is. Simple, isn't it? No, not really. The color we see is rarely just determined by the physical color, that is, the wavelength of visible light associated with that color. Other factors, such as the illuminating light, or the brightness surrounding a certain color, affect our perception of that color. Most striking, and useful, is understanding how the retina and the brain work together to interpret the color we see, and how they can be fooled by additive color mixing, which makes it possible to have color screens and displays. I will show the physical origin of all these phenomena and give live demos as I explain how they work. Bring your own eyes! For more information: (1) watch TED talk: ``Color: Physics and Perception'' and (2) read book: PUPA Gilbert and W Haeberli ``Physics in the Arts'', ISBN 9780123918789.

  9. Color models of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.; Nelson, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The evidence for a three-valued 'color' degree of freedom in hadron physics is reviewed. The structure of color models is discussed. Consequences of color models for elementary particle physics are discussed, including saturation properties of hadronic states, π 0 →2γ and related decays, leptoproduction, and lepton pair annihilation. Signatures are given which distinguish theories with isolated colored particles from those in which color is permanently bound. (Auth.)

  10. The weight of color

    OpenAIRE

    Brunberg, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the weight of color, with the focus lying on the symbolic significance ofcolor. Exploring whether color in itself conveys symbolic significance and is the symbolicsignificance of color permanent, or is it an after construction? It will be looking at differentareas such as what makes us humans able to perceive colors in the first place, beginning withan insight at some of the foundations in the area of color theory. Mentioning experiments ondecomposed white light, that cont...

  11. The evolution of concepts of color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Barry B

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of ideas about the way we see color was closely linked to physical theories of light. Proponents of both corpuscular and wave theories viewed light as a continuous spectrum. This was not easily reconciled with the fact that, for the human eye, all colors can be matched by mixture of three primaries. Physicists such as Mayer who described trichromatic color matching often assumed that there were just three types of rays in the spectrum. This argument was finally resolved by Thomas Young, who noted that trichromatic color matching was consistent with a continuous spectrum if there were just three receptors in the eye. This kind of conceptual mistake, in this case the confusion of the properties of the visual system with physical properties of light, has been common in the history of color science. As another example, the idea of trichromacy was disputed by those who viewed color sensations as opponent processes, red-green, blue-yellow and black-white. The discovery of color-opponent neurons in the visual pathway has partly resolved this dilemma. Much of the physiological substrate of the way we detect and distinguish colors is now established, but the link between the signals leaving the retina and the way we name and order colors is still poorly defined.

  12. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3060 and 2960, Qala-I-Fath (608), Malek-Sayh-Koh (613), and Gozar-E-Sah (614) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  13. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I

    2002-01-01

    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  14. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  15. Light and Color in Nature and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Samuel J.; Cummins, Herman Z.

    1983-02-01

    An introduction to the science of light and color and its applications to photography, art, natural phenomena, and other related areas. Explains the origin of phenomena commonly encountered in nature and art, emphasizing the physical aspects but also touching on aspects of physiology and psychology that directly influence how visual images are perceived. Covers the effect of mixing color, the notion of color spaces, how atoms and molecules affect light, how light can be measured, the effect of using a lens, and many other topics. Requires little or no mathematical background. Includes questions and references for further reading.

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... away without suffering an eye injury. However, the natural protective mechanisms of the eye – such as the ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... this month in the New England Journal of Medicine. Unfortunately, this kind of injury is all too ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  2. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color? Normal Human Retina What color is a strawberry? Most of us would say red, but do ... light and shorter wavelength corresponds to blue light. Strawberries and other objects reflect some wavelengths of light ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  4. Fingers that change color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003249.htm Fingers that change color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fingers or toes may change color when they are exposed to cold temperatures or ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ...

  6. Choosing a Color model in CBIR-Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Cimerman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the paper we study how the choice of color space affects the user-friendliness of the graphical user interface of CBIR. The pilot study was carried out on 46 students of the Department of Library and Information Science and Book Studies at the Faculty of Arts at the University of Ljubljana. The study showed that user interfaces based on HSV color space are simple to use even for users who do not possess the theoretical knowledge about colors and do not understand HSV color space, while even reasonably good understanding of RG B color space does not guarantee frustration-free user experience when using RG B user interface. User interfaces offering color choice just by clicking were better received than user interfaces that make use of color sliders. This article provides guidance for designing an interface for selecting color in CBIR systems.

  7. It's Different People Who Are Down Here:  Portraits of Three Young Women of Color Who Work in a Science Museum

    OpenAIRE

    Motto, Andrea Marie

    2016-01-01

    Eldora, Neethi and Seraphina are three young women who work as science interpreters at a large metropolitan museum. Each woman began her tenure at the age of 15, as part of an employment program for low-income and minority youth, and have since grown to become leaders within the program. Using autoethnography (Ellis, 2004) and portraiture (Lawrence-Lightfoot and Hoffman Davis, 1997), I explore the rich cultures and histories that each woman brings to her work, present stories that counter the...

  8. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Jaffna peninsula. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. Location: 8.0 degrees North latitude, 80.7 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 275.6 by 482.4 kilometers (165.4 by 299.0 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  9. Color and experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief review of the color hypothesis and the motivations for its introduction, the experimental tests arare discussed. It is assumed that colored states have not been produced at present energies and only experimental tests which apply below the color threshold, when color is a ''hidden symmetry,'' are discussed. Some of these tests offer the possibility of distinguishing between quark models with fractional and integral quark charges. (auth)

  10. Color ordering in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    We derive color decompositions of arbitrary tree and one-loop QCD amplitudes into color ordered objects called primitive amplitudes. Furthermore, we derive general fermion flip and reversion identities spanning the null space among the primitive amplitudes and use them to prove that all color ordered tree amplitudes of massless QCD can be written as linear combinations of color ordered tree amplitudes of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory.

  11. The Cool Colors Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, second from left, a sample from the Cool Colors Project, a roof product ) (Jeff Chiu - AP) more Cool Colors make the front page of The Sacramento Bee (3rd highest circulation newspaper in California) on 14 August 2006! Read the article online or as a PDF. The Cool Colors Project

  12. Developmental Color Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Little, Angela C.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 107 subjects including kindergarteners, fifth graders, high school sophomores, parents of kindergarteners, and master artists were presented with a 108-item color perception test to investigate surface color perception at these age levels. A set of surface color perception rules was generated. (GO)

  13. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  14. Computational Cognitive Color Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehension of aesthetical color characteristics based on a computational model of visual perception and color cognition are presented. The computational comprehension is manifested by the machine’s capability of instantly assigning appropriate colors to the objects perceived. They form a scene

  15. ColorTracker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzheu, Stefanie; Lee, S.; Herneoja, Aulikki; Österlund, Toni; Markkanen, Piia

    2016-01-01

    With the work-in-progress research project ColorTracker we explore color as a formal design tool. This project-based paper describes a novel software application that processes color composition of a place and transcribes the data into three-dimensional geometries for architectural design. The

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far ... Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored ...

  17. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    OpenAIRE

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the ge...

  18. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  19. Ecological influences on individual differences in color preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Hawthorne-Madell, Daniel; Palmer, Stephen E

    2015-11-01

    How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects. Supporting this prediction, we found that individuals' color preferences were predicted better by their own preferences for correspondingly colored objects than by other peoples' preferences for the same objects. Moreover, the fit between color preferences and affect toward the colored objects was reliably improved when people's own idiosyncratic color-object associations were included in addition to a standard set of color-object associations. These and related results provide evidence that individual differences in color preferences are reliably influenced by people's personal experiences with colored objects in their environment.

  20. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  1. Relating color working memory and color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Sarah R; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2014-11-01

    Color is the most frequently studied feature in visual working memory (VWM). Oddly, much of this work de-emphasizes perception, instead making simplifying assumptions about the inputs served to memory. We question these assumptions in light of perception research, and we identify important points of contact between perception and working memory in the case of color. Better characterization of its perceptual inputs will be crucial for elucidating the structure and function of VWM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  3. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  4. Cor do solo: uma abordagem da forma convencional de obtenção em oposição à automatização do método para fins de classificação de solos Soil color: approach to a conventional assessment method in comparison to an automatization process for soil classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Campos

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A cor é amplamente reconhecida como uma medida primária identificadora de solos. Propriedades físicas, químicas e mineralógicas de solos podem ser derivadas de sua cor. O enquadramento de algumas classes de solos, já no segundo nível categórico do atual Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de solos, requer que a cor da amostra do horizonte diagnóstico seja determinada por comparação com os padrões existentes na escala de Munsell. Este processo de classificação é extremamente subjetivo e consome tempo, limitando a exatidão, a transferência e a utilização do procedimento. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi obter a cor do solo com o método convencional e com um colorímetro, a fim de avaliar as possíveis implicações na classificação de solos. Cinco pedólogos foram convidados a classificar o matiz de 80 amostras de solo pela comparação com a carta de Munsell. Em seguida, o matiz das amostras foi obtido com um colorímetro, também na notação de Munsell. Pelas análises estatísticas foram avaliados: coeficientes de correlação, índice de precisão (IP, forma de agrupamento e tendências médias entre as determinações de matiz. Coeficientes de correlação variando de 0,68 a 0,94 entre as determinações de cor demonstraram que os pedólogos produziram dados que validaram o estudo. No entanto, houve confirmação de que as medidas realizadas por pedólogos não coincidiram, sendo diferentes também das determinações feitas pelo colorímetro. Índices de Precisão (IP indicaram haver concordância em apenas 8,75 % das determinações em amostras úmidas e 17,5 % nas amostras secas. Ocorreram divergências na determinação do matiz das amostras que resultariam em erros na classificação dos solos. A avaliação das tendências médias indicou que os pesquisadores superestimaram as determinações de cor realizadas pelo colorímetro, resultando em alterações na classificação de solos.Soil color is widely

  5. Color in Image and Video Processing: Most Recent Trends and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tominaga Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The motivation of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recent trends and of the future research directions in color image and video processing. Rather than covering all aspects of the domain this survey covers issues related to the most active research areas in the last two years. It presents the most recent trends as well as the state-of-the-art, with a broad survey of the relevant literature, in the main active research areas in color imaging. It also focuses on the most promising research areas in color imaging science. This survey gives an overview about the issues, controversies, and problems of color image science. It focuses on human color vision, perception, and interpretation. It focuses also on acquisition systems, consumer imaging applications, and medical imaging applications. Next it gives a brief overview about the solutions, recommendations, most recent trends, and future trends of color image science. It focuses on color space, appearance models, color difference metrics, and color saliency. It focuses also on color features, color-based object tracking, scene illuminant estimation and color constancy, quality assessment and fidelity assessment, color characterization and calibration of a display device. It focuses on quantization, filtering and enhancement, segmentation, coding and compression, watermarking, and lastly on multispectral color image processing. Lastly, it addresses the research areas which still need addressing and which are the next and future perspectives of color in image and video processing.

  6. Color in Image and Video Processing: Most Recent Trends and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos N. Plataniotis

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recent trends and of the future research directions in color image and video processing. Rather than covering all aspects of the domain this survey covers issues related to the most active research areas in the last two years. It presents the most recent trends as well as the state-of-the-art, with a broad survey of the relevant literature, in the main active research areas in color imaging. It also focuses on the most promising research areas in color imaging science. This survey gives an overview about the issues, controversies, and problems of color image science. It focuses on human color vision, perception, and interpretation. It focuses also on acquisition systems, consumer imaging applications, and medical imaging applications. Next it gives a brief overview about the solutions, recommendations, most recent trends, and future trends of color image science. It focuses on color space, appearance models, color difference metrics, and color saliency. It focuses also on color features, color-based object tracking, scene illuminant estimation and color constancy, quality assessment and fidelity assessment, color characterization and calibration of a display device. It focuses on quantization, filtering and enhancement, segmentation, coding and compression, watermarking, and lastly on multispectral color image processing. Lastly, it addresses the research areas which still need addressing and which are the next and future perspectives of color in image and video processing.

  7. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  8. Rotation Invariant Color Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Swapna Borde; Udhav Bhosle

    2013-01-01

    The new technique for image retrieval using the color features extracted from images based on LogHistogram is proposed. The proposed technique is compared with Global color histogram and histogram ofcorners .It has been observed that number of histogram bins used for retrieval comparison of proposedtechnique (Log Histogram)is less as compared to Global Color Histogram and Histogram of corners. Theexperimental results on a database of 792 images with 11 classes indicate that proposed method (L...

  9. Colored fused filament fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haichuan; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Filament fused fabrication is the method of choice for printing 3D models at low cost, and is the de-facto standard for hobbyists, makers and schools. Unfortunately, filament printers cannot truly reproduce colored objects. The best current techniques rely on a form of dithering exploiting occlusion, that was only demonstrated for shades of two base colors and that behaves differently depending on surface slope. We explore a novel approach for 3D printing colored objects, capable of creating ...

  10. Realtime Color Stereovision Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Formwalt, Bryon

    2000-01-01

    .... This research takes a step forward in real time machine vision processing. It investigates techniques for implementing a real time stereovision processing system using two miniature color cameras...

  11. Interactive bibliographical database on color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caivano, Jose L.

    2002-06-01

    The paper describes the methodology and results of a project under development, aimed at the elaboration of an interactive bibliographical database on color in all fields of application: philosophy, psychology, semiotics, education, anthropology, physical and natural sciences, biology, medicine, technology, industry, architecture and design, arts, linguistics, geography, history. The project is initially based upon an already developed bibliography, published in different journals, updated in various opportunities, and now available at the Internet, with more than 2,000 entries. The interactive database will amplify that bibliography, incorporating hyperlinks and contents (indexes, abstracts, keywords, introductions, or eventually the complete document), and devising mechanisms for information retrieval. The sources to be included are: books, doctoral dissertations, multimedia publications, reference works. The main arrangement will be chronological, but the design of the database will allow rearrangements or selections by different fields: subject, Decimal Classification System, author, language, country, publisher, etc. A further project is to develop another database, including color-specialized journals or newsletters, and articles on color published in international journals, arranged in this case by journal name and date of publication, but allowing also rearrangements or selections by author, subject and keywords.

  12. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-09-06

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  13. A côr em relação ao teor de umidade de algumas séries de solos Color in relation to moisture level of some soil series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Guido de Souza Coelho

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available A identificação e a classificação dos solos em séries são baseadas em várias características, das quais uma é a côr. Esta é condicionada por um grupo de fatôres, destacando-se o relacionado ao teor de umidade do solo. Para observar e estabelecer os limites de variação da côr do solo com a umidade, os autores, empregando o sistema Munsell, trabalharam com amostras naturais e preparadas das principais séries monotípicas que ocorrem na Estação Experimental do Instituto Agronômico, em Campinas. As séries monotípicas de drenagem imperfeita é que mostraram sofrer maior influência da umidade na sua côr. A côr das amostras preparadas (TFSA não se mostrou representativa das séries. A variação da umidade atua de forma mais rápida e signifieativa sôbre o «valor», exceto para as terras-roxas, onde o «croma» se mostra mais sensível. A componente da côr menos influenciada pela variação da umidade é o «colorido». Na determinação da côr das séries analisadas, os autores também verificaram a influência de outros fatôres, como: luz ambiente, hora da determinação, estado da tabela padrão e exposição da amostra ao ar.Several soil properties are used for identification and classification of soil series, of which color is one of great importance. It depends upon a group of factors as color is particularly sensible to the influence of soil moisture. At the Central Experiment Station in Campinas a study of color was made by employing natural and prepared samples of soil series ranging from dry soil to soil with highest moisture content, whereby the Munsell Soil Color Charts were used for color determination. As for prepared (air-dried and sieved samples, they may not be given representative colors as of the natural soil samples. Their variation in color is beyond that found in the field. Series of the imperfect group up to the very poorly drained showed the greatest moisture-level influence in the color of natural

  14. Millennial Teachers of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Mary E., Ed.

    2018-01-01

    "Millennial Teachers of Color" explores the opportunities and challenges for creating and sustaining a healthy teaching force in the United States. Millennials are the largest generational cohort in American history, with approximately ninety million members and, of these, roughly 43 percent are people of color. This book, edited by…

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  16. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  17. On color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of high momentum transfer nuclear processes is presented. Color transparency, the suppression of initial and final state interaction effects, is shown to arise from using the closure approximation. New conditions for the appearance of color transparency are derived

  18. Color and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    Schwinger's conjecture that the color degree of freedom of a quark is equivalent to its degree of freedom of taking different magnetic charges provides a plausible motivation for extending color to leptons. Leptons are just quarks with zero magnetic charges. It is shown that baryon number and lepton number can be replaced by fermion number and magnetic charge

  19. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  20. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the FDA? Check the FDA's database of approved contact lenses . Related Stories Prevent Infection ...

  2. Perceptually optimal color reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    What requirements do people place on optimal color reproduction of real-life scenes? We suggest that when people look at images containing familiar categories of objects, two primary factors shape their subjective impression of how optimal colors are reproduced: perceived naturalness and perceived

  3. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  4. Color Constancy by Deep Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.; Gevers, T.; Hu, N.; Lucassen, M.P.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Computational color constancy aims to estimate the color of the light source. The performance of many vision tasks, such as object detection and scene understanding, may benefit from color constancy by estimating the correct object colors. Since traditional color constancy methods are based on

  5. Influence of Surrounding Colors in the Illuminant-Color Mode on Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuho Fukuda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On color constancy, we showed that brighter surrounding colors had greater influence than dim colors (Uchikawa, Kitazawa, MacLeod, Fukuda, 2010 APCV. Increasing luminance of a stimulus causes the change in appearance from the surface-color to the illuminant-color mode. However it is unknown whether the visual system considers such color appearance mode of surrounding colors to achieve color constancy. We investigated the influence of surrounding colors that appeared illuminant on color constancy. The stimulus was composed of a central test stimulus and surrounding six colors: bright and dim red, green and blue. The observers adjusted the chromaticity of the test stimulus to be appeared as an achromatic surface. The luminance balance of three bright surrounding colors was equalized with that of the optimal colors in three illuminant conditions, then, the luminance of one of the three bright colors was varied in the range beyond the critical luminance of color appearance mode transition. The results showed that increasing luminance of a bright surrounding color shifted the observers' achromatic setting toward its chromaticity, but this effect diminished for the surrounding color in the illuminant-color mode. These results suggest that the visual system considers color appearance mode of surrounding colors to accomplish color constancy.

  6. Color quarks and octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guersey, F.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical framework based on octonions is developed for the description of the color quark scheme in which quarks are unobservable, the color SU(3) is exact, and only color singlets correspond to observable hadrons. The fictitious Hilbert space in which quarks operate is taken to be a space of vectors with octonion components. This space admits as a gauge group an exact SU(3) identified with the color SU/sub C/(3). Because of the nonassociativity of the underlying algebra, nonsinglet representations of SU/sub C/(3) are unobservable, while the subspace of color singlets satisfies associativity along with conditions for observability. Octonion quark fields satisfy the commutation relations of parafermions of order 3, leading to the correct SU(6) multiplets for hadrons. (U.S.)

  7. Color evaluation of computer-generated color rainbow holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yile; Wang, Hui; Wu, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    A color evaluation approach for computer-generated color rainbow holography (CGCRH) is presented. Firstly, the relationship between color quantities of a computer display and a color computer-generated holography (CCGH) colorimetric system is discussed based on color matching theory. An isochromatic transfer relationship of color quantity and amplitude of object light field is proposed. Secondly, the color reproduction mechanism and factors leading to the color difference between the color object and the holographic image that is reconstructed by CGCRH are analyzed in detail. A quantitative color calculation method for the holographic image reconstructed by CGCRH is given. Finally, general color samples are selected as numerical calculation test targets and the color differences between holographic images and test targets are calculated based on our proposed method. (paper)

  8. Stool Color: When to Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool color: When to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael ... M.D. Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are ...

  9. Realizable Triples in Dominator Colorings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fletcher, Douglas M

    2007-01-01

    Given a graph G and its vertex set V(G), the chromatic number, Chi(G), represents the minimum number of colors required to color the vertices of G so that no two adjacent vertices have the same color...

  10. Biological origins of color categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Skelton, Alice E.; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T.; Bosten, Jenny M.; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants’ categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mappe...

  11. Stork Color Proofing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, C. Frederick

    1989-04-01

    For the past few years, Stork Colorproofing B.V. has been marketing an analog color proofing system in Europe based on electrophoto-graphic technology it pioneered for the purpose of high resolution, high fidelity color imaging in the field of the Graphic Arts. Based in part on this technology, it will make available on a commercial basis a digital color proofing system in 1989. Proofs from both machines will provide an exact reference for the user and will look, feel, and behave in a reproduction sense like the printed press sheet.

  12. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  13. The color of money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Einarsdóttir, Kristin Vala

    2014-01-01

    of attention are affected by reward, and whether the effect involves general enhancement or is specific to discrete components of attention. Observers viewed brief displays of differentially colored letters and reported their identity. Each color signified a consistent monetary value and we measured......, by including conditions with color-contingent negative values. This gave an opportunity to compare high-gain with high-loss conditions. We found clear effects of value on selectivity when comparing high- and low-value conditions. When comparing equally valuable high-loss and high-gain conditions there were...

  14. Food Coloring and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1994-01-01

    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy ... to its original shape after wearing orthokeratology lenses? Sep 13, 2017 Histoplasmosis Diagnosis Sep 01, 2017 How ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... a laser pointer several times, according to a report published this month in the New England Journal ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health ... Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... after your vision… The Mystery of the Ghostly White Ring MAR 30, 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, ... APR 24, 2018 By Kate Rauch In a first, scientists in China have created artificial photoreceptors to ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, ... not just at Halloween. But few know the risks associated with these lenses . "Most people believe that ...

  2. Color transparency study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.; Pordes, S.; Botts, J.; Bunce, G.; Farrar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The group studied the relatively new notion of color transparency, discussed present experimental evidence for the effect, and explored several ideas for future experiments. This write-up summarizes these discussions. 11 refs., 1 fig

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after ... are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann said. Never buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that does ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ... require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... valid prescription that includes the brand name, lens measurements, and expiration date. Purchase the colored contact lenses ... with human-made versions. U.S. News Highlights the Value of Ophthalmologists APR 20, 2018 By Dan T. ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by ... 23, 2018 Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the journals may be interrupted during this time. We are working to resolve the issue quickly ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  16. 52-COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 52-color IR data of asteroids, taken using a double circularly variable filter. The short wavelength portion of the CVF covered the octave...

  17. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  18. Physics of structural colors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, S; Yoshioka, S; Miyazaki, J

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, structural colors have attracted great attention in a wide variety of research fields. This is because they are originated from complex interaction between light and sophisticated nanostructures generated in the natural world. In addition, their inherent regular structures are one of the most conspicuous examples of non-equilibrium order formation. Structural colors are deeply connected with recent rapidly growing fields of photonics and have been extensively studied to clarify their peculiar optical phenomena. Their mechanisms are, in principle, of a purely physical origin, which differs considerably from the ordinary coloration mechanisms such as in pigments, dyes and metals, where the colors are produced by virtue of the energy consumption of light. It is generally recognized that structural colors are mainly based on several elementary optical processes including thin-layer interference, diffraction grating, light scattering, photonic crystals and so on. However, in nature, these processes are somehow mixed together to produce complex optical phenomena. In many cases, they are combined with the irregularity of the structure to produce the diffusive nature of the reflected light, while in some cases they are accompanied by large-scale structures to generate the macroscopic effect on the coloration. Further, it is well known that structural colors cooperate with pigmentary colors to enhance or to reduce the brilliancy and to produce special effects. Thus, structure-based optical phenomena in nature appear to be quite multi-functional, the variety of which is far beyond our understanding. In this article, we overview these phenomena appearing particularly in the diversity of the animal world, to shed light on this rapidly developing research field

  19. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  20. Color in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Demirörs, Müge Bozbeyli

    1992-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1992. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references leaves 95-99. Color can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines such as, biology, theory, technology, and psychology. This thesis discusses color, from the stand point of interior spaces, which to some extent involves most of these discipli...

  1. PROTECTIVE COLORATION IN ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Leena Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Animals have range of defensive markings which helps to the risk of predator detection (camouflage), warn predators of the prey’s unpalatability (aposematism) or fool a predator into mimicry, masquerade. Animals also use colors in advertising, signalling services such as cleaning to animals of other species, to signal sexual status to other members of the same species. Some animals use color to divert attacks by startle (dalmatic behaviour), surprising a predator e.g. with eyespots or other f...

  2. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and 'real' colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The

  3. Color-Blindness Study: Color Discrimination on the TICCIT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asay, Calvin S.; Schneider, Edward W.

    The question studied whether the specific seven TICCIT system colors used within color coding schemes can be a source of confusion, or not seen at all, by the color-blind segment of target populations. Subjects were 11 color-blind and three normally sighted students at Brigham Young University. After a preliminary training exercise to acquaint the…

  4. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  5. The Trojan Color Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    2018-02-01

    The Trojan asteroids of Jupiter and Neptune are likely to have been captured from original heliocentric orbits in the dynamically excited (“hot”) population of the Kuiper Belt. However, it has long been known that the optical color distributions of the Jovian Trojans and the hot population are not alike. This difference has been reconciled with the capture hypothesis by assuming that the Trojans were resurfaced (for example, by sublimation of near-surface volatiles) upon inward migration from the Kuiper Belt (where blackbody temperatures are ∼40 K) to Jupiter’s orbit (∼125 K). Here, we examine the optical color distribution of the Neptunian Trojans using a combination of new optical photometry and published data. We find a color distribution that is statistically indistinguishable from that of the Jovian Trojans but unlike any sub-population in the Kuiper Belt. This result is puzzling, because the Neptunian Trojans are very cold (blackbody temperature ∼50 K) and a thermal process acting to modify the surface colors at Neptune’s distance would also affect the Kuiper Belt objects beyond, where the temperatures are nearly identical. The distinctive color distributions of the Jovian and Neptunian Trojans thus present us with a conundrum: they are very similar to each other, suggesting either capture from a common source or surface modification by a common process. However, the color distributions differ from any plausible common source population, and there is no known modifying process that could operate equally at both Jupiter and Neptune.

  6. A colorful approach to teaching optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Nancy J.; Donnelly, Judith

    2014-09-01

    In a traditional Connecticut elementary school setting, the classroom teacher will teach language arts, social studies and science curriculum. For 5th grade, the science curriculum includes learning about the senses and moon phases, in addition to the fundamentals of light. For art, music and physical education, students are sent to teachers who have certifications in teaching these subjects. In support of the science curriculum, we have traditionally provided workshops to enhance and supplement existing science curriculum. This method of instruction has become a routine. What if we invigorate the curriculum by using visual art to teach science? Will the students achieve a greater understanding of the principals of light? In this paper, we will explore the use of art to enhance the understanding of color and light phenomena.

  7. A relativistic colored spinning particle in an external color field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1984-01-01

    I derive fully covariant equations of motion for a classical colored spinning particle in an external SU(3) color field. Although the total color charge and total spin of the particle are found to be separately constants of motion (here I disagree with a recent paper by Arodz), the dynamics of the orientation of the color and spin vectors are coupled to each other through interaction with the color field, even if the latter is homogeneous. (orig.)

  8. An Adaptive Fuzzy-Based System to Simulate, Quantify and Compensate Color Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jinmi; Santos, Wellington Pinheiro dos

    2017-01-01

    About 8% of the male population of the world are affected by a determined type of color vision disturbance, which varies from the partial to complete reduction of the ability to distinguish certain colors. A considerable amount of color blind people are able to live all life long without knowing they have color vision disabilities and abnormalities. Nowadays the evolution of information technology and computer science, specifically image processing techniques and computer graphics, can be fun...

  9. Spitzer - Hot & Colorful Student Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, D.; Rebull, L. M.; DeWolf, C.; Guastella, P.; Johnson, C. H.; Schaefers, J.; Spuck, T.; McDonald, J. G., III; DeWolf, T.; Brock, S.; Boerma, J.; Bemis, G.; Paulsen, K.; Yueh, N.; Peter, A.; Wassmer, W.; Haber, R.; Scaramucci, A.; Butchart, J.; Holcomb, A.; Karns, B.; Kennedy, S.; Siegel, R.; Weiser, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this poster, we present the results of several activities developed for the general science student to explore infrared light. The first activity involved measuring infrared radiation using an updated version of Newton's experiment of splitting white light and finding IR radiation. The second used Leslie's cube to allow students to observe different radiators, while the third used a modern infrared thermometer to measure and identify IR sources in an enclosed box. The last activity involved students making false-color images from narrow-band filter images from data sets from Spitzer Space Telescope, STScI Digitized Sky Survey and other sources. Using computer programs like Adobe Photoshop and free software such as ds9, Spot and Leopard, poster-like images were created by the students. This research is funded by the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Please see our companion poster, Johnson et al., on the science aspect of this program, and another poster on the educational aspects, Guastella et al.

  10. Color Vision in Aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Hilde R; Hagen, Lene A; Landsend, Erlend C S; Gilson, Stuart J; Utheim, Øygunn A; Utheim, Tor P; Neitz, Maureen; Baraas, Rigmor C

    2018-04-01

    To assess color vision and its association with retinal structure in persons with congenital aniridia. We included 36 persons with congenital aniridia (10-66 years), and 52 healthy, normal trichromatic controls (10-74 years) in the study. Color vision was assessed with Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) pseudo-isochromatic plates (4th ed., 2002); Cambridge Color Test and a low-vision version of the Color Assessment and Diagnosis test (CAD-LV). Cone-opsin genes were analyzed to confirm normal versus congenital color vision deficiencies. Visual acuity and ocular media opacities were assessed. The central 30° of both eyes were imaged with the Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 to grade the severity of foveal hypoplasia (FH, normal to complete: 0-4). Five participants with aniridia had cone opsin genes conferring deutan color vision deficiency and were excluded from further analysis. Of the 31 with aniridia and normal opsin genes, 11 made two or more red-green (RG) errors on HRR, four of whom also made yellow-blue (YB) errors; one made YB errors only. A total of 19 participants had higher CAD-LV RG thresholds, of which eight also had higher CAD-LV YB thresholds, than normal controls. In aniridia, the thresholds were higher along the RG than the YB axis, and those with a complete FH had significantly higher RG thresholds than those with mild FH (P = 0.038). Additional increase in YB threshold was associated with secondary ocular pathology. Arrested foveal formation and associated alterations in retinal processing are likely to be the primary reason for impaired red-green color vision in aniridia.

  11. Properly colored connectivity of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang; Qin, Zhongmei

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of proper connection of graphs is discussed in this book with real world applications in computer science and network security. Beginning with a brief introduction, comprising relevant definitions and preliminary results, this book moves on to consider a variety of properties of graphs that imply bounds on the proper connection number. Detailed proofs of significant advancements toward open problems and conjectures are presented with complete references. Researchers and graduate students with an interest in graph connectivity and colorings will find this book useful as it builds upon fundamental definitions towards modern innovations, strategies, and techniques. The detailed presentation lends to use as an introduction to proper connection of graphs for new and advanced researchers, a solid book for a graduate level topics course, or as a reference for those interested in expanding and further developing research in the area.

  12. Unraveling the Double Bind: Women of Color in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Educational Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 1976, the challenges faced by women of color who pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields were first brought to national attention by Shirley M. Malcom, Paula Hall, and Janet Brown in a report titled "The Double Bind: The Price of Being a Minority Woman in Science." In commemoration of the 35th…

  13. STEM Success: Perceptions of Women of Color at Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Nina Maria

    2017-01-01

    Women of color, particularly African-Americans and Hispanics, have a science, and engineering degree attainment rate of 11% whereas White women have a rate of 29%. Research has demonstrated that these underrepresented minorities experience various racial/ethnic and gender issues that impact their academic success in science, technology,…

  14. Color, Temperature and Heat: Exploring University Students Mental Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canlas, Ian Phil

    2016-01-01

    Color, temperature and heat are among the concepts in science that are interconnected. These concepts are introduced to learners even before they enter the basic education. On the other hand, in school, it is formally introduced to them not only in science but also in the humanities. The foregoing study attempted to explore the mental thoughts of…

  15. Modelling the relationship between soil color and particle size for soil survey in Ferralsol environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kone

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil texture is an important property for evaluating its inherent fertility especially by using pedo-transfers functions requiring particle size data. However, there is no existing quantitative method for in situ estimation of soil particle size, delaying judgement of soil chemical properties in the field. For this purpose, laboratory particle size analyses of 1028 samples from 281 Ferralsol profiles, located between latitudes 7º N and 10º N in Côte d’Ivoire and their respective colour notation by Munsell chart were used to generate prediction models. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis by Group was processed to identify clay, sand and silt contents in the soil based on color hue (2.5YR, 5YR, 7.5YR, and 10YR and Chroma (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. The evaluation was conducted for each horizon coded as H1 (0-20 cm, H2 (20-60 cm, H3 (60-80 cm and H4 (80-150 cm and used as grouping variables. Highly significant (P< 0.001 models were identified for clay and sand. These models were used to estimate successfully clay and sand contents for other Ferralsol samples by comparing calculated and measured mean using the null hypothesis of difference and Tukey’s tests. They were accurate for at all depths, except 80 - 150 cm, for sand in 10YR soils. The method was deemed appropriate for in situ estimation of soil particle size contents in Ferralsol environment for improving reconnaissance agricultural soil surveys.

  16. Affective color palettes in visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Abhisekh

    2017-01-01

    The communication of affect, a feeling or emotion, has a central role in creating engaging visual experiences. Prior work on the psychology of color has focused on its effect on emotions, color preferences and reactions to color. Studies have attempted to solve problems related to improving aesthetics and emotions of images by improving color themes and templates. However, we have little understanding of how designers manipulate color properties for effective visual communication in informati...

  17. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  18. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  19. Color guided amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broedel, Johannes [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Amplitudes in gauge thoeries obtain contributions from color and kinematics. While these two parts of the amplitude seem to exhibit different symmetry structures, it turns out that they can be reorganized in a way to behave equally, which leads to the so-called color-kinematic dual representations of amplitudes. Astonishingly, the existence of those representations allows squaring to related gravitational theories right away. Contrary to the Kawaii-Levellen-Tye relations, which have been used to relate gauge theories and gravity previously, this method is applicable not only to tree amplitudes but also at loop level. In this talk, the basic technique is introduced followed by a discussion of the existence of color-kinematic dual representations for amplitudes derived from gauge theory actions which are deformed by higher-operator insertions. In addition, it is commented on the implications for deformed gravitational theories.

  20. Crystalline color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    In any context in which color superconductivity arises in nature, it is likely to involve pairing between species of quarks with differing chemical potentials. For suitable values of the differences between chemical potentials, Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum are favored, as was first realized by Larkin, Ovchinnikov, Fulde, and Ferrell (LOFF). Condensates of this sort spontaneously break translational and rotational invariance, leading to gaps which vary periodically in a crystalline pattern. Unlike the original LOFF state, these crystalline quark matter condensates include both spin-zero and spin-one Cooper pairs. We explore the range of parameters for which crystalline color superconductivity arises in the QCD phase diagram. If in some shell within the quark matter core of a neutron star (or within a strange quark star) the quark number densities are such that crystalline color superconductivity arises, rotational vortices may be pinned in this shell, making it a locus for glitch phenomena

  1. Color vision versus pattern visual evoked potentials in the assessment of subclinical optic pathway involvement in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih C Gundogan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optic pathway involvement in multiple sclerosis is frequently the initial sign in the disease process. In most clinical applications, pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP is used in the assessment of optic pathway involvement. Objective: To question the value of PVEP against color vision assessment in the diagnosis of subclinical optic pathway involvement. Materials and Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional study included 20 multiple sclerosis patients without a history of optic neuritis, and 20 healthy control subjects. Farnsworth-Munsell (FM 100-Hue testing and PVEPs to 60-min arc and 15-min arc checks by using Roland-Consult RetiScan® system were performed. P 100 amplitude, P 100 latency in PVEP and total error scores (TES in FM 100-Hue test were assessed. Results: Expanded Disability Status Scale score and the time from diagnosis were 2.21 ± 2.53 (ranging from 0 to 7 and 4.1 ± 4.4 years. MS group showed significantly delayed P 100 latency for both checks (P 0.05 for all. 14 MS patients (70% had an increased TESs in FM-100 Hue, 11 (55% MS patients had delayed P 100 latency and 9 (45% had reduced P 100 amplitude. The areas under the ROC curves were 0.944 for FM-100 Hue test, 0.753 for P 100 latency, and 0.173 for P 100 amplitude. Conclusions: Color vision testing seems to be more sensitive than PVEP in detecting subclinical visual pathway involvement in MS.

  2. Color consilience: color through the lens of art practice, history, philosophy, and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Bevil R

    2012-03-01

    Paintings can be interpreted as the product of the complex neural machinery that translates physical light signals into behavior, experience, and emotion. The brain mechanisms responsible for vision and perception have been sculpted during evolution and further modified by cultural exposure and development. By closely examining artists' paintings and practices, we can discover hints to how the brain works, and achieve insight into the discoveries and inventions of artists and their impact on culture. Here, I focus on an integral aspect of color, color contrast, which poses a challenge for artists: a mark situated on an otherwise blank canvas will appear a different color in the context of the finished painting. How do artists account for this change in color during the production of a painting? In the broader context of neural and philosophical considerations of color, I discuss the practices of three modern masters, Henri Matisse, Paul Cézanne, and Claude Monet, and suggest that the strategies they developed not only capitalized on the neural mechanisms of color, but also influenced the trajectory of western art history. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Future of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladson, Jack A.; Turner, Laraine B.; Green-Armytage, Paul; Hunt, Robert W. G.

    2002-06-01

    We live in a world in which styles and technologies are nearly the same from place to place, but change daily. This changing global culture is unprecedented, and reinforced by emerging new technologies that affect us all. The Future of Color, examines new technologies, how they will affect the selection and promulgation of color in the near future, and their impact upon us. We examine this topic from many perspectives - technological, business and commercial. Most importantly, as we understand how our world is emerging, we can position ourselves strategically for tomorrow.

  4. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  5. QCD: color or glow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reya, E.

    1982-01-01

    The some of motivations for color and the numerous qualitative successes of QCD are presented. Non-leading higher order contributions to the (x, Q 2 )-dependence of scaling violations of non-singlet and singlet structure functions are discussed, especially non-perturbative correction to deep inelastic processes such as higher twist contributions. Finally the topic of how to account theoretically for the existence of free fractionally charged particles by concentrating mainly on spontaneously breaking SU(3) color is presented. (M.F.W.)

  6. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  7. Color engineering in the age of digital convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    1998-09-01

    Digital color imaging has developed over the past twenty years from specialized scientific applications into the mainstream of computing. In addition to the phenomenal growth of computer processing power and storage capacity, great advances have been made in the capabilities and cost-effectiveness of color imaging peripherals. The majority of imaging applications, including the graphic arts, video and film have made the transition from analogue to digital production methods. Digital convergence of computing, communications and television now heralds new possibilities for multimedia publishing and mobile lifestyles. Color engineering, the application of color science to the design of imaging products, is an emerging discipline that poses exciting challenges to the international color imaging community for training, research and standards.

  8. Transparency and imaginary colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, W.; Koenderink, J.J.; Van Doorn, A.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense “imaginary.” In these cases, the inferred chromatic transmittance or reflectance of the overlay lies

  9. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  10. Why Leaves Change Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    For years, scientists have worked to understand the changes that happen to trees and shrubs in the autumn. Although we don't know all the details, we do know enough to explain the basics and help you to enjoy more fully Nature's multicolored autumn farewell. Three factors influence autumn leaf color-leaf pigments, length of night, and weather, but not quite...

  11. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  12. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  13. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  15. Sorghum bi-color

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... Biomass materials require reduction and densification for the purpose of handling and space requirements. Guinea corn (Sorghum bi-color) is a major source of biomass material in the tropic regions. The densification process involves some ... a closed-end die, the temperature and the use of binder.

  16. Hupa Nature Coloring Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    Animals familiar to the northwest region of California where Hupa Indians reside are depicted in this coloring book which belongs to a series of materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. Each page contains a bold pen and ink drawing of an animal and the animal's name in the Unifon alphabet used for writing the Hupa language.…

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an ... the cause: a rare inflammatory condition called Cogan’s syndrome. Google AI May Reveal Health Risks Through Your ...

  18. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  19. Color waves : a simple heuristic for choosing false colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overveld, van C.W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A simple heuristic is presented for choosing false colors for visualizing scalar functions on two-dimensional domains. The color scheme allows inspection of the function on several length scales simultanously.

  20. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  1. A new method for skin color enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

  2. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  3. Colorization-Based RGB-White Color Interpolation using Color Filter Array with Randomly Sampled Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Paul; Lee, Sukho; Kang, Moon Gi

    2017-06-28

    Recently, several RGB-White (RGBW) color filter arrays (CFAs) have been proposed, which have extra white (W) pixels in the filter array that are highly sensitive. Due to the high sensitivity, the W pixels have better SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) characteristics than other color pixels in the filter array, especially, in low light conditions. However, most of the RGBW CFAs are designed so that the acquired RGBW pattern image can be converted into the conventional Bayer pattern image, which is then again converted into the final color image by using conventional demosaicing methods, i.e., color interpolation techniques. In this paper, we propose a new RGBW color filter array based on a totally different color interpolation technique, the colorization algorithm. The colorization algorithm was initially proposed for colorizing a gray image into a color image using a small number of color seeds. Here, we adopt this algorithm as a color interpolation technique, so that the RGBW color filter array can be designed with a very large number of W pixels to make the most of the highly sensitive characteristics of the W channel. The resulting RGBW color filter array has a pattern with a large proportion of W pixels, while the small-numbered RGB pixels are randomly distributed over the array. The colorization algorithm makes it possible to reconstruct the colors from such a small number of RGB values. Due to the large proportion of W pixels, the reconstructed color image has a high SNR value, especially higher than those of conventional CFAs in low light condition. Experimental results show that many important information which are not perceived in color images reconstructed with conventional CFAs are perceived in the images reconstructed with the proposed method.

  4. Retaining Aspiring Scholars (retention, Students of Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Nancy Bannister

    Tinto's retention model provided the theoretical framework for this research study of the academic and social integration of academically talented students of color into the graduate and professional science degree pipeline. The site for this study was the Life Sciences Summer Undergraduate Research Program of the University of Minnesota. This program recruits academically talented undergraduates from throughout the nation for participation in two months of research, academic study and orientation to science graduate and professional programs. The quantitative data source consisted of survey responses by 108 alumni of the Summer Undergraduate Research Program to the Institutional Integration Scale developed by Ernest Pascarella and Patrick Terenzini. The scale measures academic integration, social integration and institutional and goal commitment of students. The qualitative data source consisted of one-on-one interviews of 14 summer program alumni of Caucasian, Latino and African American background. The quantitative results were not significant, while the qualitative results demonstrated the importance to alumni interviewed of the challenging academic research work, personally confirming peer group socialization, and supportive student faculty interactions. The study showed the importance of programs like these for helping students of color plan upper level college study and graduate/professional school enrollment. Program characteristics that influenced decision making regarding school and career choices by study participants and specifically by students of color were involvement of faculty in recruiting and mentoring students; socialization to the graduate student role through peer group relations and student maturation and empowerment through participation in a high level academic program. Study findings indicated that supportive and empowering faculty contact was considered most important by students of color who continued on to graduate and professional

  5. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  6. COLORS AND COLOR GRADIENTS IN BULGES OF GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BALCELLS, M; PELETIER, RF

    We have obtained surface photometry in U, B, R, and I for a complete optically selected sample of 45 early-type spiral galaxies, to investigate the colors and color gradients of spiral bulges. Color profiles in U-R, B-R, U-B, and R-I have been determined in wedges opening on the semiminor axes.

  7. Color blindness defect and medical laboratory technologists: unnoticed problems and the care for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargahi, Hossein; Einollahi, Nahid; Dashti, Nasrin

    2010-01-01

    Color-blindness is the inability to perceive differences between some color that other people can distinguish. Using a literature search, the results indicate the prevalence of color vision deficiency in the medical profession and its on medical skills. Medical laboratory technicians and technologists employees should also screen for color blindness. This research aimed to study color blindness prevalence among Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees and Students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 633 TUMS Clinical Laboratory Sciences' Students and Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees to detect color-blindness problems by Ishihara Test. The tests were first screened with certain pictures, then compared to the Ishihara criteria to be possible color defective were tested further with other plates to determine color - blindness defects. The data was saved using with SPSS software and analyzed by statistical methods. This is the first study to determine the prevalence of color - blindness in Clinical Laboratory Sciences' Students and Employees. 2.4% of TUMS Medical Laboratory Sciences Students and Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees are color-blind. There is significant correlation between color-blindness and sex and age. But the results showed that there is not significant correlation between color-blindness defect and exposure to chemical agents, type of job, trauma and surgery history, history of familial defect and race. It would be a wide range of difficulties by color blinded students and employees in their practice of laboratory diagnosis and techniques with a potentially of errors. We suggest color blindness as a medical conditions should restrict employment choices for medical laboratory technicians and technologists job in Iran.

  8. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  9. Public response to bridge colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    To determine people's reactions to bridges painted in colors as white, yellow, green, blue, red, brown, black, and aluminum, two test bridges were selected in Charlottesville, Virginia. One was painted a different color each month and the other was k...

  10. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  11. COLOR PERCEPTION IN INTERIOR DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZSAVAŞ, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is mentioned about color that is a keyfactor of interior architecture profession. Firstly, space perception, colorand space interaction, effects of space, color and user relationship is explainedexcept color theories and definitions. Within this scope these are scrutinizingboth perception of color in the space and material and lighting issues thathave a big role in perception. Recent searches, practice methods and evaluationwith examples play a part in this article. It is ai...

  12. Color preferences are not universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chloe; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Claims of universality pervade color preference research. It has been argued that there are universal preferences for some colors over others (e.g., Eysenck, 1941), universal sex differences (e.g., Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), and universal mechanisms or dimensions that govern these preferences (e.g., Palmer & Schloss, 2010). However, there have been surprisingly few cross-cultural investigations of color preference and none from nonindustrialized societies that are relatively free from the common influence of global consumer culture. Here, we compare the color preferences of British adults to those of Himba adults who belong to a nonindustrialized culture in rural Namibia. British and Himba color preferences are found to share few characteristics, and Himba color preferences display none of the so-called "universal" patterns or sex differences. Several significant predictors of color preference are identified, such as cone-contrast between stimulus and background (Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), the valence of color-associated objects (Palmer & Schloss, 2010), and the colorfulness of the color. However, the relationship of these predictors to color preference was strikingly different for the two cultures. No one model of color preference is able to account for both British and Himba color preferences. We suggest that not only do patterns of color preference vary across individuals and groups but the underlying mechanisms and dimensions of color preference vary as well. The findings have implications for broader debate on the extent to which our perception and experience of color is culturally relative or universally constrained. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Typography, Color, and Information Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on how typography and color complement and differ from each other in signaling an underlying content structure; the synergism between typography, color, and page layout (use of white space) that aids audience understanding and use; and the characteristics of typography and of color that are most important in these contexts. (SR)

  14. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  15. Astronomy with the Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the…

  16. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused

  17. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas; Bernhard, Matthias; Rautek, Peter; Viola, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user's ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies

  18. Biological origins of color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Alice E; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T; Bosten, Jenny M; Franklin, Anna

    2017-05-23

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants' categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mapped infants' categorical recognition memory for hue onto a stimulus array used previously to document the color lexicons of 110 nonindustrialized languages. Following familiarization to a given hue, infants' response to a novel hue indicated that their recognition memory parses the hue continuum into red, yellow, green, blue, and purple categories. Infants' categorical distinctions aligned with common distinctions in color lexicons and are organized around hues that are commonly central to lexical categories across languages. The boundaries between infants' categorical distinctions also aligned, relative to the adaptation point, with the cardinal axes that describe the early stages of color representation in retinogeniculate pathways, indicating that infant color categorization may be partly organized by biological mechanisms of color vision. The findings suggest that color categorization in language and thought is partially biologically constrained and have implications for broader debate on how biology, culture, and communication interact in human cognition.

  19. Color homogeneity in LED spotlights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Color variation in the light output of white LEDs is a common problem in LED lighting. We aim to design LED spotlights with a uniform color output while keeping the cost of the system low and the energy efficiency high. Therefore we design a special optic to eliminate the color variation of the LED.

  20. Color gradients in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franx, M.; Illingworth, G.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship of the color gradients within ellipticals and the color differences between them are studied. It is found that the local color appears to be strongly related to the escape velocity. This suggests that the local escape velocity is the primary factor that determines the metallicity of the stellar population. Models with and without dark halos give comparable results. 27 refs

  1. NextStation Color

    CERN Multimedia

    Steve Jobs created a NeXT generation operating system. The NeXTstation provides functionality that other computers are just providing today.The NS Color I/O cable attaches to the back of the computer on one end and on the other end the cable is split to connect to the display and the Sound Box. The Sound Box also has a keyboard signal port. Like a MAC or SUN of the same vintage, the mouse connects to the keyboard. These boxes run NEXTSTEP, which a full object-oriented OS. It has UNIX as a base and provides a gorgeous graphical interface. NEXTSTEP was also available for other platforms. They tend to run a little slow. But they have great digital sound and full color displays.

  2. Color digital halftoning taking colorimetric color reproduction into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneishi, Hideaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Shimoyama, Nobukatsu; Miyake, Yoichi

    1996-01-01

    Taking colorimetric color reproduction into account, the conventional error diffusion method is modified for color digital half-toning. Assuming that the input to a bilevel color printer is given in CIE-XYZ tristimulus values or CIE-LAB values instead of the more conventional RGB or YMC values, two modified versions based on vector operation in (1) the XYZ color space and (2) the LAB color space were tested. Experimental results show that the modified methods, especially the method using the LAB color space, resulted in better color reproduction performance than the conventional methods. Spatial artifacts that appear in the modified methods are presented and analyzed. It is also shown that the modified method (2) with a thresholding technique achieves a good spatial image quality.

  3. Railroad signal color and orientation : effects of color blindness and criteria for color vision field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report concerns two issues: 1) whether color vision is necessary for locomotive crews who work on railroads where the signal system is either completely redundant with regard to signal color and signal orientation or the signal system only uses ...

  4. Encyclopedia of Rose Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, A.; Debener, T.; Gudin, S.; Byrne, D.B.; Cairns, T.; Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.; Forkmann, G.; Fruchter, M.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Horst, R.K.; Jay, M.; Kwakkenbosch, T.A.M.; Pemberton, B.; Put, H.M.C.; Rajapakse, S.; Reid, M.; Schum, A.; Shorthouse, J.D.; Ueda, Y.; Vainstein, A.; Pol, van de P.A.; Zieslin, N.

    2003-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Rose Science brings together a wealth of information on the rose, long treasured for its captivating perfumes and splendid colors. Now, more than ever, science plays a central place in the production of this flower at the center of one of the world's biggest floricultural

  5. Color on emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  6. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  7. Coloring of synthetic fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsoy, R.

    1980-01-01

    A synthetic fluorite of the Harshaw Chemical Company is analyzed for rare earth elements, yttrium, and sodium. Samples of this fluorite are irradiated with X-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, electrons, protons, and α-particles at different energies, and their absorption spectra are analyzed. Analyzing the thermal bleaching of these radiation-coloured fluorites shows that both, impurities and radiation play a part in the coloration of synthetic fluorite. However, the main contribution comes from the radiation induced lattice defects. In the visible region spectra, the colour centre of the 5800 to 5900 A absorption band is probably mainly related with large aggregates of F-centres. The 5450 and the 5300 A absorption bands are mainly related to monovalent and divalent ion impurities and their association with lattice defects. The 3800 A absorption band seems to be related with F-centre aggregates. However, the contribution from the rare earth elements related complex color centres also plays some part for the production of this absorption band. These results indicate that the color centres of different origin can absorb light at the same wavelength. (author)

  8. Color imaging fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Erik; Oguz Akyuz, Ahmet; Johnson, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an understanding of what color is, where color comes from, and how color can be used correctly in many different applications. The authors first treat the physics of light and its interaction with matter at the atomic level, so that the origins of color can be appreciated. The intimate relationship between energy levels, orbital states, and electromagnetic waves helps to explain why diamonds shimmer, rubies are red, and the feathers of the Blue Jay are blue. Then, color theory is explained from its origin to the current state of the art, including image captu

  9. Precision of synesthetic color matching resembles that for recollected colors rather than physical colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H; Wegener, Signy V; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B

    2012-10-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but hearing the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to compare the precision with which synesthetes are able to match their color experiences triggered by visible graphemes, with the precision of their matches for recalled colors based on the same graphemes spoken aloud. In six synesthetes, color matching for printed graphemes was equally variable relative to recalled experiences. In a control experiment, synesthetes and age-matched controls either matched the color of a circular patch while it was visible on a screen, or they judged its color from memory after it had disappeared. Both synesthetes and controls were more variable when matching from memory, and the variance of synesthetes' recalled color judgments matched that associated with their synesthetic judgments for visible graphemes in the first experiment. Results suggest that synesthetic experiences of color triggered by achromatic graphemes are analogous to recollections of color.

  10. Myoglobin chemistry and meat color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Joseph, Poulson

    2013-01-01

    Consumers rely heavily on fresh meat color as an indicator of wholesomeness at the point of sale, whereas cooked color is exploited as an indicator of doneness at the point of consumption. Deviations from the bright cherry-red color of fresh meat lead to product rejection and revenue loss. Myoglobin is the sarcoplasmic heme protein primarily responsible for the meat color, and the chemistry of myoglobin is species specific. The mechanistic interactions between myoglobin and multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors govern the color of raw as well as cooked meats. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current research in meat color and how the findings are applied in the meat industry. Characterizing the fundamental basis of myoglobin's interactions with biomolecules in postmortem skeletal muscles is necessary to interpret the chemistry of meat color phenomena and to engineer innovative processing strategies to minimize meat discoloration-induced revenue loss to the agricultural economy.

  11. Color metasurfaces in industrial perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Kristensen, Anders

    This doctoral thesis describes the utilization of color metasurfaces in an industrial perspective, where nano-scale textures and contingent post processing replace inks, dyes and pigments in plastic production. The concept of colors by structure arguably reduces the number of raw materials......, exemplified in silicon. However, only corresponding faint colors appear in polymeric materials. The concept of all-polymer pigment-free coloration seems somewhat restricted in relation to widespread industrial employment. Finally, a novel plasmon color technology for structural coloration in plastics......, and it is shown that the dependence on polarization can be controlled. In collaboration with industry, polymer-based colored metasurfaces of square-centimeter size are demonstrated by embossing, injection molding, roll-to-roll printing, and film insert molding with full compatibility. Furthermore, post production...

  12. Multi-color and artistic dithering

    OpenAIRE

    Ostromoukhov, Victor; Hersch, Roger D.

    1999-01-01

    A multi-color dithering algorithm is proposed, which converts a barycentric combination of color intensities into a multi-color non-overlapping surface coverage. Multi-color dithering is a generalization of standard bi-level dithering. Combined with tetrahedral color separation, multi-color dithering makes it possible to print images made of a set of non-standard inks. In contrast to most previous color halftoning methods, multi-color dithering ensures by construction that the different selec...

  13. A field guide to digital color

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Maureen Stone's field guide to digital color presents a survey of digital color with special emphasis on those fields important for computer graphics. The book provides the foundation for understanding color and its applications, discusses color media and color management and the use of color in computer graphics, including color design and selection. The book provides a guide for anyone who wants to understand and apply digital color. An annotated bibliography provides in-depth references for further study on each topic.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: color vision deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition color blindness color vision defects defective color vision vision defect, color ... Perception KidsHealth from the Nemours Foundation MalaCards: color blindness MalaCards: color vision deficiency Orphanet: Blue cone monochromatism Orphanet: NON ...

  15. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground–Background Color Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined. PMID:27708752

  16. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground-Background Color Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined.

  17. Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin

    2014-12-01

    We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations.

  18. Color Appearance of the Neon Color Spreading Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Vusić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As a part of this paper, the influence of various parameters within the target process of graphic reproduction on the color appearance of the neon color spreading effect was investigated. The shift in a color appearance qualitatively is determined through the calculation of changes in perceptual attributes of color, i.e. differences in lightness, chroma and hue. The influence of different media (printed images, and LCD display in the “cross-media” system was examined, as well as the role of the inserted segment color choice and background of the primary stimulus as an element of design solutions. These parameters were evaluated in a variety of ambient conditions and under the observation of three CIE standard light sources and illuminants. It was found that it was mostly the changes of the chroma and lightness. The change in the color hue is the lowest.

  19. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  20. Cliques, coloring, and satisfiability

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, David S

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of a DIMACS Challenge is to encourage and coordinate research in the experimental analysis of algorithms. The First DIMACS Challenge encouraged experimental work in the area of network flow and matchings. The Second DIMACS Challenge, on which this volume is based, took place in conjunction with the DIMACS Special Year on Combinatorial Optimization. Addressed here are three difficult combinatorial optimization problems: finding cliques in a graph, coloring the vertices of a graph, and solving instances of the satisfiability problem. These problems were chosen both for their practical interest and because of their theoretical intractability.

  1. Color adaptation induced from linguistic description of color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liling Zheng

    Full Text Available Recent theories propose that language comprehension can influence perception at the low level of perceptual system. Here, we used an adaptation paradigm to test whether processing language caused color adaptation in the visual system. After prolonged exposure to a color linguistic context, which depicted red, green, or non-specific color scenes, participants immediately performed a color detection task, indicating whether they saw a green color square in the middle of a white screen or not. We found that participants were more likely to perceive the green color square after listening to discourses denoting red compared to discourses denoting green or conveying non-specific color information, revealing that language comprehension caused an adaptation aftereffect at the perceptual level. Therefore, semantic representation of color may have a common neural substrate with color perception. These results are in line with the simulation view of embodied language comprehension theory, which predicts that processing language reactivates the sensorimotor systems that are engaged during real experience.

  2. Human preferences for colorful birds: Vivid colors or pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lišková, Silvie; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-04-29

    In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern), and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  3. Experimental Study on Color Durability of Color Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shi; Huan, Su

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at the poor Color durability and the lack of research on Color asphalt pavement, spraying an anti-tire trace seal resin emulsion on the surface, a Color durable asphalt pavement was proposed. After long-term rolling and long-term aging test, the Color durability was evaluated by RGB function in Photoshop and trace residue rate formula. Test results proved that the Evaluation method was simple and effective. After long-term rolling, the Color of the road surface tends to a constant value. Spraying the emulsion on the road surface can resist tire traces. After long-term aging test, the resistance to tire traces was increased by 26.6% compared with the conventional type, while the former was 44.1% higher than the latter without long-term aging. The Color durable asphalt pavement can effectively improve the ability of Color asphalt pavement to resist tire traces, and significantly improve the Color durability of Color asphalt pavement.

  4. Human Preferences for Colorful Birds: Vivid Colors or Pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Lišková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern, and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  5. A color management system for multi-colored LED lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    A new color control system is described and implemented for a five–color LED light engine, covering a wide white gamut. The system combines a new way of using pre-calibrated look-up tables and a rule-based optimization of chromaticity distance from the Planckian locus with a calibrated color sensor....... The color sensor monitors the chromaticity of the mixed light providing the correction factor for the current driver by using the generated look-up table. The long term stability and accuracy of the system will be experimentally investigated with target tolerance within a circle radius 0.0011 in the uniform...

  6. INFRARED COLOR-COLOR DIAGRAMS FOR AGB STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present infrared color-color diagrams of AGB stars from the observations at near and mid infrared bands. We compile the observations for hundreds of OH/IR stars and carbon stars using the data from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX, the two micron sky survey (2MASS, and the IRAS point source catalog (PSC. We compare the observations with the theoretical evolutionary tracks of AGB stars. From the new observational data base and the theoretical evolution tracks, we discuss the meaning of the infrared color-color diagrams at different wavelengths.

  7. Effects of saturation and contrast polarity on the figure-ground organization of color on gray

    OpenAIRE

    Dresp-Langley, Birgitta; Reeves, Adam

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Poorly saturated colors are closer to a pure grey than strongly saturated ones and, therefore, appear less " colorful ". Color saturation is effectively manipulated in the visual arts for balancing conflicting sensations and moods and for inducing the perception of relative distance in the pictorial plane. While perceptual science has proven quite clearly that the luminance contrast of any hue acts as a self-sufficient cue to relative depth in visual images, the role o...

  8. What color transparency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.; Ralston, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Color transparency is commonly accepted to be a prediction of perturbative QCD. However it is more a phenomenon probing the interface between the perturbative and nonperturbative regimes, leading to some intricacy in its theoretical description. In this paper we study the consequences of the impulse approximation to the theory in various quantum mechanical bases. We show that the fully interacting hadronic basis, which consists of eigenstates of the exact Hamiltonian in the presence of the nucleus, provides a natural basis to study color transparency. In this basis we can relate the quark wave function at a small transverse separation distance b 2 2 directly to transparency ratios measured in experiment. With the formalism, experiment can be used to map out the quark wave function in this region. We exhibit several loopholes in existing arguments predicting a rise in transparency ratios with energy, and suggest alternatives. Among the results, we argue that the theoretical prediction of a rising transparency ratio with energy may be on better footing for heavy-quark bound states than for relativistic light-quark systems. We also point out that transparency ratios can be constant with energy and not at variance with perturbative QCD

  9. Crystallography of color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2002-01-01

    We develop the Ginzburg-Landau approach to comparing different possible crystal structures for the crystalline color superconducting phase of QCD, the QCD incarnation of the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell phase. In this phase, quarks of different flavor with differing Fermi momenta form Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum, yielding a condensate that varies in space like a sum of plane waves. We work at zero temperature, as is relevant for compact star physics. The Ginzburg-Landau approach predicts a strong first-order phase transition (as a function of the chemical potential difference between quarks) and for this reason is not under quantitative control. Nevertheless, by organizing the comparison between different possible arrangements of plane waves (i.e., different crystal structures) it provides considerable qualitative insight into what makes a crystal structure favorable. Together, the qualitative insights and the quantitative, but not controlled, calculations make a compelling case that the favored pairing pattern yields a condensate which is a sum of eight plane waves forming a face-centered cubic structure. They also predict that the phase is quite robust, with gaps comparable in magnitude to the BCS gap that would form if the Fermi momenta were degenerate. These predictions may be tested in ultracold gases made of fermionic atoms. In a QCD context, our results lay the foundation for a calculation of vortex pinning in a crystalline color superconductor, and thus for the analysis of pulsar glitches that may originate within the core of a compact star

  10. Contact Lenses for Color Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdel-Rahman; Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Elsherif, Mohamed; Ahmed, Zubair; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-06-01

    Color vision deficiency (color blindness) is an inherited genetic ocular disorder. While no cure for this disorder currently exists, several methods can be used to increase the color perception of those affected. One such method is the use of color filtering glasses which are based on Bragg filters. While these glasses are effective, they are high cost, bulky, and incompatible with other vision correction eyeglasses. In this work, a rhodamine derivative is incorporated in commercial contact lenses to filter out the specific wavelength bands (≈545-575 nm) to correct color vision blindness. The biocompatibility assessment of the dyed contact lenses in human corneal fibroblasts and human corneal epithelial cells shows no toxicity and cell viability remains at 99% after 72 h. This study demonstrates the potential of the dyed contact lenses in wavelength filtering and color vision deficiency management. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Spectrophotometer-Based Color Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    equipment. There are several American Society for Testing and Materials ( ASTM ) chapters covering the use of spectrometers for color measurements (refs. 3...Perkin Elmer software and procedures described in ASTM chapter E308 (ref. 3). All spectral data was stored on the computer. A summary of the color...similarity, or lack thereof, between two colors (ref. 5). In this report, the Euclidean distance metric, E, is used and recommended in ASTM D2244

  12. A Study of Color Transformation on Website Images for the Color Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Siew-Li Ching; Maziani Sabudin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study on color transformation method on website images for the color blind. The most common category of color blindness is red-green color blindness which is viewed as beige color. By transforming the colors of the images, the color blind can improve their color visibility. They can have a better view when browsing through the websites. To transform colors on the website images, we study on two algorithms which are the conversion techniques from RGB colo...

  13. COLOR CONCEPTS IN WARDROBE PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mrs Kirti Tewari

    2017-01-01

    Fashion trends point out colors to wear but individuality should never be overlooked An impression of fine colors in dress will be gained if they are becoming to the person who is to wear them, if they are right for the occasion and if they are selected and arranged so as to make a pleasing ensemble.The larger the area the duller a color should be specially for business wear, but foe an evening or sports wear, it should be modified. The colors should be bright then, provided the wearer is not...

  14. The colors of icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Ordinary icebergs of meteoric glacier ice appear bluish-white, i.e. intermediate in color between the white of snow and the blue of pure ice, depending on the bubble content. However, clear dark bubble-free icebergs are occasionally seen in the Antarctic Ocean; they originate from freezing of seawater to the base of ice shelves. On parts of the Amery Ice Shelf, frozen seawater contributes up to one-third of the ice-shelf thickness. Many of the icebergs produced by the Amery are therefore composite icebergs; the upper part consists of meteoric glacier ice from snowfall, but the lower part is frozen seawater ("marine ice"). When these icebergs capsize, the marine ice is exposed to view; it can be accessed for study in springtime when the icebergs are embedded in shorefast sea ice. The marine ice varies in color from blue to green depending on the content of dissolved organic matter. The color is therefore an indicator of biological productivity in the seawater from which the ice froze. To infer processes at the ice-shelf base, these icebergs may be examined and cored for spectral reflectance, hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, organic matter, particles, and distribution of cracks and stripes. Seasonal and interannual variations may be quantified from samples collected along the marine ice-growth trajectory at the meteoric/marine-ice interface. The scale of small turbulent eddies at the ice-shelf base, which govern the transfer of heat between ocean and ice, can be inferred from the size of scallops in the iceberg surface (typically a few centimeters). Dark stripes within meteoric ice result from tension-cracks at the grounding line, forming basal crevasses that fill suddenly with seawater; their width, spacing, and salinity can give clues to processes at the grounding line. Results will be shown from icebergs sampled on Australian expeditions near Davis and Mawson stations. Marine ice is more readily accessed by sampling an iceberg than by drilling through an ice shelf

  15. Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Rouw, R.

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing,

  16. COLORING PROPERTIES OF WOOL FABRIC COLORED BY NEW DYESTUFFS - AZOMETHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJORDJEVIC Dragan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The azomethines have broad applications in food and dyestuff industries, and in analytical chemistry, catalysis and also in the field of agrochemical. These have played an influential part in the improvement of modern coordination chemistry, but also they can also be found at key points in the development of inorganic biochemistry, catalysis and also in optical materials. The present paper describes coloring properties of wool fabric colored by new dyestuffs - azomethines, derivate of isatin. Synthesizing of dyestuffs can often have one to six chromogen, which can be defined as the photoactive components that contain colored or uncolored absorbent components. In addition of monoazo, diazo, poly-azo, anthraquinone, xanthan and similar systems, the azomethines or imines, also includes to the chromogen groups. Azomethines, such as, isatin-3-hydrazone, isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone and isatin-3-phenylhydrazone, were synthesized and their coloring performance on wool fabric assessed. The synthesized azomethines showed very good substantively for wool fibers with good coloring performance according to CIEL*a*b* system which characterized quantitative and qualitative coloring property. Dyestuff 3 or isatin-3-phenylhydrazone bound to woolen textiles to a greater extent and greater intensity (minimum value of L. Dyestuff 2 or isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone linked to the minimum amount for textiles (the largest value of L. Although it must be noted that it is a lighter shade (yellow color as opposed to the dyestuff 3 (red color.

  17. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Breanna J; Drury, Jonathan P; Blumstein, Daniel T; Pauly, Gregory B

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  18. A Color-Opponency Based Biological Model for Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Color constancy is the ability of the human visual system to adaptively correct color-biased scenes under different illuminants. Most of the existing color constancy models are nonphysiologically plausible. Among the limited biological models, the great majority is Retinex and its variations, and only two or three models directly simulate the feature of color-opponency, but only of the very earliest stages of visual pathway, i.e., the single-opponent mechanisms involved at the levels of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN neurons. Considering the extensive physiological evidences supporting that both the single-opponent cells in retina and LGN and the double-opponent neurons in primary visual cortex (V1 are the building blocks for color constancy, in this study we construct a color-opponency based color constancy model by simulating the opponent fashions of both the single-opponent and double-opponent cells in a forward manner. As for the spatial structure of the receptive fields (RF, both the classical RF (CRF center and the nonclassical RF (nCRF surround are taken into account for all the cells. The proposed model was tested on several typical image databases commonly used for performance evaluation of color constancy methods, and exciting results were achieved.

  19. Preliminary assessments of portable color spectrophotometer measurements of cotton color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color with the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd (diffuse reflectance) and +b (yellowness). It has been reported that some cotton bales, especially those transported overseas, appear to have changed significantly in color from their in...

  20. Adding Texture to Color: Quantitative Analysis of Color Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2010-01-01

    What happens to color emotion responses when texture is added to color samples? To quantify this we performed an experiment in which subjects ordered samples (displayed on a computer monitor) along four scales: Warm-Cool, Masculine-Feminine, Hard-Soft and Heavy-Light. Three sample types were used:

  1. Children's Book Color Preferences as Related to Their Favorite Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill L.

    Because young children disregard writing on the spine of a book, researchers chose to run a test on color preferences in books. In a library situation young children see most books from a spine-out angle; thus when allowed to select a book by themselves, the first characteristics noticed are size and color. This study is based on the hypothesis…

  2. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Jonathan P.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Pauly, Gregory B.

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes. PMID:28792983

  3. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanna J Putman

    Full Text Available Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis, and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  4. The Manchester Color Wheel: validation in secondary school pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Helen R; Magee, Linda; Osborne, Susan; Hall, Linda K; Whorwell, Peter J

    2012-09-05

    As part of our research programme into facilitating improved ways of communicating with patients, especially about more sensitive clinical issues, we have been investigating whether there are any non-verbal methods that might aid this process. One such approach is to ask patients to choose a color in response to a particular question, for instance about health or psychological status, and for this purpose we developed the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW). This instrument consists of positive, neutral and negative colors and its validation in normal adults and those with anxiety or depression showed that it is responsive to change and reproducible. It also has the capacity to identify a positive frame of mind. We concluded that it might be a particularly useful instrument in adolescents and therefore this study aimed to validate it in a secondary school. 620 pupils (aged 11-17 years, mean age 14.0 years, 298 (48.1%) males, 322 (51.9%) females) at Sale Grammar School in Greater Manchester were asked to relate their mood to a MCW color and also complete the Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) questionnaire. To give these pupils an experience in science, 197 were divided into four subgroups for an 'experiment' to ascertain whether, compared to controls, a change in mood color choice could be induced by participation in sport, music or art activities. Although mood color and HAD depression score are unlikely to be measuring exactly the same psychological state, a negative mood color was chosen by 62.5% of HAD depressed compared to only 14.5% of HAD normal pupils (p color was chosen by 48.9% of normal and only 18.8% of depressed pupils (p colors which reached significance for sport and music. This study confirms the potential utility of the MCW to rapidly and easily assess a variety of health issues in large populations, including adolescents. Some of our results should also be of interest to educationalists.

  5. False color viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs

  6. Role of color memory in successive color constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2008-06-01

    We investigate color constancy for real 2D paper samples using a successive matching paradigm in which the observer memorizes a reference surface color under neutral illumination and after a temporal interval selects a matching test surface under the same or different illumination. We find significant effects of the illumination, reference surface, and their interaction on the matching error. We characterize the matching error in the absence of illumination change as the "pure color memory shift" and introduce a new index for successive color constancy that compares this shift against the matching error under changing illumination. The index also incorporates the vector direction of the matching errors in chromaticity space, unlike the traditional constancy index. With this index, we find that color constancy is nearly perfect.

  7. A teoria das cores de newton: um exemplo do uso da história da ciência em sala de aula Newton’s color theory: an example of the use of the history of science in classroom situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelle Celestino Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, discutiremos o trabalho sobre luz e cores de Newton publicado em 1672 para vermos exemplos de questões que podem ser abordadas em sala de aula através da História da Ciência. No entanto, alguns cuidados devem ser tomados para não apresentarmos uma visão distorcida do método científico e uma idéia mítica sobre a Ciência. Este estudo analisa o experimento principal de Newton cuja intenção era mostrar que a luz branca é uma mistura de raios com diferentes refrangibilidades. Embora atualmente essa teoria seja aceita e ensinada sem discussão, um estudo histórico crítico sobre ela levanta muitas questões que serão discutidas neste artigo.This paper analyses some features of Newton's theory of light and colors, especially as presented in his paper of 1672, as an example of the classroom use of History of Science. Although this theory is nowadays accepted and taught without discussion, it is not so simple as it seems and many questions arise from a critical study. Besides, an inadequate use of History of Science in Science Teaching may convey to the students a wrong conception of the scientific method.

  8. a study on the concepts and themes of color and light in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. MahdiNejad, E. Zarghami and A. Sadeghi HabibAbad

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... Master of Science Student in Department of Architecture, Shahid Rajaee ... important visual elements of formation and cognition of architectural works. .... Moreover, this color helps to good digestion like the music and makes ...

  9. News from Online: A Spectrum of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1999-06-01

    Thomas Chasteen's site ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/sounds/sound.html) shows how to separate colors using a tuneable monochromator. This graphic comes from his monochromator animation ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/monochromator/mono.gif). Science Media's site ( http://www.scimedia.com/index.html#scimedia) includes spectroscopy tutorials by Brian Tissue. This graphic can be found at http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/light/graphics/em-rad.gif (©1998 B. M. Tissue, www.scimedia.com). All the colors in the rainbow! Now that is a good place to start. Go to About Rainbows ( http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/rnbw.html), a tutorial from astronomer Beverly Lynds, working with the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. The tutorial begins with a historical perspective, complete with a sketch by René Descartes in 1637. The bibliography makes this tutorial a good starting point for color exploration. About Rainbows brings you questions to explorefor example, "What happens when you look at a rainbow through dark glasses?" Try the links to these other sites. Project SkyMath: Making Mathematical Connections ( http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/Skymath.html) is especially for the middle school student. Reproducible masters of these teaching modules can be printed in English and Spanish. From Project SkyMath, you can go to Blue-Skies, a user-friendly graphical interface from The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan ( http://groundhog.sprl.umich.edu/BS.html). And speaking of blue skies, look at a great site, Why is the Sky Blue at http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/sky/sky.shtml. This is a super site from the Arizona Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation of Teachers, by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Arizona State University. If you go to Patterns in Nature: Light and Optics at http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/activities.shtml, plan to spend some time, for it is wonderful. Another link from the About Rainbows tutorial goes to

  10. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Leer en Español: Pruebas para Detectar Daltonismo en ... study shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  11. Color maps of Arp 146

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A. B.; Spight, L. D.; Colegrove, P. T.; Disanti, M. A.; Fink, U.

    1990-01-01

    Four color maps of Arp 146 are given. The structure and color of the ring galaxy and its companion show evidence of a bridge of material between the companion and the remnant nucleus of the original galaxy now forming the ring. Broad band spatial coverage clearly defines regions of starburst occurrence.

  12. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Color additives give the red tint to your fruit punch ... in Foods, Drugs, Cosmetics, and Medical Devices Color Additives: FDA's Regulatory Process and Historical Perspectives ... Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition ...

  13. On dominator colorings in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    colors required for a dominator coloring of G is called the dominator .... Theorem 1.3 shows that the complete graph Kn is the only connected graph of order n ... Conversely, if a graph G satisfies condition (i) or (ii), it is easy to see that χd(G) =.

  14. Animal coloration: sexy spider scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa A; McGraw, Kevin J

    2007-08-07

    Many male jumping spiders display vibrant colors that are used in visual communication. A recent microscopic study on a jumping spider from Singapore shows that three-layered 'scale sandwiches' of chitin and air are responsible for producing their brilliant iridescent body coloration.

  15. The Psychological Four-Color Mapping Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Bias, Keri; Shive, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Mathematicians have proven that four colors are sufficient to color 2-D maps so that no neighboring regions share the same color. Here we consider the psychological 4-color problem: Identifying which 4 colors should be used to make a map easy to use. We build a model of visual search for this design task and demonstrate how to apply it to the task…

  16. 7 CFR 28.403 - Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Color. 28.403 Section 28.403 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.403 Middling Color. Middling Color is color which is within the range...

  17. Portable real-time color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a simple and fast lookup-table based method to derive and apply natural daylight colors to multi-band night-time images. The method deploys an optimal color transformation derived from a set of samples taken from a daytime color reference image. The colors in the resulting colorized

  18. Focal colors across languages are representative members of color categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Joshua T; Griffiths, Thomas L; Regier, Terry

    2016-10-04

    Focal colors, or best examples of color terms, have traditionally been viewed as either the underlying source of cross-language color-naming universals or derived from category boundaries that vary widely across languages. Existing data partially support and partially challenge each of these views. Here, we advance a position that synthesizes aspects of these two traditionally opposed positions and accounts for existing data. We do so by linking this debate to more general principles. We show that best examples of named color categories across 112 languages are well-predicted from category extensions by a statistical model of how representative a sample is of a distribution, independently shown to account for patterns of human inference. This model accounts for both universal tendencies and variation in focal colors across languages. We conclude that categorization in the contested semantic domain of color may be governed by principles that apply more broadly in cognition and that these principles clarify the interplay of universal and language-specific forces in color naming.

  19. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using color kinetic theory, we discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered

  20. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using color kinetic theory, the authors discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered

  1. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites. (topical review)

  2. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fudouzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites.

  3. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites. PMID:27877454

  4. Bacterial communities associated with an occurrence of colored water in an urban drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui Ting; Mi, Zi Long; Zhang, Jing Xu; Chen, Chao; Xie, Shu Guang

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate bacterial community in an urban drinking water distribution system (DWDS) during an occurrence of colored water. Variation in the bacterial community diversity and structure was observed among the different waters, with the predominance of Proteobacteria. While Verrucomicrobia was also a major phylum group in colored water. Limnobacter was the major genus group in colored water, but Undibacterium predominated in normal tap water. The coexistence of Limnobacter as well as Sediminibacterium and Aquabacterium might contribute to the formation of colored water. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  5. The organization of shape and color in vision and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the phenomenal organization of shape and color in vision and art in terms of microgenesis of the object perception and creation. The idea of "microgenesis" is that the object perception and creation takes time to develop. Our hypothesis is that the roles of shape and color are extracted in sequential order and in the same order these roles are also used by artists to paint objects. Boundary contours are coded before color contours. The microgenesis of the object formation was demonstrated (i) by introducing new conditions derived from the watercolor illusion, where the juxtaposed contours are displaced horizontally or vertically, and based on variations of Matisse's Woman, (ii) by studying descriptions and replications of visual objects in adults and children of different ages, and (iii) by analyzing the linguistic sequence and organization in a free naming task of the attributes related to shape and color. The results supported the idea of the microgenesis of the object perception, namely the temporal order in the formation of the roles of the object properties (shape before color). Some general principles were extracted from the experimental results. They can be a starting point to explore a new domain focused on the microgenesis of shape and color within the more general problem of object organization, where integrated and multidisciplinary studies based on art and vision science can be very useful.

  6. Spatial imaging in color and HDR: prometheus unchained

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J.

    2013-03-01

    The Human Vision and Electronic Imaging Conferences (HVEI) at the IS and T/SPIE Electronic Imaging meetings have brought together research in the fundamentals of both vision and digital technology. This conference has incorporated many color disciplines that have contributed to the theory and practice of today's imaging: color constancy, models of vision, digital output, high-dynamic-range imaging, and the understanding of perceptual mechanisms. Before digital imaging, silver halide color was a pixel-based mechanism. Color films are closely tied to colorimetry, the science of matching pixels in a black surround. The quanta catch of the sensitized silver salts determines the amount of colored dyes in the final print. The rapid expansion of digital imaging over the past 25 years has eliminated the limitations of using small local regions in forming images. Spatial interactions can now generate images more like vision. Since the 1950's, neurophysiology has shown that post-receptor neural processing is based on spatial interactions. These results reinforced the findings of 19th century experimental psychology. This paper reviews the role of HVEI in color, emphasizing the interaction of research on vision and the new algorithms and processes made possible by electronic imaging.

  7. The organization of shape and color in Vision and Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baingio ePinna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the phenomenal organization of shape and color in vision and art in terms of microgenesis of the object perception and creation. The idea of ‘microgenesis’ is that the object perception and creation takes time to develop. Our hypothesis is that the roles of shape and color are extracted in sequential order and in the same order these roles are also used by artists to paint objects. Boundary contours are coded before color contours. The microgenesis of the object formation was demonstrated (i by introducing new conditions derived from the watercolor illusion, where the juxtaposed contours are displaced horizontally or vertically, and based on variations of Matisse’s Woman, (ii by studying descriptions and replications of visual objects in adults and children of different ages, and (iii by analyzing the linguistic sequence and organization in a free naming task of the attributes related to shape and color. The results supported the idea of the microgenesis of the object perception, namely the temporal order in the formation of the roles of the object properties (shape before color. Some general principles were extracted from the experimental results. They can be a starting point to explore a new domain focused on the microgenesis of shape and color within the more general problem of object organization, where integrated and multidisciplinary studies based on art and vision science can be very useful.

  8. Spectral Sharpening of Color Sensors: Diagonal Color Constancy and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmío, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    It has now been 20 years since the seminal work by Finlayson et al. on the use/nof spectral sharpening of sensors to achieve diagonal color constancy. Spectral sharpening is/nstill used today by numerous researchers for different goals unrelated to the original goal/nof diagonal color constancy e.g., multispectral processing, shadow removal, location of/nunique hues. This paper reviews the idea of spectral sharpening through the lens of what/nis known today in color constancy, describes the d...

  9. Of colored numbers and numbered colors: interactive processes in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebuis, Titia; Nijboer, Tanja C W; van der Smagt, Maarten J

    2009-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes experience a specific color when they see a grapheme but they do not report to perceive a grapheme when a color is presented. In this study, we investigate whether color can still evoke number-processes even when a vivid number experience is absent. We used color-number and number-color priming, both revealing faster responses in congruent compared to incongruent conditions. Interestingly, the congruency effect was of similar magnitude for both conditions, and a numerical distance effect was present only in the color-number priming task. In addition, a priming task in which synesthetes had to judge the parity of a colored number revealed faster responses in parity congruent than in parity incongruent trials. These combined results demonstrate that synesthesia is indeed bi-directional and of similar strength in both directions. Furthermore, they illustrate the precise nature of these interactions and show that the direction of these interactions is determined by task demands, not by the more vividly experienced aspect of the stimulus.

  10. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? ... Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. ...

  11. Colored Quantum Algebra and Its Bethe State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin-Zheng; Jia Xiao-Yu; Wang Shi-Kun

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the colored Yang—Baxter equation. Based on a trigonometric solution of colored Yang—Baxter equation, we construct a colored quantum algebra. Moreover we discuss its algebraic Bethe ansatz state and highest wight representation. (general)

  12. Color and Visual Factors in ATC Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing, Jing

    2006-01-01

    .... While the advantages of color may be apparent, many display designs suggest that ATC technology developers have not used basic human factors and color principles to optimize the advantages of color...

  13. 'Clovis' in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This approximate true-color image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole into it with its rock abrasion tool. This image was taken by the 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters of the rover's panoramic camera on sol 217 (August 13, 2004). Elemental Trio Found in 'Clovis' Figure 1 above shows that the interior of the rock dubbed 'Clovis' contains higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine than basaltic, or volcanic, rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater. The data were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer after the rover dug into Clovis with its rock abrasion tool. The findings might indicate that this rock was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements.

  14. CoCo the colorful history of Tandy's underdog computer

    CERN Document Server

    Pitre, Boisy G

    2013-01-01

    CoCo: The Colorful History of Tandy's Underdog Computer is the first book to document the complete history of the Tandy Color Computer (CoCo), a popular 8-bit PC series from the 1980s that competed against the era's biggest names, including the Apple II, IBM PC, and Commodore 64. The book takes you inside the interesting stories and people behind this unique, underdog computer.Both noted computer science and technology advocates, authors Pitre and Loguidice reveal the story of a pivotal period in the home computing revolution from the perspective of Tandy's CoCo. As these computers were sold i

  15. METAPHOR OF COLORS IN INDONESIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Putu Wijana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This brief article deals with the use of Indonesian words referring to colors for creating metaphorical expressions. All data presented are collected from various sources, such as Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian Standard Dictionary, and added with data obtained from Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, Indonesian proverb book, encyclopedia, terminology collection book, poetry anthology, song lyrics, and data of the author’s own creation as an Indonesian native speaker. Set aside from their literal meanings, the metaphorically used color words are collected and classified into two categories, i.e. achromatic and chromatic colors. Then, their universalities are determined by comparing them with English color metaphors. Finally the existence of specific Indonesian color metaphors are identified by correlating them with extra linguistic factors, such as environment, history, religion, politic and other socio cultural activities. A careful analysis on the data shows that there is nearly no significant difference in metaphorical uses of achromatic colors in English and Indonesian. However, despite universal nuances of chromatic color metaphors, some specific ones emerge due to various external factors, such as environment, education, history, politic, law, religion, literature, and other socio cultural facts that are specifically found and practiced in Indonesia.

  16. Color contrasting in radioscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopaev, V.P.; Pavlov, S.V.; Nazarenko, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    Transformation principles for achromatic radioscopy control systems to color ones have been considered. Described is the developed ''Gamma 1'' roentgen-TV facility with color contrasting, which is based on the principle of analog conversion of brightness signal to a hue. By means of color channels amplifiers realized are the special amplitude characteristics, permitting in comparison with the common method of analogous transformation to obtain the greater number of hues within the identical range of brightnesses of image under investigation due to introducing purple colors. The investigation of amplitude resolution capability of color contrasting device has shown, that in the case of color contrasting of image the amplitude resolution is 1.7-1.8 time higher than in the case of achromatic one. Defectoscopic sensitivity during the testing of 5-20 mm thick steel products in the process of experimental-production tests turned out to be 1.1-1.3 time higher when using color contrasting of radioscopic image. Realization simplicity, high resolution, noise stability and wide functional possibilities of the facility show the prospects for its using during the quality control of welded joints in products of power engineering

  17. Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Based Reflex Color Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asad

    2012-02-01

    Bistable color cholesteric liquid crystal displays are unique LCDs that exhibit high reflectivity, good contrast, extremely low power operation, and are amenable to versatile roll-to-roll manufacturing. The display technology, now branded as Reflex has been in commercialized products since 1996. It has been the subject of extensive research and development globally by a variety of parties in both academic and industrial settings. Today, the display technology is in volume production for applications such as dedicated eWriters (Boogie Board), full color electronic skins (eSkin), and displays for smart cards. The flexibility comes from polymerization induced phase separation using unique materials unparalleled in any other display technology. The blend of monomers, polymers, cross linkers, and other components along with nematic liquid crystals and chiral dopants is created and processed in such ways so as to enable highly efficient manufactrable displays using ultra thin plastic substrates -- often as thin as 50μm. Other significant aspects include full color by stacking or spatial separation, night vision capability, ultra high resolution, as well as active matrix capabilities. Of particular note is the stacking approach of Reflex based displays to show full color. This approach for reflective color displays is unique to this technology. Owing to high transparency in wavelength bands outside the selective reflection band, three primarily color layers can be stacked on top of each other and reflect without interfering with other layers. This highly surprising architecture enables the highest reflectivity of any other reflective electronic color display technology. The optics, architecture, electro-topics, and process techniques will be discussed. This presentation will focus on the physics of the core technology and color, it's evolution from rigid glass based displays to flexible displays, development of products from the paradigm shifting concepts to consumer

  18. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  19. Colored cool colorants based on rare earth metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreeram, Kalarical Janardhanan; Aby, Cheruvathoor Poulose; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Adyar, Chennai 600 020 (India)

    2008-11-15

    Colored pigments with high near infrared reflectance and not based on toxic metal ions like cadmium, lead and cobalt are being sought as cool colorants. Through appropriate doping two pigments Ce-Pr-Mo and Ce-Pr-Fe have been developed to offer a reddish brown and reddish orange color, respectively. These pigments have been characterized and found to be highly crystalline with an average size of 300 nm. A shift in band gap energy from 2.21 to 2.18 eV has been observed when Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was used as a mineralizer. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDAX) measurement indicate a uniform grind shape and distribution of metal ion, with over 65% reflectance in the NIR region, these pigments can well serve as cool colorants. (author)

  20. Polarization-color mapping strategies: catching up with color theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Andrew W.; Alenin, Andrey S.; Vaughn, Israel J.; Tyo, J. Scott

    2017-09-01

    Current visualization techniques for mapping polarization data to a color coordinates defined by the Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) color representation are analyzed in the context of perceptual uniformity. Since HSV is not designed to be perceptually uniform, the extent of non-uniformity should be evaluated by using robust color difference formulae and by comparison to the state-of-the-art uniform color space CAM02-UCS. For mapping just angle of polarization with HSV hue, the results show clear non-uniformity and implications for how this can misrepresent the data. UCS can be used to create alternative mapping techniques that are perceptually uniform. Implementing variation in lightness may increase shape discrimination within the scene. Future work will be dedicated to measuring performance of both current and proposed methods using psychophysical analysis.

  1. Operational Assessment of Color Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    YN0Ve_jXBUC&pg=PR11&source=gbs_selected_page s&cad=2#v=onepage&q&f=false. 5. Jeffries BJ. Color - blindness : its dangers and its detection. Boston (MA...Brussels, Belgium. Neuilly-sur-Seine (France): NATO; 1972. AGARD-CP-99. 11. Monlux DJ, Finne HA, Stephens MB. Color blindness and military fitness...unlimited. STINFO COPY AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2016-0008 Operational Assessment of Color Vision Steve Wright, O.D.; James Gaska, Ph.D

  2. Color and chemistry on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Sagan, Carl

    1990-01-01

    The surface of Triton is very bright but shows subtle yellow to peach hues which probably arise from the production of colored organic compounds from CH4 + N2 and other simple species. In order to investigate possible relationships between chemical processes and the observed surface distribution of chromophores, the surface units are classified according to color/albedo properties, the rates of production of organic chromophores by the action of ultraviolet light and high-energy charged particles is estimated, and rates, spectral properties, and expected seasonal redistribution processes are compared to suggest possible origins of the colors seen on Triton's surface.

  3. Fluorescence of ceramic color standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Annette; Clare, John F.; Nield, Kathryn M.; Deadman, Andrew; Usadi, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence has been found in color standards available for use in calibration and verification of color measuring instruments. The fluorescence is excited at wavelengths below about 600 nm and emitted above 700 nm, within the response range of silicon photodiodes, but at the edge of the response of most photomultipliers and outside the range commonly scanned in commercial colorimeters. The degree of fluorescence on two of a set of 12 glossy ceramic tiles is enough to introduce significant error when those tiles have been calibrated in one mode of measurement and are used in another. We report the nature of the fluorescence and the implications for color measurement.

  4. Finding text in color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangying; Lopresti, Daniel P.; Tasdizen, Tolga

    1998-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of locating and extracting text from WWW images. A previous algorithm based on color clustering and connected components analysis works well as long as the color of each character is relatively uniform and the typography is fairly simple. It breaks down quickly, however, when these assumptions are violated. In this paper, we describe more robust techniques for dealing with this challenging problem. We present an improved color clustering algorithm that measures similarity based on both RGB and spatial proximity. Layout analysis is also incorporated to handle more complex typography. THese changes significantly enhance the performance of our text detection procedure.

  5. You can't rely on color, yet we all do 2.0 (Manuscript Only)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2014-01-01

    guidance is given, especially on color and legibility. Anyway, the available tools mentioned, such as chromaticity diagrams and color spaces, are mainly the responsibility of the CIE. It would therefore be a laudable initiative if the CIE would not only refine their present systems, but devote some time and energy to the development of a simpler color specification and measurement system. With that it would be worth trying ergonomics research principles, to begin with end-user involvement: investigating what color science practitioners really want and need.

  6. Explorative analysis of 2D color maps

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, Martin; Bernard, Jürgen; Thum, Simon; Mittelstädt, Sebastian; Hutter, Marco; Keim, Daniel A.; Kohlhammer, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Color is one of the most important visual variables in information visualization. In many cases, two-dimensional information can be color-coded based on a 2D color map. A variety of color maps as well as a number of quality criteria for the use of color have been presented. The choice of the best color map depends on the analytical task users intend to perform and the design space in choosing an appropriate 2D color map is large. In this paper, we present the ColorMap-Explorer, a visual-inter...

  7. Il colore delle cose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Vitiello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tema di questo saggio è l’operare della riflessione. Vitiello, dopo essersi soffermato sulla «frattura» tra la riflessione (il «vedersi» e il suo operare in Valéry, si concentra sul processo, descritto da Hegel nella Fenomenologia dello spirito, dell’esperienza della coscienza che s’eleva a coscienza dell’esperienza. La conclusione è fortemente critica: Hegel fallisce la mèta nel punto stesso in cui la raggiunge. Infatti nel sapere assoluto, nella visione compiuta, perfetta di sé, della luce che vede luce, viene meno proprio l’esperienza della coscienza, il suo divenire, la sua «imperfezione». La critica a Hegel, passando attraverso Nietzsche, si amplia a critica del linguaggio, in particolare del linguaggio dell’«essere» e  dell’«è», e delle tautologie heideggeriane quali «das Ereignis ereignet», «das Ding dingt», «die Welt weltet». Un importante passaggio del testo è quello sul linguaggio teatrale in cui la parola sembra riacquistare il legame originale tra la voce e il gesto, che tuttavia restano divisi, perché proprio il medio che li lega, il «colore» della parola, è «fuori» della parola e del gesto. Resta la parola dell’agire, dei pragmata, in cui il fare si espone nella sua modalità più propria: nell’immediatezza del patire: il grido di dolore; o nella mediatezza riflessiva dell’imperativo morale: Handle! I due opposti «colori» delle cose.

  8. School Colors Enhance Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The dramatic use of bold colors in the interior design of the Greenhill Middle School in Dallas, Texas, is an example of how a learning environment can stimulate student interest and enthusiasm. (Author/MLF)

  9. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  10. Riemann Geometric Color-Weak Compensationfor Individual Observers

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Takanori; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    We extend a method for color weak compensation based on the criterion of preservation of subjective color differences between color normal and color weak observers presented in [2]. We introduce a new algorithm for color weak compensation using local affine maps between color spaces of color normal and color weak observers. We show howto estimate the local affine map and how to determine correspondences between the origins of local coordinates in color spaces of color normal and color weak ob...

  11. Photoresponsive Smart Coloration Electrochromic Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Tae Gwang; Kim, Donghyuk; Kim, Yong Ho; Park, Minkyu; Hyun, Seungmin; Han, Seung Min

    2017-08-01

    Electrochromic devices have been widely adopted in energy saving applications by taking advantage of the electrode coloration, but it is critical to develop a new electrochromic device that can undergo smart coloration and can have a wide spectrum in transmittance in response to input light intensity while also functioning as a rechargeable energy storage system. In this study, a photoresponsive electrochromic supercapacitor based on cellulose-nanofiber/Ag-nanowire/reduced-graphene-oxide/WO 3 -composite electrode that is capable of undergoing "smart" reversible coloration while simultaneously functioning as a reliable energy-storage device is developed. The fabricated device exhibits a high coloration efficiency of 64.8 cm 2 C -1 and electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 406.0 F g -1 , energy/power densities of 40.6-47.8 Wh kg -1 and 6.8-16.9 kW kg -1 . The electrochromic supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycle reliability, where 75.0% and 94.1% of its coloration efficiency and electrochemical performance is retained, respectively, beyond 10 000 charge-discharge cycles. Cyclic fatigue tests show that the developed device is mechanically durable and suitable for wearable electronics applications. The smart electrochromic supercapacitor system is then integrated with a solar sensor to enable photoresponsive coloration where the transmittance changes in response to varying light intensity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Hsuan; Yang, Chih-Yuan

    2000-06-01

    By the progress of computer, computer peripherals such as color monitor and printer are often used to generate color image. However, cross media color reproduction by human perception is usually different. Basically, the influence factors are device calibration and characterization, viewing condition, device gamut and human psychology. In this thesis, a color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping is proposed. It consists of four parts; device characterization, color management technique, color appearance model and gamut mapping.

  13. Color Mixing Correction for Post-printed Patterns on Colored Background Using Modified Particle Density Model

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa , Misako; Fujimoto , Katsuhito

    2006-01-01

    http://www.suvisoft.com; Color mixing occurs between background and foreground colors when a pattern is post-printed on a colored area because ink is not completely opaque. This paper proposes a new method for the correction of color mixing in line pattern such as characters and stamps, by using a modified particle density model. Parameters of the color correction can be calculated from two sets of foreground and background colors. By employing this method, the colors of foreground patterns o...

  14. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  15. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in these...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from very...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2283 - Off color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Off color. 51.2283 Section 51.2283 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Color Requirements § 51.2283 Off color. The term “off color” is not a color classification, but shall be applied to any lot which fails to meet the...

  19. 7 CFR 58.329 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 58.329 Section 58.329 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....329 Color. Coloring, when used shall be Annatto or any color which is approved by the U.S. Food and...

  20. 7 CFR 58.435 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 58.435 Section 58.435 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....435 Color. Coloring when used, shall be Annatto or any cheese or butter color which meet the...

  1. 7 CFR 52.1006 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.1006 Section 52.1006 Agriculture Regulations... United States Standards for Grades of Dates Factors of Quality § 52.1006 Color. (a) (A) classification. Whole or pitted dates that possess a good color may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. “Good color...

  2. 7 CFR 52.3760 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.3760 Section 52.3760 Agriculture Regulations... § 52.3760 Color. (a) General. The evaluation of color shall be determined within five minutes after the olives are removed from the container and is based upon the uniformity of the exterior color or general...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1860 - Color classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color classification. 51.1860 Section 51.1860... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Color Classification § 51.1860 Color classification... illustrating the color classification requirements, as set forth in this section. This visual aid may be...

  4. Color correction optimization with hue regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Huaping; Quan, Shuxue

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that observers are capable of judging the quality of an image without any knowledge of the original scene. When no reference is available, observers can extract the apparent objects in an image and compare them with the typical colors of similar objects recalled from their memories. Some generally agreed upon research results indicate that although perfect colorimetric rendering is not conspicuous and color errors can be well tolerated, the appropriate rendition of certain memory colors such as skin, grass, and sky is an important factor in the overall perceived image quality. These colors are appreciated in a fairly consistent manner and are memorized with slightly different hues and higher color saturation. The aim of color correction for a digital color pipeline is to transform the image data from a device dependent color space to a target color space, usually through a color correction matrix which in its most basic form is optimized through linear regressions between the two sets of data in two color spaces in the sense of minimized Euclidean color error. Unfortunately, this method could result in objectionable distortions if the color error biased certain colors undesirably. In this paper, we propose a color correction optimization method with preferred color reproduction in mind through hue regularization and present some experimental results.

  5. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type...

  6. Basic Color Terms in Estonian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Liivi; Sutrop, Urmas

    2011-01-01

    The article is written in the tradition of Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's theory of basic color terms. According to this theory there is a universal inventory of eleven basic color categories from which the basic color terms of any given language are always drawn. The number of basic color terms varies from 2 to 11 and in a language having a fully…

  7. A universal color image quality metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Lucassen, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    We extend a recently introduced universal grayscale image quality index to a newly developed perceptually decorrelated color space. The resulting color image quality index quantifies the distortion of a processed color image relative to its original version. We evaluated the new color image quality

  8. 7 CFR 29.3025 - General color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... General color. The color of tobacco considered in relation to the type as a whole. General color is distinguished from the restricted use of the term “color” within a group. It is basically related to body and... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General color. 29.3025 Section 29.3025 Agriculture...

  9. Color Naming Experiment in Mongolian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Osorjamaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches on color terms and names in many languages. In Mongolian language there are few doctoral theses on color naming. Cross cultural studies of color naming have demonstrated Semantic relevance in French and Mongolian color name Gerlee Sh. (2000; Comparisons of color naming across English and Mongolian Uranchimeg B. (2004; Semantic comparison between Russian and Mongolian idioms Enhdelger O. (1996; across symbolism Dulam S. (2007 and few others. Also a few articles on color naming by some Mongolian scholars are Tsevel, Ya. (1947, Baldan, L. (1979, Bazarragchaa, M. (1997 and others. Color naming studies are not sufficiently studied in Modern Mongolian. Our research is considered to be the first intended research on color naming in Modern Mongolian, because it is one part of Ph.D dissertation on color naming. There are two color naming categories in Mongolian, basic color terms and non- basic color terms. There are seven basic color terms in Mongolian. This paper aims to consider how Mongolian color names are derived from basic colors by using psycholinguistics associative experiment. It maintains the students and researchers to acquire the specific understanding of the differences and similarities of color naming in Mongolian and  English languages from the psycho-linguistic aspect.

  10. The Yin and Yang of Colors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Michael

    2017-01-01

    independent, device dependent, additive and subtractive color systems. In each color system, it is attempted to calculate the Complementary Color to an orange Brand Color (Pantone 151 C). The results are compared to the results from an online Adobe Creative Cloud Service, Adobe Kuler which was chosen because...

  11. STEM Education for Girls of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Kam H.

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields struggle to increase recruitment and retention of girls of color. The dominant framework in STEM education is the pipeline which assumes girls in general lack motivation and interest to persist in STEM fields. Recent public discourse shifts to address institutionalized discrimination and systemic barriers in STEM culture that filter out underrepresented populations. Informal education or complementary learning STEM programs offer alternative opportunities for students to explore outside of rigid school academic and social systems. Few articles look specifically at STEM complementary learning programs, and even fewer focus on the effects on girls of color. This research is a quantitative study to categorize existing mission statements and training behind organizations that provide STEM programs. The results will provide a better understanding of the relationship between practices of STEM education organizations and the programs they create. Diversity training and inclusive language in mission statements had weak correlations with increased cultural responsiveness in the program offerings. The results suggest organizations must be more intentional and explicit when implementing diversity goals.

  12. The Manchester Color Wheel: validation in secondary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruthers Helen R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of our research programme into facilitating improved ways of communicating with patients, especially about more sensitive clinical issues, we have been investigating whether there are any non-verbal methods that might aid this process. One such approach is to ask patients to choose a color in response to a particular question, for instance about health or psychological status, and for this purpose we developed the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW. This instrument consists of positive, neutral and negative colors and its validation in normal adults and those with anxiety or depression showed that it is responsive to change and reproducible. It also has the capacity to identify a positive frame of mind. We concluded that it might be a particularly useful instrument in adolescents and therefore this study aimed to validate it in a secondary school. Methods 620 pupils (aged 11–17 years, mean age 14.0 years, 298 (48.1% males, 322 (51.9% females at Sale Grammar School in Greater Manchester were asked to relate their mood to a MCW color and also complete the Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD questionnaire. To give these pupils an experience in science, 197 were divided into four subgroups for an ‘experiment’ to ascertain whether, compared to controls, a change in mood color choice could be induced by participation in sport, music or art activities. Results Although mood color and HAD depression score are unlikely to be measuring exactly the same psychological state, a negative mood color was chosen by 62.5% of HAD depressed compared to only 14.5% of HAD normal pupils (p  Conclusion This study confirms the potential utility of the MCW to rapidly and easily assess a variety of health issues in large populations, including adolescents. Some of our results should also be of interest to educationalists.

  13. Plasmonic Structural Colors for Plastic Consumer Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Today colorants, such as pigments or dyes, are used to color plastic-based consumer products, either as base for solid colored bulk polymer or in inks for surface decoration. After usage, the products must be mechanically sorted by color before recycling, limiting any large-scale efficient...... can be avoided in the recycling state. Plasmon color technology based on aluminum has recently been firmly established as a route towards structural coloring of polymeric materials. We report on the fabrication of colors by localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) using roll-to-roll printing...

  14. Colored Range Searching in Linear Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Roberto; Vind, Søren Juhl

    2014-01-01

    In colored range searching, we are given a set of n colored points in d ≥ 2 dimensions to store, and want to support orthogonal range queries taking colors into account. In the colored range counting problem, a query must report the number of distinct colors found in the query range, while...... an answer to the colored range reporting problem must report the distinct colors in the query range. We give the first linear space data structure for both problems in two dimensions (d = 2) with o(n) worst case query time. We also give the first data structure obtaining almost-linear space usage and o...

  15. Color diffusion in QCD transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selikhov, A.V.; Gyulassy, M.

    1993-01-01

    Color diffusion is shown to be an important dissipative property of quark-gluon plasmas with the characteristic color relaxation time scale, t c ∼ (3α s T log (m E /m M )) -1 , showing its sensitivity to the ratio of the static color electric and magnetic screening masses. Fokker-Planck equations are derived for QCD Wigner distributions taking into account quantum color dynamics. These equations show that the anomalously small color relaxation time leads to a small color conductivity and to strong damping of collective color modes

  16. A subjective evaluation of high-chroma color with wide color-gamut display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Junko; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2009-01-01

    Displays tends to expand its color gamut, such as multi-primary color display, Adobe RGB and so on. Therefore displays got possible to display high chroma colors. However sometimes, we feel unnatural some for the image which only expanded chroma. Appropriate gamut mapping method to expand color gamut is not proposed very much. We are attempting preferred expanded color reproduction on wide color gamut display utilizing high chroma colors effectively. As a first step, we have conducted an experiment to investigate the psychological effect of color schemes including highly saturated colors. We used the six-primary-color projector that we have developed for the presentation of test colors. The six-primary-color projector's gamut volume in CIELAB space is about 1.8 times larger than the normal RGB projector. We conducted a subjective evaluation experiment using the SD (Semantic Differential) technique to find the quantitative psychological effect of high chroma colors.

  17. Illuminant color estimation based on pigmentation separation from human skin color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2015-03-01

    Human has the visual system called "color constancy" that maintains the perceptive colors of same object across various light sources. The effective method of color constancy algorithm was proposed to use the human facial color in a digital color image, however, this method has wrong estimation results by the difference of individual facial colors. In this paper, we present the novel color constancy algorithm based on skin color analysis. The skin color analysis is the method to separate the skin color into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. We use the stationary property of Japanese facial color, and this property is calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin. As a result, we achieve to propose the method to use subject's facial color in image and not depend on the individual difference among Japanese facial color.

  18. Cropping management using color and color infrared aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K. M.; Morris-Jones, D. R.; Lee, G. B.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely accepted tool for erosion prediction and conservation planning. Solving this equation yields the long-term average annual soil loss that can be expected from rill and inter-rill erosion. In this study, manual interpretation of color and color infrared 70 mm photography at the scale of 1:60,000 is used to determine the cropping management factor in the USLE. Accurate information was collected about plowing practices and crop residue cover (unharvested vegetation) for the winter season on agricultural land in Pheasant Branch Creek watershed in Dane County, Wisconsin.

  19. Creating experimental color harmony map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaret, Christel; Urban, Fabrice; Lepinel, Josselin

    2014-02-01

    Starting in the 17th century with Newton, color harmony is a topic that did not reach a consensus on definition, representation or modeling so far. Previous work highlighted specific characteristics for color harmony on com- bination of color doublets or triplets by means of a human rating on a harmony scale. However, there were no investigation involving complex stimuli or pointing out how harmony is spatially located within a picture. The modeling of such concept as well as a reliable ground-truth would be of high value for the community, since the applications are wide and concern several communities: from psychology to computer graphics. We propose a protocol for creating color harmony maps from a controlled experiment. Through an eye-tracking protocol, we focus on the identification of disharmonious colors in pictures. The experiment was composed of a free viewing pass in order to let the observer be familiar with the content before a second pass where we asked "to search for the most disharmonious areas in the picture". Twenty-seven observers participated to the experiments that was composed of a total of 30 different stimuli. The high inter-observer agreement as well as a cross-validation confirm the validity of the proposed ground-truth.

  20. Color-Blind Racism, Color-Blind Theology, and Church Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Color-blind racism develops when persons ignore color in people and see them simply as individuals. As persons of color in racialized societies such as the United States are unequally treated on account of their color, the issue becomes a matter of faith and religious experience as religious leaders and educators, who disregard color, overlook…

  1. Color Degree Sum Conditions for Rainbow Triangles in Edge-Colored Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Ruonan; Ning, Bo; Zhang, Shenggui

    Let G be an edge-colored graph and v a vertex of G. The color degree of v is the number of colors appearing on the edges incident to v. A rainbow triangle in G is one in which all edges have distinct colors. In this paper, we first prove that an edge-colored graph on n vertices contains a rainbow

  2. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    -foot)-long mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.Size: 1,113 by 638 kilometers (692 by 396 miles) Location: 55 degrees North latitude, 160 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  3. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. Location: 30 degrees north latitude, 34 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 289 by 445 kilometers (180 by 277 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  4. Colored Tensor Models - a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Gurau

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Colored tensor models have recently burst onto the scene as a promising conceptual and computational tool in the investigation of problems of random geometry in dimension three and higher. We present a snapshot of the cutting edge in this rapidly expanding research field. Colored tensor models have been shown to share many of the properties of their direct ancestor, matrix models, which encode a theory of fluctuating two-dimensional surfaces. These features include the possession of Feynman graphs encoding topological spaces, a 1/N expansion of graph amplitudes, embedded matrix models inside the tensor structure, a resumable leading order with critical behavior and a continuum large volume limit, Schwinger-Dyson equations satisfying a Lie algebra (akin to the Virasoro algebra in two dimensions, non-trivial classical solutions and so on. In this review, we give a detailed introduction of colored tensor models and pointers to current and future research directions.

  5. Methods for computing color anaglyphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, David F.; Zhou, Ya; Sullivan, Sophia

    2010-02-01

    A new computation technique is presented for calculating pixel colors in anaglyph images. The method depends upon knowing the RGB spectral distributions of the display device and the transmission functions of the filters in the viewing glasses. It requires the solution of a nonlinear least-squares program for each pixel in a stereo pair and is based on minimizing color distances in the CIEL*a*b* uniform color space. The method is compared with several techniques for computing anaglyphs including approximation in CIE space using the Euclidean and Uniform metrics, the Photoshop method and its variants, and a method proposed by Peter Wimmer. We also discuss the methods of desaturation and gamma correction for reducing retinal rivalry.

  6. Perceptual Color Characterization of Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vazquez-Corral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Color camera characterization, mapping outputs from the camera sensors to an independent color space, such as \\(XYZ\\, is an important step in the camera processing pipeline. Until now, this procedure has been primarily solved by using a \\(3 \\times 3\\ matrix obtained via a least-squares optimization. In this paper, we propose to use the spherical sampling method, recently published by Finlayson al., to perform a perceptual color characterization. In particular, we search for the \\(3 \\times 3\\ matrix that minimizes three different perceptual errors, one pixel based and two spatially based. For the pixel-based case, we minimize the CIE \\(\\Delta E\\ error, while for the spatial-based case, we minimize both the S-CIELAB error and the CID error measure. Our results demonstrate an improvement of approximately 3for the \\(\\Delta E\\ error, 7& for the S-CIELAB error and 13% for the CID error measures.

  7. Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & ; Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations Science Programs Applied

  8. A second look at the colors of the dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Derek D

    2016-02-01

    In earlier work, I predicted that we would probably not be able to determine the colors of the dinosaurs. I lost this epistemic bet against science in dramatic fashion when scientists discovered that it is possible to draw inferences about dinosaur coloration based on the microstructure of fossil feathers (Vinther et al., 2008). This paper is an exercise in philosophical error analysis. I examine this episode with two questions in mind. First, does this case lend any support to epistemic optimism about historical science? Second, under what conditions is it rational to make predictions about what questions scientists will or will not be able answer? In reply to the first question, I argue that the recent work on the colors of the dinosaurs matters less to the debate about the epistemology of historical science than it might seem. In reply to the second question, I argue that it is difficult to specify a policy that would rule out the failed bet without also being too conservative. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The interaction between surface color and color knowledge: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramão, Inês; Faísca, Luís; Forkstam, Christian; Inácio, Filomena; Araújo, Susana; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to evaluate the contribution of surface color and color knowledge information in object identification. We constructed two color-object verification tasks - a surface and a knowledge verification task - using high color diagnostic objects; both typical and atypical color versions of the same object were presented. Continuous electroencephalogram was recorded from 26 subjects. A cluster randomization procedure was used to explore the differences between typical and atypical color objects in each task. In the color knowledge task, we found two significant clusters that were consistent with the N350 and late positive complex (LPC) effects. Atypical color objects elicited more negative ERPs compared to typical color objects. The color effect found in the N350 time window suggests that surface color is an important cue that facilitates the selection of a stored object representation from long-term memory. Moreover, the observed LPC effect suggests that surface color activates associated semantic knowledge about the object, including color knowledge representations. We did not find any significant differences between typical and atypical color objects in the surface color verification task, which indicates that there is little contribution of color knowledge to resolve the surface color verification. Our main results suggest that surface color is an important visual cue that triggers color knowledge, thereby facilitating object identification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Coloring your information: How designers use Theory of Color in creative ways to present infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucius, C. R.; Fuad, A.

    2017-12-01

    Various methods of data presentation is now visualized through engaging infographics and perform the presentation techniques a new kind of storytelling. Geometric elements for infographics perform interesting data, which is developed with color harmony. There are categories of colors based on color circle from the theory of color design: primary color, secondary color and tertiary color. This color circle allows a designer to visualize the balance and harmony of colors when they are side by side. These composition of colors can be formed as a harmonious dyad, triad, or tetrads. A harmonious dyad is formed from two diametrically opposed colors on the color circle, which known as contrast complementary and works best in color harmonious if one of the colors is dominant. A harmonious triad is represented by three colors from the color circle which positions with an equilateral triangle. An triangle of yellow-red-blue shows the most powerful of harmonious triad and call as the fundamental triad. A harmonious tetrad is developed from two pairs of complementary colors, which can be formed by rectangle or square on the color circle. It help to figure out how objects are connected on presenting data. To create an efficiency infographic, presenting data has to prepare with some strategic. The color circle has the power to perform the infographic when it is made for a fascinating design.

  11. Coloring and The Lonely Graph

    OpenAIRE

    Rabern, Landon

    2007-01-01

    We improve upper bounds on the chromatic number proven independently in \\cite{reedNote} and \\cite{ingo}. Our main lemma gives a sufficient condition for two paths in graph to be completely joined. Using this, we prove that if a graph has an optimal coloring with more than $\\frac{\\omega}{2}$ singleton color classes, then it satisfies $\\chi \\leq \\frac{\\omega + \\Delta + 1}{2}$. It follows that a graph satisfying $n - \\Delta < \\alpha + \\frac{\\omega - 1}{2}$ must also satisfy $\\chi \\leq \\frac{\\ome...

  12. Learning color receptive fields and color differential structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Haar Romenij, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the role of brain plasticity, and investigate the emergence and self-emergence of receptive fields from scalar and color natural images by principal component analysis of image patches. We describe the classical experiment on localized PCA on center-surround weighted patches

  13. Single-flavor color superconductivity with color-sextet pairing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brauner, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2005), s. 9-16 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/02/0847 Keywords : color superconductivity * spontaneous symmetry breaking Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2005

  14. Flavonoid biosynthesis controls fiber color in naturally colored cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The existence of only natural brown and green cotton fibers (BCF and GCF, respectively, as well as poor fiber quality, limits the use of naturally colored cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.. A better understanding of fiber pigment regulation is needed to surmount these obstacles. In this work, transcriptome analysis and quantitative reverse transcription PCR revealed that 13 and 9 phenylpropanoid (metabolic pathway genes were enriched during pigment synthesis, while the differential expression of phenylpropanoid (metabolic and flavonoid metabolic pathway genes occurred among BCF, GCF, and white cotton fibers (WCF. Silencing the chalcone flavanone isomerase gene in a BCF line resulted in three fiber phenotypes among offspring of the RNAi lines: BCF, almost WCF, and GCF. The lines with almost WCF suppressed chalcone flavanone isomerase, while the lines with GCF highly expressed the glucosyl transferase (3GT gene. Overexpression of the Gh3GT or Arabidopsis thaliana 3GT gene in BCF lines resulted in GCF. Additionally, the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid metabolites of BCF and GCF were significantly higher than those of WCF as assessed by a metabolomics analysis. Thus, the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway controls both brown and green pigmentation processes. Like natural colored fibers, the transgenic colored fibers were weaker and shorter than WCF. This study shows the potential of flavonoid pathway modifications to alter cotton fibers’ color and quality.

  15. Color matters: color as trustworthiness cue in web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, Wouter A.; van der Geest, Thea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In today's increasingly technological world, the first impression of an orgnization is often based on a user's judgment of the corporate Web site's trustworthiness. This study investigates whether color as a Web site element can serve as a trustworthiness cue. In addition, the context of

  16. Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Design Concepts and Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Charles R.; Meister, Gerhard; Monosmith, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    In late 1978, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the Nimbus-7 satellite with the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) and several other sensors, all of which provided major advances in Earth remote sensing. The inspiration for the CZCS is usually attributed to an article in Science by Clarke et al. who demonstrated that large changes in open ocean spectral reflectance are correlated to chlorophyll-a concentrations. Chlorophyll-a is the primary photosynthetic pigment in green plants (marine and terrestrial) and is used in estimating primary production, i.e., the amount of carbon fixed into organic matter during photosynthesis. Thus, accurate estimates of global and regional primary production are key to studies of the earth's carbon cycle. Because the investigators used an airborne radiometer, they were able to demonstrate the increased radiance contribution of the atmosphere with altitude that would be a major issue for spaceborne measurements. Since 1978, there has been much progress in satellite ocean color remote sensing such that the technique is well established and is used for climate change science and routine operational environmental monitoring. Also, the science objectives and accompanying methodologies have expanded and evolved through a succession of global missions, e.g., the Ocean Color and Temperature Sensor (OCTS), the Seaviewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), and the Global Imager (GLI). With each advance in science objectives, new and more stringent requirements for sensor capabilities (e.g., spectral coverage) and performance (e.g., signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) are established. The CZCS had four bands for chlorophyll and aerosol corrections. The Ocean Color Imager (OCI) recommended for the NASA Pre-Aerosol, Cloud, and Ocean Ecosystems (PACE) mission includes 5 nanometers hyperspectral coverage from 350 to

  17. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  18. Analytical method for Buddleja colorants in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, H; Kuze, N; Ichi, T; Koda, T

    2001-04-01

    Buddleja yellow colorant derived from Buddleja officinalis Maxim. has recently been approved for use as a new kind of natural colorant for food additives in China. In order to distinguish Buddleja yellow colorant from other yellow colorants, two known phenylpropanoid glycosides, acteoside (= verbascoside) and poliumoside, were isolated from the colorant as marker substances for Buddleja yellow colorant. Poliumoside has not been detected in B. officinalis Maxim. previously. These phenylpropanoid glycosides were not detected in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis or in the stamens of the flowers of Crocus sativus L., which also contain crocetin derivatives as coloring components, using a photodiode array and mass chromatograms. Thus, an analytical HPLC method was developed to distinguish foods that have been colored with yellow colorants containing crocetin derivatives, using phenylpropanoid glycosides as markers.

  19. Color extended visual cryptography using error diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, InKoo; Arce, Gonzalo R; Lee, Heung-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    Color visual cryptography (VC) encrypts a color secret message into n color halftone image shares. Previous methods in the literature show good results for black and white or gray scale VC schemes, however, they are not sufficient to be applied directly to color shares due to different color structures. Some methods for color visual cryptography are not satisfactory in terms of producing either meaningless shares or meaningful shares with low visual quality, leading to suspicion of encryption. This paper introduces the concept of visual information pixel (VIP) synchronization and error diffusion to attain a color visual cryptography encryption method that produces meaningful color shares with high visual quality. VIP synchronization retains the positions of pixels carrying visual information of original images throughout the color channels and error diffusion generates shares pleasant to human eyes. Comparisons with previous approaches show the superior performance of the new method.

  20. Enhancement of Afterimage Colors by Surrounding Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Sato

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenting luminance contours surrounding the adapted areas in test phase enhances color afterimages in both duration and color appearance. The presence of surrounding contour is crucial to some color phenomenon such as van Lier's afterimage, but the contour-effect itself has not been seriously examined. In this paper, we compared the contour-effect to color afterimages and to actually colored patches to examine the nature of color information subserving color-aftereffect. In the experiment, observers were adapted for 1 sec to a small colored square (red, green, yellow, or blue presented on a gray background. Then, a test field either with or without surrounding contour was presented. Observers matched the color of a test-patch located near the afterimage to the color of afterimage. It was found that the saturation of negative afterimage was almost doubled by the presence of surrounding contours. There was no effect of luminance contrast or polarity of contours. In contrast, no enhancement of saturation by surrounding contours was observed for actually colored patches even though the colors of patches were equalized to that of afterimage without contours. This dissociation in the contour-effect demonstrates the crucial difference between the color information for aftereffects and for ordinary bottom-up color perception.

  1. Scanner-based macroscopic color variation estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chunghui; Lai, Di; Zeise, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Flatbed scanners have been adopted successfully in the measurement of microscopic image artifacts, such as granularity and mottle, in print samples because of their capability of providing full color, high resolution images. Accurate macroscopic color measurement relies on the use of colorimeters or spectrophotometers to provide a surrogate for human vision. The very different color response characteristics of flatbed scanners from any standard colorimetric response limits the utility of a flatbed scanner as a macroscopic color measuring device. This metamerism constraint can be significantly relaxed if our objective is mainly to quantify the color variations within a printed page or between pages where a small bias in measured colors can be tolerated as long as the color distributions relative to the individual mean values is similar. Two scenarios when converting color from the device RGB color space to a standardized color space such as CIELab are studied in this paper, blind and semi-blind color transformation, depending on the availability of the black channel information. We will show that both approaches offer satisfactory results in quantifying macroscopic color variation across pages while the semi-blind color transformation further provides fairly accurate color prediction capability.

  2. Examination of Color-Lighting Control System Using Colored Paper User Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Aida Hiroto; Matsui Kento; Keisuke Soma; Murakami Hiroki; Miki Mistunori

    2016-01-01

    In recent year, Full-Color LED Lighting that can be changed to various color such as red, green, blue has been appeared with development of LED Lighting. By Color-Lighting control, users affected such as concentrating and relaxing. Therefore, Color-lighting control will spread to various place such as home, offices, stations. However color-lighting control affected some disturbance such as daylight, display when Full-Color LED controlled indoors. Also, information devices control get difficul...

  3. Colored tracks of heavy ion particles recorded on photographic color film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, K.; Yasuda, N.; Kumagai, H.; Aoki, N.; Hasegawa, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new method to obtain the three-dimensional information on nuclear tracks was developed using color photography. Commercial color films were irradiated with ion beam and color-developed. The ion tracks were represented with color images in which different depths were indicated by different colors, and the three-dimensional information was obtained from color changes. Details of this method are reported, and advantages and limitations are discussed in comparison with a conventional method using a nuclear emulsion

  4. Failure to replicate the Mehta and Zhu (2009) color-priming effect on anagram solution times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Kenneth M

    2014-06-01

    Mehta and Zhu (Science, 323, 1226-1229, 2009) hypothesized that the color red induces avoidance motivation and that the color blue induces approach motivation. In one experiment, they reported that anagrams of avoidance motivation words were solved more quickly on red backgrounds and that approach motivation anagrams were solved more quickly on blue backgrounds. Reported here is a direct replication of that experiment, using the same anagrams, instructions, and colors, with more than triple the number of participants used in the original study. The results did not show the Mehta and Zhu color-priming effects, even though statistical power was sufficient to detect the effect. The results call into question the existence of their color-priming effect on the solution of anagrams.

  5. Colored nectar as an honest signal in plant-animal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Larson-Rabin, Zachary; Li, De-Zhu; Wang, Hong

    2012-07-01

    Many flowering plants obtain the services of pollinators by using their floral traits as signals to advertise the rewards they offer to visitors-such as nectar, pollen and other food resources. Some plants use colorful pigments to draw pollinators' attention to their nectar, instead of relying on the appeal of nectar taste. Although this rare floral trait of colored nectar was first recorded by the Greek poet Homer in the Odyssey, it has only recently received the attention of modern science. This mini-review focuses on recent findings about some of the species that use colored nectar; topics include its function as an honest signal for pollinators, as well as the pigments responsible for the nectar coloration. Such research of the ecology and physiology of colored nectar expands our understanding of the role and evolution of pollinator signaling in plants.

  6. How to display data by color schemes compatible with red-green color perception deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissbuehler, Matthias; Lasser, Theo

    2013-04-22

    Visualization of data concerns most scientists. The use of color is required in order to display multidimensional information. In addition, color encoding a univariate image can improve the interpretation significantly. However up to 10% of the adult male population are affected by a red-green color perception deficiency which hampers the correct interpretation and appreciation of color encoded information. This work attempts to give guidelines on how to display a given dataset in a balanced manner. Three novel color maps are proposed providing readers with normal color perception a maximum of color contrast while being a good compromise for readers with color perception deficiencies.

  7. Color management in textile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Maurizio; Vannucci, Massimiliano; Buonopane, Massimo; Fabroni, Cosimo; Fabrini, Francesco

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this research was to study a system of acquisition and processing of images capable of confronting colored wool with a reference specimen, in order to define the conformity using objective parameters. The first step of the research was to comprise and to analyze in depth the problem: there has been numerous implications of technical, physical, cultural, biological and also psychological character, that come down from the attempt of giving a quantitative appraisal to the color. In the scene of the national and international scientific and technological research, little has been made as regards measurement of color through digital processing of the images through linear CCD. The reason is fundamentally of technological nature: only during the last years we found the presence on the market of low cost equipment capable of acquiring and processing images with adequate performances and qualities. The job described has permitted to create a first prototype of system for the color measuring with use of CCD linear devices. -Hardware identification to carry out a series of tests and experiments in laboratory. -Verification of such device in a textile facility. -Statistics analysis of the collected data and of the employed models.

  8. Color Afterimages in Autistic Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, John; Stanworth, Kirstie; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Franklin, Anna

    2018-01-01

    It has been suggested that attenuated adaptation to visual stimuli in autism is the result of atypical perceptual priors (e.g., Pellicano and Burr in "Trends Cogn Sci" 16(10):504-510, 2012. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2012.08.009). This study investigated adaptation to color in autistic adults, measuring both strength of afterimage and the…

  9. Color prediction in textile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Maurizio; Buonopane, Massimo

    2004-09-01

    Nowadays production systems of fancy yarns for knits allow the creation of extremely complex products in which many effects are obtained by means of color alteration. Current production technique consists in defining type and quantity of fibers by making preliminary samples. This samples are then compared with a reference one. This comparison is based on operator experience. Many samples are required in order to achieve a sample similar to the reference one. This work requires time and then additional costs for a textile manufacturer. In addition, the methodology is subjective. Nowadays, spectrophotometers are the only devices that seem to be able to provide objective indications. They are based on a spectral analysis of the light reflected by the knit material. In this paper the study of a new method for color evaluation of a mix of wool fibers with different colors is presented. First of all fiber characterization were carried out through scattering and absorption coefficients using the Kubelka-Munk theory. Then the estimated color was compared with a reference item, in order to define conformity by means of objective parameters. Finally, theoretical characterization was compared with the measured quantity. This allowed estimation of prediction quality.

  10. Color of Meat and Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color. It can also occur when vegetables containing nitrites are cooked along with the meat. Because doneness and safety cannot be judged by ... or greenish cast when exposed to heat and processing. Wrapping the meat in airtight packages and storing it away from ...

  11. Determinants of wheat noodle color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noodles are a leading food in the world, and color is a key determinant of consumer acceptance. In this review the two prominent forms of wheat noodles are considered, white salted and alkaline. Many of the preparation and evaluation strategies are the same for both, with prominence placed on ‘brigh...

  12. Synesthetic color experiences influence memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilek, Daniel; Dixon, Mike J; Cudahy, Cera; Merikle, Philip M

    2002-11-01

    We describe the extraordinary memory of C, a 21-year-old student who experiences synesthetic colors (i.e., photisms) when she sees, hears, or thinks of digits. Using three matrices of 50 digits, we tested C and 7 nonsynesthetes to evaluate whether C's synesthetic photisms influence her memory for digits. One matrix consisted of black digits, whereas the other two matrices consisted of digits that were either incongruent or congruent with the colors of C's photisms. C's recall of the incongruently colored digits was considerably poorer than her recall of either the black or the congruently colored digits. The 7 nonsynesthetes did not show such differences in their recall of the matrices. In addition, when immediate recall of the black digits was compared with delayed recall of those digits (48 hr), C showed no decrease in performance, whereas each of the nonsynesthetes showed a significant decrease. These findings both demonstrate C's extraordinary memory and show that her synesthetic photisms can influence her memory for digits.

  13. Color homogeneity in LED spotlights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.R.; Tukker, T.W.; IJzerman, W.L.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    LED is a rising technology in the field of lighting. Halogen spotlights are nowadays replaced by LED spotlights because of their energy efficiency and long lifetime. However, color variation in the light output is a common problem. Poorly designed LED spotlights tend to have yellowish or bluish

  14. IRAS Colors of the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean J.; Shipman, R. F.; Clark, F. O.

    1996-01-01

    We present large scale images of the infrared emission of the region around the Pleiades using the ISSA data product from the IRAS mission. Residual Zodiacal background and a discontinuity in the image due to the scanning strategy of the satellite necessitated special background subtraction methods. The 60/100 color image clearly shows the heating of the ambient interstellar medium by the cluster. The 12/100 and 25/100 images peak on the cluster as expected for exposure of small dust grains to an enhanced UV radiation field; however, the 25/100 color declines to below the average interstellar value at the periphery of the cluster. Potential causes of the color deficit are discussed. A new method of identifying dense molecular material through infrared emission properties is presented. The difference between the 100 micron flux density and the 60 micron flux density scaled by the average interstellar 60/100 color ratio (Delta I(sub 100) is a sensitive diagnostic of material with embedded heating sources (Delta I(sub 100) less than 0) and cold, dense cores (Delta I(sub 100) greater than 0). The dense cores of the Taurus cloud complex as well as Lynds 1457 are clearly identified by this method, while the IR bright but diffuse Pleiades molecular cloud is virtually indistinguishable from the nearby infrared cirrus.

  15. Camouflage, Color Schemes, and Cubism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhin, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students learn about Cubism and color mixing. Explains that the students create camouflaged animals after learning about the work, "Female Torso" (Pablo Picasso). Includes directions for how to create the pictures and states that the assignment can be used with students of all ages. (CMK)

  16. Baryon observables and color confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations of baryon observables within the framework of the chiral bag model are reviewed. The results of such calculations are found to be remarkably insensitive to the radius of color confinement and indicate the difficulty of finding unambiguous evidence for quarks in nuclei. 13 refs.; 5 figs

  17. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  18. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color. ...

  19. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color. ...

  20. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color. ...

  1. [Colors and their meaning in culture and psychology--a historical outline and contemporary status of color vision theories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Lewicka, Romana; Torlińska, Teresa; Stelcer, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of color perception has intrigued scholars from antiquity. However, the understanding of this phenomena only came with the recognition of the nature of light and visual perception. Ancient concepts, present in science until the Renaissance, were based more on philosophical considerations and theoretical speculations than on anatomical studies and a matter-of-fact assessment of physiological functions of the visual system. From antiquity to 17th century scientific approach to the concept of vision was dominated by two theories: intromission and extramission (emanation). Intromission theory, propagated by Alhazen (lbn al.-Haythama), Vitello, John Peckham, Roger Bacon and Leonardo da Vinci, assumed that the light was transmitted from the observed object perpendicularly to the transparent eye structures. Johannes Kepler was the first scholar to propose that the retina was the receptive part of the eye. In the first half of the 17th century, Kepler's groundbreaking optical achievements and anatomical discoveries of many other scientists cast new light on the understanding of the role of different eye structures, finally wiping out the intromission theory. A further major achievement contributing to the recognition of the true nature of colors was a theory presented by Newton in 1688. He argued that they were colored rays, and not white light, that were composed of homogenous and pure light. It was, however, not until the 19th century when two modern theories of color appeared, i.e. a trichromatic theory mostly associated with the names of Young and Hemlholtz, and an opponent colors theory of Hering. In the 20th century, the two theories--previously assumed as contradictory--were joined into the zone theories of color vision. Colors have their cultural and social meanings, as far as a very individual and personal interpretation. In the former function they are used to illustrate some cultural and sociological phenomena; in the latter, they are helpful in

  2. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  3. Science and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  4. Examination of Color-Lighting Control System Using Colored Paper User Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent year, Full-Color LED Lighting that can be changed to various color such as red, green, blue has been appeared with development of LED Lighting. By Color-Lighting control, users affected such as concentrating and relaxing. Therefore, Color-lighting control will spread to various place such as home, offices, stations. However color-lighting control affected some disturbance such as daylight, display when Full-Color LED controlled indoors. Also, information devices control get difficult with information technology develop. I propose Color-Lighting Control System using Colored Paper User Interface(CLC/CPUI. The purpose of CLC/CPUI is that anyone can intuitively control Full-Color LED Lighting. CLC/CPUI uses colored paper as user interface by sensing the paper. CLC/CPUI realizes lighting color that user demanded to do feedback control. I conduct accuracy verification experiment of CLC/CPUI.

  5. Color Calibration for Colorized Vision System with Digital Sensor and LED Array Illuminator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenmin Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Color measurement by the colorized vision system is a superior method to achieve the evaluation of color objectively and continuously. However, the accuracy of color measurement is influenced by the spectral responses of digital sensor and the spectral mismatch of illumination. In this paper, two-color vision system illuminated by digital sensor and LED array, respectively, is presented. The Polynomial-Based Regression method is applied to solve the problem of color calibration in the sRGB and CIE  L⁎a⁎b⁎ color spaces. By mapping the tristimulus values from RGB to sRGB color space, color difference between the estimated values and the reference values is less than 3ΔE. Additionally, the mapping matrix ΦRGB→sRGB has proved a better performance in reducing the color difference, and it is introduced subsequently into the colorized vision system proposed for a better color measurement. Necessarily, the printed matter of clothes and the colored ceramic tile are chosen as the application experiment samples of our colorized vision system. As shown in the experimental data, the average color difference of images is less than 6ΔE. It indicates that a better performance of color measurement is obtained via the colorized vision system proposed.

  6. Color in Reference Production : The Role of Color Similarity and Color Codability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viethen, Jette; van Vessem, Thomas; Goudbeek, Martijn; Krahmer, Emiel

    2017-01-01

    It has often been observed that color is a highly preferred attribute for use in distinguishing descriptions, that is, referring expressions produced with the purpose of identifying an object within a visual scene. However, most of these observations were based on visual displays containing only

  7. Human response to color and light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birren, F

    1979-07-16

    Sound principles, based on technical studies of the psychological and physiological effects of color on hospital patients, can help hospital administrators and designers choose interior colors with function in mind.

  8. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ... optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a ...

  9. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how ...

  10. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ... an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a ...

  11. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ... an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a ...

  12. Stools - pale or clay-colored

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003129.htm Stools - pale or clay-colored To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stools that are pale, clay, or putty-colored may be due to problems ...

  13. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? Why does saltwater sting your ... treated, and how people become color blind. What do my eyes do when I’m sleeping? Click ...

  14. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in ... and more with our Ask a Scientist video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, ...

  15. A framework for interactive image color editing

    KAUST Repository

    Musialski, Przemyslaw; Cui, Ming; Ye, Jieping; Razdan, Anshuman; Wonka, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method for interactive image color replacement that creates smooth and naturally looking results with minimal user interaction. Our system expects as input a source image and rawly scribbled target color values and generates high

  16. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color ... I’m sleeping? Click to Watch What does it mean to be nearsighted or farsighted? Click to ...

  17. Modeling Color Difference for Visualization Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafir, Danielle Albers

    2018-01-01

    Color is frequently used to encode values in visualizations. For color encodings to be effective, the mapping between colors and values must preserve important differences in the data. However, most guidelines for effective color choice in visualization are based on either color perceptions measured using large, uniform fields in optimal viewing environments or on qualitative intuitions. These limitations may cause data misinterpretation in visualizations, which frequently use small, elongated marks. Our goal is to develop quantitative metrics to help people use color more effectively in visualizations. We present a series of crowdsourced studies measuring color difference perceptions for three common mark types: points, bars, and lines. Our results indicate that peoples' abilities to perceive color differences varies significantly across mark types. Probabilistic models constructed from the resulting data can provide objective guidance for designers, allowing them to anticipate viewer perceptions in order to inform effective encoding design.

  18. The Color of Cider : cider color preference and cider consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Symoneaux, Ronan; Poupard, Pascal; Bauduin, Remi; Guyot, Sylvain; Le Quéré, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    French cider is a slightly alcoholic beverage resulting from the fermentation of cider apples. Identify cider sensory drivers of preference is full of interest for professionals who try to find new consumers to increase cider market and would like to better segment it. Among the sensory characteristics such as sweetness, sourness, astringency and bitterness, the color of cider is understudied. It runs from a pale yellow to an oran ge and brownish cider but can also runs from...

  19. Assessment of NPP VIIRS Ocean Color Data Products: Hope and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpie, Kevin R.; Meister, Gerhard; Eplee, Gene; Barnes, Robert A.; Franz, Bryan; Patt, Frederick S.; Robinson, Wayne d.; McClain, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    For several years, the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) NPP VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) provided substantial scientific input to the NPP project regarding the use of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to create science quality ocean color data products. This work has culminated into an assessment of the NPP project and the VIIRS instrument's capability to produce science quality Ocean Color data products. The VOST concluded that many characteristics were similar to earlier instruments, including SeaWiFS or MODIS Aqua. Though instrument performance and calibration risks do exist, it was concluded that programmatic and algorithm issues dominate concerns. Keywords: NPP, VIIRS, Ocean Color, satellite remote sensing, climate data record.

  20. Loss of Color by Afterimage Masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available When two images, one depicting colored disks and the other depicting colored windmill patterns, are displayed in succession, the color of the windmills is perceptually replaced by black. The illusion is striking. Experiments confirmed (1 that the luminance contrast between the target patterns and the background must be large and (2 that the disks and windmills must be static on the retina and in register. The illusion is weakened when the windmills and disks have different colors.

  1. Interconnection of psychology, color and design

    OpenAIRE

    Minchuk, A. M.; Kudryashova, Aleksandra Vladimirovna

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the direct interconnection between color, design and psychology on the basis of theoretical and historical analysis. It describes the peculiarities of how peopleperceive color. In the paper some of the historical details concerning the way our ancestors used color are presented and the modern scientific discoveries in the field of psychology, which give the evidence of the great psychological, emotional and physical influence of color on a person are shown as well. The pape...

  2. Color indirect effects on melatonin regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Tian; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan

    2002-04-01

    Color indirect effect (CIE) is referred to as the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In previous papers, we have studied CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine, put forward the color-autonomic- nervous-subsystem model (CAM), and provided its time-theory foundation. In this paper, we applied it to study light effects on melatonin regulation in humans, and suggested that it is CIE that mediates light effects on melatonin suppression.

  3. Biochemical Basis of Fresh Ham Color Development

    OpenAIRE

    Stufft, Kristen Marie

    2015-01-01

    Commercial hams display variation in color uniformity across the cut surface, especially the semimembranosus (SM) muscle. This variation in fresh ham color, or two-toning, persists through further processing and contributes to production of a less desirable end product. In an attempt to understand the underlying source of this color variation, we evaluated the differences in muscle fiber-type composition and glycolytic metabolism in the SM muscle of fresh hams differing in color uniformity. F...

  4. How is the instrumental color of meat measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, W N; Yancey, J W S; Apple, J K

    2011-09-01

    Peer-reviewed journal articles (n=1068) were used to gather instrumental color measurement information in meat science research. The majority of articles, published in 10 peer-reviewed journals, originated from European countries (44.8%) and North America (38.5%). The predominant species was pork (44.2%), and most researchers used Minolta (60.0%) over Hunter (31.6%) colorimeters. Much of the research was done using illuminant D65 (32.3%); nevertheless, almost half (48.9%) of the articles did not report the illuminant. Moreover, a majority of the articles did not report aperture size (73.6%) or the number of readings per sample (52.4%). Many factors influence meat color, and a considerable proportion of the peer-reviewed, published research articles failed to include information necessary to replicate and/or interpret instrumental color results; therefore, a standardized set of minimum reportable parameters for meat color evaluation should be identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    ) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.Location: 8.33 degrees South latitude, 115.17 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 153 by 112 kilometers (95 by 69 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  6. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200-foot)-long mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.Size: 1720 by 1670 kilometers (1068 by 1036 miles) Location: 14.5 degrees North latitude, 85.0 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  7. World Globes, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images of the world were generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) These images were created from that data set and show the Earth as it would be viewed from a point in space centered over the Americas, Africa and the western Pacific.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet

  8. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 53.5 degrees North latitude, 8 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  9. 7 CFR 51.2946 - Color chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... illustrates four shades of color used to describe skin color of walnut kernels. (a) Availability of color...

  10. Color Charts, Esthetics, and Subjective Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Yasmine B.

    2012-01-01

    Color charts, or grids of evenly spaced multicolored dots or squares, appear in the work of modern artists and designers. Often the artist/designer distributes the many colors in a way that could be described as "random," that is, without an obvious pattern. We conduct a statistical analysis of 125 "random-looking" art and design color charts and…

  11. 7 CFR 52.806 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.806 Section 52.806 Agriculture Regulations... United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.806 Color. (a) (A) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that possess a good red color may be given a...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3010 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.3010 Section 29.3010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Color. The third factor of a grade, based on the relative hues, saturations or chroma, and color values...

  13. 7 CFR 58.633 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 58.633 Section 58.633 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....633 Color. Coloring used for ice cream and related products shall be those certified by the U.S. Food...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3508 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.3508 Section 29.3508 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3508 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type. ...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2257 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.2257 Section 29.2257 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2257 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values common...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1005 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.1005 Section 29.1005 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1005 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturations or chromas, and color values common to the type. ...

  17. 7 CFR 52.778 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.778 Section 52.778 Agriculture Regulations... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Factors of Quality § 52.778 Color. (a) (A) classification. Canned red tart pitted cherries that have a good color may be given a score...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2507 - Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 29.2507 Section 29.2507 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2507 Color. The third factor of a grade based on the relative hues, saturation or chroma, and color values common to the type. ...

  19. Color Perception in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Sowden, Paul; Burley, Rachel; Notman, Leslie; Alder, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether color perception is atypical in children with autism. In experiment 1, accuracy of color memory and search was compared for children with autism and typically developing children matched on age and non-verbal cognitive ability. Children with autism were significantly less accurate at color memory and search than…

  20. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a green leaf might look tan or gray. Color Blindness Is Passed Down Color blindness is almost always an inherited (say: in-HER- ... Eye doctors (and some school nurses) test for color blindness by showing a picture made up of different ...

  1. Color Functions in Information Perception and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliver, Don L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper reviews research findings related to color and how it affects perception and retention of information. From the literature it appears colors have varying degrees of value as cues or aids to memory of stimulus information and difference appears to exist between colors as they interact in informational materials. (21 references)…

  2. The Lexicographic Treatment of Color Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Krista

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation explores the main question, "What are the issues involved in the definition and translation of color terms in dictionaries?" To answer this question, I examined color term definitions in monolingual dictionaries of French and English, and color term translations in bilingual dictionaries of French paired with nine…

  3. Optimizing color reproduction of natural images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper elaborates on understanding, measuring and optimizing perceived color quality of natural images. We introduce a model for optimal color reproduction of natural scenes which is based on the assumption that color quality of natural images is constrained by perceived naturalness and

  4. 7 CFR 51.892 - Color terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States.... Table IV Color terms Black varieties Red varieties White varieties Well colored (U.S. Extra Fancy) Each... varieties shall have not less than 75 percent, by count, of berries showing characteristic color. 2 No...

  5. Designing for Color in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Luongo, Andrea; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a color design pipeline for 3D printed or additively manufactured parts. We demonstrate how to characterize and calibrate a commercial printer and how to obtain its forward and backward color transformation models. We present results from our assistive color design tool...

  6. A color hierarchy for automatic target selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illia Tchernikov

    Full Text Available Visual processing of color starts at the cones in the retina and continues through ventral stream visual areas, called the parvocellular pathway. Motion processing also starts in the retina but continues through dorsal stream visual areas, called the magnocellular system. Color and motion processing are functionally and anatomically discrete. Previously, motion processing areas MT and MST have been shown to have no color selectivity to a moving stimulus; the neurons were colorblind whenever color was presented along with motion. This occurs when the stimuli are luminance-defined versus the background and is considered achromatic motion processing. Is motion processing independent of color processing? We find that motion processing is intrinsically modulated by color. Color modulated smooth pursuit eye movements produced upon saccading to an aperture containing a surface of coherently moving dots upon a black background. Furthermore, when two surfaces that differed in color were present, one surface was automatically selected based upon a color hierarchy. The strength of that selection depended upon the distance between the two colors in color space. A quantifiable color hierarchy for automatic target selection has wide-ranging implications from sports to advertising to human-computer interfaces.

  7. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light brown...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.1007 Section 29.1007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange...

  10. The Use of Color in Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Rebecca L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the published literature on the separate fields of art therapy and color therapy, synthesizing them in a proposed use of color within art therapy. Specific techniques focusing on use of color in a nonrepresentational expressive form are suggested as a way to extend the therapeutic benefits of art therapy. The intention of this…

  11. Paths and cycles in colored graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xueliang; Zhang, Shenggui; Hurink, Johann L.; Pickl, Stefan; Broersma, Haitze J.; Faigle, U.

    2001-01-01

    Let G be an (edge-)colored graph. A path (cycle) is called monochromatic if all the edges of it have the same color, and is called heterochromatic if all the edges of it have different colors. In this note, some sufficient conditions for the existence of monochromatic and heterochromatic paths and

  12. Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry Using Colored Shadow Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Alarfaj, Meshal K.

    2016-02-01

    Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry Using Colored Shadow Imaging by Meshal K Alarfaj, Master of Science King Abdullah University of Science & Technology, 2015 Tomographic Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a recent PIV method capable of reconstructing the full 3D velocity field of complex flows, within a 3-D volume. For nearly the last decade, it has become the most powerful tool for study of turbulent velocity fields and promises great advancements in the study of fluid mechanics. Among the early published studies, a good number of researches have suggested enhancements and optimizations of different aspects of this technique to improve the effectiveness. One major aspect, which is the core of the present work, is related to reducing the cost of the Tomographic PIV setup. In this thesis, we attempt to reduce this cost by using an experimental setup exploiting 4 commercial digital still cameras in combination with low-cost Light emitting diodes (LEDs). We use two different colors to distinguish the two light pulses. By using colored shadows with red and green LEDs, we can identify the particle locations within the measurement volume, at the two different times, thereby allowing calculation of the velocities. The present work tests this technique on the flows patterns of a jet ejected from a tube in a water tank. Results from the images processing are presented and challenges discussed.

  13. The Relation between Children's Conceptual Functioning with Color and Color Term Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt; Zimiles, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Young children experience considerable difficulty in learning their first few color terms. One explanation for this difficulty is that initially they lack a conceptual representation of color sufficiently abstract to support word meaning. This hypothesis, that prior to learning color terms children do not represent color as an abstraction, was…

  14. Priming Letters by Colors: Evidence for the Bidirectionality of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Peter H.; Kalckert, Andreas; Fink, Gereon R.

    2009-01-01

    In synesthesia, stimulation of one sensory modality leads to a percept in another nonstimulated modality, for example, graphemes trigger an additional color percept in grapheme-color synesthesia, which encompasses the variants letter-color and digit-color synesthesia. Until recently, it was assumed that synesthesia occurs strictly unidirectional:…

  15. Dynamic simulation of color blindness for studying color vision requirements in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a dynamic simulation of defective color vision. Using an RGB video camera connected to a PC or laptop, the captured and displayed RGB colors are translated by our software into modified RGB values that simulate the color appearance of a person with a color deficiency. Usually, the

  16. HVI Colorimeter and Color Spectrophotometer Relationships and Their Impacts on Developing "Traceable" Cotton Color Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color measurements of cotton fiber and cotton textile products are important quality parameters. The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is an instrument used globally to classify cotton quality, including cotton color. Cotton color by HVI is based on two cotton-specific color parameters—Rd (diffuse...

  17. Extra dimensions and color confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleitez, V

    1995-04-01

    An extension of the ordinary four dimensional Minkowski space by introducing additional dimensions which have their own Lorentz transformation is considered. Particles can transform in a different way under each Lorentz group. It is shown that only quark interactions are slightly modified and that color confinement automatic since these degrees of freedom run only in the extra dimensions. No compactification of the extra dimensions is needed. (author). 4 refs.

  18. Color Reproduction with Juxtaposed Halftoning

    OpenAIRE

    Babaei, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Recently, non-standard inks have begun to make their way into the world of printing. Non-standard inks are printing materials which exhibit unusual effects such as angular color dependence, texture, or fluorescence. They are made of special-effect pigments that play an increasingly important role in the paint, plastic, and cosmetic industries. In the printing industry, due to the challenges they pose, they have restricted applications. A long-held assumption in classic printing is the transp...

  19. V color centers in electrolytically colored hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hongen; Song Cuiying; Han Li

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals were successfully colored electrolytically by using pointed anode and flat cathode at various temperatures and under various electric field strengths. V 2 and V 3 color centers were produced in the colored crystals. Current-time curves for the electrolytic colorations were given, and activation energy for the V 2 and V 3 color center migration was determined. Production of the V 2 and V 3 color centers and formation of current zones for the electrolytic colorations of the hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals are explained

  20. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, H.

    2007-12-15

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid {sup 3}He), the A and A{sup *} phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for a small region of intermediate densities where the 2SC/A{sup *} phase is favored. It is shown that the 2SC phase is identical to the A{sup *} phase up to a color rotation. In addition, I calculate the self-energies and the spectral densities of longitudinal and transverse gluons at zero temperature in color-superconducting quark matter in the CFL phase. I find a collective excitation, a plasmon, at energies smaller than two times the gap parameter and momenta smaller than about eight times the gap. The dispersion relation of this mode exhibits a minimum at some nonzero value of momentum, indicating a van Hove singularity. (orig.)